National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for distribution permeability fluid

  1. Fluid permeability measurement system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John

    2008-02-05

    A system for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. The system provides a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  2. Calculation of large scale relative permeabilities from stochastic properties of the permeability field and fluid properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenormand, R.; Thiele, M.R.

    1997-08-01

    The paper describes the method and presents preliminary results for the calculation of homogenized relative permeabilities using stochastic properties of the permeability field. In heterogeneous media, the spreading of an injected fluid is mainly sue to the permeability heterogeneity and viscosity fingering. At large scale, when the heterogeneous medium is replaced by a homogeneous one, we need to introduce a homogenized (or pseudo) relative permeability to obtain the same spreading. Generally, is derived by using fine-grid numerical simulations (Kyte and Berry). However, this operation is time consuming and cannot be performed for all the meshes of the reservoir. We propose an alternate method which uses the information given by the stochastic properties of the field without any numerical simulation. The method is based on recent developments on homogenized transport equations (the {open_quotes}MHD{close_quotes} equation, Lenormand SPE 30797). The MHD equation accounts for the three basic mechanisms of spreading of the injected fluid: (1) Dispersive spreading due to small scale randomness, characterized by a macrodispersion coefficient D. (2) Convective spreading due to large scale heterogeneities (layers) characterized by a heterogeneity factor H. (3) Viscous fingering characterized by an apparent viscosity ration M. In the paper, we first derive the parameters D and H as functions of variance and correlation length of the permeability field. The results are shown to be in good agreement with fine-grid simulations. The are then derived a function of D, H and M. The main result is that this approach lead to a time dependent . Finally, the calculated are compared to the values derived by history matching using fine-grid numerical simulations.

  3. Porosity, Permeability, And Fluid Flow In The Yellowstone Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Y-8) were evaluated to characterize lithology, texture, alteration, and the degree and nature of fracturing and veining. Porosity and matrix permeability measurements and...

  4. Computational Modeling of Fluid Flow through a Fracture in Permeable Rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H

    2010-01-01

    Laminar, single-phase, finite-volume solutions to the Navier–Stokes equations of fluid flow through a fracture within permeable media have been obtained. The fracture geometry was acquired from computed tomography scans of a fracture in Berea sandstone, capturing the small-scale roughness of these natural fluid conduits. First, the roughness of the two-dimensional fracture profiles was analyzed and shown to be similar to Brownian fractal structures. The permeability and tortuosity of each fracture profile was determined from simulations of fluid flow through these geometries with impermeable fracture walls. A surrounding permeable medium, assumed to obey Darcy’s Law with permeabilities from 0.2 to 2,000 millidarcies, was then included in the analysis. A series of simulations for flows in fractured permeable rocks was performed, and the results were used to develop a relationship between the flow rate and pressure loss for fractures in porous rocks. The resulting frictionfactor, which accounts for the fracture geometric properties, is similar to the cubic law; it has the potential to be of use in discrete fracture reservoir-scale simulations of fluid flow through highly fractured geologic formations with appreciable matrix permeability. The observed fluid flow from the surrounding permeable medium to the fracture was significant when the resistance within the fracture and the medium were of the same order. An increase in the volumetric flow rate within the fracture profile increased by more than 5% was observed for flows within high permeability-fractured porous media.

  5. Temperature distribution and fluid flow in an enclosure with...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Temperature distribution and fluid flow in an enclosure with localized heating and cooling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature distribution and fluid flow in an ...

  6. Characterization of fracture reservoirs using static and dynamic data: From sonic and 3D seismic to permeability distribution. Annual report, March 1, 1996--February 28, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parra, J.O.; Collier, H.A.; Owen, T.E.

    1997-06-01

    In low porosity, low permeability zones, natural fractures are the primary source of permeability which affect both production and injection of fluids. The open fractures do not contribute much to porosity, but they provide an increased drainage network to any porosity. They also may connect the borehole to remote zones of better reservoir characteristics. An important approach to characterizing the fracture orientation and fracture permeability of reservoir formations is one based on the effects of such conditions on the propagation of acoustic and seismic waves in the rock. The project is a study directed toward the evaluation of acoustic logging and 3D-seismic measurement techniques as well as fluid flow and transport methods for mapping permeability anisotropy and other petrophysical parameters for the understanding of the reservoir fracture systems and associated fluid dynamics. The principal application of these measurement techniques and methods is to identify and investigate the propagation characteristics of acoustic and seismic waves in the Twin Creek hydrocarbon reservoir owned by Union Pacific Resources (UPR) and to characterize the fracture permeability distribution using production data. This site is located in the overthrust area of Utah and Wyoming. UPR drilled six horizontal wells, and presently UPR has two rigs running with many established drill hole locations. In addition, there are numerous vertical wells that exist in the area as well as 3D seismic surveys. Each horizontal well contains full FMS logs and MWD logs, gamma logs, etc.

  7. Characterization of fluid distributions in porous media by NMR techniques

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Characterization of fluid distributions in porous media by NMR techniques Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Characterization of fluid distributions in porous media by NMR techniques The characterization of pore structures and fluid phase distributions in porous media is of fundamental importance for accurate evaluation of reservoir resources and petroleum recovery as well as for environmental remediation and many chemical engineering processes.

  8. Temperature distribution and fluid flow in an enclosure with localized

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    heating and cooling (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Temperature distribution and fluid flow in an enclosure with localized heating and cooling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Temperature distribution and fluid flow in an enclosure with localized heating and cooling Preliminary experimental results are reported for a temperature distribution inside a water filled cubicle enclosure. The enclosure is subjected to a localized heating and cooling of the same wall where a heater

  9. Method of determining interwell oil field fluid saturation distribution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donaldson, Erle C.; Sutterfield, F. Dexter

    1981-01-01

    A method of determining the oil and brine saturation distribution in an oil field by taking electrical current and potential measurements among a plurality of open-hole wells geometrically distributed throughout the oil field. Poisson's equation is utilized to develop fluid saturation distributions from the electrical current and potential measurement. Both signal generating equipment and chemical means are used to develop current flow among the several open-hole wells.

  10. An Experimental Study of Micron-Size Zero-Valent Iron Emplacement in Permeable Porous Media Using Polymer-Enhanced Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oostrom, Mart; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Covert, Matthew A.; Vermeul, Vince R.

    2005-12-22

    At the Hanford Site, an extensive In Situ Redox Manipulation (ISRM) permeable reactive barrier was installed to prevent chromate from reaching the Columbia River. However, chromium has been detected in several wells, indicating a premature loss of the reductive capacity in the aquifer. One possible cause for premature chromate breakthrough is associated with the presence of high-permeability zones in the aquifer. In these zones, groundwater moves relatively fast and is able to oxidize iron more rapidly. There is also a possibility that the high-permeability flow paths are deficient in reducing equivalents (e.g. reactive iron), required for barrier performance. One way enhancement of the current barrier reductive capacity can be achieved is by the addition of micron-scale zero-valent iron to the high-permeability zones within the aquifer. The potential emplacement of zero-valent iron (Fe0) into high-permeability Hanford sediments (Ringold Unit E gravels) using shear-thinning fluids containing polymers was investigated in three-dimensional wedge-shaped aquifer models. Polymers were used to create a suspension viscous enough to keep the Fe0 in solution for extended time periods to improve colloid movement into the porous media without causing a permanent detrimental decrease in hydraulic conductivity. Porous media were packed in the wedge-shaped flow cell to create either a heterogeneous layered system with a high-permeability zone in between two low-permeability zones or a high-permeability channel surrounded by low-permeability materials. The injection flow rate, polymer type, polymer concentration, and injected pore volumes were determined based on preliminary short- and long-column experiments.

  11. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

    2006-05-08

    The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearing sediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas production from gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeability parameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by means of inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictions with observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-ray computed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and the hydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-ray CT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations are non-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydrate saturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at two locations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parameter sets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydrate saturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parameters require further refinement of the experimental design, and better description of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF HETEROGENEITIES AT THE RESERVOIR SCALE: SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION AND INFLUENCE ON FLUID FLOW

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael R. Gross; Kajari Ghosh; Alex K. Manda; Sumanjit Aich

    2006-05-08

    The theory behind how chemically reactive tracers are used to characterize the velocity and temperature distribution in steady flowing systems is reviewed. Kinetic parameters are established as a function of reservoir temperatures and fluid residence times for selecting appropriate reacting systems. Reactive tracer techniques are applied to characterize the temperature distribution in a laminar-flow heat exchanger. Models are developed to predict reactive tracer behavior in fractured geothermal reservoirs of fixed and increasing size.

  13. Microtomography and pore-scale modeling of two-phase Fluid Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, D.; Tomutsa, L.; Benson, S.; Patzek, T.

    2010-10-19

    Synchrotron-based X-ray microtomography (micro CT) at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) line 8.3.2 at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory produces three-dimensional micron-scale-resolution digital images of the pore space of the reservoir rock along with the spacial distribution of the fluids. Pore-scale visualization of carbon dioxide flooding experiments performed at a reservoir pressure demonstrates that the injected gas fills some pores and pore clusters, and entirely bypasses the others. Using 3D digital images of the pore space as input data, the method of maximal inscribed spheres (MIS) predicts two-phase fluid distribution in capillary equilibrium. Verification against the tomography images shows a good agreement between the computed fluid distribution in the pores and the experimental data. The model-predicted capillary pressure curves and tomography-based porosimetry distributions compared favorably with the mercury injection data. Thus, micro CT in combination with modeling based on the MIS is a viable approach to study the pore-scale mechanisms of CO{sub 2} injection into an aquifer, as well as more general multi-phase flows.

  14. Preliminary relative permeability estimates of methanehydrate-bearing sand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seol, Yongkoo; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Tomutsa, Liviu; Moridis,George J.

    2006-05-08

    The relative permeability to fluids in hydrate-bearingsediments is an important parameter for predicting natural gas productionfrom gas hydrate reservoirs. We estimated the relative permeabilityparameters (van Genuchten alpha and m) in a hydrate-bearing sand by meansof inverse modeling, which involved matching water saturation predictionswith observations from a controlled waterflood experiment. We used x-raycomputed tomography (CT) scanning to determine both the porosity and thehydrate and aqueous phase saturation distributions in the samples. X-rayCT images showed that hydrate and aqueous phase saturations arenon-uniform, and that water flow focuses in regions of lower hydratesaturation. The relative permeability parameters were estimated at twolocations in each sample. Differences between the estimated parametersets at the two locations were attributed to heterogeneity in the hydratesaturation. Better estimates of the relative permeability parametersrequire further refinement of the experimental design, and betterdescription of heterogeneity in the numerical inversions.

  15. Temperature distribution in a flowing fluid heated in a microwave resonant cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, J.R. Jr. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Nelson, E.M.; Kares, R.J.; Stringfield, R.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents results of an analytical study of microwave heating of a fluid flowing through a tube situated along the axis of a cylindrical microwave applicator. The interaction of the microwave field pattern and the fluid velocity profiles is illustrated for both laminar and turbulent flow. Resulting temperature profiles are compared with those generated by conventional heating through a surface heat flux. It is found that microwave heating offers several advantages over conventional heating.

  16. Permeability Calculation in a Fracture Network - 12197

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Cheo Kyung; Kim, Hyo Won [Handong Global University, 3 Namsong-ri, Heunghae-eub, Buk-gu, Pohang, Kyungbuk, 791-708 (Korea, Republic of); Yim, Sung Paal [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yusong, Daejon, 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    Laminar flow of a viscous fluid in the pore space of a saturated fractured rock medium is considered to calculate the effective permeability of the medium. The effective permeability is determined from the flow field which is calculated numerically by using the finite element method. The computation of permeability components is carried out with a few different discretizations for a number of fracture arrangements. Various features such as flow field in the fracture channels, the convergence of permeability, and the variation of permeability among different fracture networks are discussed. The longitudinal permeability in general appears greater than the transverse ones. The former shows minor variations with fracture arrangement whereas the latter appears to be more sensitive to the arrangement. From the calculations of the permeability in a rock medium with a fracture network (two parallel fractures aligned in the direction of 45-deg counterclockwise from the horizontal and two connecting fractures(narrowing, parallel and widening) the following conclusions are drawn. 1. The permeability of fractured medium not only depends on the primary orientation of the main fractures but also is noticeably influenced by the connecting fractures in the medium. 2. The transverse permeability (the permeability in the direction normal to the direction of the externally imposed macro-scale pressure gradient) is only a fraction of the longitudinal one, but is sensitive to the arrangement of the connecting fractures. 3. It is important to figure out the pattern of the fractures that connect (or cross) the main fractures for reliable calculation of the transverse permeability. (authors)

  17. Validation of a Fast-Fluid-Dynamics Model for Predicting Distribution of Particles with Low Stokes Number

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zuo, Wangda; Chen, Qingyan

    2011-06-01

    To design a healthy indoor environment, it is important to study airborne particle distribution indoors. As an intermediate model between multizone models and computational fluid dynamics (CFD), a fast fluid dynamics (FFD) model can be used to provide temporal and spatial information of particle dispersion in real time. This study evaluated the accuracy of the FFD for predicting transportation of particles with low Stokes number in a duct and in a room with mixed convection. The evaluation was to compare the numerical results calculated by the FFD with the corresponding experimental data and the results obtained by the CFD. The comparison showed that the FFD could capture major pattern of particle dispersion, which is missed in models with well-mixed assumptions. Although the FFD was less accurate than the CFD partially due to its simplification in numeric schemes, it was 53 times faster than the CFD.

  18. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition to the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO? sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.

  19. Fracture-permeability behavior of shale

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Carey, J. William; Lei, Zhou; Rougier, Esteban; Mori, Hiroko; Viswanathan, Hari

    2015-05-08

    The fracture-permeability behavior of Utica shale, an important play for shale gas and oil, was investigated using a triaxial coreflood device and X-ray tomography in combination with finite-discrete element modeling (FDEM). Fractures generated in both compression and in a direct-shear configuration allowed permeability to be measured across the faces of cylindrical core. Shale with bedding planes perpendicular to direct-shear loading developed complex fracture networks and peak permeability of 30 mD that fell to 5 mD under hydrostatic conditions. Shale with bedding planes parallel to shear loading developed simple fractures with peak permeability as high as 900 mD. In addition tomore » the large anisotropy in fracture permeability, the amount of deformation required to initiate fractures was greater for perpendicular layering (about 1% versus 0.4%), and in both cases activation of existing fractures are more likely sources of permeability in shale gas plays or damaged caprock in CO₂ sequestration because of the significant deformation required to form new fracture networks. FDEM numerical simulations were able to replicate the main features of the fracturing processes while showing the importance of fluid penetration into fractures as well as layering in determining fracture patterns.« less

  20. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George J. Hirasaki; Kishore K. Mohanty

    2005-09-05

    The objective of this report is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. The advances made in the understanding of NMR fluid properties are summarized in a chapter written for an AAPG book on NMR well logging. This includes live oils, viscous oils, natural gas mixtures, and the relation between relaxation time and diffusivity. Oil based drilling fluids can have an adverse effect on NMR well logging if it alters the wettability of the formation. The effect of various surfactants on wettability and surface relaxivity are evaluated for silica sand. The relation between the relaxation time and diffusivity distinguishes the response of brine, oil, and gas in a NMR well log. A new NMR pulse sequence in the presence of a field gradient and a new inversion technique enables the T{sub 2} and diffusivity distributions to be displayed as a two-dimensional map. The objectives of pore morphology and rock characterization are to identify vug connectivity by using X-ray CT scan, and to improve NMR permeability correlation. Improved estimation of permeability from NMR response is possible by using estimated tortuosity as a parameter to interpolate between two existing permeability models.

  1. Modeling of Damage, Permeability Changes and Pressure Responses during Excavation of the TSX Tunnel in Granitic Rock at URL, Canada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, Jonny; Borgesson, Lennart; Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Hernelind, Jan; Jing, Lanru; Kobayashi, Akira; Nguyen, Son

    2008-08-01

    This paper presents numerical modeling of excavation-induced damage, permeability changes, and fluid-pressure responses during excavation of the TSX tunnel at the underground research laboratory (URL) in Canada. Four different numerical models were applied, using a wide range of approaches to model damage and permeability changes in the excavation disturbed zone (EDZ) around the tunnel. Using in situ calibration of model parameters the modeling could reproduce observed spatial distribution of damage and permeability changes around the tunnel, as a combination of disturbance induced by stress redistribution around the tunnel and by the drill-and-blast operation. The modeling showed that stress-induced permeability increase above the tunnel is a result of micro and macrofracturing under high deviatoric (shear) stress, whereas permeability increases alongside the tunnel as a result of opening of existing microfractures under decreased mean stress. The remaining observed fracturing and permeability changes around the periphery of the tunnel were attributed to damage from the drill-and-blast operation. Moreover, a reasonably good agreement was achieved between simulated and observed excavation-induced pressure responses around the TSX tunnel for 1 year following its excavation. The simulations showed that these pressure responses are caused by poroelastic effects as a result of increasing or decreasing mean stress, with corresponding contraction or expansion of the pore volume. The simulation results for pressure evolution were consistent with previous studies, indicating that the observed pressure responses could be captured in a Biot model using a relatively low Biot-Willis coefficient, {alpha} {approx} 0.2, a porosity of n {approx} 0.007, and a relatively low permeability of k {approx} 2 x 10{sup -22} m{sup 2}, which is consistent with the very tight, unfractured granite at the site.

  2. Using supercritical carbon dioxide as a fracturing fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    formation at pressures high enough to fracture the rock, is performed to increase permeability and thereby increase production. Currently, water is the only fracturing fluid...

  3. Flow Of Mantle Fluids Through The Ductile Lower Crust- Helium...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ratios and active transtensional deformation indicates a deformation-enhanced permeability and that mantle fluids can penetrate the ductile lithosphere, even in regions where...

  4. Can We Accurately Model Fluid Flow in Shale?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rycroft, and Barenblatt posits a porous, fissurized matrix (I) with enough permeability to be treated by standard fluid mechanics, as well as a kerogen inclusion (II) with...

  5. Permeable Reactive Barriers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barrier Field Projects Durango, Colorado Durango, Colorado DOE installed a PRB in October 1995 to treat ...

  6. Liquid-permeable electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Folser, George R. (Lower Burrell, PA)

    1980-01-01

    Electrodes for use in an electrolytic cell, which are liquid-permeable and have low electrical resistance and high internal surface area are provided of a rigid, porous, carbonaceous matrix having activated carbon uniformly embedded throughout. The activated carbon may be catalyzed with platinum for improved electron transfer between electrode and electrolyte. Activated carbon is mixed with a powdered thermosetting phenolic resin and compacted to the desired shape in a heated mold to melt the resin and form the green electrode. The compact is then heated to a pyrolyzing temperature to carbonize and volatilize the resin, forming a rigid, porous structure. The permeable structure and high internal surface area are useful in electrolytic cells where it is necessary to continuously remove the products of the electrochemical reaction.

  7. Stainless Steel Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buchenauer, Dean A.; Karnesky, Richard A.

    2015-09-01

    An understanding of the behavior of hydrogen isotopes in materials is critical to predicting tritium transport in structural metals (at high pressure), estimating tritium losses during production (fission environment), and predicting in-vessel inventory for future fusion devices (plasma driven permeation). Current models often assume equilibrium diffusivity and solubility for a class of materials (e.g. stainless steels or aluminum alloys), neglecting trapping effects or, at best, considering a single population of trapping sites. Permeation and trapping studies of the particular castings and forgings enable greater confidence and reduced margins in the models. For FY15, we have continued our investigation of the role of ferrite in permeation for steels of interest to GTS, through measurements of the duplex steel 2507. We also initiated an investigation of the permeability in work hardened materials, to follow up on earlier observations of unusual permeability in a particular region of 304L forgings. Samples were prepared and characterized for ferrite content and coated with palladium to prevent oxidation. Issues with the poor reproducibility of measurements at low permeability were overcome, although the techniques in use are tedious. Funding through TPBAR and GTS were secured for a research grade quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) and replacement turbo pumps, which should improve the fidelity and throughput of measurements in FY16.

  8. Patterns of permeability in eolian deposits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goggin, D.J.; Chandler, M.A.; Kocurek, G.; Lake, L.W.

    1988-06-01

    The eolian, Jurassic Page sandstone of northeastern Arizona is marked by a highly ordered heterogeneity. The heterogeneity is expressed by the intricate association of stratification types, which are a direct result of the depositional processes. The dominant stratification types in eolian reservoirs are grainflow, grainfall, and wind-ripple deposits, which form on the lee faces of migrating dunes; interdune deposits, which form between migrating dunes; and extra-erg deposits, which occur sporadically when other depositional environments encroach upon an eolian system. These stratification types each have a unique permeability range, which implies that the fluid migration routes in eolian reservoirs will be dictated by the geometry and types of stratification present. One of the most important aspects of this study is the correlation of qualitative geologic descriptions with quantitative variables such as permeability. About 2,000 measurements were made with a field minipermeameter on an outcrop of the Page sandstone. These data show that three distinct permeability modes directly relate to the different stratification types.

  9. Evaluation of flow mixing in an ARID-HV algal raceway using statistics of temporal and spatial distribution of fluid particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Ben; Li, Peiwen; Waller, Peter; Huesemann, Michael H.

    2015-02-27

    This paper analyzes and evaluates the flow mixing in an open channel algal raceway for biofuel production. The flow mixing governs the frequency of how algae cells are exposed to sunlight, due to the fluid movement between the surface and the bottom of the algal raceway, thereby affecting algal growth rate. In this work, we investigated the flow mixing performance in a table-sized model of the High Velocity Algae Raceway Integrated Design (ARID-HV). Various geometries of the raceway channels and dams were considered in both the CFD analysis and experimental flowvisualization. In the CFD simulation, the pathlines of fluid particleswere analyzed to obtain the distribution of the number of times that particles passed across a critical water depth, Dc, defined as a cycle count. In addition, the distribution of the time period fraction that the fluid particles stayed in the zones above and below Dc was recorded. Such information was used to evaluate the flow mixing in the raceway. The CFD evaluation of the flow mixing was validated using experimental flow visualization, which showed a good qualitative agreement with the numerical results. In conclusion, this CFD-based evaluation methodology is recommended for flow field optimization for open channel algal raceways, as well as for other engineering applications in which flow mixing is an important concern.

  10. Final Report, DE-FG02-92ER14261, Pore Scale Geometric and Fluid Distribution Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    W. Brent Lindquist

    2005-01-21

    The elucidation of the relationship between pore scale structure and fluid flow in porous media is a fundamental problem of long standing interest. Incomplete characterization of medium properties continues to be a limiting factor in accurate field scale simulations. The accomplishments of this grant have kept us at the forefront in investigating the applicability of X-ray computed microtomography (XCMT) as a tool for contributing to the understanding of this relationship. Specific accomplishments have been achieved in four areas: - development of numerical algorithms (largely in the field of computational geometry) to provide automated recognition of and measurements on features of interest in the pore space. These algorithms have been embodied in a software package, 3DMA-Rock. - application of these algorithms to extensive studies of the pore space of sandstones. - application of these algorithms to studies of fluid (oil/water) partitioning in the pore space of Berea sandstone and polyethylene models. - technology transfer.

  11. System and method for measuring permeability of materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis; Renner, Michael John

    2013-07-09

    Systems and methods are provided for measuring the permeance of a material. The permeability of the material may also be derived. Systems typically provide a liquid or high concentration fluid bath on one side of a material test sample, and a gas flow across the opposing side of the material test sample. The mass flow rate of permeated fluid as a fraction of the combined mass flow rate of gas and permeated fluid is used to calculate the permeance of the material. The material test sample may be a sheet, a tube, or a solid shape. Operational test conditions may be varied, including concentration of the fluid, temperature of the fluid, strain profile of the material test sample, and differential pressure across the material test sample.

  12. Gas permeability of carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.; LeMay, J.D.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Materials Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States))

    1993-12-01

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the aqueous polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and subsequent pyrolysis at 1050 [degree]C. As a result of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell/pore size, and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications such as supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, the permeability of carbon aerogels was calculated from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have permeabilities on the order of 10[sup [minus]12] to 10[sup [minus]10] cm[sup 2] over the density range from 0.05--0.44 g/cm[sup 3]. Like many other aerogel properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density, reflecting differences in the average mesopore size. Comparing the results from this study with the permeability of silica aerogels reported by other workers, we found that the permeability of aerogels is governed by a simple universal flow equation. This paper discusses the relationship between permeability, pore size, and density in carbon aerogels.

  13. Characterization and estimation of permeability correlation structure from performance data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ershaghi, I.; Al-Qahtani, M.

    1997-08-01

    In this study, the influence of permeability structure and correlation length on the system effective permeability and recovery factors of 2-D cross-sectional reservoir models, under waterflood, is investigated. Reservoirs with identical statistical representation of permeability attributes are shown to exhibit different system effective permeability and production characteristics which can be expressed by a mean and variance. The mean and variance are shown to be significantly influenced by the correlation length. Detailed quantification of the influence of horizontal and vertical correlation lengths for different permeability distributions is presented. The effect of capillary pressure, P{sub c1} on the production characteristics and saturation profiles at different correlation lengths is also investigated. It is observed that neglecting P{sub c} causes considerable error at large horizontal and short vertical correlation lengths. The effect of using constant as opposed to variable relative permeability attributes is also investigated at different correlation lengths. Next we studied the influence of correlation anisotropy in 2-D reservoir models. For a reservoir under five-spot waterflood pattern, it is shown that the ratios of breakthrough times and recovery factors of the wells in each direction of correlation are greatly influenced by the degree of anisotropy. In fully developed fields, performance data can aid in the recognition of reservoir anisotropy. Finally, a procedure for estimating the spatial correlation length from performance data is presented. Both the production performance data and the system`s effective permeability are required in estimating the correlation length.

  14. Geothermal Permeability Enhancement - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joe Beall; Mark Walters

    2009-06-30

    The overall objective is to apply known permeability enhancement techniques to reduce the number of wells needed and demonstrate the applicability of the techniques to other undeveloped or under-developed fields. The Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) concept presented in this project enhances energy extraction from reduced permeability zones in the super-heated, vapor-dominated Aidlin Field of the The Geysers geothermal reservoir. Numerous geothermal reservoirs worldwide, over a wide temperature range, contain zones of low permeability which limit the development potential and the efficient recovery of heat from these reservoirs. Low permeability results from poorly connected fractures or the lack of fractures. The Enhanced Geothermal System concept presented here expands these technologies by applying and evaluating them in a systematic, integrated program.

  15. CONTENTS Chemical Control of Fluid Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Chemical Control of Fluid Flow and Contaminant Release in Shale Microfractures ...................1 Editor's Letter .................................2 Laboratory and Numerical Investigation of Hydraulic Fracture Propagation and Permeability Evolution in Heterogeneous and Anisotropic Shale .................................................7 Probing Hydrocarbon Fluid Behavior in Nanoporous Formations to Maximize Unconventional Oil/Gas Recovery ........................................11 Petrophysics

  16. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2012-06-05

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons including mobilized hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  17. Creating fluid injectivity in tar sands formations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stegemeier, George Leo; Beer, Gary Lee; Zhang, Etuan

    2010-06-08

    Methods for treating a tar sands formation are described herein. Methods for treating a tar sands may include heating a portion of a hydrocarbon layer in the formation from one or more heaters located in the portion. The heat may be controlled to increase the permeability of at least part of the portion to create an injection zone in the portion with an average permeability sufficient to allow injection of a fluid through the injection zone. A drive fluid and/or an oxidizing fluid may be provided into the injection zone. At least some hydrocarbons are produced from the portion.

  18. Multiporosity flow in fractured low-permeability rocks: Extension to shale hydrocarbon reservoirs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-02-05

    We presented a multiporosity extension of classical double and triple-porosity fractured rock flow models for slightly compressible fluids. The multiporosity model is an adaptation of the multirate solute transport model of Haggerty and Gorelick (1995) to viscous flow in fractured rock reservoirs. It is a generalization of both pseudo steady state and transient interporosity flow double-porosity models. The model includes a fracture continuum and an overlapping distribution of multiple rock matrix continua, whose fracture-matrix exchange coefficients are specified through a discrete probability mass function. Semianalytical cylindrically symmetric solutions to the multiporosity mathematical model are developed using the Laplace transform tomore » illustrate its behavior. Furthermore, the multiporosity model presented here is conceptually simple, yet flexible enough to simulate common conceptualizations of double and triple-porosity flow. This combination of generality and simplicity makes the multiporosity model a good choice for flow modelling in low-permeability fractured rocks.« less

  19. Multiporosity flow in fractured low-permeability rocks: Extension to shale hydrocarbon reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuhlman, Kristopher L.; Malama, Bwalya; Heath, Jason E.

    2015-02-05

    We presented a multiporosity extension of classical double and triple-porosity fractured rock flow models for slightly compressible fluids. The multiporosity model is an adaptation of the multirate solute transport model of Haggerty and Gorelick (1995) to viscous flow in fractured rock reservoirs. It is a generalization of both pseudo steady state and transient interporosity flow double-porosity models. The model includes a fracture continuum and an overlapping distribution of multiple rock matrix continua, whose fracture-matrix exchange coefficients are specified through a discrete probability mass function. Semianalytical cylindrically symmetric solutions to the multiporosity mathematical model are developed using the Laplace transform to illustrate its behavior. Furthermore, the multiporosity model presented here is conceptually simple, yet flexible enough to simulate common conceptualizations of double and triple-porosity flow. This combination of generality and simplicity makes the multiporosity model a good choice for flow modelling in low-permeability fractured rocks.

  20. Pore-scale investigation on stress-dependent characteristics of granular packs and the impact of pore deformation on fluid distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoon, Hongkyu; Klise, Katherine A.; Torrealba, Victor A.; Karpyn, Zuleima T.; Crandall, D.

    2015-05-25

    Understanding the effect of changing stress conditions on multiphase flow in porous media is of fundamental importance for many subsurface activities including enhanced oil recovery, water drawdown from aquifers, soil confinement, and geologic carbon storage. Geomechanical properties of complex porous systems are dynamically linked to flow conditions, but their feedback relationship is often oversimplified due to the difficulty of representing pore-scale stress deformation and multiphase flow characteristics in high fidelity. In this work, we performed pore-scale experiments of single- and multiphase flow through bead packs at different confining pressure conditions to elucidate compaction-dependent characteristics of granular packs and their impact on fluid flow. A series of drainage and imbibition cycles were conducted on a water-wet, soda-lime glass bead pack under varying confining stress conditions. Simultaneously, X-ray micro-CT was used to visualize and quantify the degree of deformation and fluid distribution corresponding with each stress condition and injection cycle. Micro-CT images were segmented using a gradient-based method to identify fluids (e.g., oil and water), and solid phase redistribution throughout the different experimental stages. Changes in porosity, tortuosity, and specific surface area were quantified as a function of applied confining pressure. Results demonstrate varying degrees of sensitivity of these properties to confining pressure, which suggests that caution must be taken when considering scalability of these properties for practical modeling purposes. Changes in capillary number with confining pressure are attributed to the increase in pore velocity as a result of pore contraction. Furthermore, this increase in pore velocity was found to have a marginal impact on average phase trapping at different confining pressures.

  1. Pore-scale investigation on stress-dependent characteristics of granular packs and the impact of pore deformation on fluid distribution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yoon, Hongkyu; Klise, Katherine A.; Torrealba, Victor A.; Karpyn, Zuleima T.; Crandall, D.

    2015-05-25

    Understanding the effect of changing stress conditions on multiphase flow in porous media is of fundamental importance for many subsurface activities including enhanced oil recovery, water drawdown from aquifers, soil confinement, and geologic carbon storage. Geomechanical properties of complex porous systems are dynamically linked to flow conditions, but their feedback relationship is often oversimplified due to the difficulty of representing pore-scale stress deformation and multiphase flow characteristics in high fidelity. In this work, we performed pore-scale experiments of single- and multiphase flow through bead packs at different confining pressure conditions to elucidate compaction-dependent characteristics of granular packs and their impactmore » on fluid flow. A series of drainage and imbibition cycles were conducted on a water-wet, soda-lime glass bead pack under varying confining stress conditions. Simultaneously, X-ray micro-CT was used to visualize and quantify the degree of deformation and fluid distribution corresponding with each stress condition and injection cycle. Micro-CT images were segmented using a gradient-based method to identify fluids (e.g., oil and water), and solid phase redistribution throughout the different experimental stages. Changes in porosity, tortuosity, and specific surface area were quantified as a function of applied confining pressure. Results demonstrate varying degrees of sensitivity of these properties to confining pressure, which suggests that caution must be taken when considering scalability of these properties for practical modeling purposes. Changes in capillary number with confining pressure are attributed to the increase in pore velocity as a result of pore contraction. Furthermore, this increase in pore velocity was found to have a marginal impact on average phase trapping at different confining pressures.« less

  2. Correlating Spatial Heterogeneities in Porosity and Permeability with Metal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Poisoning within an Individual Catalyst Particle using X-ray Microscopy | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Correlating Spatial Heterogeneities in Porosity and Permeability with Metal Poisoning within an Individual Catalyst Particle using X-ray Microscopy Wednesday, August 21, 2013 - 1:30pm SLAC, Conference Room 137-226 Presented by Darius Morris, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) is a refining process for converting large and/or heavy

  3. Pyrotechnic deflagration velocity and permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Begeal, D R; Stanton, P L

    1982-01-01

    Particle size, porosity, and permeability of the reactive material have long been considered to be important factors in propellant burning rates and the deflagration-to-detonation transition in explosives. It is reasonable to assume that these same parameters will also affect the deflagration velocity of pyrotechnics. This report describes an experimental program that addresses the permeability of porous solids (particulate beds), in terms of particle size and porosity, and the relationship between permeability and the behavior of pyrotechnics and explosives. The experimental techniques used to acquire permeability data and to characterize the pyrotechnic burning are discussed. Preliminary data have been obtained on the burning characteristics of titanium hydride/potassium perchlorate (THKP) and boron/calcium chromate (BCCR). With THKP, the velocity of a pressure wave (from hot product gases) in the unburned region shows unsteady behavior which is related to the initial porosity or permeability. Simultaneous measurements with pressure gauges and ion gauges reveal that the pressure wave precedes the burn front. Steady burning of BCCR was observed with pressure gauge diagnostics and with a microwave interferometry technique.

  4. Fluid Stratigraphy and Permeable Zones of the Coso Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    zones can be targeted in the future Authors Dilley, L. M.; Norman, D.I.; Moore, J.; McCulloch and J. Published Geothermal Resource Council Transactions 2006, 112006 DOI...

  5. Permeability computation on a REV with an immersed finite element method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laure, P. [Laboratoire J.-A. Dieudonne, CNRS UMR 6621, Universite de Nice-Sophia Antipolis, Parc Valrose, 06108 Nice, Cedex 02 (France); Puaux, G.; Silva, L.; Vincent, M. [MINES ParisTech, CEMEF-Centre de Mise en Forme des Materiaux, CNRS UMR 7635, BP 207 1 rue Claude, Daunesse 06904 Sophia Antipolis cedex (France)

    2011-05-04

    An efficient method to compute permeability of fibrous media is presented. An immersed domain approach is used to represent the porous material at its microscopic scale and the flow motion is computed with a stabilized mixed finite element method. Therefore the Stokes equation is solved on the whole domain (including solid part) using a penalty method. The accuracy is controlled by refining the mesh around the solid-fluid interface defined by a level set function. Using homogenisation techniques, the permeability of a representative elementary volume (REV) is computed. The computed permeabilities of regular fibre packings are compared to classical analytical relations found in the bibliography.

  6. Systems, compositions, and methods for fluid purification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ho, W.S. Winston; Verweij, Hendrik; Shqau, Krenar; Ramasubranian, Kartik

    2015-12-22

    Disclosed herein are membranes comprising a substrate, a support layer, and a selective layer. In some embodiments the membrane may further comprise a permeable layer. Methods of forming membranes are also disclosed comprising forming a support layer on a substrate, removing adsorbed species from the support layer, preparing a solution containing inorganic materials of a selective layer, contacting the support layer with the solution, drying the membrane, and exposing the membrane to rapid thermal processing. Also disclosed are methods of fluid purification comprising providing a membrane having a feed side and a permeable side, passing a fluid mixture across the feed side of the membrane, providing a driving force for transmembrane permeation, removing from the permeate side a permeate stream enriched in a purified fluid, and withdrawing from the feed side a fluid that is depleted in a purified fluid.

  7. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2005-2006)...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Interpretation of New Wells in the Coso Geothermal Field Dilley, L. M.; Norman, D.I.; Moore, J.; McCulloch, J. (1 January 2006) Fluid Stratigraphy and Permeable Zones of the Coso...

  8. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Dixie Valley Geothermal Area (Kennedy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    suggest that helium isotopes are the best and possibly the only indication of deep permeability where high temperature fluids are masked beneath a cold reservoir. Notes 3He4He...

  9. Fascinating Fluids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fascinating Fluids Fascinating Fluids From liquids to gases, we take on this most fascinating compound with hands-on activities for children and adults alike. We are made of fluids, mostly water, arguably the most interesting compound in the universe. Think About This Liquids Fluids are amazing. Fluids flow. Liquids have variable shapes but almost constant volumes. Gases Gases take the shape of their containers and can be squeezed and stretched relatively easily. Sand What is fine sand? It is a

  10. An efficient permeability scaling-up technique applied to the discretized flow equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgelli, D.; Ding, Yu

    1997-08-01

    Grid-block permeability scaling-up for numerical reservoir simulations has been discussed for a long time in the literature. It is now recognized that a full permeability tensor is needed to get an accurate reservoir description at large scale. However, two major difficulties are encountered: (1) grid-block permeability cannot be properly defined because it depends on boundary conditions; (2) discretization of flow equations with a full permeability tensor is not straightforward and little work has been done on this subject. In this paper, we propose a new method, which allows us to get around both difficulties. As the two major problems are closely related, a global approach will preserve the accuracy. So, in the proposed method, the permeability up-scaling technique is integrated in the discretized numerical scheme for flow simulation. The permeability is scaled-up via the transmissibility term, in accordance with the fluid flow calculation in the numerical scheme. A finite-volume scheme is particularly studied, and the transmissibility scaling-up technique for this scheme is presented. Some numerical examples are tested for flow simulation. This new method is compared with some published numerical schemes for full permeability tensor discretization where the full permeability tensor is scaled-up through various techniques. Comparing the results with fine grid simulations shows that the new method is more accurate and more efficient.

  11. Methodologies for Reservoir Characterization Using Fluid Inclusion Gas Chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilley, Lorie M.

    2015-04-13

    The purpose of this project was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between geothermal fluid processes and the compositions of the fluid inclusion gases trapped in the reservoir rocks; and 2) develop methodologies for interpreting fluid inclusion gas data in terms of the chemical, thermal and hydrological properties of geothermal reservoirs. Phase 1 of this project was designed to conduct the following: 1) model the effects of boiling, condensation, conductive cooling and mixing on selected gaseous species; using fluid compositions obtained from geothermal wells, 2) evaluate, using quantitative analyses provided by New Mexico Tech (NMT), how these processes are recorded by fluid inclusions trapped in individual crystals; and 3) determine if the results obtained on individual crystals can be applied to the bulk fluid inclusion analyses determined by Fluid Inclusion Technology (FIT). Our initial studies however, suggested that numerical modeling of the data would be premature. We observed that the gas compositions, determined on bulk and individual samples were not the same as those discharged by the geothermal wells. Gases discharged from geothermal wells are CO2-rich and contain low concentrations of light gases (i.e. H2, He, N, Ar, CH4). In contrast many of our samples displayed enrichments in these light gases. Efforts were initiated to evaluate the reasons for the observed gas distributions. As a first step, we examined the potential importance of different reservoir processes using a variety of commonly employed gas ratios (e.g. Giggenbach plots). The second technical target was the development of interpretational methodologies. We have develop methodologies for the interpretation of fluid inclusion gas data, based on the results of Phase 1, geologic interpretation of fluid inclusion data, and integration of the data. These methodologies can be used in conjunction with the relevant geological and hydrological information on the system to create fluid models for the system. The hope is that the methodologies developed will allow bulk fluid inclusion gas analysis to be a useful tool for estimating relative temperatures, identifying the sources and origins of the geothermal fluids, and developing conceptual models that can be used to help target areas of enhanced permeability.

  12. Inversion of multicomponent seismic data and rock-physics intepretation for evaluating lithology, fracture and fluid distribution in heterogeneous anisotropic reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilya Tsvankin; Kenneth L. Larner

    2004-11-17

    Within the framework of this collaborative project with the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and Stanford University, the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) group developed and implemented a new efficient approach to the inversion and processing of multicomponent, multiazimuth seismic data in anisotropic media. To avoid serious difficulties in the processing of mode-converted (PS) waves, we devised a methodology for transforming recorded PP- and PS-wavefields into the corresponding SS-wave reflection data that can be processed by velocity-analysis algorithms designed for pure (unconverted) modes. It should be emphasized that this procedure does not require knowledge of the velocity model and can be applied to data from arbitrarily anisotropic, heterogeneous media. The azimuthally varying reflection moveouts of the PP-waves and constructed SS-waves are then combined in anisotropic stacking-velocity tomography to estimate the velocity field in the depth domain. As illustrated by the case studies discussed in the report, migration of the multicomponent data with the obtained anisotropic velocity model yields a crisp image of the reservoir that is vastly superior to that produced by conventional methods. The scope of this research essentially amounts to building the foundation of 3D multicomponent, anisotropic seismology. We have also worked with the LLNL and Stanford groups on relating the anisotropic parameters obtained from seismic data to stress, lithology, and fluid distribution using a generalized theoretical treatment of fractured, poroelastic rocks.

  13. Stimuli Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Energy Production (Part II)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonneville, Alain; Jung, Hun Bok; Shao, Hongbo; Kabilan, Senthil; Um, Wooyong; Carroll, Kenneth C.; Varga, Tamas; Suresh, Niraj; Stephens, Sean A.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2014-12-14

    We have used an environmentally friendly and recyclable hydraulic fracturing fluid - diluted aqueous solutions of polyallylamine or PAA – for reservoir stimulation in Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). This fluid undergoes a controlled and large volume expansion with a simultaneous increase in viscosity triggered by CO2 at EGS temperatures. We are presenting here the results of laboratory-scale hydraulic fracturing experiment using the fluid on small cylindrical rock cores (1.59 cm in diameter and 5.08 cm in length) from the Coso geothermal field in California. Rock samples consisted of Mesozoic diorite metamorphosed to greenschist facies. The experiments were conducted on 5 samples for realistic ranges of pressures (up to 275 bar) and temperatures (up to 210 °C) for both the rock samples and the injected fluid. After fracturing, cores were subjected to a CO2 leakage test, injection of KI solution, and X-ray microtomography (XMT) scanning to examine the formation and distribution of fractures. The design and conduct of these experiments will be presented and discussed in details. Based on the obtained XMT images, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were then performed to visualize hydraulic fractures and compute the bulk permeability. OpenFOAM (OpenCFD Ltd., Reading, UK), was used to solve the steady state simulation. The flow predictions, based upon the laminar, 3-D, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations for fluid mass and momentum, show the remarkable stimulation of the permeability in the core samples and demonstrate the efficiency of such a CO2 triggered fluid in EGS.

  14. Controlled differential pressure system for an enhanced fluid blending apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

    2009-02-24

    A system and method for producing a controlled blend of two or more fluids. Thermally-induced permeation through a permeable tube is used to mix a first fluid from outside the tube with a second fluid flowing through the tube. Mixture ratios may be controlled by adjusting the temperature of the first fluid or by adjusting the pressure drop through the permeable tube. The combination of a back pressure control valve and a differential regulator is used to control the output pressure of the blended fluid. The combination of the back pressure control valve and differential regulator provides superior flow control of the second dry gas. A valve manifold system may be used to mix multiple fluids, and to adjust the volume of blended fluid produced, and to further modify the mixture ratio.

  15. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, J.R.

    1982-05-04

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion. 3 figs.

  16. Hydrostatic bearings for a turbine fluid flow metering device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, J.R.

    1980-05-02

    A rotor assembly fluid metering device has been improved by development of a hydrostatic bearing fluid system which provides bearing fluid at a common pressure to rotor assembly bearing surfaces. The bearing fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid distribution system produces a uniform film of fluid between bearing surfaces and allows rapid replacement of bearing fluid between bearing surfaces, thereby minimizing bearing wear and corrosion.

  17. Hydraulic Permeability of Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Resin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taylor, Paul Allen

    2010-01-01

    An ion exchange process using spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) resin is the baseline process for removing cesium from the dissolved salt solution in the high-level waste tanks at the Hanford Site, using large scale columns as part of the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The RF resin is also being evaluated for use in the proposed small column ion exchange (SCIX) system, which is an alternative treatment option at Hanford and at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A recirculating test loop with a small ion exchange column was used to measure the effect of oxygen uptake and radiation exposure on the permeability of a packed bed of the RF resin. The lab-scale column was designed to be prototypic of the proposed Hanford columns at the WTP. Although the test equipment was designed to model the Hanford ion exchange columns, the data on changes in the hydraulic permeability of the resin will also be valuable for determining potential pressure drops through the proposed SCIX system. The superficial fluid velocity in the lab-scale test (3.4-5.7 cm/s) was much higher than is planned for the full-scale Hanford columns to generate the maximum pressure drop expected in those columns (9.7 psig). The frictional drag from this high velocity produced forces on the resin in the lab-scale tests that matched the design basis of the full-scale Hanford column. Any changes in the resin caused by the radiation exposure and oxygen uptake were monitored by measuring the pressure drop through the lab-scale column and the physical properties of the resin. Three hydraulic test runs were completed, the first using fresh RF resin at 25 C, the second using irradiated resin at 25 C, and the third using irradiated resin at 45 C. A Hanford AP-101 simulant solution was recirculated through a test column containing 500 mL of Na-form RF resin. Known amounts of oxygen were introduced into the primary recirculation loop by saturating measured volumes of the simulant solution with oxygen and reintroducing the oxygenated simulant into the feed tank. The dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration of the recirculating simulant was monitored, and the amount of oxygen that reacted with the resin was determined from the change in the DO concentration of the recirculating simulant solution. Prior to hydraulic testing the resin for runs 2 and 3 was covered with the simulant solution and irradiated in a spent fuel element at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR). Both batches of resin were irradiated to a total gamma dose of 177 Mrad, but the resin for run 2 reached a maximum temperature during irradiation of 51 C, while the resin for run 3 reached a temperature of 38 C. The different temperatures were the result of the operating status of HFIR at the time of the irradiation and were not part of the test plan; however, the results clearly show the impact of the higher-temperature exposure during irradiation. The flow rate and pressure drop data from the test loop runs show that irradiating the RF resin reduces both the void fraction and the permeability of the resin bed. The mechanism for the reduction in permeability is not clear because irradiation increases the particle size of the resin beads and makes them deform less under pressure. Microscopic examination of the resin beads shows that they are all smooth regular spheres and that irradiation or oxygen uptake did not change the shape of the beads. The resin reacts rapidly with DO in the simulant solution, and the reaction with oxygen reduces the permeability of a bed of new resin by about 10% but has less impact on the permeability of irradiated resin. Irradiation increases the toughness of the resin beads, probably by initiating cross-linking reactions in them. Oxygen uptake reduces the crush strength of both new and irradiated resin; however, the pressures that caused the beads to crush are much higher than would be expected during the operation of an ion exchange column. There was no visible evidence of broken beads in any of the resin samples taken from the test loop. Reaction with oxygen red

  18. Apparatus and method for handling magnetic particles in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holman, David A. (Richland, WA); Grate, Jay W. (West Richland, WA); Bruckner-Lea, Cynthia J. (Richland, WA)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for handling magnetic particles suspended in a fluid, relying upon the known features of a magnetic flux conductor that is permeable thereby permitting the magnetic particles and fluid to flow therethrough; and a controllable magnetic field for the handling. The present invention is an improvement wherein the magnetic flux conductor is a monolithic porous foam.

  19. Permeable Reactive Barriers | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barriers Permeable Reactive Barrier Field Projects Durango, Colorado Durango, Colorado DOE installed a PRB in October 1995 to treat ground water from a uranium mill tailings disposal site at Durango, Colorado Read more Cañon City, Colorado Cañon City, Colorado ESL personnel conduct tests and help evaluate performance at other PRB sites, such as Cotter Corporation's Cañon City site in Colorado. Read more Monticello, Utah Monticello, Utah

  20. Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report:Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing,U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region 8 Support.August 2004

  1. Magma energy and geothermal permeability enhancement programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, J.C.

    1985-01-01

    Accomplishments during FY85 and project plans for FY86 are described for the Magma Energy Extraction and Permeability Enhancement programs. (ACR)

  2. Correlating Spatial Heterogeneities in Porosity and Permeability...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Correlating Spatial Heterogeneities in Porosity and Permeability with Metal Poisoning within an Individual Catalyst Particle using X-ray Microscopy Wednesday, August 21, 2013 -...

  3. Correlation of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    of hydrothermal sericite composition with permeability and temperature, Coso Hot Springs geothermal field, Inyo County, California Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference...

  4. Structural Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Settings Of Hydrothermal Outflow- Fracture Permeability Maintained By Fault Propagation And Interaction Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal...

  5. P wave anisotropy, stress, and crack distribution at Coso geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    scalar. The resulting anisotropy distribution is used to estimate variations in crack density, stress distribution and permeability within the producing geothermal field. A...

  6. Relative permeability of hydrate-bearing sediments from percolation theory and critical path analysis: theoretical and experimental results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daigle, Hugh; Rice, Mary Anna; Daigle, Hugh

    2015-12-14

    Relative permeabilities to water and gas are important parameters for accurate modeling of the formation of methane hydrate deposits and production of methane from hydrate reservoirs. Experimental measurements of gas and water permeability in the presence of hydrate are difficult to obtain. The few datasets that do exist suggest that relative permeability obeys a power law relationship with water or gas saturation with exponents ranging from around 2 to greater than 10. Critical path analysis and percolation theory provide a framework for interpreting the saturation-dependence of relative permeability based on percolation thresholds and the breadth of pore size distributions, which may be determined easily from 3-D images or gas adsorption-desorption hysteresis. We show that the exponent of the permeability-saturation relationship for relative permeability to water is related to the breadth of the pore size distribution, with broader pore size distributions corresponding to larger exponents. Relative permeability to water in well-sorted sediments with narrow pore size distributions, such as Berea sandstone or Toyoura sand, follows percolation scaling with an exponent of 2. On the other hand, pore-size distributions determined from argon adsorption measurements we performed on clays from the Nankai Trough suggest that relative permeability to water in fine-grained intervals may be characterized by exponents as large as 10 as determined from critical path analysis. We also show that relative permeability to the gas phase follows percolation scaling with a quadratic dependence on gas saturation, but the threshold gas saturation for percolation changes with hydrate saturation, which is an important consideration in systems in which both hydrate and gas are present, such as during production from a hydrate reservoir. Our work shows how measurements of pore size distributions from 3-D imaging or gas adsorption may be used to determine relative permeabilities.

  7. Effect of Dead Algae on Soil Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harvey, R.S.

    2003-02-21

    Since existing basins support heavy growths of unicellular green algae which may be killed by temperature variation or by inadvertent pH changes in waste and then deposited on the basin floor, information on the effects of dead algae on soil permeability was needed. This study was designed to show the effects of successive algal kills on the permeability of laboratory soil columns.

  8. Direct pore-level modeling of incompressible fluid flow in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ovaysi, Saeed; Piri, Mohammad

    2010-09-20

    We present a dynamic particle-based model for direct pore-level modeling of incompressible viscous fluid flow in disordered porous media. The model is capable of simulating flow directly in three-dimensional high-resolution micro-CT images of rock samples. It is based on moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) method. We modify this technique in order to improve its stability for flow in porous media problems. Using the micro-CT image of a rock sample, the entire medium, i.e., solid and fluid, is discretized into particles. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are then solved for each particle using the MPS summations. The model handles highly irregular fluid-solid boundaries effectively. An algorithm to split and merge fluid particles is also introduced. To handle the computational load, we present a parallel version of the model that runs on distributed memory computer clusters. The accuracy of the model is validated against the analytical, numerical, and experimental data available in the literature. The validated model is then used to simulate both unsteady- and steady-state flow of an incompressible fluid directly in a representative elementary volume (REV) size micro-CT image of a naturally-occurring sandstone with 3.398 {mu}m resolution. We analyze the quality and consistency of the predicted flow behavior and calculate absolute permeability using the steady-state flow rate.

  9. Permeability and porosity of hydrate-bearing sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann; Malinverno, Alberto

    2015-10-14

    Hydrate-bearing sands are being actively explored because they contain the highest concentrations of hydrate and are the most economically recoverable hydrate resource. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms or timescales of hydrate formation, which are related to methane supply, fluid flux, and host sediment properties such as permeability. We used logging-while-drilling data from locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico to develop an effective medium theory-based model for predicting permeability based on clay-sized sediment fraction. The model considers permeability varying between sand and clay endpoint permeabilities that are defined from laboratory data. We verified the model using permeability measurements on core samples from three boreholes, and then used the model to predict permeability in two wells drilled in Walker Ridge Block 313 during the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II expedition in 2009. We found that the cleanest sands (clay-sized fraction <0.05) had intrinsic (hydrate-free) permeability contrasts of 5-6 orders of magnitude with the surrounding clays, which is sufficient to provide focused hydrate formation due to advection of methane from a deep source or diffusion of microbial methane from nearby clay layers. In sands where the clay-sized fraction exceeds 0.05, the permeability reduces significantly and focused flow is less pronounced. In these cases, diffusion of dissolved microbial methane is most likely the preferred mode of methane supply for hydrate formation. In conclusion, our results provide important constraints on methane supply mechanisms in the Walker Ridge area and have global implications for evaluating rates of methane migration and hydrate formation in hydrate-bearing sands.

  10. Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah PDF icon Gamma Survey of a Permeable Reactive Barrier at Monticello, Utah More Documents & Publications Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier

  11. Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Hydrogen permeability and ... Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project Review Meeting held ...

  12. Two-fluid Hydrodynamic Model for Fluid-Flow Simulation in Fluid-Solids Systems

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-06-20

    FLUFIX is a two-dimensional , transient, Eulerian, and finite-difference program, based on a two-fluid hydrodynamic model, for fluid flow simulation in fluid-solids systems. The software is written in a modular form using the Implicit Multi-Field (IMF) numerical technique. Quantities computed are the spatial distribution of solids loading, gas and solids velocities, pressure, and temperatures. Predicted are bubble formation, bed frequencies, and solids recirculation. Applications include bubbling and circulating atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed reactors, combustors,more » gasifiers, and FCC (Fluid Catalytic Cracker) reactors.« less

  13. Isotope Permeability Through Materials S. A. Steward

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    4,: By knowing the steady-state flow rate, the area and thickness of the sample, and the hydro- gen pressure difference across the sample, the permeability 4, may be calculated. A...

  14. Isotope Permeability Through Materials S. A. Steward

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... Several gold- permeability through beryllium. copper brazing alloys were also e x a m i n ... (1976) Begeal (1978) Outside of the high-gold-content alloys, the preexponentials were ...

  15. Amino resin modified xanthan polymer gels for permeability profile control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, P.

    1988-01-05

    A process for closing pores in a hydrocarbonaceous fluid bearing formation to obtain improved sweep efficiency during a water flood oil recovery operation wherein the process comprises injecting into the formation a gellable composition is described comprising: (a) water; (b) about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt. percent of a cross linkable polysaccharide biopolymer having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; (c) about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt. percent of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the biopolymer; and (d) sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to close one or more permeable zones in the formation under substantially all pH conditions.

  16. Detection of contamination of municipal water distribution systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.

    2012-01-17

    A system for the detection of contaminates of a fluid in a conduit. The conduit is part of a fluid distribution system. A chemical or biological sensor array is connected to the conduit. The sensor array produces an acoustic signal burst in the fluid upon detection of contaminates in the fluid. A supervisory control system connected to the fluid and operatively connected to the fluid distribution system signals the fluid distribution system upon detection of contaminates in the fluid.

  17. Permeability and porosity of hydrate-bearing sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Daigle, Hugh; Cook, Ann; Malinverno, Alberto

    2015-10-14

    Hydrate-bearing sands are being actively explored because they contain the highest concentrations of hydrate and are the most economically recoverable hydrate resource. However, relatively little is known about the mechanisms or timescales of hydrate formation, which are related to methane supply, fluid flux, and host sediment properties such as permeability. We used logging-while-drilling data from locations in the northern Gulf of Mexico to develop an effective medium theory-based model for predicting permeability based on clay-sized sediment fraction. The model considers permeability varying between sand and clay endpoint permeabilities that are defined from laboratory data. We verified the model using permeabilitymore » measurements on core samples from three boreholes, and then used the model to predict permeability in two wells drilled in Walker Ridge Block 313 during the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II expedition in 2009. We found that the cleanest sands (clay-sized fraction <0.05) had intrinsic (hydrate-free) permeability contrasts of 5-6 orders of magnitude with the surrounding clays, which is sufficient to provide focused hydrate formation due to advection of methane from a deep source or diffusion of microbial methane from nearby clay layers. In sands where the clay-sized fraction exceeds 0.05, the permeability reduces significantly and focused flow is less pronounced. In these cases, diffusion of dissolved microbial methane is most likely the preferred mode of methane supply for hydrate formation. In conclusion, our results provide important constraints on methane supply mechanisms in the Walker Ridge area and have global implications for evaluating rates of methane migration and hydrate formation in hydrate-bearing sands.« less

  18. Stress-dependent permeability of fractured rock masses: A numerical study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Min, Ki-Bok; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, Chin-Fu; Jing, Lanru

    2004-04-30

    We investigate the stress-dependent permeability issue in fractured rock masses considering the effects of nonlinear normal deformation and shear dilation of fractures using a two-dimensional distinct element method program, UDEC, based on a realistic discrete fracture network realization. A series of ''numerical'' experiments were conducted to calculate changes in the permeability of simulated fractured rock masses under various loading conditions. Numerical experiments were conducted in two ways: (1) increasing the overall stresses with a fixed ratio of horizontal to vertical stresses components; and (2) increasing the differential stresses (i.e., the difference between the horizontal and vertical stresses) while keeping the magnitude of vertical stress constant. These numerical experiments show that the permeability of fractured rocks decreases with increased stress magnitudes when the stress ratio is not large enough to cause shear dilation of fractures, whereas permeability increases with increased stress when the stress ratio is large enough. Permeability changes at low stress levels are more sensitive than at high stress levels due to the nonlinear fracture normal stress-displacement relation. Significant stress-induced channeling is observed as the shear dilation causes the concentration of fluid flow along connected shear fractures. Anisotropy of permeability emerges with the increase of differential stresses, and this anisotropy can become more prominent with the influence of shear dilation and localized flow paths. A set of empirical equations in closed-form, accounting for both normal closure and shear dilation of the fractures, is proposed to model the stress-dependent permeability. These equations prove to be in good agreement with the results obtained from our numerical experiments.

  19. Effect of Temperature and Solution Composition on the Permeability of St. Peters Sandstone: Role of Iron (III)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Potter, J.M.; Nur, A.; Dibble, W.E. Jr.

    1980-12-16

    The purpose of this study was to systematically investigate effects of temperature and fluid composition on the permeability of quartz sandstones. We have concentrated our initial efforts on the time and flow dependence at 2 elevated temperatures (100°C, 200°C).

  20. Fluid extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  1. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.

    1996-01-01

    This three-year project had two technical objectives. The first objective was to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion (water shutoff) with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes were compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, particulates, and microorganisms. The ultimate goals of these comparisons were to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments were performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. The second objective of the project was to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. A capacity to reduce water permeability much more than oil or gas permeability is critical to the success of gel treatments in production wells if zones cannot be isolated during gel placement. Topics covered in this report include (1) determination of gel properties in fractures, (2) investigation of schemes to optimize gel placement in fractured systems, (3) an investigation of why some polymers and gels can reduce water permeability more than oil permeability, (4) consideration of whether microorganisms and particulates can exhibit placement properties that are superior to those of gels, and (5) examination of when foams may show placement properties that are superior to those of gels.

  2. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore K.

    2003-02-10

    The objective of this project was to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions which are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. NMR well logging is finding wide use in formation evaluation. The formation parameters commonly estimated were porosity, permeability, and capillary bound water. Special cases include estimation of oil viscosity, residual oil saturation, location of oil/water contact, and interpretation on whether the hydrocarbon is oil or gas.

  3. Modeling Fluid Flow in Natural Systems, Model Validation and Demonstration

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    | Department of Energy Modeling Fluid Flow in Natural Systems, Model Validation and Demonstration Modeling Fluid Flow in Natural Systems, Model Validation and Demonstration Clay and granitic units are potential host media for future repositories for used nuclear fuel. The report addresses the representation and characterization of flow in these two media within numerical process models. In low permeability crystalline rock, flow is primarily in relatively sparse networks of fractures.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2003-07-10

    A 3-D elastic wave propagation finite difference model, including effects of attenuation, has been implemented and compared with other existing modeling codes for validation. Models of seismic scattering from discrete large-scale fractures as well as equivalent anisotropic medium representations of small-scale fractures have been generated and used to develop data analysis methods for applications to seismic field data. An inversion scheme has been developed to estimate fracture orientation and fracture density from amplitude variations with offset and azimuth (AVOA). The method has been tested on synthetic data and field data from an offshore fractured carbonate reservoir with promising results. Spectral characteristics of the numerical model data of the seismic wavefield scattered from aligned fractures with different spacing between fracture zones have been analyzed. Results indicate that the spacing of these large, open fracture zones can be estimated from the wavenumber spectra of the scattered wave amplitude as a function of offset in pre-stack data. Two approaches for converting seismically derived fracture parameters into fluid-flow parameters for use in reservoir simulators have been identified. The first is the numerical modeling of Stoke's flow in fracture networks, and the second uses a statistical model of a fracture distribution that allows for the calculation of the elastic properties and permeability tensor of the resulting equivalent medium. These approaches will be compared in the coming year. Multiple meetings have been held with our industry partner, Shell Oil, to identify a field test site for the project. We are focusing our efforts on a fractured carbonate field. The field application test site selection and data transfer will be completed in the coming year.

  5. Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  6. Influence of compaction on the interfacial transition zone and the permeability of concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leemann, Andreas . E-mail: andreas.leemann@empa.ch; Muench, Beat; Gasser, Philippe; Holzer, Lorenz

    2006-08-15

    The interfacial transition zone (ITZ) is regarded as a key feature for the transport properties and the durability of concrete. In this study one self-compacting concrete (SCC) mixture and two conventionally vibrated concrete (CVC) mixtures are studied in order to determine the influence of compaction on the porosity of the ITZ. Additionally oxygen permeability and water conductivity were measured in vertical and horizontal direction. The quantitative analysis of images made with an optical microscope and an environmental scanning electron microscope shows a significantly increased porosity and width of the ITZ in CVC compared to SCC. At the same time oxygen permeability and water conductivity of CVC are increased in comparison to SCC. Moreover, considerable differences in the porosity of the lower, lateral and upper ITZ are observed in both types of concrete. The anisotropic distribution of pores in the ITZ does not necessarily cause anisotropy in oxygen permeability and water conductivity though.

  7. Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reactive Barrier | Department of Energy Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier PDF icon Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier More Documents & Publications Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello

  8. Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    November 2005 Update | Department of Energy Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update PDF icon Hydraulic Conductivity of the Monticello Permeable Reactive Barrier November 2005 Update More Documents & Publications Variation in Hydraulic Conductivity Over Time at the

  9. Fluid-solid contact vessel having fluid distributors therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., John B. (Rifle, CO)

    1980-09-09

    Rectangularly-shaped fluid distributors for large diameter, vertical vessels include reinforcers for high heat operation, vertical sides with gas distributing orifices and overhanging, sloped roofs. Devices are provided for cleaning the orifices from a buildup of solid deposits resulting from the reactions in the vessel.

  10. Endothelial cell permeability to water and antipyrine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrick, R.A.

    1986-03-05

    The endothelium provides a structural barrier between plasma constituents and the tissues. The permeability characteristics of the the endothelial cells regulate the transcellular movement of materials across this barrier while other movement is paracellular. In this study the permeability of the endothelial cells to tritiated water (/sup 3/HHO) and /sup 14/C-labeled antipyrine (AP) was investigated. The cells were isolated non-enzymatically from calf pulmonary artery and were maintained in culture and used between the seventh and fifteenth passage. The cells were removed from the T-flasks with a rubber policeman, titurated with a 22g needle and centrifuged. The cells were mixed with an extracellular marker, drawn into polyethylene tubing and packed by centrifugation for use in the linear diffusion technique. All measurements were made at 37 C. The diffusion coefficients for /sup 3/HHO through the packed cells (D), the intracellular material (D/sub 2/), and the extracellular material (D/sub 1/) were 0.682, 0.932 and 2.45 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ and for AP were 0.273, 0.355 and 1.13 x 10/sup -5/ cm/sup 2/ s/sup -1/ respectively. The permeability coefficient calculated by the series-parallel pathway model for /sup 3/HHO was higher than that for AP and for both /sup 3/HHO and AP were lower than those calculated for isolated lung cells and erythrocytes.

  11. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Las Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    2000-01-01

    A fluid-sampling tool for obtaining a fluid sample from a container. When used in combination with a rotatable drill, the tool bores a hole into a container wall, withdraws a fluid sample from the container, and seals the borehole. The tool collects fluid sample without exposing the operator or the environment to the fluid or to wall shavings from the container.

  12. Determination of Transport Properties From Flowing Fluid Temperature LoggingIn Unsaturated Fractured Rocks: Theory And Semi-Analytical Solution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sumit; Tsang, Yvonne W.

    2008-08-01

    Flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) has been recently proposed as a method to locate flowing fractures. We argue that FFTL, backed up by data from high-precision distributed temperature sensors, can be a useful tool in locating flowing fractures and in estimating the transport properties of unsaturated fractured rocks. We have developed the theoretical background needed to analyze data from FFTL. In this paper, we present a simplified conceptualization of FFTL in unsaturated fractured rock, and develop a semianalytical solution for spatial and temporal variations of pressure and temperature inside a borehole in response to an applied perturbation (pumping of air from the borehole). We compare the semi-analytical solution with predictions from the TOUGH2 numerical simulator. Based on the semi-analytical solution, we propose a method to estimate the permeability of the fracture continuum surrounding the borehole. Using this proposed method, we estimated the effective fracture continuum permeability of the unsaturated rock hosting the Drift Scale Test (DST) at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Our estimate compares well with previous independent estimates for fracture permeability of the DST host rock. The conceptual model of FFTL presented in this paper is based on the assumptions of single-phase flow, convection-only heat transfer, and negligible change in system state of the rock formation. In a sequel paper [Mukhopadhyay et al., 2008], we extend the conceptual model to evaluate some of these assumptions. We also perform inverse modeling of FFTL data to estimate, in addition to permeability, other transport parameters (such as porosity and thermal conductivity) of unsaturated fractured rocks.

  13. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dilley, Lorie

    2013-01-01

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  14. Fluid Inclusion Gas Analysis

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Dilley, Lorie

    Fluid inclusion gas analysis for wells in various geothermal areas. Analyses used in developing fluid inclusion stratigraphy for wells and defining fluids across the geothermal fields. Each sample has mass spectrum counts for 180 chemical species.

  15. Gelled polymer systems for permeability modification in petroleum reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Willhite, G.P.; Green, D.W.; Thiele, J.L.; McCool, C.S.; Mertes, K.B.

    1991-09-01

    The research program described in this report was conducted to improve the performance and predictability of in situ gelation processes designed to increase volumetric sweep efficiency of fluid displacement processes. A principal objective of this research was to develop procedures for design and evaluation of permeability modification processes. Research was conducted in three broad areas: (1) Physical and Chemical Characterization of Gelling Systems (2) In situ Gelation and (3) Mathematical Modeling of In Site Gelation. Gelling systems used chromium as the crosslinking agent. Polyacrylamide and polysaccharides gelling systems were studied. Research was conducted on the chemical structure of polymer/metal ion complexes, kinetics of the reduction of Cr(6) to Cr(3) by thiourea, kinetics of oligomerization and uptake of chromium by polyacrylamide and rheology of chromium/polysaccharide gelling systems. Studies of polymer/metal ion complexes were conducted using solutions of pure monomer, dimer and trimer forms of chromium. A mathematical model was developed to examine the kinetics of Cr(3) oligomerization and uptake of chromium by polyacrylamide. Rheological studies were completed on chromium/polysaccharide gels. In situ gelation experiments were conducted using a bis-ethylenediamine chromium complex and chromium(3) polyacrylamide gelling systems in sandpacks. A numerical model of in situ gelation of chromium/polyacrylamide systems was developed for linear displacement in a sandpack. The numerical model is based on filtration mechanisms and is consistent with experimental data and models developed in this research program. 103 figs., 21 tabs.

  16. Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

  17. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, Frank A. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Townsend, Carl W. (Los Angeles, CA)

    1989-01-01

    An electrode apparatus adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments.

  18. Gas permeability measurements for film envelope materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludtka, G.M.; Kollie, T.G.; Watkin, D.C.; Walton, D.G.

    1998-05-12

    Method and apparatus for measuring the permeability of polymer film materials such as used in super-insulation powder-filled evacuated panels (PEPs) reduce the time required for testing from several years to weeks or months. The method involves substitution of a solid non-outgassing body having a free volume of between 0% and 25% of its total volume for the usual powder in the PEP to control the free volume of the ``body-filled panel.`` Pressure versus time data for the test piece permit extrapolation to obtain long term performance of the candidate materials. 4 figs.

  19. Gas permeability measurements for film envelope materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludtka, Gerard M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kollie, Thomas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Watkin, David C. (Clinton, TN); Walton, David G. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01

    Method and apparatus for measuring the permeability of polymer film materials such as used in super-insulation powder-filled evacuated panels (PEPs) reduce the time required for testing from several years to weeks or months. The method involves substitution of a solid non-outgassing body having a free volume of between 0% and 25% of its total volume for the usual powder in the PEP to control the free volume of the "body-filled panel". Pressure versus time data for the test piece permit extrapolation to obtain long term performance of the candidate materials.

  20. DE-SC0004118 (Wong & Lindquist). Final Report: Changes of Porosity, Permeability and Mechanical Strength Induced by Carbon Dioxide Sequestration.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WONG, TENG-FONG; Lindquist, Brent

    2014-09-22

    In the context of CO{sub 2} sequestration, the overall objective of this project is to conduct a systematic investigation of how the flow of the acidic, CO{sub 2} saturated, single phase component of the injected/sequestered fluid changes the microstructure, permeability and strength of sedimentary rocks, specifically limestone and sandstone samples. Hydromechanical experiments, microstructural observations and theoretical modeling on multiple scales were conducted.

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF IN-SITU STRESS AND PERMEABILITY IN FRACTURED RESERVOIRS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2004-07-19

    Expanded details and additional results are presented on two methods for estimating fracture orientation and density in subsurface reservoirs from scattered seismic wavefield signals. In the first, fracture density is estimated from the wavenumber spectra of the integrated amplitudes of the scattered waves as a function of offset in pre-stack data. Spectral peaks correctly identified the 50m, 35m, and 25m fracture spacings from numerical model data using a 40Hz source wavelet. The second method, referred to as the Transfer Function-Scattering Index Method, is based upon observations from 3D finite difference modeling that regularly spaced, discrete vertical fractures impart a ringing coda-type signature to any seismic energy that is transmitted through or reflected off of them. This coda energy is greatest when the acquisition direction is parallel to the fractures, the seismic wavelengths are tuned to the fracture spacing, and when the fractures have low stiffness. The method uses surface seismic reflection traces to derive a transfer function, which quantifies the change in an apparent source wavelet propagating through a fractured interval. The transfer function for an interval with low scattering will be more spike-like and temporally compact. The transfer function for an interval with high scattering will ring and be less temporally compact. A Scattering Index is developed based on a time lag weighting of the transfer function. When a 3D survey is acquired with a full range of azimuths, the Scattering Index allows the identification of subsurface areas with high fracturing and the orientation (or strike) of those fractures. The method was calibrated with model data and then applied to field data from a fractured reservoir giving results that agree with known field measurements. As an aid to understanding the scattered wavefield seen in finite difference models, a series of simple point scatterers was used to create synthetic seismic shot records collected over regular, discrete, vertical fracture systems. The model contains a series of point scatterers delineating the top tip and bottom tip of each vertical fracture. When the shot record is located in the middle of the fractured zone and oriented normal to the direction of fracturing, a complicated series of beating is observed in the back scattered energy. When the shot record is oriented parallel to the fracturing, ringing wavetrains are observed with moveouts similar to reflections from many horizontal layers. These results are consistent with the full 3D elastic modeling results. An AVOA analysis method was refined and applied to a field data set. An iterative, nonlinear least squares inversion that uses the Gauss-Newton method and analyzes the full range of azimuths simultaneously was employed. Resulting fracture location and strike orientation estimates are consistent with other fracture information from the area. Two modeling approaches for estimating permeability values from seismically derived fracture parameters have been investigated. The first is a statistical method that calculates the permeability tensor for a given distribution of fractures. A possible workflow using this method was tested on fracture distributions obtained from the Transfer Function-Scattering Index analysis method. Fracture aperture and length estimates are needed for this method. The second method is a direct flow model of discrete fractures and fracture networks using a computational fluid dynamics code. This tool provides a means of visualizing flow in fracture networks and comparing expressions for equivalent fracture aperture flow to the actual flow. A series of two dimensional models of fractures and fracture networks, as well as a 3-D model of a single rough fracture, were tested.

  2. Evaluation of two-phase relative permeability and capillary pressure relations for unstable displacements in a pore network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehoff, Karl J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Changyong; Grate, Jay W.

    2012-10-29

    A series of displacement experiments was conducted using five wetting-nonwetting immiscible fluid pairs in a homogenous and uniform pore network. The micromodel was initially saturated with either polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG) or water as a wetting fluid, which was subsequently displaced by a nonwetting fluid (dodecane, hexadecane, or mineral oil) at different flow rates. The experiments were designed to allow determinations of nonwetting fluid relative permeabilities ( ), fluid saturations ( ), and capillary pressure heads ( ). In the displacements, nonwetting fluid saturations increased with increasing flow rates for all five fluid pairs, and viscous fingering, capillary fingering, and stable displacement were observed. Viscous fingering occurred when PEG was displaced by either dodecane or hexadecane. For the water displacements, capillary fingers were observed at low capillary numbers. Due to unstable fingering phenomena, values for the PEG displacements were smaller than for the water displacements. A fitting exercise using the Brooks-Corey (1964) relationship showed that the fitted entry pressure heads are reasonably close to the computed entry pressure head. The fitted pore geometry factor, ?? values for the displacements are considerably lower than what is expected for displacements in homogeneous, highly uniform, porous systems, demonstrating the impact of unstable displacement on the apparent value of ?. It was shown that a continuum-based multiphase model could be used to predict the average behavior for wetting fluid drainage in a pore network as long as independently fitted - and - relations are used. The use of a coupled approach through the Brooks-Corey pore geometry factor underpredicts observed values.

  3. Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Hydrogen permeability and Integrity of hydrogen transfer pipelines Presentation by 03-Babu for the DOE Hydrogen Pipeline R&D Project Review Meeting held January 5th and 6th, 2005 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. PDF icon 03_babu_transfer.pdf More Documents & Publications Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Proceedings of the 2005 Hydrogen Pipeline

  4. Assessing the relative permeability of heterogeneous reservoir rock

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Assessing the relative permeability of heterogeneous reservoir rock Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Assessing the relative permeability of heterogeneous reservoir rock Reservoir engineers are often faced with heterogeneous core material, for which conventional methods of estimating relative permeability are susceptible to error and may lead to incorrect conclusions regarding displacement efficiency, wettability and reservoir performance.

  5. Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill | Department of Energy Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation's Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter

  6. Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing | Department of Energy Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing Final Report Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing PDF icon Final Report Phase II:

  7. Fluid transport container

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeRoos, Bradley G. (41 James St., Sequim, WA 98382); Downing, Jr., John P. (260 Kala Heights Dr., Port Townsand, WA 98368); Neal, Michael P. (921 Amberly Pl., Columbus, OH 43220)

    1995-01-01

    An improved fluid container for the transport, collection, and dispensing of a sample fluid that maintains the fluid integrity relative to the conditions of the location at which it is taken. More specifically, the invention is a fluid sample transport container that utilizes a fitment for both penetrating and sealing a storage container under controlled conditions. Additionally, the invention allows for the periodic withdrawal of portions of the sample fluid without contamination or intermixing from the environment surrounding the sample container.

  8. Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scour-tracc-cfd TRACC RESEARCH Computational Fluid Dynamics Computational Structural Mechanics Transportation Systems Modeling Computational Fluid Dynamics Overview of CFD: Video Clip with Audio Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research uses mathematical and computational models of flowing fluids to describe and predict fluid response in problems of interest, such as the flow of air around a moving vehicle or the flow of water and sediment in a river. Coupled with appropriate and prototypical

  9. Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical-mechanical couplings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Fractured...

  10. Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs A Laboratory Study ... PDF icon kneafseyfracturesustainabilitypeer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications The ...

  11. TEST DEVICE FOR MEASURING PERMEABILITY OF A BARRIER MATERIAL...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Partners (27) Visual Patent Search Success Stories Return to Search TEST DEVICE FOR ... Transfer Website Abstract: A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. ...

  12. Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Irrigating with Treated Oil and Gas Product Water on Crop Biomass and Soil Permeability FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Prepared By Terry Brown, Jeffrey Morris, Patrick Richards and Joel...

  13. Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydrogen Permeability and Integrity of Hydrogen Delivery Pipelines Project Objectives: To gain basic understanding of hydrogen permeation behavior and its impact on hydrogen ...

  14. Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Reservoir-Scale Fracture Permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper:...

  15. Evaluation of methods for measuring relative permeability of...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dept.; Howarth, S.M. Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States) 05 NUCLEAR FUELS; WIPP; RESERVOIR ROCK; ANHYDRITE; PERMEABILITY; MEASURING METHODS; SITE...

  16. Gas permeable electrode for electrochemical system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ludwig, F.A.; Townsend, C.W.

    1989-09-12

    An electrode apparatus is described which is adapted for use in electrochemical systems having an anode compartment and a cathode compartment in which gas and ions are produced and consumed in the compartments during generation of electrical current. The electrode apparatus includes a membrane for separating the anode compartment from the cathode compartment wherein the membrane is permeable to both ions and gas. The cathode and anode for the assembly are provided on opposite sides of the membrane. During use of the membrane-electrode apparatus in electrochemical cells, the gas and ions generated at the cathode or anode migrate through the membrane to provide efficient transfer of gas and ions between the anode and cathode compartments. 3 figs.

  17. Fracture Propagation, Fluid Flow, and Geomechanics of Water-Based Hydraulic Fracturing in Shale Gas Systems and Electromagnetic Geophysical Monitoring of Fluid Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihoon; Um, Evan; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    We investigate fracture propagation induced by hydraulic fracturing with water injection, using numerical simulation. For rigorous, full 3D modeling, we employ a numerical method that can model failure resulting from tensile and shear stresses, dynamic nonlinear permeability, leak-off in all directions, and thermo-poro-mechanical effects with the double porosity approach. Our numerical results indicate that fracture propagation is not the same as propagation of the water front, because fracturing is governed by geomechanics, whereas water saturation is determined by fluid flow. At early times, the water saturation front is almost identical to the fracture tip, suggesting that the fracture is mostly filled with injected water. However, at late times, advance of the water front is retarded compared to fracture propagation, yielding a significant gap between the water front and the fracture top, which is filled with reservoir gas. We also find considerable leak-off of water to the reservoir. The inconsistency between the fracture volume and the volume of injected water cannot properly calculate the fracture length, when it is estimated based on the simple assumption that the fracture is fully saturated with injected water. As an example of flow-geomechanical responses, we identify pressure fluctuation under constant water injection, because hydraulic fracturing is itself a set of many failure processes, in which pressure consistently drops when failure occurs, but fluctuation decreases as the fracture length grows. We also study application of electromagnetic (EM) geophysical methods, because these methods are highly sensitive to changes in porosity and pore-fluid properties due to water injection into gas reservoirs. Employing a 3D finite-element EM geophysical simulator, we evaluate the sensitivity of the crosswell EM method for monitoring fluid movements in shaly reservoirs. For this sensitivity evaluation, reservoir models are generated through the coupled flow-geomechanical simulator and are transformed via a rock-physics model into electrical conductivity models. It is shown that anomalous conductivity distribution in the resulting models is closely related to injected water saturation, but not closely related to newly created unsaturated fractures. Our numerical modeling experiments demonstrate that the crosswell EM method can be highly sensitive to conductivity changes that directly indicate the migration pathways of the injected fluid. Accordingly, the EM method can serve as an effective monitoring tool for distribution of injected fluids (i.e., migration pathways) during hydraulic fracturing operations

  18. Used to Calibrate Thermistors on In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-12-01

    The software package is comprised of three programs which together are used to calibrate thermistors in an In Situ Permable Flow Sensor. TBATH controls a temperature controlled bath/circulator. The code monitors the temperature of a set of previously calibrated thermistors located in a tank through which the fluid from the bath is circulated. After the temperature has reached and maintained thermal equilibrium for a specified period of time, the bath/circulator is instructed by the programmore » to change the temperature set point to the next specified temperature. An arbitrary number of temperature calibration points can be specified allowing thermistors to be calibrated on a continuous basis without human intervention. CALIB is used to merge two data files that are collected during a temperature calibration run. During calibration of the thermistors on an In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor, the known temperatures in the temperaure controlled tank are recorded in one computer file in one format while the electrical resistance of the thermistors being calibrated is collected in a different file with a different format. This software reads in the two files and writes out a third file with all of the data in it that is required to calculate the calibration coefficients of the thermistors on the probe. POLYFIT is used to calculate the calibration coefficients which permit the temperature of a thermistor to ba calculated from its electrical resistance. During calibration of a thermistor, the electrical resistance of the thermistor is measured at four or more known temperatures and the data sent to this software. The program calculates the coefficients of a fourth order polynomial relating the inverse of the absolute temperature to the natural log of the electrical resistance. Once these coefficients are known, the polynomial can be evaluated with any measured electrical resistance to calculate the equivalent temperature.« less

  19. Experiments and modeling of variably permeable carbonate reservoir samples in contact with CO₂-acidified brines

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Smith, Megan M.; Hao, Yue; Mason, Harris E.; Carroll, Susan A.

    2014-12-31

    Reactive experiments were performed to expose sample cores from the Arbuckle carbonate reservoir to CO₂-acidified brine under reservoir temperature and pressure conditions. The samples consisted of dolomite with varying quantities of calcite and silica/chert. The timescales of monitored pressure decline across each sample in response to CO₂ exposure, as well as the amount of and nature of dissolution features, varied widely among these three experiments. For all samples cores, the experimentally measured initial permeability was at least one order of magnitude or more lower than the values estimated from downhole methods. Nondestructive X-ray computed tomography (XRCT) imaging revealed dissolution featuresmore » including “wormholes,” removal of fracture-filling crystals, and widening of pre-existing pore spaces. In the injection zone sample, multiple fractures may have contributed to the high initial permeability of this core and restricted the distribution of CO₂-induced mineral dissolution. In contrast, the pre-existing porosity of the baffle zone sample was much lower and less connected, leading to a lower initial permeability and contributing to the development of a single dissolution channel. While calcite may make up only a small percentage of the overall sample composition, its location and the effects of its dissolution have an outsized effect on permeability responses to CO₂ exposure. The XRCT data presented here are informative for building the model domain for numerical simulations of these experiments but require calibration by higher resolution means to confidently evaluate different porosity-permeability relationships.« less

  20. System for concentrating and analyzing particles suspended in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiechtner, Gregory J. (Bethesda, MD); Cummings, Eric B. (Livermore, CA); Singh, Anup K. (Danville, CA)

    2011-04-26

    Disclosed is a device for separating and concentrating particles suspended in a fluid stream by using dielectrophoresis (DEP) to trap and/or deflect those particles as they migrate through a fluid channel. The method uses fluid channels designed to constrain a liquid flowing through it to uniform electrokinetic flow velocities. This behavior is achieved by connecting deep and shallow sections of channels, with the channel depth varying abruptly along an interface. By careful design of abrupt changes in specific permeability at the interface, an abrupt and spatially uniform change in electrokinetic force can be selected. Because these abrupt interfaces also cause a sharp gradient in applied electric fields, a DEP force also can be established along the interface. Depending on the complex conductivity of the suspended particles and the immersion liquid, the DEP force can controllably complement or oppose the local electrokinetic force transporting the fluid through the channel allowing for manipulation of particles suspended in the transporting liquid.

  1. Hydrogen-permeable composite metal membrane and uses thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edlund, D.J.; Friesen, D.T.

    1993-06-08

    Various hydrogen production and hydrogen sulfide decomposition processes are disclosed that utilize composite metal membranes that contain an intermetallic diffusion barrier separating a hydrogen-permeable base metal and a hydrogen-permeable coating metal. The barrier is a thermally stable inorganic proton conductor.

  2. GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE:...

  3. Electric fluid pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Dam, Jeremy Daniel; Turnquist, Norman Arnold; Raminosoa, Tsarafidy; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Shen, Xiaochun

    2015-09-29

    An electric machine is presented. The electric machine includes a hollow rotor; and a stator disposed within the hollow rotor, the stator defining a flow channel. The hollow rotor includes a first end portion defining a fluid inlet, a second end portion defining a fluid outlet; the fluid inlet, the fluid outlet, and the flow channel of the stator being configured to allow passage of a fluid from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet via the flow channel; and wherein the hollow rotor is characterized by a largest cross-sectional area of hollow rotor, and wherein the flow channel is characterized by a smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel, wherein the smallest cross-sectional area of the flow channel is at least about 25% of the largest cross-sectional area of the hollow rotor. An electric fluid pump and a power generation system are also presented.

  4. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Garcia, Anthony R. E. (Espanola, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    2001-09-25

    The invention includes a rotatable tool for collecting fluid through the wall of a container. The tool includes a fluid collection section with a cylindrical shank having an end portion for drilling a hole in the container wall when the tool is rotated, and a threaded portion for tapping the hole in the container wall. A passageway in the shank in communication with at least one radial inlet hole in the drilling end and an opening at the end of the shank is adapted to receive fluid from the container. The tool also includes a cylindrical chamber affixed to the end of the shank opposite to the drilling portion thereof for receiving and storing fluid passing through the passageway. The tool also includes a flexible, deformable gasket that provides a fluid-tight chamber to confine kerf generated during the drilling and tapping of the hole. The invention also includes a fluid extractor section for extracting fluid samples from the fluid collecting section.

  5. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F. (Orland Park, IL)

    1993-01-01

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  6. Environmentally safe fluid extractor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sungaila, Zenon F.

    1993-07-06

    An environmentally safe fluid extraction device for use in mobile laboratory and industrial settings comprising a pump, compressor, valving system, waste recovery tank, fluid tank, and a exhaust filtering system.

  7. Coupled Fluid Energy Solute Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-13

    CFEST is a Coupled Fluid, Energy, and Solute Transport code for the study of a multilayered, nonisothermal ground-water system. It can model discontinuous as well as continuous layers, time-dependent and constant source/sinks, and transient as well as steady-state flow. The finite element method is used for analyzing isothermal and nonisothermal events in a confined aquifer system. Only single-phase Darcian flow is considered. In the Cartesian coordinate system, flow in a horizontal plane, in a verticalmore » plane, or in a fully three-dimensional region can be simulated. An option also exists for the axisymmetric analysis of a vertical cross section. The code employs bilinear quadrilateral elements in all two dimensional analyses and trilinear quadrilateral solid elements in three dimensional simulations. The CFEST finite element formulation can approximate discontinuities, major breaks in slope or thickness, and fault zones in individual hydrogeologic units. The code accounts for heterogeneity in aquifer permeability and porosity and accommodates anisotropy (collinear with the Cartesian coordinates). The variation in the hydraulic properties is described on a layer-by-layer basis for the different hydrogeologic units. Initial conditions can be prescribed hydraulic head or pressure, temperature, or concentration. CFEST can be used to support site, repository, and waste package subsystem assessments. Some specific applications are regional hydrologic characterization; simulation of coupled transport of fluid, heat, and salinity in the repository region; consequence assessment due to natural disruption or human intrusion scenarios in the repository region; flow paths and travel-time estimates for transport of radionuclides; and interpretation of well and tracer tests.« less

  8. Gas Flow Tightly Coupled to Elastoplastic Geomechanics for Tight- and Shale-Gas Reservoirs: Material Failure and Enhanced Permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Jihoon; Moridis, George

    2014-12-01

    We investigate coupled flow and geomechanics in gas production from extremely low permeability reservoirs such as tight and shale gas reservoirs, using dynamic porosity and permeability during numerical simulation. In particular, we take the intrinsic permeability as a step function of the status of material failure, and the permeability is updated every time step. We consider gas reservoirs with the vertical and horizontal primary fractures, employing the single and dynamic double porosity (dual continuum) models. We modify the multiple porosity constitutive relations for modeling the double porous continua for flow and geomechanics. The numerical results indicate that production of gas causes redistribution of the effective stress fields, increasing the effective shear stress and resulting in plasticity. Shear failure occurs not only near the fracture tips but also away from the primary fractures, which indicates generation of secondary fractures. These secondary fractures increase the permeability significantly, and change the flow pattern, which in turn causes a change in distribution of geomechanical variables. From various numerical tests, we find that shear failure is enhanced by a large pressure drop at the production well, high Biot's coefficient, low frictional and dilation angles. Smaller spacing between the horizontal wells also contributes to faster secondary fracturing. When the dynamic double porosity model is used, we observe a faster evolution of the enhanced permeability areas than that obtained from the single porosity model, mainly due to a higher permeability of the fractures in the double porosity model. These complicated physics for stress sensitive reservoirs cannot properly be captured by the uncoupled or flow-only simulation, and thus tightly coupled flow and geomechanical models are highly recommended to accurately describe the reservoir behavior during gas production in tight and shale gas reservoirs and to smartly design production scenarios.

  9. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Overview (Summary Slides) Scientific Objectives: The unique properties of the FSI emerge from a complex interplay of short- and long-range forces and reactions among the molecular fluid components, solutes and substrates. Potential gradients (chemical, electrical, etc.) can be highly non-linear at the angstrom to nanometer scale. The finite size, shape, directional bonding, charge distribution and polarizability of solvent and solute fluid components are convoluted with their ability to

  10. Computational fluid dynamics improves liner cementing operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, N.A.; Archer, G.L. ); Seymour, D.A. )

    1994-09-26

    The use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD), an analytical tool for studying fluid mechanics, helped plan the successful cementing of a critical liner in a North Sea extended reach well. The results from CFD analysis increased the confidence in the primary cementing of the liner. CFD modeling was used to quantify the effects of increasing the displacement rate and of rotating the liner on the mud flow distribution in the annulus around the liner.

  11. IMPACT OF CAPILLARY AND BOND NUMBERS ON RELATIVE PERMEABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2002-09-30

    Recovery and recovery rate of oil, gas and condensates depend crucially on their relative permeability. Relative permeability in turn depends on the pore structure, wettability and flooding conditions, which can be represented by a set of dimensionless groups including capillary and bond numbers. The effect of flooding conditions on drainage relative permeabilities is not well understood and is the overall goal of this project. This project has three specific objectives: to improve the centrifuge relative permeability method, to measure capillary and bond number effects experimentally, and to develop a pore network model for multiphase flows. A centrifuge has been built that can accommodate high pressure core holders and x-ray saturation monitoring. The centrifuge core holders can operate at a pore pressure of 6.9 MPa (1000 psi) and an overburden pressure of 17 MPa (2500 psi). The effect of capillary number on residual saturation and relative permeability in drainage flow has been measured. A pore network model has been developed to study the effect of capillary numbers and viscosity ratio on drainage relative permeability. Capillary and Reynolds number dependence of gas-condensate flow has been studied during well testing. A method has been developed to estimate relative permeability parameters from gas-condensate well test data.

  12. Methods for fluid separations, and devices capable of separating fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Stenkamp, Victoria S [Richland, WA

    2006-05-30

    Wick-Containing apparatus capable of separating fluids and methods of separating fluids using wicks are disclosed.

  13. Methods for fluid separations, and devices capable of separating fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Stenkamp, Victoria S. (Richland, WA)

    2007-09-25

    Wick-Containing apparatus capable of separating fluids and methods of separating fluids using wicks are disclosed.

  14. Spinning fluids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Jan D; Hupka, Jan; Aranowski, Robert

    2012-11-20

    A spinning fluids reactor, includes a reactor body (24) having a circular cross-section and a fluid contactor screen (26) within the reactor body (24). The fluid contactor screen (26) having a plurality of apertures and a circular cross-section concentric with the reactor body (24) for a length thus forming an inner volume (28) bound by the fluid contactor screen (26) and an outer volume (30) bound by the reactor body (24) and the fluid contactor screen (26). A primary inlet (20) can be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce flow-through first spinning flow of a first fluid within the inner volume (28). A secondary inlet (22) can similarly be operatively connected to the reactor body (24) and can be configured to produce a second flow of a second fluid within the outer volume (30) which is optionally spinning.

  15. Fluid cooled electrical assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rinehart, Lawrence E.; Romero, Guillermo L.

    2007-02-06

    A heat producing, fluid cooled assembly that includes a housing made of liquid-impermeable material, which defines a fluid inlet and a fluid outlet and an opening. Also included is an electrical package having a set of semiconductor electrical devices supported on a substrate and the second major surface is a heat sink adapted to express heat generated from the electrical apparatus and wherein the second major surface defines a rim that is fit to the opening. Further, the housing is constructed so that as fluid travels from the fluid inlet to the fluid outlet it is constrained to flow past the opening thereby placing the fluid in contact with the heat sink.

  16. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Kanarska, Y 71 CLASSICAL AND QUANTUMM MECHANICS, GENERAL PHYSICS; ACCURACY; CONVERGENCE; FLUID FLOW; IMPLEMENTATION; MODIFICATIONS;...

  17. Spectral SP: A New Approach to Mapping Reservoir Flow and Permeability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reservoir Flow and Permeability Spectral SP: A New Approach to Mapping Reservoir Flow and Permeability presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. ...

  18. Hydrogen permeable protective coating for a catalytic surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ping (Irvine, CA); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golen, CO); Pitts, J. Roland (Lakewood, CO); Lee, Se-Hee (Lakewood, CO)

    2007-06-19

    A protective coating for a surface comprising a layer permeable to hydrogen, said coating being deposited on a catalyst layer; wherein the catalytic activity of the catalyst layer is preserved.

  19. Porosity, permeability, and their relationship in granite, basalt, and tuff

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report discusses the porosity, storage, and permeability of fractured (mainly crystalline) rock types proposed as host rock for nuclear waste repositories. The emphasis is on the inter-relationships of these properties, but a number of reported measurements are included as well. The porosity of rock is shown to consist of fracture porosity and matrix porosity; techniques are described for determining the total interconnected porosity through both laboratory and field measurement. Permeability coefficient, as obtained by experiments ranging from laboratory to crustal scale, is discussed. Finally, the problem of determining the relationship between porosity and permeability is discussed. There is no simple, all encompassing relationship that describes the dependence of permeability upon porosity. However, two particular cases have been successfully analyzed: flow through a single rough fracture, and flow through isotropic porous rock. These two cases are discussed in this report.

  20. Heat Transfer in Complex Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehrdad Massoudi

    2012-01-01

    Amongst the most important constitutive relations in Mechanics, when characterizing the behavior of complex materials, one can identify the stress tensor T, the heat flux vector q (related to heat conduction) and the radiant heating (related to the radiation term in the energy equation). Of course, the expression 'complex materials' is not new. In fact, at least since the publication of the paper by Rivlin & Ericksen (1955), who discussed fluids of complexity (Truesdell & Noll, 1992), to the recently published books (Deshpande et al., 2010), the term complex fluids refers in general to fluid-like materials whose response, namely the stress tensor, is 'non-linear' in some fashion. This non-linearity can manifest itself in variety of forms such as memory effects, yield stress, creep or relaxation, normal-stress differences, etc. The emphasis in this chapter, while focusing on the constitutive modeling of complex fluids, is on granular materials (such as coal) and non-linear fluids (such as coal-slurries). One of the main areas of interest in energy related processes, such as power plants, atomization, alternative fuels, etc., is the use of slurries, specifically coal-water or coal-oil slurries, as the primary fuel. Some studies indicate that the viscosity of coal-water mixtures depends not only on the volume fraction of solids, and the mean size and the size distribution of the coal, but also on the shear rate, since the slurry behaves as shear-rate dependent fluid. There are also studies which indicate that preheating the fuel results in better performance, and as a result of such heating, the viscosity changes. Constitutive modeling of these non-linear fluids, commonly referred to as non-Newtonian fluids, has received much attention. Most of the naturally occurring and synthetic fluids are non-linear fluids, for example, polymer melts, suspensions, blood, coal-water slurries, drilling fluids, mud, etc. It should be noted that sometimes these fluids show Newtonian (linear) behavior for a given range of parameters or geometries; there are many empirical or semi-empirical constitutive equations suggested for these fluids. There have also been many non-linear constitutive relations which have been derived based on the techniques of continuum mechanics. The non-linearities oftentimes appear due to higher gradient terms or time derivatives. When thermal and or chemical effects are also important, the (coupled) momentum and energy equations can give rise to a variety of interesting problems, such as instability, for example the phenomenon of double-diffusive convection in a fluid layer. In Conclusion, we have studied the flow of a compressible (density gradient type) non-linear fluid down an inclined plane, subject to radiation boundary condition. The heat transfer is also considered where a source term, similar to the Arrhenius type reaction, is included. The non-dimensional forms of the equations are solved numerically and the competing effects of conduction, dissipation, heat generation and radiation are discussed. It is observed that the velocity increases rapidly in the region near the inclined surface and is slower in the region near the free surface. Since R{sub 7} is a measure of the heat generation due to chemical reaction, when the reaction is frozen (R{sub 7}=0.0) the temperature distributions would depend only on R{sub 1}, and R{sub 2}, representing the effects of the pressure force developed in the material due to the distribution, R{sub 3} and R{sub 4} viscous dissipation, R{sub 5} the normal stress coefficient, R{sub 6} the measure of the emissivity of the particles to the thermal conductivity, etc. When the flow is not frozen (RP{sub 7} > 0) the temperature inside the flow domain is much higher than those at the inclined and free surfaces. As a result, heat is transferred away from the flow toward both the inclined surface and the free surface with a rate that increases as R{sub 7} increases. For a given temperature, an increase in {zeta} implies that the activation energy is smaller and thus, the reaction ra

  1. Modeling shear failure and permeability enhancement due to coupled

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical processes in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs (Conference) | SciTech Connect Modeling shear failure and permeability enhancement due to coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical processes in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling shear failure and permeability enhancement due to coupled Thermal-Hydrological-Mechanical processes in Enhanced Geothermal Reservoirs The connectivity and accessible surface area of flowing

  2. Electrical Calcium Test for Measuring Barrier Permeability - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Electrical Calcium Test for Measuring Barrier Permeability National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication Electrical Calcium Test for Measuring Barrier Permeability, Webinar Presentation by Arrelaine A. Dameron (7,247 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Moisture or water vapor barriers are important in many types of packaging including

  3. Inexpensive, Environmentally Friendly and Highly Permeable Lignin-Based Ion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Exchangers - Energy Innovation Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Find More Like This Return to Search Inexpensive, Environmentally Friendly and Highly Permeable Lignin-Based Ion Exchangers Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Contact LLNL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary For more than 10 years, a partnership between Kazakh and US researchers has led to the synthesis and testing of highly permeable ion-exchangers. These materials possess an increased

  4. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S. Michael (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element (11, 11a to 11j) having a cladding or coating of a material (23, 23a to 23j) which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector (24, 24a to 24j) may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses.

  5. Fiber optic fluid detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Angel, S.M.

    1987-02-27

    Particular gases or liquids are detected with a fiber optic element having a cladding or coating of a material which absorbs the fluid or fluids and which exhibits a change of an optical property, such as index of refraction, light transmissiveness or fluoresence emission, for example, in response to absorption of the fluid. The fluid is sensed by directing light into the fiber optic element and detecting changes in the light, such as exit angle changes for example, that result from the changed optical property of the coating material. The fluid detector may be used for such purposes as sensing toxic or explosive gases in the atmosphere, measuring ground water contamination or monitoring fluid flows in industrial processes, among other uses. 10 figs.

  6. Metalworking and machining fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erdemir, Ali (Naperville, IL); Sykora, Frank (Caledon, ON, CA); Dorbeck, Mark (Brighton, MI)

    2010-10-12

    Improved boron-based metal working and machining fluids. Boric acid and boron-based additives that, when mixed with certain carrier fluids, such as water, cellulose and/or cellulose derivatives, polyhydric alcohol, polyalkylene glycol, polyvinyl alcohol, starch, dextrin, in solid and/or solvated forms result in improved metalworking and machining of metallic work pieces. Fluids manufactured with boric acid or boron-based additives effectively reduce friction, prevent galling and severe wear problems on cutting and forming tools.

  7. Electrorheological fluids and methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Green, Peter F.; McIntyre, Ernest C.

    2015-06-02

    Electrorheological fluids and methods include changes in liquid-like materials that can flow like milk and subsequently form solid-like structures under applied electric fields; e.g., about 1 kV/mm. Such fluids can be used in various ways as smart suspensions, including uses in automotive, defense, and civil engineering applications. Electrorheological fluids and methods include one or more polar molecule substituted polyhedral silsesquioxanes (e.g., sulfonated polyhedral silsesquioxanes) and one or more oils (e.g., silicone oil), where the fluid can be subjected to an electric field.

  8. Effects of the air–steam mixture on the permeability of damaged concrete

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medjigbodo, Sonagnon; Darquennes, Aveline; Khelidj, Abdelhafid; Loukili, Ahmed

    2013-12-15

    Massive concrete structures such as the containments of nuclear power plant must maintain their tightness at any circumstances to prevent the escape of radioactive fission products into the environment. In the event of an accident like a Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA), the concrete wall is submitted to both hydric and mechanical loadings. A new experimental device reproducing these extreme conditions (water vapor transfer, 140 °C and 5 bars) is developed in the GeM Laboratory to determine the effect of the saturation degree, the mechanical loading and the flowing fluid type on the concrete transfer properties. The experimental tests show that the previous parameters significantly affect the concrete permeability and the gas leakage rate. Their evolution as a function of the mechanical loading is characterized by two phases that are directly related to concrete microstructure and crack development.

  9. Secondary heat recovery from low-permeability high-temperature reservoir: A possible project in the Larderello Field, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gianelli, G.; Squarci, P.; Capocecera, P.

    1997-12-31

    A project of fracture stimulation and secondary heat recovery from the metamorphic reservoir of the Larderello geothermal field could be developed in a next future. Geological and geophysical data suggest that the stimulation can enhance permeability and that the water injection can be recovered as steam. In particular, the area of the project is characterized by the presence of an important seismic reflector which has been explained assuming the presence of fractured rocks filled with high pressure fluids. Extensional and hydraulic fractures can present at temperatures of 300-350{degrees}C, and this makes the experiment of extreme interest.

  10. Separation of a target substance from a fluid or mixture using encapsulated sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D; Spadaccini, Christopher M; Stolaroff, Joshuah K; Bourcier, William L; Lewis, Jennifer A; Duoss, Eric B; Vericella, John J

    2014-09-16

    Method and apparatus for separating a target substance from a fluid or mixture. Capsules having a coating and stripping solvents encapsulated in the capsules are provided. The coating is permeable to the target substance. The capsules having a coating and stripping solvents encapsulated in the capsules are exposed to the fluid or mixture. The target substance migrates through the coating and is taken up by the stripping solvents. The target substance is separated from the fluid or mixture by driving off the target substance from the capsules.

  11. Fluid delivery control system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hoff, Brian D.; Johnson, Kris William; Algrain, Marcelo C.; Akasam, Sivaprasad

    2006-06-06

    A method of controlling the delivery of fluid to an engine includes receiving a fuel flow rate signal. An electric pump is arranged to deliver fluid to the engine. The speed of the electric pump is controlled based on the fuel flow rate signal.

  12. FLUID CONTROLLING MEANS

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pouliot, H.N.

    1960-11-01

    A device is described for releasing fluid from a container and delivering it to an outlet conduit. An explosive squib moves a piston so as to cut a wall section from the conduit and to punch a hole in the container, whereby a fluid may pass from the container into the conduit. A deformable sleeve retains the piston in its final position.

  13. Fluid blade disablement tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jakaboski, Juan-Carlos (Albuquerque, NM); Hughs, Chance G. (Albuquerque, NM); Todd, Steven N. (Rio Rancho, NM)

    2012-01-10

    A fluid blade disablement (FBD) tool that forms both a focused fluid projectile that resembles a blade, which can provide precision penetration of a barrier wall, and a broad fluid projectile that functions substantially like a hammer, which can produce general disruption of structures behind the barrier wall. Embodiments of the FBD tool comprise a container capable of holding fluid, an explosive assembly which is positioned within the container and which comprises an explosive holder and explosive, and a means for detonating. The container has a concavity on the side adjacent to the exposed surface of the explosive. The position of the concavity relative to the explosive and its construction of materials with thicknesses that facilitate inversion and/or rupture of the concavity wall enable the formation of a sharp and coherent blade of fluid advancing ahead of the detonation gases.

  14. Fracture Propagation and Permeability Change under Poro-thermoelastic Loads & Silica Reactivity in Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ahmad Ghassemi

    2009-10-01

    Geothermal energy is recovered by circulating water through heat exchange areas within a hot rock mass. Geothermal reservoir rock masses generally consist of igneous and metamorphic rocks that have low matrix permeability. Therefore, cracks and fractures play a significant role in extraction of geothermal energy by providing the major pathways for fluid flow and heat exchange. Therefore, knowledge of the conditions leading to formation of fractures and fracture networks is of paramount importance. Furthermore, in the absence of natural fractures or adequate connectivity, artificial fractures are created in the reservoir using hydraulic fracturing. Multiple fractures are preferred because of the large size necessary when using only a single fracture. Although the basic idea is rather simple, hydraulic fracturing is a complex process involving interactions of high pressure fluid injections with a stressed hot rock mass, mechanical interaction of induced fractures with existing natural fractures, and the spatial and temporal variations of in-situ stress. As a result, it is necessary to develop tools that can be used to study these interactions as an integral part of a comprehensive approach to geothermal reservoir development, particularly enhanced geothermal systems. In response to this need we have developed advanced poro-thermo-chemo-mechanical fracture models for rock fracture research in support of EGS design. The fracture propagation models are based on a regular displacement discontinuity formulation. The fracture propagation studies include modeling interaction of induced fractures. In addition to the fracture propagation studies, two-dimensional solution algorithms have been developed and used to estimate the impact of pro-thermo-chemical processes on fracture permeability and reservoir pressure. Fracture permeability variation is studied using a coupled thermo-chemical model with quartz reaction kinetics. The model is applied to study quartz precipitation/dissolution, as well as the variation in fracture aperture and pressure. Also, a three-dimensional model of injection/extraction has been developed to consider the impact poro- and thermoelastic stresses on fracture slip and injection pressure. These investigations shed light on the processes involved in the observed phenomenon of injection pressure variation (e.g., in Coso), and allow the assessment of the potential of thermal and chemical stimulation strategies.

  15. Modeling shear failure and permeability enhancement due to coupled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOELANL Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: Earth Sciences; Geothermal Energy (15); APERTURES; DEFORMATION; FLUID FLOW; FRACTURES; GEOTHERMAL...

  16. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Anthony R. (Espanola, NM); Johnston, Roger G. (Los Alamos, NM); Martinez, Ronald K. (Santa Cruz, NM)

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall.

  17. Fluid sampling tool

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, A.R.; Johnston, R.G.; Martinez, R.K.

    1999-05-25

    A fluid sampling tool is described for sampling fluid from a container. The tool has a fluid collecting portion which is drilled into the container wall, thereby affixing it to the wall. The tool may have a fluid extracting section which withdraws fluid collected by the fluid collecting section. The fluid collecting section has a fluted shank with an end configured to drill a hole into a container wall. The shank has a threaded portion for tapping the borehole. The shank is threadably engaged to a cylindrical housing having an inner axial passageway sealed at one end by a septum. A flexible member having a cylindrical portion and a bulbous portion is provided. The housing can be slid into an inner axial passageway in the cylindrical portion and sealed to the flexible member. The bulbous portion has an outer lip defining an opening. The housing is clamped into the chuck of a drill, the lip of the bulbous section is pressed against a container wall until the shank touches the wall, and the user operates the drill. Wall shavings (kerf) are confined in a chamber formed in the bulbous section as it folds when the shank advances inside the container. After sufficient advancement of the shank, an o-ring makes a seal with the container wall. 6 figs.

  18. Multiphase fluid characterization system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sinha, Dipen N.

    2014-09-02

    A measurement system and method for permitting multiple independent measurements of several physical parameters of multiphase fluids flowing through pipes are described. Multiple acoustic transducers are placed in acoustic communication with or attached to the outside surface of a section of existing spool (metal pipe), typically less than 3 feet in length, for noninvasive measurements. Sound speed, sound attenuation, fluid density, fluid flow, container wall resonance characteristics, and Doppler measurements for gas volume fraction may be measured simultaneously by the system. Temperature measurements are made using a temperature sensor for oil-cut correction.

  19. Supercritical fluid extraction

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth

    1994-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated or lipophilic crown ether or fluorinated dithiocarbamate. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  20. Water retention and gas relative permeability of two industrial concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Wei; Liu Jian; Brue, Flore; Skoczylas, Frederic; Davy, C.A.; Bourbon, Xavier; Talandier, Jean

    2012-07-15

    This experimental study aims at identifying the water retention properties of two industrial concretes to be used for long term underground nuclear waste storage structures. Together with water retention, gas transfer properties are identified at varying water saturation level, i.e. relative gas permeability is assessed directly as a function of water saturation level S{sub w}. The influence of the initial de-sorption path and of the subsequent re-saturation are analysed both in terms of water retention and gas transfer properties. Also, the influence of concrete microstructure upon water retention and relative gas permeability is assessed, using porosity measurements, analysis of the BET theory from water retention properties, and MIP. Finally, a single relative gas permeability curve is proposed for each concrete, based on Van Genuchten-Mualem's statistical model, to be used for continuous modelling approaches of concrete structures, both during drying and imbibition.

  1. The Interfacial-Area-Based Relative Permeability Function

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Z. F.; Khaleel, Raziuddin

    2009-09-25

    CH2M Hill Plateau Remediation Company (CHPRC) requested the services of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to provide technical support for the Remediation Decision Support (RDS) activity within the Soil & Groundwater Remediation Project. A portion of the support provided in FY2009, was to extend the soil unsaturated hydraulic conductivity using an alternative approach. This alternative approach incorporates the Brooks and Corey (1964), van Genuchten (1980), and a modified van Genuchten water-retention models into the interfacial-area-based relative permeability model presented by Embid (1997). The general performance of the incorporated models is shown using typical hydraulic parameters. The relative permeability models for the wetting phase were further examined using data from literature. Results indicate that the interfacial-area-based model can describe the relative permeability of the wetting phase reasonably well.

  2. Upscaling verticle permeability within a fluvio-aeolian reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, S.D.; Corbett, P.W.M.; Jensen, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    Vertical permeability (k{sub v}) is a crucial factor in many reservoir engineering issues. To date there has been little work undertaken to understand the wide variation of k{sub v} values measured at different scales in the reservoir. This paper presents the results of a study in which we have modelled the results of a downhole well tester using a statistical model and high resolution permeability data. The work has demonstrates and quantifies a wide variation in k{sub v} at smaller, near wellbore scales and has implications for k{sub v} modelling at larger scales.

  3. Fluid pumping apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    West, Phillip B. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2006-01-17

    A method and apparatus suitable for coupling seismic or other downhole sensors to a borehole wall in high temperature and pressure environments. In one embodiment, one or more metal bellows mounted to a sensor module are inflated to clamp the sensor module within the borehole and couple an associated seismic sensor to a borehole wall. Once the sensing operation is complete, the bellows are deflated and the sensor module is unclamped by deflation of the metal bellows. In a further embodiment, a magnetic drive pump in a pump module is used to supply fluid pressure for inflating the metal bellows using borehole fluid or fluid from a reservoir. The pump includes a magnetic drive motor configured with a rotor assembly to be exposed to borehole fluid pressure including a rotatable armature for driving an impeller and an associated coil under control of electronics isolated from borehole pressure.

  4. Two-fluid

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    fluid tearing instability in force-free magnetic configuration V. V. Mirnov, C. C. Hegna, and S. C. Prager Center for Magnetic Self-Organization in Laboratory and Astrophysical...

  5. Basic fluid system trainer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Semans, Joseph P. (Uniontown, PA); Johnson, Peter G. (Pittsburgh, PA); LeBoeuf, Jr., Robert F. (Clairton, PA); Kromka, Joseph A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Goron, Ronald H. (Connellsville, PA); Hay, George D. (Venetia, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A trainer, mounted and housed within a mobile console, is used to teach and reinforce fluid principles to students. The system trainer has two centrifugal pumps, each driven by a corresponding two-speed electric motor. The motors are controlled by motor controllers for operating the pumps to circulate the fluid stored within a supply tank through a closed system. The pumps may be connected in series or in parallel. A number of valves are also included within the system to effect different flow paths for the fluid. In addition, temperature and pressure sensing instruments are installed throughout the closed system for measuring the characteristics of the fluid, as it passes through the different valves and pumps. These measurements are indicated on a front panel mounted to the console, as a teaching aid, to allow the students to observe the characteristics of the system.

  6. Valve for fluid control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Paul, Phillip H. (Livermore, CA); Hencken, Kenneth R. (Pleasanton, CA); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A valve for controlling fluid flows. This valve, which includes both an actuation device and a valve body provides: the ability to incorporate both the actuation device and valve into a unitary structure that can be placed onto a microchip, the ability to generate higher actuation pressures and thus control higher fluid pressures than conventional microvalves, and a device that draws only microwatts of power. An electrokinetic pump that converts electric potential to hydraulic force is used to operate, or actuate, the valve.

  7. A fluid pressure and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Zhijie; Fang, Yilin; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Bonneville, Alain

    2012-06-07

    We present a hydro-mechanical model and deformation analysis for geological sequestration of carbon dioxide. The model considers the poroelastic effects by taking into account the two-way coupling between the geomechanical response and the fluid flow process in greater detail. In order for analytical solutions, the simplified hydro-mechanical model includes the geomechanical part that relies on the theory of linear elasticity, while the fluid flow is based on the Darcy’s law. The model was derived through coupling the two parts using the standard linear poroelasticity theory. Analytical solutions for fluid pressure field were obtained for a typical geological sequestration scenario and the solutions for ground deformation were obtained using the method of Green’s function. Solutions predict the temporal and spatial variation of fluid pressure, the effect of permeability and elastic modulus on the fluid pressure, the ground surface uplift, and the radial deformation during the entire injection period.

  8. Manipulation of coupled osmotic flows for stabilisation of shales exposed to water-based drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oort, E. van; Hale, A.H.; Mody, F.K.

    1995-12-31

    Coupled osmotic flows have been studied as a means of stabilising shales exposed to water-based muds. The prime factor that governs the magnitude of chemical osmotic flow, i.e. the shale-fluid membrane efficiency, was investigated in detail. Its dependence on shale parameters, fluid parameters and external conditions was quantified. Membrane efficiency was found to increase with an increase in (hydrated) solute-to-pore-size ratio, with an increase in the shale`s high-surface area clay content and with a decrease shale permeability when increasing effective confining stress. Moreover, new drilling fluid chemistries for improving the efficiencies of low- and non-selective shale-fluid systems were identified. Induced osmotic flow with optimised shale-fluid membrane efficiencies in water-based environments is presented as a new strategy for improving wellbore stability in shales.

  9. High surface area, high permeability carbon monoliths

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Organic Materials Processing Dept.

    1994-12-31

    The goal of this work is to prepare carbon monoliths having precisely tailored pore size distribution. Prior studies have demonstrated that poly(acrylonitrile) can be processed into a precursor having tailored macropore structure. Since the macropores were preserved during pyrolysis, this synthetic process provided a route to porous carbon having macropores with size =0.1 to 10{mu}m. No micropores of size <2 nm could be detected in the carbon, however, by nitrogen adsorption. In the present work, the authors have processed a different polymer, poly(vinylidene chloride) into a macroporous precursor, Pyrolysis produced carbon monoliths having macropores derived from the polymer precursor as well as extensive microporosity produced during the pyrolysis of the polymer. One of these carbons had BET surface area of 1,050 m{sup 2}/g and about 1.2 cc/g total pore volume, with about 1/3 of the total pore volume in micropores and the remainder in 1{mu}m macropores. No mesopores in the intermediate size range could be detected by nitrogen adsorption. Carbon materials having high surface area as well as micron size pores have potential applications as electrodes for double layer supercapacitors containing liquid electrolyte, or as efficient media for performing chemical separations.

  10. Importance of Low Permeability Natural Gas Reservoirs (released in AEO2010)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Production from low-permeability reservoirs, including shale gas and tight gas, has become a major source of domestic natural gas supply. In 2008, low-permeability reservoirs accounted for about 40% of natural gas production and about 35% of natural gas consumption in the United States. Permeability is a measure of the rate at which liquids and gases can move through rock. Low-permeability natural gas reservoirs encompass the shale, sandstone, and carbonate formations whose natural permeability is roughly 0.1 millidarcies or below. (Permeability is measured in darcies.)

  11. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2011-09-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950 C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm) - three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  12. Tritium Permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Philip Winston; Pattrick Calderoni; Paul Humrickhouse

    2012-07-01

    Design of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) reactor and its high-temperature components requires information regarding the permeation of fission generated tritium and hydrogen product through candidate heat exchanger alloys. Release of fission-generated tritium to the environment and the potential contamination of the helium coolant by permeation of product hydrogen into the coolant system represent safety basis and product contamination issues. Of the three potential candidates for high-temperature components of the NGNP reactor design, only permeability for Incoloy 800H has been well documented. Hydrogen permeability data have been published for Inconel 617, but only in two literature reports and for partial pressures of hydrogen greater than one atmosphere, far higher than anticipated in the NGNP reactor. To support engineering design of the NGNP reactor components, the tritium permeability of Inconel 617 and Incoloy 800H was determined using a measurement system designed and fabricated at Idaho National Laboratory. The tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617, was measured in the temperature range 650 to 950°C and at primary concentrations of 1.5 to 6 parts per million volume tritium in helium. (partial pressures of 10-6 atm)—three orders of magnitude lower partial pressures than used in the hydrogen permeation testing. The measured tritium permeability of Incoloy 800H and Inconel 617 deviated substantially from the values measured for hydrogen. This may be due to instrument offset, system absorption, presence of competing quantities of hydrogen, surface oxides, or other phenomena. Due to the challenge of determining the chemical composition of a mixture with such a low hydrogen isotope concentration, no categorical explanation of this offset has been developed.

  13. Fluid driven recipricating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, John C. (Davis, CA)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached.

  14. Fluid driven reciprocating apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whitehead, J.C.

    1997-04-01

    An apparatus is described comprising a pair of fluid driven pump assemblies in a back-to-back configuration to yield a bi-directional pump. Each of the pump assemblies includes a piston or diaphragm which divides a chamber therein to define a power section and a pumping section. An intake-exhaust valve is connected to each of the power sections of the pump chambers, and function to direct fluid, such as compressed air, into the power section and exhaust fluid therefrom. At least one of the pistons or diaphragms is connected by a rod assembly which is constructed to define a signal valve, whereby the intake-exhaust valve of one pump assembly is controlled by the position or location of the piston or diaphragm in the other pump assembly through the operation of the rod assembly signal valve. Each of the pumping sections of the pump assemblies are provided with intake and exhaust valves to enable filling of the pumping section with fluid and discharging fluid therefrom when a desired pressure has been reached. 13 figs.

  15. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  16. Hazardous fluid leak detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Harold E. (Las Vegas, NV); McLaurin, Felder M. (Las Vegas, NV); Ortiz, Monico (Las Vegas, NV); Huth, William A. (Las Vegas, NV)

    1996-01-01

    A device or system for monitoring for the presence of leaks from a hazardous fluid is disclosed which uses two electrodes immersed in deionized water. A gas is passed through an enclosed space in which a hazardous fluid is contained. Any fumes, vapors, etc. escaping from the containment of the hazardous fluid in the enclosed space are entrained in the gas passing through the enclosed space and transported to a closed vessel containing deionized water and two electrodes partially immersed in the deionized water. The electrodes are connected in series with a power source and a signal, whereby when a sufficient number of ions enter the water from the gas being bubbled through it (indicative of a leak), the water will begin to conduct, thereby allowing current to flow through the water from one electrode to the other electrode to complete the circuit and activate the signal.

  17. Completion and workover fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Block, J.

    1985-09-17

    An aqueous completion or workover fluid for oil or gas wells having at least two solid components. One component is a hydroxy containing aluminum compound represented by the formula AlO(OH).xH/sub 2/O. The second component is a fluid loss control agent which can be either a cross-linked polyvinyl alcohol or a cross-linked hydroxyalkyl cellulose reaction product. An acid soluble weighting agent can be added for wells having higher down hole pressures. Examples of the weighting agents include iron carbonates, iron oxides, calcium carbonates, dolomite, sodium or calcium chloride, zinc bromide and calcium bromide. After use, the fluid can be displaced from the well with acid, e.g. 15% HCl, and the cake previously deposited on the bore-hole wall is dissolved by the acid so that no damaging residue remains.

  18. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, E.R.; Perl, M.L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal inter-droplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications. 8 figs.

  19. Universal fluid droplet ejector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Eric R.; Perl, Martin L.

    1999-08-24

    A droplet generator comprises a fluid reservoir having a side wall made of glass or quartz, and an end cap made from a silicon plate. The end cap contains a micromachined aperture through which the fluid is ejected. The side wall is thermally fused to the end cap, and no adhesive is necessary. This means that the fluid only comes into contact with the side wall and the end cap, both of which are chemically inert. Amplitudes of drive pulses received by reservoir determine the horizontal displacements of droplets relative to the ejection aperture. The drive pulses are varied such that the dropper generates a two-dimensional array of vertically-falling droplets. Vertical and horizontal interdroplet spacings may be varied in real time. Applications include droplet analysis experiments such as Millikan fractional charge searches and aerosol characterization, as well as material deposition applications.

  20. Technology Solutions Case Study: Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-10-01

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  1. Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Milling Site: Monticello, Utah | Department of Energy Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah PDF icon Alternatives for Mending a Permeable Reactive Barrier at a Former Uranium Milling Site: Monticello, Utah More

  2. Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah | Department of Energy Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah PDF icon Third (March 2006) Coring and Analysis of Zero-Valent Iron Permeable Reactive Barrier, Monticello, Utah More

  3. Environmentally Friendly, Rheoreversible, Hydraulic-fracturing Fluids for Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shao, Hongbo; Kabilan, Senthil; Stephens, Sean A.; Suresh, Niraj; Beck, Anthon NR; Varga, Tamas; Martin, Paul F.; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Jung, Hun Bok; Um, Wooyong; Bonneville, Alain; Heldebrant, David J.; Carroll, KC; Moore, Joseph; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-07-01

    Cost-effective creation of high-permeability reservoirs inside deep crystalline bedrock is the primary challenge for the feasibility of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS). Current reservoir stimulation entails adverse environmental impacts and substantial economic costs due to the utilization of large volumes of water “doped” with chemicals including rheology modifiers, scale and corrosion inhibitors, biocides, friction reducers among others where, typically, little or no information of composition and toxicity is disclosed. An environmentally benign, CO2-activated, rheoreversible fracturing fluid has recently been developed that significantly enhances rock permeability at effective stress significantly lower than current technology. We evaluate the potential of this novel fracturing fluid for application on geothermal sites under different chemical and geomechanical conditions, by performing laboratory-scale fracturing experiments with different rock sources under different confining pressures, temperatures, and pH environments. The results demonstrate that CO2-reactive aqueous solutions of environmentally amenable Polyallylamine (PAA) represent a highly versatile fracturing fluid technology. This fracturing fluid creates/propagates fracture networks through highly impermeable crystalline rock at significantly lower effective stress as compared to control experiments where no PAA was present, and permeability enhancement was significantly increased for PAA compared to conventional hydraulic fracturing controls. This was evident in all experiments, including variable rock source/type, operation pressure and temperature (over the entire range for EGS applications), as well as over a wide range of formation-water pH values. This versatile novel fracturing fluid technology represents a great alternative to industrially available fracturing fluids for cost-effective and competitive geothermal energy production.

  4. Anisotropy and spatial variation of relative permeability and lithologic character of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs in the Bighorn and Wind River basins, Wyoming. Final technical report, September 15, 1993--October 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, T.L.

    1996-10-01

    This multidisciplinary study was designed to provide improvements in advanced reservoir characterization techniques. This goal was accomplished through: (1) an examination of the spatial variation and anisotropy of relative permeability in the Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs of Wyoming; (2) the placement of that variation and anisotropy into paleogeographic, and depositional regional frameworks; (3) the development of pore-system imagery techniques for the calculation of relative permeability; and (4) reservoir simulations testing the impact of relative permeability anisotropy and spatial variation on Tensleep Sandstone reservoir enhanced oil recovery. Concurrent efforts were aimed at understanding the spatial and dynamic alteration in sandstone reservoirs that is caused by rock-fluid interaction during CO{sub 2} enhanced oil recovery processes. The work focused on quantifying the interrelationship of fluid-rock interaction with lithologic characterization and with fluid characterization in terms of changes in chemical composition and fluid properties. This work establishes new criteria for the susceptibility of Tensleep Sandstone reservoirs to formation alteration that results in wellbore scale damage. This task was accomplished by flow experiments using core material; examination of regional trends in water chemistry; examination of local water chemistry trends the at field scale; and chemical modeling of both the experimental and reservoir systems.

  5. Frequency-dependent processing and interpretation (FDPI) of seismic data for identifying, imaging and monitoring fluid-saturated underground reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goloshubin, Gennady M. (Sugar Land, TX); Korneev, Valeri A. (Lafayette, CA)

    2005-09-06

    A method for identifying, imaging and monitoring dry or fluid-saturated underground reservoirs using seismic waves reflected from target porous or fractured layers is set forth. Seismic imaging the porous or fractured layer occurs by low pass filtering of the windowed reflections from the target porous or fractured layers leaving frequencies below low-most corner (or full width at half maximum) of a recorded frequency spectra. Additionally, the ratio of image amplitudes is shown to be approximately proportional to reservoir permeability, viscosity of fluid, and the fluid saturation of the porous or fractured layers.

  6. Frequency-dependent processing and interpretation (FDPI) of seismic data for identifying, imaging and monitoring fluid-saturated underground reservoirs

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goloshubin, Gennady M.; Korneev, Valeri A.

    2006-11-14

    A method for identifying, imaging and monitoring dry or fluid-saturated underground reservoirs using seismic waves reflected from target porous or fractured layers is set forth. Seismic imaging the porous or fractured layer occurs by low pass filtering of the windowed reflections from the target porous or fractured layers leaving frequencies below low-most corner (or full width at half maximum) of a recorded frequency spectra. Additionally, the ratio of image amplitudes is shown to be approximately proportional to reservoir permeability, viscosity of fluid, and the fluid saturation of the porous or fractured layers.

  7. Tubular hydrogen permeable metal foil membrane and method of fabrication

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Paglieri, Stephen N.; Birdsell, Stephen A.; Barbero, Robert S.; Snow, Ronny C.; Smith, Frank M.

    2006-04-04

    A tubular hydrogen permeable metal membrane and fabrication process comprises obtaining a metal alloy foil having two surfaces, coating the surfaces with a metal or metal alloy catalytic layer to produce a hydrogen permeable metal membrane, sizing the membrane into a sheet with two long edges, wrapping the membrane around an elongated expandable rod with the two long edges aligned and overlapping to facilitate welding of the two together, placing the foil wrapped rod into a surrounding fixture housing with the two aligned and overlapping foil edges accessible through an elongated aperture in the surrounding fixture housing, expanding the elongated expandable rod within the surrounding fixture housing to tighten the foil about the expanded rod, welding the two long overlapping foil edges to one another generating a tubular membrane, and removing the tubular membrane from within the surrounding fixture housing and the expandable rod from with the tubular membrane.

  8. Method and device for measuring fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Atherton, Richard; Marinkovich, Phillip S.; Spadaro, Peter R.; Stout, J. Wilson

    1976-11-23

    This invention is a fluid flow measuring device for determining the coolant flow at the entrance to a specific nuclear reactor fuel region. The device comprises a plurality of venturis having the upstream inlet and throat pressure of each respectively manifolded together to provide one static pressure signal for each region monitored. The device provides accurate flow measurement with low pressure losses and uniform entrance and discharge flow distribution.

  9. Test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, Matthew; Dameron, Arrelaine; Kempe, Michael

    2014-03-04

    A test device for measuring permeability of a barrier material. An exemplary device comprises a test card having a thin-film conductor-pattern formed thereon and an edge seal which seals the test card to the barrier material. Another exemplary embodiment is an electrical calcium test device comprising: a test card an impermeable spacer, an edge seal which seals the test card to the spacer and an edge seal which seals the spacer to the barrier material.

  10. A Collection of Complex Permittivity and Permeability Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barry, W.; Byrd, J.; Johnson, J.; Smithwick, J.

    1993-02-01

    We present the results of measurements of the complex permittivity and permeability over a frequency range of 0.1-5.1 GHz for a range of microwave absorbing materials used in a variety of accelerator applications. We also describe the automated measurement technique which uses swept-frequency S-parameter measurements made on a strip transmission line device loaded with the material under test.

  11. The hydrogen permeability of Pd{sub 4}S

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Brien, Casey; Miller, James; Gellman, Andrew; Morreale, Bryan

    2011-04-01

    Hydrogen permeates rapidly through pure Pd membranes, but H{sub 2}S, a common minor component in hydrogen-containing streams, produces a Pd{sub 4}S film on the Pd surface that severely retards hydrogen permeation. Hydrogen still permeates through the bi-layered Pd{sub 4}S/Pd structure, indicating that the Pd{sub 4}S surface is active for H{sub 2} dissociation; the low hydrogen permeability of the Pd4S film is responsible for the decreased rate of hydrogen transport. In this work, the hydrogen permeability of Pd{sub 4}S was determined experimentally in the 623-773 K temperature range. Bi-layered Pd{sub 4}S/Pd foils were produced by exposing pure Pd foils to H{sub 2}S. H{sub 2} fluxes through the bi-layered Pd{sub 4}S/Pd foils were measured during exposure to both pure H{sub 2} and a 1000 ppm H{sub 2}S in H{sub 2} gas mixture. Our results show that H{sub 2}S slows hydrogen permeation through Pd mainly by producing a Pd{sub 4}S film on the Pd surface that is roughly an order-of-magnitude less permeable to hydrogen (k{sub Pd{sub 4}S} = 10{sup ?7.5} exp(?0.22 eV/k{sub B}T) molH{sub 2}/m/s/Pa{sup 1/2}) than pure Pd. The presence of H{sub 2}S in the gas stream results in greater inhibition of hydrogen transport than can be explained by the very low permeability of Pd{sub 4}S. H{sub 2}S may block H2 dissociation sites at the Pd{sub 4}S surface.

  12. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S.; Lail, Jason C.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  13. Ultrasonic fluid densitometry and densitometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, M.S.; Lail, J.C.

    1998-01-13

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge having an acoustic impedance that is near the acoustic impedance of the fluid, specifically less than a factor of 11 greater than the acoustic impedance of the fluid. The invention also includes a wedge having at least two transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  14. Apparatus and method for concentrating and filtering particles suspended in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fiechtner, Gregory J. (Bethesda, MD); Cummings, Eric B. (Livermore, CA); Singh, Anup K. (Danville, CA)

    2009-05-19

    Disclosed is a device for separating and concentrating particles suspended in a fluid stream by using dielectrophoresis (DEP) to trap and/or deflect those particles as they migrate through a fluid channel. The method uses fluid channels designed to constrain a liquid flowing through it to uniform electrokinetic flow velocities. This behavior is achieved by connecting deep and shallow sections of channels, with the channel depth varying abruptly along an interface. By careful design of abrupt changes in specific permeability at the interface, an abrupt and spatially uniform change in electrokinetic force can be selected. Because these abrupt interfaces also cause a sharp gradient in applied electric fields, a DEP force also can be established along the interface. Depending on the complex conductivity of the suspended particles and the immersion liquid, the DEP force can controllably complement or oppose the local electrokinetic force transporting the fluid through the channel allowing for manipulation of particles suspended in the transporting liquid.

  15. Apparatus for removing a contaminant from a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brewster, M.D.; Posa, R.P.

    1998-12-22

    A device for removing a contaminant from a fluid stream flowing within a conduit is disclosed. The device includes a container and a barrier. The container has a first wall generated about an axis and a second wall generated about the same axis. The first wall defines a first volume therewithin, while the first and second walls define an annular second volume therebetween. Both the first and second volumes are sealed at one end of the device, while at the other end of the device the second volume only is sealed. A filter material occupies the second volume. The first and second walls are permeable to the fluid stream and are capable of retaining the filter material in the second volume. The barrier is impermeable to the fluid stream and creates a seal between the second wall and the conduit wall. The barrier is positioned adjacent the other end of the device such that when the other end of the device is the upstream end, the fluid stream must sequentially pass into the first volume, through the first wall, into the second volume and through the filter material, and through the second wall. 4 figs.

  16. Vertical Electrical Sounding Configurations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    faults Hydrological: Resistivity influenced by porosity, grain size distribution, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal:...

  17. Electrical Profiling Configurations | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    faults Hydrological: Resistivity influenced by porosity, grain size distribution, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal:...

  18. DC Resistivity Survey (Wenner Array) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    faults Hydrological: Resistivity influenced by porosity, grain size distribution, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal:...

  19. Single-Well and Cross-Well Resistivity | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    faults Hydrological: Resistivity influenced by porosity, grain size distribution, permeability, fluid saturation, fluid type and phase state of the pore water Thermal:...

  20. Acoustic sand detector for fluid flowstreams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beattie, Alan G. (Corrales, NM); Bohon, W. Mark (Frisco, TX)

    1993-01-01

    The particle volume and particle mass production rate of particulate solids entrained in fluid flowstreams such as formation sand or fracture proppant entrained in oil and gas production flowstreams is determined by a system having a metal probe interposed in a flow conduit for transmitting acoustic emissions created by particles impacting the probe to a sensor and signal processing circuit which produces discrete signals related to the impact of each of the particles striking the probe. The volume or mass flow rate of particulates is determined from making an initial particle size distribution and particle energy distribution and comparing the initial energy distribution and/or the initial size distribution with values related to the impact energies of a predetermined number of recorded impacts. The comparison is also used to recalibrate the system to compensate for changes in flow velocity.

  1. Wave-induced pore pressure and effective stresses in a porous seabed with variable permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeng, D.S.; Seymour, B.R.

    1996-12-31

    An evaluation of wave-induced soil response is particularly useful for geotechnical and coastal engineers involved in the design of foundations for offshore structures. To simplify the mathematical procedure, most theories available for the wave/seabed interaction problem have assumed a porous seabed with uniform permeability, despite strong evidence of variable permeability. This paper proposes an analytical solution for the wave induced soil response in a porous seabed with variable permeability. Verification is available through reduction to the simple case of uniform permeability. The numerical results indicate that the effect of variable soil permeability on pore pressure and effective stresses is significant.

  2. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  3. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  4. Drilling fluid filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Fox, Joe; Garner, Kory

    2007-01-23

    A drilling fluid filter for placement within a bore wall of a tubular drill string component comprises a perforated receptacle with an open end and a closed end. A hanger for engagement with the bore wall is mounted at the open end of the perforated receptacle. A mandrel is adjacent and attached to the open end of the perforated receptacle. A linkage connects the mandrel to the hanger. The linkage may be selected from the group consisting of struts, articulated struts and cams. The mandrel operates on the hanger through the linkage to engage and disengage the drilling fluid filter from the tubular drill string component. The mandrel may have a stationary portion comprising a first attachment to the open end of the perforated receptacle and a telescoping adjustable portion comprising a second attachment to the linkage. The mandrel may also comprise a top-hole interface for top-hole equipment.

  5. Oscillating fluid power generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  6. Fracture permeability in the Matalibong-25 corehole, Tiwi geothermal field, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielson, D.L.; Moore, J.N.; Clemente, W.C.

    1996-12-31

    The Tiwi geothermal field is located in southern Luzon on the northeast flank of Mt. Malinao, an andesitic volcano that was active 0.5 to 0.06 Ma. Matalibong-25 (Mat-25) was drilled through the Tiwi reservoir to investigate lithologic and fracture controls on reservoir permeability and to monitor reservoir pressure. Continuous core was collected from 2586.5 to 8000 feet (789 to 2439 meters) with greater than 95% recovery. The reservoir rocks observed in Mat-25 consist mainly of andesitic and basaltic lavas and volcaniclastic rocks above 6600 feet depth (2012 meters) and andesitic sediments below, with a transition from subaerial to subaqueous (marine) deposition at 5250 feet (1601 meters). The rocks in the reservoir interval are strongly altered and veined. Common secondary minerals include chlorite, illite, quartz, calcite rite, epidote, anhydrite, adularia and wairakite. An {sup 39}Ar/{sup 40}Ar age obtained on adularia from a quartz-adularia-cemented breccia at a depth of 6066 feet (2012 meters) indicates that the hydrothermal system has been active for at least 320,000 years. Fractures observed in the core were classified as either veins (sealed) or open fractures, with the latter assumed to represent fluid entries in the geothermal system. Since the core was not oriented, only fracture frequency and dip angle with respect to the core axis could be determined. The veins and open fractures are predominantly steeply dipping and have a measured density of up to 0.79 per foot in the vertical well. Below 6500 feet (1982 meters) there is a decrease in fracture intensity and in fluid inclusion temperatures.

  7. Fracture Permeability and in Situ Stress in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, Geothermal Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. D. Zoback

    1999-03-08

    We have collected and analyzed fracture and fluid flow data from wells both within and outside the producing geothermal reservoir at Dixie Valley. Data from wellbore imaging and flow tests in wells outside the producing field that are not sufficiently hydraulically connected to the reservoir to be of commercial value provide both the necessary control group of fracture populations and an opportunity to test the concepts proposed in this study on a regional, whole-reservoir scale. Results of our analysis indicate that fracture zones with high measured permeabilities within the producing segment of the fault are parallel to the local trend of the Stillwater fault and are optimally oriented and critically stressed for frictional failure in the overall east-southeast extensional stress regime measured at the site. In contrast, in the non-producing (i.e., relatively impermeable:) well 66-21 the higher ratio of S{sub hmin} to S{sub v} acts to decrease the shear stress available to drive fault slip. Thus, although many of the fractures at this site (like the Stillwater fault itself) are optimally oriented for normal faulting they are not critically stressed for frictional failure. Although some of the fractures observed in the non-producing well 45-14 are critically stressed for frictional failure, the Stillwater fault zone itself is frictionally stable. Thus, the high horizontal differential stress (i.e., S{sub Hmax}-S{sub hmin}) together with the severe misorientation of the Stillwater fault zone for normal faulting at this location appear to dominate the overall potential for fluid flow.

  8. Interpretation of brine-permeability tests of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant site: First interim report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beauheim, R.L. ); Saulnier, G.J. Jr.; Avis, J.D. )

    1991-08-01

    Pressure-pulse tests have been performed in bedded evaporites of the Salado Formation at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site to evaluate the hydraulic properties controlling brine flow through the Salado. Hydraulic conductivities ranging from about 10{sup {minus}14} to 10{sup {minus}11} m/s (permeabilities of about 10{sup {minus}21} to 10{sup {minus}18} m{sup 2}) have been interpreted from nine tests conducted on five stratigraphic intervals within eleven meters of the WIPP underground excavations. Tests of a pure halite layer showed no measurable permeability. Pore pressures in the stratigraphic intervals range from about 0.5 to 9.3 MPa. An anhydrite interbed (Marker Bed 139) appears to be one or more orders of magnitude more permeable than the surrounding halite. Hydraulic conductivities appear to increase, and pore pressures decrease, with increasing proximity to the excavations. These effects are particularly evident within two to three meters of the excavations. Two tests indicated the presence of apparent zero-flow boundaries about two to three meters from the boreholes. The other tests revealed no apparent boundaries within the radii of influence of the tests, which were calculated to range from about four to thirty-five meters from the test holes. The data are insufficient to determine if brine flow through evaporites results from Darcy-like flow driven by pressure gradients within naturally interconnected porosity or from shear deformation around excavations connecting previously isolated pores, thereby providing pathways for fluids at or near lithostatic pressure to be driven towards the low-pressure excavations. Future testing will be performed at greater distances from the excavations to evaluate hydraulic properties and processes beyond the range of excavation effects.

  9. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. ...

  10. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, J.L.; Smith, R.D.

    1993-11-30

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W[sub o] that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W[sub o] of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions. 27 figures.

  11. Supercritical fluid reverse micelle separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, John L. (Richland, WA); Smith, Richard D. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    A method of separating solute material from a polar fluid in a first polar fluid phase is provided. The method comprises combining a polar fluid, a second fluid that is a gas at standard temperature and pressure and has a critical density, and a surfactant. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid to define the first polar fluid phase. The combined polar and second fluids, surfactant, and solute material dissolved in the polar fluid is maintained under near critical or supercritical temperature and pressure conditions such that the density of the second fluid exceeds the critical density thereof. In this way, a reverse micelle system defining a reverse micelle solvent is formed which comprises a continuous phase in the second fluid and a plurality of reverse micelles dispersed in the continuous phase. The solute material is dissolved in the polar fluid and is in chemical equilibrium with the reverse micelles. The first polar fluid phase and the continuous phase are immiscible. The reverse micelles each comprise a dynamic aggregate of surfactant molecules surrounding a core of the polar fluid. The reverse micelle solvent has a polar fluid-to-surfactant molar ratio W, which can vary over a range having a maximum ratio W.sub.o that determines the maximum size of the reverse micelles. The maximum ratio W.sub.o of the reverse micelle solvent is then varied, and the solute material from the first polar fluid phase is transported into the reverse micelles in the continuous phase at an extraction efficiency determined by the critical or supercritical conditions.

  12. Apparatus for controlling fluid flow in a conduit wall

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glass, S. Jill; Nicolaysen, Scott D.; Beauchamp, Edwin K.

    2003-05-13

    A frangible rupture disk and mounting apparatus for use in blocking fluid flow, generally in a fluid conducting conduit such as a well casing, a well tubing string or other conduits within subterranean boreholes. The disk can also be utilized in above-surface pipes or tanks where temporary and controllable fluid blockage is required. The frangible rupture disk is made from a pre-stressed glass with controllable rupture properties wherein the strength distribution has a standard deviation less than approximately 5% from the mean strength. The frangible rupture disk has controllable operating pressures and rupture pressures.

  13. Oxygen-permeable ceramic membranes for gas separation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, U.; Ma, B.; Maiya, P.S.; Dusek, J.T.; Mieville, R.L.; Picciolo, J.J.

    1998-02-01

    Mixed-conducting oxides have a wide range of applications, including fuel cells, gas separation systems, sensors, and electrocatalytic equipment. Dense ceramic membranes made of mixed-conducting oxides are particularly attractive for gas separation and methane conversion processes. Membranes made of Sr-Fe-Co oxide, which exhibits high combined electronic and oxygen ionic conductivities, can be used to selectively transport oxygen during the partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas (syngas, i.e., CO + H{sub 2}). The authors have fabricated tubular Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes and tested them (some for more than 1,000 h) in a methane conversion reactor that was operating at 850--950 C. An oxygen permeation flux of {approx} 10 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained at 900 C in a tubular membrane with a wall thickness of 0.75 mm. Using a gas-tight electrochemical cell, the authors have also measured the steady-state oxygen permeability of flat Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes as a function of temperature and oxygen partial pressure(pO{sub 2}). Steady-state oxygen permeability increases with increasing temperature and with the difference in pO{sub 2} on the two sides of the membrane. At 900 C, an oxygen permeability of {approx} 2.5 scc/cm{sup 2} {center_dot} min was obtained in a 2.9-mm-thick membrane. This value agrees with that obtained in methane conversion reactor experiments. Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics determined in the gas-tight cell indicate that bulk effect, rather than surface exchange effect, is the main limiting factor for oxygen permeation of {approx} 1-mm-thick Sr{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}CoO{sub 6+{delta}} membranes at elevated temperatures (> 650 C).

  14. Multiphase Fluid Flow in Deformable Variable-Aperture Fractures - Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Detwiler, Russell

    2014-04-30

    Fractures provide flow paths that can potentially lead to fast migration of fluids or contaminants. A number of energy-­?related applications involve fluid injections that significantly perturb both the pressures and chemical composition of subsurface fluids. These perturbations can cause both mechanical deformation and chemical alteration of host rocks with potential for significant changes in permeability. In fractured rock subjected to coupled chemical and mechanical stresses, it can be difficult to predict the sign of permeability changes, let alone the magnitude. This project integrated experimental and computational studies to improve mechanistic understanding of these coupled processes and develop and test predictive models and monitoring techniques. The project involved three major components: (1) study of two-­?phase flow processes involving mass transfer between phases and dissolution of minerals along fracture surfaces (Detwiler et al., 2009; Detwiler, 2010); (2) study of fracture dissolution in fractures subjected to normal stresses using experimental techniques (Ameli, et al., 2013; Elkhoury et al., 2013; Elkhoury et al., 2014) and newly developed computational models (Ameli, et al., 2014); (3) evaluation of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) as a method to detect and quantify gas leakage through a fractured caprock (Breen et al., 2012; Lochbuhler et al., 2014). The project provided support for one PhD student (Dr. Pasha Ameli; 2009-­?2013) and partially supported a post-­?doctoral scholar (Dr. Jean Elkhoury; 2010-­?2013). In addition, the project provided supplemental funding to support collaboration with Dr. Charles Carrigan at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in connection with (3) and supported one MS student (Stephen Breen; 2011-­?2013). Major results from each component of the project include the following: (1) Mineral dissolution in fractures occupied by two fluid phases (e.g., oil-­?water or water-­?CO{sub 2}) causes changes in local capillary forces and redistribution of fluids. These coupled processes enhance channel formation and the potential for development of fast flow paths through fractures. (2) Dissolution in fractures subjected to normal stress can result in behaviors ranging from development of dissolution channels and rapid permeability increases to fracture healing and significant permeability decreases. The timescales associated with advective transport of dissolved ions in the fracture, mineral dissolution rates, and diffusion within the adjacent porous matrix dictate the sign and magnitude of the resulting permeability changes. Furthermore, a high-­? resolution mechanistic model that couples elastic deformation of contacts and aperture-­?dependent dissolution rates predicts the range of observed behaviors reasonably well. (3) ERT has potential as a tool for monitoring gas leakage in deep formations. Using probabilistic inversion methods further enhances the results by providing uncertainty estimates of inverted parameters.

  15. Em Response of a Conductive, Permeable Spherical Shell

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-10-24

    This code calculates the spectral response of conductive, permeable, shell in a conductive whole space using a closed form solution. The source is either a uniform field (approximately valid when the size of the sphere is small compared to the distance to the source) or the field of dipole (and by superposition, the field of a finite loop). The code is particularly useful in showing that the typical UXO (usually shells), the response is significantlymore » different at intermediate to late times compared to solids of the same materials.« less

  16. Acoustic concentration of particles in fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Michael D. (Los Alamos, NM); Kaduchak, Gregory (Los Alamos, NM)

    2010-11-23

    An apparatus for acoustic concentration of particles in a fluid flow includes a substantially acoustically transparent membrane and a vibration generator that define a fluid flow path therebetween. The fluid flow path is in fluid communication with a fluid source and a fluid outlet and the vibration generator is disposed adjacent the fluid flow path and is capable of producing an acoustic field in the fluid flow path. The acoustic field produces at least one pressure minima in the fluid flow path at a predetermined location within the fluid flow path and forces predetermined particles in the fluid flow path to the at least one pressure minima.

  17. Stimuli-Responsive/Rheoreversible Hydraulic Fracturing Fluids as a Greener Alternative to Support Geothermal and Fossil Energy Production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jung, Hun Bok; Carroll, KC; Kabilan, Senthil; Heldebrant, David J.; Hoyt, David W.; Zhong, Lirong; Varga, Tamas; Stephens, Sean A.; Adams, Lexor; Bonneville, Alain; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Fernandez, Carlos A.

    2015-01-01

    Cost-effective yet safe creation of high-permeability reservoirs within deep bedrock is the primary challenge for the viability of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) and unconventional oil/gas recovery. Although fracturing fluids are commonly used for oil/gas, standard fracturing methods are not developed or proven for EGS temperatures and pressures. Furthermore, the environmental impacts of currently used fracturing methods are only recently being determined. Widespread concerns about the environmental contamination have resulted in a number of regulations for fracturing fluids advocating for greener fracturing processes. To enable EGS feasibility and lessen environmental impact of reservoir stimulation, an environmentally benign, CO2-activated, rheoreversible fracturing fluid that enhances permeability through fracturing (at significantly lower effective stress than standard fracturing fluids) due to in situ volume expansion and gel formation is investigated herein. The chemical mechanism, stability, phase-change behavior, and rheology for a novel polyallylamine (PAA)-CO2 fracturing fluid was characterized at EGS temperatures and pressures. Hydrogel is formed upon reaction with CO2 and this process is reversible (via CO2 depressurization or solubilizing with a mild acid) allowing removal from the formation and recycling, decreasing environmental impact. Rock obtained from the Coso geothermal field was fractured in laboratory experiments under various EGS temperatures and pressures with comparison to standard fracturing fluids, and the fractures were characterized with imaging, permeability measurement, and flow modeling. This novel fracturing fluid and process may vastly reduce water usage and the environmental impact of fracturing practices and effectively make EGS production and unconventional oil/gas exploitation cost-effective and cleaner.

  18. Fluid injection microvalve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Renzi, Ronald F.

    2005-11-22

    A microvalve for extracting small volume samples into analytical devices, e.g., high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) column, includes: a first body having a first interior surface and two or more outlet ports at the first interior surface that are in fluid communication with two or more first channels; a second body having a second interior surface and two or more inlet ports at the second interior surface that are in fluid communication with two or more second channels wherein the outlet ports of the first body are coaxial with the corresponding inlet ports of the second body such that there are at least two sets of coaxial port outlets and port inlets; a plate member, which has a substantially planar first mating surface and a substantially planar second mating surface, that is slidably positioned between the first interior surface and the second interior surface wherein the plate member has at least one aperture that traverses the height of the plate member, and wherein the aperture can be positioned to be coaxial with any of the at least two sets of coaxial port outlets and port inlets; and means for securing the first surface of the first body against the first mating surface and for securing the second surface of the second body against the second mating surface.

  19. Borehole Fluid Conductivity Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-03-15

    Dynamic wellbore electrical conductivity logs provide a valuable means to determine the flow characteristics of fractures intersectin a wellbore, in order to study the hydrologic behavior of fractured rocks. To expedite the analysis of log data, a computer program called BORE II has been deveoloped that considers multiple inflow or outflow points along the wellbore, including the case of horizontal flow across the wellbore, BORE II calculates the evolution of fluid electrical conducivity (FEC) profilesmore »in a wellbore or wellbore section, which may be pumped at a low rate, and compares model results to log data in a variety of ways. FEC variations may arise from inflow under natural-state conditions or due to tracer injected in a neighboring well (interference tests). BORE II has an interactive, graphical user interface and runs on a personal computer under the Windows operating system. BORE II is a modification and extension of older codes called BORE and BOREXT, which considered inflow points only. Finite difference solution of the one-dimensional advection-diffusion equation with explicit time stepping; feed points treated as prescribed-mass sources or sinks; assume quadratic relationship between fluid electrical conductivity and ion consentration. Graphical user interface; interactive modification of model parameters and graphical display of model results and filed data in a variety of ways. Can examine horizontal flow or arbitarily complicated combination of upflow, downflow, and horizontal flow. Feed point flow rate and/or concentration may vary in time.« less

  20. Permeability of CoNbZr amorphous thin films over a wide frequency range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koyama, H.; Tsujimoto, H.; Shirae, K.

    1987-09-01

    CoNbZr amorphous films have attracted the attention of many researchers because of their high saturation magnetization, high permeability, low coercivity, and nearly zero magnetostriction. For these films to be used, one of the important magnetic properties is the behavior of the permeability over a wide frequency range. We have measured the permeability of a square-shaped magnetic film (13 mm x 55 mm) sputtered on a glass substrate from 1 MHz to 400 MHz using a stripline. Over 400 MHz, the permeability of the magnetic film was measured using a ring-shaped sample mounted in a coaxial fixture. The wall motion permeability of CoNbZr amorphous films decreases from 1 kHz to nearly zero at 1 MHz. The rotation permeability is constant to 100 MHz and ferromagnetic resonance is observed near 1 GHz.

  1. Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs … A

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Laboratory Study | Department of Energy Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs … A Laboratory Study Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs … A Laboratory Study Sustainability of Shear-Induced Permeability for EGS Reservoirs … A Laboratory Study presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon kneafsey_fracture_sustainability_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications The Role of Geochemistry and

  2. Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site | Department of Energy of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site Performance of a Permeable Reactive Barrier Using Granular Zero-Valent Iron: FY 2004 Annual Report Durango, Colorado, Disposal Site PDF icon Performance of a

  3. Ultrasonic fluid quality sensor system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2002-10-08

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  4. Ultrasonic Fluid Quality Sensor System

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J. (Meridian, ID); Kraft, Nancy C. (Idaho Falls, ID); Phelps, Larry D. (Pocatello, ID); Taylor, Steven C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2003-10-21

    A system for determining the composition of a multiple-component fluid and for determining linear flow comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the multiple-component fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the multiple-component fluid. A system for determining flow uses two of the inventive circuits, one of which is set at an angle that is not perpendicular to the direction of flow.

  5. Fluid relief and check valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blaedel, K.L.; Lord, S.C.; Murray, I.

    1986-07-17

    A passive fluid pressure relief and check valve allows the relief pressure to be slaved to a reference pressure independently of the exhaust pressure. The pressure relief valve is embodied by a submerged vent line in a sealing fluid, the relief pressure being a function of the submerged depth. A check valve is embodied by a vertical column of fluid (the maximum back pressure being a function of the height of the column of fluid). The pressure is vented into an exhaust system which keeps the exhaust out of the area providing the reference pressure.

  6. Spectral SP: A New Approach to Mapping Reservoir Flow and Permeability

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Spectral SP: A New Approach to Mapping Reservoir Flow and Permeability presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  7. Metal/ceramic composites with high hydrogen permeability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dorris, Stephen E.; Lee, Tae H.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2003-05-27

    A membrane for separating hydrogen from fluids is provided comprising a sintered homogenous mixture of a ceramic composition and a metal. The metal may be palladium, niobium, tantalum, vanadium, or zirconium or a binary mixture of palladium with another metal such as niobium, silver, tantalum, vanadium, or zirconium.

  8. EIS Distribution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This DOE guidance presents a series of recommendations related to the EIS distribution process, which includes creating and updating a distribution list, distributing an EIS, and filing an EIS with the EPA.

  9. Amino resin modified polymer gels for permeability control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shu, P.

    1989-03-07

    An aqueous cross-linked gel formed by a polysaccharide polymer, an aminoplast resin, and transitional metal ions is described, comprising: (a) water; (b) about 0.2 to about 5.0 wt. percent of a cross-linkable polysaccharide polymer selected from the group consisting of polysaccharide bipolymers and cellulose derivatives having at least one functional group selected from a member of the group consisting of an amine, an amide, a hydroxyl, or a thiol group; (c) about 0.02 to about 5.0 wt. percent of an aminoplast resin which reinforces the polymer; and (d) sufficient transitional metal ions to form a gel of a size and strength sufficient to close one or more permeable zones in a formation under substantially all pH conditions.

  10. Moisture Durability with Vapor-Permeable Insulating Sheathing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lepage, R.; Lstiburek, J.

    2013-09-01

    Exterior sheathing insulation is an effective strategy in increasing the overall R-value of wall assemblies; other benefits include decreasing the effects of thermal bridging and increasing the moisture durability of the built assembly. Vapor-permeable exterior insulation, such as mineral board or expanded polystyrene foam, are one such product that may be used to achieve these benefits. However, uncertainty exists on the effects of inward driven moisture and the interaction of increased sheathing temperatures on the moisture durability of the edifice. To address these concerns, Building Science Corporation (BSC) conducted a series of hygrothermal models for cities representing a range of different climate zones. This report describes the research project, key research questions, and the procedures utilized to analyse the problems.

  11. Report on Hydrologic Flow in Low-Permeability Media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Birkholzer, Jens

    2013-11-13

    We demonstrate that under normal conditions (under which there are no intersections between tunnels/drifts and conductive geological structures, such as faults), the water flow velocity in the damage zone, as a result of non-Darcian flow behavior, is extremely small such that solute transport is dominated by diffusion, rather than advection. We show that unless non-Darcian flow behavior is considered, significant errors can occur in the “measured” relative-permeability values. We propose a hypothesis to consider the temperature impact based on limited test results from the petroleum literature. To consider the bedding effects, we present an empirical relationship between water flux and hydraulic gradient for non-Darcian water flow in anisotropic cases.

  12. Characterization of fluid distributions in porous media by NMR...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Authors: Liaw, H.K. ; Kulkarni, R. ; Chen, S. ; Watson, A.T. 1 + Show Author Affiliations Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering ...

  13. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Howard A. (Ripon, CA)

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  14. Effective perfect fluids in cosmology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ballesteros, Guillermo; Bellazzini, Brando E-mail: brando.bellazzini@pd.infn.it

    2013-04-01

    We describe the cosmological dynamics of perfect fluids within the framework of effective field theories. The effective action is a derivative expansion whose terms are selected by the symmetry requirements on the relevant long-distance degrees of freedom, which are identified with comoving coordinates. The perfect fluid is defined by requiring invariance of the action under internal volume-preserving diffeomorphisms and general covariance. At lowest order in derivatives, the dynamics is encoded in a single function of the entropy density that characterizes the properties of the fluid, such as the equation of state and the speed of sound. This framework allows a neat simultaneous description of fluid and metric perturbations. Longitudinal fluid perturbations are closely related to the adiabatic modes, while the transverse modes mix with vector metric perturbations as a consequence of vorticity conservation. This formalism features a large flexibility which can be of practical use for higher order perturbation theory and cosmological parameter estimation.

  15. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, Mark D. (1426 Socastee Dr., North Augusta, SC 29841); Sweeney, Chad E. (3600 Westhampton Dr., Martinez, GA 30907-3036); Spangler, Jr., B. Samuel (2715 Margate Dr., Augusta, GA 30909)

    1993-01-01

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips.

  16. Fluid flow monitoring device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKay, M.D.; Sweeney, C.E.; Spangler, B.S. Jr.

    1993-11-30

    A flow meter and temperature measuring device are described comprising a tube with a body centered therein for restricting flow and a sleeve at the upper end of the tube to carry several channels formed longitudinally in the sleeve to the appropriate axial location where they penetrate the tube to allow pressure measurements and temperature measurements with thermocouples. The high pressure measurement is made using a channel penetrating the tube away from the body and the low pressure measurement is made at a location at the widest part of the body. An end plug seals the end of the device and holes at its upper end allow fluid to pass from the interior of the tube into a plenum. The channels are made by cutting grooves in the sleeve, the grooves widened at the surface of the sleeve and then a strip of sleeve material is welded to the grooves closing the channels. Preferably the sleeve is packed with powdered graphite before cutting the grooves and welding the strips. 7 figures.

  17. Incompressible Viscous Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-13

    NACHOS2 is a finite element program designed for the analysis of two-dimensional, incompressible viscous fluid flow problems. The basic flows considered may be isothermal, nonisothermal, or may involve other physical processes, such as mass transport. Both steady and transient flows may be analyzed. The class of problems treated are those described by the two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) incompressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations. An energy transport equation is included in the formulation for problems inmore » which heat transfer effects are important. Two auxiliary transport equations can be added to describe other physical processes,e.g. mass transfer, chemical reactions. Among the specific types of flow problems treated are: isothermal flow; forced, free, or mixed convection; conjugate heat transfer; flow in saturated porous media with or without heat transfer; and inelastic, non-Newtonian flows with or without heat transfer. Other problem classes are possible depending on the specific definitions applied to the auxiliary transport equations.« less

  18. Incompressible Viscous Fluid Dynamics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-13

    NACHOS2 is a finite element program designed for the analysis of two-dimensional, incompressible viscous fluid flow problems. The basic flows considered may be isothermal, nonisothermal, or may involve other physical processes, such as mass transport. Both steady and transient flows may be analyzed. The class of problems treated are those described by the two-dimensional (plane or axisymmetric) incompressible form of the Navier-Stokes equations. An energy transport equation is included in the formulation for problems inmore »which heat transfer effects are important. Two auxiliary transport equations can be added to describe other physical processes,e.g. mass transfer, chemical reactions. Among the specific types of flow problems treated are: isothermal flow; forced, free, or mixed convection; conjugate heat transfer; flow in saturated porous media with or without heat transfer; and inelastic, non-Newtonian flows with or without heat transfer. Other problem classes are possible depending on the specific definitions applied to the auxiliary transport equations.« less

  19. Fluid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, E.D.

    1994-10-11

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to be decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank. 4 figs.

  20. Computational Fluid Dynamics Library

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-03-04

    CFDLib05 is the Los Alamos Computational Fluid Dynamics LIBrary. This is a collection of hydrocodes using a common data structure and a common numerical method, for problems ranging from single-field, incompressible flow, to multi-species, multi-field, compressible flow. The data structure is multi-block, with a so-called structured grid in each block. The numerical method is a Finite-Volume scheme employing a state vector that is fully cell-centered. This means that the integral form of the conservation lawsmore » is solved on the physical domain that is represented by a mesh of control volumes. The typical control volume is an arbitrary quadrilateral in 2D and an arbitrary hexahedron in 3D. The Finite-Volume scheme is for time-unsteady flow and remains well coupled by means of time and space centered fluxes; if a steady state solution is required, the problem is integrated forward in time until the user is satisfied that the state is stationary.« less

  1. Fluid sampling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Houck, Edward D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01

    An fluid sampling system allows sampling of radioactive liquid without spillage. A feed tank is connected to a liquid transfer jet powered by a pumping chamber pressurized by compressed air. The liquid is pumped upwardly into a sampling jet of a venturi design having a lumen with an inlet, an outlet, a constricted middle portion, and a port located above the constricted middle portion. The liquid is passed under pressure through the constricted portion causing its velocity to increase and its pressure to decreased, thereby preventing liquid from escaping. A septum sealing the port can be pierced by a two pointed hollow needle leading into a sample bottle also sealed by a pierceable septum affixed to one end. The bottle is evacuated by flow through the sample jet, cyclic variation in the sampler jet pressure periodically leaves the evacuated bottle with lower pressure than that of the port, thus causing solution to pass into the bottle. The remaining solution in the system is returned to the feed tank via a holding tank.

  2. Fluid flow modeling of resin transfer molding for composite material wind turbine blade structures.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cairns, Douglas S. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT); Rossel, Scott M. (Montana State University, Bozeman, MT)

    2004-06-01

    Resin transfer molding (RTM) is a closed mold process for making composite materials. It has the potential to produce parts more cost effectively than hand lay-up or other methods. However, fluid flow tends to be unpredictable and parts the size of a wind turbine blade are difficult to engineer without some predictive method for resin flow. There were five goals of this study. The first was to determine permeabilities for three fabrics commonly used for RTM over a useful range of fiber volume fractions. Next, relations to estimate permeabilities in mixed fabric lay-ups were evaluated. Flow in blade substructures was analyzed and compared to predictions. Flow in a full-scale blade was predicted and substructure results were used to validate the accuracy of a full-scale blade prediction.

  3. Fluid Flow Phenomena during Welding

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei

    2011-01-01

    MOLTEN WELD POOLS are dynamic. Liquid in the weld pool in acted on by several strong forces, which can result in high-velocity fluid motion. Fluid flow velocities exceeding 1 m/s (3.3 ft/s) have been observed in gas tungsten arc (GTA) welds under ordinary welding conditions, and higher velocities have been measured in submerged arc welds. Fluid flow is important because it affects weld shape and is related to the formation of a variety of weld defects. Moving liquid transports heat and often dominates heat transport in the weld pool. Because heat transport by mass flow depends on the direction and speed of fluid motion, weld pool shape can differ dramatically from that predicted by conductive heat flow. Temperature gradients are also altered by fluid flow, which can affect weld microstructure. A number of defects in GTA welds have been attributed to fluid flow or changes in fluid flow, including lack of penetration, top bead roughness, humped beads, finger penetration, and undercutting. Instabilities in the liquid film around the keyhole in electron beam and laser welds are responsible for the uneven penetration (spiking) characteristic of these types of welds.

  4. High-density fluid compositions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, D.C.

    1981-09-29

    Clear, high-density fluids suitable for use as well completion, packing, and perforation media comprise aqueous solutions of zinc bromide and calcium bromide having densities lying in the range of about 14.5 up to about 18.0 pounds per gallon and measured PH's lying in the range of about 3.5 up to about 6.0. Optionally, such fluids may also comprise calcium chloride and/or a soluble film-forming amine-based corrosion inhibitor. Such fluids under conditions of ordinary use exhibit low corrosion rates and have crystallization points lying well below the range of temperatures under which they are used.

  5. Particle sorter comprising a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2012-04-24

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices utilizing a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit.

  6. Standardization of Thermo-Fluid Modeling in Modelica.Fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franke, Rudiger; Casella, Francesco; Sielemann, Michael; Proelss, Katrin; Otter, Martin; Wetter, Michael

    2009-09-01

    This article discusses the Modelica.Fluid library that has been included in the Modelica Standard Library 3.1. Modelica.Fluid provides interfaces and basic components for the device-oriented modeling of onedimensional thermo-fluid flow in networks containing vessels, pipes, fluid machines, valves and fittings. A unique feature of Modelica.Fluid is that the component equations and the media models as well as pressure loss and heat transfer correlations are decoupled from each other. All components are implemented such that they can be used for media from the Modelica.Media library. This means that an incompressible or compressible medium, a single or a multiple substance medium with one or more phases might be used with one and the same model as long as the modeling assumptions made hold. Furthermore, trace substances are supported. Modeling assumptions can be configured globally in an outer System object. This covers in particular the initialization, uni- or bi-directional flow, and dynamic or steady-state formulation of mass, energy, and momentum balance. All assumptions can be locally refined for every component. While Modelica.Fluid contains a reasonable set of component models, the goal of the library is not to provide a comprehensive set of models, but rather to provide interfaces and best practices for the treatment of issues such as connector design and implementation of energy, mass and momentum balances. Applications from various domains are presented.

  7. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Novel sensor design based on acoustics. Determine in real-timeand in a single sensor packagemultiple parameters: temperature, pressure, fluid flow; and fluid properties, such as density, viscosity, fluid composition.

  8. Imaging, Characterizing, and Modeling of Fracture Networks and Fluid Flow in EGS Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Improve image resolution for microseismicimaging and time-lapse active seismic imaging; Enhance the prediction of fluid flow and temperature distributions and stress changes by coupling fracture flow simulations with reservoir flow simulations; and integrating imaging into modeling.

  9. Noise modeling from high-permeability shields using Kirchhoff equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandin, Henrik J; Volegov, Petr L; Espy, Michelle A; Matlashov, Andrei N; Savukov, Igor M; Schultz, Larry J

    2010-01-01

    Progress in the development of high-sensitivity magnetic-field measurements has stimulated interest in understanding magnetic noise of conductive materials, especially of magnetic shields (DC or rf) based on high-permeability materials and/or high-conductivity materials. For example, SQUIDs and atomic magnetometers have been used in many experiments with mu-metal shields, and additionally SQUID systems frequently have rf shielding based on thin conductive materials. Typical existing approaches to modeling noise only work with simple shield and sensor geometries while common experimental setups today consist of multiple sensor systems arbitrary shapes and complex shield geometries. With complex sensor arrays used in, for example, MEG and Ultra Low Field MRI studies the knowledge of the noise correlation between sensors is as important as the knowledge of the noise itself. This is crucial for incorporating efficient noise cancelation schemes for the system. We developed an approach that allows us to calculate the Johnson noise for any geometrically shaped shield and multiple sensor systems. The approach uses a fraction of the processing power of other approaches and with a multiple sensor system our approach not only calculates the noise for each sensor but it also calculates the noise correlation matrix between sensors. Here we will show the algorithm and examples where it can be implemented.

  10. Characterization of tungsten films and their hydrogen permeability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nemani?, Vincenc Kova?, Janez; Lungu, Cristian; Porosnicu, Corneliu; Zajec, Bojan

    2014-11-01

    Prediction of tritium migration and its retention within fusion reactors is uncertain due to a significant role of the structural disorder that is formed on the surface layer after plasma exposure. Tungsten films deposited by any of the suitable methods are always disordered and contain a high density of hydrogen traps. Experiments on such films with hydrogen isotopes present a suitable complementary method, which improves the picture of the hydrogen interaction with fusion relevant materials. The authors report on the morphology, composition, and structure of tungsten films deposited by the thermionic vacuum arc method on highly permeable Eurofer substrates. Subsequently, hydrogen permeation studies through these films were carried out in a wide pressure range from 20 to 1000 mbars at 400?°C. The final value of the permeation coefficient for four samples after 24?h at 400?°C was between P?=?3.2?Ś?10{sup ?14}?mol?H{sub 2}/(m?s?Pa{sup 0.5}) and P?=?1.1?Ś?10{sup ?15}?mol H{sub 2}/(m s Pa{sup 0.5}). From the time evolution of the permeation flux, it was shown that diffusivity was responsible for the difference in the steady fluxes, as solubility was roughly the same. This is confirmed by XRD data taken on these samples.

  11. Oil Recovery Enhancement from Fractured, Low Permeability Reservoirs. [Carbonated Water

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Poston, S. W.

    1991-01-01

    The results of the investigative efforts for this jointly funded DOE-State of Texas research project achieved during the 1990-1991 year may be summarized as follows: Geological Characterization - Detailed maps of the development and hierarchical nature the fracture system exhibited by Austin Chalk outcrops were prepared. The results of these efforts were directly applied to the development of production decline type curves applicable to a dual-fracture-matrix flow system. Analysis of production records obtained from Austin Chalk operators illustrated the utility of these type curves to determine relative fracture/matrix contributions and extent. Well-log response in Austin Chalk wells has been shown to be a reliable indicator of organic maturity. Shear-wave splitting concepts were used to estimate fracture orientations from Vertical Seismic Profile, VSP data. Several programs were written to facilitate analysis of the data. The results of these efforts indicated fractures could be detected with VSP seismic methods. Development of the EOR Imbibition Process - Laboratory displacement as well as Magnetic Resonance Imaging, MRI and Computed Tomography, CT imaging studies have shown the carbonated water-imbibition displacement process significantly accelerates and increases recovery from oil saturated, low permeability rocks. Field Tests - Two operators amenable to conducting a carbonated water flood test on an Austin Chalk well have been identified. Feasibility studies are presently underway.

  12. Building America Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes: Moisture Durability of Vapor Permeable Insulating Sheathing (Fact Sheet)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In this project, Building America team Building Science Corporation researched some of the ramifications of using exterior, vapor permeable insulation on retrofit walls with vapor permeable cavity insulation. Retrofit strategies are a key factor in reducing exterior building stock consumption.

  13. Fluid Dynamics with Free Surfaces

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-02-01

    RIPPLE is a two-dimensional, transient, free surface incompressible fluid dynamics program. It allows multiple free surfaces with surface tension and wall adhesion forces and has a partial cell treatment which allows curved boundaries and interior obstacles.

  14. Fluid Inclusion Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Geothermal Area (2004) Coso Geothermal Area 2004 2004 GEOTHERMAL FLUID PROPENE AND PROPANE: INDICATORS OF FLUID GEOLOGY AND MINERAL PARAGENESIS STUDY WITHIN THE COSO-EGS...

  15. Variable flexure-based fluid filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Steve B.; Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Marshall, Graham; Wolcott, Duane

    2007-03-13

    An apparatus and method for filtering particles from a fluid comprises a fluid inlet, a fluid outlet, a variable size passage between the fluid inlet and the fluid outlet, and means for adjusting the size of the variable size passage for filtering the particles from the fluid. An inlet fluid flow stream is introduced to a fixture with a variable size passage. The size of the variable size passage is set so that the fluid passes through the variable size passage but the particles do not pass through the variable size passage.

  16. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    the bulk properties of the juxtaposed fluid and solid phases? How do altered interfacial fluid properties couple with complex substrate nanogeometries and functionalities to...

  17. Final Report- Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final Report - Rejuvenating Permeable Reactive Barriers by Chemical Flushing, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 Support

  18. The magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability for inviscid and viscous fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, K.; Forbes, L. K.

    2011-05-15

    The Rayleigh-Taylor instability arises whenever two fluids with different densities are arranged such that the heavier fluid sits above the lighter fluid, with a sharp interface in between. The magnetic Rayleigh-Taylor instability has the further complication due to the presence of a magnetic field throughout both media. The two fluids in question may also have differing magnetic properties, such as the magnetic permeability. When the fluids in consideration are in fact plasmas comprised of charged particles, induced currents, magnetic fields, and Lorentz forces can all act in ways that will affect the stability of the system. Stable base flows exist for the 2D case, and small sinusoidal disturbances to the base flow will grow in the unstable scenario. The numerical method described in this paper calculates the growth of the interface in the nonlinear regime, since closed form solutions are obtained only in the linear approximation. Through the analysis of both the fluid and magnetic vorticities and streamfunctions, the simulated results can be explained from the principles of magnetohydrodynamics. A range of simulations is presented, looking at cases with different initial conditions, cases with strong and weak magnetic fields, and cases with magnetic fields oriented at different angles relative to the interface of the two fluids. It is shown in particular how different initial conditions give rise to outcomes that are very different in terms of the geometry of the interface between the two fluids, primarily the differences between a single mode disturbance and a multimode disturbance to the interface at time t = 0.

  19. Insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Daniel O. (Glenville, NV)

    2000-01-01

    A fluid flow passage bridgepiece for insertion into an open-face fluid flow channel of a fluid flow plate is provided. The bridgepiece provides a sealed passage from a columnar fluid flow manifold to the flow channel, thereby preventing undesirable leakage into and out of the columnar fluid flow manifold. When deployed in the various fluid flow plates that are used in a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell, bridgepieces of this invention prevent mixing of reactant gases, leakage of coolant or humidification water, and occlusion of the fluid flow channel by gasket material. The invention also provides a fluid flow plate assembly including an insertable bridgepiece, a fluid flow plate adapted for use with an insertable bridgepiece, and a method of manufacturing a fluid flow plate with an insertable fluid flow passage bridgepiece.

  20. Stress- and Chemistry-Mediated Permeability Enhancement/Degradation in Stimulated Critically-Stressed Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derek Elsworth; Abraham S. Grader; Chris Marone; Phillip Halleck; Peter Rose; Igor Faoro; Joshua Taron; André Niemeijer; Hideaki Yasuhara

    2009-03-30

    This work has investigated the interactions between stress and chemistry in controlling the evolution of permeability in stimulated fractured reservoirs through an integrated program of experimentation and modeling. Flow-through experiments on natural and artificial fractures in Coso diorite have examined the evolution of permeability under paths of mean and deviatoric stresses, including the role of dissolution and precipitation. Models accommodating these behaviors have examined the importance of incorporating the complex couplings between stress and chemistry in examining the evolution of permeability in EGS reservoirs. This document reports the findings of experiment [1,2] and analysis [3,4], in four sequential chapters.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF NEW DRILLING FLUIDS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David B. Burnett

    2003-08-01

    The goal of the project has been to develop new types of drill-in fluids (DIFs) and completion fluids (CFs) for use in natural gas reservoirs. Phase 1 of the project was a 24-month study to develop the concept of advanced type of fluids usable in well completions. Phase 1 tested this concept and created a kinetic mathematical model to accurately track the fluid's behavior under downhole conditions. Phase 2 includes tests of the new materials and practices. Work includes the preparation of new materials and the deployment of the new fluids and new practices to the field. The project addresses the special problem of formation damage issues related to the use of CFs and DIFs in open hole horizontal well completions. The concept of a ''removable filtercake'' has, as its basis, a mechanism to initiate or trigger the removal process. Our approach to developing such a mechanism is to identify the components of the filtercake and measure the change in the characteristics of these components when certain cleanup (filtercake removal) techniques are employed.

  2. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, Margaret S. (Richland, WA); Harris, Robert V. (Pasco, WA)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface.

  3. Pitch-catch only ultrasonic fluid densitometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenwood, M.S.; Harris, R.V.

    1999-03-23

    The present invention is an ultrasonic fluid densitometer that uses a material wedge and pitch-catch only ultrasonic transducers for transmitting and receiving ultrasonic signals internally reflected within the material wedge. Density of a fluid is determined by immersing the wedge into the fluid and measuring reflection of ultrasound at the wedge-fluid interface. 6 figs.

  4. Fluid Imaging of Enhanced Geothermal Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objectives: Attempting to Image EGS Fracture & Fluid Networks; Employing joint Geophysical Imaging Technologies.

  5. Development of Cost-Effective Low-Permeability Ceramic and Refractory Components for Aluminum Melting and Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dale E. Brown (Pyrotek); Puja B. Kadolkar (ORNL)

    2005-12-15

    The primary goal of this project was to develop and validate new classes of cost-effective low-permeability ceramic and refractory components for handling molten aluminum in both melting and casting environments. Three approaches were employed with partial to full success to achieve this goal: (1) Develop materials and methods for sealing surface porosity in thermal-shock-resistant ceramic refractories; (2) Develop new ceramic coatings for extreme service in molten aluminum operations, with particular emphasis on coatings based on highly stable oxide phases; and (3) Develop new monolithic refractories designed for lower-permeability applications using controlled porosity gradients and particle size distributions. The results of the research work and the field tests performed utilizing these three approaches are listed below: (1) It was demonstrated that high-density IR heating could be a tool for altering and sealing the surface porosity of fused silica. However, the process was not very cost-effective. (2) A low-cost glaze composition having a coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) similar to that of a DFS tube was identified and was successfully tested for its integrity and adherence to DFS. Although the glaze acted as a barrier between the molten aluminum and the DFS, persistent porosity and crazing within the glaze affected its performance during the reactivity tests, thus acting as an obstacle in scaling up production of this glaze. (3) Pyrotek's XL glaze showed great success in improving the life of the DFS tubes. Pyrotek has reported an increasing market demand for the XL-coated DFS tubes, which exhibit useful lifetimes three times better than those of uncoated tubes. (4) A computer model to optimize particle size distribution for reduced permeability was developed and successfully applied to casting formulations. Silica riser tubes produced using these new formulations have been tested in a commercial aluminum casting facility and have been reported to increase the life of the DFS tubes by 700%. (5) If all the DFS riser tubes used in LPD casting of aluminum automotive components are replaced with the better, longer-lasting castable riser tubes, the potential national energy savings is estimated to be 206 billion Btu/year.

  6. Poly 3D fault modeling scripts/data for permeability potential of Washington State geothermal prospects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michael Swyer

    2015-02-05

    Matlab scripts/functions and data used to build Poly3D models and create permeability potential GIS layers for 1) Mount St Helen's, 2) Wind River Valley, and 3) Mount Baker geothermal prospect areas located in Washington state.

  7. Phase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical Flushing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Final ReportPhase II: Performance Evaluation of Permeable Reactive Barriers and Potential for Rejuvenation by Chemical FlushingU. S. Environmental Protection Agency Region 8 SupportJanuary 2004

  8. Factors affecting initial permeability of Co-substituted Ni-Zn-Cu ferrites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byun, T.Y.; Byeon, S.C.; Hong, K.S.; Kim, C.K.

    1999-09-01

    Iron deficient compositions of (Ni{sub 0.2}Cu{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.6}){sub 1.02{minus}x}Co{sub x}Fe{sub 1.98}O{sub 4} (0 {le} x {le} 0.05) were prepared to investigate their initial permeability dependence on cobalt contents. Extrinsic factors such as grain size and sintered density change little in samples sintered at 900 C, so their effects on permeability can be neglected. Intrinsic factors such as saturation magnetization, magnetocrystalline anisotropy (K{sub 1}) and magnetoelastic anisotropy (K{sub {sigma}}) can not account for the variation of initial permeability with Co content. Measurement of thermoelectric power shows that the concentration of cation vacancies increases with Co content. Therefore, the local induced anisotropy increases by the ordering of Co ions cia increased cation vacancy concentration. This increase in induced anisotropy results in the decrease of initial permeability.

  9. Shielded fluid stream injector for particle bed reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Notestein, John E. (Morgantown, WV)

    1993-01-01

    A shielded fluid-stream injector assembly is provided for particle bed reactors. The assembly includes a perforated pipe injector disposed across the particle bed region of the reactor and an inverted V-shaped shield placed over the pipe, overlapping it to prevent descending particles from coming into direct contact with the pipe. The pipe and shield are fixedly secured at one end to the reactor wall and slidably secured at the other end to compensate for thermal expansion. An axially extending housing aligned with the pipe and outside the reactor and an in-line reamer are provided for removing deposits from the inside of the pipe. The assembly enables fluid streams to be injected and distributed uniformly into the particle bed with minimized clogging of injector ports. The same design may also be used for extraction of fluid streams from particle bed reactors.

  10. Motion-induced radiation in a cavity with conducting and permeable plates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarabadani, Jalal; Miri, MirFaez

    2007-05-15

    We consider a conducting and a permeable plate immersed in the vacuum of a scalar field. We calculate the photon production rate when two plates at a distance H oscillate with a frequency {omega}{sub p}. For H{omega}{sub p}/({pi}c)<2, the angular spectrum and photon production rates are significantly different from those of a conventional cavity with two conducting or two permeable plates.

  11. Measurement and Modeling of Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability Changes in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2005-10-01

    Strain caused by the adsorption of gases was measured in samples of subbituminous coal from the Powder River basin of Wyoming, U.S.A., and high-volatile bituminous coal from the Uinta-Piceance basin of Utah, U.S.A. using a newly developed strain measurement apparatus. The apparatus can be used to measure strain on multiple small coal samples based on the optical detection of the longitudinal strain. The swelling and shrinkage (strain) in the coal samples resulting from the adsorption of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, methane, helium, and a mixture of gases was measured. Sorption-induced strain processes were shown to be reversible and easily modeled with a Langmuir-type equation. Extended Langmuir theory was applied to satisfactorily model strain caused by the adsorption of gas mixtures using the pure gas Langmuir strain constants. The amount of time required to obtain accurate strain data was greatly reduced compared to other strain measurement methods. Sorption-induced changes in permeability were also measured as a function of pres-sure. Cleat compressibility was found to be variable, not constant. Calculated variable cleat-compressibility constants were found to correlate well with previously published data for other coals. During permeability tests, sorption-induced matrix shrinkage was clearly demonstrated by higher permeability values at lower pore pressures while holding overburden pressure constant. Measured permeability data were modeled using three dif-ferent permeability models from the open literature that take into account sorption-induced matrix strain. All three models poorly matched the measured permeability data because they overestimated the impact of measured sorption-induced strain on permeabil-ity. However, by applying an experimentally derived expression to the measured strain data that accounts for the confining overburden pressure, pore pressure, coal type, and gas type, the permeability models were significantly improved.

  12. Third invitational well-testing symposium: well testing in low permeability environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doe, T.W.; Schwarz, W.J.

    1981-03-01

    The testing of low permeability rocks is common to waste disposal, fossil energy resource development, underground excavation, and geothermal energy development. This document includes twenty-six papers and abstracts, divided into the following sessions: opening session, case histories and related phenomena, well test design in low permeability formations, analysis and interpretation of well test data, and instrumentation for well tests. Separate abstracts were prepared for 15 of the 16 papers; the remaining paper has been previously abstracted. (DLC)

  13. Viscous potential flow analysis of electrified miscible finitely conducting fluid through porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Obied Allah, M. H.

    2013-04-15

    In this work, a viscous potential flow analysis is used to investigate capillary surface waves between two horizontal finite fluid layers. The two layers have finite conductivities and admit mass and heat transfer. A general dispersion relation is derived. The presence of finite conductivities together with the dielectric permeabilities makes the horizontal electric field play a dual role in the stability criterion. The phenomenon of negative viscosity is observed. A new growth rate parameter, depending on the kinematical viscosity of the lower fluid layer, is found and has a stabilizing effect on the unstable modes. The growth rates and neutral stability curve are given and applied to air-water interface. The effects of various parameters are discussed for the Kelvin-Helmholtz and the Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities.

  14. Distribution Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

  15. A multi-state magnetic memory dependent on the permeability of Metglas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Petrie, J. R.; Wieland, K. A.; Timmerwilke, J. M.; Burke, R. A.; Newburgh, G. A.; Fischer, G. A.; Edelstein, A. S.; Barron, S. C.; Burnette, J. E.

    2015-04-06

    A three-state magnetic memory was developed based on differences in the magnetic permeability of a soft ferromagnetic media, Metglas 2826MB (Fe{sub 40}Ni{sub 38}Mo{sub 4}B{sub 18}). By heating bits of a 250?nm thick Metglas film with 70–100 mW of laser power, we were able to tune the local microstructure, and hence, the permeability. Ternary memory states were created by using lower laser power to enhance the initial permeability through localized atomic rearrangement and higher power to reduce the permeability through crystallization. The permeability of the bits was read by detecting variations in an external 32?Oe probe field within 10 ?m of the media via a magnetic tunnel junction read head. Compared to data based on remanent magnetization, these multi-permeability bits have enhanced insensitivity to unexpected field and temperature changes. We found that data was not corrupted after exposure to fields of 1 T or temperatures of 423?K, indicating the effectiveness of this multi-state approach for safely storing large amounts of data.

  16. Well completion and servicing fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grimsley, R.L.

    1990-09-25

    This patent describes a well completion servicing fluid for controlling formation pressure during completion or servicing of a well. It comprises: an aqueous solution of calcium chloride, a solid weighing agent suspended in the solution and being selected from the group consisting of zinc, zinc oxide, and mixtures thereof; and a viscosifier dissolved in the solution in an amount effective to suspend the weighing agent. The fluid has a density of greater than 15 pounds per gallon and being substantially free of bromide ions and being substantially free of solid material which is not soluble in hydrochloric acid.

  17. Wellbottom fluid implosion treatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brieger, Emmet F.

    2001-01-01

    A system for inducing implosion shock forces on perforation traversing earth formations with fluid pressure where an implosion tool is selected relative to a shut in well pressure and a tubing pressure to have a large and small area piston relationship in a well tool so that at a predetermined tubing pressure the pistons move a sufficient distance to open an implosion valve which permits a sudden release of well fluid pressure into the tubing string and produces an implosion force on the perforations. A pressure gauge on the well tool records tubing pressure and well pressure as a function of time.

  18. Transport coefficients of gluonic fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Santosh K.; Alam, Jan-e

    2011-06-01

    The shear ({eta}) and bulk ({zeta}) viscous coefficients have been evaluated for a gluonic fluid. The elastic, gg{yields}gg and the inelastic, number nonconserving, gg{yields}ggg processes have been considered as the dominant perturbative processes in evaluating the viscous coefficients to entropy density (s) ratios. Recently the processes: gg{yields}ggg has been revisited and a correction to the widely used Gunion-Bertsch (GB) formula has been obtained. The {eta} and {zeta} have been evaluated for gluonic fluid with the formula recently derived. At large {alpha}{sub s} the value of {eta}/s approaches its lower bound, {approx}1/4{pi}.

  19. Effects of fluid dynamics on cleaning efficacy of supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, M.R.; Willcox, W.A.; Silva, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1993-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Boeing Aerospace Company are developing a process to clean metal parts using a supercritical solvent. This work is part of an effort to address issues inhibiting the rapid commercialization of Supercritical Fluid Parts Cleaning (SFPC). PNL assembled a SFPC test stand to observe the relationship between the fluid dynamics of the system and the mass transfer of a contaminant from the surface of a contaminated metal coupon into the bulk fluid. The bench-scale test stand consists of a ``Berty`` autoclave modified for these tests and supporting hardware to achieve supercritical fluids parts cleaning. Three separate sets of tests were conducted using supercritical carbon dioxide. For the first two tests, a single stainless steel coupon was cleaned with organic solvents to remove surface residue, doped with a single contaminant, and then cleaned in the SFPC test stand. Contaminants studied were Dow Corning 200 fluid (dimethylpolysiloxane) and Castle/Sybron X-448 High-temperature Oil (a polybutane/mineral oil mixture). A set of 5-minute cleaning runs was conducted for each dopant at various autoclave impeller speeds. Test results from the first two sets of experiments indicate that precision cleaning for difficult-to-remove contaminants can be dramatically improved by introducing and increasing turbulence within the system. Metal coupons that had been previously doped with aircraft oil were used in a third set of tests. The coupons were placed in the SFPC test stand and subjected to different temperatures, pressures, and run times at a constant impeller speed. The cleanliness of each part was measured by Optically Stimulated Electron Emission. The third set of tests show that levels of cleanliness attained with supercritical carbon dioxide compare favorably with solvent and aqueous cleaning levels.

  20. Effects of fluid dynamics on cleaning efficacy of supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, M.R.; Willcox, W.A.; Silva, L.J.; Butner, R.S.

    1993-03-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and Boeing Aerospace Company are developing a process to clean metal parts using a supercritical solvent. This work is part of an effort to address issues inhibiting the rapid commercialization of Supercritical Fluid Parts Cleaning (SFPC). PNL assembled a SFPC test stand to observe the relationship between the fluid dynamics of the system and the mass transfer of a contaminant from the surface of a contaminated metal coupon into the bulk fluid. The bench-scale test stand consists of a Berty'' autoclave modified for these tests and supporting hardware to achieve supercritical fluids parts cleaning. Three separate sets of tests were conducted using supercritical carbon dioxide. For the first two tests, a single stainless steel coupon was cleaned with organic solvents to remove surface residue, doped with a single contaminant, and then cleaned in the SFPC test stand. Contaminants studied were Dow Corning 200 fluid (dimethylpolysiloxane) and Castle/Sybron X-448 High-temperature Oil (a polybutane/mineral oil mixture). A set of 5-minute cleaning runs was conducted for each dopant at various autoclave impeller speeds. Test results from the first two sets of experiments indicate that precision cleaning for difficult-to-remove contaminants can be dramatically improved by introducing and increasing turbulence within the system. Metal coupons that had been previously doped with aircraft oil were used in a third set of tests. The coupons were placed in the SFPC test stand and subjected to different temperatures, pressures, and run times at a constant impeller speed. The cleanliness of each part was measured by Optically Stimulated Electron Emission. The third set of tests show that levels of cleanliness attained with supercritical carbon dioxide compare favorably with solvent and aqueous cleaning levels.

  1. Fluid-Rock Characterization and Interactions in NMR Well Logging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, George J.; Mohanty, Kishore, K.

    2001-07-13

    The objective of this project is to characterize the fluid properties and fluid-rock interactions that are needed for formation evaluation by NMR well logging. This is the first annual progress report submitted to the DOE. It reports on the work completed during the reporting period even if it may have started before this period. This project is a partnership between Professor George J. Hirasaki at Rice University and Professor Kishore Mohanty at University of Houston. In addition to the DOE, this project is supported by a consortium of oil companies and service companies. The fluid properties characterization has emphasized the departure of live oils from correlations based on dead oils. Also, asphaltic components can result in a difference between the T1 and T2 relaxation time distributions as well as reduce the hydrogen index. The fluid rock characterizations that are reported here are the effects of wettability and internal magnetic field gradients. A pore reconstruction method ha s been developed to recreate three-dimensional porous media from two-dimensional images that reproduce some of their key statistical properties. A Monte Carlo simulation technique has been developed to calculate the magnetization decay in fluid saturated porous media given their pore structure.

  2. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kempka, S.N.; Walters, R.N.

    1996-07-02

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs. 9 figs.

  3. Directed flow fluid rinse trough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kempka, Steven N.; Walters, Robert N.

    1996-01-01

    Novel rinse troughs accomplish thorough uniform rinsing. The tanks are suitable for one or more essentially planar items having substantially the same shape. The troughs ensure that each surface is rinsed uniformly. The new troughs also require less rinse fluid to accomplish a thorough rinse than prior art troughs.

  4. General Transient Fluid Flow Algorithm

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-12

    SALE2D calculates two-dimensional fluid flows at all speeds, from the incompressible limit to highly supersonic. An implicit treatment of the pressure calculation similar to that in the Implicit Continuous-fluid Eulerian (ICE) technique provides this flow speed flexibility. In addition, the computing mesh may move with the fluid in a typical Lagrangian fashion, be held fixed in an Eulerian manner, or move in some arbitrarily specified way to provide a continuous rezoning capability. This latitude resultsmore » from use of an Arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) treatment of the mesh. The partial differential equations solved are the Navier-Stokes equations and the mass and internal energy equations. The fluid pressure is determined from an equation of state and supplemented with an artificial viscous pressure for the computation of shock waves. The computing mesh consists of a two-dimensional network of quadrilateral cells for either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinates, and a variety of user-selectable boundary conditions are provided in the program.« less

  5. Improved techniques for fluid diversion in oil recovery. First annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seright, R.S.

    1993-12-01

    This three-year project has two general objectives. The first objective is to compare the effectiveness of gels in fluid diversion with those of other types of processes. Several different types of fluid-diversion processes are being compared, including those using gels, foams, emulsions, and particulates. The ultimate goals of these comparisons are to (1) establish which of these processes are most effective in a given application, and (2) determine whether aspects of one process can be combined with those of other processes to improve performance. Analyses and experiments are being performed to verify which materials are the most effective in entering and blocking high-permeability zones. Another objective of the project is to identify the mechanisms by which materials (particularly gels) selectively reduce permeability to water more than to oil. This report describes work performed during the first year of the project. Following the introduction, Chapters 2 through 5 present several surveys concerning field applications of gel treatments. Based on the results of the surveys, guidelines are proposed in Chapter 5 for the selection of candidates for gel treatments (both injection wells and production wells). Chapters 6, 7, 8, and 11 discuss theoretical work that was performed during the project. Chapter 6 examines whether Hall plots indicated selectivity during gelant placement. Chapter 7 discusses several important theoretical aspects of gel treatments in production wells with water-coning problems. Chapter 8 considers exploitation of density differences during gelant placement. Chapter 11 presents a preliminary consideration of the use of precipitates as blocking agents. Chapters 9 and 10 detail the experimental work for the project. Chapter 9 describes an experimental investigation of gelant placement in fractured systems. Chapter 10 describes experiments that probe the mechanisms for disproportionate permeability reduction by gels.

  6. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project Profile: Verizon Central Office Building ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project...

  7. Compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Donahoo, Eric E; Ross, Christopher W

    2014-11-25

    A compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system for a turbine engine for directing cooling fluids from a compressor to a turbine airfoil cooling system to supply cooling fluids to one or more airfoils of a rotor assembly is disclosed. The compressor bleed cooling fluid feed system may enable cooling fluids to be exhausted from a compressor exhaust plenum through a downstream compressor bleed collection chamber and into the turbine airfoil cooling system. As such, the suction created in the compressor exhaust plenum mitigates boundary layer growth along the inner surface while providing flow of cooling fluids to the turbine airfoils.

  8. Lox breathing system with gas permeable-liquid impermeable heat exchange and delivery hose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, Mark N. (Richland, WA)

    1996-01-01

    Life support apparatus composed of: a garment (2): for completely enclosing a wearer and constructed for preventing passage of gas from the environment surrounding the garment (2); a portable receptacle (6) holding a quantity of an oxygen-containing fluid in liquid state, the fluid being in a breathable gaseous; state when at standard temperature and pressure; a fluid flow member (16) secured within the garment (2) and coupled to the receptacle (6) for conducting the fluid in liquid state from the receptacle (6) to the interior of the garment (2); and a fluid flow control device (14) connected for causing fluid to flow from the receptacle (6) to the fluid flow member (16) at a rate determined by the breathable air requirement of the wearer, wherein fluid in liquid state is conducted into the interior of the garment (2) at a rate to be vaporized and heated to a breathable temperature by body heat produced by the wearer.

  9. LOx breathing system with gas permeable-liquid impermeable heat exchange and delivery hose

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, M.N.

    1996-04-30

    Life support apparatus is composed of: a garment for completely enclosing a wearer and constructed for preventing passage of gas from the environment surrounding the garment; a portable receptacle holding a quantity of an oxygen-containing fluid in liquid state, the fluid being in a breathable gaseous state when at standard temperature and pressure; a fluid flow member secured within the garment and coupled to the receptacle for conducting the fluid in liquid state from the receptacle to the interior of the garment; and a fluid flow control device connected for causing fluid to flow from the receptacle to the fluid flow member at a rate determined by the breathable air requirement of the wearer, wherein fluid in liquid state is conducted into the interior of the garment at a rate to be vaporized and heated to a breathable temperature by body heat produced by the wearer. 6 figs.

  10. IMPACT OF CURING TEMPERATURE ON THE SATURATED LIQUID PERMEABILITY OF SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, F.; Harbour, J.

    2011-02-14

    This report focuses on the impact of curing temperature on the performance properties of simulated Saltstone mixes. The key performance property of interest is saturated liquid permeability (measured as hydraulic conductivity), an input to the Performance Assessment (PA) modeling for the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF). Therefore, the current study was performed to measure the dependence of saturated hydraulic conductivity on curing temperature of Saltstone mixes, to correlate these results with measurements of Young's moduli on the same samples and to compare the Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images of the microstructure at each curing temperature in an effort to associate this significant changes in permeability with changes in microstructure. This work demonstrated that the saturated liquid permeability of Saltstone mixes depends significantly on the curing temperature. As the curing temperature increases, the hydraulic conductivity can increase over three orders of magnitude from roughly 10{sup -9} cm/sec to 10{sup -6} cm/sec over the temperature range of 20 C to 80 C. Although an increased aluminate concentration (at 0.22 M) in the ARP/MCU waste stream improves (decreases) saturated permeability for samples cured at lower temperatures, the permeabilities for samples cured at 60 C to 80 C are the same as the permeabilities measured for an equivalent mix but with lower aluminate concentration. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that the unsaturated flow apparatus (UFA) system can be used to measure hydraulic conductivity of Saltstone samples. The permeability results obtained using the UFA centrifuge system were equivalent within experimental error to the conventional permeameter results (the falling head method) obtained at MACTEC. In particular the UFA technique is best suited for the range of hydraulic conductivities between 10{sup -10} cm/sec to 10{sup -6} cm/sec. Measurements of dynamic Young's moduli (E) for these mixes revealed a correlation between E and hydraulic conductivity. Therefore, it is possible to use E values to estimate the values of hydraulic conductivity. Measurement of Young's modulus is much easier than the measurement of permeability of Saltstone mixes and facilitates the measurement of the time dependence hydraulic conductivity. The results presented in this report show that changes in permeability as a function of curing temperature appear to be related to microstructural changes in the cured Saltstone mixes. Backscattered electron microscopy images revealed significant differences between the samples cured at different temperatures.

  11. Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1992-04-01

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy's law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

  12. Determination of the permeability of carbon aerogels by gas flow measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kong, F.M.; Hulsey, S.S.; Alviso, C.T.; Pekala, R.W.

    1992-04-01

    Carbon aerogels are synthesized via the polycondensation of resorcinol and formaldehyde, followed by supercritical drying and pyrolysis at 1050{degree}C in nitrogen. Because of their interconnected porosity, ultrafine cell structure and high surface area, carbon aerogels have many potential applications, such as in supercapacitors, battery electrodes, catalyst supports, and gas filters. The performance of carbon aerogels in the latter two applications depends on the permeability or gas flow conductance in these materials. By measuring the pressure differential across a thin specimen and the nitrogen gas flow rate in the viscous regime, we calculated the permeability of carbon aerogels from equations based upon Darcy`s law. Our measurements show that carbon aerogels have apparent permeabilities on the order of 10{sup {minus}12}to 10{sup {minus}10} cm{sup 2} for densities ranging from 0.44 to 0.05 g/cm{sup 3}. Like their mechanical properties, the permeability of carbon aerogels follows a power law relationship with density and average pore size. Such findings help us to estimate the average pore sizes of carbon aerogels once their densities are known. This paper reveals the relationships among permeability, pore size and density in carbon aerogels.

  13. A new coal-permeability model: Internal swelling stress and fracture-matrix interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H.H.; Rutqvist, J.

    2009-10-01

    We have developed a new coal-permeability model for uniaxial strain and constant confining stress conditions. The model is unique in that it explicitly considers fracture-matrix interaction during coal deformation processes and is based on a newly proposed internal-swelling stress concept. This concept is used to account for the impact of matrix swelling (or shrinkage) on fracture-aperture changes resulting from partial separation of matrix blocks by fractures that do not completely cut through the whole matrix. The proposed permeability model is evaluated with data from three Valencia Canyon coalbed wells in the San Juan Basin, where increased permeability has been observed during CH{sub 4} gas production, as well as with published data from laboratory tests. Model results are generally in good agreement with observed permeability changes. The importance of fracture-matrix interaction in determining coal permeability, demonstrated in this work using relatively simple stress conditions, underscores the need for a dual-continuum (fracture and matrix) mechanical approach to rigorously capture coal-deformation processes under complex stress conditions, as well as the coupled flow and transport processes in coal seams.

  14. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

    1994-11-22

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

  15. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lau, Louis K. (Monroeville, PA); Alper, Naum I. (Monroeville, PA)

    1994-01-01

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump.

  16. Aqueous cutting fluid for machining fissionable materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K. (Norris, TN); Googin, John M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Napier, Jr., Bradley (Powell, TN)

    1984-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a cutting fluid for machining fissionable material. The cutting fluid is formed of glycol, water and boron compound in an adequate concentration for effective neutron attenuation so as to inhibit criticality incidents during machining.

  17. Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehberger, Kevin M. (3600 Westhampton Dr., Martinez, GA 30907)

    1994-01-01

    An apparatus for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device.

  18. Process of breaking and rendering permeable a subterranean rock mass

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lekas, Mitchell A. (Concord, CA)

    1980-01-01

    The process of the present invention involves the following steps: producing, as by hydrofracing, a substantially horizontal fracture in the subterranean rock mass to be processed; emplacing an explosive charge in the mass in spaced juxtaposed position to the fracture; enlarging the fracture to create a void space thereat, an initial lifting of the overburden, and to provide a free face juxtaposed to and arranged to cooperate with the emplaced explosive charge; and exploding the charge against the free face for fragmenting the rock and to distribute the space, thus providing fractured, pervious, rubble-ized rock in an enclosed subterranean chamber. Firing of the charge provides a further lifting of the overburden, an enlargement of the chamber and a larger void space to distribute throughout the rubble-ized rock within the chamber. In some forms of the invention an explosive charge is used to produce a transitory enlargement of the fracture, and the juxtaposed emplaced charge is fired during the critical period of enlargement of the fracture.

  19. Petrography Analysis At Valles Caldera - Sulphur Springs Geothermal...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    revealed that hydrothermal alteration in these rocks (and by association, permeability and fluid flow) is controlled by lithology and by the distribution of fractures,...

  20. Computer modeling of electromagnetic fields and fluid flows for edge containment in continuous casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, F.C.; Hull, J.R.; Wang, Y.H.; Blazek, K.E.

    1996-02-01

    A computer model was developed to predict eddy currents and fluid flows in molten steel. The model was verified by comparing predictions with experimental results of liquid-metal containment and fluid flow in electromagnetic (EM) edge dams (EMDs) designed at Inland Steel for twin-roll casting. The model can optimize the EMD design so it is suitable for application, and minimize expensive, time-consuming full-scale testing. Numerical simulation was performed by coupling a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element EM code (ELEKTRA) and a 3-D finite-difference fluids code (CaPS-EM) to solve heat transfer, fluid flow, and turbulence transport in a casting process that involves EM fields. ELEKTRA is able to predict the eddy- current distribution and the electromagnetic forces in complex geometries. CaPS-EM is capable of modeling fluid flows with free surfaces. Results of the numerical simulation compared well with measurements obtained from a static test.

  1. Device and method for the measurement of gas permeability through membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Pradeep K.; Ackerman, John; Borgialli, Ron; Hamann, Jerry; Muknahalliptna, Suresh

    2006-08-08

    A device for the measuring membrane permeability in electrical/electrochemical/photo-electrochemical fields is provided. The device is a permeation cell and a tube mounted within the cell. An electrode is mounted at one end of the tube. A membrane is mounted within the cell wherein a corona is discharged from the electrode in a general direction toward the membrane thereby generating heated hydrogen atoms adjacent the membrane. A method for measuring the effects of temperature and pressure on membrane permeability and selectivity is also provided.

  2. On equivalence of high temperature series expansion and coupling parameter series expansion in thermodynamic perturbation theory of fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sai Venkata Ramana, A.

    2014-04-21

    The coupling parameter series expansion and the high temperature series expansion in the thermodynamic perturbation theory of fluids are shown to be equivalent if the interaction potential is pairwise additive. As a consequence, for the class of fluids with the potential having a hardcore repulsion, if the hard-sphere fluid is chosen as reference system, the terms of coupling parameter series expansion for radial distribution function, direct correlation function, and Helmholtz free energy follow a scaling law with temperature. The scaling law is confirmed by application to square-well fluids.

  3. Transient Wellbore Fluid Flow Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1982-04-06

    WELBORE is a code to solve transient, one-dimensional two-phase or single-phase non-isothermal fluid flow in a wellbore. The primary thermodynamic variables used in solving the equations are the pressure and specific energy. An equation of state subroutine provides the density, quality, and temperature. The heat loss out of the wellbore is calculated by solving a radial diffusion equation for the temperature changes outside the bore. The calculation is done at each node point in themore » wellbore.« less

  4. Fluid cooled vehicle drive module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-11-15

    An electric vehicle drive includes a support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EM/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  5. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

    1995-01-01

    An immersible solar heater comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  6. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized

  7. Distribution Category:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    - Distribution Category: Remedial Action and Decommissioning Program (UC-70A) DOE/EV-0005/48 ANL-OHS/HP-84-104 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 FORMERLY UTILIZED MXD/AEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY CLEVELAND. OHIO Prepared by R. A. Wynveen Associate Division Director, OHS W. H. Smith Senior Health Physicist C. M. Sholeen Health Physicist A. L. Justus Health Physicist K. F. Flynn Health Physicist

  8. Laboratory development and field application of a novel water-based drill-in fluid for geopressured horizontal wells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobson, J.W.; Harrison, J.C.; Hale, A.H.

    1996-12-31

    Research has identified a novel water-based drill-in fluid for drilling and completing geopressured horizontal wells. This fluid has a unique combination of properties which make it especially suitable for geopressured applications. They include the use of calcium and/or zinc bromide as a base brine, minimal concentration of calcium carbonate as bridging material, low plastic viscosity, tight fluid loss control, good filter cake properties, and excellent return permeability. This drill-in fluid has been used successfully to drill a 1,200 foot production interval, 4.75 inch diameter wellbore in the Gulf of Mexico with a system weight of 13.2 lbm/gal, bottom hole temperature of 185{degrees} F., and a 1400 to 1700 psi overbalance. The system functioned very well in both the drilling and completion operations. Fluid rheology was easily maintainable and the hole conditions were excellent without torque or drag problems. Initial production data suggests that the well is producing at expected rates with low drawdown pressure.

  9. Nanoparticle Assemblies at Fluid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Thomas P.

    2015-03-10

    A systematic study of the structure and dynamics of nanoparticles (NP) and NP-surfactants was performed. The ligands attached to both the NPs and NP-surfactants dictate the manner in which the nanoscopic materials assemble at fluid interfaces. Studies have shown that a single layer of the nanoscpic materials form at the interface to reduce the interactions between the two immiscible fluids. The shape of the NP is, also, important, where for spherical particles, a disordered, liquid-like monolayer forms, and, for nanorods, ordered domains at the interface is found and, if the monolayers are compressed, the orientation of the nanorods with respect to the interface can change. By associating end-functionalized polymers to the NPs assembled at the interface, NP-surfactants are formed that increase the energetic gain in segregating each NP at the interface which allows the NP-surfactants to jam at the interface when compressed. This has opened the possibility of structuring the two liquids by freezing in shape changes of the liquids.

  10. Apparatus for unloading pressurized fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rehberger, K.M.

    1994-01-04

    An apparatus is described for unloading fluid, preferably pressurized gas, from containers in a controlled manner that protects the immediate area from exposure to the container contents. The device consists of an unloading housing, which is enclosed within at least one protective structure, for receiving the dispensed contents of the steel container, and a laser light source, located external to the protective structure, for opening the steel container instantaneously. The neck or stem of the fluid container is placed within the sealed interior environment of the unloading housing. The laser light passes through both the protective structure and the unloading housing to instantaneously pierce a small hole within the stem of the container. Both the protective structure and the unloading housing are specially designed to allow laser light passage without compromising the light's energy level. Also, the unloading housing allows controlled flow of the gas once it has been dispensed from the container. The external light source permits remote operation of the unloading device. 2 figures.

  11. Chemical Signatures of and Precursors to Fractures Using Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lorie M. Dilley

    2011-03-30

    Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) are designed to recover heat from the subsurface by mechanically creating fractures in subsurface rocks. Open or recently closed fractures would be more susceptible to enhancing the permeability of the system. Identifying dense fracture areas as well as large open fractures from small fracture systems will assist in fracture stimulation site selection. Geothermal systems are constantly generating fractures (Moore, Morrow et al. 1987), and fluids and gases passing through rocks in these systems leave small fluid and gas samples trapped in healed microfractures. These fluid inclusions are faithful records of pore fluid chemistry. Fluid inclusions trapped in minerals as the fractures heal are characteristic of the fluids that formed them, and this signature can be seen in fluid inclusion gas analysis. This report presents the results of the project to determine fracture locations by the chemical signatures from gas analysis of fluid inclusions. With this project we hope to test our assumptions that gas chemistry can distinguish if the fractures are open and bearing production fluids or represent prior active fractures and whether there are chemical signs of open fracture systems in the wall rock above the fracture. Fluid Inclusion Stratigraphy (FIS) is a method developed for the geothermal industry which applies the mass quantification of fluid inclusion gas data from drill cuttings and applying known gas ratios and compositions to determine depth profiles of fluid barriers in a modern geothermal system (Dilley, 2009; Dilley et al., 2005; Norman et al., 2005). Identifying key gas signatures associated with fractures for isolating geothermal fluid production is the latest advancement in the application of FIS to geothermal systems (Dilley and Norman, 2005; Dilley and Norman, 2007). Our hypothesis is that peaks in FIS data are related to location of fractures. Previous work (DOE Grant DE-FG36-06GO16057) has indicated differences in the chemical signature of fluid inclusions between open and closed fractures as well as differences in the chemical signature of open fractures between geothermal systems. Our hypothesis is that open fracture systems can be identified by their FIS chemical signature; that there are differences based on the mineral assemblages and geology of the system; and that there are chemical precursors in the wall rock above open, large fractures. Specific goals for this project are: (1) To build on the preliminary results which indicate that there are differences in the FIS signatures between open and closed fractures by identifying which chemical species indicate open fractures in both active geothermal systems and in hot, dry rock; (2) To evaluate the FIS signatures based on the geology of the fields; (3) To evaluate the FIS signatures based on the mineral assemblages in the fracture; and (4) To determine if there are specific chemical signatures in the wall rock above open, large fractures. This method promises to lower the cost of geothermal energy production in several ways. Knowledge of productive fractures in the boreholes will allow engineers to optimize well production. This information can aid in well testing decisions, well completion strategies, and in resource calculations. It will assist in determining the areas for future fracture enhancement. This will develop into one of the techniques in the 'tool bag' for creating and managing Enhanced Geothermal Systems.

  12. DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY uc-11 I A W E N C E LIVERMORE IABORATORY University of Cahfmia/Livermore, California/94550 UCRL-52658 CALCULATION OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AND MINERALS: THE EQ3/6 - - SOFTWARE PACKAGE T. J. Wolery MS. date: February 1, 1979 . . - . . - . Tho rcpon rn prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United Stater Government. Seither Lhc Urutcd Stater nor the Umted Stater Department of Energy, nor any of their employees. nor any of their E O ~ ~ ~ B C I

  13. Low-frequency dilatational wave propagation through unsaturated porous media containing two immiscible fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lo, W.-C.; Sposito, G.; Majer, E.

    2007-02-01

    An analytical theory is presented for the low-frequency behavior of dilatational waves propagating through a homogeneous elastic porous medium containing two immiscible fluids. The theory is based on the Berryman-Thigpen-Chin (BTC) model, in which capillary pressure effects are neglected. We show that the BTC model equations in the frequency domain can be transformed, at sufficiently low frequencies, into a dissipative wave equation (telegraph equation) and a propagating wave equation in the time domain. These partial differential equations describe two independent modes of dilatational wave motion that are analogous to the Biot fast and slow compressional waves in a single-fluid system. The equations can be solved analytically under a variety of initial and boundary conditions. The stipulation of 'low frequency' underlying the derivation of our equations in the time domain is shown to require that the excitation frequency of wave motions be much smaller than a critical frequency. This frequency is shown to be the inverse of an intrinsic time scale that depends on an effective kinematic shear viscosity of the interstitial fluids and the intrinsic permeability of the porous medium. Numerical calculations indicate that the critical frequency in both unconsolidated and consolidated materials containing water and a nonaqueous phase liquid ranges typically from kHz to MHz. Thus engineering problems involving the dynamic response of an unsaturated porous medium to low excitation frequencies (e.g. seismic wave stimulation) should be accurately modeled by our equations after suitable initial and boundary conditions are imposed.

  14. Split driveshaft pump for hazardous fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, II, Thomas P. (Aiken, SC); Purohit, Jwalit J. (Evans, GA); Fazio, John M. (Orchard Park, NY)

    1995-01-01

    A pump having a split driveshaft for use in pumping hazardous fluids wherein only one driveshaft becomes contaminated by the fluid while the second remains isolated from the fluid. The pump has a first portion and a second portion. The first portion contains a pump motor, the first driveshaft, a support pedestal, and vapor barriers and seals. The second portion contains a second, self-lubricating driveshaft and an impeller. The first and second driveshafts are connected together by a releasable coupling. A shield and a slinger deployed below the coupling prevent fluid from the second portion from reaching the first portion. In operation, only the second assembly comes into contact with the fluid being pumped, so the risk of contamination of the first portion by the hazardous fluid is reduced. The first assembly can be removed for repairs or routine maintenance by decoupling the first and second driveshafts and disconnecting the motor from the casing.

  15. Fluid control structures in microfluidic devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mathies, Richard A. (Moraga, CA); Grover, William H. (Berkeley, CA); Skelley, Alison (Berkeley, CA); Lagally, Eric (Oakland, CA); Liu, Chung N. (Albany, CA)

    2008-11-04

    Methods and apparatus for implementing microfluidic analysis devices are provided. A monolithic elastomer membrane associated with an integrated pneumatic manifold allows the placement and actuation of a variety of fluid control structures, such as structures for pumping, isolating, mixing, routing, merging, splitting, preparing, and storing volumes of fluid. The fluid control structures can be used to implement a variety of sample introduction, preparation, processing, and storage techniques.

  16. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, Michael A. (Santa Cruz, NM); Woloshun, Keith A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1990-01-01

    A vibratory fluid pump having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments.

  17. Vibratory pumping of a free fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merrigan, M.A.; Woloshun, K.A.

    1990-11-13

    A vibratory fluid pump is described having a force generator for generating asymmetric periodic waves or oscillations connected to one end of one or more fluid conveyance means, such as filaments. The opposite ends of the filaments are connected to springs. Fluid introduced onto the filaments will traverse along the filaments according to the magnitude of the positive and negative excursions of the periodic waves or oscillations, and can be recovered from the filaments. 3 figs.

  18. Value for controlling flow of cryogenic fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Knapp, Philip A.

    1996-01-01

    A valve is provided for accurately controlling the flow of cryogenic fluids such as liquid nitrogen. The valve comprises a combination of disc and needle valves affixed to a valve stem in such a manner that the disc and needle are free to rotate about the stem, but are constrained in lateral and vertical movements. This arrangement provides accurate and precise fluid flow control and positive fluid isolation.

  19. Multiple source/multiple target fluid transfer apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, T.D.

    1997-08-26

    A fluid transfer apparatus includes: (a) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid sources; (b) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid targets; (c) a set of fluid source conduits and fluid target conduits associated with the orifices; (d) a pump fluidically interposed between the source and target conduits to transfer fluid there between; (e) a purge gas conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass a purge gas under pressure; (f) a solvent conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass solvent, the solvent conduit including a solvent valve; (g) pump control means for controlling operation of the pump; (h) purge gas valve control means for controlling operation of the purge gas valve to selectively impart flow of purge gas to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; (i) solvent valve control means for controlling operation of the solvent valve to selectively impart flow of solvent to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; and (j) source and target valve control means for controlling operation of the fluid source conduit valves and the fluid target conduit valves to selectively impart passage of fluid between a selected one of the fluid source conduits and a selected one of the fluid target conduits through the pump and to enable passage of solvent or purge gas through selected fluid source conduits and selected fluid target conduits. 6 figs.

  20. Multiple source/multiple target fluid transfer apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Terry D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1997-01-01

    A fluid transfer apparatus includes: a) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid sources; b) a plurality of orifices for connection with fluid targets; c) a set of fluid source conduits and fluid target conduits associated with the orifices; d) a pump fluidically interposed between the source and target conduits to transfer fluid therebetween; e) a purge gas conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass a purge gas under pressure; f) a solvent conduit in fluid communication with the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump to receive and pass solvent, the solvent conduit including a solvent valve; g) pump control means for controlling operation of the pump; h) purge gas valve control means for controlling operation of the purge gas valve to selectively impart flow of purge gas to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; i) solvent valve control means for controlling operation of the solvent valve to selectively impart flow of solvent to the fluid source conduits, fluid target conduits and pump; and j) source and target valve control means for controlling operation of the fluid source conduit valves and the fluid target conduit valves to selectively impart passage of fluid between a selected one of the fluid source conduits and a selected one of the fluid target conduits through the pump and to enable passage of solvent or purge gas through selected fluid source conduits and selected fluid target conduits.

  1. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1995-07-11

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater. 11 figs.

  2. Pressurized-fluid-operated engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holleyman, J.E.

    1990-01-30

    This patent describes a pressurized-fluid-operated reciprocating engine for providing output power by use of a pressurized gas that expands within the engine without combustion. It comprises: an engine block having a plurality of cylinders within which respective pistons are reciprocatable to provide a rotary power output; gas inlet means connected with the engine block for introducing a pressurized gas into the respective cylinders in a predetermined, timed relationship to provide a smooth power output from the engine; gas outlet means connected with the engine block for conveying exhaust gas from the respective cylinders after the gas expanded to move the pistons within the cylinders; and recirculation means extending between the inlet means and the outlet means for recirculation a predetermined quantity of exhaust gas. The recirculation means including ejector means for drawing exhaust gas into the recirculation means.

  3. Immersible solar heater for fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hazen, T.C.; Fliermans, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    An immersible solar heater is described comprising a light-absorbing panel attached to a frame for absorbing heat energy from the light and transferring the absorbed heat energy directly to the fluid in which the heater is immersed. The heater can be used to heat a swimming pool, for example, and is held in position and at a preselected angle by a system of floats, weights and tethers so that the panel can operate efficiently. A skid can be used in one embodiment to prevent lateral movement of the heater along the bottom of the pool. Alternative embodiments include different arrangements of the weights, floats and tethers and methods for making the heater.

  4. Project Profile: Chemically Reactive Working Fluids | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    opportunity announcement (FOA), is working to identify and test new heat-transfer fluids (HTFs) that store energy chemically for more efficient energy transfer in CSP applications. ...

  5. Fluid casting of particle-based articles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Menchhofer, Paul (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A method for the production of articles made of a particle-based material; e.g., ceramics and sintered metals. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, a thermally settable slurry containing a relatively high concentration of the particles is introduced into an immiscible, heated fluid. The slurry sets or hardens into a shape determined by the physical characteristics of the fluid and the manner of introduction of the slurry into the fluid. For example, the slurry is pulse injected into the fluid to provide spherical articles. The hardened spheres may then be sintered to consolidate the particles and provide a high density product.

  6. Fluid Submersible Sensing Device - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication WO2010151470A1.pdf (476 KB) Technology Marketing Summary The present invention relates to a fluid submersible sensing device and,...

  7. DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSES...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DISPLAYING AND INTERPRETING FLUID INCLUSION STRATIGRAPHY ANALYSES ON MUDLOG GRAPHS Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings:...

  8. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubelich, Mark C.; Yonas, Gerold

    2016-03-01

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  9. Gas powered fluid gun with recoil mitigation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grubelich, Mark C; Yonas, Gerold

    2013-11-12

    A gas powered fluid gun for propelling a stream or slug of a fluid at high velocity toward a target. Recoil mitigation is provided that reduces or eliminates the associated recoil forces, with minimal or no backwash. By launching a quantity of water in the opposite direction, net momentum forces are reduced or eliminated. Examples of recoil mitigation devices include a cone for making a conical fluid sheet, a device forming multiple impinging streams of fluid, a cavitating venturi, one or more spinning vanes, or an annular tangential entry/exit.

  10. An Uncertainty Quantification Framework for Studying the Effect of Spatial Heterogeneity in Reservoir Permeability on CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Zhangshuan; Engel, David W.; Lin, Guang; Fang, Yilin; Fang, Zhufeng

    2013-10-01

    In this paper, we introduce an uncertainty quantification (UQ) software framework for carbon sequestration, focused on the effect of spatial heterogeneity of reservoir properties on CO2 migration. We use a sequential Gaussian method (SGSIM) to generate realizations of permeability fields with various spatial statistical attributes. To deal with the computational difficulties, we integrate the following ideas/approaches. First, we use three different sampling approaches (probabilistic collocation, quasi-Monte Carlo, and adaptive sampling) to reduce the number of forward calculations while trying to explore the parameter space and quantify the input uncertainty. Second, we use eSTOMP as the forward modeling simulator. eSTOMP is implemented with the Global Arrays toolkit that is based on one-sided inter-processor communication and supports a shared memory programming style on distributed memory platforms, providing a highly-scalable performance. Third, we built an adaptive system infrastructure to select the best possible data transfer mechanisms, to optimally allocate system resources to improve performance and to integrate software packages and data for composing carbon sequestration simulation, computation, analysis, estimation and visualization. We demonstrate the framework with a given CO2 injection scenario in heterogeneous sandstone reservoirs.

  11. Controls on Fault-Hosted Fluid Flow: Preliminary Results from...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flow: Preliminary Results from the Coso Geothermal Field, CA Abstract cap rock, permeability, fault, fracture, clay, Coso Authors Davatzes, N.C.; Hickman and S.H. Published...

  12. Fluid Imaging of Enhanced Geothermal Systems through Joint 3D...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    reservoirs that have been created to extract economical amounts of heat from low permeability andor porosity geothermal resources. Critical to the success of EGS is the...

  13. Conditions for fluid separations in microchannels, capillary-driven fluid separations, and laminated devices capable of separating fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. (Kennewick, WA); Stenkamp, Victoria S. (Richland, WA)

    2008-03-18

    Methods of separating fluids using capillary forces and/or improved conditions for are disclosed. The improved methods may include control of the ratio of gas and liquid Reynolds numbers relative to the Suratman number. Also disclosed are wick-containing, laminated devices that are capable of separating fluids.

  14. Conditions for fluid separations in microchannels, capillary-driven fluid separations, and laminated devices capable of separating fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E [Kennewick, WA; Stenkamp, Victoria S [Richland, WA

    2005-04-05

    Methods of separating fluids using capillary forces and/or improved conditions for are disclosed. The improved methods may include control of the ratio of gas and liquid Reynolds numbers relative to the Suratman number. Also disclosed are wick-containing, laminated devices that are capable of separating fluids.

  15. PERMEABILITY TESTING OF SIMULATED SALTSTONE CORE AND VAULT 4 CELL E SALTSTONE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.; Dixon, K.

    2011-08-22

    The Engineering Process Development Group (EPD) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) prepared simulated saltstone core samples to evaluate the effect of sample collection by coring on the permeability of saltstone. The Environmental Restoration Technology Section (ERTS) of the SRNL was given the task of measuring the permeability of cores of simulated saltstone. Saltstone samples collected from Vault 4 Cell E using both dry and wet coring methods were also submitted for permeability analysis. The cores from Vault 4 Cell E were in multiple pieces when they were recovered (Smith, 2008 Cheng et.al, 2009). Permeability testing was only performed on the portions of the core sample that were intact, had no visible fractures or cracks, and met the specifications for 'undisturbed specimens' identified in Method ASTM D5084-03 Standard Test Methods for Measurement of Hydraulic Conductivity of Saturated Porous Materials Using a Flexible Wall Permeameter that was used for the testing. Permeability values for cores of simulated saltstone compared with values from permeability tests conducted on molded saltstone samples by an independent laboratory using the same method. All hydraulic conductivity results for Vault 4 samples exceeded results for both molded and cored saltstone simulant samples. The average hydraulic conductivity result for Vault 4 Cell E samples of 3.9 x 10{sup -7} cm/sec is approximately two orders of magnitude greater than that of the simulated saltstone with an average of 4.1 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec. Numerical flow and transport simulations of moisture movement through saltstone performed for the performance assessment of the Saltstone Disposal Facility (SDF) used 2.0 x 10{sup -9} cm/sec for the hydraulic conductivity of saltstone (Flach et al, 2009). The results for simulated versus actual saltstone were further compared using non-parametric statistics. The results from non-parametric statistical analysis of results indicate that there is at least a 98% probability that the hydraulic conductivity of saltstone samples collected from Vault 4 Cell E saltstone is greater than that of the baseline simulant mix.

  16. Parameter estimation from flowing fluid temperature logging data in unsaturated fractured rock using multiphase inverse modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mukhopadhyay, S.; Tsang, Y.; Finsterle, S.

    2009-01-15

    A simple conceptual model has been recently developed for analyzing pressure and temperature data from flowing fluid temperature logging (FFTL) in unsaturated fractured rock. Using this conceptual model, we developed an analytical solution for FFTL pressure response, and a semianalytical solution for FFTL temperature response. We also proposed a method for estimating fracture permeability from FFTL temperature data. The conceptual model was based on some simplifying assumptions, particularly that a single-phase airflow model was used. In this paper, we develop a more comprehensive numerical model of multiphase flow and heat transfer associated with FFTL. Using this numerical model, we perform a number of forward simulations to determine the parameters that have the strongest influence on the pressure and temperature response from FFTL. We then use the iTOUGH2 optimization code to estimate these most sensitive parameters through inverse modeling and to quantify the uncertainties associated with these estimated parameters. We conclude that FFTL can be utilized to determine permeability, porosity, and thermal conductivity of the fracture rock. Two other parameters, which are not properties of the fractured rock, have strong influence on FFTL response. These are pressure and temperature in the borehole that were at equilibrium with the fractured rock formation at the beginning of FFTL. We illustrate how these parameters can also be estimated from FFTL data.

  17. Fluid dynamic effects on precision cleaning with supercritical fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Phelps, M.R.; Hogan, M.O.; Silva, L.J.

    1994-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory staff have assembled a small supercritical fluids parts cleaning test stand to characterize how system dynamics affect the efficacy of precision cleaning with supercritical carbon dioxide. A soiled stainless steel coupon, loaded into a ``Berty`` autoclave, was used to investigate how changes in system turbulence and solvent temperature influenced the removal of test dopants. A pulsed laser beam through a fiber optic was used to investigate real-time contaminant removal. Test data show that cleaning efficiency is a function of system agitation, solvent density, and temperature. These data also show that high levels of cleaning efficiency can generally be achieved with high levels of system agitation at relatively low solvent densities and temperatures. Agitation levels, temperatures, and densities needed for optimal cleaning are largely contaminant dependent. Using proper system conditions, the levels of cleanliness achieved with supercritical carbon dioxide compare favorably with conventional precision cleaning methods. Additional research is currently being conducted to generalize the relationship between cleaning performance and parameters such as contaminant solubilities, mass transfer rates, and solvent agitation. These correlations can be used to optimize cleaning performance, system design, and time and energy consumption for particular parts cleaning applications.

  18. System and method for filling a plurality of isolated vehicle fluid circuits through a common fluid fill port

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, Scott C; Fansler, Douglas

    2014-10-14

    A vehicle having multiple isolated fluid circuits configured to be filled through a common fill port includes a first fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, the first fluid circuit having a first fill port, a second fluid circuit disposed within the vehicle, and a conduit defining a fluid passageway between the first fluid circuit and second fluid circuit, the conduit including a valve. The valve is configured such that the first and second fluid circuits are fluidly coupled via the passageway when the valve is open, and are fluidly isolated when the valve is closed.

  19. Permeability of laboratory-formed methane-hydrate-bearing sand: Measurements and observations using x-ray computed tomography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kneafsey, T. J.; Seol, Y.; Gupta, A.; Tomutsa, L.

    2010-09-15

    Methane hydrate was formed in two moist sands and a sand/silt mixture under a confining stress in an X-ray-transparent pressure vessel. Three initial water saturations were used to form three different methane-hydrate saturations in each medium. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to observe location-specific density changes caused by hydrate formation and flowing water. Gas-permeability measurements in each test for the dry, moist, frozen, and hydrate-bearing states are presented. As expected, the effective permeabilities (intrinsic permeability of the medium multiplied by the relative permeability) of the moist sands decreased with increasing moisture content. In a series of tests on a single sample, the effective permeability typically decreased as the pore space became more filled, in the order of dry, moist, frozen, and hydrate-bearing. In each test, water was flowed through the hydrate-bearing medium and we observed the location-specific changes in water saturation using CT scanning. We compared our data to a number of models, and our relative permeability data compare most favorably with models in which hydrate occupies the pore bodies rather than the pore throats. Inverse modeling (using the data collected from the tests) will be performed to extend the relative permeability measurements.

  20. Producing Light Oil from a Frozen Reservoir: Reservoir and Fluid Characterization of Umiat Field, National Petroleum Reserve, Alaska

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanks, Catherine

    2012-12-31

    Umiat oil field is a light oil in a shallow, frozen reservoir in the Brooks Range foothills of northern Alaska with estimated oil-in-place of over 1 billion barrels. Umiat field was discovered in the 1940’s but was never considered viable because it is shallow, in the permafrost, and far from any transportation infrastructure. The advent of modern drilling and production techniques has made Umiat and similar fields in northern Alaska attractive exploration and production targets. Since 2008 UAF has been working with Renaissance Alaska Inc. and, more recently, Linc Energy, to develop a more robust reservoir model that can be combined with rock and fluid property data to simulate potential production techniques. This work will be used to by Linc Energy as they prepare to drill up to 5 horizontal wells during the 2012-2013 drilling season. This new work identified three potential reservoir horizons within the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation: the Upper and Lower Grandstand sands, and the overlying Ninuluk sand, with the Lower Grandstand considered the primary target. Seals are provided by thick interlayered shales. Reserve estimates for the Lower Grandstand alone range from 739 million barrels to 2437 million barrels, with an average of 1527 million bbls. Reservoir simulations predict that cold gas injection from a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers located on 5 drill sites on the crest of the structure will yield 12-15% recovery, with actual recovery depending upon the injection pressure used, the actual Kv/Kh encountered, and other geologic factors. Key to understanding the flow behavior of the Umiat reservoir is determining the permeability structure of the sands. Sandstones of the Cretaceous Nanushuk Formation consist of mixed shoreface and deltaic sandstones and mudstones. A core-based study of the sedimentary facies of these sands combined with outcrop observations identified six distinct facies associations with distinctive permeability trends. The Lower Grandstand sand consists of two coarsening-upward shoreface sands sequences while the Upper Grandstand consists of a single coarsening-upward shoreface sand. Each of the shoreface sands shows a distinctive permeability profile with high horizontal permeability at the top getting progressively poorer towards the base of the sand. In contrast, deltaic sandstones in the overlying Ninuluk are more permeable at the base of the sands, with decreasing permeability towards the sand top. These trends impart a strong permeability anisotropy to the reservoir and are being incorporated into the reservoir model. These observations also suggest that horizontal wells should target the upper part of the major sands. Natural fractures may superimpose another permeability pattern on the Umiat reservoir that need to be accounted for in both the simulation and in drilling. Examination of legacy core from Umiat field indicate that fractures are present in the subsurface, but don't provide information on their orientation and density. Nearby surface exposures of folds in similar stratigraphy indicate there are at least three possible fracture sets: an early, N/S striking set that may predate folding and two sets possibly related to folding: an EW striking set of extension fractures that are parallel to the fold axes and a set of conjugate shear fractures oriented NE and NW. Analysis of fracture spacing suggests that these natural fractures are fairly widely spaced (25-59 cm depending upon the fracture set), but could provide improved reservoir permeability in horizontal legs drilled perpendicular to the open fracture set. The phase behavior of the Umiat fluid needed to be well understood in order for the reservoir simulation to be accurate. However, only a small amount of Umiat oil was available; this oil was collected in the 1940’s and was severely weathered. The composition of this ‘dead’ Umiat fluid was characterized by gas chromatography. This analysis was then compared to theoretical Umiat composition derived using the Pedersen method with original Umiat fluid properties published in the original reports. This comparison allowed estimation of the ‘lost’ light hydrocarbon fractions. An Umiat 'dead' oil sample then could be physically created by adding the lost light ends to the weatherized Umiat dead oil sample. This recreated sample was recombined with solution gas to create a 'pseudo-live' Umiat oil sample which was then used for experimental PVT and phase behavior studies to determine fluid properties over the range of reservoir pressures and temperatures. The phase behavior of the ‘pseudo-live’ oil was also simulated using the Peng- Robinson equations of state (EOS). The EOS model was tuned with measured experimental data to accurately simulate the differential liberation tests in order to obtain the necessary data for reservoir simulation studies, including bubble point pressure and oil viscosity. The bubble point pressure of the reconstructed Umiat oil is 345 psi, suggesting that maintenance of reservoir pressures above that pressure will be important for the any proposed production technique. A major part of predicting how the Umiat reservoir will perform is determining the relative permeability of oil in the presence of ice. Early in the project, UAF work on samples of the Umiat reservoir indicated that there is a significant reduction in the relatively permeability of oil in the presence of ice. However, it was not clear as to why this reduction occurred or where the ice resided. To explore this further, additional experimental and theoretical work was conducted. Core flood experiments were performed on two clean Berea sandstone cores under permafrost conditions to determine the relative permeability to oil (kro) over a temperature range of 23ÂșC to - 10ÂșC and for a range of connate water salinities. Both cores showed maximum reduction in relative permeability to oil when saturated with deionized water and less reduction when saturated with saline water. This reduction in relative permeability can be explained by formation of ice crystals in the center of pores. Theoretically, the radius of ice formed in the center of the pore can be determined using the Kozeny–Carman Equation by assuming the pores and pore throats as a cube with ‘N’ identical parallel pipes embedded in it. Using the values of kro obtained from the experimental work as input to the Kozeny–Carman Equation at -10ÂșC, the radius of ice crystals dropped from 0.145 ÎŒm to 0.069 ÎŒm when flooding-water salinity is increased to 6467 ppm. This explains the reduction of relative permeability with decreasing salinity but does not take into consideration other effects such as variations in pore throat structure. In addition, fluids like deionized water, saline water, and antifreeze (a mixture of 60% ethylene or propylene glycol with 40% water) were tested to find the best flooding agent for frozen reservoirs. At 0ÂșC, 9% greater recovery was observed with antifreeze was used as a flooding agent as compared to using saline water. Antifreeze showed 48% recovery even at -10ÂșC, at which temperature the rest of the fluids failed to increase production. Preliminary evaluation of drilling fluids indicate that the brine-based muds caused significantly less swelling in the Umiat reservoir sands when compared to fresh-water based muds. However since freezing filtrate is another cause of formation damage, a simple water-based-mud may not a viable option. It is recommended that new fluids be tested, including different salts, brines, polymers and oil-based fluids. These fluids should be tested at low temperatures in order to determine the potential for formation damage, the fluid properties under these conditions and to ensure that the freezing point is below that of the reservoir. In order to reduce the surface footprint while accessing the maximum amount of the Lower Grandstand interval, simulations used development from 5 surface locations with a wagon-wheel pattern of multilateral injectors and producers. There is no active aquifer support due to small peizometric head in the area and no existing gas cap, so an alternative method of pressure support is needed. Cold gas injection was used in the simulations as it is considered the most viable means of providing pressure maintenance while maintaining wellbore stability and reducing impact on the permafrost. Saline water injection may be a viable alternative, though this may have a detrimental effect on permafrost. In the short term, the results of this work are being incorporated into Linc Energy’s drilling and development plan. This project has also provided valuable information on the rock and fluid properties of low temperature reservoirs as well as the efficacy of potential production techniques for Umiat or similar shallow frozen reservoirs in the circum-Arctic.

  1. Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical-mechanical couplings

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rutqvist, J.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this paper is to (i) review field data on stress-induced permeability changes in fractured rock; (ii) describe estimation of fractured rock stress-permeability relationships through model calibration against such field data; and (iii) discuss observations of temperature and chemically mediated fracture closure and its effect on fractured rock permeability. The field data that are reviewed include in situ block experiments, excavation-induced changes in permeability around tunnels, borehole injection experiments, depth (and stress) dependent permeability, and permeability changes associated with a large-scale rock-mass heating experiment. Data show how the stress-permeability relationship of fractured rock very much depends on localmore » in situ conditions, such as fracture shear offset and fracture infilling by mineral precipitation. Field and laboratory experiments involving temperature have shown significant temperature-driven fracture closure even under constant stress. Such temperature-driven fracture closure has been described as thermal overclosure and relates to better fitting of opposing fracture surfaces at high temperatures, or is attributed to chemically mediated fracture closure related to pressure solution (and compaction) of stressed fracture surface asperities. Back-calculated stress-permeability relationships from field data may implicitly account for such effects, but the relative contribution of purely thermal-mechanical and chemically mediated changes is difficult to isolate. Therefore, it is concluded that further laboratory and in situ experiments are needed to increase the knowledge of the true mechanisms behind thermally driven fracture closure, and to further assess the importance of chemical-mechanical coupling for the long-term evolution of fractured rock permeability.« less

  2. Fractured rock stress-permeability relationships from in situ data and effects of temperature and chemical-mechanical couplings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rutqvist, J.

    2014-09-19

    The purpose of this paper is to (i) review field data on stress-induced permeability changes in fractured rock; (ii) describe estimation of fractured rock stress-permeability relationships through model calibration against such field data; and (iii) discuss observations of temperature and chemically mediated fracture closure and its effect on fractured rock permeability. The field data that are reviewed include in situ block experiments, excavation-induced changes in permeability around tunnels, borehole injection experiments, depth (and stress) dependent permeability, and permeability changes associated with a large-scale rock-mass heating experiment. Data show how the stress-permeability relationship of fractured rock very much depends on local in situ conditions, such as fracture shear offset and fracture infilling by mineral precipitation. Field and laboratory experiments involving temperature have shown significant temperature-driven fracture closure even under constant stress. Such temperature-driven fracture closure has been described as thermal overclosure and relates to better fitting of opposing fracture surfaces at high temperatures, or is attributed to chemically mediated fracture closure related to pressure solution (and compaction) of stressed fracture surface asperities. Back-calculated stress-permeability relationships from field data may implicitly account for such effects, but the relative contribution of purely thermal-mechanical and chemically mediated changes is difficult to isolate. Therefore, it is concluded that further laboratory and in situ experiments are needed to increase the knowledge of the true mechanisms behind thermally driven fracture closure, and to further assess the importance of chemical-mechanical coupling for the long-term evolution of fractured rock permeability.

  3. Foam vessel for cryogenic fluid storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spear, Jonathan D (San Francisco, CA)

    2011-07-05

    Cryogenic storage and separator vessels made of polyolefin foams are disclosed, as are methods of storing and separating cryogenic fluids and fluid mixtures using these vessels. In one embodiment, the polyolefin foams may be cross-linked, closed-cell polyethylene foams with a density of from about 2 pounds per cubic foot to a density of about 4 pounds per cubic foot.

  4. Process for forming a nickel foil with controlled and predetermined permeability to hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engelhaupt, Darell E. (Kansas City, MO)

    1981-09-22

    The present invention provides a novel process for forming a nickel foil having a controlled and predetermined hydrogen permeability. This process includes the steps of passing a nickel plating bath through a suitable cation exchange resin to provide a purified nickel plating bath free of copper and gold cations, immersing a nickel anode and a suitable cathode in the purified nickel plating bath containing a selected concentration of an organic sulfonic acid such as a napthalene-trisulfonic acid, electrodepositing a nickel layer having the thickness of a foil onto the cathode, and separating the nickel layer from the cathode to provide a nickel foil. The anode is a readily-corrodible nickel anode. The present invention also provides a novel nickel foil having a greater hydrogen permeability than palladium at room temperature.

  5. Reservoir-scale fracture permeability in the Dixie Valley, Nevada, geothermal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barton, C.A.; Zoback, M.D.; Hickman, S.; Morin, R.; Benoit, D.

    1998-08-01

    Wellbore image data recorded in six wells penetrating a geothermal reservoir associated with an active normal fault at Dixie Valley, Nevada, were used in conjunction with hydrologic tests and in situ stress measurements to investigate the relationship between reservoir productivity and the contemporary in situ stress field. The analysis of data from wells drilled into productive and non-productive segments of the Stillwater fault zone indicates that fractures must be both optimally oriented and critically stressed to have high measured permeabilities. Fracture permeability in all wells is dominated by a relatively small number of fractures oriented parallel to the local trend of the Stillwater Fault. Fracture geometry may also play a significant role in reservoir productivity. The well-developed populations of low angle fractures present in wells drilled into the producing segment of the fault are not present in the zone where production is not commercially viable.

  6. Applications of permeable barrier technology to ground water contamination at the Shiprock, NM, UMTRA site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomson, B.M.; Henry, E.J.; Thombre, M.S.

    1996-12-31

    The Shiprock uranium mill tailings pile in far northwestern New Mexico consists of approximately 1.5 million tons of uranium mill tailings from an acid leach mill which operated from 1954 to 1968. Located on land owned by the Navajo Nation, it was one of the first tailings piles stabilized under the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) project. Stabilization activities were completed in 1986 and consisted principally of consolidating the tailings, contouring the pile to achieve good drainage, and covering the pile with a multi-layer cap to control infiltration of water, radon emanation, and surface erosion. No ground water protection or remediation measures were implemented other than limiting infiltration of water through the pile, although a significant ground water contamination plume exists in the flood plain adjacent to the San Juan River. The major contaminants at the Shiprock site include high concentrations of sulfate, nitrate, arsenic, and uranium. One alternative for remediation may be the use of a permeable barrier in the flood plain aquifer. As proposed for the Shiprock site, the permeable barrier would be a trench constructed in the flood plain that would be backfilled with a media that is permeable to ground water, but would intercept or degrade the pollutants. Work to date has focused on use of a mixed microbial population of sulfate and nitrate reducing organisms. These organisms would produce strongly reducing conditions which would result in precipitation of the metal contaminants (i.e., Se(IV) and U(IV)) in the barrier. One of the first considerations in designing a permeable barrier is developing an understanding of ground water flow at the site. Accordingly, a steady state numerical model of the ground water flow at the site was developed using the MODFLOW code.

  7. Extreme pressure fluid sample transfer pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Halverson, Justin E. (Grovertown, GA); Bowman, Wilfred W. (North Augusta, SC)

    1990-01-01

    A transfer pump for samples of fluids at very low or very high pressures comprising a cylinder having a piston sealed with an O-ring, the piston defining forward and back chambers, an inlet and exit port and valve arrangement for the fluid to enter and leave the forward chamber, and a port and valve arrangement in the back chamber for adjusting the pressure across the piston so that the pressure differential across the piston is essentially zero and approximately equal to the pressure of the fluid so that the O-ring seals against leakage of the fluid and the piston can be easily moved, regardless of the pressure of the fluid. The piston may be actuated by a means external to the cylinder with a piston rod extending through a hole in the cylinder sealed with a bellows attached to the piston head and the interior of the back chamber.

  8. Estimating permeability from quasi-static deformation: Temporal variations and arrival time inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vasco, D.W.; Ferretti, Alessandro; Novali, Fabrizio

    2008-05-01

    Transient pressure variations within a reservoir can be treated as a propagating front and analyzed using an asymptotic formulation. From this perspective one can define a pressure 'arrival time' and formulate solutions along trajectories, in the manner of ray theory. We combine this methodology and a technique for mapping overburden deformation into reservoir volume change as a means to estimate reservoir flow properties, such as permeability. Given the entire 'travel time' or phase field, obtained from the deformation data, we can construct the trajectories directly, there-by linearizing the inverse problem. A numerical study indicates that, using this approach, we can infer large-scale variations in flow properties. In an application to Interferometric Synthetic Aperture (InSAR) observations associated with a CO{sub 2} injection at the Krechba field, Algeria, we image pressure propagation to the northwest. An inversion for flow properties indicates a linear trend of high permeability. The high permeability correlates with a northwest trending fault on the flank of the anticline which defines the field.

  9. Cadmium induces vascular permeability via activation of the p38 MAPK pathway

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Fengyun; Guo, Fang; Li, Liqun; Guo, Ling; Hou, Yinglong; Hao, Enkui; Yan, Suhua; Allen, Thaddeus D.; Liu, Ju

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Low-dose cadmium (Cd) induces vascular hyper-permeability. • p38 MAPK mediates Cd-induced disruption of endothelial cell barrier function. • SB203850 inhibits Cd-induced membrane dissociation of VE-cadherin and ?-catenin. • SB203850 reduces Cd-induced expression and secretion of TNF-?. - Abstract: The vasculature of various organs is a targeted by the environmental toxin, cadmium (Cd). However, mechanisms leading to pathological conditions are poorly understood. In the present study, we examined the effect of cadmium chloride (CdCl{sub 2}) on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). At 4 ?M, CdCl{sub 2} induced a hyper-permeability defect in HUVECs, but not the inhibition of cell growth up to 24 h. This effect of CdCl{sub 2} was dependent on the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. The p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203850 suppressed the CdCl{sub 2}-induced alteration in trans-endothelial electrical resistance in HUVEC monolayers, a model measurement of vascular endothelial barrier integrity. SB203850 also inhibited the Cd-induced membrane dissociation of vascular endothelial (VE) cadherin and ?-catenin, the important components of the adherens junctional complex. In addition, SB203850 reduces the Cd-induced expression and secretion of tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?). Taken together, our findings suggest that Cd induces vascular hyper-permeability and disruption of endothelial barrier integrity through stimulation of p38 MAPK signaling.

  10. Method and apparatus for in situ determination of permeability and porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagus, Peter L. (Olivehain, CA); Peterson, Edward W. (Del Mar, CA)

    1982-10-12

    A method and apparatus for in situ measurement of flow characteristics in boreholes or the like is disclosed for determining various formation characteristics such as permeability, particularly in the range of approximately 100-1,000 microdarcies and lower. One embodiment of the method and apparatus contemplates formation of a test interval in the borehole by a pair of expandable packers, additional guard zones being formed in the borehole at either end of the test interval by two additional guard packers, suitable flow conditions being simultaneously and separately measured within the test interval and each of the guard zones in order to permit determination of multidirectional components of permeability, porosity and other characteristics of the particular formation. Another embodiment contemplates whole hole testing where similar data is developed for a test interval formed between a single packer and the end of the borehole and one guard zone formed by a single additional guard packer. The method and apparatus of this invention are particularly contemplated for obtaining unambiguous measurements of multidirectional flow in low permeability formations.

  11. Fluid processing device and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Whyatt, Greg A. (West Richland, WA); Davis, James M. (Richland, WA)

    2006-02-07

    A fluid processing unit having first and second interleaved flow paths in a cross flow configuration is disclosed. The first flow paths are substantially longer than the second flow paths such that the pressure drop in the second flow paths can be maintained at a relatively low level and temperature variations across the second flow paths are reduced. One or more of the flow paths can be microchannels. When used as a vaporizer and/or superheater, the longer first flow paths include an upstream liquid flow portion and a downstream vapor flow portion of enlarged cross sectional area. A substantial pressure drop is maintained through the upstream liquid flow portion for which one or more tortuous flow channels can be utilized. The unit is a thin panel, having a width substantially less its length or height, and is manufactured together with other thin units in a bonded stack of thin metal sheets. The individual units are then separated from the stack after bonding.

  12. Tectonic controls on fracture permeability in a geothermal reservoir at Dixie Valley, Nevada

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hickman, S.; Zoback, M.

    1998-08-01

    To help determine the nature and origins of permeability variations within a fault-hosted geothermal reservoir at Dixie Valley, Nevada, the authors conducted borehole televiewer logging and hydraulic fracturing stress measurements in six wells drilled into the Stillwater fault zone at depths of 2--3 km. Televiewer logs from wells penetrating the highly permeable portion of the fault zone revealed extensive drilling-induced tensile fractures. As the Stillwater fault at this location dips S45{degree}E at {approximately} 53{degree} it is nearly at the optimal orientation for normal faulting in the current stress field. Hydraulic fracturing tests from these permeable wells show that the magnitude of S{sub hmin} is very low relative to the vertical stress S{sub v}. Similar measurements conducted in two wells penetrating a relatively impermeable segment of the Stillwater fault zone 8 and 20 km southwest of the producing geothermal reservoir indicate that the orientation of S{sub hmin} is S20{degree}E and S41{degree}E, respectively, with S{sub hmin}/S{sub v} ranging from 0.55--0.64 at depths of 1.9--2.2 km. This stress orientation is near optimal for normal faulting on the Stillwater fault in the northernmost non-producing well, but {approximately} 40{degree} rotated from the optimal orientation for normal faulting in the southernmost well. The observation that borehole breakouts were present in these nonproducing wells, but absent in wells drilled into the permeable main reservoir, indicates a significant increase in the magnitude of maximum horizontal principal stress, S{sub Hmax}, in going from the producing to non-producing segments of the fault. The increase in S{sub Hmaz}, coupled with elevated S{sub hmin}/S{sub v} values and a misorientation of the Stillwater fault zone with respect to the principal stress directions, leads to a decrease in the proximity of the fault zone to Coulomb failure. This suggests that a necessary condition for high reservoir permeability is that the Stillwater fault zone be critically stressed for frictional failure in the current stress field.

  13. Geothermal energy production with supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Donald W.

    2003-12-30

    There has been invented a method for producing geothermal energy using supercritical fluids for creation of the underground reservoir, production of the geothermal energy, and for heat transport. Underground reservoirs are created by pumping a supercritical fluid such as carbon dioxide into a formation to fracture the rock. Once the reservoir is formed, the same supercritical fluid is allowed to heat up and expand, then is pumped out of the reservoir to transfer the heat to a surface power generating plant or other application.

  14. Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morrison, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Fluid mechanics is examined from a Hamiltonian perspective. The Hamiltonian point of view provides a unifying framework; by understanding the Hamiltonian perspective, one knows in advance (within bounds) what answers to expect and what kinds of procedures can be performed. The material is organized into five lectures, on the following topics: rudiments of few-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems illustrated by passive advection in two-dimensional fluids; functional differentiation, two action principles of mechanics, and the action principle and canonical Hamiltonian description of the ideal fluid; noncanonical Hamiltonian dynamics with examples; tutorial on Lie groups and algebras, reduction-realization, and Clebsch variables; and stability and Hamiltonian systems.

  15. Apparatus and method for fluid analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Bary W.; Peters, Timothy J.; Shepard, Chester L.; Reeves, James H.

    2004-11-02

    The present invention is an apparatus and method for analyzing a fluid used in a machine or in an industrial process line. The apparatus has at least one meter placed proximate the machine or process line and in contact with the machine or process fluid for measuring at least one parameter related to the fluid. The at least one parameter is a standard laboratory analysis parameter. The at least one meter includes but is not limited to viscometer, element meter, optical meter, particulate meter, and combinations thereof.

  16. Fluid properties determine flow line blockage potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.

    1996-07-15

    A thorough understanding of fluid properties helps in determining the potential of hydrates, paraffins, or asphaltenes to block subsea flow lines. Thermal, chemical, and mechanical methods are the main ways for preventing deposition. Already in both the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, blockages have led to significant losses in production and reserves recovery. This first article in a two-part series discusses thermal and chemical methods in overcoming fluid behavior problems caused by hydrate and other fluid constituents in subsea multiphase flow. The paper discusses subsea production, possible problems, nucleation, growth, deposition, preventing deposition, hydrate predictions, multiphase flow, and hydrate inhibition.

  17. Fluid Inclusion Analysis At Coso Geothermal Area (2004) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    DOE-funding Unknown Exploration Basis 1) To determine if analyses of fluid propene and propane species in fluid inclusions can be used to interpret fluid type, history, or process....

  18. Thermal Storage and Advanced Heat Transfer Fluids (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-08-01

    Fact sheet describing NREL CSP Program capabilities in the area of thermal storage and advanced heat transfer fluids: measuring thermophysical properties, measuring fluid flow and heat transfer, and simulating flow of thermal energy and fluid.

  19. Clay-based geothermal drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guven, N.; Carney, L.L.; Lee, L.J.; Bernhard, R.P.

    1982-11-01

    The rheological properties of fluids based on fibrous clays such as sepiolite and attapulgite have been systematically examined under conditions similar to those of geothermal wells, i.e. at elevated temperatures and pressures in environments with concentrated brines. Attapulgite- and sepiolite-based fluids have been autoclaved at temperatures in the range from 70 to 800/sup 0/F with the addition of chlorides and hydroxides of Na, K, Ca, and Mg. The rheological properties (apparent and plastic viscosity, fluid loss, gel strength, yield point, and cake thickness) of the autoclaved fluids have been studied and correlated with the chemical and physical changes that occur in the clay minerals during the autoclaving process.

  20. Method and apparatus for fluid dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Howard A; Anna, Shelley L; Bontoux, Nathalie; Link, Darren Roy; Weitz, David A; Gitlin, Irina; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Garstecki, Piotr; Diluzio, Willow R; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-24

    A microfluidic method and device for focusing and/or forming discontinuous sections of similar or dissimilar size in a fluid is provided. The device can be fabricated simply from readily-available, inexpensive material using simple techniques.

  1. Method and apparatus for fluid dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Howard A.; Anna, Shelley L.; Bontoux, Nathalie; Link, Darren Roy; Weitz, David A.; Gitlin, Irina; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Garstecki, Piotr; Diluzio, Willow R.; Whitesides, George M.

    2012-12-25

    A microfluidic method and device for focusing and/or forming discontinuous sections of similar or dissimilar size in a fluid is provided. The device can be fabricated simply from readily-available, inexpensive material using simple techniques.

  2. Method and apparatus for fluid dispersion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stone, Howard A.; Anna, Shelley L.; Bontoux, Nathalie; Link, Darren R.; Weitz, David A.; Gitlin, Irina; Kumacheva, Eugenia; Garstecki, Piotr; Diluzio, Willow; Whitesides, George M.

    2010-05-04

    A microfluidic method and device for focusing and/or forming discontinuous sections of similar or dissimilar size in a fluid is provided. The device can be fabricated simply from readily-available, inexpensive material using simple techniques.

  3. Reactive flash volatilization of fluid fuels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Dreyer, Bradon J.; Salge, James R.

    2013-01-08

    The invention provides methods for the production of synthesis gas. More particularly, various embodiments of the invention relate to systems and methods for volatilizing fluid fuel to produce synthesis gas by using a metal catalyst on a solid support matrix.

  4. Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells Electric Power Generation from Coproduced Fluids from Oil and Gas Wells The primary objective of this...

  5. ITP Chemicals: Technology Roadmap for Computational Fluid Dynamics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fluid Dynamics, January 1999 ITP Chemicals: Technology Roadmap for Computational Fluid Dynamics, January 1999 PDF icon cfdroadmap.pdf More Documents & Publications 3-D Combustion ...

  6. Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Development of Molten-Salt Heat Trasfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough Solar Power Plants ... Development of Molten-Salt Heat Transfer Fluid Technology for Parabolic Trough ...

  7. High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids High Operating Temperature Liquid Metal Heat Transfer Fluids This fact sheet describes a UCLA-led solar project to ...

  8. DOE MURI: Hig-Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE MURI: Hig-Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for CSD Applications DOE MURI: Hig-Operating Temperature Heat Transfer Fluids for CSD Applications This presentation was ...

  9. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Emerging Technologies ...

  10. Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions 2005 Diesel Engine...

  11. Modeling fluid flow in deformation bands with stabilized localization...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Modeling fluid flow in deformation bands with stabilized localization mixed finite elements. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling fluid flow in deformation bands...

  12. Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS Environments Application of Neutron Imaging and Scattering to Fluid Flow and Fracture in EGS...

  13. Property:FluidMechanicsMeasurement | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Property Name FluidMechanicsMeasurement Property Type String Description MHK Fluid Mechanics Measurement Categories Used in FormTemplate MHKSensor Allows Values Differential...

  14. Category:Fluid Lab Analysis | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid Lab Analysis Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Geothermalpower.jpg Looking for the Fluid Lab Analysis page? For detailed information on exploration...

  15. Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Volatiles in hydrothermal fluids- A mass spectrometric study of fluid inclusions from active geothermal systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  16. Water as a thermoacoustic working fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.

    1988-01-01

    This short report, addressed only to the thermoacoustic cognoscenti, discusses thermodynamic and transport properties of water with emphasis on water's virtues as a thermoacoustic working fluid. Short-stack-approximation calculations are presented, showing that water is a good working fluid. A very rough design for a sound source using water is also presented as a starting point for discussing the merits and difficulties of this technology. 4 figs.

  17. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, James F. (Bonneville County, ID); Koenig, John F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1985-01-01

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  18. Collapsible sheath fluid reservoirs for flow cytometers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mark, Graham A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is a container in the form of a single housing for holding fluid, including a first collapsible reservoir having a first valve. The first reservoir initially contains a volume of fluid. The container also includes a second reservoir, initially empty (or substantially empty), expandable to a second volume. The second reservoir has a second valve. As the volume of said first reservoir decreases, the volume of the second reservoir proportionally increases.

  19. computational-fluid-dynamics-student-thesis

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fluid Dynamics Student Thesis Abstract DEVELOPMENT OF A THREE-DIMENSIONAL SCOURING METHODOLOGY AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION IN A COMMERCIAL CFD CODE FOR OPEN CHANNEL FLOW OVER A FLOODED BRIDGE DECK The Computational Fluid Dynamics staff at TRACC is supporting three students from Northern Illinois University who are working for a Masters degree. The CFD staff is directing the thesis research and working with them on three projects: (1) a three-dimensional scour computation methodology for pressure flow

  20. Fluid driven torsional dipole seismic source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardee, Harry C. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1991-01-01

    A compressible fluid powered oscillating downhole seismic source device capable of periodically generating uncontaminated horizontally-propagated, shear waves is provided. A compressible fluid generated oscillation is created within the device which imparts an oscillation to a housing when the device is installed in a housing such as the cylinder off an existing downhole tool, thereby a torsional seismic source is established. Horizontal waves are transferred to the surrounding bore hole medium through downhole clamping.

  1. Nanoparticle enhanced ionic liquid heat transfer fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fox, Elise B.; Visser, Ann E.; Bridges, Nicholas J.; Gray, Joshua R.; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.

    2014-08-12

    A heat transfer fluid created from nanoparticles that are dispersed into an ionic liquid is provided. Small volumes of nanoparticles are created from e.g., metals or metal oxides and/or alloys of such materials are dispersed into ionic liquids to create a heat transfer fluid. The nanoparticles can be dispersed directly into the ionic liquid during nanoparticle formation or the nanoparticles can be formed and then, in a subsequent step, dispersed into the ionic liquid using e.g., agitation.

  2. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Research Perspectives Nonlinear optical approaches for elucidating interfacial fluid and sorbed species structures and dynamics pdf Structural and Dynamic Properties of Room Temperature Ionic Liquids Confined within Hierarchical Porous Materials pdf Structure and Dynamics of Electrical Double Layer Using Integrated Scanning Probe Microscopy and Molecular Simulations pdf Effects of Nano-Confinement on the Fluid Interfacial Structure, Dynamics and Thermodynamic behavior pdf Molecular Insights into

  3. High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Capabilities » High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids /science-innovation/_assets/images/icon-science.jpg High-Energy-Density Plasmas, Fluids National security depends on science and technology. The United States relies on Los Alamos National Laboratory for the best of both. No place on Earth pursues a broader array of world-class scientific endeavors. TRIDENT target chamber Sasi Palaniyappan, right, and Rahul Shah left inside a target chamber where the TRIDENT short pulse laser is aimed at a very

  4. Stirling engine with air working fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Corey, John A. (North Troy, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A Stirling engine capable of utilizing air as a working fluid which includes a compact heat exchange module which includes heating tube units, regenerator and cooler positioned about the combustion chamber. This arrangement has the purpose and effect of allowing the construction of an efficient, high-speed, high power-density engine without the use of difficult to seal light gases as working fluids.

  5. Control system for fluid heated steam generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boland, J.F.; Koenig, J.F.

    1984-05-29

    A control system for controlling the location of the nucleate-boiling region in a fluid heated steam generator comprises means for measuring the temperature gradient (change in temperature per unit length) of the heating fluid along the steam generator; means for determining a control variable in accordance with a predetermined function of temperature gradients and for generating a control signal in response thereto; and means for adjusting the feedwater flow rate in accordance with the control signal.

  6. Structural cooling fluid tube for supporting a turbine component and supplying cooling fluid to transition section

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Charron, Richard; Pierce, Daniel

    2015-08-11

    A shaft cover support for a gas turbine engine is disclosed. The shaft cover support not only provides enhanced support to a shaft cover of the gas turbine engine, but also includes a cooling fluid chamber for passing fluids from a rotor air cooling supply conduit to an inner ring cooling manifold. Furthermore, the shaft cover support may include a cooling shield supply extending from the cooling fluid chamber between the radially outward inlet and the radially inward outlet on the radially extending region and in fluid communication with the cooling fluid chamber for providing cooling fluids to a transition section. The shaft cover support may also provide additional stiffness and reduce interference of the flow from the compressor. In addition, the shaft cover support accommodates a transition section extending between compressor and turbine sections of the gas turbine engine.

  7. Pump for molten metal or other fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horton, James A. (Livermore, CA); Brown, Donald L. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A pump having no moving parts which can be used to pump high temperature molten metal or other fluids in a vacuum or low pressure environment, and a method for pumping such fluids. The pump combines elements of a bubble pump with a trap which isolates the vacuum or low pressure region from the gas used to create the bubbles. When used in a vacuum the trap prevents the pumping gas from escaping into the isolated region and thereby reducing the quality of the vacuum. The pump includes a channel in which a pumping gas is forced under pressure into a cavity where bubbles are formed. The cavity is in contact with a reservoir which contains the molten metal or other fluid which is to be pumped. The bubbles rise up into a column (or pump tube) carrying the fluid with them. At the top of the column is located a deflector which causes the bubbles to burst and the drops of pumped fluid to fall into a trap. The fluid accumulates in the trap, eventually forcing its way to an outlet. A roughing pump can be used to withdraw the pumping gas from the top of the column and assist with maintaining the vacuum or low pressure environment.

  8. High gliding fluid power generation system with fluid component separation and multiple condensers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mahmoud, Ahmad M; Lee, Jaeseon; Radcliff, Thomas D

    2014-10-14

    An example power generation system includes a vapor generator, a turbine, a separator and a pump. In the separator, the multiple components of the working fluid are separated from each other and sent to separate condensers. Each of the separate condensers is configured for condensing a single component of the working fluid. Once each of the components condense back into a liquid form they are recombined and exhausted to a pump that in turn drives the working fluid back to the vapor generator.

  9. Permeability barrier of Gram-negative cell envelopes and approaches to bypass it

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zgurskaya, Helen I.; LĂłpez, Cesar A.; Gnanakaran, Sandrasegaram

    2015-09-18

    Gram-negative bacteria are intrinsically resistant to many antibiotics. Species that have acquired multidrug resistance and cause infections that are effectively untreatable present a serious threat to public health. The problem is broadly recognized and tackled at both the fundamental and applied levels. This article summarizes current advances in understanding the molecular bases of the low permeability barrier of Gram-negative pathogens, which is the major obstacle in discovery and development of antibiotics effective against such pathogens. Gaps in knowledge and specific strategies to break this barrier and to achieve potent activities against difficult Gram-negative bacteria are also discussed.

  10. Method and apparatus for measuring the gas permeability of a solid sample

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carstens, D.H.W.

    1984-01-27

    The disclosure is directed to an apparatus and method for measuring the permeability of a gas in a sample. The gas is allowed to reach a steady flow rate through the sample. A measurable amount of the gas is collected during a given time period and then delivered to a sensitive quadrupole. The quadrupole signal, adjusted for background, is proportional to the amount of gas collected during the time period. The quadrupole can be calibrated with a standard helium leak. The gas can be deuterium and the sample can be polyvinyl alcohol.

  11. The effects of heat conduction on the vaporization of liquid invading superheated permeable rock

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Woods, Andrew, W.; Fitzgerald, Shaun D.

    1996-01-24

    We examine the role of conductive and convective heat transfer in the vaporization of liquid as it slowly invades a superheated permeable rock. For very slow migration, virtually all of the liquid vaporizes. As the liquid supply rate increases beyond the rate of heat transfer by thermal conduction, a decreasing fraction of the liquid can vaporize. Indeed, for sufficiently high flow rates, the fraction vaporizing depends solely on the superheat of the rock, and any heat transfer from the superheated region is negligible. These results complement earlier studies of vaporization under very high injection rates, in which case the dynamic vapour pressure reduces the mass fraction vaporizing to very small values.

  12. Organic fluid permeation through fluoropolymer membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nemser, Stuart M.; Kosaraju, Praveen; Bowser, John

    2015-07-14

    Separation of the components of liquid mixtures is achieved by contacting a liquid mixture with a nonporous membrane having a fluoropolymer selectively permeable layer and imposing a pressure gradient across the membrane from feed side to permeate side. Unusually high transmembrane flux is obtained when the membrane is subjected to one or more process conditions prior to separation. These include (a) leaving some residual amount of membrane casting solvent in the membrane, and (b) contacting the membrane with a component of the mixture to be separated for a duration effective to saturate the membrane with the component.

  13. "Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced Industrial Heat Transfer Fluids"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ganesh Skandan; Dr. Amit Singhal; Mr. Kenneth Eberts; Mr. Damian Sobrevilla; Prof. Jerry Shan; Stephen Tse; Toby Rossmann

    2008-06-12

    ABSTRACT Nanotechnology Enabled Advanced industrial Heat Transfer Fluids” Improving the efficiency of Industrial Heat Exchangers offers a great opportunity to improve overall process efficiencies in diverse industries such as pharmaceutical, materials manufacturing and food processing. The higher efficiencies can come in part from improved heat transfer during both cooling and heating of the material being processed. Additionally, there is great interest in enhancing the performance and reducing the weight of heat exchangers used in automotives in order to increase fuel efficiency. The goal of the Phase I program was to develop nanoparticle containing heat transfer fluids (e.g., antifreeze, water, silicone and hydrocarbon-based oils) that are used in transportation and in the chemical industry for heating, cooling and recovering waste heat. Much work has been done to date at investigating the potential use of nanoparticle-enhanced thermal fluids to improve heat transfer in heat exchangers. In most cases the effect in a commercial heat transfer fluid has been marginal at best. In the Phase I work, we demonstrated that the thermal conductivity, and hence heat transfer, of a fluid containing nanoparticles can be dramatically increased when subjected to an external influence. The increase in thermal conductivity was significantly larger than what is predicted by commonly used thermal models for two-phase materials. Additionally, the surface of the nanoparticles was engineered so as to have a minimal influence on the viscosity of the fluid. As a result, a nanoparticle-laden fluid was successfully developed that can lead to enhanced heat transfer in both industrial and automotive heat exchangers

  14. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal distribution by origin State, destination State, consumer category, method of transportation; foreign coal distribution by major coal-exporting state and method of transportation; and domestic and foreign coal distribution by origin state. Year Domestic and foreign distribution of U.S. coal by State of origin

  15. Inhibition of K+ permeability diminishes alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated effects on norepinephrine release

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zimanyi, I.; Folly, G.; Vizi, E.S.

    1988-05-01

    The effect of two different potassium channel blockers, 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and quinine, on the alpha 2-adrenoceptor mediated modulation of norepinephrine (NE) release was investigated. Pairs of mouse vasa deferentia were loaded with /sup 3/H-norepinephrine (/sup 3/H-NE), superfused continuously, and stimulated electrically. 4-AP (5.3 x 10(-4) M), and quinine (10(-5) M) enhanced the stimulation-evoked release of tritium significantly. The electrically induced release of radioactivity was reduced by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists (1-NE and xylazine) and enhanced by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine. Both effects were affected markedly by 4-AP or quinine: the depressant action of 1-NA and xylazine was partially antagonized and the facilitatory effect of yohimbine was completely abolished during the blockade of the potassium channels. It is suggested that the blockade of the potassium permeability counteracts negative feedback modulation; therefore, it seems likely that the stimulation of alpha 2-adrenoceptors leads to an enhanced potassium permeability and hyperpolarization of varicose axon terminals.

  16. Improvements in Measuring Sorption-Induced Strain and Permeability in Coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2008-10-01

    Total worldwide CBM in-place reserves estimates are between 3500 Tcf and 9500 Tcf. Unminable coal beds have been recommended as good CO2 sequestration sites as the world prepares to sequester large amounts of greenhouse gases. In the U.S., these coal seams have the capacity to adsorb and sequester roughly 50 years of CO2 emissions from all the U.S. coal-fired power plants at today’s output rates. The amount and type of gas ad-sorbed in coal has a strong impact on the permeability of the coal seam. An improved mixed gas adsorption iso-therm model based on the extended-Langmuir theory is discussed and is applied to mixed gas sorption-induced strain based on pure gas strain data and a parameter accounting for gas-gas interactions that is independent of the coal substrate. Advantages and disadvantages of using freestanding versus constrained samples for sorption-induced strain measurements are also discussed. A permeability equation used to model laboratory was found to be very accurate when sorption-induced strain was small, but less accurate with higher strain gases.

  17. Oil recovery enhancement from fractured, low permeability reservoirs. Annual report 1990--1991, Part 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poston, S.W.

    1991-12-31

    Joint funding by the Department of Energy and the State of Texas has Permitted a three year, multi-disciplinary investigation to enhance oil recovery from a dual porosity, fractured, low matrix permeability oil reservoir to be initiated. The Austin Chalk producing horizon trending thru the median of Texas has been identified as the candidate for analysis. Ultimate primary recovery of oil from the Austin Chalk is very low because of two major technological problems. The commercial oil producing rate is based on the wellbore encountering a significant number of natural fractures. The prediction of the location and frequency of natural fractures at any particular region in the subsurface is problematical at this time, unless extensive and expensive seismic work is conducted. A major portion of the oil remains in the low permeability matrix blocks after depletion because there are no methods currently available to the industry to mobilize this bypassed oil. The following multi-faceted study is aimed to develop new methods to increase oil and gas recovery from the Austin Chalk producing trend. These methods may involve new geological and geophysical interpretation methods, improved ways to study production decline curves or the application of a new enhanced oil recovery technique. The efforts for the second year may be summarized as one of coalescing the initial concepts developed during the initial phase to more in depth analyses. Accomplishments are predicting natural fractures; relating recovery to well-log signatures; development of the EOR imbibition process; mathematical modeling; and field test.

  18. Fire flood method for recovering petroleum from oil reservoirs of low permeability and temperature

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    1984-08-14

    The present invention is directed to a method of enhanced oil recovery by fire flooding petroleum reservoirs characterized by a temperature of less than the critical temperature of carbon dioxide, a pore pressure greater than the saturated vapor pressure of carbon dioxide at said temperature (87.7.degree. F. at 1070 psia), and a permeability in the range of about 20 to 100 millidarcies. The in situ combustion of petroleum in the reservoir is provided by injecting into the reservoir a combustion supporting medium consisting essentially of oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof. The heat of combustion and the products of this combustion which consist essentially of gaseous carbon dioxide and water vapor sufficiently decrease the viscosity of oil adjacent to fire front to form an oil bank which moves through the reservoir towards a recovery well ahead of the fire front. The gaseous carbon dioxide and the water vapor are driven into the reservoir ahead of the fire front by pressure at the injection well. As the gaseous carbon dioxide cools to less than about 88.degree. F. it is converted to liquid which is dissolved in the oil bank for further increasing the mobility thereof. By using essentially pure oxygen, ozone, or a combination thereof as the combustion supporting medium in these reservoirs the permeability requirements of the reservoirs are significantly decreased since the liquid carbon dioxide requires substantially less voidage volume than that required for gaseous combustion products.

  19. Fischer-Tropsch synthesis in supercritical fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akgerman, A.; Bukur, D.B.

    1998-12-31

    The objective of this study was to investigate Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) in the supercritical phase employing a commercial precipitated iron catalysts. As the supercritical fluid the authors used propane and n-hexane. The catalyst had a nominal composition of 100 Fe/5 Cu/4.2 K/25 SiO{sub 2} on mass basis and was used in a fixed bed reactor under both normal (conventional) and supercritical conditions. Experimental data were obtained at different temperatures (235 C, 250 C, and 260 C) and synthesis gas feed compositions (H{sub 2}/CO molar feed ratio of 0.67, 1.0 and 2.0) in both modes of operation under steady state conditions. The authors compared the performance of the precipitated iron catalyst in the supercritical phase, with the data obtained in gas phase (fixed bed reactor) and slurry phase (STS reactor). Comparisons were made in terms of bulk catalyst activity and various aspects of product selectivity (e.g. lumped hydrocarbon distribution and olefin content as a function of carbon number). In order to gain better understanding of the role of intraparticle mass transfer during FTS under conventional or supercritical conditions, the authors have measured diffusivities of representative hydrocarbon products in supercritical fluids, as well as their effective diffusion rates into the pores of catalyst at the reaction conditions. They constructed a Taylor dispersion apparatus to measure diffusion coefficients of hydrocarbon products of FTS in sub and supercritical ethane, propane, and hexane. In addition, they developed a tracer response technique to measure the effective diffusivities in the catalyst pores at the same conditions. Based on these results they have developed an equation for prediction of diffusion in supercritical fluids, which is based on the rough hard sphere theory.

  20. DIFFERENTIAL GROUP-VELOCITY DETECTION OF FLUID PATHS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leland Timothy Long

    2005-12-20

    For nearly 50 years, surface waves that propagate through near-surface soils have been utilized in engineering for the determination of the small-strain dynamic properties of soils. These techniques, although useful, have not been sufficiently precise to use in detecting the subtle changes in soil properties that accompany short-term changes in fluid content. The differential techniques developed in this research now make it possible to monitor small changes (less than 3 cm) in the water level of shallow soil aquifers. Using inversion techniques and tomography, differential seismic techniques could track the water level distribution in aquifers with water being pumped in or out. Differential surface wave analysis could lead to new ways to monitor reservoir levels and verify hydrologic models. Field data obtained during this investigation have measured changes in surface-wave phase and group velocity before and after major rain events, and have detected subtle changes associated with pumping water into an aquifer and pumping water out of an aquifer. This research has established analysis techniques for observing these changes. These techniques combine time domain measurements to isolate surface wave arrivals with frequency domain techniques to determine the effects as a function of frequency. Understanding the differences in response as a function of wave frequency facilitates the inversion of this data for soil velocity structure. These techniques have also quantified many aspects of data acquisition and analysis that are important for significant results. These include tight control on the character of the source and proper placement of the geophones. One important application is the possibility that surface waves could be used to monitor and/or track fluid movement during clean-up operations, verifying that the fluid reached all affected areas. Extending this to a larger scale could facilitate monitoring of water resources in basins without having to drill many expensive wells. The next step is to investigate the commercial applications of differential surface wave analysis.

  1. THERMO-HYDRO-MECHANICAL MODELING OF WORKING FLUID INJECTION AND THERMAL ENERGY EXTRACTION IN EGS FRACTURES AND ROCK MATRIX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert Podgorney; Chuan Lu; Hai Huang

    2012-01-01

    Development of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) will require creation of a reservoir of sufficient volume to enable commercial-scale heat transfer from the reservoir rocks to the working fluid. A key assumption associated with reservoir creation/stimulation is that sufficient rock volumes can be hydraulically fractured via both tensile and shear failure, and more importantly by reactivation of naturally existing fractures (by shearing), to create the reservoir. The advancement of EGS greatly depends on our understanding of the dynamics of the intimately coupled rock-fracture-fluid-heat system and our ability to reliably predict how reservoirs behave under stimulation and production. Reliable performance predictions of EGS reservoirs require accurate and robust modeling for strongly coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes. Conventionally, these types of problems have been solved using operator-splitting methods, usually by coupling a subsurface flow and heat transport simulators with a solid mechanics simulator via input files. An alternative approach is to solve the system of nonlinear partial differential equations that govern multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, and rock mechanics simultaneously, using a fully coupled, fully implicit solution procedure, in which all solution variables (pressure, enthalpy, and rock displacement fields) are solved simultaneously. This paper describes numerical simulations used to investigate the poro- and thermal- elastic effects of working fluid injection and thermal energy extraction on the properties of the fractures and rock matrix of a hypothetical EGS reservoir, using a novel simulation software FALCON (Podgorney et al., 2011), a finite element based simulator solving fully coupled multiphase fluid flow, heat transport, rock deformation, and fracturing using a global implicit approach. Investigations are also conducted on how these poro- and thermal-elastic effects are related to fracture permeability evolution.

  2. Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible.

  3. Ultrasonic fluid flow measurement method and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-10-12

    An apparatus for measuring the flow of a fluid in a pipe using ultrasonic waves. The apparatus comprises an ultrasonic generator, a lens for focusing the sound energy produced by the generator, and means for directing the focused energy into the side of the pipe through an opening and in a direction close to parallel to the long axis of the pipe. A cone carries the sound energy to the lens from the generator. Depending on the choice of materials, there may be a quarter-wave, acoustic impedance matching section between the generator and the cone to reduce the reflections of energy at the cone boundary. The lens material has an acoustic impedance similar to that of the cone material but a different sonic velocity so that the lens can converge the sound waves in the fluid. A transition section between the lens and the fluid helps to couple the energy to the fluid and assures it is directed as close to parallel to the fluid flow direction as possible. 3 figures.

  4. Drilling Fluids Market Analysis | OpenEI Community

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Drilling Fluids Market Analysis Home There are currently no posts in this category. Syndicate content...

  5. Selective evaporation of focusing fluid in two-fluid hydrodynamic print head.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keicher, David M.; Cook, Adam W.

    2014-09-01

    The work performed in this project has demonstrated the feasibility to use hydrodynamic focusing of two fluid steams to create a novel micro printing technology for electronics and other high performance applications. Initial efforts focused solely on selective evaporation of the sheath fluid from print stream provided insight in developing a unique print head geometry allowing excess sheath fluid to be separated from the print flow stream for recycling/reuse. Fluid flow models suggest that more than 81 percent of the sheath fluid can be removed without affecting the print stream. Further development and optimization is required to demonstrate this capability in operation. Print results using two-fluid hydrodynamic focusing yielded a 30 micrometers wide by 0.5 micrometers tall line that suggests that the cross-section of the printed feature from the print head was approximately 2 micrometers in diameter. Printing results also demonstrated that complete removal of the sheath fluid is not necessary for all material systems. The two-fluid printing technology could enable printing of insulated conductors and clad optical interconnects. Further development of this concept should be pursued.

  6. A Fast Network Flow Model is used in conjunction with Measurements of Filter Permeability to calculate the Performance of Hot Gas Filters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    VanOsdol, J.G.; Chiang, T-K.

    2002-09-19

    Two different technologies that are being considered for generating electric power on a large scale by burning coal are Pressurized Fluid Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems and Integrated Gasification and Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. Particulate emission regulations that have been proposed for future systems may require that these systems be fitted with large scale Hot Gas Clean-Up (HGCU) filtration systems that would remove the fine particulate matter from the hot gas streams that are generated by PFBC and IGCC systems. These hot gas filtration systems are geometrically and aerodynamically complex. They typically are constructed with large arrays of ceramic candle filter elements (CFE). The successful design of these systems require an accurate assessment of the rate at which mechanical energy of the gas flow is dissipated as it passes through the filter containment vessel and the individual candle filter elements that make up the system. Because the filtration medium is typically made of a porous ceramic material having open pore sizes that are much smaller than the dimensions of the containment vessel, the filtration medium is usually considered to be a permeable medium that follows Darcy's law. The permeability constant that is measured in the lab is considered to be a function of the filtration medium only and is usually assumed to apply equally to all the filters in the vessel as if the flow were divided evenly among all the filter elements. In general, the flow of gas through each individual CFE will depend not only on the geometrical characteristics of the filtration medium, but also on the local mean flows in the filter containment vessel that a particular filter element sees. The flow inside the CFE core, through the system manifolds, and inside the containment vessel itself will be coupled to the flow in the filter medium by various Reynolds number effects. For any given filter containment vessel, since the mean flows are different in different locations inside the vessel, the flow of gas through an individual CFE will adjust itself to accommodate the local mean flows that prevail in its general location. In some locations this adjustment will take place at High Reynolds numbers and in other locations this will occur at low Reynolds numbers. The analysis done here investigates the nature of this coupling.

  7. Workshop on induced Seismicity due to fluid injection/production from Energy-Related Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Majer, E.L.; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Rueter, Horst; Stump, Brian; Segall, Paul; Zoback, Mark; Nelson, Jim; Frohlich, Cliff; Rutledge, Jim; Gritto, Roland; Baria, Roy; Hickman, Steve; McGarr, Art; Ellsworth, Bill; Lockner, Dave; Oppenheimer, David; Henning, Peter; Rosca, Anca; Hornby, Brian; Wang, Herb; Beeler, Nick; Ghassemi, Ahmad; Walters, Mark; Robertson-Tait, Ann; Dracos, Peter; Fehler, Mike; Abou-Sayed, Ahmed; Ake, Jon; Vorobiev, Oleg; Julian, Bruce

    2011-04-01

    Geothermal energy, carbon sequestration, and enhanced oil and gas recovery have a clear role in U.S. energy policy, both in securing cost-effective energy and reducing atmospheric CO{sub 2} accumulations. Recent publicity surrounding induced seismicity at several geothermal and oil and gas sites points out the need to develop improved standards and practices to avoid issues that may unduly inhibit or stop the above technologies from fulfilling their full potential. It is critical that policy makers and the general community be assured that EGS, CO{sub 2} sequestration, enhanced oil/gas recovery, and other technologies relying on fluid injections, will be designed to reduce induced seismicity to an acceptable level, and be developed in a safe and cost-effective manner. Induced seismicity is not new - it has occurred as part of many different energy and industrial applications (reservoir impoundment, mining, oil recovery, construction, waste disposal, conventional geothermal). With proper study/research and engineering controls, induced seismicity should eventually allow safe and cost-effective implementation of any of these technologies. In addition, microseismicity is now being used as a remote sensing tool for understanding and measuring the success of injecting fluid into the subsurface in a variety of applications, including the enhancement of formation permeability through fracture creation/reactivation, tracking fluid migration and storage, and physics associated with stress redistribution. This potential problem was envisaged in 2004 following observed seismicity at several EGS sites, a study was implemented by DOE to produce a white paper and a protocol (Majer et al 2008) to help potential investors. Recently, however, there have been a significant number of adverse comments by the press regarding induced seismicity which could adversely affect the development of the energy sector in the USA. Therefore, in order to identify critical technology and research that was necessary not only to make fluid injections safe, but an economic asset, DOE organized a series of workshops. The first workshop was held on February 4, 2010, at Stanford University. A second workshop will be held in mid-2010 to address the critical elements of a 'best practices/protocol' that industry could use as a guide to move forward with safe implementation of fluid injections/production for energy-related applications, i.e., a risk mitigation plan, and specific recommendations for industry to follow. The objectives of the first workshop were to identify critical technology and research needs/approaches to advance the understanding of induced seismicity associated with energy related fluid injection/production, such that: (1) The risk associated with induced seismicity can be reduced to a level that is acceptable to the public, policy makers, and regulators; and (2) Seismicity can be utilized/controlled to monitor, manage, and optimize the desired fluid behavior in a cost effective fashion. There were two primary goals during the workshop: (1) Identify the critical roadblocks preventing the necessary understanding of human-induced seismicity. These roadblocks could be technology related (better imaging of faults and fractures, more accurate fluid tracking, improved stress measurements, etc.), research related (fundamental understanding of rock physical properties and geochemical fluid/rock interactions, development of improved constitutive relations, improved understanding of rock failure, improved data processing and modeling, etc.), or a combination of both. (2) After laying out the roadblocks the second goal was to identify technology development and research needs that could be implemented in the near future to address the above objectives.

  8. Multipurpose Acoustic Sensor for Downhole Fluid Monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pantea, Cristian

    2012-05-04

    The projects objectives and purpose are to: (1) development a multipurpose acoustic sensor for downhole fluid monitoring in Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) reservoirs over typical ranges of pressures and temperatures and demonstrate its capabilities and performance for different EGS systems; (2) determine in real-time and in a single sensor package several parameters - temperature, pressure, fluid flow and fluid properties; (3) needed in nearly every phase of an EGS project, including Testing of Injection and Production Wells, Reservoir Validation, Inter-well Connectivity, Reservoir Scale Up and Reservoir Sustainability. (4) Current sensors are limited to operating at lower temperatures, but the need is for logging at high temperatures. The present project deals with the development of a novel acoustic-based sensor that can work at temperatures up to 374 C, in inhospitable environments.

  9. Detecting low levels of radionuclides in fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Patch, Keith D. (Lexington, MA); Morgan, Dean T. (Sudbury, MA)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for detecting low levels of one or more radionuclides in a fluid sample uses a substrate that includes an ion exchange resin or other sorbent material to collect the radionuclides. A collecting apparatus includes a collecting chamber that exposes the substrate to a measured amount of the fluid sample such that radionuclides in the fluid sample are collected by the ion exchange resin. A drying apparatus, which can include a drying chamber, then dries the substrate. A measuring apparatus measures emissions from radionuclides collected on the substrate. The substrate is positioned in a measuring chamber proximate to a detector, which provides a signal in response to emissions from the radionuclides. Other analysis methods can be used to detect non-radioactive analytes, which can be collected with other types of sorbent materials.

  10. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    2003-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  11. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  12. Full Life Wind Turbine Gearbox Lubricating Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Glenn A.; Jungk, Manfred; Bryant, Jonathan J.; Lauer, Rebecca S.; Chobot, Anthony; Mayer, Tyler; Palmer, Shane; Kauffman, Robert E.

    2012-02-28

    Industrial gear box lubricants typically are hydrocarbon based mineral oils with considerable amounts of additives to overcome the lack of base fluid properties like wear protection, oxidation stability, load carrying capacity, low temperature solidification and drop of viscosity at higher temperatures. For today's wind turbine gearboxes, the requirements are more severe and synthetic hydrocarbon oils are used to improve on this, but all such hydrocarbon based lubricants require significant amounts of Extreme Pressure (EP) additives to meet performance requirements. Perfluoropolyether (PFPE) fluids provide load carrying capacity as an inherent property. During the course of the project with the main tasks of 'Establish a Benchmark', 'Lubricant Evaluation', 'Full Scale Gearbox Trial' and 'Economic Evaluation', the PAO Reference oil exhibited significant changes after laboratory gear testing, in service operation in the field and full scale gearbox trial. Four hydrocarbon base oils were selected for comparison in the benchmarking exercise and showed variation with respect to meeting the requirements for the laboratory micro-pitting tests, while the PFPE fluid exceeded the requirements even with the material taken after the full scale gear box trial. This is remarkable for a lubricant without EP additives. Laboratory bearing tests performed on the PFPE fluids before and after the full scale gear box trial showed the results met requirements for the industry standard. The PFPE fluid successfully completed the full scale gear box test program which included baseline and progressive staged load testing. The evaluation of gears showed no micro-pitting or objectionable wear. By the final stage, lubricant film thickness had been reduced to just 21% of its original value, this was by design and resulted in a lambda ratio of well below 1. This test design scenario of a low lambda ratio is a very undesirable lubrication condition for real world but creates the ability to test the lubricating fluids performance under the most extreme conditions. The PAO Reference oil also passed its testing without any noticeable deterioration of the gear surface. However the PAO Reference oil was replaced midway through the progressive loading, as the lubricant was burned in an attempt to raise the sump temperature to the same levels as for the PFPE. Both materials experienced a decrease of viscosity during their respective run times. The viscosity index decreased for the PAO there while there was a slight increase for the PFPE. FZG laboratory gear tests and measurements of the drive motor's current during the full scale gear box trial were made to characterize the relative efficiency between the PFPE fluid and the PAO Reference oil. In the FZG laboratory efficiency test, the PFPE fluids show much higher churning losses due to their higher viscosity and density. The analysis seems to show that the efficiency correlates better to dynamic viscosity than any other of the measured metrics such as film thickness. In load stages where the load, speed and temperature are similar, the PFPE fluid has a greater film thickness and theoretical gear protection, but requires a larger current for the drive motor than the PAO. However in load stages where the film thickness is the same, the PFPE fluid's reduced dynamic viscosity gives it a slight efficiency advantage relative to the PAO reference oil. Ultimately, many factors such as temperature, rotational speed, and fluid viscosity combine in a complex fashion to influence the results. However, the PFPE's much lower change of viscosity with respect to temperature, allows variations in designing an optimum viscosity to balance efficiency versus gear protection. Economic analysis was done using Cost of Energy calculations. The results vary from 5.3% for a 'Likely Case' to 16.8% for a 'Best Case' scenario as potential cost improvement by using PFPE as the gearbox lubricating fluid. It is important to note the largest portion of savings comes in Levelized Replacement Cost, which is dictated by the assumption on gearb

  13. Advanced Heat Transfer and Thermal Storage Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moens, L.; Blake, D.

    2005-01-01

    The design of the next generation solar parabolic trough systems for power production will require the development of new thermal energy storage options with improved economics or operational characteristics. Current heat-transfer fluids such as VP-1?, which consists of a eutectic mixture of biphenyl and diphenyl oxide, allow a maximum operating temperature of ca. 300 C, a limit above which the vapor pressure would become too high and would require pressure-rated tanks. The use of VP-1? also suffers from a freezing point around 13 C that requires heating during cold periods. One of the goals for future trough systems is the use of heat-transfer fluids that can act as thermal storage media and that allow operating temperatures around 425 C combined with lower limits around 0 C. This paper presents an outline of our latest approach toward the development of such thermal storage fluids.

  14. Isotopic Analysis- Fluid At Kilauea East Rift Geothermal Area...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    samples. The study seems to support the idea that the rift zones act as low permeability boundaries but are not complete barriers to ground water flow. The rift zone appear...

  15. LANL Shock Tube Kathy Prestridge Extreme Fluids Team

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Header image FLUID DYNAMICS at Los Alamos Extreme Fluids Team in Physics Division home the team research publications pictures diversity contact The Extreme Fluids Team On the P-23 Extreme Fluids Team at Los Alamos National Laboratory, we apply high-resolution diagnostics to study fluid dynamics problems in extreme environments, such as shock-driven mixing, multiphase flows, and variable-density turbulence. The team is composed of Los Alamos staff, postdocs, and students. EXPERIMENTAL FACILITIES

  16. Geomechanical Simulation of Fluid-Driven Fractures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhnenko, R.; Nikolskiy, D.; Mogilevskaya, S.; Labuz, J.

    2012-11-30

    The project supported graduate students working on experimental and numerical modeling of rock fracture, with the following objectives: (a) perform laboratory testing of fluid-saturated rock; (b) develop predictive models for simulation of fracture; and (c) establish educational frameworks for geologic sequestration issues related to rock fracture. These objectives were achieved through (i) using a novel apparatus to produce faulting in a fluid-saturated rock; (ii) modeling fracture with a boundary element method; and (iii) developing curricula for training geoengineers in experimental mechanics, numerical modeling of fracture, and poroelasticity.

  17. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Lagrange Multiplier Technique (Conference) | SciTech Connect Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. Modeling of such flows at micro and macro levels as well establishing relationships between these approaches are needed to

  18. Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lagrange Multiplier Technique (Conference) | SciTech Connect Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Mesoscale Simulations of Particulate Flows with Parallel Distributed Lagrange Multiplier Technique Fluid particulate flows are common phenomena in nature and industry. Modeling of such flows at micro and macro levels as well establishing relationships between these approaches are needed to

  19. Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation’s Cañon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Performance Assessment and Recommendations for Rejuvenation of a Permeable Reactive Barrier: Cotter Corporation’s Canon City, Colorado, Uranium Mill (April 2005)

  20. Fault-related CO2 degassing, geothermics, and fluid flow in southern California basins---Physiochemical evidence and modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boles, James R.; Garven, Grant

    2015-08-04

    Our studies have had an important impact on societal issues. Experimental and field observations show that CO2 degassing, such as might occur from stored CO2 reservoir gas, can result in significant stable isotopic disequilibrium. In the offshore South Ellwood field of the Santa Barbara channel, we show how oil production has reduced natural seep rates in the area, thereby reducing greenhouse gases. Permeability is calculated to be ~20-30 millidarcys for km-scale fault-focused fluid flow, using changes in natural gas seepage rates from well production, and poroelastic changes in formation pore-water pressure. In the Los Angeles (LA) basin, our characterization of formation water chemistry, including stable isotopic studies, allows the distinction between deep and shallow formations waters. Our multiphase computational-based modeling of petroleum migration demonstrates the important role of major faults on geological-scale fluid migration in the LA basin, and show how petroleum was dammed up against the Newport-Inglewood fault zone in a “geologically fast” interval of time (less than 0.5 million years). Furthermore, these fluid studies also will allow evaluation of potential cross-formational mixing of formation fluids. Lastly, our new study of helium isotopes in the LA basin shows a significant leakage of mantle helium along the Newport Inglewood fault zone (NIFZ), at flow rates up to 2 cm/yr. Crustal-scale fault permeability (~60 microdarcys) and advective versus conductive heat transport rates have been estimated using the observed helium isotopic data. The NIFZ is an important deep-seated fault that may crosscut a proposed basin decollement fault in this heavily populated area, and appears to allow seepage of helium from the mantle sources about 30 km beneath Los Angeles. The helium study has been widely cited in recent weeks by the news media, both in radio and on numerous web sites.

  1. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    - Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: March 9, 2016 Next Release Date: May 2016 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination

  2. About Industrial Distributed Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office's (AMO's) Industrial Distributed Energy activities build on the success of predecessor DOE programs on distributed energy and combined heat and power (CHP) while...

  3. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

  4. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  5. Fluid outlet at the bottom of an in situ oil shale retort

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hutchins, Ned M.

    1984-01-01

    Formation is excavated from within the boundaries of a retort site in formation containing oil shale for forming at least one retort level void extending horizontally across the retort site, leaving at least one remaining zone of unfragmented formation within the retort site. A production level drift is excavated below the retort level void, leaving a lower zone of unfragmented formation between the retort level void and the production level drift. A plurality of raises are formed between the production level drift and the retort level void for providing product withdrawal passages distributed generally uniformly across the horizontal cross section of the retort level void. The product withdrawal passages are backfilled with a permeable mass of particles. Explosive placed within the remaining zone of unfragmented formation above the retort level void is detonated for explosively expanding formation within the retort site toward at least the retort level void for forming a fragmented permeable mass of formation particles containing oil shale within the boundaries of the retort site. During retorting operations products of retorting are conducted from the fragmented mass in the retort through the product withdrawal passages to the production level void. The products are withdrawn from the production level void.

  6. Organic/inorganic nanocomposites, methods of making, and uses as a permeable reactive barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K.; Stewart, Frederick F.

    2007-05-15

    Nanocomposite materials having a composition including an inorganic constituent, a preformed organic polymer constituent, and a metal ion sequestration constituent are disclosed. The nanocomposites are characterized by being single phase, substantially homogeneous materials wherein the preformed polymer constituent and the inorganic constituent form an interpenetrating network with each other. The inorganic constituent may be an inorganic oxide, such as silicon dioxide, formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of an inorganic precursor in the presence of the solvated polymer and metal ion sequestration constituent. The polymer constituent may be any hydrophilic polymer capable of forming a type I nanocomposite such as, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyethyleneoxide (PEO), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and combinations thereof. Nanocomposite materials of the present invention may be used as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate contaminated groundwater. Methods for making nanocomposite materials, PRB systems, and methods of treating groundwater are also disclosed.

  7. A Computer Program for Processing In Situ Permeable Flow Sensor Data

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1996-04-15

    FLOW4.02 is used to interpret data from In Situ Permeable Flow Sensors which are instruments that directly measure groundwater flow velocity in saturated, unconsolidated geologic formations (Ballard, 1994, 1996: Ballard et al., 1994: Ballard et al., in press). The program accepts as input the electrical resistance measurements from the thermistors incorporated within the flow sensors, converts the resistance data to temperatures and then uses the temperature information to calculate the groundwater flow velocity and associatedmore » uncertainty. The software includes many capabilities for manipulating, graphically displaying and writing to disk the raw resistance data, the temperature data and the calculated flow velocity information. This version is a major revision of a previously copyrighted version (FLOW1.0).« less

  8. Observations on Faults and Associated Permeability Structures in Hydrogeologic Units at the Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prothro, Lance B.; Drellack, Sigmund L.; Haugstad, Dawn N.; Huckins-Gang, Heather E.; Townsend, Margaret J.

    2009-03-30

    Observational data on Nevada Test Site (NTS) faults were gathered from a variety of sources, including surface and tunnel exposures, core samples, geophysical logs, and down-hole cameras. These data show that NTS fault characteristics and fault zone permeability structures are similar to those of faults studied in other regions. Faults at the NTS form complex and heterogeneous fault zones with flow properties that vary in both space and time. Flow property variability within fault zones can be broken down into four major components that allow for the development of a simplified, first approximation model of NTS fault zones. This conceptual model can be used as a general guide during development and evaluation of groundwater flow and contaminate transport models at the NTS.

  9. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

  10. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schroeder, John L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-05-11

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

  11. Nonlinear stability of ideal fluid equilibria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holm, D.D.

    1988-01-01

    The Lyapunov method for establishing stability is related to well- known energy principles for nondissipative dynamical systems. A development of the Lyapunov method for Hamiltonian systems due to Arnold establishes sufficient conditions for Lyapunov stability by using the energy plus other conserved quantities, together with second variations and convexity estimates. When treating the stability of ideal fluid dynamics within the Hamiltonian framework, a useful class of these conserved quantities consists of the Casimir functionals, which Poisson-commute with all functionals of the dynamical fluid variables. Such conserved quantities, when added to the energy, help to provide convexity estimates that bound the growth of perturbations. These convexity estimates, in turn, provide norms necessary for establishing Lyapunov stability under the nonlinear evolution. In contrast, the commonly used second variation or spectral stability arguments only prove linearized stability. As ideal fluid examples, in these lectures we discuss planar barotropic compressible fluid dynamics, the three-dimensional hydrostatic Boussinesq model, and a new set of shallow water equations with nonlinear dispersion due to Basdenkov, Morosov, and Pogutse(1985). Remarkably, all three of these samples have the same Hamiltonian structure and, thus, possess the same Casimir functionals upon which their stability analyses are based. We also treat stability of modified quasigeostrophic flow, a problem whose Hamiltonian structure and Casimirs closely resemble Arnold's original example. Finally, we discuss some aspects of conditional stability and the applicability of Arnold's development of the Lyapunov technique. 100 refs.

  12. 2-Phase Fluid Flow & Heat Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-03-13

    GEOTHER is a three-dimensional, geothermal reservoir simulation code. The model describes heat transport and flow of a single component, two-phase fluid in porous media. It is based on the continuity equations for steam and water, which are reduced to two nonlinear partial differential equations in which the dependent variables are fluid pressure and enthalpy. GEOTHER can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal interaction in rock that can be approximated by a porous media representation. Itmore »can simulate heat transport and the flow of compressed water, two-phase mixtures, and superheated steam in porous media over a temperature range of 10 to 300 degrees C. In addition, it can treat the conversion from single to two-phase flow, and vice versa. It can be used for evaluation of a near repository spatial scale and a time scale of a few years to thousands of years. The model can be used to investigate temperature and fluid pressure changes in response to thermal loading by waste materials.« less

  13. 2-Phase Fluid Flow & Heat Transport

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1993-03-13

    GEOTHER is a three-dimensional, geothermal reservoir simulation code. The model describes heat transport and flow of a single component, two-phase fluid in porous media. It is based on the continuity equations for steam and water, which are reduced to two nonlinear partial differential equations in which the dependent variables are fluid pressure and enthalpy. GEOTHER can be used to simulate the fluid-thermal interaction in rock that can be approximated by a porous media representation. Itmore » can simulate heat transport and the flow of compressed water, two-phase mixtures, and superheated steam in porous media over a temperature range of 10 to 300 degrees C. In addition, it can treat the conversion from single to two-phase flow, and vice versa. It can be used for evaluation of a near repository spatial scale and a time scale of a few years to thousands of years. The model can be used to investigate temperature and fluid pressure changes in response to thermal loading by waste materials.« less

  14. Actualistic and Geochemical Modeling of Reservoir Rock, CO2 and Formation Fluid Interaction, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weislogel, Amy

    2014-01-31

    This report includes description of the Citronelle field study area and the work carried out in the project to characterize the geology and composition of reservoir rock material and to collect an analyze the geochemical composition of produced fluid waters from the Citronelle field. Reservoir rock samples collected from well bore core were made into thin-sections and assessed for textural properties, including pore types and porosity distribution. Compositional framework grain modal data were collected via point-counting, and grain and cement mineralogy was assessed using SEM-EDS. Geochemistry of fluid samples is described and modeled using PHREEQC. Composition of rock and produced fluids were used as inputs for TOUGHREACT reactive transport modeling, which determined the rock-fluid system was in disequilibrium.

  15. Tritium Transport at the Rulison Site, a Nuclear-stimulated Low-permeability Natural Gas Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Cooper; M. Ye; J. Chapman

    2008-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies conducted a program in the 1960s and 1970s that evaluated technology for the nuclear stimulation of low-permeability natural gas reservoirs. The second project in the program, Project Rulison, was located in west-central Colorado. A 40-kiltoton nuclear device was detonated 2,568 m below the land surface in the Williams Fork Formation on September 10, 1969. The natural gas reservoirs in the Williams Fork Formation occur in low permeability, fractured sandstone lenses interbedded with shale. Radionuclides derived from residual fuel products, nuclear reactions, and activation products were generated as a result of the detonation. Most of the radionuclides are contained in a cooled, solidified melt glass phase created from vaporized and melted rock that re-condensed after the test. Of the mobile gas-phase radionuclides released, tritium ({sup 3}H or T) migration is of most concern. The other gas-phase radionuclides ({sup 85}Kr, {sup 14}C) were largely removed during production testing in 1969 and 1970 and are no longer present in appreciable amounts. Substantial tritium remained because it is part of the water molecule, which is present in both the gas and liquid (aqueous) phases. The objectives of this work are to calculate the nature and extent of tritium contamination in the subsurface from the Rulison test from the time of the test to present day (2007), and to evaluate tritium migration under natural-gas production conditions to a hypothetical gas production well in the most vulnerable location outside the DOE drilling restriction. The natural-gas production scenario involves a hypothetical production well located 258 m horizontally away from the detonation point, outside the edge of the current drilling exclusion area. The production interval in the hypothetical well is at the same elevation as the nuclear chimney created by the detonation, in order to evaluate the location most vulnerable to tritium migration.

  16. Friction-Induced Fluid Heating in Nanoscale Helium Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li Zhigang [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

    2010-05-21

    We investigate the mechanism of friction-induced fluid heating in nanoconfinements. Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study the temperature variations of liquid helium in nanoscale Poiseuille flows. It is found that the fluid heating is dominated by different sources of friction as the external driving force is changed. For small external force, the fluid heating is mainly caused by the internal viscous friction in the fluid. When the external force is large and causes fluid slip at the surfaces of channel walls, the friction at the fluid-solid interface dominates over the internal friction in the fluid and is the major contribution to fluid heating. An asymmetric temperature gradient in the fluid is developed in the case of nonidentical walls and the general temperature gradient may change sign as the dominant heating factor changes from internal to interfacial friction with increasing external force.

  17. Nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations of confined fluids...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... SIMULATION; RHEOLOGY; GOLD; SHEAR; PRESSURE DEPENDENCE; SPATIAL DISTRIBUTION; LUBRICANTS DECANE; COMPUTERIZED SIMULATION; RHEOLOGY; GOLD; COMPRESSION; SHEAR; PRESSURE ...

  18. Enhanced Geothermal Systems Research and Development: Models of Subsurface Chemical Processes Affecting Fluid Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moller, Nancy; Weare J. H.

    2008-05-29

    Successful exploitation of the vast amount of heat stored beneath the earth’s surface in hydrothermal and fluid-limited, low permeability geothermal resources would greatly expand the Nation’s domestic energy inventory and thereby promote a more secure energy supply, a stronger economy and a cleaner environment. However, a major factor limiting the expanded development of current hydrothermal resources as well as the production of enhanced geothermal systems (EGS) is insufficient knowledge about the chemical processes controlling subsurface fluid flow. With funding from past grants from the DOE geothermal program and other agencies, we successfully developed advanced equation of state (EOS) and simulation technologies that accurately describe the chemistry of geothermal reservoirs and energy production processes via their free energies for wide XTP ranges. Using the specific interaction equations of Pitzer, we showed that our TEQUIL chemical models can correctly simulate behavior (e.g., mineral scaling and saturation ratios, gas break out, brine mixing effects, down hole temperatures and fluid chemical composition, spent brine incompatibilities) within the compositional range (Na-K-Ca-Cl-SO4-CO3-H2O-SiO2-CO2(g)) and temperature range (T < 350°C) associated with many current geothermal energy production sites that produce brines with temperatures below the critical point of water. The goal of research carried out under DOE grant DE-FG36-04GO14300 (10/1/2004-12/31/2007) was to expand the compositional range of our Pitzer-based TEQUIL fluid/rock interaction models to include the important aluminum and silica interactions (T < 350°C). Aluminum is the third most abundant element in the earth’s crust; and, as a constituent of aluminosilicate minerals, it is found in two thirds of the minerals in the earth’s crust. The ability to accurately characterize effects of temperature, fluid mixing and interactions between major rock-forming minerals and hydrothermal and/or injected fluids is critical to predict important chemical behaviors affecting fluid flow, such as mineral precipitation/dissolution reactions. We successfully achieved the project goal and objectives by demonstrating the ability of our modeling technology to correctly predict the complex pH dependent solution chemistry of the Al3+ cation and its hydrolysis species: Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)2+, Al(OH)30, and Al(OH)4- as well as the solubility of common aluminum hydroxide and aluminosilicate minerals in aqueous brines containing components (Na, K, Cl) commonly dominating hydrothermal fluids. In the sodium chloride system, where experimental data for model parameterization are most plentiful, the model extends to 300°C. Determining the stability fields of aluminum species that control the solubility of aluminum-containing minerals as a function of temperature and composition has been a major objective of research in hydrothermal chemistry.

  19. Mechanical Properties of Gels; Stress from Confined Fluids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George W. Scherer

    2009-12-01

    Abstract for Grant DE-FG02-97ER45642 Period: 1997-2002 Mechanical Properties of Gels 2002-2008 Stress from Confined Fluids Principal investigator: Prof. George W. Scherer Dept. Civil & Env. Eng./PRISM Eng. Quad. E-319 Princeton, NJ 08544 USA Recipient organization: Trustees of Princeton University 4 New South Princeton, NJ 08544 USA Abstract: The initial stage of this project, entitled Mechanical Properties of Gels, was dedicated to characterizing and explaining the properties of inorganic gels. Such materials, made by sol-gel processing, are of interest for fabrication of films, fibers, optical devices, advanced insulation and other uses. However, their poor mechanical properties are an impediment in some applications, so understanding the origin of these properties could lead to enhanced performance. Novel experimental methods were developed and applied to measure the stiffness and permeability of gels and aerogels. Numerical simulations were developed to reproduce the growth process of the gels, resulting in structures whose mechanical properties matched the measurements. The models showed that the gels are formed by the growth of relatively robust clusters of molecules that are joined by tenuous links whose compliance compromises the stiffness of the structure. Therefore, synthetic methods that enhance the links could significantly increase the rigidity of such gels. The next stage of the project focused on Stress from Confined Fluids. The first problem of interest was the enhanced thermal expansion coefficient of water that we measured in the nanometric pores of cement paste. This could have a deleterious effect on the resistance of concrete to rapid heating in fires, because the excessive thermal expansion of water in the pores of the concrete could lead to spalling and collapse. A series of experiments demonstrated that the expansion of water increases as the pore size decreases. To explain this behavior, we undertook a collaboration with Prof. Stephen Garofalini (Rutgers), who has developed the best simulations of water ever reported by use of molecular dynamics. Simulated heating of water in small pores provided quantitative agreement with experiments, and showed that the origin of the high expansion is the altered structure of water in the first two molecular layers adjacent to the pore wall. The final focus of the project was to understand the damage done by crystals growing in small pores. For example, the primary cause of damage to ancient monuments in the Mediterranean Basin is growth of salt crystals in the pores of the stone. Salt may enter stone as a result of capillary rise of groundwater, by leaching of mortar joints, deposition of marine spray, or reactions with atmospheric pollutants (such as oxides of nitrogen or sulfur). As the water evaporates, the salt solution becomes supersaturated and crystals precipitate. Stress results, because the salt usually repels the minerals in the pore walls. Our goal was to identify the factors contributing to the repulsion, so that we could develop a chemical treatment to reduce the repulsion and hence the stress. (We have recently demonstrated an effective treatment as part of a separately funded study.) In collaboration with Prof. Garofalini, molecular dynamics simulations have been done that correctly reproduce the structure of water around dissolved ions of sodium and chloride. We simulated the interaction between crystals of sodium chloride and quartz, and found that this particular system exhibits attractive forces, in agreement with experiment. The origin of the attraction is the orientation of dipolar water molecules near the surfaces of the crystals. Similar calculations now must be done in systems, such as potassium chloride and quartz, where the interaction is repulsive. This grant supported the education of two doctoral students, Hang-Shing Ma (Ph.D., 2002) and Melanie Webb (Ph.D. expected 2010), three post-doctoral researchers, Joachim Gross, Gudrun Reichenauer, and Shuangyan (Sonia) Xu, and five undergraduates (for senior theses or independent projects

  20. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | Revision/Correction Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report 2013 data The 2013 Annual Coal Distribution Report has been republished to include final 2013 electric power sector data as well as domestic and foreign distribution data. Contact:

  1. Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heath, William O. (Richland, WA); Virden, Jr., Judson W. (Richland, WA); Richardson, R. L. (West Richland, WA); Bergsman, Theresa M. (Richland, WA)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation.

  2. Method and apparatus for chemically altering fluids in continuous flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heath, W.O.; Virden, J.W. Jr.; Richardson, R.L.; Bergsman, T.M.

    1993-10-19

    The present invention relates to a continuous flow fluid reactor for chemically altering fluids. The reactor operates on standard frequency (50 to 60 Hz) electricity. The fluid reactor contains particles that are energized by the electricity to form a corona throughout the volume of the reactor and subsequently a non-equilibrium plasma that interacts with the fluid. Particles may form a fixed bed or a fluid bed. Electricity may be provided through electrodes or through an inductive coil. Fluids include gases containing exhaust products and organic fuels requiring oxidation. 4 figures.

  3. Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed wet, turbidite sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, G.J.

    1995-12-31

    The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands and were evaluated for water-wet and mixed wet states. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The remaining oil saturation of the mixed wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern: (1) the vertical {open_quotes}film surface drainage{close_quotes} of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the cap rock, (3) updip migration of the oil that accumulated under the cap rock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the cap rock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the end point mobility ratio.

  4. Evaluating the Influence of Pore Architecture and Initial Saturation on Wettability and Relative Permeability in Heterogeneous, Shallow-Shelf Carbonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alan P. Byrnes; Saibal Bhattacharya; John Victorine; Ken Stalder

    2007-09-30

    Thin (3-40 ft thick), heterogeneous, limestone and dolomite reservoirs, deposited in shallow-shelf environments, represent a significant fraction of the reservoirs in the U.S. midcontinent and worldwide. In Kansas, reservoirs of the Arbuckle, Mississippian, and Lansing-Kansas City formations account for over 73% of the 6.3 BBO cumulative oil produced over the last century. For these reservoirs basic petrophysical properties (e.g., porosity, absolute permeability, capillary pressure, residual oil saturation to waterflood, resistivity, and relative permeability) vary significantly horizontally, vertically, and with scale of measurement. Many of these reservoirs produce from structures of less than 30-60 ft, and being located in the capillary pressure transition zone, exhibit vertically variable initial saturations and relative permeability properties. Rather than being simpler to model because of their small size, these reservoirs challenge characterization and simulation methodology and illustrate issues that are less apparent in larger reservoirs where transition zone effects are minor and most of the reservoir is at saturations near S{sub wirr}. These issues are further augmented by the presence of variable moldic porosity and possible intermediate to mixed wettability and the influence of these on capillary pressure and relative permeability. Understanding how capillary-pressure properties change with rock lithology and, in turn, within transition zones, and how relative permeability and residual oil saturation to waterflood change through the transition zone is critical to successful reservoir management and as advanced waterflood and improved and enhanced recovery methods are planned and implemented. Major aspects of the proposed study involve a series of tasks to measure data to reveal the nature of how wettability and drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeability change with pore architecture and initial water saturation. Focus is placed on carbonate reservoirs of widely varying moldic pore systems that represent the major of reservoirs in Kansas and are important nationally and worldwide. A goal of the project is to measure wettability, using representative oils from Kansas fields, on a wide range of moldic-porosity lithofacies that are representative of Kansas and midcontinent shallow-shelf carbonate reservoirs. This investigation will discern the relative influence of wetting and pore architecture. In the midcontinent, reservoir water saturations are frequently greater than 'irreducible' because many reservoirs are largely in the capillary transition zone. This can change the imbibition oil-water relative permeability relations. Ignoring wettability and transition-zone relative permeabilities in reservoir modeling can lead to over- and under-prediction of oil recovery and recovery rates, and less effective improved recovery management. A goal of this project is to measure drainage and imbibition oil-water relative permeabilities for a large representative range of lithofacies at differ ent initial water saturations to obtain relations that can be applied everywhere in the reservoir. The practical importance of these relative permeability and wettability models will be demonstrated by using reservoir simulation studies on theoretical/generic and actual reservoir architectures. The project further seeks to evaluate how input of these new models affects reservoir simulation results at varying scales. A principal goal is to obtain data that will allow us to create models that will show how to accurately simulate flow in the shallow-structure, complex carbonate reservoirs that lie in the transition zone. Tasks involved to meet the project objectives include collection and consolidation of available data into a publicly accessible relational digital database and collection of oil and rock samples from carbonate fields around the state (Task 1). Basic properties of these rocks and oils will be measured and used in wettability tests. Comparison will be performed between crude and synthetic oil wettability and

  5. Sandia Energy - Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Grid Integration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Grid Integration Distribution Grid Integration Distribution Grid...

  6. Theoretical foundation for measuring the groundwater age distribution.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, William Payton; Arnold, Bill Walter

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we use PFLOTRAN, a highly scalable, parallel, flow and reactive transport code to simulate the concentrations of 3H, 3He, CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, SF6, 39Ar, 81Kr, 4He and themean groundwater age in heterogeneous fields on grids with an excess of 10 million nodes. We utilize this computational platform to simulate the concentration of multiple tracers in high-resolution, heterogeneous 2-D and 3-D domains, and calculate tracer-derived ages. Tracer-derived ages show systematic biases toward younger ages when the groundwater age distribution contains water older than the maximum tracer age. The deviation of the tracer-derived age distribution from the true groundwater age distribution increases with increasing heterogeneity of the system. However, the effect of heterogeneity is diminished as the mean travel time gets closer the tracer age limit. Age distributions in 3-D domains differ significantly from 2-D domains. 3D simulations show decreased mean age, and less variance in age distribution for identical heterogeneity statistics. High-performance computing allows for investigation of tracer and groundwater age systematics in high-resolution domains, providing a platform for understanding and utilizing environmental tracer and groundwater age information in heterogeneous 3-D systems. Groundwater environmental tracers can provide important constraints for the calibration of groundwater flow models. Direct simulation of environmental tracer concentrations in models has the additional advantage of avoiding assumptions associated with using calculated groundwater age values. This study quantifies model uncertainty reduction resulting from the addition of environmental tracer concentration data. The analysis uses a synthetic heterogeneous aquifer and the calibration of a flow and transport model using the pilot point method. Results indicate a significant reduction in the uncertainty in permeability with the addition of environmental tracer data, relative to the use of hydraulic measurements alone. Anthropogenic tracers and their decay products, such as CFC11, 3H, and 3He, provide significant constraint oninput permeability values in the model. Tracer data for 39Ar provide even more complete information on the heterogeneity of permeability and variability in the flow system than the anthropogenic tracers, leading to greater parameter uncertainty reduction.

  7. FLUID GEOCHEMISTRY AT THE RAFT RIVER GEOTHERMAL FIELD, IDAHO...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the fluid geochemistry in the field is spatially variable and complex, with two distinct deep geothermal fluid types (high vs. low K, Na, Cl, Ca, Li, F concentrations) and two...

  8. Can We Accurately Model Fluid Flow in Shale?

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Can We Accurately Model Fluid Flow in Shale? Can We Accurately Model Fluid Flow in Shale? Print Thursday, 03 January 2013 00:00 Over 20 trillion cubic meters of natural gas are...

  9. Methods of conveying fluids and methods of sublimating solid particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turner, Terry D; Wilding, Bruce M

    2013-10-01

    A heat exchanger and associated methods for sublimating solid particles therein, for conveying fluids therethrough, or both. The heat exchanger includes a chamber and a porous member having a porous wall having pores in communication with the chamber and with an interior of the porous member. A first fluid is conveyed into the porous member while a second fluid is conveyed into the porous member through the porous wall. The second fluid may form a positive flow boundary layer along the porous wall to reduce or eliminate substantial contact between the first fluid and the interior of the porous wall. The combined first and second fluids are conveyed out of the porous member. Additionally, the first fluid and the second fluid may each be conveyed into the porous member at different temperatures and may exit the porous member at substantially the same temperature.

  10. A Fluid-Inclusion Investigation Of The Tongonan Geothermal Field...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Fluid-Inclusion Investigation Of The Tongonan Geothermal Field, Philippines Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A Fluid-Inclusion...

  11. Direct contact, binary fluid geothermal boiler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rapier, Pascal M. (Richmond, CA)

    1982-01-01

    Energy is extracted from geothermal brines by direct contact with a working fluid such as isobutane which is immiscible with the brine in a geothermal boiler. The geothermal boiler provides a distributor arrangement which efficiently contacts geothermal brine with the isobutane in order to prevent the entrainment of geothermal brine in the isobutane vapor which is directed to a turbine. Accordingly the problem of brine carry-over through the turbine causes corrosion and scaling thereof is eliminated. Additionally the heat exchanger includes straightening vanes for preventing startup and other temporary fluctuations in the transitional zone of the boiler from causing brine carryover into the turbine. Also a screen is provided in the heat exchanger to coalesce the working fluid and to assist in defining the location of the transitional zone where the geothermal brine and the isobutane are initially mixed.

  12. Removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Katz, Torsten; Riemann, Christian; Bartling, Karsten; Rigby, Sean Taylor; Coleman, Luke James Ivor; Lail, Marty Alan

    2014-04-08

    A process for removing sulphur oxides from a fluid stream, such as flue gas, comprising: providing a non-aqueous absorption liquid containing at least one hydrophobic amine, the liquid being incompletely miscible with water; treating the fluid stream in an absorption zone with the non-aqueous absorption liquid to transfer at least part of the sulphur oxides into the non-aqueous absorption liquid and to form a sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex; causing the non-aqueous absorption liquid to be in liquid-liquid contact with an aqueous liquid whereby at least part of the sulphur oxide-hydrophobic amine-complex is hydrolyzed to release the hydrophobic amine and sulphurous hydrolysis products, and at least part of the sulphurous hydrolysis products is transferred into the aqueous liquid; separating the aqueous liquid from the non-aqueous absorption liquid. The process mitigates absorbent degradation problems caused by sulphur dioxide and oxygen in flue gas.

  13. Method and apparatus for controlling fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, J.R.

    1980-06-27

    A method and apparatus for precisely controlling the rate (and hence amount) of fluid flow are given. The controlled flow rate is finely adjustable, can be extremely small (on the order of microliter-atmospheres per second), can be adjusted to zero (flow stopped), and is stable to better than 1% with time. The dead volume of the valve can be made arbitrarily small, in fact essentially zero. The valve employs no wearing mechanical parts (including springs, stems, or seals). The valve is finely adjustable, has a flow rate dynamic range of many decades, can be made compatible with any fluid, and is suitable for incorporation into an open or closed loop servo-control system.

  14. Supercritical fluids: Reactions, materials and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tumas, W.; Jacobson, G.B.; Josephsohn, N.S.; Brown, G.H.

    1999-04-09

    A number of important processes utilizing supercritical fluids have been either implemented or are emerging for extractions, separations and a wide range of cleaning applications. Supercritical fluids can be reasonable solvents yet share many of the advantages of gases including miscibility with other gases (i.e. hydrogen and oxygen), low viscosities and high diffusivities. Carbon dioxide has the further advantages of being nontoxic, nonflammable, inexpensive and currently unregulated. The use of compressed gases, either as liquids or supercritical fluids, as reaction media offers the opportunity to replace conventional hazardous solvents and also to optimize and potentially control the effect of solvent on chemical and material processing. The last several years has seen a significant growth in advances in chemical synthesis, catalytic transformations and materials synthesis and processing. The authors report on results from an exploratory program at Los Alamos National Laboratory aimed at investigating the use of dense phase fluids, particularly carbon dioxide, as reaction media for homogeneous, heterogeneous and phase-separable catalytic reactions in an effort to develop new, environmentally-friendly methods for chemical synthesis and processing. This approach offers the possibility of opening up substantially different chemical pathways, increasing selectivity at higher reaction rates, facilitating downstream separations and mitigating the need for hazardous solvents. Developing and understanding chemical and catalytic transformations in carbon dioxide could lead to greener chemistry at three levels: (1) Solvent replacement; (2) Better chemistry (e.g. higher reactivity, selectivity, less energy consumption); and (3) New chemistry (e.g. novel separations, use of COP{sub 2} as a C-1 source).

  15. Low-melting point heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cordaro, Joseph Gabriel (Oakland, CA); Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of five inorganic salts including about 29.1-33.5 mol % LiNO.sub.3, 0-3.9 mol % NaNO.sub.3, 2.4-8.2 mol % KNO.sub.3, 18.6-19.9 mol % NaNO.sub.2, and 40-45.6 mol % KNO.sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures below 80.degree. C. for some compositions.

  16. Reducing mode circulating fluid bed combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Yung-Yi (Katy, TX); Sadhukhan, Pasupati (Katy, TX); Fraley, Lowell D. (Sugarland, TX); Hsiao, Keh-Hsien (Houston, TX)

    1986-01-01

    A method for combustion of sulfur-containing fuel in a circulating fluid bed combustion system wherein the fuel is burned in a primary combustion zone under reducing conditions and sulfur captured as alkaline sulfide. The reducing gas formed is oxidized to combustion gas which is then separated from solids containing alkaline sulfide. The separated solids are then oxidized and recycled to the primary combustion zone.

  17. Large-Scale Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Computational Fluid Dynamics - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  18. Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Fluids Low GWP Refrigerants - CRADA Ed Vineyard Oak Ridge National Laboratory vineyardea@ornl.gov (865) 574-0576 3 April 2013 2 | Building Technologies Office eere.energy.gov Purpose & Objectives Problem Statement: - High GWP refrigerants increase CO 2 equivalent emissions for HVAC&R equipment - Low GWP alternatives may increase energy consumption, introduce safety risks, require significant modifications to equipment, and have higher costs Impact of Project: - Primary market

  19. Working Fluids: Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Working Fluids: Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Omar Abdelaziz, abdelazizoa@ornl.gov Oak Ridge National Laboratory Honeywell University of Maryland Project Summary Timeline: Start date: 01-Oct-2010 Planned end date: 30-Sep-2016 Key Milestones 1. Data analysis and reporting of supermarket system: baseline and alternative refrigerants; 12/31/2014 2. Perform initial field testing of alternative refrigerant in 3 rd party installation; 9/30/2014

  20. Acoustic energy-driven fluid pump and method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Janus, Michael C.; Richards, George A.; Robey, Edward H.

    1997-12-01

    Bulk fluid motion is promoted in a gaseous fluid contained within a conduit system provided with a diffuser without the need for a mean pressure differential across the conduit system. The contacting of the gaseous fluid with unsteady energy at a selected frequency and pressure amplitude induces fluid flow through the conical diffuser. The unsteady energy can be provided by pulse combustors, thermoacoustic engines, or acoustic energy generators such as acoustic speakers.

  1. Optimizing drilling performance using a selected drilling fluid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Judzis, Arnis; Black, Alan D.; Green, Sidney J.; Robertson, Homer A.; Bland, Ronald G.; Curry, David Alexander; Ledgerwood, III, Leroy W.

    2011-04-19

    To improve drilling performance, a drilling fluid is selected based on one or more criteria and to have at least one target characteristic. Drilling equipment is used to drill a wellbore, and the selected drilling fluid is provided into the wellbore during drilling with the drilling equipment. The at least one target characteristic of the drilling fluid includes an ability of the drilling fluid to penetrate into formation cuttings during drilling to weaken the formation cuttings.

  2. Working Fluids and Their Effect on Geothermal Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Program Peer Review 2010 - Presentation. Project objective: Identify new working fluids for binary geothermal plants.

  3. BarracudaÂź Computational Particle Fluid Dynamics (CPFDÂź) Software |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy BarracudaÂź Computational Particle Fluid Dynamics (CPFDÂź) Software BarracudaÂź Computational Particle Fluid Dynamics (CPFDÂź) Software Innovative Software Program Extends the Capabilities of CFD by Modeling Solid Particle Movement Invented at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory in the 1950s and '60s, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a mathematical expression of the physics of the movements of fluids (liquids and gases). CFD computer software simulates real-world

  4. Specialized Materials and Fluids and Power Plants | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Specialized Materials and Fluids and Power Plants Specialized Materials and Fluids and Power Plants Below are the project presentations and respective peer review results for Specialized Materials and Fluids and Power Plants. Evaluate Thermal Spray Coatings as a Pressure Seal, Joseph A. Henfling, Sandia National Laboratories Technologies for Extracting Valuable Metals and Compounds from Geothermal Fluids, Dr. Stephen Harrison, Simbol Mining Corp. Chemical Energy Carriers (CEC) for the

  5. Establishing the Relationship between Fracture-Related Dolomite and Primary Rock Fabric on the Distribution of Reservoirs in the Michigan Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Michael Grammer

    2006-09-30

    This topical report covers the year 2 of the subject 3-year grant, evaluating the relationship between fracture-related dolomite and dolomite constrained by primary rock fabric in the 3 most prolific reservoir intervals in the Michigan Basin (Ordovician Trenton-Black River Formations; Silurian Niagara Group; and the Devonian Dundee Formation). The characterization of select dolomite reservoirs has been the major focus of our efforts in Phase II/Year 2. Fields have been prioritized based upon the availability of rock data for interpretation of depositional environments, fracture density and distribution as well as thin section, geochemical, and petrophysical analyses. Structural mapping and log analysis in the Dundee (Devonian) and Trenton/Black River (Ordovician) suggest a close spatial relationship among gross dolomite distribution and regional-scale, wrench fault related NW-SE and NE-SW structural trends. A high temperature origin for much of the dolomite in the 3 studied intervals (based upon initial fluid inclusion homogenization temperatures and stable isotopic analyses,) coupled with persistent association of this dolomite in reservoirs coincident with wrench fault-related features, is strong evidence for these reservoirs being influenced by hydrothermal dolomitization. For the Niagaran (Silurian), a comprehensive high resolution sequence stratigraphic framework has been developed for a pinnacle reef in the northern reef trend where we had 100% core coverage throughout the reef section. Major findings to date are that facies types, when analyzed at a detailed level, have direct links to reservoir porosity and permeability in these dolomites. This pattern is consistent with our original hypothesis of primary facies control on dolomitization and resulting reservoir quality at some level. The identification of distinct and predictable vertical stacking patterns within a hierarchical sequence and cycle framework provides a high degree of confidence at this point that results will be exportable throughout the basin. Ten petrophysically significant facies have been described in the northern reef trend, providing significantly more resolution than the standard 4-6 that are used most often in the basin (e.g. Gill, 1977). Initial petrophysical characterization (sonic velocity analysis under confining pressures) shows a clear pattern that is dependent upon facies and resulting pore architecture. Primary facies is a key factor in the ultimate diagenetic modification of the rock and the resulting pore architecture. Facies with good porosity and permeability clearly show relatively slow velocity values as would be expected, and low porosity and permeability samples exhibit fast sonic velocity values, again as expected. What is significant is that some facies that have high porosity values, either measured directly or from wireline logs, also have very fast sonic velocity values. This is due to these facies having a pore architecture characterized by more localized pores (vugs, molds or fractures) that are not in communication.

  6. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Phillip W.; Stampfer, Joseph F.; Bradley, Orvil D.

    1999-01-01

    A universal penetration test apparatus for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material.

  7. Universal penetration test apparatus with fluid penetration sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, P.W.; Stampfer, J.F.; Bradley, O.D.

    1999-02-02

    A universal penetration test apparatus is described for measuring resistance of a material to a challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a pad saturated with the challenge fluid. The apparatus includes a compression assembly for compressing the material between the pad and a compression member. The apparatus also includes a sensor mechanism for automatically detecting when the challenge fluid penetrates the material. 23 figs.

  8. Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fracture Fluids Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids PDF icon Shale Gas Development Challenges: Fracture Fluids More Documents & Publications Natural Gas from Shale: Questions and Answers Shale Gas Glossary Report of the Task Force on FracFocus 2.0

  9. Heat Transfer Fluids Containing Nanoparticles | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Heat Transfer Fluids Containing Nanoparticles Technology available for licensing: A stable, nonreactive nanofluid that exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties with only a minimal increase in pumping power required relative to the base heat transfer fluid. A stable, non-reactive nanofluid that exhibits enhanced heat transfer properties Enables more productive and efficient cooling systems PDF icon nanoparticle_heat_transfer_fluids

  10. Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow: A Basic Research Agenda PDF icon BES Report Controlling Subsurface Fractures and Fluid Flow.pdf More Documents & Publications AGU SubTER Town Hall Presentation 2015 SubTER Grand Challenge Roundtable: Imaging Geophysical and Geochemical Signals in the Subsurface

  11. Doubly Distributed Transactions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-08-25

    Doubly Distributed Transactions (D2T) offers a technique for managing operations from a set of parallel clients with a collection of distributed services. It detects and manages faults. Example code with a test harness is also provided

  12. Distributed Wind 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Distributed Wind 2015 is committed to the advancement of both distributed and community wind energy. This two day event includes a Business Conference with sessions focused on advancing the...

  13. What is Distributed Wind?

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Wind? Distributed wind energy systems are commonly installed on residential, agricultural, commercial, institutional, and industrial sites connected either physically or virtually on the customer side of the meter (to serve on-site load) or directly to the local distribution or micro grid (to support local grid operations or offset nearby loads). Because the definition is based on a wind project's location relative to end-use and power-distribution infrastructure, rather than on

  14. Increasing Production from Low-Permeability Gas Reservoirs by Optimizing Zone Isolation for Successful Stimulation Treatments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fred Sabins

    2005-03-31

    Maximizing production from wells drilled in low-permeability reservoirs, such as the Barnett Shale, is determined by cementing, stimulation, and production techniques employed. Studies show that cementing can be effective in terms of improving fracture effectiveness by 'focusing' the frac in the desired zone and improving penetration. Additionally, a method is presented for determining the required properties of the set cement at various places in the well, with the surprising result that uphole cement properties in wells destined for multiple-zone fracturing is more critical than those applied to downhole zones. Stimulation studies show that measuring pressure profiles and response during Pre-Frac Injection Test procedures prior to the frac job are critical in determining if a frac is indicated at all, as well as the type and size of the frac job. This result is contrary to current industry practice, in which frac jobs are designed well before the execution, and carried out as designed on location. Finally, studies show that most wells in the Barnett Shale are production limited by liquid invasion into the wellbore, and determinants are presented for when rod or downhole pumps are indicated.

  15. Innovative permeable cover system to reduce risks at a chemical munitions burial site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Powels, C.C.; Bon, I.; Okusu, N.M.

    1997-12-31

    An innovative permeable sand cover with various integrated systems has been designed to contain and treat the Old O-Field chemical munitions landfill at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland. The 18,200 m{sup 2} (4.5 acre) landfill was used from the mid 1930s to the mid 1950s for the disposal of chemical, incendiary, and explosive munitions from domestic and foreign origins, together with contaminated wastes associated with the development and production of chemical warfare agents (CWA). The site is suspected to be contaminated with white phosphorous (WP) (which when dry, spontaneously burns when exposed to air), shock sensitive picric acid fuses and has the potential to contain large quantities of CWA-filled munitions. Historically, one to three explosions or fires occurred per ten-year period at the landfill. Such events have the potential to cause a CWA release to the environment, which could potentially affect densely populated areas. Recovery and decontamination projects conducted at the site in the late 1940s and early 1950s used large amounts of decontamination chemicals (containing solvents) and fuels which further contaminated the area. The groundwater downgradient of the landfill is contaminated with volatile organic compounds, metals, explosives and CWA degradation compounds and is currently being contained by a groundwater extraction and treatment system. This report describes a remedial action program for the site.

  16. Imaging Fluid Flow in Geothermal Wells Using Distributed Thermal Perturbation Sensing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Project objective: A New Geothermal Well Imaging Tool. 1.To develop a robust and easily deployable DTPS for monitoring in geothermal wells; and 2. Develop the associated analysis methodology for flow imaging; and„when possible by wellbore conditions„to determine in situthermal conductivity and basal heat flux.

  17. Solid catalyzed isoparaffin alkylation at supercritical fluid and near-supercritical fluid conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kong, Peter C. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved method for the alkylation reaction of isoparaffins with olefins over solid catalysts including contacting a mixture of an isoparaffin, an olefin and a phase-modifying material with a solid acid catalyst member under alkylation conversion conditions at either supercritical fluid, or near-supercritical fluid conditions, at a temperature and a pressure relative to the critical temperature(T.sub.c) and the critical pressure(P.sub.c) of the reaction mixture. The phase-modifying phase-modifying material is employed to promote the reaction's achievement of either a supercritical fluid state or a near-supercritical state while simultaneously allowing for decreased reaction temperature and longer catalyst life.

  18. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governing equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.

  19. Well fluid isolation and sample apparatus and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schalla, Ronald; Smith, Ronald M.; Hall, Stephen H.; Smart, John E.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention specifically permits purging and/or sampling of a well but only removing, at most, about 25% of the fluid volume compared to conventional methods and, at a minimum, removing none of the fluid volume from the well. The invention is an isolation assembly that is inserted into the well. The isolation assembly is designed so that only a volume of fluid between the outside diameter of the isolation assembly and the inside diameter of the well over a fluid column height from the bottom of the well to the top of the active portion (lower annulus) is removed. A seal may be positioned above the active portion thereby sealing the well and preventing any mixing or contamination of inlet fluid with fluid above the packer. Purged well fluid is stored in a riser above the packer. Ports in the wall of the isolation assembly permit purging and sampling of the lower annulus along the height of the active portion.

  20. Conductor for a fluid-cooled winding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kenney, Walter J. (Clinton, TN)

    1983-01-01

    A conductor and method of making the conductor are provided for use in winding electrical coils which are cooled by a fluid communicating with the conductor. The conductor is cold worked through twisting and reshaping steps to form a generally rectangular cross section conductor having a plurality of helical cooling grooves extending axially of the conductor. The conductor configuration makes it suitable for a wide variety of winding applications and permits the use of simple strip insulation between turns and perforated sheet insulation between layers of the winding.

  1. Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publication List For The Fluid Interface Reactions, Structures and Transport (FIRST) Energy Frontier Research Center * = Solely Supported by the FIRST Center ** = Not Solely Supported by the FIRST Center *Achtyl, J.L.; Unocic, R.R.; Xu, L.; Yu, C.; Raju, M.; Zhang, W.; Sacci, R.L.; Vlassiouk, I.V.; Fulvio P.F.; Ganesh, P.; Wesolowski, D.J.; Dai, S.; van Duin, A.C.T.; Neurock, M.; Geiger, F.M. Aqueous Proton Transfer across Single Layer Graphene. Nat. Comm. 2015, 6, 6539, [10.1038/ncomms7539]. *

  2. Automated fluid analysis apparatus and techniques

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szecsody, James E.

    2004-03-16

    An automated device that couples a pair of differently sized sample loops with a syringe pump and a source of degassed water. A fluid sample is mounted at an inlet port and delivered to the sample loops. A selected sample from the sample loops is diluted in the syringe pump with the degassed water and fed to a flow through detector for analysis. The sample inlet is also directly connected to the syringe pump to selectively perform analysis without dilution. The device is airtight and used to detect oxygen-sensitive species, such as dithionite in groundwater following a remedial injection to treat soil contamination.

  3. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-09-06

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  4. Modular power converter having fluid cooled support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beihoff, Bruce C.; Radosevich, Lawrence D.; Meyer, Andreas A.; Gollhardt, Neil; Kannenberg, Daniel G.

    2005-12-06

    A support may receive one or more power electronic circuits. The support may aid in removing heat from the circuits through fluid circulating through the support. The support, in conjunction with other packaging features may form a shield from both external EMI/RFI and from interference generated by operation of the power electronic circuits. Features may be provided to permit and enhance connection of the circuitry to external circuitry, such as improved terminal configurations. Modular units may be assembled that may be coupled to electronic circuitry via plug-in arrangements or through interface with a backplane or similar mounting and interconnecting structures.

  5. Using supercritical fluids to refine hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yarbro, Stephen Lee

    2015-06-09

    A system and method for reactively refining hydrocarbons, such as heavy oils with API gravities of less than 20 degrees and bitumen-like hydrocarbons with viscosities greater than 1000 cp at standard temperature and pressure, using a selected fluid at supercritical conditions. A reaction portion of the system and method delivers lightweight, volatile hydrocarbons to an associated contacting unit which operates in mixed subcritical/supercritical or supercritical modes. Using thermal diffusion, multiphase contact, or a momentum generating pressure gradient, the contacting unit separates the reaction products into portions that are viable for use or sale without further conventional refining and hydro-processing techniques.

  6. Dependence of waterflood remaining oil saturation on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters in mixed-wet turbidite sands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirasaki, G.J.

    1996-05-01

    The dependence of waterflood oil recovery on relative permeability, capillary pressure, and reservoir parameters was investigated by numerical simulation. The relative permeability and capillary pressure curves were based on laboratory measurements on unconsolidated sands. The water-wet case is based on the assumption that the system is water-wet and measurements were made with refined oil. The mixed-wet case assumed that the system is mixed-wet and restored-state measurements were made with crude oil. The reservoir model was a prototype turbidite sand with a range of thickness and permeability values. The economic oil recovery was based on an economic limit water cut of 50%. The remaining oil saturation (ROS) in the swept region for the water-wet cases was close to the residual oil saturation. The ROS of the mixed-wet cases ranged from low values near the residual oil saturation to far above the residual oil saturation. It is dependent on the reservoir parameters that govern (1) the vertical film surface drainage of oil by gravity, (2) accumulation of a high oil saturation and thus a high relative permeability under the caprock, and (3) up-dip migration of the oil that accumulated under the caprock. The dependence on the reservoir parameters can be summarized by dimensionless groups. There is a dimensionless time for the vertical displacement of oil by gravity. The accumulation of a high oil saturation under the caprock is dependent on the ratio of the capillary transition zone and the sand thickness. The updip migration is dependent on a combination of the gravity number and the endpoint mobility ratio.

  7. Conductivity heating a subterranean oil shale to create permeability and subsequently produce oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van Meurs, P.; DeRouffignac, E.P.; Vinegar, H.J.; Lucid, M.F.

    1989-12-12

    This patent describes an improvement in a process in which oil is produced from a subterranean oil shale deposit by extending at least one each of heat-injecting and fluid-producing wells into the deposit, establishing a heat-conductive fluid-impermeable barrier between the interior of each heat-injecting well and the adjacent deposit, and then heating the interior of each heat-injecting well at a temperature sufficient to conductively heat oil shale kerogen and cause pyrolysis products to form fractures within the oil shale deposit through which the pyrolysis products are displaced into at least one production well. The improvement is for enhancing the uniformity of the heat fronts moving through the oil shale deposit. Also described is a process for exploiting a target oil shale interval, by progressively expanding a heated treatment zone band from about a geometric center of the target oil shale interval outward, such that the formation or extension of vertical fractures from the heated treatment zone band to the periphery of the target oil shale interval is minimized.

  8. High frequency permeability and permittivity spectra of BiFeO{sub 3}/(CoTi)-BaM ferrite composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, Yun; Wu, Xiaohan; Li, Qifan; Yu, Ting; Feng, Zekun; Chen, Zhongyan; Su, Zhijuan; Chen, Yajie; Harris, Vincent G.

    2015-05-07

    Low magnetic loss ferrite composites consisting of Ba(CoTi){sub 1.2}Fe{sub 9.6}O{sub 19} and BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) ferrite were investigated for permeability, permittivity, and high frequency losses at 10 MHz–1?GHz. The phase fraction of BiFeO{sub 3} was quantitatively analyzed by X-ray diffraction measurements. An effective medium approach was employed to predict the effective permeability and permittivity for the ferrite composites, which was found to be in good agreement with experimental data. The experiment demonstrated low magnetic losses (<0.128), modified by BFO phase fraction, while retaining high permeability (?10.86) at 300?MHz. More importantly, the BFO phase resulted in a reduction of magnetic loss by 32%, as BFO phase increased from 2.7 vol.?% to 12.6 vol.?%. The effect of BFO phase on magnetic and dielectric properties revealed great potential for use in the miniaturization of high efficiency antennas.

  9. High Permeability Ternary Palladium Alloy Membranes with Improved Sulfur and Halide Tolerances

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    K. Coulter

    2010-12-31

    The project team consisting of Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} (SwRI{reg_sign}), Georgia Institute of Technology (GT), the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), TDA Research, and IdaTech LLC was focused on developing a robust, poison-tolerant, hydrogen selective free standing membrane to produce clean hydrogen. The project completed on schedule and on budget with SwRI, GT, CSM, TDA and IdaTech all operating independently and concurrently. GT has developed a robust platform for performing extensive DFT calculations for H in bulk palladium (Pd), binary alloys, and ternary alloys of Pd. Binary alloys investigated included Pd96M4 where M = Li, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Y, Zr, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Te, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, Pt, Au, Tl, Pb, Bi, Ce, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu. They have also performed a series of calculations on Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Ag{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Au{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Ni{sub 4}, Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Pt{sub 4}, and Pd{sub 70}Cu{sub 26}Y{sub 4}. SwRI deposited and released over 160 foils of binary and ternary Pd alloys. There was considerable work on characterizing and improving the durability of the deposited foils using new alloy compositions, post annealing and ion bombardment. The 10 and 25 {micro}m thick films were sent to CSM, TDA and IdaTech for characterization and permeation testing. CSM conducted over 60 pure gas permeation tests with SwRI binary and ternary alloy membranes. To date the PdAu and PdAuPt membranes have exhibited the best performance at temperatures in the range of 423-773 C and their performance correlates well with the predictions from GT. TDA completed testing under the Department of Energy (DOE) WGS conditions on over 16 membranes. Of particular interest are the PdAuPt alloys that exhibited only a 20% drop in flux when sulfur was added to the gas mixture and the flux was completely recovered when the sulfur flow was stopped. IdaTech tested binary and ternary membranes on a simulated flue gas stream and experienced significant difficulty in mounting and testing the sputter deposited membranes. IdaTech was able to successfully test PdAu and PdAuPt membranes and saw similar sulfur tolerance to what TDA found. The Program met all the deliverables on schedule and on budget. Over ten presentations at national and international conferences were made, four papers were published (two in progress) in technical journals, and three students (2 at GT and 1 at CSM) completed their doctorates using results generated during the course of the program. The three major findings of program were; (1) the DFT modeling was verified as a predictive tool for the permeability of Pd based ternary alloys, (2) while magnetron sputtering is useful in precisely fabricating binary and ternary alloys, the mechanical durability of membranes fabricated using this technique are inferior compared to cold rolled membranes and this preparation method is currently not ready for industrial environments, (3) based on both modeling and experimental verification in pure gas and mixed gas environments PdAu and PdAuPt alloys were found to have the combination of the highest permeability and tolerance to sulfur.

  10. Natural and Induced Fracture Diagnostics from 4-D VSP Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark E. Willis; Daniel R. Burns; M. Nafi Toksoz

    2008-09-30

    Tight gas sand reservoirs generally contain thick gas-charged intervals that often have low porosity and very low permeability. Natural and induced fractures provide the only means of production. The objective of this work is to locate and characterize natural and induced fractures from analysis of scattered waves recorded on 4-D (time lapse) VSP data in order to optimize well placement and well spacing in these gas reservoirs. Using model data simulating the scattering of seismic energy from hydraulic fractures, we first show that it is possible to characterize the quality of fracturing based upon the amount of scattering. In addition, the picked arrival times of recorded microseismic events provide the velocity moveout for isolating the scattered energy on the 4-D VSP data. This concept is applied to a field dataset from the Jonah Field in Wyoming to characterize the quality of the induced hydraulic fractures. The time lapse (4D) VSP data from this field are imaged using a migration algorithm that utilizes shot travel time tables derived from the first breaks of the 3D VSPs and receiver travel time tables based on the microseismic arrival times and a regional velocity model. Four azimuthally varying shot tables are derived from picks of the first breaks of over 200 VSP records. We create images of the fracture planes through two of the hydraulically fractured wells in the field. The scattered energy shows correlation with the locations of the microseismic events. In addition, the azimuthal scattering is different from the azimuthal reflectivity of the reservoir, giving us more confidence that we have separated the scattered signal from simple formation reflectivity. Variation of the scattered energy along the image planes suggests variability in the quality of the fractures in three distinct zones.

  11. Magnetic tweezers with high permeability electromagnets for fast actuation of magnetic beads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, La; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Krause, Hans-Joachim

    2015-04-15

    As a powerful and versatile scientific instrument, magnetic tweezers have been widely used in biophysical research areas, such as mechanical cell properties and single molecule manipulation. If one wants to steer bead position, the nonlinearity of magnetic properties and the strong position dependence of the magnetic field in most magnetic tweezers lead to quite a challenge in their control. In this article, we report multi-pole electromagnetic tweezers with high permeability cores yielding high force output, good maneuverability, and flexible design. For modeling, we adopted a piece-wise linear dependence of magnetization on field to characterize the magnetic beads. We implemented a bi-linear interpolation of magnetic field in the work space, based on a lookup table obtained from finite element simulation. The electronics and software were custom-made to achieve high performance. In addition, the effects of dimension and defect on structure of magnetic tips also were inspected. In a workspace with size of 0.1 Ś 0.1 mm{sup 2}, a force of up to 400 pN can be applied on a 2.8 ?m superparamagnetic bead in any direction within the plane. Because the magnetic particle is always pulled towards a tip, the pulling forces from the pole tips have to be well balanced in order to achieve control of the particle’s position. Active video tracking based feedback control is implemented, which is able to work at a speed of up to 1 kHz, yielding good maneuverability of the magnetic beads.

  12. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governingmore » equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.« less

  13. Channelized fluid flow through shear zones during fluid-enhanced dynamic recrystallization, Northern Apennines, Italy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, K.E.; Dworkin, S.I. )

    1990-08-01

    Geochemical and petrographic studies of the Triassic Portoro limestone of the Tuscan nappe in Liguria, Italy, indicate that fluid flow was channeled through interlayered bedding-parallel shear zones during Miocene shearing and low-grade metamorphism. Carbon, oxygen, and strontium isotopic compositions and trace element concentrations in the Portoro indicate that it was precipitated from normal marine waters. In sheared and unsheared layers these isotopic compositions are indistinguishable, yet sheared layers of microspar contain less than half the amount of strontium preserved in undeformed layers. Wavy grain boundaries and a dimensional preferred orientation of elongated grains indicate that calcite within sheared zones was dynamically recrystallized. On the basis of these observations we suggest that during burial, extraformational fluids were buffered into oxygen isotopic, but not strontium-concentration, equilibrium with the Portoro. These syndeformational fluids were channeled through discrete 1- to 15-cm-thick shear zones in which strontium was expelled from calcite and incorporated into grain-boundary fluids during dynamic recrystallization.

  14. Methods for separating a fluid, and devices capable of separating a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E; Humble, Paul H; Caldwell, Dustin D

    2013-05-14

    Methods and apparatus for separating fluids are disclosed. We have discovered that, surprisingly, providing an open pore structure between a wick and an open flow channel resulted in superior separation performance. A novel and compact integrated device components for conducting separations are also described.

  15. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TF RailroadVesselShip Fuel It is also noted that Destination State code of "X Export" indicates movements to foreign destinations. 1 68 Domestic Coal Distribution...

  16. Distribution of Correspondence

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-08-30

    Defines correct procedures for distribution of correspondence to the Naval Reactors laboratories. Does not cancel another directive. Expired 8-30-97.

  17. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  18. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by...

  19. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is...

  20. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Carbide Thyristors Read More Permalink ECIS-Princeton Power Systems, Inc.: Demand Response Inverter DETL, Distribution Grid Integration, Energy, Energy Surety, Facilities, ...