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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
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1

Distribution lines overload control to increase reliability and power loss reduction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Indian Power sector is currently undergoing sea change. The pace of economic development along with increasing power demand would require additional generating capacity. Simultaneously increased efficiency in the sector can help in the task of achieving ... Keywords: ASCR conductor, controlling carbon emission, distribution lines, overload, power losses, reliability

Shrirang Karandikar; Ashok Ghatol

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Corona losses in HVdc bipolar lines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The problem related to the prediction of corona losses in HVdc bipolar lines has been solved, in the past, by means of semi-empirical monomial formulae. However, the proposed formulae that are simpler to use do not always give adequate calculation precision, while the formulae that provide the closest results require implicit functions of different complexity, which are difficult to apply; moreover, it is not possible to understand clearly what influence the variations of the different line parameters have on the losses themselves. The new monomial semi-empirical relationship, proposed to predict the corona losses in HVdc bipolar lines, is very simple to use; it highlights the dependence of power losses due to the corona effect by the different line parameters. The formula has been developed by elaborating a considerable amount of available experimental data.

Corbellini, U.; Pelacchi, P. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy). Dept. of Electric Systems and Automation] [Univ. of Pisa (Italy). Dept. of Electric Systems and Automation

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Axial power loss along open field lines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Studies are underway to evaluate the linear mirror geometry as a candidate for a high-fluence, neutron irradiation facility. This steady-state, low-Q design is currently perceived to comprise a two-component plasma driven by neutral beams with mirror confinement of the hot ions and with no electrostatic axial reduction in the warm ion end losses. Warm-ion fueling and end-wall power density will require substantial cold plasma exterior to the mirror cell and neutral gas near the end wall. In this paper, we evaluate to what extent the loss power parallel to the axial magnetic field along open field lines is a function of the escaping plasma and end-wall parameters. By allowing the source power to depend directly on the plasma density and electron temperature, several new conclusions may be pertinent to closed field-line geometries with open field-line divertors.

Correll, D.L.

1987-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Experimental characterisations of thin film transmission line losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental characterisations of thin film transmission line losses D. Kim, H. Kim and Y. Eo New frequency-variant losses of planar thin film transmission lines are experimentally investigated in a broad frequency range. The fre- quency-variant transmission line parameters are accurately determined

5

New Construction of Distribution Lines, Service Lines, and Appurtenant  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

New Construction of Distribution Lines, Service Lines, and New Construction of Distribution Lines, Service Lines, and Appurtenant Facilities in Certain Visually Significant Resources Outside Residential Subdivisions (New York) New Construction of Distribution Lines, Service Lines, and Appurtenant Facilities in Certain Visually Significant Resources Outside Residential Subdivisions (New York) < Back Eligibility Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Buying & Making Electricity Water Home Weatherization Solar Wind Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider New York State Public Service Commission Any proposed construction of distribution lines, service lines, and appurtenant facilities to electric utilities located near scenic areas of

6

Mode conversation losses in overmolded millimeter wave transmission lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Millimeter wave transmission lines are integral components for many important applications like nuclear fusion and NMR spectroscopy. In low loss corrugated transmission lines propagating the HE,1 mode with a high waveguide ...

Tax, David S. (David Samuel)

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

New Construction of Distribution Lines, Service Lines, and Appurtenant  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Construction of Distribution Lines, Service Lines, and Construction of Distribution Lines, Service Lines, and Appurtenant Facilities in Residential Subdivisions (New York) New Construction of Distribution Lines, Service Lines, and Appurtenant Facilities in Residential Subdivisions (New York) < Back Eligibility Commercial Installer/Contractor Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Low-Income Residential Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Residential Rural Electric Cooperative Schools Utility Savings Category Alternative Fuel Vehicles Hydrogen & Fuel Cells Home Weatherization Water Buying & Making Electricity Solar Wind Program Info State New York Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider New York State Public Service Commission Any proposed construction of electricity-related facilities in residential

8

Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

9

Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

10

Reliability of lightning resistant overhead distribution lines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An assessment of the 32 year historical reliability of the 13.8 kV electrical distribution system at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Tennessee has yielded several conclusions useful In the planning of Industrial power Systems. The system configuration at ORNL has essentially remained unchanged in the last 32 years which allows a meaningful comparison of reliability trends for the plant`s eight overhead distribution lines, two of which were built in the 1960`s with lightning resistant construction techniques. Meticulous records indicating the cause, duration, and location of 135 electric outages in the plant`s distribution system have allowed a reliability assessment to be performed. The assessment clearly shows how differences in voltage construction class, length, age, and maximum elevation above a reference elevation influence the reliability of overhead power distribution lines. Comparisons are also made between the ORNL historical data and predicted failure rates from ANSI and IEEE industry surveys.

Tolbert, L.M.; Cleveland, J.T.; Degenhardt, L.J.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Miter bend loss and higher order mode content measurements in overmoded millimeter-wave transmission lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High power applications require an accurate calculation of the losses on overmoded corrugated cylindrical transmission lines. Previous assessments of power loss on these lines have not considered beam polarization or higher ...

Kowalski, Elizabeth J. (Elizabeth Joan)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Loss reduction experiences in electric power distribution companies of Iran  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experiences of the loss reduction projects in electric power distribution companies (EPDCs) of Iran are presented. The loss reduction methods, which are proposed individually by 14 EPDCs, corresponding energy saving (ES), Investment costs (IC), and loss rate reductions are provided. In order to illustrate the effectiveness and performance of the loss reduction methods, three parameters are proposed as energy saving per investment costs (ESIC), energy saving per quantity (ESPQ), and investment costs per quantity (ICPQ). The overall ESIC of 14 EPDC as well as individual average and standard deviation of the EISC for each method is presented and compared. In addition, the average and standard deviation of the \\{ESPQs\\} and \\{ICPQs\\} for the loss reduction methods, individually, are provided and investigated. These parameters are useful for \\{EPDCs\\} that intend to reduce the electric losses in distribution networks as a benchmark and as a background in the planning purposes.

Ali Arefi; Javad Olamaei; Akbar Yavartalab; Hesam Keshtkar

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Updated Web Tool Focuses on Bottom Line for Distributed Wind...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Updated Web Tool Focuses on Bottom Line for Distributed Wind Turbines Updated Web Tool Focuses on Bottom Line for Distributed Wind Turbines January 10, 2013 - 2:43pm Addthis This...

14

Influence of the airflow speed along transmission lines on the DC corona discharge loss, using finite element approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Corona discharge is of great interest from the physical point of view and due to its numerous practical applications in industry and especially one of the most important sources of loss in the high voltage transmission lines. This paper provides guidelines for the amount of electric loss caused by corona phenomenon occurred around a DC high voltage wire placed between two flat plates and influence of wind speed rate on the amount of corona loss using COMSOL Multiphysics. So electric potential distribution patterns and charge density diffusion around the wire are studied in this article.

Shemshadi, A.; Akbari, A. [Electric Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niayesh, K. [Electric Engineering Department, Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

15

A Laboratory Study of Pressure Losses in Residential Air Distribution  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

A Laboratory Study of Pressure Losses in Residential Air Distribution A Laboratory Study of Pressure Losses in Residential Air Distribution Systems Speaker(s): Bass Abushakra Date: March 7, 2002 - 12:00pm Location: Bldg. 90 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Duo Wang An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the pressure drop of residential air distribution system components that are either not available or poorly described in existing duct design literature. The tests were designed to imitate cases normally found in typical residential and light commercial installations. The study included three different sizes of flexible ducts, under different compression configurations, splitter boxes, supply boots, and a fresh air intake hood. The experimental tests apparatus followed ASHRAE Standard 120P - Methods of Testing to Determine Flow

16

New approach for modelling distributed MEMS transmission lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

New approach for modelling distributed MEMS transmission lines K. Topalli, M. Unlu, S. Demir, O for the distributed MEMS transmission line (DMTL) structures. In this new model, the MEMS bridges that are used as the loading elements of the DMTL structures are represented as low-impedance transmission lines, rather than

Akin, Tayfun

17

Thermal comfort, skin temperature distribution, and sensible heat loss distribution in the sitting posture in various asymmetric radiant fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study aimed at investigating the thermal comfort for the whole body as well as for certain local areas, skin temperatures, and sensible heat losses in various asymmetric radiant fields. Human subject experiments were conducted to assess the overall comfort sensation and local discomfort, and local skin temperatures were measured. Through thermal manikin experiments, we discovered a new method for the precise measurement of the local sensible heat loss in nonuniform thermal environments. The local sensible heat losses were measured by the use of a thermal manikin that had the same local skin temperatures as the human subjects. The experimental conditions consisted of the anterior–posterior, right–left, and up–down asymmetric thermal environments created by radiation panels. A total of 35 thermal environmental conditions were created ranging from 25.5 to 30.5 °C for air temperature, from 11.5 to 44.5 °C for surface temperature of radiation panels, from 40% RH to 50% RH for humidity, and less than 0.05 m/s for inlet air velocity to the climatic chamber. The local skin temperature changed depending on the environmental thermal nonuniformity, even if the mean skin temperature remained almost the same. It is essential to use the skin temperature distribution as well as mean skin temperature for expressing thermal comfort in nonuniform environments. The local sensible heat loss changed depending on the environmental thermal nonuniformity, even if the mean sensible heat loss remained almost the same. The relationship between the local skin temperature and local sensible heat loss cannot be depicted by a simple line; instead, it varies depending on the environmental thermal nonuniformity. The local heat discomfort in the head area was dependent on both the local skin temperature and local sensible heat loss. However, the local cold discomfort in the foot area was related only to the local skin temperature.

Tomonori Sakoi; Kazuyo Tsuzuki; Shinsuke Kato; Ryozo Ooka; Doosam Song; Shengwei Zhu

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

The mesa merging oxidation method for creating low-loss dielectrics and transmission lines on low-resistivity silicon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The mesa merging oxidation method for creating low-loss dielectrics and transmission lines on low.1088/0960-1317/21/6/065020 The mesa merging oxidation method for creating low-loss dielectrics and transmission lines on low steps to create high aspect ratio coplanar waveguide (hicoplanar) transmission lines. The large SiO2

Bowers, John

19

Distributed Parametric Effect in Long Lines and its Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The article considers a parametric effect which takes place when the velocity of signal propagation in a long line changes. We found the analytical solution describing the form of the transformed signal for a line with losses, when line parameters change symmetrically. We also considered lines without losses, with asymmetrical change of parameters. Our theoretical results comply with experimental data. In certain conditions, such a line can be used as an amplifier. The parametric effect in optics is described by Maxwell's equations, while in case of a long line, the analysis is based on telegrapher's equations. However, it turns out that in the end, both in optics and electronics, the parametric effect is described by wave equations that are mathematically similar. This is because fundamentally, the parametric effect is physically based on energy interchange between the controlling (pump) signal and the transformed one, when the parameters of the propagating medium change. So, the obtained results can be used for analysis of parametric effects in optics and electronics.

Yu. K. Shestopaloff

2012-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

20

Using Dielectric Losses to De-Ice Power Transmission Lines with 100 kHz High-Voltage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

capable of exciting a 1 m test line to 30 kV has been tested and show to be capable of removing a 7 mm iceUsing Dielectric Losses to De-Ice Power Transmission Lines with 100 kHz High-Voltage Excitation J DIELECTRIC LOSSES TO DE-ICE POWER TRANSMISSION LINES . . . 1 Using Dielectric Losses to De-Ice Power

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Probing the mass loss history of carbon stars using CO line and dust continuum emission  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An extensive modelling of CO line emission from the circumstellar envelopes around a number of carbon stars is performed. By combining radio observations and infrared observations obtained by ISO the circumstellar envelope characteristics are probed over a large radial range. In the radiative transfer analysis the observational data are consistently reproduced assuming a spherically symmetric and smooth wind expanding at a constant velocity. The combined data set gives better determined envelope parameters, and puts constraints on the mass loss history of these carbon stars. The importance of dust in the excitation of CO is addressed using a radiative transfer analysis of the observed continuum emission, and it is found to have only minor effects on the derived line intensities. The analysis of the dust emission also puts further constraints on the mass loss rate history. The stars presented here are not likely to have experienced any drastic long-term mass loss rate modulations, at least less than a factor of about 5, over the past thousands of years. Only three, out of nine, carbon stars were observed long enough by ISO to allow a detection of CO far-infrared rotational lines.

F. L. Schoeier; N. Ryde; H. Olofsson

2002-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

22

Energy Loss Distribution in the Taylor-Couette Flow between Concentric Rotating Cylinders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The distribution of energy loss due to viscosity friction in plane Couette flow and Taylor-Couette Flow between concentric rotating cylinders are studied in detail for various flow conditions. The energy loss is related to the industrial processes in some fluid delivery devices and has significant influence on the flow efficiency, flow stability, turbulent transition, mixing, and heat transfer behaviours, etc. Therefore, it is very helpful to know about the energy loss distribution in the flow domain and to know its influence on the flow for understanding the flow physics. The calculation method of the energy loss distribution in the Taylor-Couette Flow between concentric rotating cylinders has not been found in open literature. In this note, the principle and the calculation are given for single cylinder rotating of inner or outer cylinder, and counter and same direction rotating of two cylinders. For comparison, the distribution of energy loss in a plane Couette flow is also derived for various flow conditi...

Dou, H S; Phan-Thien, N; Yeo, K S; Dou, Hua-Shu; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Yeo, Khoon Seng

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Measuring mass-loss rates and constraining shock physics using X-ray line profiles of O stars from the Chandra archive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Measuring mass-loss rates and constraining shock physics using X-ray line...sight lines that pass through the densest...wind mass-loss rate, we tabulated...low mass-loss rates: (1) the line...missing some crucial physics; (2) processes......

David H. Cohen; Emma E. Wollman; Maurice A. Leutenegger; Jon O. Sundqvist; Alex W. Fullerton; Janos Zsargó; Stanley P. Owocki

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Calculating the Loss factor of the LCLS Beam Line Elements for Ultra-Shrot Bunches  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE 1.5-15 {angstrom} x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility. Since an ultra-short intense bunch is used in the LCLS operation one might suggest that wake fields, generated in the vacuum chamber, may have an effect on the x-ray production because these fields can change the beam particle energies thereby increasing the energy spread in a bunch. At LCLS a feedback system precisely controls the bunch energy before it enters a beam transport line after the linac. However, in the transport line and later in the undulator section the bunch energy and energy spread are not under feedback control and may change due to wake field radiation, which depends upon the bunch current or on a bunch length. The linear part of the energy spread can be compensated in the upstream linac; the energy loss in the undulator section can be compensated by varying the K-parameter of the undulators, however we need a precise knowledge of the wake fields in this part of the machine. Resistive wake fields are known and well calculated. We discuss an additional part of the wake fields, which comes from the different vacuum elements like bellows, BPMs, transitions, vacuum ports, vacuum valves and others. We use the code 'NOVO' together with analytical estimations for the wake potential calculations.

Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC

2009-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

25

Power loss of a single electron charge distribution confined in a quantum plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dielectric tensor for a quantum plasma is derived by using a linearized quantum hydrodynamic theory. The wave functions for a nanostructure bound system have been investigated. Finally, the power loss for an oscillating charge distribution of a mixed state will be calculated, using the dielectric function formalism.

Mehramiz, A. [Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, I. K. Int'l University, Qazvin 34149-16818 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mahmoodi, J. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Qom, Qom 3716146611 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sobhanian, S. [Department of Atomic and Molecular Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Tabriz, East Azerbaijan 51664 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2011-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

26

N-Z distributions of secondary fragments and the evaporation attractor line  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The process of light particle evaporation moves the position of an excited fragment in the chart of nuclides towards a line which will be called the evaporation attractor line. The predicted location of this line is parametrized and the conditions necessary for the secondary fragment distributions to reach this line are discussed. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

Charity, R.J. [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)] [Department of Chemistry, Washington University, St. Louis, Missouri 63130 (United States)

1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Latitude Distribution of Interplanetary Magnetic Field Lines Rooted in Active Regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Electrons, accelerated in solar active regions to ? 10 keV, escape along open magnetic field lines and generate plasma radiation (Type III bursts ... Here we describe the latitude distribution of the field lines ...

G. A. Dulk; J. L. Steinberg; S. Hoang…

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Vector optical fields with polarization distributions similar to electric and magnetic field lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present, design and generate a new kind of vector optical fields with linear polarization distributions modeling to electric and magnetic field lines. The geometric configurations...

Pan, Yue; Li, Si-Min; Mao, Lei; Kong, Ling-Jun; Li, Yongnan; Tu, Chenghou; Wang, Pei; Wang, Hui-Tian

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular working professionals wishing to update their skills or increase their knowledge of utility engineering design practices and procedures. By providing graduate educational opportunities for the above groups, the T&D Program will help serve a strong industry need for training the next generation of engineers in the cost-effective design, construction, operation, and maintenance of modern electrical transmission and distribution systems. In addition to developing the on-line engineering courses described above, the T&D Program also focused significant efforts towards enhancing the training opportunities available to power system operators in the northwest. These efforts have included working with outside vendors to provide NERC-approved training courses in Gonzaga University's (GU) system operator training facility, support for an accurate system model which can be used in regional blackstart exercises, and the identification of a retired system operator who could provide actual regional training courses. The GU system operator training facility is also being used to recruit young workers, veterans, and various under-represented groups to the utility industry. Over the past three years students from Columbia Gorge Community College, Spokane Falls Community College, Walla Walla Community College, Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Gonzaga University, and various local high schools have attended short (one-day) system operator training courses free of charge. These collaboration efforts has been extremely well received by both students and industry, and meet T&D Program objectives of strengthening the power industry workforce while bridging the knowledge base across power worker categories, and recruiting new workers to replace a predominantly retirement age workforce. In the past three years the T&D Program has provided over 170 utility engineers with access to advanced engineering courses, been involved in training more than 300 power system operators, and provided well over 500 college and high school students with an experienc

Peter McKenny

2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

30

ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable line stations...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable line stations) (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable...

31

Efficient Macromodeling of Power Distribution Planes using Delay Extraction based Transmission Line Representation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Efficient Macromodeling of Power Distribution Planes using Delay Extraction based Transmission Line plane structures are based on discretization of the plane into a grid of transmission lines [3]-[6]. Macromodeling the transmission line network using conventional lumped RLGC elements [4]- [6] can provide

Roy, Sourajeet

32

Muon energy-loss distribution and its applications to muon energy determination  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

For measurements of the cosmic-ray muon spectrum at energies above 100 TeV and for observations of high-energy astronomical neutrinos a big detector is necessary. In both cases, information on the muon energy plays an important role. The method for estimating the muon energy from the energy loss should yield accurate values with a big detector. To evaluate the method we measured the muon energy-loss distribution in the MUTRON detector and applied the results to a big detector proposed for deployment in the ocean. When estimating the muon energy we divided the muon track into several segments and discarded the segment with the maximum energy loss. If a detector with a volume of (500m)3 is constructed in the ocean using strings of detectors with 50-m spacing between adjacent strings, and 10-m spacing between detectors on a string, muon energies could be measured with a relative error of about 30%. For muons produced by the charged-current interaction (??+N??+X), the neutrino direction can be determined with an error less than 1° for muon energies above 1 TeV.

K. Mitsui

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

The extraction of nuclear sea quark distribution and energy loss effect in Drell-Yan experiment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The next-to-leading order and leading order analysis are performed on the differential cross section ratio from Drell-Yan process. It is found that the effect of next-to-leading order corrections can be negligible on the differential cross section ratios as a function of the quark momentum fraction in the beam proton and the target nuclei for the current Fermilab and future lower beam proton energy. The nuclear Drell-Yan reaction is an ideal tool to study the energy loss of the fast quark moving through cold nuclei. In the leading order analysis, the theoretical results with quark energy loss are in good agreement with the Fermilab E866 experimental data on the Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios as a function of the momentum fraction of the target parton. It is shown that the quark energy loss effect has significant impact on the Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios. The nuclear Drell-Yan experiment at current Fermilab and future lower energy proton beam can not provide us with more information on the nuclear sea quark distribution.

Chun-Gui Duan; Na Liu; Zhan-Yuan Yan

2006-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

34

The uncertainties due to quark energy loss on determining nuclear sea quark distribution from nuclear Drell-Yan data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By means of two different parametrizations of quark energy loss and the nuclear parton distributions determined only with lepton-nuclear deep inelastic scattering experimental data, a leading order phenomenological analysis is performed on the nuclear Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios as a function of the quark momentum fraction in the beam proton and target nuclei for E772 experimental data. It is shown that there is the quark energy loss effect in nuclear Drell-Yan process apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering. The uncertainties due to quark energy loss effect is quantified on determining nuclear sea quark distribution by using nuclear Drell-Yan data. It is found that the quark energy loss effect on nuclear Drell-Yan cross section ratios make greater with the increase of quark momentum fraction in the target nuclei. The uncertainties from quark energy loss become bigger as the nucleus A come to be heavier. The Drell-Yan data on proton incident middle and heavy nuclei versus deuterium would result in an overestimate for nuclear modifications on sea quark distribution functions with neglecting the quark energy loss. Our results are hoped to provide good directional information on the magnitude and form of nuclear modifications on sea quark distribution functions by means of the nuclear Drell-Yan experimental data.

C. G. Duan; N. Liu; G. L. Li

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

35

Two-Dimensional Property Distributions, Ohmic Losses, and Power Consumption within a Fuel Cell Polymer Electrolyte Membrane  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two-Dimensional Property Distributions, Ohmic Losses, and Power Consumption within a Fuel Cell Polymer Electrolyte Membrane ... The land provides both mechanical support and electrical contact to the porous transport layer (PTL), while the fuel and oxidant are distributed to the catalyst layer (CL) through the channels, again via the PTL. ... The anisotropic nature of the distributions suggest that there may be localized “hot spots” where an increased rate of power consumption could heat the membrane and cause it to fail. ...

Venkateshwar R. Devulapalli; Aaron V. Phoenix

2010-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

36

A general elementary proof for the momentum–energy relationship, p=E/c, for a pulse on a loss-free transmission line  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The impulse delivered to the resistively terminated end of a loss-free transmission line is found independently of the geometry of the line using elementary physics with an elementary application of the method of virtual work. The results correspond to the momentum–energy association p=E/c.

M. C. Whatley

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

The influence of quark energy loss on extracting nuclear sea quark distribution from nuclear Drell-Yan experimental data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By means of two typical kinds of quark energy loss parametrization and the nuclear parton distributions determined only with lepton-nuclear deep inelastic scattering experimental data, a leading order analysis are performed on the proton-induced Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios of tungsten versus deuterium as a function of the quark momentum fraction in the beam proton and target nuclei. It is found that the theoretical results with quark energy loss are in good agreement with the experimental data. The quark energy loss effect produce approximately 3% to 11% suppression on the Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios $R_{W/D}$ in the range $0.05\\leq x_2\\leq0.3$. The application of nuclear Drell-Yan data with heavy targets is remarkably subject to difficulty in the constraints of the nuclear sea-quark distribution.

Duan Chun-Gui; Liu Na

2008-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

38

Nonlinear dynamics of resonant interactions between wave packets and particle distributions with loss-cone-like structures  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The paper studies the nonlinear mechanisms at work in magnetized plasmas when wave packets interact resonantly with particle distributions presenting loss-cone-like structures. Lower hybrid waves are considered in view of the great importance, in space and laboratory plasmas, of waves with frequencies below the electron cyclotron frequency. Owing to a three-dimensional Hamiltonian model and a numerical symplectic code, the authors study the nonlinear stage of the loss-cone instability for various particle distributions and wave spectra involving symmetric and asymmetric features. In particular, the wave-particle interaction process of dynamical resonance merging, which results from an instability of the trapped particles' motion and leads to complex stochastic phenomena, is discussed. Whereas interactions at normal cyclotron resonances are mostly considered, the role of the Landau and the anomalous cyclotron resonances is also studied to explain thoroughly the nonlinear wave-particle dynamics as well as the competition between loss-cone, fan, and beam instabilities. The relaxed particle distributions and the saturated wave spectra are analyzed. The time necessary for filling the loss-cone structures is determined as a function of the characteristics of the particle distributions. Whereas most of the previous works analyzed the asymptotic stage of the system's evolution in the frame of the well-known quasilinear theory, the paper considers the case when the energy carried by the wave packet is sufficiently large so that the description of the physical processes at work cannot be limited to the frame of weak turbulence theories.

Krafft, C. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Paris South University, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Volokitin, A. [Space Research Institute (IKI), 84/32 Profsoyuznaya Str., Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Zaslavsky, A. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, 92195 Meudon Cedex (France)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

39

Optimization of non-evacuated receiver of solar collector having non-uniform temperature distribution for minimum heat loss  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The present paper contains a numerical study of heat loss from a non-evacuated receiver typically used in parabolic trough collectors. To calculate temperature distributions on the receiver pipe (TP), an energy balance has been established over the entire cross-section of the receiver pipe at different fluid temperatures. In the energy balance, the flux distribution has been estimated by assuming normal incidence of solar insolation considering the sun as a point source. The temperature distributions of the receiver pipe are found, as per expectation, to be non-uniform. These temperature distributions have been fitted by sinusoidal and step functions and are used as temperature boundary conditions in a CFD study to optimize the size of the receiver. The mechanisms of heat loss that have been considered in this study are heat loss from (1) pipe to glass tube by conduction, convection and radiation and (2) glass tube to surrounding by convection (natural and forced) and radiation. The values of diameters of receiver pipe taken in this study are 33 mm, 48 mm, 60 mm, 70 mm, 89 mm and 102 mm. The radius ratio (RR) varied from 1.2 to 3 by changing diameter of glass tube. It is observed that, the critical value of RR for minimum heat loss is dependent upon receiver pipe diameter (DPo). The critical values of RR for pipe diameter (DPo) 33 mm, 48 mm, 60 mm, 70 mm, 89 mm and 102 mm are 1.5, 1.4, 1.375, 1.35, 1.3 and 1.25 respectively. The value of critical RR is lower for higher values of pipe diameter. The value of critical RR for a particular diameter of receiver is independent of receiver temperature and external wind velocity. Comparison of heat losses in non-uniform and uniform temperature cases shows that the values of heat losses in the two cases differ only by 1.5%.

Ramchandra G. Patil; Sudhir V. Panse; Jyeshtharaj B. Joshi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Axial Distributions of Spectral Line Intensities in the Arc Under the Influence of External Rotating Magnetic Field  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of external rotating magnetic field (RMF) on the electric arc plasma, and therefore the axial distributions of the spectral line intensities and the atomic...

Pavlovic, B V; Mihailidi, T A

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Probability distribution of low-altitude propagation loss from radar sea clutter data  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: propagation loss estimation, radar clutter, probabilistic inversion Citation: Gerstoft, P., W. S. Hodgkiss, L within the marine atmospheric surface layer [Liu et al., 1979]. The refractivity profile above

Buckingham, Michael

43

ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable line stations) (Smart  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable line stations) (Smart ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable line stations) (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable line stations) Country Hungary Headquarters Location Budapest, Hungary Coordinates 47.498405°, 19.040758° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":47.498405,"lon":19.040758,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

44

Be7 solar neutrino line: A reflection of the central temperature distribution of the Sun  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A precise test of the theory of stellar evolution can be performed by measuring the average difference in energy between the neutrino line produced by Be7 electron capture in the solar interior and the corresponding neutrino line produced in a terrestrial laboratory. This energy shift is calculated to be 1.29 keV (to an accuracy of a few percent) for the dominant ground-state to ground-state transition. The energy shift is approximately equal to the average temperature of the solar core, computed by integrating the temperature over the solar interior with a weighting factor equal to the locally produced Be7 neutrino emission. Therefore, a measurement of the energy shift is a measurement of the central temperature distribution of the Sun. The energy profile of the Be7 line is derived analytically and is evaluated numerically. The line shape is asymmetric: on the low-energy side, the line shape is Gaussian with a half-width at half-maximum of 0.6 keV and, on the high-energy side, the line shape is exponential with a half-width at half-maximum of 1.1 keV. The effective temperature of the high-energy exponential tail is 15 × 106 K. The energy profile of the Be7 neutrino line should be taken into account in calculations of vacuum neutrino oscillations and of the absorption cross section for Be7 solar neutrinos incident on Li7 nuclei. The characteristic modulation of the Be7 line shape that would be caused by either vacuum neutrino oscillations or by matter-enhanced (MSW) neutrino oscillations is shown to be small. Other frequently discussed weak interaction solutions to the solar neutrino problem are also not expected to change significantly the line profile.

John N. Bahcall

1994-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

A measurement of energy loss distributions of energetic muons in iron  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The energy-loss spectrum of high energy muons after traversal of a 10 meter iron ... of better than 1%. Data taken at energies between 50 and 120 GeV are in...

R. Kopp; A. Argento; A. C. Benvenuti…

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

On the asymmetric distribution of heat loss from the Earth’s interior  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Mean heat flows and heat Josses of the Northern and Southern hemispheres ... degree 12 spherical harmonic representation of the global heat flow field (Pollacket al., 1993). Mean heat flows and heat losses of 0° ...

Yang Wang; Jiyang Wang; Zongji Ma

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Existence of the Wigner function with correct marginal distributions along tilted lines on a lattice  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In order to determine the Wigner function uniquely, we introduce a new condition which ensures that the Wigner function has correct marginal distributions along tilted lines. For a system in $N$ dimensional Hilbert space, whose "phase space" is a lattice with $N^2$ sites, we get different results depending on whether $N$ is odd or even. Under the new condition, the Wigner function is determined if $N$ is an odd number, but it does not exist if $N$ is even.

Minoru Horibe; Akiyoshi Takami; Takaaki Hashimoto; Akihisa Hayashi

2001-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

48

Evaluating Transformer Losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and replacing them with low loss units. Today few industrials evaluate losses on either power or distribution transformers. TRANSFORMER LOSSES Transformer losses are divided 'nto load losses and no-load losses. Load losses are due to the winding resista... therefore are a function of the load squared. No-load losses occur from energizing the transformer steel and fore are continuous regardless of the transformer load. TRANSFORMER DESIGN Both types of losses are a fun ce here ion of design. If losses...

Grun, R. L. Jr.

49

DECENTRALIZED VOLTAGE CONTROL TO MINIMIZE DISTRIBUTION LOSSES IN AN ISLANDED MICROGRID  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

power sources and energy storage systems such as batteries requires new power and voltage control-time voltage control algorithm that minimizes power losses for a microgrid supported by inverter based Microgrids can bring electricity power to rural communities or isolated military forward operation bases

Peng, Huei

50

The $^7$Be Solar Neutrino Line: A Reflection of the Central Temperature Distribution of the Sun  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A precise test of the theory of stellar evolution can be performed by measuring the average difference in energy between the neutrino line produced by ${\\rm ^7Be}$ electron capture in the solar interior and the corresponding neutrino line produced in a terrestrial laboratory. This energy shift is calculated to be 1.29~keV (to an accuracy of a few percent) for the dominant ground-state to ground-state transition. The energy shift is approximately equal to the average temperature of the solar core, computed by integrating the temperature over the solar interior with a weighting factor equal to the locally-produced $^7$Be neutrino emission. The characteristic modulation of the ${\\rm ^7Be}$ line shape that would be caused by either vacuum neutrino oscillations or by matter-enhanced (MSW) neutrino oscillations is shown to be small. Other frequently-discussed weak interaction solutions to the solar neutrino problem are also not expected to change significantly the line profile. Therefore, a measurement of the energy shift is a measurement of the central temperature distribution of the sun.

John N. Bahcall

1994-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

51

A distributed on-line HV transmission condition monitoring information system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

China Light and Power Company Ltd. (CLP) is responsible for supplying electricity to the whole of Hong Kong except Hong Kong Island and Lamma Island. In CLP`s Castle Peak power plant, 19 kV and 23 kV electric supplies are generated. The voltage is then stepped up to 400 kV for transmission. The intermediate control between those transformers and the major 400 kV overhead transmission system lies with a standard One and a half Breaker Configuration switch substations. The substation houses single phase encapsulated SF{sub 6} circuit breakers. In the urban centers, 400 kV substations are installed to step down 400 kV to 132 kV or further to 11 kV for distribution. This paper describes the development of a on-line distributed information system for monitoring the conditions of the whole HV transmission system. The system continuously monitors status of each circuit breaker (CB) together with important operational parameters, such as duration during making and breaking, operations of hydraulic pumps and SF{sub 6} gas pressure etc. Each group of CBs is monitored by a standalone microcontroller using a local area network with a baud rate of 9,600. The information can be recorded on the harddisk of an on-site microcomputer and further transmitted back to a remote computer for alarm generation and multi-station supervision. The CLP 400 kV substation and the Tsz Wan Shan 400 kV substation are among the first targets for development.

Chan, W.L. [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [Hong Kong Polytechnic Univ., Kowloon (Hong Kong); Pang, S.L.; Chan, T.M. [China Light and Power Co. Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong)] [China Light and Power Co. Ltd., Hong Kong (Hong Kong); So, A.T.P. [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)] [City Univ. of Hong Kong, Kowloon (Hong Kong)

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Homozygous deletions on the short arm of chromosome 9 in ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines and loss of heterozygosity in sporadic tumors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Rat ovarian surface epithelial cells transformed spontaneously in vitro have been found to have homozygous deletions of the interferon alpha (IFNA) gene. This suggests that inactivation of a tumor-suppressor gene in this region may be crucial for the development of ovarian cancer. The authors therefore used microsatellite markers and Southern analysis to examine the homologous region in humans - the short arm of chromosome 9 - for deletions in sporadic ovarian adenocarcinomas and ovarian tumor cell lines. Loss of heterozygosity occurred in 34 (37%) of 91 informative sporadic tumors, including some benign, low-malignant-potential and early-stage tumors, suggesting that it is an early event in the development of ovarian adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, homozygous deletions on 9p were found in 2 of 10 independent cell lines. Deletion mapping of the tumors and lines indicates that the candidate suppressor gene inactivated as a consequence lies between D9S171 and the IFNA locus, a region that is also deleted in several other tumors and that contains the melanoma predisposition gene, MLM. 52 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

Chenevix-Trench, G.; Kerr, J.; Hurst, T.; Sanderson, B.; Coglan, M.; Ward, B.; Khoo, S.K. (Univ. of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)); Friedlander, M.; Leary, J.

1994-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

CFD analysis of the effects of the flow distribution and heat losses on the steam reforming of methanol in catalytic (Pd/ZnO) microreactors  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation study of the effects of the flow distribution and the heat losses on the performance of microchannels and microslits reactors for the steam reforming of methanol (SRM) over Pd/ZnO is presented. Several flow distributing headers covering a wide range of the flow diffuser expansion angle (?) have been considered. Large values of ? lead to flow maldistribution characterized by jet flow resulting in negative effects on the SRM conversion and hydrogen yield, especially for the microslits at high reaction temperatures and space velocities. Simulations have also evidenced that heat losses constitute a critical issue for microreactors operation, particularly at low space velocities. Heat losses may reach very high values, above 80–90% of the energy supplied to the microreactor, with the consequence that it may be necessary to provide up to 9 times the heat of the SRM reaction to achieve high methanol conversions.

I. Uriz; G. Arzamendi; P.M. Diéguez; F.J. Echave; O. Sanz; M. Montes; L.M. Gandía

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

The Orientation Distributions of Lines, Surfaces, and Interfaces Around Three-Phase Boundaries in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction was used to measure the crystallographic distribution of the electrochemically relevant triple phase boundary lines and surfaces near them in SOFC cathodes made up of a porous mixture of yttria-stabilized zirconia and lanthanum strontium manganese oxide, both before and after mild electrochemical loading. All distributions were observed to be nearly isotropic, but non-random textures above the detection threshold were observed. The distributions differ between the two cells, as do the phase fractions and the electrochemical history. The different distributions are interpreted as evidence that steady-state distributions vary locally with phase fractions or that they evolve during the initial operation of the fuel cell. The rates at which triple lines, pore surfaces, and interface boundaries in the porous mixture approach a steady-state value appear to decrease with the average amount of mass transport required to reorient that specific feature. This work provides initial insights into the crystallography of interfaces in a multiphase ceramic material.

Dillon, Shen; Helmick, Lam; Miller, Herbert M.; Johnson, Christopher; Wilson, Lane; Gemmen, Randall; Petrova, Rumyana; Barmak, Katayun; Gerdes, Kirk; Rohrer, Gregory S.; Salvador, Paul A.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

How Does the Distribution of External Magnetic Lines of Force Influence the Growth of Ferromagnetic Material?  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As one of the most important ferromagnetic materials, nickel shows applications in many fields including catalysis,(15) magnet sensors,(16) magnetic recording media,(17) conduction materials,(18) and ferrofluids. ... When an external magnetic field is applied, the directions of the self-generated magnetic fields could be adjusted to be the same by the external magnetic field, conducing one-dimensional structures along the external magnetic lines of force. ... Since these quasi-one-dimensional magnets are parallel to each other, the interaction caused by the self-generated magnetic fields between the quasi-one-dimensional magnets which are aligned in different magnetic lines of force could be ignored. ...

Rui-Ping Ji; Ji-Sen Jiang; Ming Hu

2010-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

56

The Cryogenic Distribution Line for the LHC: Functional Specification and Conceptual Design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC)1 currently under construction at CERN will make use of superconducting magnets operating in superfluid helium below 2 K. The cryogenic distribution scheme for each of the eight sec...

W. Erdt; G. Riddone; R. Trant

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Developing DisCo: A distributed co-design, on-line tool SUBMITTED TO THE COLLEGE OF INFORMATION STUDIES DOCTORAL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Developing DisCo: A distributed co-design, on-line tool SUBMITTED TO THE COLLEGE OF INFORMATION-based design tool that facilitates distributed co-design through Layered Elaboration. Layered Elaboration-based system allows co-designers to work asynchronously while being geographically distributed. DisCo contains

Golbeck, Jennifer

58

Radial velocity distribution and line strengths of 33 carbon stars in the Galactic bulge  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents optical spectra of 33 carbon stars discovered by Azzopardi et al. (1985) in low-extinction windows to the Galactic bulge. From these spectra, the radial velocity distribution for the stars was obtained; the dispersion was found to be 113 + or - 14 km/sec (consistent with that of the bulge K and M giants) and the mean to be -44 + or - 20 km/sec. From the velocity distribution, it was found that the carbon stars do not share the kinematics of the local neighborhood and are likely to be genuine bulge members, making it possible to assign distances and accurate luminosities. Nineteen of the stars showed enhanced C-13, classifying them as J-star candidates. Two stars showed weak C2 absorption, classifying them as CS stars, and thirteen carbon stars appeared to be hydrogen-deficient. 63 refs.

Tyson, N.D.; Rich, R.M. (Columbia Univ., NY (USA))

1991-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Gap-Size Distribution Functions of a Random Sequential Adsorption Model of Segments on the Line  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We performed extensive simulations accompanied by a detailed study of a two-segment size random sequential model on the line. We followed the kinetics towards the jamming state, but we paid particular attention to the characterization of the jamming state structure. In particular, we studied the effect of the size ratio on the mean-gap size, the gap-size dispersion, gap-size skewness, and gap-size kurtosis at the jamming state. We also analyzed the above quantities for the four possible segment-to-segment gap types. We ranged the values of the size ratio from one to twenty. In the limit of a size ratio of one, one recovers the classical car-parking problem. We observed that at low size ratios the jamming state is constituted by short streaks of small and large segments, while at high values of the size ratio the jamming state structure is formed by long streaks of small segments separated by a single large segment. This view of the jamming state structure as a function of the size ratio is supported by the various measured quantities. The present work can help provide insight, for example, on how to minimize the interparticle distance or minimize fluctuations around the mean particle-to-particle distance.

N. A. M. Araujo; A. Cadilhe

2004-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

60

A Study of Pressure Losses in Residential Air Distribution Systems Bass Abushakra Iain S. Walker Max H. Sherman  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The experimental tests conformed to ASHRAE Standard 120P ­ Methods of Testing to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC on the power consumption and the overall performance of the HVAC system. To satisfy the ARI 210 in the air-distribution system is critical. Proctor and Parker (2000) noted that the measured external static

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Evaluation of Methods for Predicting Seepage Loss Rates for the Hard Lined Irrigation Canals of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on 32 canal sections. The condition rating scores were evaluated for 26 of these canals. Test calculation revisions and testing errors were first evaluated to understand the potential impacts to the seepage loss rates and condition rating system...

Leigh, Eric

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

62

Impinging radial and inline jets: A comparison with regard to heat transfer, wall pressure distribution, and pressure loss  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat transfer and wall pressure distribution on a plane surface generated by single impinging inline or radial jets are studied experimentally. The pressure drop of inline and radial jet nozzles is measured. The effects of flow exit angle, nozzle to surface distance, and exit velocity on heat transfer, wall pressure distribution, and pressure drop are discussed. Heat transfer results show that radial jets with flow exit angles of +45°–+60° generate up to 60% higher local and up to 50% higher global Nusselt numbers compared with inline jets of the same volumetric flow rate and exit velocity. Measured wall pressure distributions are presented in terms of pressure coefficients. The total force exerted by radial jets on a plane surface is lower than that exerted by inline jets. Radial jets with negative flow exit angles can generate small lifting forces. Results of pressure drop measurements are presented in terms of resistance coefficients, which allow an estimation of the necessary additional fan power if radial jet nozzles instead of inline jet nozzles are employed. For radial jet nozzles with flow exit angles of +45° ? ? ? +60° the rise of fan energy costs is negligible compared with the rise of heat/mass transfer. Radial jet nozzles have a high potential for application, particularly when very high drying rates or small jet forces on the impingement surface or both are required.

F. Peper; W. Leiner; M. Fiebig

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Emission-Line Galaxy Surveys as Probes of the Spatial Distribution of Dwarf Galaxies. I. The University of Michigan Survey  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Objective-prism surveys which select galaxies on the basis of line-emission are extremely effective at detecting low-luminosity galaxies and constitute some of the deepest available samples of dwarfs. In this study, we confirm that emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in the University of Michigan (UM) objective-prism survey (MacAlpine et al. 1977-1981) are reliable tracers of large-scale structure, and utilize the depth of the samples to examine the spatial distribution of low-luminosity (M$_{B} > $ -18.0) dwarfs relative to higher luminosity giant galaxies (M$_{B} \\leq$ -18.0) in the Updated Zwicky Catalogue (Falco et al. 1999). New spectroscopic data are presented for 26 UM survey objects. We analyze the relative clustering properties of the overall starbursting ELG and normal galaxy populations, using nearest neighbor and correlation function statistics. This allows us to determine whether the activity in ELGs is primarily caused by gravitational interactions. We conclude that galaxy-galaxy encounters are not the sole cause of activity in ELGs since ELGs tend to be more isolated and are more often found in the voids when compared to their normal galaxy counterparts. Furthermore, statistical analyses performed on low-luminosity dwarf ELGs show that the dwarfs are less clustered when compared to their non-active giant neighbors. The UM dwarf samples have greater percentages of nearest neighbor separations at large values and lower correlation function amplitudes relative to the UZC giant galaxy samples. These results are consistent with the expectations of galaxy biasing.

Janice C. Lee; John J. Salzer; Jessica Rosenberg; Daniel Law

2000-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

64

PEV-based P-Q Control in Line Distribution Networks with High Requirement for Reactive Power Compensation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

impact of distribution level wind turbines. Our design is based on a nonlinear power flow analysis of wind turbines to support their induction load to avoid generator voltage excursion. Note that, although-sized wind turbines in large wind farms [1], the smaller wind turbines that are used at the distribution

Huang, Jianwei

65

CONSTRAINING THE DISTRIBUTION OF DARK MATTER IN THE INNER GALAXY WITH AN INDIRECT DETECTION SIGNAL: THE CASE OF A TENTATIVE 130 GeV {gamma}-RAY LINE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Dark matter distribution in the very inner region of our Galaxy is still debated. In N-body simulations, a cuspy dark matter halo density profile is favored. Several dissipative baryonic processes, however, are found to be able to significantly flatten dark matter distribution, and a cored dark matter halo density profile is possible. Baryons dominate the gravitational potential in the inner Galaxy, hence a direct constraint on the abundance of dark matter particles is rather challenging. Recently, a few groups have identified a tentative 130 GeV line signal in the Galactic center, which could be interpreted as the signal of dark matter annihilation. Using current 130 GeV line data and adopting the generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile of the dark matter halo-local dark matter density {rho}{sub 0} = 0.4 GeV cm{sup -3} and r{sub s} = 20 kpc-we obtain a 95% confidence level lower (upper) limit on the inner slope of dark matter density distribution, {alpha} = 1.06 (the cross section of dark matter annihilation into {gamma}-rays ({sigma}v){sub {chi}{chi}{sub {yields}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}}} = 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -27} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}). Such a slope is consistent with the results of some N-body simulations and, if the signal is due to dark matter, suggests that baryonic processes may be unimportant.

Yang Ruizhi; Feng Lei; Li Xiang; Fan Yizhong, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)

2013-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

66

The ATLAS 3D project - XVI. Physical parameters and spectral line energy distributions of the molecular gas in gas-rich early-type galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

[Abridged] We present a detailed study of the physical properties of the molecular gas in a sample of 18 molecular gas-rich early-type galaxies (ETGs) from the ATLAS$ 3D sample. Our goal is to better understand the star formation processes occurring in those galaxies, starting here with the dense star-forming gas. We use existing integrated $^{12}$CO(1-0, 2-1), $^{13}$CO(1-0, 2-1), HCN(1-0) and HCO$^{+}$(1-0) observations and present new $^{12}$CO(3-2) single-dish data. From these, we derive for the first time the average kinetic temperature, H$_{2}$ volume density and column density of the emitting gas, this using a non-LTE theoretical model. Since the CO lines trace different physical conditions than of those the HCN and HCO$^{+}$ lines, the two sets of lines are treated separately. We also compare for the first time the predicted CO spectral line energy distributions (SLEDs) and gas properties of our molecular gas-rich ETGs with those of a sample of nearby well-studied disc galaxies. The gas excitation con...

Bayet, Estelle; Davis, Timothy A; Young, Lisa M; Crocker, Alison F; Alatalo, Katherine; Blitz, Leo; Bois, Maxime; Bournaud, Frédéric; Cappellari, Michele; Davies, Roger L; de Zeeuw, P T; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Emsellem, Eric; Khochfar, Sadegh; Krajnovi?, Davor; Kuntschner, Harald; McDermid, Richard M; Morganti, Raffaella; Naab, Thorsten; Oosterloo, Tom; Sarzi, Marc; Scott, Nicholas; Serra, Paolo; Weijmans, Anne-Marie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Frequency stabilization of 1. 5-. mu. m InGaAsP distributed feedback laser to NH/sub 3/ absorption lines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

NH/sub 3/ absorption lines due to vibration-rotation transitions are observed at 1.50--1.54 ..mu..m by using an InGaAsP superluminescent diode. A 1.5-..mu..m InGaAsP distributed feedback (DFB) laser is frequency stabilized to an NH/sub 3/ linear absorption line at 15196 A. Frequency stability of sigma(2,tau) = 8 x 10/sup -11/tau/sup -1/ is achieved for an averaging time range of 10 ms< or =tau< or =1 s. Such an absolute frequency-stabilized DFB laser is useful for coherent optical system applications, since it is free from the longitudinal mode jumping which results from a wide range of temperature changes and long-term device degradation.

Yanagawa, T.; Saito, S.; Yamamoto, Y.

1984-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

Frequency stabilization of an InGaAsP distributed feedback laser to an NH/sub 3/ absorption line at 15137 A with an external frequency modulator  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The oscillation frequency of a 1.5-..mu..m InGaAsP distributed feedback laser is stabilized to an NH/sub 3/ linear absorption line at 15137 A. A LiNbO/sub 3/ external frequency modulator is used instead of direct frequency modulation of the laser to extract error signals. An effective bandwidth of 100 kHz for the feedback loop is obtained through this external modulation scheme. Frequency stability of sigma(2,tau) = 4 x 10/sup -11/ is achieved for an averaging time of 1 s< or =tau< or =100 s.

Yanagawa, T.; Saito, S.; Machida, S.; Yamamoto, Y.; Noguchi, Y.

1985-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

69

Distribution:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

JAN26 19% JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive and possess the special nuclear material designated below; to use such special nuclear mat&ial for the purpose(s) and at the place(s) designated below; and to transfer such material to per&s authorized to receive it in accordance with the regula,tions in said Part.

70

Simultaneous Cancellation of Fiber Loss, Dispersion, and Kerr Effect in Ultralong-Haul Optical Fiber Transmission by Midway Optical Phase Conjugation Incorporated With Distributed Raman Amplification  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

An alternative application of distributed Raman amplification (DRA) for ultralong-haul optical fiber transmission is proposed. In our study, the DRA is employed in a transmission...

Kaewplung, Pasu; Kikuchi, Kazuro

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

> FOR CONFERENCE-RELATED PAPERS, REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR SESSION NUMBER, E.G., AB-02 (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE) Characterization and prediction of magnetic losses in Soft Magnetic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-CLICK HERE) Composites under-94230 Cachan, France A general approach to magnetic losses in Soft Magnetic Composites (SMC that in small enough samples the measured loss is independent of the specimen cross-sectional area, because

Boyer, Edmond

72

Schedule-Dependent Synergy between the Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor 17-(Dimethylaminoethylamino)-17-Demethoxygeldanamycin and Doxorubicin Restores Apoptosis to p53-Mutant Lymphoma Cell Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...with previously reported loss of pRb phosphorylation...differences in cell cycle distribution. WT p53 TK6 and OCI-Ly3...Schedule-dependent synergy between the heat shock protein 90 inhibitor...lymphoma cell lines. | Loss of p53 function impairs...examined the effect of the heat shock protein 90 (HSP90...

Ana I. Robles; Mollie H. Wright; Bheru Gandhi; Steven S. Feis; Christin L. Hanigan; Adrian Wiestner; and Lyuba Varticovski

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Unsteady heat losses of underground pipelines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Analytic expressions are presented for the unsteady temperature distribution of the ground and heat losses of an underground pipeline for an arbitrary...

B. L. Krivoshein; V. M. Agapkin

1977-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Optimal Distributed Voltage Regulation in Power Distribution Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we address the problem of voltage regulation in power distribution networks with deep-penetration of distributed energy resources (DERs), e.g., renewable-based generation, and storage-capable loads such as plug-in hybrid electric vehicles. We cast the problem as an optimization program, where the objective is to minimize the losses in the network subject to constraints on bus voltage magnitudes, limits on active and reactive power injections, transmission line thermal limits and losses. We provide sufficient conditions under which the optimization problem can be solved via its convex relaxation. Using data from existing networks, we show that the conditions are expected to be satisfied by most networks. We also provide an efficient distributed algorithm to solve the problem. The algorithm is asynchronous, with a communication topology that is the same as the electrical network topology. We illustrate the algorithm's performance in the IEEE 34-bus and the 123-bus feeder test systems.

Lam, Albert Y S; Dominguez-Garcia, Alejandro; Tse, David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from controlling heat loss through the distribution pipes.distribution system configurations; a collection of analytical heat lossdistribution system configurations; a collection of analytical heat loss

Lutz, Jim

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

CORONAL EMISSION LINES AS THERMOMETERS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Coronal emission-line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

Judge, Philip G., E-mail: judge@ucar.ed [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research , P.O. Box 3000, Boulder CO 80307-3000 (United States)

2010-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

77

Coronal emission lines as thermometers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coronal emission line intensities are commonly used to measure electron temperatures using emission measure and/or line ratio methods. In the presence of systematic errors in atomic excitation calculations and data noise, the information on underlying temperature distributions is fundamentally limited. Increasing the number of emission lines used does not necessarily improve the ability to discriminate between different kinds of temperature distributions.

Judge, Philip G

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Line Projects  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

(PDCI) Upgrade Project Whistling Ridge Energy Project Line Rebuild, Relocation and Substation Projects Wind Projects Line Projects BPA identifies critical infrastructure and...

79

Distribution System State Estimation  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

these include reactive power management, outage management, loss reduction, demand response, adaptable over-current protection, condition-based maintenance, distributed...

80

Evaluation and Compensation of Detector Solenoid Effects on Disrupted Beam in the ILC 14 mrad Extraction Line  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents calculations of detector solenoid effects on disrupted primary beam in the ILC 14 mrad extraction line. Particle tracking simulations are performed for evaluation of primary beam loss along the line as well as of beam distribution and polarization at Compton Interaction Point. The calculations are done both without and with solenoid compensation. The results are obtained for the baseline ILC energy of 500 GeV center-of-mass and three options of beam parameters.

Toprek, Dragan; /VINCA Inst. Nucl. Sci., Belgrade; Nosochkov, Yuri; /SLAC

2008-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

A comparative analysis of the technical and economic indicators characterizing independent small-capacity power installations for supplying power to trunk gas lines and gas distribution stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results obtained from a feasibility study of different independent sources of energy are presented, using which one can select them on a sound basis for supplying heat and power for trunk gas lines and gas distri...

G. A. Fokin

2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Prediction of epigenetically regulated genes in breast cancer cell lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in breast cancer cell lines Leandro A. Loss ?1 , Angurajof breast cancer cell lines for the study of functionallyof 45 breast cancer cell lines, which is widely used in the

Loss, Leandro A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

Help Line  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Help Line Help Line Ombuds Help Line Committed to the fair and equitable treatment of all employees, contractors, and persons doing business with the Laboratory. Contact Ombuds Office (505)665-2837 Email Help Line (505) 667-9370 Fax (505) 667-3119 Map & Hours Help Line: (505) 667-9370 As an option to visiting the Ombuds office, we provide service through a telephone Help Line and email. The telephone Help Line is useful for individuals who have concerns and want advice or referral while preserving confidentiality and anonymity. Callers may remain anonymous and the Help Line does not have caller ID or other methods of identifying callers. The Help Line maintains the same level of confidentiality and neutrality as the other Ombuds services. The Ombuds Help Line is not for reporting emergencies or officially

84

Optimal Placement of Wind Power Plants for Delivery Loss Minimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this chapter we investigate how to minimize power delivery losses in the distribution system on ... We show that strategically placing and utilizing new wind power plants can lead to significant loss reduction...

Masoud Honarvar Nazari

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

STAFF PAPER A Review of Transmission Losses in  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electricity Analysis Office Electricity Supply Analysis Division California Energy Commission and distribution loss values in planning studies. In this effort, staff analyzed data, researched literature STAFF PAPER A Review of Transmission Losses in Planning Studies Lana Wong

86

Loan Loss Reserve Agreement  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Loan Loss Reserve Agreement, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

87

Memory Loss Chapter 6  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Part II Memory Loss 129 #12;#12;Chapter 6 Generalized Conditionalization Up to this point we have to help CLF model two types of certainty-loss stories: stories in- volving memory loss and stories-sensitivity, (PEP) does almost no work in modeling stories involving memory loss. So we will proceed in stages: We

Fitelson, Branden

88

Analysis of interconnect microstrip lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

System C. Dyadic Green's Functions 1. TM and TE Decomposition 2. Transmission-Line Green's Functions . NUiVIERICAL PROCEDURES . A. Basis functions and testing procedure . 1. Interconnect of Microstrip Lines 2. Slot-Coupled Microstrip Dipole . 3... data of return loss on the 20 GHz slot-coupled rect- angular patch antenna. . FIG URE Pa. ge 28 Typical transmission line section containing a 1A current source. . . 68 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Many studies on slot-coupled microstrip antennas have...

Luong, Giam-Minh

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

89

Improvement of LNG production technology in gas-distribution stations with an increased content of carbon dioxide in supply-line gas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility is considered of reducing the weight of absorbent in a carbon dioxide gas cleaning system during liquefied natural gas production in gas-distribution stations (due to use of a pressure drop ... is...

S. P. Gorbachev; S. V. Lyugai

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

No compelling evidence of distributed production of CO in Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) from millimeter interferometric data and a re-analysis of near-IR lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on long-slit infrared spectroscopic observations, it has been suggested that half of the carbon monoxide present in the atmosphere of Comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) close to perihelion was released by a distributed source in the coma, whose nature (dust or gas) remains unidentified. We re-assess the origin of CO in Hale-Bopp’s coma from millimeter interferometric data and a re-analysis of the IR lines. Simultaneous observations of the CO J(1–0) (115 GHz) and J(2–1) (230 GHz) lines were undertaken with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer in single-dish and interferometric modes. The diversity of angular resolutions (from 1700 to 42,000 km diameter at the comet) is suitable to study the radial distribution of CO and detect the extended source observed in the infrared. We used excitation and radiative transfer models to simulate the single-dish and interferometric data. Various CO density distributions were considered, including 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical simulations which reproduce temporal variations caused by the presence of a CO rotating jet. The CO J(1–0) and J(2–1) observations can be consistently explained by a nuclear production of CO. Composite 50:50 nuclear/extended productions with characteristic scale lengths of CO parent Lp > 1500 km are rejected. Based on similar radiation transfer calculations, we show that the CO v = 1–0 ro-vibrational lines observed in Comet Hale-Bopp at heliocentric distances less than 1.5 AU are severely optically thick. The broad extent of the CO brightness distribution in the infrared is mainly due to optical depth effects entering in the emitted radiation. Additional factors can be found in the complex structure of the CO coma, and non-ideal slit positioning caused by the anisotropy of dust IR emission. We conclude that both CO millimeter and infrared lines do not provide compelling evidence for a distributed source of CO in Hale-Bopp’s atmosphere.

Dominique Bockelée-Morvan; Jérémie Boissier; Nicolas Biver; Jacques Crovisier

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

No compelling evidence of distributed production of CO in comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) from millimeter interferometric data and a reanalysis of near-IR lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Based on long-slit infrared spectroscopic observations, it has been suggested that half of the carbon monoxide present in the atmosphere of comet C/1995 O1 (Hale-Bopp) close to perihelion was released by a distributed source in the coma, whose nature (dust or gas) remains unidentified. We re-assess the origin of CO in Hale-Bopp's coma from millimeter interferometric data and a re-analysis of the IR lines. Simultaneous observations of the CO J(1-0) (115 GHz) and J(2-1) (230 GHz) lines were undertaken with the IRAM interferometer in single-dish and interferometric modes. The diversity of angular resolutions (from 1700 to 42000 km diameter at the comet) is suitable to study the radial distribution of CO and detect the extended source observed in the infrared. We used excitation and radiative transfer models to simulate the observations. Various CO density distributions were considered, including 3D time-dependent hydrodynamical simulations which reproduce a CO rotating jet. The CO J(1-0) and J(2-1) observations ...

Bockelée-Morvan, D; Biver, N; Crovisier, J

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Nonlinear DSTATCOM controller design for distribution network with distributed generation to enhance voltage stability  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nonlinear DSTATCOM controller design for distribution network with distributed generation Accepted 19 June 2013 Keywords: Distributed generation Distribution network DSATACOM Partial feedback connected to a distribution network with distributed generation (DG) to regulate the line voltage

Pota, Himanshu Roy

93

Uncertainty in unprotected loss-of-heat-sink, loss-of-flow, and transient-overpower accidents.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The sensitivities of various output parameters to selected input parameters in unprotected combined loss of heat-sink and loss-of-flow (ULOHS), loss-of-flow (ULOF), and transient-overpower (UTOP) accidents are explored in this report. This line of investigation was suggested by R. A. Wigeland. For an initial examination of potential sensitivities, the MATWS computer program has been compiled as part of a dynamic link library (DLL) so that uncertain input parameters can be sampled from their probability distributions using the GoldSim simulation software. The MATWS program combines the point-kinetics module from the SAS4A/SASSYS computer code with a simplified representation of the reactor heat removal system. Coupling with the GoldSim software by means of a DLL not only provides a convenient mechanism for sampling the stochastic input parameters but also allows the use of various tools that are available in GoldSim for analyzing the dependence of various MATWS outputs on these parameters. Should a decision be made to continue this investigation, the techniques used to couple MATWS and GoldSim could also be applied to couple the SAS4A/SASSYS computer code with GoldSim. The work described here illustrates the type of results that can be obtained from the stochastic analysis.

Morris, E. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division

2007-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

94

Stress Alters Rates and Types of Loss of Heterozygosity in Candida albicans  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction...Types of Loss of Heterozygosity...stress, heat stress...1999. The distribution of rates...1985. Heat shock induces chromosome loss in the yeast...1949. The distribution of the numbers...types of loss of heterozygosity...stress, heat stress...

A. Forche; D. Abbey; T. Pisithkul; M. A. Weinzierl; T. Ringstrom; D. Bruck; K. Petersen; J. Berman

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Effective collision strengths for excitation and de-excitation of nebular [O III] optical and infrared lines with kappa distributed electron energies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present effective collision strengths for electron excitation and de-excitation of the ten forbidden transitions between the five lowest energy levels of the astronomically abundant doubly-ionised oxygen ion, O^{2+}. The raw collision strength data were obtained from an R-matrix intermediate coupling calculation using the Breit-Pauli relativistic approximation published previously by the authors. The effective collision strengths were calculated with kappa-distributed electron energies and are tabulated as a function of the electron temperature and kappa.

Storey, P J

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Microsoft Word - Completion of an Evalution of Impact of Loss...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

an Evaluation of the Impact of the Loss of Two Hydrogen and Methane Monitoring Sampling Lines Dear Mr. Bearzi: As required under Permit Condition IV.F.5.e, the Permittees are...

97

Hybrid Time Formulation for Diesel Blending and Distribution Scheduling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hybrid Time Formulation for Diesel Blending and Distribution Scheduling ... Schematic of diesel in-line blending and distribution infrastructure. ...

Sérgio M. S. Neiro; Valéria V. Murata; José M. Pinto

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

98

First detection of rotational CO line emission in an RGB star  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Context: For stars with initial masses below about 1 solar mass, the mass loss during the first red giant branch (RGB) phase dominates mass loss in the later asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase. Nevertheless, mass loss on the RGB is still often parameterised by a simple Reimers law in stellar evolution models. Aims: To try to detect CO thermal emission in a small sample of nearby RGB stars with reliable Hipparcos parallaxes that were shown to have infrared excess in an earlier paper. Methods: A sample of five stars was observed in the CO J=2-1 and J=3-2 lines with the IRAM and APEX telescopes. Results: One star, the one with the largest mass-loss rate based on the previous analysis of the spectral energy distribution, was detected. The expansion velocity is unexpectedly large at 12 km/s. The line profile and intensity are compared to the predictions from a molecular line emission code. The standard model predicts a double-peaked profile, while the observations indicate a flatter profile. A model that does fit...

Groenewegen, M A T

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Muehrcke's Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Figure 1. A 46-year-old woman with metastatic sarcoma who had been treated with five cycles of doxorubicin, ifosfamide, and mesna chemotherapy presented with two symmetrical, horizontal white lines on all of her fingernails but not on her toenails. A diagnosis of ...

Morrison-Bryant M.; Gradon J.D.

2007-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

100

Beau's Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Figure 1. A 62-year-old woman received six cycles of docetaxel chemotherapy during a six-month period for recurrent metastatic breast cancer. She had completed treatment four weeks before this photograph was taken. Six evenly spaced, transverse lines were noted on ...

Mortimer N.J.; Mills J.

2004-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.

Lo, Hoi-Kwong (1309, Low Block, Lei Moon House Ap Lei Chau Estate, Hong Kong, HK); Chau, Hoi Fung (Flat C, 42nd Floor, Tower 1, University Heights 23 Pokfield Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, HK)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Wolf-Rayet Mass-Loss Limits Due to Frequency Redistribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The hypothesis that CAK-type line driving is responsible for the large observed Wolf-Rayet (W-R) mass-loss rates has been called into question in recent theoretical studies. The purpose of this paper is to reconsider the plausibility of line driving of W-R winds within the standard approach using the Sobolev approximation while advancing the conceptual understanding of this topic. Due to the multiple scattering required in this context, of particular importance is the role of photon frequency redistribution into spectral gaps, which in the extreme limit yields the statistical Sobolev-Rosseland (SSR) mean approximation. Interesting limits to constrain are the extremes of no frequency redistribution, wherein the small radii and corresponding high W-R surface temperature induces up to twice the mass-loss rate relative to cooler stars, and the SSR limit, whereby the reduced efficiency of the driving drops the mass flux by as much as an order of magnitude whenever there exist significant gaps in the spectral line distribution. To see how this efficiency drop might be sufficiently avoided to permit high W-R mass loss, we explore the suggestion that ionization stratification may serve to fill the gaps globally over the wind. We find that global ionization changes can only fill the gaps sufficiently to cause about a 25% increase in the mass-loss rate over the local SSR limit. Higher temperatures and more ionization states (especially of iron) may be needed to achieve optically thick W-R winds, unless strong clumping corrections eliminate the need for such winds.

Andrew J. Onifer; Kenneth G. Gayley

2005-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

103

BEAM LINE  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

BEAM LINE BEAM LINE 45 W ILHELM ROENTGEN'S INITIAL DISCOVERY of X-radiation in 1895 led immediately to practical applications in medicine. Over the next few decades X rays proved to be an invaluable tool for the investigation of the micro-world of the atom and the development of the quantum theory of matter. Almost a century later, telescopes designed to detect X-radiation are indispensable for understanding the structure and evolution of the macro-world of stars, galaxies, and the Universe as a whole. The X-Ray Universe by WALLACE H. TUCKER X-ray images of the Universe are strikingly different from the usual visible-light images. 46 SUMMER 1995 did not think: I investigated." Undeterred by NASA's rejection of a proposal to search for cosmic X-radiation, Giacconi persuaded the

104

The Price of Synchrony: Resistive Losses due to Phase Synchronization in Power Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the total resistive losses incurred in returning a power network of identical generators to a synchronous state following a transient stability event or in maintaining this state in the presence of persistent stochastic disturbances. We formulate this cost as the input-output $H^2$ norm of a linear dynamical system with distributed disturbances. We derive an expression for the total resistive losses that scales with the size of the network as well as properties of the generators and power lines, but is independent of the network topology. This topologically invariant scaling of what we term the price of synchrony is in contrast to typical power system stability notions like rate of convergence or the region of attraction for rotor-angle stability. Our result indicates that highly connected power networks, whilst desirable for higher phase synchrony, do not offer an advantage in terms of the total resistive power losses needed to achieve this synchrony. Furthermore, if power flow is the mechanism used to achieve synchrony in highly-distributed-generation networks, the cost increases unboundedly with the number of generators.

Bassam Bamieh; Dennice F. Gayme

2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

105

Independents' group posts loss  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low oil gas prices and special charges caused the group of 50 U.S. independent producers Oil and Gas Journal tracks to post a combined loss in first half 1992. The group logged a net loss of $53 million in the first half compared with net earnings of $354 million in first half 1991, when higher oil prices during the Persian Gulf crisis buoyed earnings in spite of crude oil and natural gas production declines. The combined loss in the first half follows a 45% drop in the group's earnings in 1991 and compares with the OGJ group of integrated oil companies whose first half 1992 income fell 47% from the prior year. Special charges, generally related to asset writedowns, accounted for most of the almost $560 million in losses posted by about the third of the group. Nerco Oil and Gas Inc., Vancouver, Wash., alone accounted for almost half that total with charges related to an asset writedown of $238 million in the first quarter. Despite the poor first half performance, the outlook is bright for sharply improved group earnings in the second half, assuming reasonably healthy oil and gas prices and increased production resulting from acquisitions and in response to those prices.

Sanders, V.; Price, R.B.

1992-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

106

Catalogue of a Loss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Catalogue of a Loss is a collection of sixty-two prose poems written within the past year and half. The work is printed on 4x6 cards. Each poem may be read individually from a single card or the poems can be read in ...

Berger, Larisa (Larisa A.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Soil loss: An overview  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The earth's soil budget is analysed and the causes of loss and degeneration are described. The main efforts to solve the problems of soil los should be concentrated on: 1. (i) the preparation of international guidelines for conservation policy; 2. (ii) declaration of an International Soil Conservation Decade; 3. (iii) acceleration of and support for land assessment; 4. (iv) development of national planning for alternative land uses; 5. (v) research to establish ecologically sound policies for land use and conservation.

V.A. Kovda

1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Ionisation Chambers for the LHC Beam Loss Detection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) a beam loss system will be used to prevent and protect superconducting magnets against coil quenches and coil damages. Since the stored particle beam intensity is 8 orders of magnitude larger than the lowest quench level value particular attention is paid to the design of the secondary particle shower detectors. The foreseen ionisation chambers are optimised in geometry simulating the probable loss distribution along the magnets and convoluting the loss distribution with the secondary particle shower distributions. To reach the appropriate coverage of a particle loss and to determine the quench levels with a relative accuracy of 2 the number of the detectors and their lengths is weighted against the particle intensity density variation. In addition attention is paid to the electrical ionisation chamber signal to minimise the ion tail extension. This optimisation is based on time resolved test measurements in the PS booster. A proposal for a new ionisation chamber will be pre...

Gschwendtner, E; Dehning, B; Ferioli, G; Kain, V

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Symmetric generalized binomial distributions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In two recent articles, we have examined a generalization of the binomial distribution associated with a sequence of positive numbers, involving asymmetric expressions of probabilities that break the symmetry win-loss. We present in this article another generalization (always associated with a sequence of positive numbers) that preserves the symmetry win-loss. This approach is also based on generating functions and presents constraints of non-negativeness, similar to those encountered in our previous articles.

Bergeron, H. [Univ Paris-Sud, ISMO, UMR 8214, 91405 Orsay (France)] [Univ Paris-Sud, ISMO, UMR 8214, 91405 Orsay (France); Curado, E. M. F. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia - Sistemas Complexos, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Gazeau, J. P. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); APC, UMR 7164, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 75205 Paris (France); Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S., E-mail: herve.bergeron@u-psud.fr, E-mail: evaldo@cbpf.br, E-mail: gazeau@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: ligia@cbpf.br [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

E-Print Network 3.0 - automate on-line sample Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

"On-line Telephone-Bill Payment System... HMI" "Security System Simulator" "Performance Comparison of Distributed Computing Models" "On-line... " "Simulation of How Many Users...

111

FRIB cryogenic distribution system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly D. [JLAB; Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Knudsen, Peter N. [JLAB; Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB; Barrios, Matthew N. [Michigan State; Jones, S. [Michigan State; Johnson, M. [Michigan State; Casagrande, Fabio [Michigan State

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

FRIB cryogenic distribution system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

113

Distributed Algorithms Distributed Transactions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Algorithms© Gero Mühl 8 Concurrency Control serial RC (ReCoverable) ACA (Avoiding Cascading Aborts) ST (StricDistributed Algorithms Distributed Transactions PD Dr.-Ing. Gero Mühl Kommunikations- und Betriebssysteme Fakultät für Elektrotechnik u. Informatik Technische Universität Berlin #12;Distributed Algorithms

Wichmann, Felix

114

Radio-Frequency Inverters With Transmission-Line Input Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A soft-switching inverter topology (the Class Phi ) is presented which draws dc source current through a transmission line or a lumped-network approximation of a distributed line. By aligning the inverter switching frequency ...

Phinney, Joshua W.

115

The Transport of LNG by Pipe Lines: Technical and Economic Aspects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been suggested [1...] that natural gas pipe lines may be replaced by special pipe lines carrying LNG. By almost completely eliminating the recompression losses ... It will be shown that the transportation ...

E. Carbonell; J. Y. Guerin; P. Solente

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Parallel Lines II: Construction of Parallel Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Situations are frequently encountered in which two lines, determined by linear regression, are theoretically...m 1 and m 2.

Ronald J. Tallarida Ph. D.; Rodney B. Murray Ph. D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

Sandusky, John V. (Albuquerque, NM); Pitts, Todd Alan (Rio Rancho, NM)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

118

Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

Sandusky, John V. (Albuquerque, NM); Pitts, Todd Alan (Rio Rancho, NM)

2009-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

119

Rapid Loss of Stress Fibers in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells after Hyperthermia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...biological effects of heat and, in particular, heat radiosensitization. Rapid loss of stress fibers...degrees) on the distribution of actin stress...35), and the loss of stress fibers...changes in ion distribution in response to heat could lead to...

James R. Glass; Robert G. DeWitt; and Anne E. Cress

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Construction of Central Ferry-Lower Monumental Transmission Line...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

power line capabilities include transmission, overhead and underground distribution and substation projects. BPA also will be holding two "Meet the Builder" open-houses in late...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

122

Loan Loss Reserve Funds Webinars  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Provides a listing of past L loan loss reserve fund webinars and associated files. Author: U. S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy

123

Loss of High-Energy Phosphate following Hyperthermia Demonstrated by in Vivo 31P-Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...even after substantial heat exposure. An obvious...discrepancy is that the loss of high-energy phos...correlation between loss of ATP, cell kill, and heat dose, when compared...Inhomogenous heat distribution, variable metabolic...

Michael B. Lilly; Thian C. Ng; William T. Evanochko; Charles R. Katholi; Narinder G. Kumar; Gabriel A. Elgavish; John R. Durant; Raymond Hiramoto; Vithal Ghanta; and Jerry D. Glickson

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

124

Definition: Transmission Line | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Line Line (Redirected from Definition:Transmission lines) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Transmission Line A system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power system. Lines are operated at relatively high voltages varying from 69 kV up to 765 kV, and are capable of transmitting large quantities of electricity over long distances.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition An overhead power line, also known as a "pylon" in some areas, is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy along large distances. It consists of one or more conductors (most often three or four) suspended by towers or utility poles. Since most of the insulation is provided by air, overhead power lines are

125

Fusion-product transport in axisymmetric tokamaks: losses and thermalization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-energy fusion-product losses from an axisymmetric tokamak plasma are studied. Prompt-escape loss fluxes (i.e. prior to slowing down) are calculated including the non-separable dependence of flux as a function of poloidal angle and local angle-of-incidence at the first wall. Fusion-product (fp) thermalization and heating are calculated assuming classical slowing down. The present analytical model describes fast ion orbits and their distribution function in realistic, high-..beta.., non-circular tokamak equilibria. First-orbit losses, trapping effects, and slowing-down drifts are also treated.

Hively, L.M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

MHD Induced Neutral Beam Ion Loss from NSTX Plasmas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Bursts of ~60 kHz activity on Mirnov coils occur frequently in NSTX plasmas and these are accompanied by bursts of neutral beam ion loss over a range in pitch angles. These losses have been measured with a scintillator type loss probe imaged with a high speed (>10,000 frames/s) video camera, giving the evolution of the energy and pitch angle distributions of the lost neutral beam ions over the course of the events. The instability occurs below the TAE frequency in NSTX (~100 kHz) in high beta plasmas and may be a beta driven Alfvén acoustic (BAAE) mode.

D.S. Darrow, E.D. Fredrickson, N.N. Gorelenkov, A.L. Roquemore, and K. Shinohara

2007-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

127

Poly (lactide-co-glycolide) acid nanoencapsulation of a synthetic coumarin: Cytotoxicity and bio-distribution in mice, in cancer cell line and interaction with calf thymus DNA as target  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several naturally occurring coumarin compounds, including scopoletin (7 hydroxy-6 methoxycoumarin), of plant origin have been reported to have anti-cancer potentials. A related but chemically synthesized coumarin, 4-methyl-7-hydroxy coumarin (SC), was also shown to have similar anti-cancer potentials. In the present study, to test if nano-encapsulated SC could be a more potent anti-cancer agent, we encapsulated SC with poly lactide-co-glycolide acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (Nano Coumarin; NC) and tested its potentials with a variety of protocols. NC demonstrated greater efficiency of drug uptake and showed anti-cancer potentials in melanoma cell line A375, as revealed from scanning electronic and atomic force microscopies. To test its possible interaction with target DNA, the combined data of circular dichroism spectra (CD) and melting temperature profile (T{sub m}) of calf thymus DNA treated with NC were analyzed. Results indicated a concentration dependent interaction of NC with calf thymus DNA, bringing in effective change in structure and conformation, and forming a new complex that increased its stability. Particle size and morphology of NC determined through polydispersity index and zeta potential using dynamic light scattering qualified NC to be a more potent anti-cancer agent than SC. Further, SC and NC showed negligible cytotoxic effects on normal skin cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of mice. Distribution assay of PLGA nanoparticles in different tissues like brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, and spleen in mice revealed the presence of nanoparticles in different tissues including brain, indicating that the particles could cross the blood brain barrier, significant information for drug design. - Graphical abstract: Nanoencapsulated coumarin (NC) were characterized for their size and morphology by scanning electron (SEM) and atomic force microscopies (AFM).The physical interaction of the NC with calf thymus DNA was studied through circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, using UV-visible titration and thermal denaturation studies. NC had a concentration dependent interaction with calf thymus DNA, could form a new complex with double helical DNA, increased the T{sub m} value and altered CD spectra of DNA and showed stronger anti-cancer effect than synthetic coumarin. Display Omitted Research Highlights: > Strategy for PLGA nano-encapsulation of a bioactive synthetic coumarin, 4 methyl 7 hydroxy coumarin (SC) is formulated. > Anti-cancer potentials of nano-encapsulated SC (NC) are evaluated in skin papilloma cells A375 through standard protocols. > Data of CD and Tm indicate concentration dependent interactions of NC bringing conformational changes in target DNA. > Particle size of NC and physico-chemical interactions with target DNA show NC as a more potent anti-cancer drug than SC. > NC has less cytotoxic effects, and can cross the blood brain barrier - important features for strategic drug design.

Bhattacharyya, Soumya Sundar; Paul, Saili; De, Arnab; Das, Durba; Samadder, Asmita [Cytogenetyics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235 (India); Boujedaini, Naoual [Boiron Laboratories, Lyon (France); Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman, E-mail: prof_arkb@yahoo.co.in [Cytogenetyics and Molecular Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani-741235 (India)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

128

World offshore energy loss statistics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Offshore operations present a unique set of environmental conditions and adverse exposure not observed in a land environment taking place in a confined space in a hostile environment under the constant danger of catastrophe and loss. It is possible to engineer some risks to a very low threshold of probability, but losses and unforeseen events can never be entirely eliminated because of cost considerations, the human factor, and environmental uncertainty. Risk events occur infrequently but have the potential of generating large losses, as evident by the 2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico, which was the most destructive and costliest natural disaster in the history of offshore production. The purpose of this paper is to provide a statistical assessment of energy losses in offshore basins using the Willis Energy Loss database. A description of the loss categories and causes of property damage are provided, followed by a statistical assessment of damage and loss broken out by region, cause, and loss category for the time horizon 1970–2004. The impact of the 2004–2005 hurricane season in the Gulf of Mexico is summarized.

Mark J. Kaiser

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Energy Loss in Nuclear Drell-Yan Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By means of the nuclear parton distributions which can be used to provide a good explanation for the EMC effect in the whole x range, we investigate the energy loss effect in nuclear Drell-Yan process. When the cross section of lepton pair production is considered varying with the center-of-mass energy of the nucleon-nucleon collision, we find that the nuclear Drell-Yan(DY) ratio is suppressed due to the energy loss, which balances the overestimate of the DY ratio only in consideration of the effect of nuclear parton distributions.

Jian-Jun Yang; Guang-Lie Li

1998-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

130

Alternating Current Loss of Strip Arrays as a Model for Resistive Fault Current Limiters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Hysteretic alternating current (ac) loss P...in arrays of superconducting strip lines are calculated on the bases of the critical state model. For a simplified model of a film-type fault current limiter, we consi...

Yasunori Mawatari; Hirofumi Yamasaki

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

The feasibility of replacing or upgrading utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is estimated that electric utilities use about 40 million distribution transformers in supplying electricity to customers in the United States. Although utility distribution transformers collectively have a high average efficiency, they account for approximately 61 billion kWh of the 229 billion kWh of energy lost annually in the delivery of electricity. Distribution transformers are being replaced over time by new, more efficient, lower-loss units during routine utility maintenance of power distribution systems. Maintenance is typically not performed on units in service. However, units removed from service with appreciable remaining life are often refurbished and returned to stock. Distribution transformers may be removed from service for many reasons, including failure, over- or underloading, or line upgrades such as voltage changes or rerouting. When distribution transformers are removed from service, a decision must be made whether to dispose of the transformer and purchase a lower-loss replacement or to refurbish the transformer and return it to stock for future use. This report contains findings and recommendations on replacing utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance, which is required by section 124(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the practicability, cost-effectiveness, and potential energy savings of replacing or upgrading existing transformers during routine utility maintenance and to develop recommendations on was to achieve the potential energy savings.

Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Cohn, S.M.; Purucker, S.L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Improvements in the computation of balances and localization of commercial losses of electric energy in 0.38-kV networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An example of four 0.38-kV overhead distribution lines fed from a 10/0.4-kV transformer substation of the Grodno Electrical Networks (Belarus') and supplying electricity to a cottage area is used for analyzing energy balances and commercial losses in the networks. It is shown that the reliability of such analysis can be ensured by the use of modern software and electronic energy meters recording a retrospective of half-hourly intervals of active and reactive electric energy.

Vorotnitskii, V. Z.; Zaslonov, S. V.; Lysyuk, S. S. [Electric Power Research Institute (VNIIE) (Russian Federation)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Rapid Spatial Distribution Seismic Loss Analysis for Multistory Buildings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Tall building frames that respond to large seismic ground motions tend to have significant spatial variability of damage over their height, often with a concentration of that damage in the lower stories. In spite of this spatial variability...

Deshmukh, Pankaj Bhagvatrao

2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

134

A study of pressure losses in residential air distribution systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the pressure drop characteristics of residential duct system components that are either not available or not thoroughly (sometimes incorrectly) described in existing duct design literature. The tests were designed to imitate cases normally found in typical residential and light commercial installations. The study included three different sizes of flexible ducts, under different compression configurations, splitter boxes, supply boots, and a fresh air intake hood. The experimental tests conformed to ASHRAE Standard 120P--''Methods of Testing to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings''. The flexible duct study covered compressibility and bending effects on the total pressure drop, and the results showed that the available published references tend to underestimate the effects of compression in flexible ducts that can increase pressure drops by up to a factor of nine. The supply boots were tested under different configurations including a setup where a flexible duct elbow connection was considered as an integral part of the supply boot. The supply boots results showed that diffusers can increase the pressure drop by up to a factor of two in exit fittings, and the installation configuration can increase the pressure drop by up to a factor of five. The results showed that it is crucial for designers and contractors to be aware of the compressibility effects of the flexible duct, and the installation of supply boots and diffusers.

Abushakra, Bass; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Definition: Transmission Line | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Transmission Line Transmission Line Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Transmission Line A system of structures, wires, insulators and associated hardware that carry electric energy from one point to another in an electric power system. Lines are operated at relatively high voltages varying from 69 kV up to 765 kV, and are capable of transmitting large quantities of electricity over long distances.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition An overhead power line, also known as a "pylon" in some areas, is a structure used in electric power transmission and distribution to transmit electrical energy along large distances. It consists of one or more conductors (most often three or four) suspended by towers or utility poles. Since most of the insulation is provided by air, overhead power lines are

136

GRIEF AND LOSS COUNSELLING AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LEARN TO UNDERSTAND GRIEF AND LOSS COUNSELLING AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SERVICES (CAPS) #12;The death be tired with no energy or feel sick in the stomach and have headaches. People experiencing grief after

Viglas, Anastasios

137

Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This revised ITP tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

Not Available

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Turbine tip clearance loss mechanisms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three-dimensional numerical simulations (RANS and URANS) were used to assess the impact of two specific design features, and of aspects of the actual turbine environment, on turbine blade tip loss. The calculations were ...

Mazur, Steven (Steven Andrew)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Loss-Free Pricing Rules  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This chapter provides an application of the pricing rule approach to the analysis of unregulated market economies with non-convex production sets. Loss-free pricing rules provide a natural framework for this a...

Prof. Dr. Antonio Villar

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Distributed Energy Systems in California's Future: A Preliminary Report Volume 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to minimize heat losses in distribution, The question inheat systems (100 to 200 km per quad per year, based on dry steam from the Geyser-sand neglecting distribution losses;

Balderston, F.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Distribution capacitor automation that controls voltage and saves energy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Electric Distribution Business Line of Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has begun a program to improve the distribution system operations and electrical efficiency. The program, called the Distribution System Efficiency Enhancement Program (DSEEP), consists of five principal projects: Automated Switching, Circuit Lock-Out Alarming, Substation Monitoring and Control, Outage Management, and Distribution Capacitor Automation Project (DCAP). DCAP is the largest and most sophisticated of the projects being implemented. The project takes advantage of fine-tuning customer voltages for conservation voltage regulation (CVR) benefits as well as minimizes line losses by reducing unnecessary reactive power flow. DCAP can also help to increase transmission line and substation capacity by improving system power factor. The DCAP system takes advantage of the distributed processing capability of meters, capacitor controllers, radios, and substation processors. DCAP uses two-way packet radios and new electronic meters that read real-time customer voltages as well as energy consumption. The radios transmit customer meter voltage information and capacitor status to substation processors, where a control algorithm runs to determine which capacitors should be turned on or off. The objective of DCAP is to reduce over-all net energy transfer from the substation to the customer and meet system VAR requirements. SCE has tested the system on 66 circuit capacitors (including 3 substation capacitors) on 18 circuits served from two substations. The positive results of the DCAP demonstrations has led to an aggressive roll-out plan for system-wide implementation of automating over 7600 switched capacitors by year-end 1995.

Williams, B.R.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

142

Distributed Generation and Grid Interconnection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thus far we have considered point compensation and the correction of the voltage or current at a particular location in the network. This chapter considers the voltage profile of lines with distributed loads a...

Arindam Ghosh; Gerard Ledwich

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Shunt current loss of the vanadium redox flow battery  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The shunt current loss is one of main factors to affect the performance of the vanadium redox flow battery, which will shorten the cycle life and decrease the energy transfer efficiency. In this paper, a stack-level model based on the circuit analog method is proposed to research the shunt current loss of the vanadium redox flow battery, in which the SOC (state of charge) of electrolyte is introduced. The distribution of shunt current is described in detail. The sensitive analysis of shunt current is reported. The shunt current loss in charge/discharge cycle is predicted with the given experimental data. The effect of charge/discharge pattern on the shunt current loss is studied. The result shows that the reduction of the number of single cells in series, the decrease of the resistances of manifold and channel and the increase of the power of single cell will be the further development for the VRFB stack.

Feng Xing; Huamin Zhang; Xiangkun Ma

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

144

Damping of bending waves in truss beams by electrical transmission lines with PZT actuators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Damping of bending waves in truss beams by electrical transmission lines with PZT actuators F. dell of the truss beam with an electrical transmission line by a line distribution of PZT actuators. It has been-order transmission line, and that such a line is not suitable to damp bending waves. In the present paper, we propose

Boyer, Edmond

145

Mass loss in main-sequence B stars  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate radiatively driven wind models of main-sequence B stars and provide the wind mass-loss rates and terminal velocities. The main-sequence mass-loss rate strongly depends on the stellar effective temperature. For the hottest B stars the mass-loss rate amounts to $10^{-9}\\,\\text{M}_\\odot\\,\\text{year}^{-1}$, while for the cooler ones the mass-loss rate is by more than three orders of magnitude lower. Main sequence B stars with solar abundance and effective temperatures lower than about $15\\,000\\,\\text{K}$ (later than the spectral type B5) do not have any homogeneous line-driven wind. We predict the wind mass-loss rates for the solar chemical composition and for modified abundance of heavier elements to study the winds of chemically peculiar stars. The mass-loss rate may both increase or decrease with increasing abundance depending on the importance of the induced emergent flux redistribution. Stars with overabundant silicon may have homogeneous winds even below the solar abundance wind limit at $15\\,0...

Krticka, Jiri

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

NREL: Learning - Distributed Energy Basics  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Distributed Energy Basics Distributed Energy Basics Photo of transmission towers and lines extending for miles towards a pink sunset in the distance. Distributed energy technologies can relieve transmission bottlenecks by reducing the amount of electricity that must be sent long distances down high-voltage power lines. Distributed energy refers to a variety of small, modular power-generating technologies that can be combined with load management and energy storage systems to improve the quality and/or reliability of the electricity supply. They are "distributed" because they are placed at or near the point of energy consumption, unlike traditional "centralized" systems, where electricity is generated at a remotely located, large-scale power plant and then transmitted down power lines to the consumer.

147

Distribution and Correlation of Events During Thermal Inactivation of Bacillus megaterium Spores  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...a normal distribution of resistances...suggested loss of ability...viability during heat inactivation...examined the distribution of heat re- sistances...heat-induced loss of DPA and...interest was heat sterilization...log-normal distribution of resistances...the initial loss in viability...

Hillel S. Levinson; Mildred T. Hyatt

1971-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

North Australian Cloud Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A satellite classification and climatology of propagating mesoscale cloud fines in northern Australia is presented. These cloud fines range from long, narrow lines of shallow convection to extensive deep convective squall lines with mesoscale ...

W. Drosdowsky; G. J. Holland

1987-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Efficiency loss in resource allocation games  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The overarching goals of this thesis are to quantify the efficiency loss due to market participant strategic behavior, and to design proper pricing mechanisms that reduce the efficiency loss. The concept of efficiency loss ...

Xu, Yunjian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Theoretical X-ray Line Profiles from Colliding Wind Binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present theoretical X-ray line profiles from a range of model colliding wind systems. In particular, we investigate the effects of varying the stellar mass-loss rates, the wind speeds, and the viewing orientation. We find that a wide range of theoretical line profile shapes is possible, varying with orbital inclination and phase. At or near conjunction, the lines have approximately Gaussian profiles, with small widths (HWHM ~ 0.1 v_infty) and definite blue- or redshifts (depending on whether the star with the weaker wind is in front or behind). When the system is viewed at quadrature, the lines are generally much broader (HWHM ~ v_infty), flat-topped and unshifted. Local absorption can have a major effect on the observed profiles - in systems with mass-loss rates of a few times 10^{-6} Msol/yr the lower energy lines (E wind of the primary. The orbital variation ...

Henley, D B; Pittard, J M

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Ductless Hydronic Distribution  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

DUCTLESS HYDRONIC DUCTLESS HYDRONIC DISTRIBUTION Alliance for Residential Building Innovation David Springer, Davis Energy Group Context  Target: Builders of high performance new homes & deep retrofits  Why is this technology key to meeting performance goals of future homes?  Distribution Efficiency * Distribution efficiency for well insulated, tight ducts in attics ≈ 85% * Duct energy losses drives placement of ducts inside conditioned space, which adds cost and interferes with structure and architecture * Ductless hydronic systems can approach 100% distribution efficiency; piping needs little space  Delivery Energy * Fans: 0.58 W/cfm or 9 (heating) to 27 (cooling) W/kBtuh * Pumps: 8 W/gpm, or 0.8 W/kBtuh Context  Sizing * Conventional systems tend to be too large for low load homes

152

Tax aspects of casualty losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Commissioner, P-H. h?emo. T. C. , ?ar. 50, 221. Termites. Termite damages have been allowed by some Courts as a casualty loss deduction, but the Internal Revenue Service prior to 1959 generally did not grant such deductions. However, in a recent Revenue... ruling the Internal Revenue: ervice indicated that it will follow 39 the decision of Buist v. United States. In the Revenue ruling the Service states that termite damage can be sudden and if sudden, it can result in a casualty loss. Also, the Service...

Lehmann, August Herman

1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Exergy Loss: A Basis for Energy Taxing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The paper introduces exergy loss or entropy added as a basis for energy taxing. Exergy loss will be shown to account objectively...

Gerard Hirs

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Vehicle Technologies Office: Parasitic Loss Reduction | Department...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

losses can account for an approximate 45% decrease in efficiency. Other sources of energy loss include: friction and wear in the power train, thermal (heat) loads, operation of...

155

Control of transformer losses in Canada  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new standard issued by the Canadian Standards Association, CSA C802, imposes maximum losses on transformers 10 MVA and below. Included are Distribution Transformers, small Power Transformers, and Dry Types. Implementation will start though the publishing in mid 1994 of the Gazette by Ontario`s Ministry of Energy. The Gazette will call for conformance to C802 after a lead time of one year to eighteen months, depending on the type of transformer. Other provincial energy ministries have been awaiting this development and are expected to follow suit shortly thereafter. The federal department, Natural Resources Canada, is also attuned to these actions and is expected to issue supportive legislation which will control movement of transformers across provincial and national borders.

Wiegand, D.A. [Canadian Standards Association, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

156

Energy Loss by Breaking waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Observations of the frequency of wind wave breaking in deep water are combined with laboratory estimates of the rate of energy loss a from single breaking wave to infer the net rate of energy transfer to the mixed layer from breaking waves, as a ...

S. A. Thorpe

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ELECTRON DEVICES, VOL. 53, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2006 235 De-Embedding Transmission Line Measurements for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of parasitic structures from transmission line measurements is presented and applied to microstrip lines technologies, integrated circuits, interconnect, losses, microstrip lines, slotted ground planes, transmission comparable to on-chip component dimensions. Hence, transmission lines play an in- creasingly vital role

Voinigescu, Sorin Petre

158

Modeling Methodology for Component Reuse and System Integration for Hurricane Loss Projection Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Modeling Methodology for Component Reuse and System Integration for Hurricane Loss Projection Distributed Multimedia Information System Laboratory School of Computing and Information Sciences Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199, USA 2 Department of Finance Florida International University, Miami

Chen, Shu-Ching

159

Water Loss Control Using Pressure Management: Life-cycle Energy and Air Emission Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Pressure management is one cost-effective and efficient strategy for controlling water distribution losses. This paper evaluates the life-cycle energy use and emissions for pressure management zones in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and Halifax, Nova Scotia. ...

Jennifer R. Stokes; Arpad Horvath; Reinhard Sturm

2013-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

160

Electricity Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High voltage (HV) distribution grids have nominal voltages of up ... the grid that connects distribution to the transmission substations and also supplies large industrial customers requiri...

Tomás Gómez

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Germ-line Allele  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Germ-line Allele Germ-line Allele Name: Rachel Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Can you please explain a "germ-line allele" to me! It is very important for a research paper I am writing about breast cancer. Replies: Mutations in genes are only able to be passed to the offspring if they are found in gametes (egg, sperm) mutations that occur in body cells other than gametes are usually not important because the cells can be replaced and they die eventually. The only way a characteristic can be passed to the offspring is through the eggs and sperm, so if there is a mutation in one these cells, the offspring can inherit the mutation. So a germ-line cell is a gamete. And a germ line allele is a version of the trait that is passed to the offspring through the germ line cell (or gamete).

162

A majorization-minimization approach to design of power distribution networks  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We consider optimization approaches to design cost-effective electrical networks for power distribution. This involves a trade-off between minimizing the power loss due to resistive heating of the lines and minimizing the construction cost (modeled by a linear cost in the number of lines plus a linear cost on the conductance of each line). We begin with a convex optimization method based on the paper 'Minimizing Effective Resistance of a Graph' [Ghosh, Boyd & Saberi]. However, this does not address the Alternating Current (AC) realm and the combinatorial aspect of adding/removing lines of the network. Hence, we consider a non-convex continuation method that imposes a concave cost of the conductance of each line thereby favoring sparser solutions. By varying a parameter of this penalty we extrapolate from the convex problem (with non-sparse solutions) to the combinatorial problem (with sparse solutions). This is used as a heuristic to find good solutions (local minima) of the non-convex problem. To perform the necessary non-convex optimization steps, we use the majorization-minimization algorithm that performs a sequence of convex optimizations obtained by iteratively linearizing the concave part of the objective. A number of examples are presented which suggest that the overall method is a good heuristic for network design. We also consider how to obtain sparse networks that are still robust against failures of lines and/or generators.

Johnson, Jason K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Nematostatics of triple lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Landau–de Gennes model for nematic liquid crystal bulk and interfaces has been extended to nematic triple lines involving the intersection of two isotropic fluids and one nematic liquid crystalline phase. A complete set of bulk, interface, and triple line force and torque balance equations has been formulated. The triple line force and torque balance equations have linear, interfacial, and bulk contributions. The bulk contributions appear as junction integrals, the surface contributions as junctions sums, and the line contributions as gradients of stresses. Reduction of dimensionality from three to one dimensional creates the following effects: (a) bulk terms enter interfacial balances as surface jumps and line balances as junction integrals, and (b) surface terms enter linear balances as junction sums. Line stress and torque equations are derived using classical liquid crystal models. The correspondence between line stress and line torque and their surface and bulk analogs is established. The triple line force and torque balance equations are use to analyze the contact angle in a nematic lens lying at the interface between two isotropic fluids, when the prefered surface orientation is tangential. The effect of anisotropy and long range elasticity on triple line phases is established. Under weak anchoring the contact angle is shown to be a function of the anchoring energy at the nematic-isotropic interface, while under strong anchoring conditions the contact angle is a function of the Peach-Koehler force that originates from bulk long range elasticity and acts on the triple line. The use of the complete set of balance equations removes the classical inconsistency in force balances at a contact line by properly taking into account long range (bulk gradient elasticity) and anisotropic (interfacial anchoring elasticity) effects.

Alejandro D. Rey

2003-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

164

Series Transmission Line Transformer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

165

Numerical study of heat loss from a non-evacuated receiver of a solar collector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Heat loss from receivers of solar collectors is a major reason for drop in their efficiency. Receiver pipes enclosed in glass tubes with evacuated annulus show considerable reduction in heat losses. However, manufacturing and maintenance costs for such receivers are high. An inexpensive alternative is a similar receiver with non-evacuated annulus. This paper presents a numerical study of heat loss from a non-evacuated receiver typically used in parabolic trough collectors, generating moderate temperatures and designed particularly for process heat applications. In order to come closer to the realistic situation, rather than assuming uniform temperature distribution on it, receiver pipe temperature has been assumed to be varying along the surface. Sinusoidal and square wave functions are employed in modeling, since actual temperature distributions on solar receiver pipes are combinations of these two functions. Main goal of the paper is to optimize the design of the non-evacuated solar receiver for minimum heat loss, by using CFD technique. Also effects on heat loss from receivers due to different parameters like average temperature (Ta) of the pipe, non-uniformity in the temperature (?) along its surface, hour angle (?), denoting position of the sun in the sky and radius ratio (RR) of radius of receiver pipe to that of outer glass tube have been studied. It is seen that as non-uniformity in temperature distribution increases in both types of temperature distribution, heat losses from receiver pipes decrease up to 10%. Also as hour angle increases from 0° to 90°, heat loss decreases by 20% in case of sinusoidal temperature distribution and 24% in case of square wave temperature distribution. The effect of radius ratio (RR) on heat loss has been studied. In present study, we found out that 1.375 is critical radius ratio for which heat losses from receiver are minimum

Ramchandra G. Patil; Dhanaji M. Kale; Sudhir V. Panse; Jyeshtharaj B. Joshi

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Geodesic Lines, . . . Covariant . . .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Geodesic Lines, . . . Covariant . . . Home Page Title Page Page 781 of 818 Go Back Full Screen Close Quit 14.11. Geodesic Lines, Local Gauss-Bonnet Theorem Geodesics play a very important role in surface theory and in dynamics. One of the main reasons why geodesics are so important

Gallier, Jean

167

Transmission Line Security Monitor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Transmission Line Security Monitor  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

None

2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

169

Linear Fresnel Collector Receiver: Heat Loss and Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract For design and component specification of a Linear Fresnel Collector (LFC) cavity receiver, the prediction of temperature distribution and heat loss is of great importance. In this paper we present a sensitivity analysis for a range of geometry and material parameters. For the LFC receiver analysis we use two models developed at Fraunhofer ISE. One is a detailed model, combining the spatial distribution of reflected radiation via ray tracing with detailed convective simulations through computational fluid dynamics. The second one is a fast algorithm based on a thermal resistance model. It is applying a similar methodology as the well-known model for vacuum absorber, enhancing an absorber tube model by parameters describing the influence of the secondary mirror and cover glass. The thermal resistance model is described in detail. Obtained results indicate a significant effect of the secondary mirror temperature on heat loss for specific geometries.

A. Heimsath; F. Cuevas; A. Hofer; P. Nitz; W.J. Platzer

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Radio frequency communication system utilizing radiating transmission lines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radio communication system for use in tunnels, mines, buildings or other shielded locations in which a pair of radiating transmission lines (30), (31) extend through such location in spaced coextensive relation to each other. Each transmission line (30), (31) has at least one unidirectional amplifier (32), (33) interposed therein with the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (32) of one transmission line (30) being opposite to the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (33) of the other transmission line (31). Each of the amplifiers (32), (33) has a gain which is less than the coupling loss between the transmission lines (30), (31). Two or more mobile transceivers (35) in the location served by the system are coupled to the transmission lines (30), (31) by electromagnetic wave propagation in space in order to communicate directly with each other at a given radio frequency within the frequency range of the system.

Struven, Warren C. (San Carlos, CA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Direct, Loss-Tolerant Characterization of Nonclassical Photon Statistics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We experimentally investigate a method of directly characterizing the photon-number distribution of nonclassical light beams that is tolerant to losses and makes use of only standard binary detectors. This is achieved in a single measurement by calibrating the detector using some small amount of prior information about the source. We demonstrate the technique on a freely propagating heralded two-photon-number state created by conditional detection of a two-mode squeezed state generated by parametric down-conversion.

Daryl Achilles; Christine Silberhorn; Ian A. Walmsley

2006-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

172

Intestinal distribution of Vibrio cholerae in orally infected infant mice: kinetics of recovery of radiolabel and viable cells.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Kinetics of distribution of Vibrio...569B and heat-killed...voluminous fluid loss from the...formed. The loss of radiolabel...AT, Plus heat-inactivated...INTESTINAL DISTRIBUTION OF V. CHOLERAE...51C-labeled, heat-killed...intestinal distribution of strains...external loss. However...

V S Baselski; C D Parker

1978-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Efficient Thermal Energy Distribution in Commercial Final Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy distribution. These include, but not limited to, 1) reducing thermal losses induced by air leakage through system components (i.e., duct, equipment), 2) decreasing thermal losses induced by heat conductionLBNL-41365 Efficient Thermal Energy Distribution in Commercial Buildings Final Report to California

174

Distribution of radiative crystal imperfections through a silicon ingot  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Crystal imperfections limit the efficiency of multicrystalline silicon solar cells. Recombination through traps is more prominent in areas with high density of crystal imperfections. A method to visualize the distribution of radiative emission from Shockley Read Hall recombination in silicon is demonstrated. We use hyperspectral photoluminescence, a fast non-destructive method, to image radiatively active recombination processes on a set of 50 wafers through a silicon block. The defect related emission lines D1 and D2 may be detected together or alone. The D3 and D4 seem to be correlated if we assume that an emission at the similar energy as D3 (VID3) is caused by a separate mechanism. The content of interstitial iron (Fe{sub i}) correlates with D4. This method yields a spectral map of the inter band gap transitions, which opens up for a new way to characterize mechanisms related to loss of efficiency for solar cells processed from the block.

Flø, A., E-mail: andreas.flo@umb.no; Burud, I.; Kvaal, K.; Olsen, E. [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Dept. Mathematical Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Ås (Norway)] [Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Dept. Mathematical Sciences and Technology, P.O. Box 5003, 1432 Ås (Norway); Søndenå, R. [Institute for Energy Technology, Department of Solar Energy, P.O. Box 40, 2027 Kjeller (Norway)] [Institute for Energy Technology, Department of Solar Energy, P.O. Box 40, 2027 Kjeller (Norway)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

175

On the potential distribution in Hall thrusters Michael Keidara)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by the magnetic field distribution in that the equi- potential contours tend to line up with the magnetic field lines. This stems from the fact that the electric field tends to be zero along magnetic field lines due temperature is also con- stant along the magnetic field line. Note that use of this as- sumption

176

Surviving Biodiversity Loss in the Amazon  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Surviving Biodiversity Loss in the Amazon You are what you eat, right down to the isotope ratios in your food April 1, 2014 Surviving Biodiversity Loss in the Amazon A Pipra...

177

Loss mechanisms in turbine tip clearance flows  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Numerical simulations of tip clearance ow have been carried out to dene the loss generation mechanisms associated with tip leakage in unshrouded axial turbines. Mix- ing loss between the leakage, which takes the form of a ...

Huang, Arthur (Arthur C.)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Continuous-variable quantum key distribution in non-Markovian channels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We address continuous-variable quantum key distribution (QKD) in non-Markovian lossy channels and show how the non-Markovian features may be exploited to enhance security and/or to detect the presence and the position of an eavesdropper along the transmission line. In particular, we suggest a coherent-state QKD protocol which is secure against Gaussian individual attacks based on optimal 1{yields}2 asymmetric cloning machines for arbitrarily low values of the overall transmission line. The scheme relies on specific non-Markovian properties, and cannot be implemented in ordinary Markovian channels characterized by uniform losses. Our results give a clear indication of the potential impact of non-Markovian effects in QKD.

Vasile, Ruggero [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland); Olivares, Stefano [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, I-34151 Trieste (Italy); CNISM, Unita di Ricerca di Milano Universita, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Paris, MatteoG. A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Milano, I-20133 Milano (Italy); Maniscalco, Sabrina [School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom); Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turun yliopisto (Finland)

2011-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

179

Holes in Spectral Lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The decay of an atom in the presence of a static perturbation is investigated. The perturbation couples a decaying state with a nondecaying state. A "hole" appears in the emission line at a frequency equal to the frequency ...

Fontana, Peter R.; Srivastava, Rajendra P.

1973-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

180

Electric Transmission Lines (Iowa)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Electric transmission lines capable of operating at 69 kV or greater cannot be constructed along, across, or over any public highways or grounds outside of cities without a franchise from the...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Lifting by Convergence Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The lifting depth of a convergence line in an unstratified boundary layer beneath a stably stratified atmosphere is examined with both analytical and numerical models. Cases are considered with and without flow in the layer above the convergence ...

N. Andrew Crook; Joseph B. Klemp

2000-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

Rose, Ronald P. (Peters Township, Washington County, PA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

A mycological assessment of highly digestible protein sorghum lines.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

inbred lines’ grain physical characteristics across environments .......................................................... 25 Table V Mean squares from ANOVA combined analysis of recombinant inbred lines based on seed hardness index... that limits the practical use of HD sorghums because the soft grain deteriorates more readily. The GMDC is ubiquitously distributed and negatively affects sorghum yield and overall grain quality particularly in warm and humid environments. The grain mold...

Portillo, Ostilio Rolando

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

184

Performance Enhancement of Radial Distributed System with Distributed Generators by Reconfiguration Using Binary Firefly Algorithm  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The extent of real power loss and voltage deviation associated with overloaded feeders in radial distribution system can be reduced by reconfiguration. Reconfiguration is normally achieved by changing the open/cl...

N. Rajalakshmi; D. Padma Subramanian…

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Induction machine stray loss from inter-bar currents  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stray load loss refers generally to the sources of induction machine loss not accounted for by typical calculations of primary or secondary copper loss, no load core loss, or friction and windage loss. Harmonic rotor bar ...

Englebretson, Steven Carl

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Power Line Calculator for DOS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Power Line Calculator (PLC) for DOS, version 1.0, is a program that describes the electrical characteristics of a transmission or distribution system given user-defined input. This input may consist of a combination of operating currents and phases, symmetric components, power factor, and real or reactive power. The program also allows the user to designate whether currents are present on the system neutral or in the ground. The PLC assumes that any value entered by the user remains fixed (e.g., phase current, power factor), and for underdetermined systems, basic default assumptions are incorporated: the power factor is held at or near 1.0, the net phase current is kept at or near zero, and the phase conductor currents are kept balanced. The program operates under PC/MS-DOS version 3.3 or later, and the output is available in both tabular and graphic formats.

Silva, J.M. (Enertech Consultants, Campbell, CA (United States))

1992-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Line tension vector thermodynamics of anisotropic contact lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Multiphase materials with intersecting diving surfaces give rise to contact lines. A line tension vector thermodynamics formalism is developed and used to analyze contact line problems in the presence of anisotropy, taking into account two elastic modes: change in contact line length and change in contact line orientation. Using this formalism, the contact line-shape equation is derived, and the renormalization of the line tension due to anisotropy is characterized. The correspondence and analogies between the shape equation for anisotropic surfaces (Herring equation) and the shape equation for contact lines is established. Line energies for nematic liquid crystals, representative of generic anisotropic contact lines, are used to derive a shape equation that takes into account ambient orientation effects. It is found that anisotropic line tension may promote bending and chiral modes to avoid unfavorable orientations of the contact line with respect to the ambient nematic ordering.

Alejandro D. Rey

2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

188

Transmission line capital costs  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Medium Voltage Overhead Power-line Broadband Communications; Transmission Capacity and Electromagnetic Interference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Electromagnetic Interference P. Amirshahi and M. Kavehrad (FIEEE) The Pennsylvania State University, Department distribution networks for broadband power-line communications applications. Electromagnetic interference

Kavehrad, Mohsen

190

Determination of Non-thermal Velocity Distributions from SERTS Linewidth Observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Non-thermal velocities obtained from the measurement of coronal Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) linewidths have been consistently observed in solar EUV spectral observations and have been theorized to result from many plausible scenarios including wave motions, turbulence, or magnetic reconnection. Constraining these velocities can provide a physical limit for the available energy resulting from unresolved motions in the corona. We statistically determine a series of non-thermal velocity distributions from linewidth measurements of 390 emission lines from a wide array of elements and ionization states observed during the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Research Telescope and Spectrograph 1991-1997 flights covering the spectral range 174-418 Å and a temperature range from 80,000 K to 12.6 MK. This sample includes 248 lines from active regions, 101 lines from quiet-Sun regions, and 41 lines were observed from plasma off the solar limb. We find a strongly peaked distribution corresponding to a non-thermal velocity of 19-22 km s–1 in all three of the quiet-Sun, active region, and off-limb distributions. For the possibility of Alfvén wave resonance heating, we find that velocities in the core of these distributions do not provide sufficient energy, given typical densities and magnetic field strengths for the coronal plasma, to overcome the estimated coronal energy losses required to maintain the corona at the typical temperatures working as the sole mechanism. We find that at perfect efficiency 50%-60% of the needed energy flux can be produced from the non-thermal velocities measured.

Aaron J. Coyner; Joseph M. Davila

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

DETERMINATION OF NON-THERMAL VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM SERTS LINEWIDTH OBSERVATIONS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Non-thermal velocities obtained from the measurement of coronal Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) linewidths have been consistently observed in solar EUV spectral observations and have been theorized to result from many plausible scenarios including wave motions, turbulence, or magnetic reconnection. Constraining these velocities can provide a physical limit for the available energy resulting from unresolved motions in the corona. We statistically determine a series of non-thermal velocity distributions from linewidth measurements of 390 emission lines from a wide array of elements and ionization states observed during the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Research Telescope and Spectrograph 1991-1997 flights covering the spectral range 174-418 A and a temperature range from 80,000 K to 12.6 MK. This sample includes 248 lines from active regions, 101 lines from quiet-Sun regions, and 41 lines were observed from plasma off the solar limb. We find a strongly peaked distribution corresponding to a non-thermal velocity of 19-22 km s{sup -1} in all three of the quiet-Sun, active region, and off-limb distributions. For the possibility of Alfven wave resonance heating, we find that velocities in the core of these distributions do not provide sufficient energy, given typical densities and magnetic field strengths for the coronal plasma, to overcome the estimated coronal energy losses required to maintain the corona at the typical temperatures working as the sole mechanism. We find that at perfect efficiency 50%-60% of the needed energy flux can be produced from the non-thermal velocities measured.

Coyner, Aaron J. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Davila, Joseph M., E-mail: aaron.j.coyner@nasa.gov [Code 671, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Theoretical X-ray Line Profiles from Colliding Wind Binaries  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present theoretical X-ray line profiles from a range of model colliding wind systems. In particular, we investigate the effects of varying the stellar mass-loss rates, the wind speeds, and the viewing orientation. We find that a wide range of theoretical line profile shapes is possible, varying with orbital inclination and phase. At or near conjunction, the lines have approximately Gaussian profiles, with small widths (HWHM ~ 0.1 v_\\infty) and definite blue- or redshifts (depending on whether the star with the weaker wind is in front or behind). When the system is viewed at quadrature, the lines are generally much broader (HWHM ~ v_\\infty), flat-topped and unshifted. Local absorption can have a major effect on the observed profiles - in systems with mass-loss rates of a few times 10^{-6} Msol/yr the lower energy lines (E wind of the primary. The orbital variation of the line widths and shifts is reduced in a low inclination binary. The extreme case is a binary with i = 0 degrees, for which we would expect no line profile variation.

D. B. Henley; I. R. Stevens; J. M. Pittard

2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

193

MICROLENSING OF QUASAR BROAD EMISSION LINES: CONSTRAINTS ON BROAD LINE REGION SIZE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We measure the differential microlensing of the broad emission lines between 18 quasar image pairs in 16 gravitational lenses. We find that the broad emission lines are in general weakly microlensed. The results show, at a modest level of confidence (1.8{sigma}), that high ionization lines such as C IV are more strongly microlensed than low ionization lines such as H{beta}, indicating that the high ionization line emission regions are more compact. If we statistically model the distribution of microlensing magnifications, we obtain estimates for the broad line region size of r{sub s} = 24{sup +22} {sub -15} and r{sub s} = 55{sup +150} {sub -35} lt-day (90% confidence) for the high and low ionization lines, respectively. When the samples are divided into higher and lower luminosity quasars, we find that the line emission regions of more luminous quasars are larger, with a slope consistent with the expected scaling from photoionization models. Our estimates also agree well with the results from local reveberation mapping studies.

Guerras, E.; Mediavilla, E. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain)] [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, Via Lactea S/N, La Laguna E-38200, Tenerife (Spain); Jimenez-Vicente, J. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain)] [Departamento de Fisica Teorica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, Campus de Fuentenueva, E-18071 Granada (Spain); Kochanek, C. S. [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States)] [Department of Astronomy and the Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, The Ohio State University, 4055 McPherson Lab, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43221 (United States); Munoz, J. A. [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain)] [Departamento de Astronomia y Astrofisica, Universidad de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Falco, E. [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)] [Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Motta, V. [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)] [Departamento de Fisica y Astronomia, Universidad de Valparaiso, Avda. Gran Bretana 1111, Valparaiso (Chile)

2013-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

194

Beam Loss Ion Chamber System Upgrade for Experimental Halls  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Beam loss Ion Chamber System (BLICS) was developed to protect Jefferson Labs transport lines, targets and beam dumps from a catastrophic ''burn through''. Range changes and testing was accomplished manually requiring the experiment to be shut down. The new upgraded system is based around an ''off the shelf'' Programmable Logic Controller located in a single control box supporting up to ten individual detectors. All functions that formerly required an entry into the experimental hall and manual adjustment can be accomplished from the Machine Control Center (MCC). A further innovation was the addition of a High Voltage ''Brick'' at the detector location. A single cable supplies the required voltage for the Brick and a return line for the ion chamber signal. The read back screens display range, trip point, and accumulated dose for each location. The new system is very cost effective and significantly reduces the amount of lost experimental time.

D.W. Dotson; D.J. Seidman

2005-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

195

Definition: Automated Feeder And Line Switching | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Definition Definition Edit with form History Facebook icon Twitter icon » Definition: Automated Feeder And Line Switching Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Automated Feeder And Line Switching Automated feeder and line switching is realized through automatic isolation and reconfiguration of faulted segments of distribution feeders or transmission lines via sensors, controls, switches, and communications systems. These devices can operate autonomously in response to local events or in response to signals from a central control system.[1] Related Terms transmission lines, transmission line References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Functions' An i LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. nline Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Automated_Feeder_And_Line_Switching&oldid=480562"

196

Two Line Subject Title One Line Title  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

- - Regional University Alliance (NETL-RUA) Grid Technologies Collaborative (GTC) Gregory Reed, PhD - University of Pittsburgh - GTC Lead (Director, Electric Power Initiative; Associate Director, Center for Energy; and Assoc. Professor, ECE Dept. - Swanson School of Engineering, PITT) * The Grid Technologies Collaborative (GTC) is an integrated industry-university-government research and development group that advances the state-of-the-art in transmission and distribution system level power electronics technologies. * Participants in the collaborative include industry partners and researchers from the U.S. Dept. of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory Regional University Alliance (NETL-

197

AC loss characteristics of superconducting power transmission cables: gap effect and  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Four groups of superconducting power transmission cables composed of coated conductors with 4.0 mm width and 2 µm superconductor thickness have been designed, including mono-layer, two-layer, four-layer and six-layer cables. In each group, three types of cables have been constructed with gaps of different size between adjacent coated conductors, which are classified into small gap, medium gap and large gap. Moreover, different lateral critical current density (Jc) distributions, specifically a uniform distribution and a trapezoidal distribution with a sloping shoulder, have been assumed while calculating the AC losses of these cables numerically by using a one-dimensional FEM model. Numerical results show that AC losses in mono-layer cables are significantly influenced by gaps between coated conductors as well as lateral Jc distribution, while cables with many layers are hardly affected by them. This proves that small gaps between coated conductors are not absolutely essential to reduce AC losses in multi-layer cables, and a sloping shoulder of the Jc distribution is more allowable in multi-layer cables than in mono-layer cables. The AC loss distributions among layers in six-layer cables are presented and the reasons for different influences of the gap as well as the lateral Jc distribution in mono-layer and multi-layer cables are discussed.

Quan Li; Naoyuki Amemiya; Katsutoku Takeuchi; Taketsune Nakamura; Noboru Fujiwara

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Apparent ridges for line drawing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Non-photorealistic line drawing depicts 3D shapes through the rendering of feature lines. A number of characterizations of relevant lines have been proposed but none of these definitions alone seem to capture all ...

Judd, Tilke (Tilke M.)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Reducing Data Loss and Saving Money by Acquiring Data Loss Prevention Software  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Reducing Data Loss and Saving Money by Acquiring Data Loss Prevention Software Master of Art data loss and saving money by acquiring DLP software Patarika Tipwong Acknowledgements This thesisPaul University. #12;Reducing data loss and saving money by acquiring DLP software Patarika Tipwong Table

Schaefer, Marcus

200

Distribution Workshop  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Harry: Between the Lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I 5. ; ..v^-rr>.>-'- j??!*f fefi ( -??;r' ,, ;rl&.i:-??t**rK&d t ? -?, .- 'c-y. ~ :'y$???M .'??. ??.v-'-/i / ' , *? I te / - 5- MAGNUM FORCE: HARRY Between The Lines by Ruth Kurz Seeing Harry, instead of The Callahan... Image. (1973) Special thanks to Teri White for the original "first time"*scene. Further thanks JL MW AW DMc A production of AD NAUSEUM PRESS 3613 West Park Road Cleveland, Ohio 44111 MAGNUM FORCE: HARRY Between The Lines by ruth kurz ' "I...

Kurz, R.; White, T.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

Lee, Jack M.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Shoreline Development Drives Invasion of Phragmites australis and the Loss of Plant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Shoreline Development Drives Invasion of Phragmites australis and the Loss of Plant Diversity Biology, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912, U.S.A. Abstract: The reed Phragmites australis Cav, eutrophication, habitat degradation, human and shore- line development, invasive species, Phragmites australis

Bertness, Mark D.

204

Vehicle Technologies Office: Parasitic Loss Reduction  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Parasitic Loss Reduction Parasitic Loss Reduction Heavy vehicles lose a tremendous amount of energy to wind resistance and drag, braking, and rolling resistance. Such non-engine losses can account for an approximate 45% decrease in efficiency. Other sources of energy loss include: friction and wear in the power train, thermal (heat) loads, operation of auxiliary loads (air conditioning, heaters, refrigeration, etc.), and engine idling. The parasitic loss activity identifies methodologies that may reduce energy losses, and tests those in the laboratory. Promising technologies are then prototyped and tested onboard heavy vehicles. Once validated, technologies must be tested on-road to obtain durability, reliability, and life-cycle cost data for the developmental component and/or design strategy.

205

Use of ferrofluids for bushing cooling and on-line monitoring  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper reviews all the advantages of the on-line monitoring and presents an equipment for on-line monitoring of bushings, which is the own contribution of specialists who are the authors of this paper. The paper presents a study of the temperature ... Keywords: bushing, dielectric losses, ferrofluids, monitoring

Silvius Dorel Nedelcut; Victor Proca; Dorina Mioara Purcaru

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

The Loss of 5?-Reductase Type I and Type II mRNA Expression in Metastatic Prostate Cancer to Bone and Lymph Node Metastasis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and compared the mRNA distributions with those observed...findings suggest that the loss of 5a-reductase mRNA...18, 19, 20) ; the loss in activity correlated...immunostaining for PSA. The distribution of 5aR-I and 5aR-II...of primary antisera, heat-mediated antigen retrieval...

Fouad K. Habib; Margaret Ross; Colin W. Bayne; Prasad Bollina; Ken Grigor; and Karen Chapman

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Solar2014: The 52nd Annual Conference of the Australian Solar Council 1 Open cavity receiver geometry influence on radiative losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the aperture in cavity losses mitigation and highlight the flux distribution variation on geometries driven by heat conduction. Convective losses, not considered here, are hard to model with confidence due Actually, the geometry has a strong influence on the heat flux distribution on the absorbing walls

208

Analysis of TPV Network Losses (a Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This talk focuses on the theoretical analysis of electrical losses associated with electrically networking large numbers of TPV cells to produce high power TPV power generators.

DM DePoy; MW Dashiell; DD Rahner; LR Danielson; JE Oppenlander; JL Vell; RJ Wehrer

2004-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

209

Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This tip sheet describes how to save process heating energy and costs by reducing expensive heat losses from industrial heating equipment, such as furnaces.

210

Loan Loss Reserve Fund Program Development  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Typically, grantees will work with interested parties or partners to develop a clean energy loan and a loan loss reserve fund program that involves the following steps:

211

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

212

Printed circuit dispersive transmission line  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

Ikezi, Hiroyuki (Rancho Santa Fe, CA); Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren (San Diego, CA); DeGrassie, John S. (Encinitas, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Mathematical circulation model for the blood-flow-heat-loss relationship in the rat tail  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A mathematical model for the heat-loss-blood-flow relationship is developed for the rat tail. When supplied with experimental values of heat loss and blood flow, the model allows one to compute the distribution of flow in deep and cutaneous vessels as a function of body core and tail temperature and to determine the savings in heat loss that result from alterations in the pattern of circulation and from counter-current heat transfer. Blood flow in the cutaneous and deep lying veins of the tail is controlled by both central and local temperatures and increases fairly linearly with deep body temperature. However, the distribution of blood flow in the tail is controlled only by local tail temperature and is independent of deep body temperature. The change in venous distribution of flow has a great impact on the conservation of heat and can reduce the heat loss from the circulating blood by more than 50% when venous return is directed to deep lying veins. On the other hand, counter-current heat transfer is of only minor importance in the control of heat loss from the tail, resulting at most in a 10% saving of heat loss, and that only at the smallest rate of blood flow.

E R Raman; V J Vanhuyse; M F Roberts

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Scha's Parallel Lines Bernhard Nickel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Scha's Parallel Lines Bernhard Nickel May 10, 2010 1 Introduction Scha (1981) has a famous example) The single lines run parallel to the double lines. 3 Code for Figure 1 \\begin{figure} \\centering \\setlength{\\unitlength}{.5in} \\begin{picture}(6,4) % first square \\put(0,4){\\line(1,0){4}}% \\put(0,1){\\line(1,0){4}}% \\put(0

Nickel, Bernhard

215

Wealth Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Walter: What is a just wealth distribution? In my view, it is one that results from respect for proper initial homesteading, for resulting private property rights, and, finally, from any legitimate subsequent ...

Four Arrows; Walter Block

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Drill string transmission line  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

217

Special Distribution  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Special Distribution Special Distribution Issued: December 1977 ',, Radiological Survey and Decontamination of the Former Main Technical Area (TA-1) at Los Alamos, New Mexico Compiled by A. John Ahlquist Alan K. Stoker Linda K. Trocki c laboratory of, the University of California LOS ALAMOS, NEW MEXICO 87545 An Alfirmdve Action/Equal Opportunity Employer ..-_- .-- .--.-. c T -,--... _ _._-r..l __,.. - .-,_.. ..- _._ -- .--. " . . _ . - . c- - . . . _ -. . _ . - . - . _ - - n - _ _~ ~_. __ _ ~~_ --..&e+ L.';; CONTENTS ABSTRACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._____ 1 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .._... _._ 2 I. BACKGROUND .............................................. 15

218

Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A distribution system audit, leak detection, and repair programs help Federal facilities reduce water losses and make better use of limited water resources.

219

Handling Food and Supplies during Power Loss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ER-017 6-06 Loss of electricity or gas commonly occurs during storms or other natural disasters. However, power loss may continue for weeks after the storm has passed, especially if an area has been damaged by floods or high winds. If you...

Anding, Jenna

2005-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

220

MANAGING JOB LOSS and FINANCIAL STRESS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-hunting strategy. Put time and energy into planning actions that will lead to your next job such as preparingMANAGING JOB LOSS and FINANCIAL STRESS a Personal and Family Guide CENTER ON THE FAMILY #12;2 Managing Job Loss and Financial Stress The issues associated with losing one's job or having hours cut

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

A sample average approximation method for disassembly line balancing problem under uncertainty  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper considers a Disassembly Line Balancing Problem (DLBP) under uncertainty. Disassembly task times are assumed to be random variables with known probability distributions. To deal with this uncertainty, a stochastic program is developed. It both ... Keywords: Disassembly lines, L-shaped algorithm, Line design, Monte Carlo sampling, Product recovery, Stochastic programming, Sustainable manufacturing

Mohand Lounes Bentaha, Olga Battaïa, Alexandre Dolgui

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

Lossy Electric Transmission Line Soft Fault Diagnosis: an Inverse Scattering Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Lossy Electric Transmission Line Soft Fault Diagnosis: an Inverse Scattering Approach Huaibin transmission lines is studied through the inverse scattering approach. The considered soft faults are modeled as continuous spatial variations of distributed characteristic parameters of transmission lines. The diagnosis

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

223

Implications, Monitoring, and Control of Accidental Transmission of Lymphocytic Choriomeningitis Virus within Hamster Tumor Cell Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...communication). These lines included duodenal, pmostatic...various rat and mouse tumor lines (P. D. Walter, personal...supplier of such tumor cell lines stopped distribution...Factors influencing the transmission of LCM infection to humans...been implicated as 1 route (4, 7, 19). The...

Robert J. Biggar; Rudolf Deibel; and John P. Woodall

1976-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Definition: Reduced Electricity Losses | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Losses Losses Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Reduced Electricity Losses Functions that provide this benefit could help manage peak feeder loads, reduced electricity throughput, locate electricity production closer to the load and ensure that voltages remain within service tolerances, while minimizing the amount of reactive power provided. These actions can reduce electricity losses by making the system more efficient for a given load served or by actually reducing the overall load on the system.[1] Related Terms load, electricity generation, reactive power, smart grid References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Benefits' An inl LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ine Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Reduced_Electricity_Losses&oldid=502644

225

Distribution and Market Share  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper presents findings from a census of more than 79,000 stock-keeping units (SKUs) in 37 consumer packaged goods categories totaling $55 billion in annual revenue. It shows that, in 86 percent of product categories, the relationship between market share and retail distribution is increasing and convex at the SKU level. The degree of convexity is greater in categories with higher revenues and more concentration in market shares. The relationship is also typically convex within leading brands’ SKU portfolios, showing that the “double jeopardy” phenomenon of low share and distribution not only affects small brands competing against market leaders, it also affects low-share \\{SKUs\\} within a category leader's product line. Holdout evidence shows that the distribution/share relationship within a brand's portfolio of existing \\{SKUs\\} usually holds for new \\{SKUs\\} as well. We explain how knowledge of the distribution/share relationship can help to improve a brand's go-to-market decisions for new SKUs.

Kenneth C. Wilbur; Paul W. Farris

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Field synergy principle analysis for reducing natural convection heat loss of a solar cavity receiver  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Due to the operating temperature from 900 K to 1300 K produced by the concentrating ratio over 2000 in solar parabolic dish-engine system, the natural convection heat loss driven by the buoyancy force of air contributes an important role in the energy loss of cavity receiver. 3-D numerical simulations were performed and the results are analyzed from the novel viewpoint of field synergy principle (FSP) in order to study the heat transfer and fluid flow characteristics in natural convection heat loss of cavity receiver. The effects of geometric parameters, including the inclination angle, aperture size, aperture position and cavity geometric shape on the natural convection heat loss of cavity receiver were examined. The FSP analysis on the simulation results demonstrates that FSP can well explain the reduction mechanism for natural convection heat loss of cavity receiver because the smaller inner production of velocity vector and temperature gradient always corresponds to the lower Nusselt number occurred in the cases with lager inclination angle, smaller aperture size, lower aperture position and frustum-cylinder cavity, respectively. Therefore, the reducing natural convection heat loss attributes to the weakening synergy between velocity vector and temperature gradient. In addition, the local heat transfer performance is studied by the presented distributions of heat transferred via fluid motion, where more interesting natural convection heat loss characteristics of cavity receiver and the detailed explanations were provided. The results of this work offer benefits for the development of theory and technique about reducing natural convection heat loss of cavity receiver.

Yuqiang Li; Gang Liu; Zhenghua Rao; Shengming Liao

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Definition: Deferred Distribution Capacity Investments | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Deferred Distribution Capacity Investments Deferred Distribution Capacity Investments Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Deferred Distribution Capacity Investments As with the transmission system, reducing the load and stress on distribution elements increases asset utilization and reduces the potential need for upgrades. Closer monitoring and load management on distribution feeders could potentially extend the time before upgrades or capacity additions are required.[1] Related Terms load, transmission lines, transmission line, sustainability References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Benefits' An inl LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ine Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Deferred_Distribution_Capacity_Investments&oldid=502613

228

Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

Stemler, Gary E. (Vancouver, WA); Scott, Donald N. (Vancouver, WA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Utility Lines and Facilities (Montana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations apply to the construction of utility and power lines and facilities. They address the use of public right-of-ways for such construction, underground power lines, and construction...

230

New Imperial Valley power line  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Imperial Irrigation District placed its new 104-mile, 230kV transmission line in service in the Imperial Valley on September 14, 1988. The power line, with a rated capacity of 600 megawatts, transmits electricity generated at geothermal power plants. The transmission line was financed by 14 geothermal companies, whose participation was based on the amount of line-capacity they expect to use.

Not Available

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

a 115-line MATLAB implementation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Apr 15, 2013 ... Alternating active-phase algorithm for multimaterial topology optimization problems -- a 115-line MATLAB implementation. Rouhollah Tavakoli ...

Rouhollah Tavakoli

2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

232

Modeling the Effect of Hurricanes on Power Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

There are many calamitous events such as earthquakes, hurricanes, tsunamis etc. that occur suddenly and cause great loss of life, damage, or hardship. Hurricanes cause significant damage to power distribution systems, resulting in prolonged customer...

Chanda, Suraj

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

233

Transmission Line Circuit Alexander Glasser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chaos in a Transmission Line Circuit Alexander Glasser Marshal Miller With... Prof. Edward Ott Prof times become shorter, circuit connections behave more and more like transmission lines. Theoretical(t) - Transmission Line (Zo, T) #12;5 Cf/Cr 1000 Vf Capacitance Voltage Cf Cr Model for Nonlinear Capacitor

Anlage, Steven

234

Why Neutrino Lines are Hypersharp  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

It was recently pointed out that mono-energetic neutrino lines from the 2-body decay of tritium (tau ~ 18-y) can be emitted, a significant fraction, with natural line width (~10-24 eV) for hypersharp resonance transitions 3H--> line broadening in resonances of short lived (tau ~ microsec) states.

R. S. Raghavan

2009-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

235

Multi-transmission-line-beam interactive system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We construct here a Lagrangian field formulation for a system consisting of an electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure modeled by a possibly non-uniform multiple transmission line (MTL). In the case of a single line we recover the linear model of a traveling wave tube due to J. R. Pierce. Since a properly chosen MTL can approximate a real waveguide structure with any desired accuracy, the proposed model can be used in particular for design optimization. Furthermore, the Lagrangian formulation provides: (i) a clear identification of the mathematical source of amplification, (ii) exact expressions for the conserved energy and its flux distributions obtained from the Noether theorem. In the case of uniform MTLs we carry out an exhaustive analysis of eigenmodes and find sharp conditions on the parameters of the system to provide for amplifying regimes.

Figotin, Alexander; Reyes, Guillermo [Department of Mathematics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-3875 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-3875 (United States)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

236

Optimising Shewhart charts in parallel production lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

I describe a methodology for optimising n Shewhart x-charts operating on parallel production lines in a factory. The goal is to maximise the factory-wide probability of detecting an out-of-control condition subject to a constraint on the expected number of false signals. I use non-linear programming to appropriately set the x-charts' control limits incorporating information about the probability of each production line going out-of-control. Using this approach, factories can set their quality control systems to optimally detect out-of-control conditions. Given some distributional assumptions, I also present a one-dimensional optimisation methodology that allows for the efficient optimisation of very large factories.

Ronald D. Fricker; Jr."> Jr.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Multi-transmission-line-beam interactive system  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct here a Lagrangian field formulation for a system consisting of an electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure modeled by a possibly non-uniform multiple transmission line (MTL). In the case of a single line we recover the linear model of a traveling wave tube (TWT) due to J.R. Pierce. Since a properly chosen MTL can approximate a real waveguide structure with any desired accuracy, the proposed model can be used in particular for design optimization. Furthermore, the Lagrangian formulation provides for: (i) a clear identification of the mathematical source of amplification, (ii) exact expressions for the conserved energy and its flux distributions obtained from the Noether theorem. In the case of uniform MTLs we carry out an exhaustive analysis of eigenmodes and find sharp conditions on the parameters of the system to provide for amplifying regimes.

Alexander Figotin; Guillermo Reyes

2013-04-19T23:59:59.000Z

238

Heat Loss Measurement Using Infrared Imaging  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in various applications. Examples of two applications are presented. The first describes the development of heat balance data for a solvent refined coal processing unit. The second describes the measurement of heat loss and thermal resistance in a double...

Seeber, S. A.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Reduction of Hydrocarbon Losses to Flare Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

merit consideration because the losses and associated economic penalties are assumed to be small. Flare gas flow is not easily measured and as a result, most plants are unaware of how much product they are actually losing during normal operation...

Page, J.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Sound transmission loss of nontraditional building materials and redundancies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This line of inquiry aims to provide sound transmission loss data both lab? and field?tested for novel transparent and translucent wall assemblies. Special attention is paid to: (1) Redundant assemblies featuring two layers of material with a large gap or small room between them (2) assemblies featuring emerging materials and (3) assemblies with high thermal resistance values. To that end composite configurations of acrylic polycarbonate aerogel and glass were tested in a laboratory and an acrylic room and glass vestibule were tested in the field. Results will be presented with an eye toward future use of the data. Indeed it was the unavailability of the data in existing publications that initially drove the research.

Michael Ermann; James Carneal; Daniel Mennitt; Christopher Jackson; Bharti Karmarkar; Matthew Helveston; Patrick Clay

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The dependence of AC loss characteristics on the spacing between strands in YBCO Roebel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Transport AC loss in a short length of 9/2 YBCO Roebel cable, (i.e. with 9 ? 2 mm width strands), with 0.25 mm spacers between the strands is measured. The frequency varies from 59 to 354 Hz. The result is compared with the loss for a cable without spacers between the strands. Transport AC loss is decreased by the presence of the spacers. The AC loss reduction due to the extra spacing is more significant when the amplitude of the cable current is small compared to the cable Ic. The losses in the cable with spacers normalized by the square of the cable currents plotted against It/Ic approximately agree with those in a cable without spacers. Electromagnetic modelling was carried out for 9/2 and 8/2 cables, modelled as parallel stacks, to assist in understanding the above experimental results. The 8/2 configuration allows the greater use of symmetry to speed computations. Reasonable agreement between the numerical results and the measured results was obtained. This supports suggestions made in previous publications that the transport AC loss in a Roebel cable is roughly equivalent to the loss in two parallel stacks carrying the same current in each tape. The electromagnetic analysis in the 8/2 stacks shows the flux lines are more perpendicular to the strand face when the vertical space between strands is smaller, and this leads to a larger induced electrical field and larger AC loss. At small current amplitudes, the modelling shows the spacing has a strong effect on the AC loss in the surfaced part of the strands.

Zhenan Jiang; K P Thakur; Mike Staines; R A Badcock; N J Long; R G Buckley; A D Caplin; Naoyuki Amemiya

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Anomalous loss of DT alpha particles in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An escaping alpha collector probe has been developed for TFTR`s DT phase. Energy distributions of escaping alphas have been determined by measuring the range of {alpha}-particles implanted into nickel foils located within the alpha collector. Results at 1.0 MA of plasma current are in good agreement with predictions for first orbit alpha loss. Results at 1.8 MA, however, show a significant anomalous loss of partially thermalized alphas (in addition to the expected first orbit loss), which is not observed with the lost alpha scintillator detectors in DT plasmas, but does resemble the anomalous delayed loss seen in DD plasmas. None of the candidate explanations proposed thus far are fully consistent with the anomalous loss observations. An experiment designed to study the effect of plasma major radius shifts on {alpha}-particle loss has led to a better understanding of {alpha}-particle dynamics in tokamaks. Intuitively, one might suppose that confined marginally passing {alpha}-particles forced to move toward higher magnetic field during an inward major radius shift (i.e., compression) would mirror and become trapped particles, leading to increased alpha loss. Such an effect was looked for during the shift experiment, however, no significant changes in alpha loss to the 90{degree} lost alpha scintillator detector were observed during the shifts. It is calculated that the energy gained by an {alpha}-particle during the inward shift is sufficient to explain this result. However, an unexpected loss of partially thermalized {alpha}-particles near the passing/trapped boundary was observed to occur between inward and outward shifts at an intermediate value of plasma current (1.4 MA). This anomalous loss feature is not yet understood.

Herrmann, H.W.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Energy Loss Effect in High Energy Nuclear Drell-Yan Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The energy loss effect in nuclear matter, which is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effect on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process, can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of the nuclear parton distribution studied only with lepton deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Drell-Yan production cross sections for 800GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets are analyzed within Glauber framework which takes into account energy loss of the beam proton. It is shown that the theoretical results with considering the energy loss effect are in good agreement with the FNAL E866.

Chun-Gui Duan; Li-Hua Song; Li-Juan Huo; Guang-Lie Li

2004-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

244

On the use of energy loss mechanisms to constrain Lorentz invariance violations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In light of recent and probably upcoming observations of very high energy astroparticles, such as those reported by the IceCube collaboration, we readdress the energy loss mechanism by Lorentz violating particles. We analytically show that Cohen-Glashow's formula for energy loss is connected with a Poisson distribution for the number of decays, whose large fluctuations prevent placing bounds on Lorentz invariance violations. However, this model ignores the sharp change in the decay width after each process. We propose replacing Poisson statistics with a new distribution that takes this into account. We study the average final energy and its fluctuations according to the new statistics, contrasting it with Cohen-Glashow's result, and discussing the reliability of energy loss mechanisms to constrain violations of Lorentz invariance.

Diego Mazón

2014-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

245

DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY DISTRIBUTION CATEGORY uc-11 I A W E N C E LIVERMORE IABORATORY University of Cahfmia/Livermore, California/94550 UCRL-52658 CALCULATION OF CHEMICAL EQUILIBRIUM BETWEEN AQUEOUS SOLUTION AND MINERALS: THE EQ3/6 - - SOFTWARE PACKAGE T. J. Wolery MS. date: February 1, 1979 . . - . . - . Tho rcpon rn prepared as an account of work sponsored by the United Stater Government. Seither Lhc Urutcd Stater nor the Umted Stater Department of Energy, nor any of their employees. nor any of their E O ~ ~ ~ B C I O I S . rubcontracton. o r their employees. makes any warranr)., exprcs or !mplwd. or assumes any legal liability or respanability io: the ~ c c u o c y . complctencn or uvfulneu of any miormarlon. apparatcr. product or p r o m s dtwlorcd. or r c p r e v n u that its UP would not infringe privately owned r

246

Minimization of voltage deviation and power losses in power networks using Pareto optimization methods  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Voltage regulation is an important task in electrical engineering for controlling node voltages in a power network. A widely used solution for the problem of voltage regulation is based on adjusting the taps in under load tap changers (ULTCs) power transformers ... Keywords: Multi-objective optimization, Power distribution network, Power losses, Under load tap changers, Voltage regulation

Francisco G. Montoya; Raúl Baños; Consolación Gil; Antonio Espín; Alfredo Alcayde; Julio Gómez

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

The loss of ions from Venus through the plasma wake S. Barabash1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the distribution of escaping oxygen ions is controlled by the solar-wind convection electric field, a dis- tinctive subsonic solar- wind flow (Fig. 1a). The magnetic field properties of these regions are treated in anotherLETTERS The loss of ions from Venus through the plasma wake S. Barabash1 , A. Fedorov2 , J. J

California at Berkeley, University of

248

LHC magnet quench test with beam loss generated by wire scan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Beam losses with millisecond duration have been observed in the LHC in 2010 and 2011. They are thought to be provoked by dust particles falling into the beam. These losses could compromise the LHC availability if they provoke quenches of superconducting magnets. In order to investigate the quench limits for this loss mechanism, a quench test using a wire scanner has been performed, with the wire movement through the beam mimicking a loss with similar spatial and temporal distribution as in the case of dust particles. This paper will show the conclusions reached for millisecond-duration dust-provoked quench limits. It will include details on the maximum energy deposited in the coil as estimated using FLUKA code, showing a reasonable agreement with quench limit estimated from the heat transfer code QP3. In addition, information on the damage limit for carbon wires in proton beamswill be presented, following electronmicroscope analysis which revealed strong wire sublimation.

Sapinski, M; Dahlerup-Petersen, K; Dehning, B; Emery, j; Ferrari, A; Guerrero, A; Holzer, E B; Koujili, M; Lechner, A; Nebot, E; Scheubel, M; Steckert, J; Verweij, A; Wenninger, J

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

White lines and d-electron occupancies for the 3d and 4d transition metals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We used electron-energy-loss spectrometry to measure the intensities of the white lines found at the onsets of the L2 and L3 absorption edges for most of the 3d and 4d transition metals. The intensities of the white lines, normalized to the trailing background, decreased nearly linearly with increasing atomic number, reflecting the filling of the d states. One-electron Hartree-Slater calculations of the white-line intensities were in good agreement with observed spectra. Empirical correlations between normalized white-line intensity and d-state occupancy provide a method for measuring changes in d-state occupancy due to alloying.

D. H. Pearson; C. C. Ahn; B. Fultz

1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

13-001205-AWB-01 TO: Distribution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NSTX 13-001205-AWB-01 TO: Distribution FROM: A Brooks DATE: 5 December 2000 SUBJECT: Impact of Loss a longer cool down time since the heat must be removed by conduction to adjacent turns through the 0 temperature gradients found can be scaled to the appropriate level to set a limit on I2t heating from a pulse

Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

251

Reliability enhancement using optimal distribution feeder reconfiguration  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Failure statistics show that distribution networks engage the most contribution to the customer unavailability services. Optimal reconfiguration of distribution systems has many advantages like total power losses reduction, voltage profile enhancement, reliability improvement and so on. Therefore, in this paper a new multiobjective improved shuffled frog leaping algorithm (ISFLA) is proposed to investigate the distribution feeder reconfiguration (DFR) problem from the reliability enhancement point of view. Nevertheless, since the total cost of MW loss is an important and attractive subject to the electric power utilities, the total active power losses is also considered as an objective function in the investigations. Therefore, the objective functions of the problem to be optimized are system average interruption frequency index (SAIFI), system average interruption duration index (SAIDI), average energy not supplied (AENS) and the total active power losses. During the optimization process, the proposed ISFLA finds a set of non-dominated optimal solutions referred to Pareto optimal solutions that are kept in an external memory called repository. As the result of the conflicting behavior of the objective functions investigated, a fuzzy clustering technique is employed to control the size of the repository in the predetermined limits. The feasibility and the efficiency of the proposed method are examined by a standard distribution test system.

Abdollah Kavousi-Fard; Mohammad-Reza Akbari-Zadeh

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

2005 EIA-821 SURVEY: LINE-BY-LINE REFERENCE GUIDE  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Page 1 Page 1 2012 EIA-821 SURVEY: LINE-BY-LINE REFERENCE GUIDE Kerosene Line No. Sold directly to consumers for: 1 Residential Use (Non-Farm): * Backup generator * Home heating and cooking * Personal lawn equipment * EXCLUDE: Apartment buildings and Farmhouses 2 Commercial Use: * Apartment building * Bank * Casino * Church * College/School/Institution * Department/Retail store * Environmental clean-up service * Flushing fuel lines * Forestry service * Golf course * Government (Federal, State, local, and district; INCLUDE fuel used in vehicles) * Hazardous waste company * Hospital * Hotel/Motel * Landfill site government owned * Landscaping * Laundry company * Lumber yard that sells the lumber * Medical service * Port Authority/publicly owned port or loading dock

253

2013 EIA-821 SURVEY: LINE-BY-LINE REFERENCE GUIDE  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

waste company * Hospital * HotelMotel * Landfill site government owned (exclude private landfill, see Off-highway, as defined on page 3 for Lines 41 through 43) *...

254

Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger crystalliser surface  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Measurement of flow field and local heat transfer distribution on a scraped heat exchanger geometry the flow field influence on the local heat transfer distribution on an evenly cooled scraped heat loss heat loss to the surroundings stst stainless steel plate lc thermo-chromic liquid crystal

Boyer, Edmond

255

Bipolar pulse forming line  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

Rhodes, Mark A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

256

KPZ line ensemble  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

For each t>1 we construct an N-indexed ensemble of random continuous curves with three properties: (1) The lowest indexed curve is distributed as the time t Hopf-Cole solution to the Kardar-Parisi-Zhang (KPZ) stochastic PDE with narrow wedge initial data; (2) The entire ensemble satisfies a resampling invariance which we call the H-Brownian Gibbs property (with H(x)=e^{x}); (3) Increments of the lowest indexed curve, when centered by -t/24 and scaled down vertically by t^{1/3} and horizontally by t^{2/3}, remain uniformly absolutely continuous (i.e. have tight Radon-Nikodym derivatives) with respect to Brownian bridges as time t goes to infinity. This construction uses as inputs the diffusion that O'Connell discovered in relation to the O'Connell-Yor semi-discrete Brownian polymer, the convergence result of Moreno Flores-Quastel-Remenik of the lowest indexed curve of that diffusion to the solution of the KPZ equation with narrow wedge initial data, and the one-point distribution formula proved by Amir-Corwin-Quastel for the solution of the KPZ equation with narrow wedge initial data. We provide four main applications of this construction: (1) Uniform (as t goes to infinity) Brownian absolute continuity of the time t solution to the KPZ equation with narrow wedge initial data, even when scaled vertically by t^{1/3} and horizontally by t^{2/3}; (2) Universality of the t^{1/3} one-point (vertical) fluctuation scale for the solution of the KPZ equation with general initial data; (3) Concentration in the t^{2/3} scale for the endpoint of the continuum directed random polymer; (4) Exponential upper and lower tail bounds for the solution at fixed time of the KPZ equation with general initial data.

Ivan Corwin; Alan Hammond

2013-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

257

Percent Distribution  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Percent Distribution of Natural Gas Supply and Disposition by State, 1996 Table State Estimated Proved Reserves (dry) Marketed Production Total Consumption Alabama................................................................... 3.02 2.69 1.48 Alaska ...................................................................... 5.58 2.43 2.04 Arizona..................................................................... NA 0 0.55 Arkansas.................................................................. 0.88 1.12 1.23 California.................................................................. 1.25 1.45 8.23 Colorado .................................................................. 4.63 2.90 1.40 Connecticut.............................................................. 0 0 0.58 D.C...........................................................................

258

Distributed Generation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Untapped Value of Backup Generation Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized solutions. These backup generators exist today in large numbers and provide utilities with another option to reduce peak load, relieve transmission congestion, and improve power reliability. Backup generation is widely deployed across the United States. Carnegie Mellon's Electricity

259

Control of stochasticity in magnetic field lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a method of control which is able to create barriers to magnetic field line diffusion by a small modification of the magnetic perturbation. This method of control is based on a localized control of chaos in Hamiltonian systems. The aim is to modify the perturbation locally by a small control term which creates invariant tori acting as barriers to diffusion for Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom. The location of the invariant torus is enforced in the vicinity of the chosen target. Given the importance of confinement in magnetic fusion devices, the method is applied to two examples with a loss of magnetic confinement. In the case of locked tearing modes, an invariant torus can be restored that aims at showing the current quench and therefore the generation of runaway electrons. In the second case, the method is applied to the control of stochastic boundaries allowing one to define a transport barrier within the stochastic boundary and therefore to monitor the volume of closed field lines.

Cristel Chandre; Michel Vittot; Guido Ciraolo; Philippe Ghendrih; Ricardo Lima

2005-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

260

Testing in Software Product Lines.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis presents research aimed at investigating different activities involved in software product lines testing process and possible improvements towards achieving developing high quality software… (more)

Odia, Osaretin

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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261

NETL LINES OF DEMARCATION 09282012  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

LINES OF DEMARCATION September 28, 2012 Contact: Site Operations Division or ESS&H Division with Questions The oversight, upkeep, and segregation of NETL infrastructure components,...

262

Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, {var_epsilon}. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

Fang, Anan

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

263

Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

,Extension CommunicationsSpecialistTheTexasA&MUniversitySystem. Cover design byRhondaKappler, ExtensionCommercial Artist Reducing Livestock Losses to Toxic Plants Allan McGinty and Rick Machen* More than 100 species of toxic plants in- fest Texas rangelands. These plants... and Sons: New York, N.Y. Lane, M. A., M. H. Ralphs, J. D. Olsen, F. D. Provenza and J. A. Pfister. 1990. ?Conditioned taste aversion: potentialfor reducing cattle loss to larkspur.? Journal ofRangeManagement. 43:127-131. McGinty, Allan and Tommy G. Welch...

McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

264

Loss modeling for pricing catastrophic bonds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Figure 3-1: DBE bc bc c k a DBE DBE a DBE SLf LSf ? ? ? == = (3.7) Thus, by following the arrows in Figure 3-1, loss can be directly related to annual frequency. Simplifying (3.7) gives d DBE DBE Lf Lf = (3.8) where the exponents are inter... in Figure 3-1: DBE bc bc c k a DBE DBE a DBE SLf LSf ? ? ? == = (3.7) Thus, by following the arrows in Figure 3-1, loss can be directly related to annual frequency. Simplifying (3.7) gives d DBE DBE Lf Lf = (3.8) where the exponents are inter...

Sircar, Jyotirmoy

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

265

Energy Use Loss and Opportunities Analysis: U.S. Manufacturing...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Energy Use Loss and Opportunities Analysis: U.S. Manufacturing & Mining Energy Use Loss and Opportunities Analysis: U.S. Manufacturing & Mining energyuselossopportunitiesanalys...

266

Draft "Michigan Saves" Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A sample loan loss reserve agreement between a state or local government and a financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund.

267

Line formation in solar granulation: IV. [O I], OI and OH lines and the photospheric O abundance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The solar photospheric oxygen abundance has been determined from [OI], OI, OH vibration-rotation and OH pure rotation lines by means of a realistic time-dependent, 3D, hydrodynamical model of the solar atmosphere. In the case of the OI lines, 3D non-LTE calculations have been performed, revealing significant departures from LTE as a result of photon losses in the lines. We derive a solar oxygen abundance of log O = 8.66 +/- 0.05. All oxygen diagnostics yield highly consistent abundances, in sharp contrast with the results of classical 1D model atmospheres. This low value is in good agreement with measurements of the local interstellar medium and nearby B stars. This low abundance is also supported by the excellent correspondence between lines of very different line formation sensitivities, and between the observed and predicted line shapes and center-to-limb variations. Together with the corresponding down-ward revisions of the solar carbon, nitrogen and neon abundances, the resulting significant decrease in solar metal mass fraction to Z = 0.0126 can, however, potentially spoil the impressive agreement between predicted and observed sound speed in the solar interior determined from helioseismology.

M. Asplund; N. Grevesse; A. J. Sauval; C. Allende Prieto; D. Kiselman

2003-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

268

Optimal allocation of stochastically dependent renewable energy based distributed generators in unbalanced distribution networks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper proposes an algorithm for modeling stochastically dependent renewable energy based distributed generators for the purpose of proper planning of unbalanced distribution networks. The proposed algorithm integrate the diagonal band Copula and sequential Monte Carlo method in order to accurately consider the multivariate stochastic dependence between wind power, photovoltaic power and the system demand. Secondly, an efficient algorithm based on modification of the traditional Big Bang-Big crunch method is proposed for optimal placement of renewable energy based distributed generators in the presence of dispatchable distributed generation. The proposed optimization algorithm aims to minimize the energy loss in unbalanced distribution systems by determining the optimal locations of non-dispatchable distributed generators and the optimal hourly power schedule of dispatchable distributed generators. The proposed algorithms are implemented in MATLAB environment and tested on the IEEE 37-node feeder. Several case studies are done and the subsequent discussions show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithms.

A.Y. Abdelaziz; Y.G. Hegazy; Walid El-Khattam; M.M. Othman

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Percent Distribution  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

. . Percent Distribution of Natural Gas Delivered to Consumers by State, 1996 Table State Residential Commercial Industrial Vehicle Fuel Electric Utilities Alabama..................................... 1.08 0.92 2.27 0.08 0.23 Alaska ........................................ 0.31 0.87 0.85 - 1.16 Arizona....................................... 0.53 0.92 0.30 3.91 0.70 Arkansas.................................... 0.88 0.98 1.59 0.11 1.24 California.................................... 9.03 7.44 7.82 43.11 11.64 Colorado .................................... 2.12 2.18 0.94 0.58 0.20 Connecticut................................ 0.84 1.26 0.37 1.08 0.38 D.C............................................. 0.33 0.52 - 0.21 - Delaware.................................... 0.19 0.21 0.16 0.04 0.86 Florida........................................

270

Distribution Category:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

- - Distribution Category: Remedial Action and Decommissioning Program (UC-70A) DOE/EV-0005/48 ANL-OHS/HP-84-104 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 FORMERLY UTILIZED MXD/AEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY CLEVELAND. OHIO Prepared by R. A. Wynveen Associate Division Director, OHS W. H. Smith Senior Health Physicist C. M. Sholeen Health Physicist A. L. Justus Health Physicist K. F. Flynn Health Physicist Radiological Survey Group Health Physics Section Occupational Health and Safety Division April 1984 Work Performed under Budget Activity DOE KN-03-60-40 and ANL 73706 iii PREFACE AND EXECUTIVE SUMMARY This is one in a series of reports resulting from a program initiated

271

Integrated Computing, Communication, and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Restructuring of the electricity market has affected all aspects of the power industry from generation to transmission, distribution, and consumption. Transmission circuits, in particular, are stressed often exceeding their stability limits because of the difficulty in building new transmission lines due to environmental concerns and financial risk. Deregulation has resulted in the need for tighter control strategies to maintain reliability even in the event of considerable structural changes, such as loss of a large generating unit or a transmission line, and changes in loading conditions due to the continuously varying power consumption. Our research efforts under the DOE EPSCoR Grant focused on Integrated Computing, Communication and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems. This research is applicable to operating and controlling modern electric energy systems. The controls developed by APERC provide for a more efficient, economical, reliable, and secure operation of these systems. Under this program, we developed distributed control algorithms suitable for large-scale geographically dispersed power systems and also economic tools to evaluate their effectiveness and impact on power markets. Progress was made in the development of distributed intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. The methodologies employed combine information technology, control and communication, agent technology, and power systems engineering in the development of intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. In the event of scheduled load changes or unforeseen disturbances, the power system is expected to minimize the effects and costs of disturbances and to maintain critical infrastructure operational.

Bajura, Richard; Feliachi, Ali

2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

272

Productivity Improvement of a Manual Assembly Line  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

or re-configuring an assembly system, which is the key step in improving the overall performance of an assembly line. Following this approach, two manual assembly line configurations (single stage parallel line and five-stage serial line...

Yerasi, Pranavi

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

273

SunLine Transit Agency  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

SunLine Transit Agency provides public transit and community services to California's Coachella Valley. The service area is more than 1,100 square miles and includes nine member cities, as well as Riverside County. Over the years, SunLine has pursued an aggressive strategy for implementing clean technologies into its fleet.

274

Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NBSR  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents calculations of the fuel cladding temperature during loss-of-coolant accidents in the NBSR. The probability of a pipe failure is small and procedures exist to minimize the loss of water and assure emergency cooling water flows into the reactor core during such an event. Analysis in the past has shown that the emergency cooling water would provide adequate cooling if the water filled the flow channels within the fuel elements. The present analysis is to determine if there is adequate cooling if the water drains from the flow channels. Based on photographs of how the emergency water flows into the fuel elements from the distribution pan, it can be assumed that this water does not distribute uniformly across the flow channels but rather results in a liquid film flowing downward on the inside of one of the side plates in each fuel element and only wets the edges of the fuel plates. An analysis of guillotine breaks shows the cladding temperature remains below the blister temperature in fuel plates in the upper section of the fuel element. In the lower section, the fuel plates are also cooled by water outside the element that is present due to the hold-up pan and temperatures are lower than in the upper section. For small breaks, the simulation results show that the fuel elements are always cooled on the outside even in the upper section and the cladding temperature cannot be higher than the blister temperature. The above results are predicated on assumptions that are examined in the study to see their influence on fuel temperature.

Baek J. S.; Cheng L.; Diamond, D.

2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

275

ENHANCED LOSS OF FAST IONS DURING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, United States of America in a large increase in the fast ion loss rate and heats the lost particles to several megaelectronvolts. The lost ions are observed at the passing-trapped boundary and appear to be either DD fusion produced

276

Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...1006 62 Theme Issue Intelligent food logistics: decrease waste and improve quality...Reducing food losses by intelligent food logistics Reiner Jedermann 1 Mike Nicometo 2 Ismail...Bremen Research Cluster for Dynamics in Logistics (LogDynamics), Bremen, Germany One...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

Nonlinear Losses Induced in Spherical Waves  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

From Naugol'nykh's spherical sawtooth?wave solution curves are constructed which predict the nonlinear induced extra loss in fundamental amplitude. As in the plane wave case the propagation path can be split into three zones. In the first zone nonlinear effects dominate over attenuation. In the second zone a stable distorted waveform is propagated. In the third zone attenuation reduces the amplitude so that nonlinear effects are no longer important. Although the predicted losses are smaller than in the plane wave case they are not negligible. A criterion for cavitation is used in order to define depths in the ocean where cavitation will be the limiting factor on sound power level and not extra losses. By considering a specific example it is concluded that cavitation will indeed be the limiting factor down to a depth of about 2000 ft. At depths below 2000 ft extra losses can become significant for propagation from steady?state spherical sources operating below the cavitation threshold.

Boyd B. Cary

1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Beam losses due to abrupt crab cavity failures in the LHC  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A major concern for the implementation of crab crossing in a future High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is machine protection in an event of a fast crab-cavity failure. Certain types of abrupt crab-cavity amplitude and phase changes are simulated to characterize the effect of failures on the beam and the resulting particle-loss signatures. The time-dependent beam loss distributions around the ring and particle trajectories obtained from the simulations allow for a first assessment of the resulting beam impact on LHC collimators and on sensitive components around the ring. Results for the nominal LHC lattice is presented.

Baer, T.; Barranco, J.; Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Wenninger, B.; Yee, B.; Zimmermann, F.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

279

The Impact of Active Power Losses on the Wind Energy Exploitation of the North Sea  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Transmission active power losses can influence the distribution of power flows in the transmission grid which consequently alter the generation dispatch and scheduling through the power system. This can especially affect the exploitation of large scale renewable energy sources (RES) since they are normally installed far away from load centres. RES technologies are expected to cover a large portion of the future energy mix in the continental European power system and grid bottlenecks are a critical factor for successful integration of RES technologies in Europe. In this respect, transmission losses can significantly affect the potential grid bottlenecks and the exploitation of the expected energy produced by RES. In this paper a comparison analysis is carried out on approaches to include active power losses in a DC optimal power flow. The initial idea is to apply a method to the existing flow-based market model Power System Simulation Tool (PSST), a tool for studying the effect of high penetration of wind power and consequent grid expansion in the European power system. Implementation of losses in large scale power systems significantly increases the computational burden. A solution to reduce computational time is to calculate reasonably good approximations of the active power losses. This paper proposes an approach to include transmission active power losses that can be implemented in large scale power system in reasonable computational time.

Hossein Farahmand; Leif Warland; Daniel Huertas-Hernando

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Ac loss reduction of multilayer superconducting power transmission cables by using narrow  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The ac loss characteristics of coated conductors are dominated by the magnetic field component normal to their superconductor layer. Multilayer cables as well as monolayer cables consisting of 4 mm-wide coated conductors (named 4 mm cables) and those consisting of 2 mm-wide coated conductors (named 2 mm cables) were designed, and numerical electromagnetic field analyses were performed in their cross sections to calculate their ac losses. Trapezoidal lateral critical current density Jc distributions with shoulders as well as uniform ones were assumed in coated conductors for the analyses. The former models the degraded Jc near the edges of coated conductors. In the case of the monolayer, the calculated ac losses of the 2 mm cables were comparable to those of the 4 mm cables. In the cases of the multilayers, the calculated ac losses of the 2 mm cables were obviously less than those of the 4 mm cables. The degraded Jc near the edges of coated conductors more seriously affects the ac loss characteristics of the 2 mm cables than those of the 4 mm cables. However, even if we consider the influence of the degraded Jc near the edges of coated conductors, 2 mm-wide coated conductors are more profitable than 4 mm-wide coated conductors in multilayer cables from the viewpoint of ac loss reduction.

Naoyuki Amemiya; Quan Li; Kaoru Ito; Katsutoku Takeuchi; Taketsune Nakamura; Takeshi Okuma

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

TransCom model simulations of CH? and related species: linking transport, surface flux and chemical loss with CH? variability in the troposphere and lower stratosphere  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A chemistry-transport model (CTM) intercomparison experiment (TransCom-CH?) has been designed to investigate the roles of surface emissions, transport and chemical loss in simulating the global methane distribution. Model ...

Patra, P. K.

282

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--II: EXPRESS BRIEFS, VOL. 55, NO. 9, SEPTEMBER 2008 927 Using Transmission Line Outage Data to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Using Transmission Line Outage Data to Estimate Cascading Failure Propagation in an Electric Power transmission line outages recorded over nine years in an electric power system with approx- imately 200 lines. The average amount of propagation of the line outages is estimated from the data. The distribution

Dobson, Ian

283

Topology and Design of Wide-Band 3D Metamaterials made of Periodically Loaded Transmission Line Arrays  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Topology and Design of Wide-Band 3D Metamaterials made of Periodically Loaded Transmission Line index over a wide frequency band. These metamaterials consist of a three- dimensional transmission line and permeability. The cubic-cell transmission line host network is a physical realization of the 3D distributed

Tentzeris, Manos

284

Terahertz Quantum-Cascade Transmission-Line Metamaterials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Terahertz Transmission-Line Metamaterials . . . . . . .CRLH Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Terahertz CRLH Transmission-Line Metamaterials . . . . . . .

Tavallaee, Amir Ali

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Models of Forbidden Line Emission Profiles from Axisymmetric Stellar Winds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A number of strong infrared forbidden lines have been observed in several evolved Wolf-Rayet star winds, and these are important for deriving metal abundances and testing stellar evolution models. In addition, because these optically thin lines form at large radius in the wind, their resolved profiles carry an imprint of the asymptotic structure of the wind flow. This work presents model forbidden line profile shapes formed in axisymmetric winds. It is well-known that an optically thin emission line formed in a spherical wind expanding at constant velocity yields a flat-topped emission profile shape. Simulated forbidden lines are produced for a model stellar wind with an axisymmetric density distribution that treats the latitudinal ionization self-consistently and examines the influence of the ion stage on the profile shape. The resulting line profiles are symmetric about line centre. Within a given atomic species, profile shapes can vary between centrally peaked, doubly peaked, and approximately flat-topped in appearance depending on the ion stage (relative to the dominant ion) and viewing inclination. Although application to Wolf-Rayet star winds is emphasized, the concepts are also relevant to other classes of hot stars such as luminous blue variables and Be/B[e] stars.

Richard Ignace; Adam Brimeyer

2006-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

286

The Trajectories of Magnetic Field Lines in Tokamaks with Helical Windings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The distribution of the magnetic lines in a tokamak plasma per — turbed ... is applied to investigate the break-up of magnetic surfaces inside the plasma for large aspect- ... This effect is also investigated int...

I. L. Caldas; M. V. A. P. Heller; S. J. Camargo…

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

The Doppler Effect and Form of the Profile of Radiation Spectral Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The form of the profile for spectral lines of radiation is found using the relativistic distribution function (DF) of fluxons on velocities and exact relativistic Doppler formula for frequencies. It is shown t...

M. R. Djumaev

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Chemistry and line emission from evolving Herbig Ae disks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Aims: To calculate chemistry and gas temperature of evolving protoplanetary disks with decreasing mass or dust settling, and to explore the sensitivity of gas-phase tracers. Methods: The density and dust temperature profiles for a range of models of flaring and self-shadowed disks around a typical Herbig Ae star are used together with 2-dimensional ultraviolet (UV) radiative transfer to calculate the chemistry and gas temperature. In each model the line profiles and intensities for the fine structure lines of [O I], [C II] and [C I] and the pure rotational lines of CO, CN, HCN and HCO+ are determined. Results: The chemistry shows a strong correlation with disk mass. Molecules that are easily dissociated, like HCN, require high densities and large extinctions before they can become abundant. The products of photodissociation, like CN and C2H, become abundant in models with lower masses. Dust settling mainly affects the gas temperature, and thus high temperature tracers like the O and C+ fine structure lines. The carbon chemistry is found to be very sensitive to the adopted PAH abundance. The line ratios CO/13CO, CO/HCO+ and [O I] 63 um/146 um can be used to distinguish between disks where dust growth and settling takes place, and disks that undergo overall mass loss.

B. Jonkheid; C. P. Dullemond; M. R. Hogerheijde; E. F. van Dishoeck

2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

289

Effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss of oil-filled caverns  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Finite element analyses of oil-filled caverns were performed to investigate the effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss, a primary performance criteria of SPR caverns. The finite element model used for this study was axisymmetric, approximating an infinite array of caverns spaced at 750 ft. The stratigraphy and cavern size were held constant while the cavern depth was varied between 1500 ft and 3000 ft in 500 ft increments. Thirty year simulations, the design life of the typical SPR cavern, were performed with boundary conditions modeling the oil pressure head applied to the cavern lining. A depth dependent temperature gradient of 0.012{degrees}F/ft was also applied to the model. The calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose of finite element analysis code. The user-defined subroutine option in ABAQUS was used to enter an elastic secondary creep model which includes temperature dependence. The calculations demonstrated that surface subsidence and storage loss rates increase with increasing depth. At lower depths the difference between the lithostatic stress and the oil pressure is greater. Thus, the effective stresses are greater, resulting in higher creep rates. Furthermore, at greater depths the cavern temperatures are higher which also produce higher creep rates. Together, these factors result in faster closure of the cavern. At the end of the 30 year simulations, a 1500 ft-deep cavern exhibited 4 percent storage loss and 4 ft of subsidence while a 3000 ft-deep cavern exhibited 33 percent storage loss and 44 ft of subsidence. The calculations also demonstrated that surface subsidence is directly related to the amount of storage loss. Deeper caverns exhibit more subsidence because the caverns exhibit more storage loss. However, for a given amount of storage loss, nearly the same magnitude of surface subsidence was exhibited, independent of cavern depth.

Hoffman, E.L.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Electric Transmission Line Siting Compact  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Electric Transmission Line Siting Compact Electric Transmission Line Siting Compact 1 ______________________________________________________________________________ 2 ARTICLE I 3 PURPOSE 4 5 Siting electric transmission lines across state borders and federal lands is an issue for states, the 6 federal government, transmission utilities, consumers, environmentalists, and other stakeholders. 7 The current, multi-year application review process by separate and equal jurisdictions constitutes 8 a sometimes inefficient and redundant process for transmission companies and complicates the 9 efforts of state and federal policy-makers and other stakeholders to develop more robust 10 economic opportunities, increase grid reliability and security, and ensure the consumers have the 11 lowest cost electricity possible. 12

291

Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

292

Resonance Broadening of Spectral Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A formalism introduced previously by the author is used to calculate the shape of an absorption line in a gas, taking account of the "resonance" interaction between like atoms. The most serious approximation is the neglect of the effect of translational motion. An asymmetric line is obtained, with the maximum shifted slightly toward the red. Some simple classical considerations also agree qualitatively with the results. Various properties of the line shape obtained are briefly discussed. The neglect of translational motion makes it impossible to compare the results with experiments performed up to the present time.

C. Alden Mead

1960-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Pulse shaping with transmission lines  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Tuneable dielectric films having low electrical losses  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is directed to a method for forming dielectric thin films having substantially reduced electrical losses at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies relative to conventional dielectric thin films. The reduction in losses is realized by dramatically increasing the grain sizes of the dielectric films, thereby minimizing intergranular scattering of the microwave signal due to grain boundaries and point defects. The increase in grain size is realized by heating the film to a temperature at which the grains experience regrowth. The grain size of the films can be further increased by first depositing the films with an excess of one of the compoents, such that a highly mobile grain boundary phase is formed.

Dimos, Duane Brian (Albuquerque, NM); Schwartz, Robert William (Albuquerque, NM); Raymond, Mark Victor (Albuquerque, NM); Al-Shareef, Husam Niman (Boise, ID); Mueller, Carl (Lakewood, CO); Galt, David (Denver, CO)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Street Trees, Overhead Utlitly Distribution, and Physical Infrastructure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Street Trees, Overhead Utlitly Distribution, and Physical Infrastructure: Design Implictions of overhead lines for electric transmission to the customer is common in most communities, and is most likely and mission Research and Responsibilities Design considerations Ecological Considerations Budgeting

Schweik, Charles M.

296

Assessing Phosphorous Loss to Protect Surface Water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Phosphorus LossStory by Raul L. Garcia The Texas State Soil and Water ConservationBoard (TSSWCB) in collaboration with the Department of Soil and Crop Sciences at Texas A&M University, Texas Cooperative Extension (TCE), Texas Water Resources... Institute (TWRI), and the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS), have developed a field validation of the Texas Phosphorus Index. This project, located near Bosque and Leon Rivers, began June 1, 2002, and ended...

Garcia, Raul

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Recent Stirling engine loss - understanding results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For several years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other US Government agencies have been funding experimental and analytical efforts to improve the understanding of Stirling thermodynamic losses. NASA`s objective is to improve Stirling engine design capability to support the development of new engines for space power. An overview of these efforts was last given at the 1988 IECEC. Recent results of this research are reviewed.

Tew, R.C.; Thieme, L.G.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Energy loss rate in disordered quantum well  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report the effect of dynamically screened deformation potential on the electron energy loss rate in disordered semiconductor quantum well. Interaction of confined electrons with bulk acoustic phonons has been considered in the deformation coupling. The study concludes that the dynamically screened deformation potential coupling plays a significant role as it substantially affects the power dependency of electron relaxation on temperature and mean free path.

Tripathi, P.; Ashraf, S. S. Z. [Centre of Excellence in Nanomaterials, Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh-202002 (India); Hasan, S. T. [Physics Department, Faculty of Science, The M.S. University of Baroda, Vadodara-390002 (India); Sharma, A. C. [Physics Department, Sibli National College, Azamgarh-276128 (India)

2014-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

299

The beauty of laser lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A line, the simplest way to express an artist's feelings or interpretation of an object, has its own emotions that an artist can employ for her purpose. Laser light, the most self-concentrated, self-sustained and directed, ...

Kim, Sue-Mie

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Transmission Lines Emulating Moving Media  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this paper, we show how the electromagnetic phenomena in moving magnetodielectric media can be emulated using artificial composite structures at rest. In particular, we introduce nonreciprocal periodically loaded transmission lines which support waves obeying the same rules as plane electromagnetic waves in moving media. Because the actual physical structure is at rest, in these transmission lines there are no fundamental limitations on the velocity values, which may take values larger than the speed of light or even complex values (considering complex amplitudes in the time-harmonic regime). An example circuit of a unit cell of a "moving" transmission line is presented and analyzed both numerically and experimentally. The special case of composite right/left handed host line is also studied numerically. Besides the fundamental interest, the study is relevant for potential applications in realizing engineered materials for various transformations of electromagnetic fields.

Vehmas, Joni; Tretyakov, Sergei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Crossover energetics for halogenated Si(100): Vacancy line defects, dimer vacancy lines, and atom vacancy lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We investigated surface patterning of I-Si(100)-(2×1) both experimentally and theoretically. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, we first examined I destabilization of Si(100)-(2×1) at near saturation. Dimer vacancies formed on the terraces at 600 K, and they grew into lines that were perpendicular to the dimer rows, termed vacancy line defects. These patterns were distinctive from those induced by Cl and Br under similar conditions since the latter formed atom and dimer vacancy lines that were parallel to the dimer rows. Using first-principles density functional theory, we determined the steric repulsive interactions associated with iodine and showed how the observed defect patterns were related to these interactions. Concentration-dependent studies showed that the vacancy patterns were sensitive to the I concentration. Dimer and atom vacancy lines that were elongated along the dimer row direction were favored at lower coverage. Atom vacancy lines dominated at ?0.8ML, they coexisted with dimer vacancy lines at ?0.6-0.7ML, and dimer vacancy lines were exclusively observed below ?0.5ML. These surface patterns reflect the mean strength of the adatom repulsive interactions.

G. J. Xu; N. A. Zarkevich; Abhishek Agrawal; A. W. Signor; B. R. Trenhaile; D. D. Johnson; J. H. Weaver

2005-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

EMISSION LINE PROPERTIES ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM PRECOSTAR FAINT OBJECT SPECTROGRAPH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTRAL ATLAS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EMISSION LINE PROPERTIES ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM PRE­COSTAR FAINT OBJECT SPECTROGRAPH HUBBLE/optical emission some most detailed information obtainable about intrinsic properties quasars. Studies of density of correlations between emission lines and overall quasar spectral energy distributions that su#ered from

Green, Paul

303

Sketcha: A Captcha Based on Line Drawings of 3D Models Steven A. Ross  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sketcha: A Captcha Based on Line Drawings of 3D Models Steven A. Ross Princeton University. INTRODUCTION This paper introduces a captcha [2] called "Sketcha" based on line drawings created from 3D models Com- mittee (IW3C2). Distribution of these papers is limited to classroom use, and personal use

304

fault diagnosis of a high voltage transmission line using waveform ...  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Oct 4, 2013 ... FAULT DIAGNOSIS OF A HIGH VOLTAGE TRANSMISSION LINE USING ... Fault types such as single line to ground, line to line, double line to ...

Ripunjoy Phukan

2013-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

305

GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Ceramic tube seals cut heat loss, achieve six month payback  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The methane reformer at the Celanese Chemical Company's Bishop, TX plant operates at approximately 1900/sup 0/F. The reformer has 32 tubes (9'' diameter) that pass through the firebox. Openings around the tubes measure 11'' in diameter to accommodate horizontal and vertical thermal expansion and movement as well as to facilitate tube removal. The gaps around the tubes permitted cool air to be drawn into the firebox (caused by slight negative pressure) and also allowed radiant heat to escape causing the reformer to operate at a lower than desired level of thermal efficiency. Celanese contracted to retrofit the old rigid firebrick roof in the methane reformer with a 10'' thick ceramic fiber module lining. The gaps around the tubes were sealed by using a special tube seal made from Nextel woven ceramic fiber fabric, a 1984 CHEMICAL PROCESSING Vaaler Award winner (Mid-November 1984, p.52). The Nextel fabric used in this application is a heat resistant textile that has a continuous use temperature of 2200/sup 0/F - well above the 1900/sup 0/F operating temperature of the reformer. The tube seals have been working exactly as intended, verified by observation through inspection ports. Temperatures in the penthouse area above the roof dropped from 240/sup 0/F to 150/sup 0/F. The reduction in heat losses has been attributed to the elimination of the gaps around each tube by the seals and to the improved K-factor of the ceramic module lining. The tube seals have paid for themselves within six months of installation. At that time, the seal boots were inspected and showed no signs of wear. With these results, the improved efficiency of the methane reformer promises to yield additional economic benefits.

Not Available

1985-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Mapping Magnetic Near-Field Distributions of Plasmonic Nanoantennas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

However, standard far-field optical microscopy methods have insufficient resolution and provide no information about the electromagnetic near-fields. ... The top right panel of Figure 3a illustrates how the charges and magnetic near-field (green circles) at the probe aperture line up with the charge distribution and magnetic near-field of the SPR mode. ... and magnetic field lines and Poynting vector distributions are reconstructed in a vol. ...

Denitza Denkova; Niels Verellen; Alejandro V. Silhanek; Ventsislav K. Valev; Pol Van Dorpe; Victor V. Moshchalkov

2013-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

308

OnLine IPA Gradient Estimators in Stochastic Continuous Fluid Models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

On­Line IPA Gradient Estimators in Stochastic Continuous Fluid Models Yorai Wardi # School Perturbation Analysis (IPA) to loss­related and workload­ related metrics in a class of Stochastic Flow Models parameters of interest, such as bu#er size, service rate and inflow rate. The IPA estimators derived

309

Magnetohydrodynamic disc winds and linewidth distributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Fine et-al. (2010) case in all our diagrams. In a random distribution of incoming...Hall et-al., in preparation) with the MHD driving of EBS92. We analysed how the...study for emission lines. The relativistic MHD case has been studied by several authors......

L. S. Chajet; P. B. Hall

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Power Line Calculator for Windows[trademark  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Power Line Calculator (PLC) for Windows [trademark], version 1.0, is a program that describes the electrical characteristics of a transmission or distribution system given user-defined input. This input may consist of a combination of operating currents and phases, symmetric components, power factor, and real or reactive power. The program also allows the user to designate whether currents are present on the system neutral or in the ground. The PLC assumes that any value entered by the user remains fixed (e.g., phase current, power factor), and for underdetermined systems, basic default assumptions are incorporated: the power factor is held at or near 1.0, the net phase current is kept at or near zero, and the phase conductor currents are kept balanced. The program operates through a graphical user interface provided by Microsoft[reg sign] Windows [trademark] (version 3.1 or higher required), and the output is available in both tabular and graphic formats.

Silva, J.M. (Enertech Consultants, Campbell, CA (United States))

1992-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Josephson junction-embedded transmission-line resonators: from Kerr medium to in-line transmon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We provide a general method to find the Hamiltonian of a linear circuit in the presence of a nonlinearity. Focussing on the case of a Josephson junction embedded in a transmission-line resonator, we solve for the normal modes of the system by taking into account exactly the effect of the quadratic (i.e. inductive) part of the Josephson potential. The nonlinearity is then found to lead to self and cross-Kerr effect, as well as beam-splitter type interactions between modes. By adjusting the parameters of the circuit, the Kerr coefficient K can be made to reach values that are weak (K \\kappa) or even very strong (K >> \\kappa) with respect to the photon-loss rate \\kappa. In the latter case, the resonator+junction circuit corresponds to an in-line version of the transmon. By replacing the single junction by a SQUID, the Kerr coefficient can be tuned in-situ, allowing for example the fast generation of Schr\\"odinger cat states of microwave light. Finally, we explore the maximal strength of qubit-resonator coupling...

Bourassa, J; Gambetta, Jay M; Blais, A

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

Grism-Based Pulse Shaper for Line-by-Line Control of More than 600 Comb Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We construct a line-by-line pulse shaper using a grism dispersive element and achieve control of over six hundred 21 GHz comb lines. The 13.4 THz bandwidth is the largest ever...

Kirchner, Matthew S; Diddams, Scott A

313

Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any communication. On our model distribution circuit, we illustrate the feasibility of high levels of PV penetration and a significant (20% or higher) reduction in losses.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sule, Petr [NEW MEXICO CONSORTIUM

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Maximizing Hysteretic Losses in Magnetic Ferrite Nanoparticles via Model-Driven Synthesis and Materials Optimization  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Frictional losses from Brownian rotation are not considered because they do not contribute significantly to heat dissipation for the range of MNP sizes explored in this paper. ... Two key modifications are introduced into the previously reported synthesis based on the thermal decomposition of metal–oleate precursors(12, 14) to produce MFe2O4 (where M = Mn, Fe, or Co) with narrow size distributions and diameters tunable from 11 to 24 nm (Figure 2). ... The reduced heating rate of 1 °C min–1 yields monodisperse and spherical iron oxide MNPs with a diameter distribution of less than 5% (Figure 2A–D). ...

Ritchie Chen; Michael G. Christiansen; Polina Anikeeva

2013-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

315

Estimation and Analysis of Energy Utilities Consumption in Batch Chemical Industry through Thermal Losses Modeling  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A hot water distribution system is mainly used for heating the infrastructure (i.e., keeping the building and pipes at a desired temperature) and is fed by steam condensates. ... As a result, the three-parameters model, whose functional form already integrates this feature, was preferred to calibrate valves distributing liquid utilities both in the multiproduct and the monoproduct plant. ... However, an additional assumption for heat losses is necessary or a detailed and complicated analytical calculation for all components of the heating/cooling utility system. ...

Claude Rérat; Stavros Papadokonstantakis; Konrad Hungerbühler

2012-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

316

Line-Shape Transition of Collision Broadened Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Using the newly developed technique of THz time-domain spectroscopy, we have measured the far-wing absorption line profile of the ensemble of collision broadened ground state rotational lines of methylchloride vapor out to more than 200 linewidths from resonance, corresponding to frequency offsets as much as 5× the resonant frequency. On these far wings the measured absorption is approximately an order of magnitude less than that predicted by the van Vleck–Weisskopf theory. Our observations show that at higher frequencies a transition occurs from the regime of the van Vleck–Weisskopf theory to the regime of the Lorentz theory.

H. Harde; N. Katzenellenbogen; D. Grischkowsky

1995-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

317

Energy loss of charm quarks from $J/?$ production in cold nuclear matter  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

$J/\\psi$ suppression in p-A collisions is studied by considering the nuclear effects on parton distribution, energy loss of beam proton and the finial state energy loss of color octet $c\\overline{c}$. The leading-order computations for $J/\\psi$ production cross-section ratios $R_{W/Be}(x_{F})$ are presented and compared with the selected E866 experimental data with the $c\\overline{c}$ remaining colored on its entire path in the medium. It is shown that the combination of the different nuclear effects accounts quite well for the observed $J/\\psi$ suppression in the experimental data. It is found that the $J/\\psi$ suppression on $R_{W/Be}(x_{F})$ from the initial state nuclear effects is more important than that induced by the energy loss of color octet $c\\overline{c}$ in the large $x_F$ region. Whether the $c\\overline{c}$ pair energy loss is linear or quadratic with the path length is not determined. The obtained $c\\overline{c}$ pair energy loss per unit path length $\\alpha=2.78\\pm0.81$ GeV/fm, which indicates that the heavy quark in cold nuclear matter can lose more energy compared to the outgoing light quark.

Li-Hua Song; Wen-Dan Miao; Chun-Gui Duan

2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

318

Magnetic properties and loss separation in iron-silicone-MnZn ferrite soft magnetic composites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates the magnetic and structural properties of iron-based soft magnetic composites coated with silicone-MnZn ferrite hybrid. The organic silicone resin was added to improve the flexibility of the insulated iron powder and causes better adhesion between particles to increase the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of silicone-MnZn ferrite. Silicone-MnZn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability when compared with the non-magnetic silicone resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 34.18% when compared with the silicone resin coated samples at 20 kHz. In this work, a formula for calculating the total loss component by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of total losses are calculated. The results show that the eddy current loss coefficient is close to each other for the silicone-MnZn ferrite, silicone resin and MnZn ferrite coated samples (0.0078loss coefficient is lower for the silicone-MnZn ferrite coated sample (k{sub 2} =1.4058) in comparison with other samples.

Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zou, Chao; Yang, Jun; Dong, Juan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

319

Coated conductor arrangement for reduced AC losses in a resistive-type superconducting  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The basic element of a resistive superconducting fault current limiter (FCL) can consist of coated conductor tape exceeding a few meters in length and compacted into a cryogenic envelope. This paper is focused on optimizing the arrangement of coated conductors with a non-magnetic substrate for a resistive superconducting FCL. Several configurations have been tested experimentally and theoretically. Two low-loss arrangements have been identified, both utilizing the bifilar configuration, i.e. the currents in two adjacent tapes are identical in amplitude but opposite in direction. The separation between two adjacent tapes s varied from 0.07 up to 2.10 mm. For the lowest examined separation s the AC transport loss of the straight bifilar model decreased by more than one order with respect to the AC transport loss in the single-tape configuration. Further AC loss decrease is achieved when the pair of tapes carrying opposite currents forms a flat pancake coil. We developed a numerical model in order to analyze the influence of distance between adjacent tapes. To achieve agreement between experimental and numerical results it was necessary to incorporate a lateral distribution of critical current density in the tape. The remaining differences between the results of experiment and calculation can be explained by analysis of experimental imperfections. Finally we suggest an empirical fit for the prediction of AC loss of a practical superconducting fault current limiter.

J Šouc; F Gömöry; M Vojen?iak

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Evaluation of Heat Losses in Fire Tube Boiler  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract – The efficiency of oil fired fire tube boiler was calculated by evaluating the heat losses. Investigation on the performance of the boiler was conducted by examining the heat losses, identifying the reasons for losses, measuring the individual loss and developing a strategy for loss reduction. This study was carried out in Texmaco package horizontal fire tube boiler at Travancore Titanium Products Ltd (TTPL), Trivandrum, Kerala. The boiler efficiency was measured by indirect method. Heat losses in dry flue gas and due to unburned fuel were found to be the major problems. Since they were interrelated, installation of Zirconium oxygen sensor was recommended as a common remedy.

S. Krishnanunni; Josephkunju Paul C; Mathu Potti; Ernest Markose Mathew

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

System Losses and Assessment Trade Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns. Plans for Fiscal Year 2010 are being made in a coordinated fashion such that the knowledge gained from the research performed by the Campaigns can benefit on-going work of the study, and that improved understanding of the system relationships can be used to guide the specific research and development (R&D) activities within the Campaigns. In FY-10, the System Losses and Assessment Trade Study will carry-over activities from FY-09. We will continue to refine impurity and loss estimates and impurity limits on fuels by incorporating results from ongoing R&D. And we will begin work on an enhanced nuclear material management model to allow us to continue to improve our overall system understanding of the trade-offs between separations, fuel fabrication, waste forms, waste disposition, SNM losses, reactor performance, and proliferation resistance. In the future, we can also better understand how used fuel and other forms of remote-handled SNM can be better integrated into an overall nuclear material management program that will evolve for the DOE complex via Order 410.2 (DOE 2009).

David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Domain lines as fractional strings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider N=2 supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics with two flavors, the Fayet-Iliopoulos parameter, and a mass term ? which breaks the extended supersymmetry down to N=1. The bulk theory has two vacua; at ?=0 the Bogomol’nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) monopoles-saturated domain wall interpolating between them has a moduli space parameterized by a U(1) phase ? which can be promoted to a scalar field in the effective low-energy theory on the wall world-volume. At small nonvanishing ? this field gets a sine-Gordon potential. As a result, only two discrete degenerate BPS domain walls survive. We find an explicit solitonic solution for domain lines—stringlike objects living on the surface of the domain wall which separate wall I from wall II. The domain line is seen as a BPS kink in the world-volume effective theory. We expect that the wall with the domain line on it saturates both the {1,0} and the {12,12} central charges of the bulk theory. The domain line carries a magnetic flux which is exactly 12 of the flux carried by the flux tube living in the bulk on each side of the wall. Thus, the domain lines on the wall confine charges living on the wall, resembling Polyakov’s three-dimensional confinement.

R. Auzzi; M. Shifman; A. Yung

2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

323

Domain Lines as Fractional Strings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider N=2 supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics (SQED) with 2 flavors, the Fayet--Iliopoulos parameter, and a mass term $\\beta$ which breaks the extended supersymmetry down to N=1. The bulk theory has two vacua; at $\\beta=0$ the BPS-saturated domain wall interpolating between them has a moduli space parameterized by a U(1) phase $\\sigma$ which can be promoted to a scalar field in the effective low-energy theory on the wall world-volume. At small nonvanishing $\\beta$ this field gets a sine-Gordon potential. As a result, only two discrete degenerate BPS domain walls survive. We find an explicit solitonic solution for domain lines -- string-like objects living on the surface of the domain wall which separate wall I from wall II. The domain line is seen as a BPS kink in the world-volume effective theory. We expect that the wall with the domain line on it saturates both the $\\{1,0\\}$ and the $\\{{1/2},{1/2}\\}$b central charges of the bulk theory. The domain line carries the magnetic flux which is exactly 1/2 of the flux carried by the flux tube living in the bulk on each side of the wall. Thus, the domain lines on the wall confine charges living on the wall, resembling Polyakov's three-dimensional confinement.

R. Auzzi; M. Shifman; A. Yung

2006-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

324

Recessed light fixtures: Infiltration energy loss  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article reports that a recent study revealed that fluorescent bulbs can reduce convective energy losses by 15--65% as compared to incandescent bulbs. Recessed light fixtures are commonly installed in offices and homes. However, a problem arises in homes when the fixtures are set in the ceiling such that the top of the light fixture is exposed to the unconditioned air in the attic. Because some air flow is necessary around the light to avoid overheating, the manufacturers do not make all the fixtures leak tight, only those that are rated for lower wattage bulbs. The need for cooling the fixture may conflict with some building efficiency codes.

Bennett, S.M.; Perez-Blanco, H. (Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States))

1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

325

Computing Criticality of Lines in Power Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Computing Criticality of Lines in Power Systems Ali P?narto identify critical lines, failure of which can causecriticality measure for all lines at a time, as opposed to

Pinar, Ali; Reichert, Adam; Lesieutre, Bernard

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Vortex lines and transitions in superfluid hydrodynamics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Preface to Vortices, dislocations, and line singularities in partial differential equations...Leslie and J. R. Ockendon. Vortex lines and transitions in superfluid hydrodynamics...nature and the motion of qunatized vortex lines. This paper illustrates the transitions...

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Coordination of Transmission Line Transfer Capabilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coordination of Transmission Line Transfer Capabilities Final Project Report Power Systems since 1996 PSERC #12;Power Systems Engineering Research Center Coordination of Transmission Line Summary The maximum power that can be transferred over any transmission line, called the transfer capacity

328

Towards identifying the mechanisms underlying field-aligned edge-loss of HHFW power on NSTX  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast-wave heating will be a major heating scheme on ITER, as it can heat ions directly and is relatively unaffected by the large machine size unlike neutral beams. However, fast-wave interactions with the plasma edge can lead to deleterious effects such as, in the case of the high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) system on NSTX, large losses of fast-wave power in the scrape off layer (SOL) under certain conditions. In such scenarios, a large fraction of the lost HHFW power is deposited on the upper and lower divertors in bright spiral shapes. The responsible mechanism(s) has not yet been identified but may include fast-wave propagation in the scrape off layer, parametric decay instability, and RF currents driven by the antenna reactive fields. Understanding and mitigating these losses is important not only for improving the heating and current-drive on NSTX-Upgrade but also for understanding fast-wave propagation across the SOL in any fast-wave system. This talk summarizes experimental results demonstrating that the flow of lost HHFW power to the divertor regions largely follows the open SOL magnetic field lines. This lost power flux is relatively large close to both the antenna and the last closed flux surface with a reduced level in between, so the loss mechanism cannot be localized to the antenna. At the same time, significant losses also occur along field lines connected to the inboard edge of the bottom antenna plate. The power lost within the spirals is roughly estimated, showing that these field-aligned losses to the divertor are significant but may not account for the total HHFW loss. To elucidate the role of the onset layer for perpendicular fast-wave propagation with regards to fast-wave propagation in the SOL, a cylindrical cold-plasma model is being developed. This model, in addition to advanced RF codes such as TORIC and AORSA, is aimed at identifying the underlying mechanism(s) behind these SOL losses, to minimize their effects in NSTX-U, and to predict their importance in ITER.

Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Bertelli, N.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Maingi, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, L.; Scotti, F.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Ahn, J-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); and others

2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

329

Towards identifying the mechanisms underlying field-aligned edge-loss of HHFW power on NSTX  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fast-wave heating will be a major heating scheme on ITER, as it can heat ions directly and is relatively unaffected by the large machine size unlike neutral beams. However, fast-wave interactions with the plasma edge can lead to deleterious effects such as, in the case of the high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) system on NSTX, large losses of fast-wave power in the scrape off layer (SOL) under certain conditions. In such scenarios, a large fraction of the lost HHFW power is deposited on the upper and lower divertors in bright spiral shapes. The responsible mechanism(s) has not yet been identified but may include fast-wave propagation in the scrape off layer, parametric decay instability, and RF currents driven by the antenna reactive fields. Understanding and mitigating these losses is important not only for improving the heating and current-drive on NSTX-Upgrade but also for understanding fast-wave propagation across the SOL in any fast-wave system. This talk summarizes experimental results demonstrating that the flow of lost HHFW power to the divertor regions largely follows the open SOL magnetic field lines. This lost power flux is relatively large close to both the antenna and the last closed flux surface with a reduced level in between, so the loss mechanism cannot be localized to the antenna. At the same time, significant losses also occur along field lines connected to the inboard edge of the bottom antenna plate. The power lost within the spirals is roughly estimated, showing that these field-aligned losses to the divertor are significant but may not account for the total HHFW loss. To elucidate the role of the onset layer for perpendicular fast-wave propagation with regards to fast-wave propagation in the SOL, a cylindrical cold-plasma model is being developed. This model, in addition to advanced RF codes such as TORIC and AORSA, is aimed at identifying the underlying mechanism(s) behind these SOL losses, to minimize their effects in NSTX-U, and to predict their importance in ITER.

Perkins, R. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ahn, Joonwook [ORNL; Bell, R. E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Bertelli, Nicola [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Diallo, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gerhardt, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Green, David L [ORNL; Jaeger, E. F. [XCEL; Hosea, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); LeBlanc, B [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Kramer, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); McLean, Adam G [ORNL; Maingi, Rajesh [ORNL; Phillips, C. K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Ryan, Philip Michael [ORNL; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia University; Scotti, F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Wilson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

SPUF - a simple polyurethane foam mass loss and response model.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A Simple PolyUrethane Foam (SPUF) mass loss and response model has been developed to predict the behavior of unconfined, rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam-filled systems exposed to fire-like heat fluxes. The model, developed for the B61 and W80-0/1 fireset foam, is based on a simple two-step mass loss mechanism using distributed reaction rates. The initial reaction step assumes that the foam degrades into a primary gas and a reactive solid. The reactive solid subsequently degrades into a secondary gas. The SPUF decomposition model was implemented into the finite element (FE) heat conduction codes COYOTE [1] and CALORE [2], which support chemical kinetics and dynamic enclosure radiation using 'element death.' A discretization bias correction model was parameterized using elements with characteristic lengths ranging from 1-mm to 1-cm. Bias corrected solutions using the SPUF response model with large elements gave essentially the same results as grid independent solutions using 100-{micro}m elements. The SPUF discretization bias correction model can be used with 2D regular quadrilateral elements, 2D paved quadrilateral elements, 2D triangular elements, 3D regular hexahedral elements, 3D paved hexahedral elements, and 3D tetrahedron elements. Various effects to efficiently recalculate view factors were studied -- the element aspect ratio, the element death criterion, and a 'zombie' criterion. Most of the solutions using irregular, large elements were in agreement with the 100-{micro}m grid-independent solutions. The discretization bias correction model did not perform as well when the element aspect ratio exceeded 5:1 and the heated surface was on the shorter side of the element. For validation, SPUF predictions using various sizes and types of elements were compared to component-scale experiments of foam cylinders that were heated with lamps. The SPUF predictions of the decomposition front locations were compared to the front locations determined from real-time X-rays. SPUF predictions of the 19 radiant heat experiments were also compared to a more complex chemistry model (CPUF) predictions made with 1-mm elements. The SPUF predictions of the front locations were closer to the measured front locations than the CPUF predictions, reflecting the more accurate SPUF prediction of mass loss. Furthermore, the computational time for the SPUF predictions was an order of magnitude less than for the CPUF predictions.

Hobbs, Michael L.; Lemmon, Gordon H.

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Nonuniform Alteration of cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum(II) Tissue Distribution in Dogs with Whole Body Hyperthermia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...and extent of tissue distribution seen in normothermia...pattern of CDDP tissue distribution, compared to normothermic...were 2075 CDDP TISSUE DISTRIBUTION AND HYPERTHERMIA stored...inserted into the radiant heat device (Enthermics...blankets to reduce heat loss during the heating period...

J. E. Riviere; R. L. Page; R. A. Rogers; S. K. Chang; M. W. Dewhirst; and D. E. Thrall

1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Unifying distribution functions: some lesser known distributions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that there is a way to unify distribution functions that describe simultaneously a signal in space and (spatial) frequency. Probably the most known of them is the Wigner distribution function. Here we show how to unify functions of the Cohen class, Rihacek's complex energy function, Husimi and Glauber-Sudarshan distribution functions.

Moya-Cessa, J R; Berriel-Valdos, L R; Aguilar-Loreto, O; Barberis-Blostein, P

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

The Ccr4-Not Complex Independently Controls both Msn2-Dependent Transcriptional Activation—via a Newly Identified Glc7/Bud14 Type I Protein Phosphatase Module—and TFIID Promoter Distribution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...subjected to heat stress, the distribution pattern of TBP...promoters. Loss of Not5 caused...Accordingly, loss of Not5 consistently...mentioning that the heat shock-induced changes in distribution of Taf8 (and...unaffected by the loss of Not5 (Table...

Eve Lenssen; Nicole James; Ivo Pedruzzi; Frédérique Dubouloz; Elisabetta Cameroni; Ruth Bisig; Laurent Maillet; Michel Werner; Johnny Roosen; Katarina Petrovic; Joris Winderickx; Martine A. Collart; Claudio De Virgilio

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Attractor Flows from Defect Lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Deforming a two dimensional conformal field theory on one side of a trivial defect line gives rise to a defect separating the original theory from its deformation. The Casimir force between these defects and other defect lines or boundaries is used to construct flows on bulk moduli spaces of CFTs. It turns out, that these flows are constant reparametrizations of gradient flows of the g-functions of the chosen defect or boundary condition. The special flows associated to supersymmetric boundary conditions in N=(2,2) superconformal field theories agree with the attractor flows studied in the context of black holes in N=2 supergravity.

Ilka Brunner; Daniel Roggenkamp

2010-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

335

Directed lines in sparse potentials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a continuum formulation of a (d+1)-dimensional directed line interacting with sparse potentials (i.e., d-dimensional potentials defined only at discrete longitudinal locations.) An iterative solution for the partition function is derived. The impulsive influence of the potentials induces discontinuities in the evolution of the probability density P(x,t) of the directed line. The effects of these discontinuities are studied in detail for the simple case of a single defect. We then investigate sparse columnar potentials defined as a periodic array of defects in (2+1) dimensions, and solve exactly for P. A nontrivial binding-unbinding transition is found.

T. J. Newman and A. J. McKane

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Objective determination of optimal power line designs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Includes abstract. The thesis investigated the possibility of overhead power line designs being decided by using an objective rather thana subjective method. Power lines are… (more)

Stephen, Robert G.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

What can emission lines tell us?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Generalities 2 Empirical diagnostics based on emission lines 3 Photoionization modelling 4 Pending questions 5 Appendix: Lists of useful lines and how to deal with them

G. Stasinska

2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

338

Article Published on LED Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Article Published on LED Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors Article Published on LED Lumen Maintenance and Light Loss Factors January 20, 2014 - 12:00am Addthis An article...

339

Draft 'Michigan Saves' Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A sample loan loss reserve agreement between a state or local government and a financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund. Author: State of Michigan

340

Transfer lines - stability and optimization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

During the LHC proton run 2011 large drifts, shot-by- shot and even bunch-by-bunch trajectory variations were observed with the consequence of high losses at injection and frequent lengthy trajectory correction campaigns. The different effects will be quantified and an estimate for downtime caused by them in 2011 will be given. The sources of the instabilities, solutions for 2012 and achievable improvements will be discussed. Possible future up- grades will also be mentioned.

Drosdal, L; Bartmann, W; Bracco, C; Goddard, B; Le Godec, G; Meddahi, M; Wenninger, J

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Grand Valley Rrl Pwr Line, Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Pwr Line, Inc Pwr Line, Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name Grand Valley Rrl Pwr Line, Inc Place Colorado Utility Id 7563 Utility Location Yes Ownership C NERC Location WECC NERC WECC Yes Activity Distribution Yes References EIA Form EIA-861 Final Data File for 2010 - File1_a[1] LinkedIn Connections CrunchBase Profile No CrunchBase profile. Create one now! This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI by expanding it. Utility Rate Schedules Grid-background.png Commercial and Small Power Service, Three Phase Schedule (25)-CSP-1 Commercial Farm and Home (Residential) Service Schedule (10)-FH-1 Residential Industrial Service Schedule (50) -IND-1 Industrial Irrigation Service Schedule (40)-I-1 Commercial Large Power Service Schedule (30) -LP-1 Industrial Nonresidential - General Schedule (20)-NRG-1 Commercial

342

A reactor core on-line monitoring program - COMP  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A program named COMP is developed for on-line monitoring PWRs' in-core power distribution in this paper. Harmonics expansion method is used in COMP. The Unit 1 reactor of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (Daya Bay NPP) in China is considered for verification. The numerical results show that the maximum relative error between measurement and reconstruction results from COMP is less than 5%, and the computing time is short, indicating that COMP is capable for online monitoring PWRs. (authors)

Wang, C. [State Nuclear Power Software Development Center, Beijing, 100029 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China); Building 1, Compound No.29, North Third Ring Road, Xicheng District, Beijing, 100029 (China); Wu, H.; Cao, L. [School of Nuclear Science and Technology, Xi'an Jiaotong Univ. (China)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Extension of the weak-line approximation and application to correlated-k methods  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global climate models require accurate and rapid computation of the radiative transfer through the atmosphere. Correlated-k methods are often used. One of the approximations used in correlated-k models is the weakline approximation. We introduce an approximation T/sub g/ which reduces to the weak-line limit when optical depths are small, and captures the deviation from the weak-line limit as the extinction deviates from the weak-line limit. This approximation is constructed to match the first two moments of the gamma distribution to the k-distribution of the transmission. We compare the errors of the weak-line approximation with T/sub g/ in the context of a water vapor spectrum. The extension T/sub g/ is more accurate and converges more rapidly than the weak-line approximation.

Conley, A.J.; Collins, W.D.

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

344

Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two Methods to Reduce Exergy Losses in a Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Reactor  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Efficient Conversion of Thermal Energy into Hydrogen: Comparing Two Methods to Reduce Exergy Losses in a Sulfuric Acid Decomposition Reactor ... The first design uses optimal control theory to obtain a more uniform distribution of the entropy production. ... This optimized design is found to perform the best, but it requires significant changes in the heating equipment in order to approximately realize the optimal temperature profiles. ...

Leen V. van der Ham; Joachim Gross; Ad Verkooijen; Signe Kjelstrup

2009-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

345

No age-related cell loss in three retinal nuclear layers of the Long-Evans rat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and photoreceptor cells which are distributed in the ganglion cell layer ~GCL!, inner nuclear layer ~INL! and outer. In this study, thus, we wanted to test whether there is an age-related cell loss in the GCL, INL and ONL to INL to GCL was preserved. Keywords: Cell number, Retina, Aging, Long-Evans rat, Stereological method

Zhou, Yi-Feng

346

Loss PreventionIBM Retail Store Solutions Executive Brief  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Loss PreventionIBM Retail Store Solutions Executive Brief Getting smarter about retail loss prevention. Wayne Truhan, business development executive, IBM Retail Store Solutions #12;2 Getting smarter about retail loss prevention. "With the downturn in the economy, we have seen an increase in theft

347

Cotton Insect Losses 1983 Compiled for National Cotton Council  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cotton Insect Losses 1983 Compiled for National Cotton Council Robert B. Head, Coordinator consultants and other personnel associated with cotton production. The Cotton Foundation provided funds their respective areas. Table 1 Alabama Cotton Insect Losses for 1983 Loss attributable to: Percent Bales Boll

Ray, David

348

Cotton Insect Losses 1991 Compiled for National Cotton Council  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cotton Insect Losses 1991 Compiled for National Cotton Council Robert B. Head, Chairman Cooperative to have produced the greatest pest related losses in U. S. cotton in 1991. Aphid losses reported at 2. This is true for sweet potato whiteflies. These insects have been pests of cotton in California and Arizona

Ray, David

349

Stark broadening of potassium lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently published Stark broadening data of potassium ns-4p and nd-4p lines have been reexamined. Newly derived data are compared with theoretical results obtained from a simple approximative formula. The experiment agrees with theoretical results, in average, within ±20%.

N. Konjevi?

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Coiled transmission line pulse generators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

McDonald, Kenneth Fox (Columbia, MO)

2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

351

AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRANSMISSION LOSS ALLOCATION FOR BILATERAL CONTRACTS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRANSMISSION LOSS ALLOCATION FOR BILATERAL CONTRACTS Rezaul to allocate transmission loss to respective transactions. An artificial neural network based transmission loss technique. Keywords: Neural network; transmission loss; loss allocation; bilateral contracts. 1

Saskatchewan, University of

352

Buoyancy driven flow in a hot water tank due to standby heat loss  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Results of experimental and numerical investigations of thermal behavior in a vertical cylindrical hot water tank due to standby heat loss of the tank are presented. The effect of standby heat loss on temperature distribution in the tank is investigated experimentally on a slim 150 l tank with a height to diameter ratio of 5. A tank with uniform temperatures and with thermal stratification is studied. A detailed computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the tank is developed to calculate the natural convection flow in the tank. The distribution of the heat loss coefficient for the different parts of the tank is measured by experiments and used as input to the CFD model. Water temperatures at different levels of the tank are measured and compared to CFD calculated temperatures. The investigations focus on validation of the CFD model and on understanding of the CFD calculations. The results show that the CFD model predicts satisfactorily water temperatures at different levels of the tank during cooling by standby heat loss. It is elucidated how the downward buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall is established by the heat loss from the tank sides and how the natural convection flow is influenced by water temperatures in the tank. When the temperature gradient in the tank is smaller than 2 K/m, there is a downward fluid velocity of 0.003–0.015 m/s. With the presence of thermal stratification the buoyancy driven flow is significantly reduced. The dependence of the velocity magnitude of the downward flow on temperature gradient is not influenced by the tank volume and is only slightly influenced by the tank height to tank diameter ratio. Based on results of the CFD calculations, an equation is determined to calculate the magnitude of the buoyancy driven flow along the tank wall for a given temperature gradient in the tank.

Jianhua Fan; Simon Furbo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Understanding the Impact of Return-current Losses on the X-Ray Emission from Solar Flares  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

I obtain and examine the implications of one-dimensional analytic solutions for return-current losses on an initially power-law distribution of energetic electrons with a sharp low-energy cutoff in flare plasma with classical (collisional) resistivity. These solutions show, for example, that return-current losses are not sensitive to plasma density, but are sensitive to plasma temperature and the low-energy cutoff of the injected nonthermal electron distribution. A characteristic distance from the electron injection site, x rc, is derived. At distances less than x rc the electron flux density is not reduced by return-current losses, but plasma heating can be substantial in this region, in the upper, coronal part of the flare loop. Before the electrons reach the collisional thick-target region of the flare loop, an injected power-law electron distribution with a low-energy cutoff maintains that structure, but with a flat energy distribution below the cutoff energy, which is now determined by the total potential drop experienced by the electrons. Modifications due to the presence of collisional losses are discussed. I compare these results with earlier analytical results and with more recent numerical simulations. Emslie's conjecture that there is a maximum integrated X-ray source brightness on the order of 10–15 photons cm–2 s–1 cm–2 is examined. I find that this is not actually the maximum brightness and its value is parameter dependent, but it is nevertheless a valuable benchmark for identifying return-current losses in hard X-ray spectra. I discuss an observational approach to identifying return-current losses in flare data, including identification of a return-current "bump" in X-ray light curves at low photon energies.

Gordon D. Holman

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF RETURN-CURRENT LOSSES ON THE X-RAY EMISSION FROM SOLAR FLARES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

I obtain and examine the implications of one-dimensional analytic solutions for return-current losses on an initially power-law distribution of energetic electrons with a sharp low-energy cutoff in flare plasma with classical (collisional) resistivity. These solutions show, for example, that return-current losses are not sensitive to plasma density, but are sensitive to plasma temperature and the low-energy cutoff of the injected nonthermal electron distribution. A characteristic distance from the electron injection site, x{sub rc}, is derived. At distances less than x{sub rc} the electron flux density is not reduced by return-current losses, but plasma heating can be substantial in this region, in the upper, coronal part of the flare loop. Before the electrons reach the collisional thick-target region of the flare loop, an injected power-law electron distribution with a low-energy cutoff maintains that structure, but with a flat energy distribution below the cutoff energy, which is now determined by the total potential drop experienced by the electrons. Modifications due to the presence of collisional losses are discussed. I compare these results with earlier analytical results and with more recent numerical simulations. Emslie's conjecture that there is a maximum integrated X-ray source brightness on the order of 10{sup -15} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} is examined. I find that this is not actually the maximum brightness and its value is parameter dependent, but it is nevertheless a valuable benchmark for identifying return-current losses in hard X-ray spectra. I discuss an observational approach to identifying return-current losses in flare data, including identification of a return-current 'bump' in X-ray light curves at low photon energies.

Holman, Gordon D., E-mail: Gordon.D.Holman@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

355

Annual Coal Distribution Report  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Distribution Report Release Date: December 19, 2013 | Next Release Date: December 12, 2014 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report...

356

Distribution Grid Integration  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

357

Optimal Control of Coal Segregation using On-line Analyzers R. Ganguli, J. C. Yingling, J. Sottile, Dept. of Mining Eng.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Optimal Control of Coal Segregation using On-line Analyzers R. Ganguli, J. C. Yingling, J 40506 ABSTRACT The capability for on-line measurement of the quality characteristics of conveyed coal of coal that must be washed at the mine and thereby reduces processing costs, recovery losses, and refuse

Kumar, Ratnesh

358

Electron energy loss spectroscopy of disilane  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Electron energy loss spectra of disilane have been recorded over an excitation energy range of 20 eV employing electrons of 20 and 200 eV incident energy for scattering angles of 0/sup 0/--90/sup 0/. Every transition detected except one appears at an energy consistent with the first observed members of Rydberg series converging to one of four possible ion states. The first two observed transitions belong to (2a/sub 1//sub g/)/sup 2/..-->../sup 1//sup ,//sup 3/(2a/sub 1//sub g/,4s) dipole forbidden channels appearing at excitation energies of )similarreverse arrowto)6.3 and 7.05 eV for the triplet and singlet, respectively. Evidence is presented for the identification of additional forbidden transitions as well as possible low-lying valence transition

Dillon, M.A.; Spence, D.; Boesten, L.; Tanaka, H.

1988-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

2003-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

360

Effect of strain on low-loss electron energy loss spectra of group-III nitrides  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Thin films of AlN experiencing different strain states were investigated with a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) by low-loss electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). The results conclude that the low-loss properties and in particular, the plasmon peak position is shifted as a direct consequence of the inherent strain of the sample. The results reveal that strain, even minor levels, can be measured by STEM-EELS. These results were further corroborated by full potential calculations and expanded to include the similar III nitrides GaN and InN. It is found that a unit-cell volume change of 1% results in a bulk plasmon peak shift of 0.159, 0.168, and 0.079 eV for AlN, GaN, and InN, respectively, according to simulations. The AlN peak shift was experimentally corroborated with a corresponding peak shift of 0.156 eV. The unit-cell volume is used here since it is found that regardless of in- and out-of-plane lattice augmentation, the low-loss properties appear near identical for constant volume. These results have an impact on the interpretation of the plasmon energy and its applicability for determining and separating stress and composition. It is found that while the bulk plasmon energy can be used as a measure of the composition in a group-III nitride alloy for relaxed structures, the presence of strain significantly affects such a measurement. The strain is found to have a lower impact on the peak shift for Al1-xInxN (?3% compositional error per 1% volume change) and In1-xGaxN alloys compared to significant variations for Al1-xGaxN (16% compositional error for 1% volume change). Hence a key understanding in low-loss studies of III nitrides is that strain and composition are coupled and affect one another.

J. Palisaitis; C.-L. Hsiao; M. Junaid; J. Birch; L. Hultman; P. O. Å. Persson

2011-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

On the accuracy of line-of-sight velocity measurements using telluric lines as reference lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is demonstrated that telluric lines H2O and O2 are displaced as much as 0.2 mÅ as the solar disk is being scanned. The temporal variations of such displacements have a quasi-periodic character.

N. I. Kobanov

1985-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Parton energy loss and momentum broadening at NLO in high temperature QCD plasmas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present an overview of a perturbative-kinetic approach to jet propagation, energy loss, and momentum broadening in a high temperature quark-gluon plasma. The leading-order kinetic equations describe the interactions between energetic jet-particles and a non-abelian plasma, consisting of on-shell thermal excitations and soft gluonic fields. These interactions include 22 scatterings, collinear bremsstrahlung, and drag and momentum diffusion. We show how the contribution from the soft gluonic fields can be factorized into a set of Wilson line correlators on the light cone. We review recent field-theoretical developments, rooted in the causal properties of these correlators, which simplify the calculation of the appropriate Wilson lines in thermal field theory. With these simplifications lattice measurements of transverse momentum broadening have become possible, and the kinetic equations describing parton transport have been extended to next-to-leading order in the coupling g.

Ghiglieri, Jacopo

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Imaging large vessels using cosmic-ray muon energy-loss techniques  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Imaging the internal structure of large vessels (2–20 m in diameter) is not possible with most traditional imaging methods. The sheer size renders gamma-ray and other high-energy photon, neutron, electrical and acoustic techniques useless, whilst the use of high-energy accelerators required to produce charged-particles of sufficient energy are impractical in most industrial situations. The use of naturally occurring high-energy (?GeV) cosmic-ray mu-mesons (muons) provides an effective solution to the penetration problem. The problems of low intensity at near-horizontal angles with the cosmic-ray muon flux are addressed by using energy-loss imaging methods. In other methodologies, using charge-particle energy-loss imaging techniques, only a few events are needed compared to many thousands required if attenuation measurements were to be employed. The energies of horizontal cosmic-ray muons are distributed largely between 0.1 and 1000 GeV with a mean energy of about 50 GeV. Radiation Transport Monte-Carlo methods (GEANT4) have been used to calculate the energy loss for a selection of industrial materials in the energy range of interest. The energy loss of the muons along a ray-sum are modelled and compared to attenuation losses along the ray-sum using energy resolving detectors in coincidence before and after the sample. The energy-loss spectra across different samples are measured, demonstrating that embedded materials can be identified with as few as 10 muons passing through the sample. It is proposed that the imaging modality can be extended into a full tomographic modality allowing material identification within each voxel.

P.M. Jenneson; W.B. Gilboy; S.J.R. Simons; S.J. Stanley; D. Rhodes

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Integration of Green Energy into Power Distribution Systems: Study of Impacts and Development of Control Methodology  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Distributed generation (DG) is gaining popularity as it has a positive environmental impact and the capability to reduce high transmission costs and power losses. Although the integration of renewable energy-base...

N. K. Roy; H. R. Pota

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Best Management Practice: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Best Management Practice: Distribution System Audits, Leak Best Management Practice: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair Best Management Practice: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair October 7, 2013 - 3:06pm Addthis A distribution system audit, leak detection, and repair programs help Federal facilities reduce water losses and make better use of limited water resources. Overview Federal facilities with large campus settings and expansive distribution systems can lose a significant amount of total water production and purchases to system leaks. Leaks in distribution systems are caused by a number of factors, including pipe corrosion, high system pressure, construction disturbances, frost damage, damaged joints, and ground shifting and settling. Regular distribution system leak detection surveys

366

Proposed Project: Plains & Eastern Clean Line  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

On June 10, 2010, the Department of Energy published in the Federal Register a Request for Proposals (RFP) for New or Upgraded Transmission Line Projects Under Section 1222 of the Energy Policy Act (EPAct) of 2005. In response, Clean Line Energy Partners, LLC submitted an application for its Plains & Eastern Clean Line project. DOE has concluded that Clean Line’s proposal was responsive to the RFP, and it is currently under consideration.

367

BOREAS Survey On-Line  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

FF33"> FF33"> BOREAS Survey On-Line To improve the BOREAS and BOREAS Follow-On data sets and to meet users' needs, we are conducting a survey. The BOREAS and BOREAS Follow-On data sets continue to be important products at the ORNL DAAC. To date we have provided over 8,000 data products from these projects to nearly 1,500 users. We invite you to fill out this survey, identifying any problems you had with the data and documentation or any difficulties you experienced in finding and acquiring the data sets. Information you provide will enable us to address problems that need attention. It will also help us determine which aspects of the BOREAS and BOREAS Follow-On information need to be expanded. You can complete the survey at the BOREAS Home Page. After you complete the on-line survey, submit your answers to the ORNL

368

Calculation of electric field and audible noise from transmission lines with non-parallel conductors  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to investigate the feasibility of using new transmission line configurations with non-parallel conductors, for managing magnetic field in critical areas, techniques are needed to assess the effects of different three-dimensional line arrangements on other important design parameters. A new method for calculation of electric field and corona-generated audible noise from non-parallel conductors is described and implemented as a computer tool. This method uses linearly varying line charges to simulate charge distribution along the axial direction of the transmission line. New algorithms are developed for calculating electric field and audible noise due to non-uniform line charges and illustrated by examples of low magnetic field transmission line designs.

Liu, Y. [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States)] [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA (United States); Zaffanella, L.E. [Enertech Consultants, Lee, MA (United States)] [Enertech Consultants, Lee, MA (United States)

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Fuzzy Bags and Wilson Lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I start with an elementary observation about the pressure in the deconfined phase of a SU(3) gauge theory without quarks. This suggests a ``fuzzy'' bag model for the analogous pressure in QCD, with dynamical quarks. I then sketch how the deconfined phase might be described using an effective theory of Wilson lines. To leading order in weak coupling, the effective electric field appears in a form familiar from the lattice theory of Banks and Ukawa.

Robert D. Pisarski

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

370

Dynamic roughening of directed lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We study the fluctuations of a stretched string, e.g., a vortex line, moving in a random medium. A pair of nonlinear equations are proposed to describe the evolution of longitudinal and transverse coordinates. The dynamic scaling of the fluctuations is studied analytically (by renormalization group) and numerically. In most cases the fluctuations are superdiffusive, governed by a dynamic exponent z=3/2.

Deniz Erta? and Mehran Kardar

1992-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

371

An examination of the costs and critical characteristics of electric utility distribution system capacity enhancement projects  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report classifies and analyzes the capital and total costs (e.g., income tax, property tax, depreciation, centralized power generation, insurance premiums, and capital financing) associated with 130 electricity distribution system capacity enhancement projects undertaken during 1995-2002 or planned in the 2003-2011 time period by three electric power utilities operating in the Pacific Northwest. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with participating utilities, has developed a large database of over 3,000 distribution system projects. The database includes brief project descriptions, capital cost estimates, the stated need for each project, and engineering data. The database was augmented by additional technical (e.g., line loss, existing substation capacities, and forecast peak demand for power in the area served by each project), cost (e.g., operations, maintenance, and centralized power generation costs), and financial (e.g., cost of capital, insurance premiums, depreciations, and tax rates) data. Though there are roughly 3,000 projects in the database, the vast majority were not included in this analysis because they either did not clearly enhance capacity or more information was needed, and not available, to adequately conduct the cost analyses. For the 130 projects identified for this analysis, capital cost frequency distributions were constructed, and expressed in terms of dollars per kVA of additional capacity. The capital cost frequency distributions identify how the projects contained within the database are distributed across a broad cost spectrum. Furthermore, the PNNL Energy Cost Analysis Model (ECAM) was used to determine the full costs (e.g., capital, operations and maintenance, property tax, income tax, depreciation, centralized power generation costs, insurance premiums and capital financing) associated with delivering electricity to customers, once again expressed in terms of costs per kVA of additional capacity. The projects were sorted into eight categories (capacitors, load transfer, new feeder, new line, new substation, new transformer, reconductoring, and substation capacity increase) and descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, total cost, number of observations, and standard deviation) were constructed for each project type. Furthermore, statistical analysis has been performed using ordinary least squares regression analysis to identify how various project variables (e.g., project location, the primary customer served by the project, the type of project, the reason for the upgrade, size of the upgrade) impact the unit cost of the project.

Balducci, Patrick J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; Fathelrahman, Eihab M.

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

In-line thermoelectric module  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

Pento, Robert (Algonquin, IL); Marks, James E. (Glenville, NY); Staffanson, Clifford D. (S. Glens Falls, NY)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

In-Line Thermoelectric Module  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an-in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions maybe perpendicular to the direction-of current flow through the module.

Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

1998-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

374

Scaling relations for contour lines of rough surfaces  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Equilibrium and nonequilibrium growth phenomena, e.g., surface growth, generically yields self-affine distributions. Analysis of statistical properties of these distributions appears essential in understanding statistical mechanics of underlying phenomena. Here, we analyze scaling properties of the cumulative distribution of iso-height loops (i.e., contour lines) of rough self-affine surfaces in terms of loop area and system size. Inspired by the Coulomb gas methods, we find the generating function of the area of the loops. Interestingly, we find that, after sorting loops with respect to their perimeters, Zipf-like scaling relations hold for ranked loops. Numerical simulations are also provided in order to demonstrate the proposed scaling relations.

M. A. Rajabpour and S. M. Vaez Allaei

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

375

Analysis of loss-of-flow transients in a pool-type LMFBR using SSC-P  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to have a general analytical capability for the safety evaluation of any proposed LMFBR system, the USNRC is sponsoring the development and validation of computer codes for both pool- and loop-type plants. The computer code for pool-type LMFBRs is designated SSC-P. This paper is concerned with the application of SSC-P to simulate loss-of-flow accident transients in a pool-type LMFBR. The models required for dynamic plant simulation are briefly highlighted. The system response is calculated for (1) a complete loss of electric power event, with scram, leading the plant into buoyancy-induced natural circulation, (2) a protected pipe rupture accident in the primary pump discharge line, and (3) an unprotected loss of off-site power event. For the last case, the predicted results from SSC-P are compared with the published results of Phenix behavior by NOVATOME.

Madni, I.K.; Cazzoli, E.G.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Delay of Light in an Optical Bottle Resonator with Nanoscale Radius Variation: Dispersionless, Broadband, and Low Loss  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown theoretically that an optical bottle resonator with a nanoscale radius variation can perform a multinanosecond long dispersionless delay of light in a nanometer-order bandwidth with minimal losses. Experimentally, a 3 mm long resonator with a 2.8 nm deep semiparabolic radius variation is fabricated from a 19???m radius silica fiber with a subangstrom precision. In excellent agreement with theory, the resonator exhibits the impedance-matched 2.58 ns (3 bytes) delay of 100 ps pulses with 0.44??dB/ns intrinsic loss. This is a miniature slow light delay line with the record large delay time, record small transmission loss, dispersion, and effective speed of light.

M. Sumetsky

2013-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

377

Energy Management of Steam Distribution Systems Through Energy Audits and Computerized Reporting Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ENERGY KANAGEKBNT OF STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS THROUGH BNKRGY AUDITS AND COItPlTl'ERIZED REPORTING PROGRAtIS NORMAN J. RIVERS and HARTIN MANDZUK Armstrong Machine Works, Inc. Three Rivers, Michigan ABSTRACT This presentation will highlight... the economic losses associated with steam distribution systems and how to establish good energy management programs to reduce energy cost by 15 to 25 percent. Recognizing energy losses in steam systems involves I 1. Steam lost through defective valves...

Rivers, N.; Mandzuk, N.

378

An investigation of simplified loss formula evaluation of total and incremental power system losses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Program ~ a o o ~ o a o o o o e a o o 11 Incremental Transmission Loss Calculation . . . . . . o 13 The Transmission System ~ a ~ o o ~ ~ o o o o o o 14 IVa RESULTS e ~ o a ~ ~ a a ~ e a o a ~ e ~ o a o o o IQ V SUMMARY a o o o a ~ o ~ a o 0 o o o ~ 0..., 1 X II tf g tf ff tf lt 4 0o9 50/ System Load ? Per Cent of Peak 1o06 f 1. 05 0 Xo1. 04 0 e 5 1, 03 1. 02 Ir 5 F. 1o01 4 tI 1o0 III II 0. 99 5 FIGURE IVa Simplified Loss Formula Evaluation of Pen- alty Faotor ? Bus 1 All...

Malinowski, James Henry

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

A numerical technique for the determination of the pressure distribution in the presence of convective motion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, . . . . . . . . . , SECTION 7 SUNMARY 'Page 48 REFERENCES. APPENDIX A. APPENDIX B. 51 52 55 APPENDIX C. 61 VITA 66 LIST OF FIGURRS Figure The finite difference grid over R. . 3. The matrix T n Actual potential temperature distribution, T, fcr the hydrostatic... case. 18 40 n distribution (solid line) and 9 distribution (dashed line) for the hydrostatic case. . . . . . , . . . . C. l. Solution surface for the motion case with y=l/10. Method of storage of values in arrays F and U. . . . 45 64 LIST...

Croft, Robert Landis

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

380

Process Refinements - Accounting for Motor-Fuel Losses  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Accounting for Motor-Fuel Losses Accounting for Motor-Fuel Losses Motor fuel may be lost by leakage from storage tanks, spillage, fire, or other means; in addition, measurement differences brought about by temperature or other conditions and meter faults can result in apparent losses. Because this lost fuel is neither consumed on the highway nor used for off-highway purposes, it presents a problem for determining the appropriate base for taxation. In the past, FHWA allowed States to report actual losses or a percentage loss, which was capped at 1%. Usage data for States that did not report losses were not adjusted by FHWA to account for losses. In addition, diesel losses were not considered significant and were not counted. During the reassessment meetings and in the Federal Register notice of August 17, 2000, it was recommended that actual diesel losses also be documented and reported. However, because diesel reporting accounts for actual on-highway fuel use, a reporting of diesel losses is unnecessary.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Minimizing energy losses in control valves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The pulp and paper industry uses massive amounts of energy, but it could reduce its electricity consumption by about 2,000 MW worldwide by simply optimizing the pumping of process liquids. Wasted pumping power can be significantly reduced by sizing pumps and control valves more accurately, and by using new methods of pump and valve selection. Combining the improved control valve's installed flow characteristic with state-of-the-art sizing and simulation programs ensures minimal pressure drop across the control valve without loss of accurate and reliable control in all process conditions. If accurate process condition information is available at the planning stage, even more significant pumping energy savings can be achieved. Moreover, reduced pressure drop across the control valve reduces the likelihood of valve cavitation. This, in turn, reduces the need for noise attenuation, preventing cavitation erosion, and repairing damage. To make the most of the advantages gained by using highly developed control valve sizing and selection programs, closer cooperation between process licensees, process users, and valve manufacturers is also required.

Niemela, I.; Pyotsia, J. (Neles-Jamesbury Oy, Helsinki (Finland))

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Detonation propagation in a high loss configuration  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work presents an experimental study of detonation wave propagation in tubes with inner diameters (ID) comparable to the mixture cell size. Propane-oxygen mixtures were used in two test section tubes with inner diameters of 1.27 mm and 6.35 mm. For both test sections, the initial pressure of stoichiometric mixtures was varied to determine the effect on detonation propagation. For the 6.35 mm tube, the equivalence ratio {phi} (where the mixture was {phi} C{sub 3}H{sub 8} + 50{sub 2}) was also varied. Detonations were found to propagate in mixtures with cell sizes as large as five times the diameter of the tube. However, under these conditions, significant losses were observed, resulting in wave propagation velocities as slow as 40% of the CJ velocity U{sub CJ}. A review of relevant literature is presented, followed by experimental details and data. Observed velocity deficits are predicted using models that account for boundary layer growth inside detonation waves.

Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shepherd, Joseph E [CALTECH

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings Thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings Title Thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-51860 Year of Publication 2003 Authors Diamond, Richard C., Craig P. Wray, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, Nance Matson, and Duo Wang Start Page Chapter Abstract Previous research suggests that HVAC thermal distribution systems in commercial buildings suffer from thermal losses, such as those caused by duct air leakage and poor duct location. Due to a lack of metrics and data showing the potentially large energy savings from reducing these losses, the California building industry has mostly overlooked energy efficiency improvements in this area. The purpose of this project is to obtain the technical knowledge needed to properly measure and understand the energy efficiency of these systems. This project has three specific objectives: to develop metrics and diagnostics for determining system efficiencies, to develop design and retrofit information that the building industry can use to improve these systems, and to determine the energy impacts associated with duct leakage airflows in an existing large commercial building. The primary outcome of this project is the confirmation that duct leakage airflows can significantly impact energy use in large commercial buildings: our measurements indicate that adding 15% duct leakage at operating conditions leads to an increase in fan power of about 25 to 35%. This finding is consistent with impacts of increased duct leakage airflows on fan power that have been predicted by previous simulations. Other project outcomes include the definition of a new metric for distribution system efficiency, the demonstration of a reliable test for determining duct leakage airflows, and the development of new techniques for duct sealing. We expect that the project outcomes will lead to new requirements for commercial thermal distribution system efficiency in future revisions of California's Title 24.

384

New live line tester for porcelain suspension insulators on high-voltage power lines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Suspension insulator assemblies known as insulator strings are used in overhead power transmission lines to mechanically support high-voltage conductors while providing adequate insulation to withstand switching and lightning overvoltages. Since the useful life in service of the individual insulator elements making up these strings is hard to predict, they must be verified periodically to insure that adequate line reliability is maintained at all times. Over the years many testing methods have been used for this purpose, each one with its own advantages and disadvantages. Until now at Hydro-Quebec, porcelain insulators had been tested by the buzz method which simply consists of applying a short-circuit to each insulator in a string and listening for a buzz-like sound indicating a good insulator. However, safety considerations that preclude short-circuiting insulators and other disadvantages of that method have led Hydro-Quebec to undertake and complete the development of a new insulator tester. The working principle of this new device is based on the automatic measurement and recording of the electric field along the insulator string which decreases considerably in front of an internally-shorted insulator. The tester is slid along the string while the insulators are counted automatically. The information from tests on up to 200 strings can be stored in the device to be later transferred in a host computer for interpretation and/or permanent storage. The new tester also gives information on voltage distribution along the insulator strings which can be useful for the design of future power transmission lines.

Vaillancourt, G.H.; St-Jean, M. (Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)); Bellerive, J.P. (Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)); Jean, C. (Positron Inc., Montreal, Quebec (Canada))

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Transferrin Binding to Two Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Lines: Characterization and Effect of 60-Hz Electromagnetic Fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate. 6522 MAGNETIC FIELD AND c-fos EXPRESSION...from center (mm) Fig. 1. Distributions of magnetic field intensity along the center line of a permanent magnet; (a) at the surface...

Jerry L. Phillips; Loyce Rutledge; and Wendell D. Winters

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

High-tide flight by wintering Dunlins (Calidris alpina): a weather-dependent trade-off between energy loss and predation risk  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ARTICLE High-tide flight by wintering Dunlins (Calidris alpina): a weather-dependent trade-off between energy loss and predation risk Dick Dekker Abstract: Migratory shorebirds wintering or staging on ocean coasts collect at high tide on roosting sites that remain above the flood line. However, some

388

Energy Loss and Charge Transfer of Argon in a Laser-Generated Carbon Plasma  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This Letter reports on the measurement of the energy loss and the projectile charge states of argon ions at an energy of 4??MeV/u penetrating a fully ionized carbon plasma. The plasma of ne?1020??cm-3 and Te?180??eV is created by two laser beams at ?Las=532??nm incident from opposite sides on a thin carbon foil. The resulting plasma is spatially homogenous and allows us to record precise experimental data. The data show an increase of a factor of 2 in the stopping power which is in very good agreement with a specifically developed Monte Carlo code, that allows the calculation of the heavy ion beam’s charge state distribution and its energy loss in the plasma.

A. Frank, A. Blaževi?, V. Bagnoud, M. M. Basko, M. Börner, W. Cayzac, D. Kraus, T. Heßling, D. H. H. Hoffmann, A. Ortner, A. Otten, A. Pelka, D. Pepler, D. Schumacher, An. Tauschwitz, and M. Roth

2013-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

389

Minimizing Energy Losses in Ducts | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Minimizing Energy Losses in Ducts Minimizing Energy Losses in Ducts Minimizing Energy Losses in Ducts June 24, 2012 - 5:45pm Addthis Placing ductwork in conditioned space can help reduce energy losses. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/SimplyCreativePhotography Placing ductwork in conditioned space can help reduce energy losses. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/SimplyCreativePhotography In new home construction or in retrofits, proper duct system design is critical. In recent years, energy-saving designs have sought to include ducts and heating systems in the conditioned space. Many existing duct systems lose a lot of energy from leakage and poor insulation, but you can reduce that loss by sealing and insulating your ducts. Existing ducts may also be blocked or may require simple upgrades.

390

Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss EIA Home > Petroleum > Petroleum Feature Articles Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss Printer-Friendly PDF Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss By Joanne Shore and John Hackworth1 Introduction The loss of almost 3 million barrels per day of crude oil production in Venezuela following a strike in December 2002 resulted in an increase in the world price of crude oil. However, in the short term, the volume loss probably affected the United States more than most other areas. This country receives more than half of Venezuela's crude and product exports, and replacing the lost volumes proved difficult. U.S. imports of Venezuelan crude oil dropped significantly in December 2002 relative to other years

391

Mud return line connector apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The preferred and illustrated embodiment is a connector adapted to be joined above a blowout preventer and below the rotary table of a drilling rig. It collects the annular flow of returned drilling mud and directs mud to an incorporated, radially directed connective nipple. It enables the blowout preventer to be adjusted in location relative to the drilling rig and further accommodates a variable level of drilling mud in the annular space. The radial nipple connects with a mud line extending at some radial direction with a slope causing the mud to flow by gravity from the annular space to remote located mud tanks.

Ward, B.N.

1981-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

392

Power Lines, Cancer, and Fear  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...hypothesized cause was exposure to extremely-low-frequency magnetic fields generated by the electrical current in power lines. Physicists understand these invisible fields well, but most physicians, parents, and patients do not. The movement of any electrical charge creates a magnetic field that can be measured... Over the past 18 years, there has been considerable interest in the possible link between electromagnetic fields and cancer, especially leukemia. The story of this highly publicized research has been marked by mystery, contradiction, and confusion. When ...

Campion E.W.

1997-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

393

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys of the coal industry and electric power generation industry. In addition, the report

394

Loss of Interferon-? Inducibility of TAP1 and LMP2 in a Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Line  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...well as the putative GAS site with extracts...T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, and...The transcription factor binding sites are...12902 Magnolia Drive, Tampa, FL 33612...IRF-E, IFN response factor element; IRF-1...inducible element; GAS, IFN--activated...

Susan E. Dovhey; Nilanjan S. Ghosh; and Kenneth L. Wright

2000-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

395

Water Loss Test Results for Lateral A Before and After Lining Hidalgo County Irrigation District No. 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Starting Depth (ft) Test ID in/day ft/day in/day ft/day ft 3 /ft 2 /hour gal/ft 2 /day SJ5 4.75 0.108 0.009 3.00 0.25 0.0076 1.36 The following tests were conducted after the segment was relined October 2004. SJ13 4.32 0.050 0.004 0.58 0.05 0.0016 0....0102 1.83 The following tests were conducted after the segment was relined October 2004. SJ12 3.88 0.050 0.004 2.79 0.233 0.0074 1.33 SJ14 4.50 0.140 0.012 0.65 0.054 0.0016 0.29 - 5 - Appendix A Detailed Test Results Lateral A-7...

Leigh, E.; Fipps, G.

396

Transmission-Line Metamaterial Design of an Embedded Line Source in a Ground Recess.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A transmission-line metamaterial design of a material-embedded electric line source radiating inside a ground recess is investigated. The media embedding the recessed line source are… (more)

EMIROGLU, CAGLAR D

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Resolving Molecular Line Emission from Protoplanetary Disks: Observational Prospects for Disks Irradiated by Infalling Envelopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular line observations that could resolve protoplanetary disks of ~100 AU both spatially and kinematically would be a useful tool to unambiguously identify these disks and to determine their kinematical and physical characteristics. In this work we model the expected line emission from a protoplanetary disk irradiated by an infalling envelope, addressing the question of its detectability with subarcsecond resolution. We adopt a previously determined disk model structure that gives a continuum spectral energy distribution and a mm intensity spatial distribution that are consistent with observational constraints of HL Tau. An analysis of the capability of presently working and projected interferometers at mm and submm wavelengths shows that molecular transitions of moderate opacity at these wavelengths (e.g., C17O lines) are good candidates for detecting disk lines at subarcsecond resolution in the near future. We suggest that, in general, disks of typical Class I sources will be detectable.

Jose F. Gomez; Paola D'Alessio

1999-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

398

Resolving Molecular Line Emission from Protoplanetary Disks Observational Prospects for Disks Irradiated by Infalling Envelopes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Molecular line observations that could resolve protoplanetary disks of ~100 AU both spatially and kinematically would be a useful tool to unambiguously identify these disks and to determine their kinematical and physical characteristics. In this work we model the expected line emission from a protoplanetary disk irradiated by an infalling envelope, addressing the question of its detectability with subarcsecond resolution. We adopt a previously determined disk model structure that gives a continuum spectral energy distribution and a mm intensity spatial distribution that are consistent with observational constraints of HL Tau. An analysis of the capability of presently working and projected interferometers at mm and submm wavelengths shows that molecular transitions of moderate opacity at these wavelengths (e.g., C17O lines) are good candidates for detecting disk lines at subarcsecond resolution in the near future. We suggest that, in general, disks of typical Class I sources will be detectable.

Gomes, J F; Gomez, Jose F.; Alessio, Paola D'

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Impact of extensive residential solar water heating on power system losses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

South Africa is in the grips of an electricity crisis. Currently, the bulk of power is produced at coal fired power stations which are located far from the large load centres. Solar energy is widely available in South Africa, and could be used to complement this coal based generation, and supply energy at the point of use. This paper aims to investigate the impact of residential solar water heating on power system transmission losses. Initially simulations were carried out in order to determine the impact of solar water heating on a household's electricity demand. These were done for households located in Cape Town, Johannesburg and Durban. A number of solar water heating installations in Cape Town were also monitored, in order to validate the simulation results. Lastly, a power system model was developed in order to investigate the possible impact of large-scale implementation of solar water heating, at varied penetration levels, on a transmission system. Using the model and the results obtained from the simulations, a utility impact analysis was carried out in order to determine the effect on transmission losses. It was concluded that large-scale implementation of solar water heating can be used as a means to alleviate loading and losses on power systems' transmission lines particularly during peak demand.

K.P. Ijumba; A.B. Sebitosi; P. Pillay; K. Folly

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Estimated Business Interruptions Losses of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A generalized framework of Economic Analysis of natural and man-made disasters is applied to the estimation of business interruption losses associated with an oil spill.… (more)

Vargas, Vanessa

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Charm production and energy loss at the LHC with ALICE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The latest results on the ALICE performance for production and in-medium QCD energy loss measurements of charm particles at the LHC are presented.

Andrea Dainese; for the ALICE Collaboration

2004-09-29T23:59:59.000Z

402

Optimisation of hysteretic losses in high-temperature superconducting wires.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Hysteretic loss optimisations through numerical simulation and subsequent experimental confirmation in transport current and background field measurements: ferromagnetic shielding and topological geometry optimisation is used… (more)

Krüger, Philipp

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Structuring Loan Loss Reserve Funds for Clean Energy Finance...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Loan loss reserve funds ("LRF"): * provide partial risk coverage to motivate commercial FIs to offer EERE finance products, pioneer new products, broaden access to finance,...

404

Correlation Of Surface Heat Loss And Total Energy Production...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Correlation Of Surface Heat Loss And Total Energy Production For Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Correlation...

405

Draft Michigan SAVES Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A sample LRF agreement between a grantee and an financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund.

406

Evaluation of friction loss in flexible and galvanized duct  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Friction Loss in Straight Runs of Duct (a'Ipha=0. 10). 21 Ill Static Pressure Data Converted to Equivalent Lengths. 23 IV Duncan's Multiple Range Test of Variability for Equivalent Lengths of 90 Degree Elbows (al pha=0. IO). 26 V Student t Test... because of the higher Friction losses obtained in the first 1. 5 hours of testing. The Investigators concluded that when flex'ible duct was properly installed the Friction losses compared reasonably well with the friction losses in galvanized duct. i...

Zimmermann, Carlos Michael Alberto

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

407

MagLab - Transmission Lines Tutorial  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Tweet Education Home > MagLab U > Interactive Tutorials Arrow Transmission Lines More than half a million miles of high-voltage transmission lines criss-cross the United States. If...

408

Potential Vorticity Anomalies Associated with Squall Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study involves observations and model simulations of potential vorticity anomalies in the wake of midlatitude squall lines. Using data from the Oklahoma–Kansas PRE-STORM experiment, we analyze potential vorticity fields near two squall lines—...

Rolf F. A. Hertenstein; Wayne H. Schubert

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Route selection and detailed line design  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The requirements for route selection and detailed line design of a high-voltage overhead line are established by the preparatory work, studies ... the required starting and terminal point of a transmission connec...

Dr.-Ing. Friedrich Kiessling; Dipl.-Ing. Peter Nefzger…

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design de...

Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Analysis and Design of Silicon Bipolar Distributed Oscillators Ali Hajimiri and Hui Wu  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Analysis and Design of Silicon Bipolar Distributed Oscillators Ali Hajimiri and Hui Wu Abstract, the design and modeling of the coplanar transmission lines for a 12 GHz distributed oscillator results for the 12 GHz distrib- uted VCO and a 17 GHz distributed oscillator will be given. Design of DVCO

Hajimiri, Ali

412

Approximation of inhomogeneous thermal lines via series connection of homogeneous thermal lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method is given for approximating an arbitrary inhomogeneous thermal line (ITL) as a series connection of homogeneous thermal lines (HTL). The method is compared with...

L. S. Eleinikova

1974-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Capillary electrophoresis-fluorescence line narrowing system (CE-FLNS) for on-line structural characterization  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is interfaced with low temperature fluorescence line-narrowing (FLN) spectroscopy for on-line structural characterization of separated molecular analytes. 21 figs.

Jankowiak, R.J.; Small, G.J.; Shields, P.A.

1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

414

Coal Distribution Database, 2006  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables Introduction The Coal Distribution Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing State. This Final 2009 Coal Distribution Report - Annual, supersedes the data contained in the four Quarterly Coal Distribution Reports previously issued for 2009. This report relies on the most current data available from EIA's various monthly, quarterly and annual surveys

415

CONSULTANT REPORT DISTRIBUTED GENERATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy Jobs Plan, Governor Brown established a 2020 goal of 12,000 megawatts of localized renewable energy development, or distributed generation, in California. In May 2012, Southern California Edison, renewables, interconnection, integration, electricity, distribution, transmission, costs. Please use

416

Distributed Wind 2015  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Distributed Wind 2015 is committed to the advancement of both distributed and community wind energy. This two day event includes a Business Conference with sessions focused on advancing the...

417

Title Line 2 Commercialization at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-exclusive or exclusive license (royalty free or royalty bearing) ­ Researchers sign acknowledgment #12;Title Title Line 2

Czarnecki, Krzysztof

418

Methods of Using Existing Wire Lines (power lines, phone lines, internet lines) for Totally Secure Classical Communication Utilizing Kirchoff's Law and Johnson-like Noise  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We outline some general solutions to use already existing and currently used wire lines, such as power lines, phone lines, internet lines, etc, for the unconditionally secure communication method based on Kirchoff's Law and Johnson-like Noise (KLJN). Two different methods are shown. One is based on filters used at single wires and the other one utilizes a common mode voltage superimposed on a three-phase powerline.

Laszlo B. Kish

2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

419

Distribution Drive | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Drive Drive Jump to: navigation, search Name Distribution Drive Place Dallas, Texas Zip 75205 Product Biodiesel fuel distributor. Coordinates 32.778155°, -96.795404° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":32.778155,"lon":-96.795404,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

420

Comment to the article "Temperature dependence of ultracold neutron loss rates" E.Korobkina et al., PRB 70,035409  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In work [1] ("Temperature dependence of ultracold neutron loss rates" E.Korobkina et al., PRB 70,035409) results of measurement of temperature dependence of losses of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a range from 4 K to 300 K at UCN storage in a copper trap are presented. At interpretation of experimental data it was artificially considered only the difference of losses rate 1/tau(T)= 1/tau_exp(T)- 1/tau_exp(10K), (tau - UCN storage time in the trap). It has been accepted for temperature dependence of losses which changes from 0 to 3.3*10-4 per one collision of UCN with a trap surface. However, the analysis of raw experimental data shows that in a trap at temperature 10 K there is losses 1.0*10-3 per collision. They are considerably (in 3 times) more than discussed temperature dependence and almost 10 times more than losses due to capture cross section on copper. It is the most probable that these losses are connected with leakage of UCN through a slit of trap shutter. Change of the size of a slits on 25% at change of temperature from 300K to 10K can quite explain discussed temperature dependence. Certainly, hydrogen is present on a surface, but as it was shown at work [2] (V.P.Alfimenkov et al., JETP., Vol. 55, No. 2 25 Jan.1992) temperature dependence in 3 times lower, even on the undegased surfaces than on the degassed and deuterated surface in work [1]. At last, deuteration of a trap surface allows almost completely to suppress temperature dependence connected with presence of hydrogen [2]. The conclusion of work [1] is that hydrogen is localized on a surface in the form of a film, instead of distribution in the surface substance. This conclusion contradicts results of measurement of energy dependence of UCN losses in work [2]. More detailed analysis of work [1] and works [2] is presented below.

A. Serebrov

2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Gamma ray lines: what will they tell us about SUSY?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Neutralino dark matter can be indirectly detected by observing the gamma ray lines from the annihilation processes XX-->gg and XX-->gZ. In this paper we study the implications that the observation of these two lines could have for the determination of the supersymmetric parameter space. Within the minimal supergravity framework, we find that, independently of the dark matter distribution in the Galaxy, such observations by themselves would allow to differentiate between the coannihilation region, the funnel region, and the focus point region. As a result, several restrictions on the msugra parameters can be derived. Within a more general MSSM scenario, we show that the observation of gamma-ray lines might be used to discriminate between a bino-, a wino-, and a higgsino-like neutralino, with important consequences for cosmology and for models of supersymmetry breaking. The detection of the gamma ray lines, therefore, will not only provide an unmistakable signature of dark matter, it will also open a new road toward the determination of supersymmetric parameters.

Carlos E. Yaguna

2009-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

422

X-RAY EMISSION LINE PROFILES FROM WIND CLUMP BOW SHOCKS IN MASSIVE STARS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consequences of structured flows continue to be a pressing topic in relating spectral data to physical processes occurring in massive star winds. In a preceding paper, our group reported on hydrodynamic simulations of hypersonic flow past a rigid spherical clump to explore the structure of bow shocks that can form around wind clumps. Here we report on profiles of emission lines that arise from such bow shock morphologies. To compute emission line profiles, we adopt a two-component flow structure of wind and clumps using two 'beta' velocity laws. While individual bow shocks tend to generate double-horned emission line profiles, a group of bow shocks can lead to line profiles with a range of shapes with blueshifted peak emission that depends on the degree of X-ray photoabsorption by the interclump wind medium, the number of clump structures in the flow, and the radial distribution of the clumps. Using the two beta law prescription, the theoretical emission measure and temperature distribution throughout the wind can be derived. The emission measure tends to be power law, and the temperature distribution is broad in terms of wind velocity. Although restricted to the case of adiabatic cooling, our models highlight the influence of bow shock effects for hot plasma temperature and emission measure distributions in stellar winds and their impact on X-ray line profile shapes. Previous models have focused on geometrical considerations of the clumps and their distribution in the wind. Our results represent the first time that the temperature distribution of wind clump structures are explicitly and self-consistently accounted for in modeling X-ray line profile shapes for massive stars.

Ignace, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN 37614 (United States); Waldron, W. L. [Eureka Scientific Inc., 2452 Delmer Street, Oakland, CA 94602 (United States); Cassinelli, J. P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Burke, A. E., E-mail: ignace@etsu.edu, E-mail: wwaldron@satx.rr.com, E-mail: cassinelli@astro.wisc.edu, E-mail: burke.alexander@gmail.com [990 Washington Street 317, Dedham, MA 02026 (United States)

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Direct optoelectronic generation and detection of sub-ps-electrical pulses on sub-mm-coaxial transmission lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct optoelectronic generation and detection of sub-ps-electrical pulses on sub efficient direct optoelectronic generation of sub-ps-THz pulses on 50 coaxial transmission lines with a 330 with an optoelectronic antenna having sub-ps-time resolution. We observed low-loss, single transverse electromagnetic

424

Kant and Parallel Lines Jeremy Heis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Kant and Parallel Lines Jeremy Heis University of California, Irvine HOPOS 2010 #12;Kant. #12;Two interesting issues 1. Was Kant aware of the problems posed to geometry by parallel lines? Did to geometry by parallel lines? Did he reflect on these problems? 2. Did these two "Euclidean" features of Kant

Barrett, Jeffrey A.

425

Stark broadening of Pb IV spectral lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Article Stark broadening of Pbiv spectral lines Rafik Hamdi 1 Nabil Ben Nessib 2 3 Milan...parameters have been calculated for 114 spectral lines of triply charged lead ion (Pbiv) using...electron density of 10173. The studied lines correspond to transitions between the configurations......

Rafik Hamdi; Nabil Ben Nessib; Milan S. Dimitrijevic; Sylvie Sahal-Bréchot

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of Cancer Cell Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Molecular Evolutionary Analysis of Cancer Cell Lines Yan Zhang 1 Michael J. Italia 2 Kurt R...phylogenetic analysis of 353 cancer cell lines based on multiple sequence alignments of...Reconstructed phylogenetic trees cluster cell lines by shared DNA variant patterns rather than...

Yan Zhang; Michael J. Italia; Kurt R. Auger; Wendy S. Halsey; Stephanie F. Van Horn; Ganesh M. Sathe; Michal Magid-Slav; James R. Brown; Joanna D. Holbrook

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Stability of ice-sheet grounding lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...81 73 Stability of ice-sheet grounding lines Richard F. Katz 1 * M. Grae Worster 2...ice sheets are sensitive to grounding-line position and variation, characteristics...models. We present a theory for grounding-line dynamics in three spatial dimensions and...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Minimal surfaces bounded by elastic lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...117 Minimal surfaces bounded by elastic lines L. Giomi 1 L. Mahadevan 1 2 * * Author...a minimal surface bounded by an elastic line: the Euler-Plateau problem. We use...a minimal surface bounded by an elastic line. The competition between the surface tension...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Spectral Theory for Nonconservative Transmission Line Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spectral Theory for Nonconservative Transmission Line Networks Robert Carlson Department The global theory of transmission line networks with nonconserva- tive junction conditions is developed from is determined. Specialized results are developed for rational graphs. 1 #12;1 Introduction The transmission line

Carlson, Bob

430

Transmission Line MTF: Magnetized Target Fusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Transmission Line MTF: Magnetized Target Fusion Initial target: preheated & magnetized Subsequent for the FRC. Abstract Block Diagram theta coil transmission line Bias cap. bank maincapacitor inductor PI cap compression to fusion conditions Magnetic field of at least 5 T in a closed-field line topology Density ~ 1017

431

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SONICS AND ULTRASONICS, VOL. SU-29,NO. 2, MARCH 1982 69 Ultrasonic Heating Distribution in Lossy Cylinders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

struct-The distribution of heatgeneration by viscous loss in in- finitely long cylinders and spheres therelatively high levelsof localized heat gen- eration that can result from the nonuniformwave distributions the distribution and amount of heat generationin lossy tissue for thespecific case of longitudinal and shear

Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, University of

432

Distribution Integrity Management Plant (DIMP)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document is the distribution integrity management plan (Plan) for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 192, Subpart P Distribution Integrity Management Programs (DIMP) for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan was developed by reviewing records and interviewing LANL personnel. The records consist of the design, construction, operation and maintenance for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. The records system for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System is limited, so the majority of information is based on the judgment of LANL employees; the maintenance crew, the Corrosion Specialist and the Utilities and Infrastructure (UI) Civil Team Leader. The records used in this report are: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) 7100.1-1, Report of Main and Service Line Inspection, Natural Gas Leak Survey, Gas Leak Response Report, Gas Leak and Repair Report, and Pipe-to-Soil Recordings. The specific elements of knowledge of the infrastructure used to evaluate each threat and prioritize risks are listed in Sections 6 and 7, Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization respectively. This Plan addresses additional information needed and a method for gaining that data over time through normal activities. The processes used for the initial assessment of Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization are the methods found in the Simple, Handy Risk-based Integrity Management Plan (SHRIMP{trademark}) software package developed by the American Pipeline and Gas Agency (APGA) Security and Integrity Foundation (SIF). SHRIMP{trademark} uses an index model developed by the consultants and advisors of the SIF. Threat assessment is performed using questions developed by the Gas Piping Technology Company (GPTC) as modified and added to by the SHRIMP{trademark} advisors. This Plan is required to be reviewed every 5 years to be continually refined and improved. Records for all piping system installed after the effective date of this Plan will be captured and retained in the UI records documentation system. Primary Utility Asbuilts are maintained by Utilities Mapping (UMAP) and additional records are maintained on the N drive. Engineering Change Notices (ECNs) are stored on the N drive under configuration management and kept up by Utilities and Infrastructure Division Office (UI-DO). Records include, at a minimum, the location where new piping and appurtenances are installed and the material of which they are constructed.

Gonzales, Jerome F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

433

A Simple General Relationship between the Dielectric Losses Measured on Divided Solids and Adsorption Thermodynamic  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The choice of a distribution function Pj allowing a description of dielectric losses due to adsorption on divided solids is discussed below. ... The measurement is as follows:? during a programmed heating process, the current is produced in an electric circuit by a solid previously polarized and placed between the armatures of a condensator. ... In our case, we have taken Vd = 0. (iv) With the same depolarization tension Vd, the system is heated, and one records the current created by the depolarization of the solid. ...

J. C. Giuntini; V. Mouton; J. V. Zanchetta; J. M. Douillard; J. Niezette; J. Vanderschueren

1997-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

434

Resistivity and Energy Flow in a Plasma Undergoing Magnetic-Field-Line Reconnection  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Detailed time- and space-resolved measurements of the electric fields and currents have been made in a laboratory plasma undergoing magnetic-field-line reconnection. The resistivity normalized to the classical value is found to be spatially inhomogeneous (10loss.

N. Wild; W. Gekelman; R. L. Stenzel

1981-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

435

Nuclear vorticity and the low-energy nuclear response - Towards the neutron drip line  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The transition density and current provide valuable insight into the nature of nuclear vibrations. Nuclear vorticity is a quantity related to the transverse transition current. In this work, we study the evolution of the strength distribution, related to density fluctuations, and the vorticity strength distribution, as the neutron drip line is approached. Our results on the isoscalar, natural-parity multipole response of Ni isotopes, obtained by using a self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock + Continuum RPA model, indicate that, close to the drip line, the low-energy response is dominated by L>1 vortical transitions.

P. Papakonstantinou; J. Wambach; E. Mavrommatis; V. Yu. Ponomarev

2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

436

Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar abundance problem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Solar models calibrated with the new element abundance mixture of Asplund et al. published in 2005 no longer produce good agreement with the sound speed, convection zone depth, and convection zone helium abundance inferred from solar oscillation data. Attempts to modify the input physics of the standard model, for example, by including enhanced diffusion, increased opacities, accretion, convective overshoot, or gravity waves have not restored the good agreement attained with the prior abundances. Here we present new models including early mass loss via a stronger solar wind. Early mass loss has been investigated prior to the solar abundance problem to deplete lithium and resolve the 'faint early sun problem'. We find that mass loss modifies the core structure and deepens the convection zone, and so improves agreement with oscillation data using the new abundances: however the amount of mass loss must be small to avoid destroying all of the surface lithium, and agreement is not fully restored. We also considered the prospects for increasing solar interior opacities. In order to increase mixture opacities by the 30% required to mitigate the abundance problem, the opacities of individual elements (e.g., O, N, C, and Fe) must be revised by a factor of two to three for solar interior conditions: we are investigating the possibility of broader calculated line wings for bound-bound transitions at the relevant temperatures to enhance opacity. We find that including all of the elements in the AGS05 opacity mixture (through uranium at atomic number Z=92) instead of only the 17 elements in the OPAL opacity mixture increases opacities by a negligible 0.2%.

Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keady, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kilcrease, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

Gray, K.E.

1988-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

438

Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

Rhodes, Mark A. (Pleasanton, CA)

2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

439

Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ballard, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, M. Collins (Albuquerque, NM); Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Superconducting transmission line particle detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Microfluidic exergy loss in a non-polarized thermomagnetic field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Microfluidic exergy loss in a non-polarized thermomagnetic field G.F. Naterer *, O.B. Adeyinka 28 June 2005 Abstract In this article, exergy losses of fluid motion in a microchannel are investigated. Thermal, friction and electromagnetic irreversibilities contribute to the total rate of exergy

Naterer, Greg F.

442

The efficiency of voluntary incentive policies for preventing biodiversity loss  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biodiversity Conservation Land use Spatial modeling A B S T R A C T Habitat loss is a primary cause of loss of biodiversity but conserving habitat for species presents challenges. Land parcels differ in their ability conservation objectives. This topic is important not just for biodiversity conservation but for any effort

Weiblen, George D

443

Electron energy-loss spectrum of nanowires G. F. Bertsch  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electron energy-loss spectrum of nanowires G. F. Bertsch Institute of Nuclear Theory and Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 Received 8 May 1998 The electronic properties of nanoscale-size fibers can be studied by electron energy-loss spectroscopy with electron beams that pass near the fiber

Bertsch George F.

444

Impacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fisheries data to test how biodiversity loss affects marine ecosystem services across temporal and spatial the effects of changes in marine biodiversity on fundamental ecosystem services by combining available dataImpacts of Biodiversity Loss on Ocean Ecosystem Services Boris Worm,1 * Edward B. Barbier,2 Nicola

Stachowicz, Jay

445

Testing Results of Magnetostrictive Ultrasonic Sensor Cables for Signal Loss  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this test was to determine the signal strength and resolution losses of a magnetostrictive ultrasonic system with an extended signal cable. The cable of interest carries electrical signals between the pulse generator/receiver and the magnetostrictive transducer. It was desired to determine the loss introduced by different lengths of the signal cable (6', 100', and 200').

JT Evans

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Energy loss of light ions in different carbon compounds  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Experimental data on the energy loss of light H, Li, B, and N ions ... have been presented for the range of ion energies from 0.01 to 0.6 MeV/nucleon. It has been shown that the energy loss in the compounds does ...

Yu. A. Belkova; Ya. A. Teplova

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

Greenwood, R.E.

448

Separation of magnetic field lines  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The field lines of magnetic fields that depend on three spatial coordinates are shown to have a fundamentally different behavior from those that depend on two coordinates. Unlike two-coordinate cases, a flux tube in a magnetic field that depends on all three spatial coordinates that has a circular cross section at one location along the tube characteristically has a highly distorted cross section at other locations. In an ideal evolution of a magnetic field, the current densities typically increase. Crudely stated, if the current densities increase by a factor {sigma}, the ratio of the long to the short distance across a cross section of a flux tube characteristically increases by e{sup 2{sigma}}, and the ratio of the longer distance to the initial radius increases as e{sup {sigma}}. Electron inertia prevents a plasma from isolating two magnetic field structures on a distance scale shorter than c/{omega}{sub pe}, which is about 10 cm in the solar corona, and reconnection must be triggered if {sigma} becomes sufficiently large. The radius of the sun, R{sub Circled-Dot-Operator }=7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10}cm is about e{sup 23} times larger, so when {sigma} Greater-Than-Or-Equivalent-To 23, two lines separated by c/{omega}{sub pe} at one location can be separated by the full scale of any magnetic structures in the corona at another. The conditions for achieving a large exponentiation, {sigma}, are derived, and the importance of exponentiation is discussed.

Boozer, Allen H. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

449

Acoustic quality factor and energy losses in cylindrical pipes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The quality factor Q of a damped oscillator equals 2? times the ratio of stored energy to the energy dissipated per cycle. This makes Q a sensitive probe of energy losses. Using modest equipment we measured the acoustical Q for a set of cylindrical pipes having the same resonant frequency but different diameters D. The graph of Q vs D could be well fitted with two parameters one of which corresponds to energy loss via radiation from the ends of the pipe and the other to thermal and viscous losses very close to the pipe wall. The wall loss parameter was quite constant no matter where the pipes were located but the radiative loss parameter varied significantly with location inside a room suggesting that room reflections affected the sound radiated from the pipe. This study offers valuable insights at no great expense and could be the basis of an upper-division undergraduatelaboratory experiment.

Michael J. Moloney; Daniel L. Hatten

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Long term distribution network planning considering urbanity uncertainties  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper addresses the problem of long term distribution network planning under urbanity uncertainties. Unpredictable urbanity plans are expected facts in developing/under developed countries. This type of uncertainties make it difficult to implement designed network in the future and leads to increasing operational costs including loss and outage costs. In this paper we presented a novel approach for distribution network planning which in addition of eliminating harmful effects of urbanity uncertainties, leads to easy management and operation of resulted network. In this approach several points of study region with high accessibility are selected as candidate embranchment points and optimal connection configuration of load points to the embranchment points is determined by genetic algorithm considering investment, loss and also customer interruption costs. Afterward, final structure of network is designed by branch exchange method considering the embranchment points as representative to load points in their service area. The performance of the proposed approach is assessed on a test distribution network.

Javad Salehi; Mahmoud-Reza Haghifam

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Method and apparatus for reducing the harmonic currents in alternating-current distribution networks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method reduce the harmonic content of AC line and neutral line currents in polyphase AC source distribution networks. The apparatus and method employ a polyphase Zig-Zag transformer connected between the AC source distribution network and a load. The apparatus and method also employs a mechanism for increasing the source neutral impedance of the AC source distribution network. This mechanism can consist of a choke installed in the neutral line between the AC source and the Zig-Zag transformer. 23 figs.

Beverly, L.H.; Hance, R.D.; Kristalinski, A.L.; Visser, A.T.

1996-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

452

Method and apparatus for reducing the harmonic currents in alternating-current distribution networks  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method reduce the harmonic content of AC line and neutral line currents in polyphase AC source distribution networks. The apparatus and method employ a polyphase Zig-Zag transformer connected between the AC source distribution network and a load. The apparatus and method also employs a mechanism for increasing the source neutral impedance of the AC source distribution network. This mechanism can consist of a choke installed in the neutral line between the AC source and the Zig-Zag transformer.

Beverly, Leon H. (Lockport, IL); Hance, Richard D. (Elburn, IL); Kristalinski, Alexandr L. (Naperville, IL); Visser, Age T. (Geneva, IL)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Coal Distribution Coal Distribution Home > Coal> Quarterly Coal Distribution Back Issues Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: June 27, 2013 Next Release Date: September 2013 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf October-December pdf xls pdf 2010 January-March pdf xls pdf xls April-June pdf xls pdf xls July-September pdf xls pdf xls

454

Line Extension Alternatives | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Line Extension Alternatives Line Extension Alternatives Line Extension Alternatives < Back Eligibility Utility Savings Category Energy Sources Buying & Making Electricity Solar Wind Program Info State Vermont Program Type Line Extension Analysis Provider Vermont Department of Public Service The Public Service Board (PSB) of Vermont developed rules regarding utility line extension requests. While the majority of the rules focus on the procedure followed (and associated fees) for the actual line extensions, the PSB also included a provision that requires the electric utilities to provide written information to customers about off-grid electricity generators as an alternative to line extensions. The PSB recognized that in many cases off-grid electricity generators are less expensive than

455

Line Extension Analysis | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Line Extension Analysis Line Extension Analysis Jump to: navigation, search When a prospective electric customer requests service for a home or facility that is not currently serviced by the electric grid, the customer usually must pay a distance-based fee for the cost of extending power lines to the home or facility. In many cases, it is cheaper to use an on-site renewable energy system to meet a prospective customer’s electricity needs. Certain states require utilities to provide information regarding renewable energy options when prospective customers request a line extension. [1] Line Extension Analysis Incentives CSV (rows 1 - 12) Incentive Incentive Type Place Applicable Sector Eligible Technologies Active Authorization of Line Extension (Nebraska) Line Extension Analysis Nebraska Agricultural

456

Estes-Flatiron Transmission Line Rebuild  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Estes-Flatiron Transmission Line Rebuild Estes-Flatiron Transmission Line Rebuild Skip Navigation Links Transmission Functions Infrastructure projects Interconnection OASIS OATT Estes-Flatiron Transmission Line Rebuild Project Western Area Power Administration proposes to rebuild approximately 32 miles of double wood-pole structure 115-kilovolt transmission line that exists between Estes Park and Flatiron Reservoir in Larimer County, Colo. The proposal would remove 16 miles of transmission line, and modernize 16 miles to steel-pole double-circuit 115-kV transmission line. The reduction and modernizing of transmission lines will occur on Federal, state and private lands. The public parcels are administered by the Arapaho and Roosevelt National Forest, which is a cooperating agency in the project.

457

Distributed Power Electronics for PV Systems (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An overview of the benefits and applications of microinverters and DC power optimizers in residential systems. Some conclusions from this report are: (1) The impact of shade is greater than just the area of shade; (2) Additional mismatch losses include panel orientation, panel distribution, inverter voltage window, soiling; (3) Per-module devices can help increase performance, 4-12% or more depending on the system; (4) Value-added benefits (safety, monitoring, reduced design constraints) are helping their adoption; and (5) The residential market is growing rapidly. Efficiency increases, cost reductions are improving market acceptance. Panel integration will further reduce price and installation cost. Reliability remains an unknown.

Deline, C.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

A straight-line strain method of analyzing reveted and bolted connections loaded with torsion into the plastic region  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

- sis, which assumes a straight-line stress distribution ~ 0 0-+ C+- 6? Fig ~ 33 ~ R i vet pattern for problems 1 z 2, 3. Problem 1 Four AD 4 rivets in ~ 032 in ~ 2024-T3 Alclad sheets as shown in Fig- (33) Anal sis assumin a strai ht-line strain...)(270)( ~ 2)) = 6/8 in. -lbs. 42 Anal sis assumin a strai ht-line stress distribution P r, max i Eq ~ (2) reduces to Pi 1' or uni f orm r i vet or bo1 t max diameter, and constant sheet thickness. Then (374)(. 25) 2 3 = 124 1bs. 75 Test Tm = (2...

Welch, Billy Jack

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

459

DistributionDrive | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

DistributionDrive DistributionDrive Jump to: navigation, search Name DistributionDrive Place Addison, Texas Zip 75001 Product Supplier of Biodiesel, Straight Vegetable Oil (SVO), Recycled Vegetable Oil (WVO) and Engine Conversion Kits to use this fuels. Coordinates 38.477365°, -80.412149° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":38.477365,"lon":-80.412149,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

460

Nord Distribution Solaire | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Nord Distribution Solaire Nord Distribution Solaire Jump to: navigation, search Name Nord Distribution Solaire Place Roubaix, France Zip 59100 Sector Solar Product An installation company for solar passive and PV system in the North of France. Coordinates 50.691705°, 3.1752° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":50.691705,"lon":3.1752,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Distributed Generation Systems Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Distributed Generation Systems Inc Distributed Generation Systems Inc Name Distributed Generation Systems Inc Address 200 Union Blvd Place Lakewood, Colorado Zip 80228 Sector Wind energy Product Developer of electricity generation wind power facilities Website http://www.disgenonline.com/ Coordinates 39.718048°, -105.1324055° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":39.718048,"lon":-105.1324055,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

462

Enhanced Transmission Line Theory: Frequency-Dependent Line Parameters And Their Insertion in a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Enhanced Transmission Line Theory: Frequency- Dependent Line Parameters And Their Insertion in a Classical Transmission Line Equation Solver S. Chabane, P. Besnier IETR: Institute of Electronics--In this paper, a modified enhanced transmission- line theory taking into account higher-order modes is described

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

463

Submitted to the Astrophysical Journal Emission measure distribution in loops impulsively heated at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Submitted to the Astrophysical Journal Emission measure distribution in loops impulsively heated balance under the e#ects of steady heating, heat flux and radiative losses, with the magnetic field only by the evidence of sharply peaked emission measure distributions in active stars, and by the claims of isothermal

464

Inferring Black Carbon Concentrations in Particulate Organic Matter by Observing Pyrene Fluorescence Losses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inferring Black Carbon Concentrations in Particulate Organic Matter by Observing Pyrene Fluorescence Losses ... For example, most atmospheric scientists are interested in the “blackness” of aerosols and the resultant effect on the radiative heat balance (3, 7), while oceanographers and soil scientists are interested in the refractory properties of BC in soils and sediments influencing its role in carbon cycling (5). ... Studies since the late 1970s and early 1980s have suggested that absorption into biogenic and diagenetic organic matter is a key process controlling the fate and effects of hydrophobic organic pollutants (8, 9), and this process has been described using a linear sorption model where Kd is the solid?water distribution coefficient (L/kgsolid), and this parameter is estimated using the product of the total organic carbon (TOC) fraction (fTOC, kgTOC/kgsediment) and the TOC-normalized distribution coefficient (KTOC, L/kgTOC). ...

D. Xanat Flores-Cervantes; Christopher M. Reddy; Philip M. Gschwend

2009-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

465

Numerical analysis of the influence of inclination angle and wind on the heat losses of cavity receivers for solar thermal power towers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The convective heat losses of cavity receivers for solar thermal power towers are of great importance for the overall efficiency of the whole system. However, the influence of wind on these losses has not been studied sufficiently for large scale cavity receivers with different inclination angles. In this present study the impact of head-on and side-on wind on large cavity receivers with inclination angles in the range of 0° (horizontal cavity) to 90° (vertical cavity) is analyzed numerically. The simulation results are compared to data published in literature. When no wind is present the losses decrease considerably with increasing inclination angle of the receiver. In case of a horizontal receiver wind does not have a huge impact on the losses: they remain constant on a high level. In case of an inclined cavity wind increases the heat losses significantly in most of the cases, although the highest absolute value of the losses occurs for the horizontal receiver exposed to head on wind. In some cases, when wind is flowing parallel to the aperture plane, a reduction of the heat losses is observed. The temperature distribution in the cavity is analyzed in order to explain the impact of wind on the heat losses. Wind in general causes a shrinking of the zone with uniform high temperature in the upper region of the cavity, whereas wind flowing parallel to the aperture plane additionally inhibits hot air from leaving the cavity and therefore leads to an increased temperature in the lower zone.

Robert Flesch; Hannes Stadler; Ralf Uhlig; Robert Pitz-Paal

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Agricultural Chemical Movement through a Field-Size Watershed in Iowa:? Surface Hydrology and Nitrate Losses in Discharge  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Agricultural Chemical Movement through a Field-Size Watershed in Iowa:? Surface Hydrology and Nitrate Losses in Discharge ... In this paper, we illustrate another aspect of the “water quality profile” conceptual model (4) for assessing impacts of farming systems using an analysis of the surface hydrology and nitrate distribution in surface runoff, headcut seepage, and basin drainage from a high relief landscape. ... Surface runoff resulting from snowmelt occurs whenever solar-radiated heat penetrates the snow and heats the soil surface beneath it. ...

Thomas R. Steinheimer; Kenwood D. Scoggin; Larry A. Kramer

1998-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

467

Loss of Fine Particle Ammonium from Denuded Nylon Filters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ammonium is an important constituent of fine particulate mass in the atmosphere, but can be difficult to quantify due to possible sampling artifacts. Losses of semivolatile species such as NH4NO3 can be particularly problematic. In order to evaluate ammonium losses from aerosol particles collected on filters, a series of field experiments was conducted using denuded nylon and Teflon filters at Bondville, Illinois (February 2003), San Gorgonio, California (April 2003 and July 2004), Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (May, 2003), Brigantine, New Jersey (November 2003), and Great Smoky Mountains National Park (NP), Tennessee (July–August 2004). Samples were collected over 24-hr periods. Losses from denuded nylon filters ranged from 10% (monthly average) in Bondville, Illinois to 28% in San Gorgonio, California in summer. Losses on individual sample days ranged from 1% to 65%. Losses tended to increase with increasing diurnal temperature and relative humidity changes and with the fraction of ambient total N(--III) (particulate NH4+ plus gaseous NH3) present as gaseous NH3. The amount of ammonium lost at most sites could be explained by the amount of NH4NO3 present in the sampled aerosol. Ammonium losses at Great Smoky Mountains NP, however, significantly exceeded the amount of NH4NO3 collected. Ammoniated organic salts are suggested as additional important contributors to observed ammonium loss at this location.

Yu, Xiao-Ying; Lee, Taehyoung; Ayres, Benjamin; Kreidenweis, Sonia M.; Malm, William C.; Collett, Jeffrey L.

2006-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

468

Biomass Losses During Harvest and Storage of Switchgrass  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimates of dry matter losses during harvest and storage of herbaceous biomass are needed to determine harvest efficiency and net biomass yeild. Losses of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) biomass stored in large round bales as affected by protected and unprotected conditions in three experiments during 1992 to 1995. We also measured the losses of dry matter (DM) during the harvesting operation each year and determined the quantity and quality of runoff water from stored bales during one year. In Experiment 1, "Alamo" switchgrass was harvested in August 1992 and stored in 275 kg bales unprotected outside and on a grass sod for six months. In Experiments 2 and 3, switchgrass was harvested in November of 1993 and 1994, respectively, and stored in 370 kg bales for one year inside on concrete, outside on a grass sod unprotected from the elements or outside on a gravel pad. In each experiment, the biomass was field dried to 11 to 19% moisture and baled. The bales were weighed at the beginning and end of the storage period to determine DM losses. In Experiemnt 1, DM losses during six months of storage were 13% of the original bale dry weight. In Experiemnts 2 and 3, there were no differences (P>0.05) in DM losses (average of 5%) among outside treatments during the 12 months of storage. There were no biomass losses for bales stored inside in Experiment 2; however, there was a 2% loss in Experiment 3. Loses of DM during baling ranged from 1 to 5% depending on moisture concentration in the biomass at baling. Larger losses were associated with drier biomass, presumably because of more shattering. Quality and quantity of runoff water from bales were not different (P>0.05) from runoff water of control plots.

Sanderson, M. A.; Egg, R. P.; Wiselogel, A. E.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Network Reconfiguration at the Distribution System with Distributed Generators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This article proposes a novel model for distribution network reconfiguration to meet current distribution system operating demands. In the model the connection of distributed generators to distribution system is ...

Gao Xiaozhi; Li Linchuan; Xue Hailong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

470

Numerical Study on Exergy Losses of n-Heptane Constant-Volume Combustion by Detailed Chemical Kinetics  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A trade-off relation between exergy loss and incomplete conversion loss was also observed, and ways to reduce the total loss of combustion processes were determined by investigating the influences of multiple parameters on loss distributions. ... Szybist et al.(30) had modified the traditional calculation of the Otto cycle efficiency to better account for composition differences during each stage of the ideal cycle, and the work term of the cycle can be computed by eq 15:(15)where ?h is the lower heating value of the fuel, ? is the ratio of specific heat, CV is the specific heat at constant volume, and subscripts R and P represent reactants and products, respectively. ... For Case 3 and Case 4, preheating will increase the in-cylinder temperatures, resulting in the reduced ratio of specific heat; thus, as shown in Figure 7, from Case 2 to Case 4, the increase in ?2nd is less than the decrease in total losses because of the deterioration in the work-extraction efficiency caused by the lower ratio of specific heat. ...

Feng Yan; Wanhua Su

2014-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

471

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Optimal Siting and Sizing of Distributed Energy Resources Speaker(s): Johan Driesen Date: February 15, 2007 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Chris Marnay Ongoing changes in the operation of distribution grids call for a new way to plan grid modifications. This presentation gives an overview of possible methods of long-term planning for the deployment of Distributed Energy Resources (distributed generation, storage and controllable loads) in a given grid. The placement and sizing of the units have to be considered, making this a complex optimization problem with discrete and continuous variables. In the optimization problem, multiple objectives are often conflicting, e.g. minimal grid losses, maximal use of the resources and voltage stability. An evolutionary algorithm (genetic algorithms) is used

472

Local Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the re...

Turitsyn, Konstantin S; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Diversity and Spatial Distribution of Hydrazine Oxidoreductase (hzo) Gene in the Oxygen Minimum Zone Off Costa Rica  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) as an important nitrogen loss pathway has been reported in marine oxygen minimum zones (OMZs), but the community composition and spatial distribution of anammox bacteria in the eastern ...

Kong, Liangliang

474

POWER PLANT WATER USAGE AND LOSS STUDY - Final  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

POWER PLANT WATER USAGE AND LOSS STUDY POWER PLANT WATER USAGE AND LOSS STUDY August 2005 Revised May 2007 Prepared for: The United States Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory DOE Gasification Technology Manager: Gary J. Stiegel DOE Project Manager: James R. Longanbach Project Manager: Michael D. Rutkowski Principal Investigators: Michael G. Klett Norma J. Kuehn Ronald L. Schoff Vladimir Vaysman Jay S. White Power Plant Water Usage and Loss Study i August 2005 TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF CONTENTS ...................................................................................................................... I LIST OF TABLES.............................................................................................................................III

475

The Density Effect for the Ionization Loss in Various Materials  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The density effect for the ionization loss of charged particles has been calculated for a number of metals, scintillating materials, gases at various pressures, and photographic emulsion, using a dispersion model involving an appropriate number of dispersion oscillators for each substance. The results are presented in the form of graphs which can be used to correct the ionization loss for the density effect. The theoretical curves for silver chloride and anthracene are in reasonable agreement with experiments on the ionization loss of ?-mesons. A general derivation of the equations for the density effect is given.

R. M. Sternheimer

1952-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

476

Distribution free tests for mixed probability distributions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......specifically, suppose that X^ is drawn from a population having distribution function F^x), where Let nHk = (uik + vjk-wti) = n^ui Then E(tk) = \\ and t* = (^+ ... +tn)jn. Proceeding as in the derivation of (2-3-2), we can where......

E. A. C. THOMAS

1969-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Point-line spaces related to Jordan pairs.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??A point-line space is an abstract geometric object that consists of a set of points and a set of lines such that on each line… (more)

Huggenberger, Simon

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Juxtaclavicular beaded lines: A presentation of sebaceous gland hyperplasia  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Juxta-clavicular beaded lines: A subepidermal proliferationWC. Juxta-clavicular beaded lines. Arch Dermatol 1974;110:A. Juxtaclavicular beaded lines: A malformative condition

Woldow, Adam B; Houk, Laura D; Samie, Faramarz H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

The transcriptional diversity of 25 Drosophila cell lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

diversity of 25 Drosophila cell lines Lucy Cherbas, 1 Aarronof Drosophila melanogaster cell lines. ] C R Acad Sci Hebdof two tumorous blood cell lines of Drosophila melanogaster

Cherbas, Lucy

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Plains & Eastern Clean Line Project Proposal for New or Upgraded...  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Plains & Eastern Clean Line Project Proposal for New or Upgraded Transmission Line Projects Under Section 1222 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Plains & Eastern Clean Line Project...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution line losses" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Distribution of Correspondence  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Defines correct procedures for distribution of correspondence to the Naval Reactors laboratories. Does not cancel another directive. Expired 8-30-97.

1996-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

482

Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This presentation is from a Building America webinar conducted on November 8, 2011, by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) about ductless hydronic distribution systems.

483

What is Distributed Wind?  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

and refurbishers, including those from Canada, Mexico, Europe, China, and South Africa. In 2013, 30.4 MW of new distributed wind capacity was added, representing nearly...

484

Distribution reliability analysis.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This thesis presents an example for optimization of distribution maintenance scheduling of a recloser. It applies a risk reduction technique associated with maintenance of the… (more)

Bhusal, Prabodh

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

Russell, Steven J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlsten, Bruce E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

486

Roughening Transition in a Moving Contact Line  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dynamics of the deformations of a moving contact line on a disordered substrate is formulated, taking into account both local and hydrodynamic dissipation mechanisms. It is shown that both the coating transition in contact lines receding at relatively high velocities, and the pinning transition for slowly moving contact lines, can be understood in a unified framework as roughening transitions in the contact line. We propose a phase diagram for the system in which the phase boundaries corresponding to the coating transition and the pinning transition meet at a junction point, and suggest that for sufficiently strong disorder a receding contact line will leave a Landau--Levich film immediately after depinning. This effect may be relevant to a recent experimental observation in a liquid Helium contact line on a Cesium substrate [C. Guthmann, R. Gombrowicz, V. Repain, and E. Rolley, Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 80}, 2865 (1998)].

Ramin Golestanian; Elie Raphael

2002-04-24T23:59:59.000Z

487

NSLS-II Transport Line Progress  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

488

Single transmission line data acquisition system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A single transmission line interrogated multiple channel data acquisition system is provided in which a plurality of remote station/sensors monitor specific process variables and transmit measurement values over the single transmission line to a master station when addressed by the master station. Power for all remote stations (up to 980) is provided by driving the line with constant voltage supplied from the master station and automatically maintained independent of the number of remote stations directly connected to the line. The transmission line can be an RG-62 coaxial cable with lengths up to about 10,000 feet with branches up to 500 feet. The remote stations can be attached randomly along the line. The remote stations can be scanned at rates up to 980 channels/second.

Fasching, George E. (Morgantown, WV)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Full-wave analysis of superconducting microstrip lines on anisotropic substrates using equivalent surface impedance approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A computationally efficient full-wave technique is developed to analyze single and coupled superconducting microstrip lines on anisotropic substrates. The optic axis of the dielectric is in the plane of the substrate at an arbitrary angle with respect to the propagation direction. A dyadic Green's function for layered, anisotropic media is used to formulate an integral equation for the current in the strips. To increase the efficiency of the method, the superconducting strips are replaced by equivalent surface impedances which account for the loss and kinetic inductance of the superconductors. The validity of this equivalent surface impedance (ESI) approach is verified by comparing the calculated complex propagation constant and characteristic impedance for superconducting microstrip lines on an isotropic substrate to measured results, and to numerical results by the more rigorous volume-integral equation method. The results calculated using the ESI approach for perfectly conducting coupled lines on an anisotropic substrate agree with the results by the finite-difference time-domain method. This efficient ESI technique is then used to study the effects of the optic axis orientation and the strip width on the characteristics of single and coupled superconducting microstrip lines on M-plane sapphire. The effects of the line separation and operating temperature on the coupled lines are also investigated.

Lee, L.H.; Lyons, W.G.; Orlando, T.P.; Ali, S.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science); Lyons, W.G. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Lexington, MA (United States). Lincoln Lab.); Withers, R.S. (Conductus, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States))

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Iron Lines in Superstrong Magnetic Fields  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The possibility of observing atomic lines in the x-ray spectra of strongly magnetized accreting neutron stars is discussed. For magnetic field strengths ranging from 1011-1014 G, both the energies and oscillator strengths of Fe XXVI lines are calculated quantitatively. These lines are expected to be highest in energy, and should dominate at source temperatures kT?10-30 keV.

H. Ruder; G. Wunner; H. Herold; J. Trümper

1981-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

491

Intelligent fault diagnosis of power transmission line; -.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??This dissertation presents the application of recent intelligent newlinetechniques for fault diagnosis in electrical power transmission line Fault newlinesection identification classification and location are the… (more)

Malathi, V

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

492

Big Bend-Witten Transmission Line Project  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Big Bend-Witten Transmission Line Project The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the Department of Energy (DOE), has prepared a draft environmental...

493