Sample records for distribution line losses

  1. Corona losses in HVdc bipolar lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Corbellini, U.; Pelacchi, P. [Univ. of Pisa (Italy). Dept. of Electric Systems and Automation] [Univ. of Pisa (Italy). Dept. of Electric Systems and Automation

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem related to the prediction of corona losses in HVdc bipolar lines has been solved, in the past, by means of semi-empirical monomial formulae. However, the proposed formulae that are simpler to use do not always give adequate calculation precision, while the formulae that provide the closest results require implicit functions of different complexity, which are difficult to apply; moreover, it is not possible to understand clearly what influence the variations of the different line parameters have on the losses themselves. The new monomial semi-empirical relationship, proposed to predict the corona losses in HVdc bipolar lines, is very simple to use; it highlights the dependence of power losses due to the corona effect by the different line parameters. The formula has been developed by elaborating a considerable amount of available experimental data.

  2. CHARACTERIZING LOSSES IN MICROSTRIP TRANSMISSION LINES Rashmi Pathak

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Timbie, Peter

    CHARACTERIZING LOSSES IN MICROSTRIP TRANSMISSION LINES by Rashmi Pathak A dissertation submitted . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2.1 Transmission Lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 2 Engineering) at the UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN­MADISON Summer 2005 #12;i Characterizing Losses in Transmission

  3. Mode conversation losses in overmolded millimeter wave transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tax, David S. (David Samuel)

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Millimeter wave transmission lines are integral components for many important applications like nuclear fusion and NMR spectroscopy. In low loss corrugated transmission lines propagating the HE,1 mode with a high waveguide ...

  4. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  5. Miter bend loss and higher order mode content measurements in overmoded millimeter-wave transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kowalski, Elizabeth J. (Elizabeth Joan)

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High power applications require an accurate calculation of the losses on overmoded corrugated cylindrical transmission lines. Previous assessments of power loss on these lines have not considered beam polarization or higher ...

  6. Influence of the airflow speed along transmission lines on the DC corona discharge loss, using finite element approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shemshadi, A.; Akbari, A. [Electric Department, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Niayesh, K. [Electric Engineering Department, Tehran University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Corona discharge is of great interest from the physical point of view and due to its numerous practical applications in industry and especially one of the most important sources of loss in the high voltage transmission lines. This paper provides guidelines for the amount of electric loss caused by corona phenomenon occurred around a DC high voltage wire placed between two flat plates and influence of wind speed rate on the amount of corona loss using COMSOL Multiphysics. So electric potential distribution patterns and charge density diffusion around the wire are studied in this article.

  7. New approach for modelling distributed MEMS transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akin, Tayfun

    New approach for modelling distributed MEMS transmission lines K. Topalli, M. Unlu, S. Demir, O for the distributed MEMS transmission line (DMTL) structures. In this new model, the MEMS bridges that are used as the loading elements of the DMTL structures are represented as low-impedance transmission lines, rather than

  8. Loss Reduction of Power Distribution Network Using Optimum Size and Location of Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Generation Adnan Anwar, Student Member, IEEE, and H. R. Pota, Member, IEEE Abstract--Distributed generation be reduced significantly. Index Terms--Distributed generation, Optimum size, Optimum location, Power loss directly to utility distribution system. The insulation level of the machines may not synchronize

  9. Measurements of AC Losses and Current Distribution in Superconducting Cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Doan A [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Ashworth, Stephen P [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL; Carter, Bill [AMSC; Fleshler, Steven [AMER Superconductor Corp, Devens, MA 01434

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents our new experimental facility and techniques to measure ac loss and current distribution between the layers for High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) cables. The facility is powered with a 45 kVA three-phase power supply which can provide three-phase currents up to 5 kA per phase via high current transformers. The system is suitable for measurements at any frequency between 20 and 500 Hz to better understand the ac loss mechanisms in HTS cables. In this paper, we will report techniques and results for ac loss measurements carried out on several HTS cables with and without an HTS shielding layer. For cables without a shielding layer, care must be taken to control the effect of the magnetic fields from return currents on loss measurements. The waveform of the axial magnetic field was also measured by a small pick-up coil placed inside a two-layer cable. The temporal current distribution between the layers can be calculated from the waveform of the axial field.

  10. Calculation and measurement of higher order mode losses in ITER ECH transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Temkin, Richard J.

    The ITER transmission lines (TLs) must be designed to deliver 20 MW from a 24 MW, 170 GHz gyrotron system. Miter bends are the main source of loss for these highly overmoded, corrugated, cylindrical waveguide TLs. Previous ...

  11. Using Dielectric Losses to De-Ice Power Transmission Lines with 100 kHz High-Voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Using Dielectric Losses to De-Ice Power Transmission Lines with 100 kHz High-Voltage Excitation J DIELECTRIC LOSSES TO DE-ICE POWER TRANSMISSION LINES . . . 1 Using Dielectric Losses to De-Ice Power Transmission Lines with 100 kHz High-Voltage Excitation Joshua D. McCurdy, Charles R. Sullivan and Victor F

  12. New Construction of Distribution Lines, Service Lines, and Appurtenant Facilities in Residential Subdivisions (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any proposed construction of electricity-related facilities in residential subdivisions, including distribution and service lines and appurtenant facilities, is subject to these regulations, which...

  13. Research paper Cisplatin-induced hair cell loss in zebrafish (Danio rerio) lateral line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubel, Edwin

    Research paper Cisplatin-induced hair cell loss in zebrafish (Danio rerio) lateral line Henry C. Ou online 19 July 2007 Abstract We have used time-lapse imaging to study cisplatin-induced hair cell death in lateral line neuromasts of zebrafish larvae in vivo. We found that cisplatin-induced hair cell death

  14. The mesa merging oxidation method for creating low-loss dielectrics and transmission lines on low-resistivity silicon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bowers, John

    The mesa merging oxidation method for creating low-loss dielectrics and transmission lines on low.1088/0960-1317/21/6/065020 The mesa merging oxidation method for creating low-loss dielectrics and transmission lines on low steps to create high aspect ratio coplanar waveguide (hicoplanar) transmission lines. The large SiO2

  15. New Construction of Distribution Lines, Service Lines, and Appurtenant Facilities in Certain Visually Significant Resources Outside Residential Subdivisions (New York)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any proposed construction of distribution lines, service lines, and appurtenant facilities to electric utilities located near scenic areas of statewide significance, including Adirondack park...

  16. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  17. Chord distribution along a line in the local Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zaninetti, L

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is developed to compute the chord length distribution along a line which intersects a cellular Universe. The cellular Universe is here modeled by the Poissonian Voronoi Tessellation (PVT) and by a non-Poissonian Voronoi Tessellation (NPVT). The distribution of the spheres is obtained from common approximations used in modeling the volumes of Voronoi Diagrams. We give analytical formulas for the distributions of the lengths of chords in both the PVT and NPVT. The astrophysical applications are made to the real Eso Slice Project and to an artificial slice of galaxies which simulates the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey.

  18. Rapid Spatial Distribution Seismic Loss Analysis for Multistory Buildings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshmukh, Pankaj Bhagvatrao

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    and incremental dynamic analysis along with the commercial software SAP2000 are used to establish demands from which story damage and financial losses are computed directly and aggregated for the entire structure. Rigorous and simplified methods are developed...

  19. Emission Lines and the Spectral Energy Distributions of Quasars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. J. Wilkes; P. J. Green; S. Mathur; J. C. McDowell

    1996-08-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Many years of study have failed to conclusively establish relations between a quasar's spectral energy distribution (SED) and the emission lines it is thought to produce. This is at least partially due to the lack of well-observed SEDs. We present initial results from a line--SED study for a sample of 43 quasars and active galaxies for which we have optical and ultra-violet spectra and far-infrared--X-ray SEDs. We present the results of tests for correlations between line equivalent widths and SED luminosity and slope parameters and compare these results to those from earlier studies. We find that the Baldwin effect is weaker when the luminosity is defined close to the ionising continuum of that line and conclude that the detailed SED is likely to be important in making further progress.

  20. Energy Loss Distribution in the Taylor-Couette Flow between Concentric Rotating Cylinders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dou, H S; Phan-Thien, N; Yeo, K S; Dou, Hua-Shu; Khoo, Boo Cheong; Phan-Thien, Nhan; Yeo, Khoon Seng

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The distribution of energy loss due to viscosity friction in plane Couette flow and Taylor-Couette Flow between concentric rotating cylinders are studied in detail for various flow conditions. The energy loss is related to the industrial processes in some fluid delivery devices and has significant influence on the flow efficiency, flow stability, turbulent transition, mixing, and heat transfer behaviours, etc. Therefore, it is very helpful to know about the energy loss distribution in the flow domain and to know its influence on the flow for understanding the flow physics. The calculation method of the energy loss distribution in the Taylor-Couette Flow between concentric rotating cylinders has not been found in open literature. In this note, the principle and the calculation are given for single cylinder rotating of inner or outer cylinder, and counter and same direction rotating of two cylinders. For comparison, the distribution of energy loss in a plane Couette flow is also derived for various flow conditi...

  1. Wall-loss distribution of charge breeding ions in an electron cyclotron resonance ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeong, S. C.; Oyaizu, M.; Imai, N.; Hirayama, Y.; Ishiyama, H.; Miyatake, H.; Niki, K.; Okada, M.; Watanabe, Y. X. [Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (IPNS), High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Otokawa, Y.; Osa, A.; Ichikawa, S. [Institute of Atomic Energy Science, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), Shiragata Shirakane 2-4, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan)

    2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigated the ion-loss distribution on the sidewall of an electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma chamber using the 18-GHz ECR charge breeder at the Tokai Radioactive Ion Accelerator Complex (TRIAC). Similarities and differences between the ion-loss distributions (longitudinal and azimuthal) of different ion species (i.e., radioactive {sup 111}In{sup 1+} and {sup 140}Xe{sup 1+} ions that are typical volatile and nonvolatile elements) was qualitatively discussed to understand the element dependence of the charge breeding efficiency. Especially, the similarities represent universal ion loss characteristics in an ECR charge breeder, which are different from the loss patterns of electrons on the ECRIS wall.

  2. Monte Carlo Simulations of Beam Losses in the Test Beam Line of CTF3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nebot Del Busto, E; Branger, E; Holzer, E B; Doebert, S; Lillestol, R L; Welsch, C P

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Test Beam Line (TBL) of the CLIC Test Facility 3 (CTF3) aims to validate the drive beam deceleration concept of CLIC, in which the RF power requested to boost particles to multi-TeV energies is obtained via deceleration of a high current and low energy drive beam (DB). Despite a TBL beam energy (150-80 MeV) significantly lower than the minimum nominal energy of the CLIC DB (250 MeV), the pulse time structure of the TBL provides the opportunity to measure beam losses with CLIC-like DB timing conditions. In this contribution, a simulation study on the detection of beam losses along the TBL for the commissioning of the recently installed beam loss monitoring system is presented. The most likely loss locations during stable beam conditions are studied by considering the beam envelope defined by the FODO lattice as well as the emittance growth due to the deceleration process. Moreover, the optimization of potential detector locations is discussed. Several factors are considered, namely: the distance to the bea...

  3. Limiting Energy Loss Distributions for Multiphoton Channeling Radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bondarenco, M V

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent results in the theory of multiphoton spectra for coherent radiation sources are overviewed, with the emphasis on channeling radiation. For the latter case, the importance of the order of resummation and averaging is illustrated. Limiting shapes of multiphoton spectra at high intensity are discussed for different channeling regimes. In some spectral regions, there emerges an approximate correspondence between the radiative energy loss and the electron integrals of motion.

  4. Deriving Particle Distributions from In-Line Fraunhofer Holographic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C.A. Ciarcia; D.E. Johnson; D.S. Sorenson; R.H. Frederickson, A.D. Delanoy; R.M. Malone; T.W. Tunnel

    1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Holographic data are acquired during hydrodynamic experiments at the Pegasus Pulsed Power Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. These experiments produce a fine spray of fast-moving particles. Snapshots of the spray are captured using in-line Fraunhofer holographic techniques. Roughly one cubic centimeter is recorded by the hologram. Minimum detectable particle size in the data extends down to 2 microns. In a holography reconstruction system, a laser illuminates the hologram as it rests in a three-axis actuator, recreating the snapshot of the experiment. A computer guides the actuators through an orderly sequence programmed by the user. At selected intervals, slices of this volume are captured and digitized with a CCD camera. Intermittent on-line processing of the image data and computer control of the camera functions optimizes statistics of the acquired image data for off-line processing. Tens of thousands of individual data frames (30 to 40 gigabytes of data) are required to recreate a digital representation of the snapshot. Throughput of the reduction system is 550 megabytes per hour (MB/hr). Objects and associated features from the data are subsequently extracted during off-line processing. Discrimination and correlation tests reject noise, eliminate multiple counting of particles, and build an error model to estimate performance. Objects surviving these tests are classified as particles. The particle distributions are derived from the data base formed by these particles, their locations and features. Throughput of the off-line processing exceeds 500 MB/hr. This paper describes the reduction system, outlines the off-line processing procedure, summarizes the discrimination and correlation tests, and reports numerical results for a sample data set.

  5. Nuclear parton distribution functions and energy loss effect in the Drell-Yan reaction off nuclei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ChunGui Duan; LiHua Song; ShuoHe Wang; GuangLie Li

    2006-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process. The quark energy loss can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of two typical kinds of quark energy loss parametrization and the different sets of nuclear parton distribution functions, we present a analysis of the E866 experiments on the nuclear dependence of Drell-Yan lepton pair production resulting from the bombardment of Be, Fe and W targets by 800GeV protons at Fermilab. It is found that the quark energy loss in cold nuclei is strongly dependent on the used nuclear parton distribution functions. The further prospects of using relatively low energy proton incident on nuclear targets are presented by combining the quark energy loss rate determined from a fit to the E866 nuclear-dependent ratios versus $x_1$, with the nuclear parton distribution functions given from lA deep inelastic scattering (DIS) data. The experimental study of the relatively low energy nuclear Drell-Yan process can give valuable insight in the enengy loss of fast quark propagating a cold nuclei and help to pin down nuclear parton distributions functions.

  6. High rate, long-distance quantum key distribution over 250km of ultra low loss fibres

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Stucki; N. Walenta; F. Vannel; R. T. Thew; N. Gisin; H. Zbinden; S. Gray; C. R. Towery; S. Ten

    2009-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a fully automated quantum key distribution prototype running at 625 MHz clock rate. Taking advantage of ultra low loss fibres and low-noise superconducting detectors, we can distribute 6,000 secret bits per second over 100 km and 15 bits per second over 250km.

  7. Calculating the Loss factor of the LCLS Beam Line Elements for Ultra-Shrot Bunches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novokhatski, A.; /SLAC

    2009-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE 1.5-15 {angstrom} x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility. Since an ultra-short intense bunch is used in the LCLS operation one might suggest that wake fields, generated in the vacuum chamber, may have an effect on the x-ray production because these fields can change the beam particle energies thereby increasing the energy spread in a bunch. At LCLS a feedback system precisely controls the bunch energy before it enters a beam transport line after the linac. However, in the transport line and later in the undulator section the bunch energy and energy spread are not under feedback control and may change due to wake field radiation, which depends upon the bunch current or on a bunch length. The linear part of the energy spread can be compensated in the upstream linac; the energy loss in the undulator section can be compensated by varying the K-parameter of the undulators, however we need a precise knowledge of the wake fields in this part of the machine. Resistive wake fields are known and well calculated. We discuss an additional part of the wake fields, which comes from the different vacuum elements like bellows, BPMs, transitions, vacuum ports, vacuum valves and others. We use the code 'NOVO' together with analytical estimations for the wake potential calculations.

  8. TOWARDS AN ER-DOPED SI NANOCRYSTAL SENSITIZED WAVEGUIDE LASER THE THIN LINE BETWEEN GAIN AND LOSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kik, Pieter

    and waveguide. If the pump laser could somehow be eliminated from this scheme, the fabrication of low-cost SiTOWARDS AN ER-DOPED SI NANOCRYSTAL SENSITIZED WAVEGUIDE LASER ­ THE THIN LINE BETWEEN GAIN AND LOSS-doped SiO2, a composite material that can potentially be fabricated using a VLSI compatible process

  9. Beam Loss Studies for the 2-MW LBNE Proton Beam Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Childress, S.R.; Mokhov, N.V.; Tropin, I.S.; Zwaska, R.; /Fermilab

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Severe limits are put on allowable beam loss during extraction and transport of a 2.3 MW primary proton beam for the Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) at Fermilab. Detailed simulations with the STRUCT and MARS codes have evaluated the impact of beam loss of 1.6 x 10{sup 14} protons per pulse at 120 GeV, ranging from a single pulse full loss to sustained small fractional loss. It is shown that loss of a single beam pulse at 2.3 MW will result in a catastrophic event: beam pipe destruction, damaged magnets and very high levels of residual radiation inside and outside the tunnel. Acceptable beam loss limits have been determined and robust solutions developed to enable efficient proton beam operation under these constraints.

  10. Electric Utility Transmission and Distribution Line Engineering Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter McKenny

    2010-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic development in the United States depends on a reliable and affordable power supply. The nation will need well educated engineers to design a modern, safe, secure, and reliable power grid for our future needs. An anticipated shortage of qualified engineers has caused considerable concern in many professional circles, and various steps are being taken nationwide to alleviate the potential shortage and ensure the North American power system's reliability, and our world-wide economic competitiveness. To help provide a well-educated and trained workforce which can sustain and modernize the nation's power grid, Gonzaga University's School of Engineering and Applied Science has established a five-course (15-credit hour) Certificate Program in Transmission and Distribution (T&D) Engineering. The program has been specifically designed to provide working utility engineering professionals with on-line access to advanced engineering courses which cover modern design practice with an industry-focused theoretical foundation. A total of twelve courses have been developed to-date and students may select any five in their area of interest for the T&D Certificate. As each course is developed and taught by a team of experienced engineers (from public and private utilities, consultants, and industry suppliers), students are provided a unique opportunity to interact directly with different industry experts over the eight weeks of each course. Course material incorporates advanced aspects of civil, electrical, and mechanical engineering disciplines that apply to power system design and are appropriate for graduate engineers. As such, target students for the certificate program include: (1) recent graduates with a Bachelor of Science Degree in an engineering field (civil, mechanical, electrical, etc.); (2) senior engineers moving from other fields to the utility industry (i.e. paper industry to utility engineering or project management positions); and (3) regular working professionals wishing to update their skills or increase their knowledge of utility engineering design practices and procedures. By providing graduate educational opportunities for the above groups, the T&D Program will help serve a strong industry need for training the next generation of engineers in the cost-effective design, construction, operation, and maintenance of modern electrical transmission and distribution systems. In addition to developing the on-line engineering courses described above, the T&D Program also focused significant efforts towards enhancing the training opportunities available to power system operators in the northwest. These efforts have included working with outside vendors to provide NERC-approved training courses in Gonzaga University's (GU) system operator training facility, support for an accurate system model which can be used in regional blackstart exercises, and the identification of a retired system operator who could provide actual regional training courses. The GU system operator training facility is also being used to recruit young workers, veterans, and various under-represented groups to the utility industry. Over the past three years students from Columbia Gorge Community College, Spokane Falls Community College, Walla Walla Community College, Central Washington University, Eastern Washington University, Gonzaga University, and various local high schools have attended short (one-day) system operator training courses free of charge. These collaboration efforts has been extremely well received by both students and industry, and meet T&D Program objectives of strengthening the power industry workforce while bridging the knowledge base across power worker categories, and recruiting new workers to replace a predominantly retirement age workforce. In the past three years the T&D Program has provided over 170 utility engineers with access to advanced engineering courses, been involved in training more than 300 power system operators, and provided well over 500 college and high school students with an experienc

  11. Flashover vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, V.J. (Westinghouse Electric Corp., Pittsburgh, PA (USA). Advanced Systems Technology Div.); Tesche, F.M. (E-Systems, Inc., Greenville, TX (USA)); Liu, T.K. (Lutech, Inc., Oakland, CA (US)); Barnes, P.R. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper estimates the vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to flashover from the electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear detonation 400 kilometers above the earth. The analysis consists of first determining the cumulative probability of induced-voltage on three-phase lines, including shield and neutral conductors, for four operating voltages and then comparing these stresses to estimates of line insulation strength.

  12. On-line hydraulic state prediction for water distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whittle, Andrew

    This paper describes and demonstrates a method for on?line hydraulic state prediction in urban water networks. The proposed method uses a Predictor?Corrector (PC) approach in which a statistical data?driven algorithm is ...

  13. ON-LINE DETECTION OF DISTRIBUTED ATTACKS FROM SPACE-TIME NETWORK FLOW PATTERNS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Baras, John S.

    ON-LINE DETECTION OF DISTRIBUTED ATTACKS FROM SPACE-TIME NETWORK FLOW PATTERNS J.S. Baras* , A in the network. We are interested in the "quickest detection" problem when the attack is distributed is to detect when a distributed denial of service is taking place in one sub-network of a transit (core

  14. Generate Uniform Transverse Distributed Electron Beam along a Beam Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jiao, Y

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It has been reported that transverse distribution shaping can help to further enhance the energy extraction efficiency in a terawatt, tapered X-ray free-electron laser. Thus, methods of creating and keeping almost uniform transverse distributed (UTD) beam within undulators are required. This study shows that a UTD electron beam can be generated within evenly distributed drift sections where undulators can be placed, by means of octupoles and particular optics. A concrete design is presented, and numerical simulations are done to verify the proposed method.

  15. The extraction of nuclear sea quark distribution and energy loss effect in Drell-Yan experiment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun-Gui Duan; Na Liu; Zhan-Yuan Yan

    2006-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

    The next-to-leading order and leading order analysis are performed on the differential cross section ratio from Drell-Yan process. It is found that the effect of next-to-leading order corrections can be negligible on the differential cross section ratios as a function of the quark momentum fraction in the beam proton and the target nuclei for the current Fermilab and future lower beam proton energy. The nuclear Drell-Yan reaction is an ideal tool to study the energy loss of the fast quark moving through cold nuclei. In the leading order analysis, the theoretical results with quark energy loss are in good agreement with the Fermilab E866 experimental data on the Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios as a function of the momentum fraction of the target parton. It is shown that the quark energy loss effect has significant impact on the Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios. The nuclear Drell-Yan experiment at current Fermilab and future lower energy proton beam can not provide us with more information on the nuclear sea quark distribution.

  16. Flashover vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to high-altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kruse, V.J.; Liu, T.K.; Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper estimates the vulnerability of transmission and distribution lines to flashover from the electromagnetic pulse generated by a nuclear detonation 400 kilometers above the earth. The analysis consists of first determining the cumulative probability of induced-voltage on three-phase lines, including shield and neutral conductors, for four operating voltages and then comparing these stresses to estimates of line insulation strength. 11 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. The uncertainties due to quark energy loss on determining nuclear sea quark distribution from nuclear Drell-Yan data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. G. Duan; N. Liu; G. L. Li

    2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    By means of two different parametrizations of quark energy loss and the nuclear parton distributions determined only with lepton-nuclear deep inelastic scattering experimental data, a leading order phenomenological analysis is performed on the nuclear Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios as a function of the quark momentum fraction in the beam proton and target nuclei for E772 experimental data. It is shown that there is the quark energy loss effect in nuclear Drell-Yan process apart from the nuclear effects on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering. The uncertainties due to quark energy loss effect is quantified on determining nuclear sea quark distribution by using nuclear Drell-Yan data. It is found that the quark energy loss effect on nuclear Drell-Yan cross section ratios make greater with the increase of quark momentum fraction in the target nuclei. The uncertainties from quark energy loss become bigger as the nucleus A come to be heavier. The Drell-Yan data on proton incident middle and heavy nuclei versus deuterium would result in an overestimate for nuclear modifications on sea quark distribution functions with neglecting the quark energy loss. Our results are hoped to provide good directional information on the magnitude and form of nuclear modifications on sea quark distribution functions by means of the nuclear Drell-Yan experimental data.

  18. Photon backgrounds at the CLIC interaction point due to losses in the post-collision extraction line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salt, M D; Elsener, K; Ferrari, A

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CLIC beam delivery system focuses 1.5~TeV electron and positron beams to a nanometre-sized cross section when colliding them at the interaction point (IP). The intense focusing leads to large beam-beam effects, causing the production of beamstrahlung photons, coherent and incoherent $e^+e^-$ pairs, as well as a significant disruption of the main beam. The transport of the post-collision beams requires a minimal loss extraction line, with high acceptance for energy deviation and divergence. The current design includes vertical bends close to the IP in order to separate the charged particles with a sign opposite to the main beam into a diagnostic-equipped intermediate dump, whilst transporting the photons and the main beam to the final dump. Photon and charged particle losses on magnet masks and dumps result in a complex radiation field and IP background particle fluxes. In this paper, the electromagnetic backgrounds at the IP arising from the losses occurring closest to the collision point are calculated.

  19. The loss rates of O{sup +} in the inner magnetosphere caused by both magnetic field line curvature scattering and charge exchange reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ji, Y., E-mail: yji@spaceweather.ac.cn [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); College of Earth Science, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Shen, C. [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)] [State Key Laboratory of Space Weather, Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    With consideration of magnetic field line curvature (FLC) pitch angle scattering and charge exchange reactions, the O{sup +} (>300?keV) in the inner magnetosphere loss rates are investigated by using an eigenfunction analysis. The FLC scattering provides a mechanism for the ring current O{sup +} to enter the loss cone and influence the loss rates caused by charge exchange reactions. Assuming that the pitch angle change is small for each scattering event, the diffusion equation including a charge exchange term is constructed and solved; the eigenvalues of the equation are identified. The resultant loss rates of O{sup +} are approximately equal to the linear superposition of the loss rate without considering the charge exchange reactions and the loss rate associated with charge exchange reactions alone. The loss time is consistent with the observations from the early recovery phases of magnetic storms.

  20. Single-photon quantum key distribution in the presence of loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curty, Marcos [Center for Quantum Information and Quantum Control, Department of Physics and Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada M5S 3G4 (Canada); Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Moroder, Tobias [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada); Quantum Information Theory Group, Institut fuer Theoretische Physik I, and Max-Planck Research Group, Institute of Optics, Information and Photonics, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, D-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate two-way and one-way single-photon quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols in the presence of loss introduced by the quantum channel. Our analysis is based on a simple precondition for secure QKD in each case. In particular, the legitimate users need to prove that there exists no separable state (in the case of two-way QKD), or that there exists no quantum state having a symmetric extension (one-way QKD), that is compatible with the available measurements results. We show that both criteria can be formulated as a convex optimization problem known as a semidefinite program, which can be efficiently solved. Moreover, we prove that the solution to the dual optimization corresponds to the evaluation of an optimal witness operator that belongs to the minimal verification set of them for the given two-way (or one-way) QKD protocol. A positive expectation value of this optimal witness operator states that no secret key can be distilled from the available measurements results. We apply such analysis to several well-known single-photon QKD protocols under losses.

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, AUGUST 2009 1633 Direct Calculation of Line Outage Distribution Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fu, Yong

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER SYSTEMS, VOL. 24, NO. 3, AUGUST 2009 1633 Direct Calculation of Line significantly the security analyses of power systems. This letter provides two direct proofs for expressing distribution factor, power transfer distribution factor, shift factor. I. INTRODUCTION LINE outage distribution

  2. Chemical Distribution and Bonding of Lithium in Intercalated Graphite: Identification with Optimized Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Feng; Graetz, Jason; Moreno, M. Sergio; Ma, Chao; Wu, Lijun; Volkov, Vyacheslav; Zhu, Yimei

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct mapping of the lithium spatial distribution and the chemical state provides critical information on structure-correlated lithium transport in electrode materials for lithium batteries. Nevertheless, probing lithium, the lightest solid element in the periodic table, poses an extreme challenge with traditional X-ray or electron scattering techniques due to its weak scattering power and vulnerability to radiation damage. Here, we report nanoscale maps of the lithium spatial distribution in electrochemically lithiated graphite using electron energy loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope under optimized experimental conditions. The electronic structure of the discharged graphite was obtained from the near-edge fine structure of the Li and C K-edges and ab initio calculations. A 2.7 eV chemical shift of the Li K-edge, along with changes in the density of states, reveals the ionic nature of the intercalated lithium with significant charge transfer to the graphene sheets. Direct mapping of lithium in graphite revealed nanoscale inhomogeneities (nonstoichiometric regions), which are correlated with local phase separation and structural disorder (i.e., lattice distortion and dislocations) as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The surface solid?electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer was also imaged and determined to have a thickness of 10?50 nm, covering both edge and basal planes with LiF as its primary inorganic component. The Li K-edge spectroscopy and mapping, combined with electron microscopy-based structural analysis provide a comprehensive view of the structure-correlated lithium intercalation in graphite and of the formation of the SEI layer.

  3. Chemical Distribution and Bonding of Lithium in Intercalated Graphite: Identification with Optimized Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Wang, F.; Graetz, J.; Moreno, M.S.; Ma, C.; Wu, L.; Volkov, V.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Direct mapping of the lithium spatial distribution and the chemical state provides critical information on structure-correlated lithium transport in electrode materials for lithium batteries. Nevertheless, probing lithium, the lightest solid element in the periodic table, poses an extreme challenge with traditional X-ray or electron scattering techniques due to its weak scattering power and vulnerability to radiation damage. Here, we report nanoscale maps of the lithium spatial distribution in electrochemically lithiated graphite using electron energy loss spectroscopy in the transmission electron microscope under optimized experimental conditions. The electronic structure of the discharged graphite was obtained from the near-edge fine structure of the Li and C K-edges and ab initio calculations. A 2.7 eV chemical shift of the Li K-edge, along with changes in the density of states, reveals the ionic nature of the intercalated lithium with significant charge transfer to the graphene sheets. Direct mapping of lithium in graphite revealed nanoscale inhomogeneities (nonstoichiometric regions), which are correlated with local phase separation and structural disorder (i.e., lattice distortion and dislocations) as observed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The surface solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer was also imaged and determined to have a thickness of 10-50 nm, covering both edge and basal planes with LiF as its primary inorganic component. The Li K-edge spectroscopy and mapping, combined with electron microscopy-based structural analysis provide a comprehensive view of the structure-correlated lithium intercalation in graphite and of the formation of the SEI layer.

  4. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  5. The influence of quark energy loss on extracting nuclear sea quark distribution from nuclear Drell-Yan experimental data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duan Chun-Gui; Liu Na

    2008-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    By means of two typical kinds of quark energy loss parametrization and the nuclear parton distributions determined only with lepton-nuclear deep inelastic scattering experimental data, a leading order analysis are performed on the proton-induced Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios of tungsten versus deuterium as a function of the quark momentum fraction in the beam proton and target nuclei. It is found that the theoretical results with quark energy loss are in good agreement with the experimental data. The quark energy loss effect produce approximately 3% to 11% suppression on the Drell-Yan differential cross section ratios $R_{W/D}$ in the range $0.05\\leq x_2\\leq0.3$. The application of nuclear Drell-Yan data with heavy targets is remarkably subject to difficulty in the constraints of the nuclear sea-quark distribution.

  6. Analysis of volume distribution of power loss in ferrite cores M. LoBue, V. Loyau, and F. Mazaleyrat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Analysis of volume distribution of power loss in ferrite cores M. LoBue, V. Loyau, and F the section of ferrite cores under AC excitation. The technique is based on two distinct calorimetric methods the procedure to an industrial sample of Mn-Zn ferrite under controlled sinusoidal excitation with a peak

  7. Stable coaxial-waveguide gyrotron backward-wave oscillator with distributed losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hung, C. L. [Department of Communication Engineering, National Penghu University of Science and Technology, Penghu 880, Taiwan (China)

    2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study analyzes the performance of a coaxial-waveguide gyrotron backward-wave oscillator (gyro-BWO) operating at the fundamental harmonic by considering mode competition, which may be attributed to higher-order axial modes and competing transverse modes. In the coaxial waveguide with a short length and uniform cross section, the threshold currents of the higher-order axial modes are substantially higher than the operating current. Additionally, when the beam voltage or the magnetic field is adjusted, the oscillation that neighbors the minimum start-oscillation current of a transverse mode has a positive-k{sub z} field profile, and is excited near the cutoff frequency. As a result, the distributed wall losses at the downstream end of the interaction structure effectively damp the positive-k{sub z} field, and raise significantly the minimum start-oscillation currents of the competing transverse modes. This study also investigates how the parameters, including lossy section length, outer wall resistivity, inner wall resistivity, and ratio of the outer radius to the inner radius, affect the start-oscillation currents of the competing transverse modes in order to obtain stable operation conditions in the frequency tuning range. As is forecasted, when using a 15 A electron beam, the Ka-band coaxial gyro-BWO produces an output power of 137 kW and 3 dB bandwidth of 4.2% by magnetic tuning and an output power of 145 kW and 3dB bandwidth of 2.0% by beam voltage tuning.

  8. Enhancement of the helium resonance lines in the solar atmosphere by suprathermal electron excitation II: non-Maxwellian electron distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. R. Smith

    2003-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In solar EUV spectra the He I and He II resonance lines show unusual behaviour and have anomalously high intensities compared with other transition region lines. The formation of the helium resonance lines is investigated through extensive non-LTE radiative transfer calculations. The model atmospheres of Vernazza, Avrett & Loeser are found to provide reasonable matches to the helium resonance line intensities but significantly over-estimate the intensities of other transition region lines. New model atmospheres have been developed from emission measure distributions derived by Macpherson & Jordan, which are consistent with SOHO observations of transition region lines other than those of helium. These models fail to reproduce the observed helium resonance line intensities by significant factors. The possibility that non-Maxwellian electron distributions in the transition region might lead to increased collisional excitation rates in the helium lines is studied. Collisional excitation and ionization rates are re-computed for distribution functions with power law suprathermal tails which may form by the transport of fast electrons from high temperature regions. Enhancements of the helium resonance line intensities are found, but many of the predictions of the models regarding line ratios are inconsistent with observations. These results suggest that any such departures from Maxwellian electron distributions are not responsible for the helium resonance line intensities.

  9. How to implement decoy-state quantum key distribution for a satellite uplink with 50-dB channel loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer-Scott, Evan; Yan, Zhizhong; MacDonald, Allison; Bourgoin, Jean-Philippe; Huebel, Hannes; Jennewein, Thomas [Institute for Quantum Computing, University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue W, Waterloo ON, Canada N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantum key distribution (QKD) takes advantage of fundamental properties of quantum physics to allow two distant parties to share a secret key; however, QKD is hampered by a distance limitation of a few hundred kilometers on Earth. The most immediate solution for global coverage is to use a satellite, which can receive separate QKD transmissions from two or more ground stations and act as a trusted node to link these ground stations. In this article we report on a system capable of performing QKD in the high loss regime expected in an uplink to a satellite using weak coherent pulses and decoy states. Such a scenario profits from the simplicity of its receiver payload, but has so far been considered to be infeasible due to very high transmission losses (40-50 dB). The high loss is overcome by implementing an innovative photon source and advanced timing analysis. Our system handles up to 57 dB photon loss in the infinite key limit, confirming the viability of the satellite uplink scenario. We emphasize that while this system was designed with a satellite uplink in mind, it could just as easily overcome high losses on any free space QKD link.

  10. EVALUATION OF DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM LOSSES DUE TO LOAD Luis F. Ochoa1,3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Gareth

    University of Edinburgh, School of Engineering and Electronics - Edinburgh, UK luis_ochoa@ieee.org, rciric be harmful to the operation of the network, its reliability and safety. Furthermore, measurements show mistakes in loss analysis. It is assumed here that a load unbalance affects only the fundamental component

  11. The $^7$Be Solar Neutrino Line: A Reflection of the Central Temperature Distribution of the Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John N. Bahcall

    1994-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A precise test of the theory of stellar evolution can be performed by measuring the average difference in energy between the neutrino line produced by ${\\rm ^7Be}$ electron capture in the solar interior and the corresponding neutrino line produced in a terrestrial laboratory. This energy shift is calculated to be 1.29~keV (to an accuracy of a few percent) for the dominant ground-state to ground-state transition. The energy shift is approximately equal to the average temperature of the solar core, computed by integrating the temperature over the solar interior with a weighting factor equal to the locally-produced $^7$Be neutrino emission. The characteristic modulation of the ${\\rm ^7Be}$ line shape that would be caused by either vacuum neutrino oscillations or by matter-enhanced (MSW) neutrino oscillations is shown to be small. Other frequently-discussed weak interaction solutions to the solar neutrino problem are also not expected to change significantly the line profile. Therefore, a measurement of the energy shift is a measurement of the central temperature distribution of the sun.

  12. Losses and Impact Distribution and Impacts of Annosus Root Disease in Forests of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Standiford, Richard B.

    expanding root disease centers, in groups of various sizes, and as scattered individuals. Distribution impacts on resource and ecosystem values for a single site. Insofar as possible, the net effect in progressively expanding disease centers, in tree groups of various sizes, and in scattered individuals. One

  13. Towards an Er-doped Si nanocrystal sensitized waveguide laser the thin line between gain and loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polman, Albert

    somehow be eliminated from this scheme, the fabrication of low-cost Si based Er doped optical amplifiers1 Towards an Er-doped Si nanocrystal sensitized waveguide laser ­ the thin line between gain-doped Si nanocrystal co-doped SiO2, a composite material that can potentially be fabricated using a VLSI

  14. Modeling and mapping ferroresonant states in series compensated distribution and subtransmission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barr, R.A. [Electric Power Consulting Pty Ltd., Culburra Beach, New South Wales (Australia)] [Electric Power Consulting Pty Ltd., Culburra Beach, New South Wales (Australia); Platt, D. [Univ. of Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [Univ. of Wollongong, New South Wales (Australia). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

    1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Series capacitors can increase the power carrying capacity of subtransmission and distribution lines by reducing voltage regulation. The potential exists in selected locations for utilities to both improve the customer quality of supply and increase the supply capacity. The possibility of ferroresonance and effective countermeasures to ferroresonance are important issues that need to be carefully considered at the design stage. Other design issues are capacitor location, ohmic reactive value, transient behavior, short circuit withstand and capacitor protection. Ferroresonance can cause severe overvoltages and heavy currents resulting in damage to power system equipment and customer installations. This paper describes a ferroresonance model incorporating both time domain and frequency domain techniques. The ferroresonance model is used to map the possible ferroresonant states. A small scale laboratory non-linear ferroresonant circuit was constructed with the experimental results comparing favorably with the predicted model behavior. For series compensated lines and other circuit arrangements, the ferroresonance model allows the prediction of ferroresonant states and the examination of counter measures.

  15. Modeling of the very low pressure helium flow in the LHC Cryogenic Distribution Line after a quench

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    - search (CERN) started the most powerful particle accel- erator of the world, the Large Hadron Collider Benjamin Bradua,b, , Philippe Gayeta, , Silviu-Iulian Niculescub, , Emmanuel Witrantc, aCERN, EN Department in the Cryogenic Distribution Line (QRL) used in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. The study is focused

  16. PEV-based P-Q Control in Line Distribution Networks with High Requirement for Reactive Power Compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    no P-Q control is conducted at PEV charging stations. Keywords--Plug-in electric vehicles, reactive1 PEV-based P-Q Control in Line Distribution Networks with High Requirement for Reactive Power-Rad, Member, IEEE, and Jianwei Huang, Senior Member, IEEE Abstract--While plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs

  17. Simulating the effect of technical and environmental constraints on the spatio-temporal1 distribution of herbicide applications and stream losses2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Simulating the effect of technical and environmental constraints on the spatio-temporal1 distribution of herbicide applications and stream losses2 3 Jordy Salmon-Monviola 1,2 , Chantal Gascuel-Odoux 1;2 Abstract25 26 Technical and environmental constraints on agricultural practices can spatially

  18. The effects of lightning and high altitude electromagnetic pulse on power distribution lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uman, M.A.; Rubinstein, M.; Yacoub, Z. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We simultaneously recorded the voltages induced by lightning on both ends of an unenergized 448-meter long unenergized electric power line and the lightning vertical electric and horizontal magnetic fields at ground level near the line. The lightning data studied and presented here were due both to cloud lightning and to very close (about 20 m from the line) artificially initiated lightning. For cloud sources, a frequency-domain computer program called EMPLIN was used to calculate induced line voltages as a function of source elevation, angle of incidence, and wave polarization of the radiated cloud discharge pulses in order to compare with the measurements. For very-close lightning, the measured line voltages could be grouped into two categories, those in which multiple, similarly shaped, evenly spaced pulses were observed, which we call oscillatory, and those dominated by a principal pulse with subsidiary oscillations of much smaller amplitude, which we call impulsive. The amplitude of the induced voltage ranged from tens of kilovolts for oscillatory voltages to hundreds of kilovolts for impulsive voltages. A new technique is derived for the calculation of the electromagnetic fields from nearby lightning to ground above an imperfectly conducting ground. This technique was used in conjunction with an existing time domain coupling theory and lightning return stroke model to calculate voltages at either end of the line. The results show fair agreement with the measured oscillatory voltage waveforms if corona is ignored and improved results when corona effects are modeled. The modeling of the impulsive voltage, for which local flashover probably successful. In an attempt to understand better the sources of the line voltages for very close lightning, measurements of the horizontal and vertical electric fields 30 m from triggered lightning were obtained.

  19. Lipid-Protein Interactions Alter Line Tensions and Domain Size Distributions in Lung Surfactant Monolayers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dhar, Prajnaparamita

    The size distribution of domains in phase-separated lung surfactant monolayers influences monolayer viscoelasticity and compressibility which, in turn, influence monolayer collapse and set the compression at which the ...

  20. The HEMP (high altitude electromagnetic pulse) response of an overhead power distribution line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A study of the HEMP response of a realistic power distribution system was undertaken, and its results are described in this paper. This study involved the following elements: (1) the use of the new HEMP environment, (2) the use of a multiconductor coupling model, and (3) the measurement of the pulse response of an actual distribution transformer to permit the use of this data in the analysis.

  1. Fig. 1. Single line diagram of 3-phase distribution power system with five inverters in parallel.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da

    (PV) generation, it has been showed that occasionally the PV inverters were switched off undesirably or exceeded the harmonic regulations [2]. Even though each of the PV inverter meets the grid codes, the power distribution power system with five inverters in parallel. Harmonic Stability Assessment for Multi- Paralleled

  2. Regularization Method And Its Application In Problem Of Determination A Radial Distribution Of Spectral Lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vuceljic, M. J. [University of Montenegro, Faculty of Natural Science and Mathematic, Podgorica (Serbia)

    2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    There are a lot of methods dealing with the problems how to get the local radial intensity from a measured lateral intensity of the spectral line. All of them need some a priori information and often a preliminary filtering of the signal. Thus, it is always a question about loosing the useful information of the signal. One of the methods for determination radial intensity is a Tikhonov regularization method. This method requires minimum a priori information such as: the intensity is a monotone positive function. To check applicability limitations of the method, some model functions have been introduced. Special attention was devoted to the model function with the fine structure.

  3. Evaluation of Methods for Predicting Seepage Loss Rates for the Hard Lined Irrigation Canals of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, Eric

    2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    on 32 canal sections. The condition rating scores were evaluated for 26 of these canals. Test calculation revisions and testing errors were first evaluated to understand the potential impacts to the seepage loss rates and condition rating system...

  4. Emission-Line Galaxy Surveys as Probes of the Spatial Distribution of Dwarf Galaxies. I. The University of Michigan Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Janice C. Lee; John J. Salzer; Jessica Rosenberg; Daniel Law

    2000-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Objective-prism surveys which select galaxies on the basis of line-emission are extremely effective at detecting low-luminosity galaxies and constitute some of the deepest available samples of dwarfs. In this study, we confirm that emission-line galaxies (ELGs) in the University of Michigan (UM) objective-prism survey (MacAlpine et al. 1977-1981) are reliable tracers of large-scale structure, and utilize the depth of the samples to examine the spatial distribution of low-luminosity (M$_{B} > $ -18.0) dwarfs relative to higher luminosity giant galaxies (M$_{B} \\leq$ -18.0) in the Updated Zwicky Catalogue (Falco et al. 1999). New spectroscopic data are presented for 26 UM survey objects. We analyze the relative clustering properties of the overall starbursting ELG and normal galaxy populations, using nearest neighbor and correlation function statistics. This allows us to determine whether the activity in ELGs is primarily caused by gravitational interactions. We conclude that galaxy-galaxy encounters are not the sole cause of activity in ELGs since ELGs tend to be more isolated and are more often found in the voids when compared to their normal galaxy counterparts. Furthermore, statistical analyses performed on low-luminosity dwarf ELGs show that the dwarfs are less clustered when compared to their non-active giant neighbors. The UM dwarf samples have greater percentages of nearest neighbor separations at large values and lower correlation function amplitudes relative to the UZC giant galaxy samples. These results are consistent with the expectations of galaxy biasing.

  5. A multiconductor model for determining the response of power transmission and distribution lines to a high altitude electromagnetic pulse (HEMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tesche, F.M.; Barnes, P.R.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A calculation model for electromagnetic pulse coupling to transmission and transmission line is discussed. Sample calculations for a 345 kV transmission line are given. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Abstract--The detection of single line-to-ground (SLG) fault in compensated distribution networks can be hampered by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on particular regime where data is acquired. In transient regime the relays diagnosis based on analysis, power distribution protection, compensated distribution system I. INTRODUCTION N case of low ohmic SLG faults in compensated distribution networks the directional function can be assured by transient relays

  7. The effects of R/X ratios on power system minimum loss 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Denison, John Scott

    1949-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation of Data Summary e ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ Appendix . Bibliography ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ S5 ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 89 Case I, Loss vs ~ Angle ~ Case II, Loss vs. Angle Case III, Loss vs ~ Angle Case IV ~ Loss vso Angle... ~ ~ ~ Case V, Line Impedances . . . . . , ~ 17 20 23 27 33 Case V (a), Loss vs. Angle . . ~ Case V (b), Loss vs. Voltage Case V (c), Loss vs. Angle Case VI, Line Impedances ~ Case VI, Loss vs. &ngle ~ Case VII (a), Line Impedances Case VII (a...

  8. The Orientation Distributions of Lines, Surfaces, and Interfaces around Three-Phase Boundaries in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rohrer, Gregory S.

    in a multiphase ceramic material. I. Introduction THE active cathode regions of many solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes Shen J. Dillon, Lam Helmick,§,¶ Herbert M. Miller,§ Lane Wilson relevant triple phase boundary lines and surfaces near them in SOFC cathodes made up of a porous mixture

  9. Geant4 simulation of the PSI LEM beam line: energy loss and muonium formation in thin foils and the impact of unmoderated muons on the $\\mu$SR spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Khaw, Kim Siang; Crivelli, Paolo; Kirch, Klaus; Morenzoni, Elvezio; Salman, Zaher; Suter, Andreas; Prokscha, Thomas

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The PSI low-energy $\\mu$SR spectrometer is an instrument dedicated to muon spin rotation and relaxation measurements. Knowledge of the muon beam parameters such as spatial, kinetic energy and arrival-time distributions at the sample position are important ingredients to analyze the $\\mu$SR spectra. We present here the measured energy losses in the thin carbon foil of the muon start detector deduced from time-of-flight measurements. Muonium formation in the thin carbon foil (10 nm thickness) of the muon start detector also affect the measurable decay asymmetry and therefore need to be accounted for. Muonium formation and energy losses in the start detector, whose relevance increase with decreasing muon implantation energy ($<10$ keV), have been implemented in Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation to reproduce the measured time-of-flight spectra. Simulated and measured time-of-flight and beam spot agrees only if a small fraction of so called "unmoderated" muons which contaminate the mono-energetic muon beam of the $...

  10. Loss and thermal noise in plasmonic waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syms, R. R. A., E-mail: r.syms@imperial.ac.uk; Solymar, L. [Optical and Semiconductor Devices Group, EEE Department, Imperial College London, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Rytov's theory of thermally generated radiation is used to find the noise in two-dimensional passive guides based on an arbitrary distribution of lossy isotropic dielectric. To simplify calculations, the Maxwell curl equations are approximated using difference equations that also permit a transmission-line analogy, and material losses are assumed to be low enough for modal losses to be estimated using perturbation theory. It is shown that an effective medium representation of each mode is valid for both loss and noise and, hence, that a one-dimensional model can be used to estimate the best achievable noise factor when a given mode is used in a communications link. This model only requires knowledge of the real and imaginary parts of the modal dielectric constant. The former can be found by solving the lossless eigenvalue problem, while the latter can be estimated using perturbation theory. Because of their high loss, the theory is most relevant to plasmonic waveguides, and its application is demonstrated using single interface, slab, and slot guide examples. The best noise performance is offered by the long-range plasmon supported by the slab guide.

  11. Property Loss / Damage Report Damage Loss Details

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ponce, V. Miguel

    Property Loss / Damage Report Damage Loss Details Date & Time of Damage / Loss: Type of damage / loss: Location - specific address / room: Project / Grant associated with damage / loss - grant Police: When was damage / loss first discovered - BY WHOM: Pictures available or attached? Was personal

  12. > FOR CONFERENCE-RELATED PAPERS, REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR SESSION NUMBER, E.G., AB-02 (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE) Computation of eddy current losses in Soft Magnetic Composites1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    -CLICK HERE) eddy current losses in Soft Magnetic Composites1 2 C. Appino1 , O. Bottauscio1, Italy6 7 We compute the classical eddy current losses in Soft Magnetic Composite (SMC) materials, taking into account the eddy current8 paths appearing at the scale of the sample cross-section because of random

  13. Analysis of interconnect microstrip lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luong, Giam-Minh

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the return loss of the slot-coupled microstrip dipole. Section C presents two simulations of the return loss on the slot- coupled rectangular patch antenna. A. Interconnect of Microstrip Lines Several circuits with the geometry of Figure 1 were fabricated.... Experimental and Theoretical Results of the Interconnect Two circuits were designed and fabricated. Each circuit consists of two substrates as shown in Figure 9. One substrate has an open microstrip line etched in one side and an aperture etched...

  14. Silicon on ultra-low-loss waveguide photonic integration platform

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauters, Jared; Davenport, Michael; Heck, Martijn; Doylend, Jonathan; Chen, Arnold; Fang, Alexander

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and J. E. Bowers, “Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si 3 N 4and K. J. Vahala, “Ultra-low-loss optical delay line on aspiral is 78 mm long. 3. Ultra-low-loss waveguides with and

  15. Digital Loss-Minimizing Multi-Mode Synchronous Buck Converter Control Angel V. Peterchev Seth R. Sanders

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sanders, Seth

    transition among the modes. An on-line adaptive algorithm to optimize the SR timing, based on power loss reducing the switching losses. In modern portable applications, minimizing power loss at light load in the controller, or can be obtained on-line by dynamically minimizing the converter power loss via multi

  16. Evaluating Transformer Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grun, R. L. Jr.

    therefore are a function of the load squared. No-load losses occur from energizing the transformer steel and fore are continuous regardless of the transformer load. TRANSFORMER DESIGN Both types of losses are a fun ce here ion of design. If losses...

  17. Nonlinear DSTATCOM controller design for distribution network with distributed generation to enhance voltage stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Nonlinear DSTATCOM controller design for distribution network with distributed generation Accepted 19 June 2013 Keywords: Distributed generation Distribution network DSATACOM Partial feedback connected to a distribution network with distributed generation (DG) to regulate the line voltage

  18. Liquid film thickness measurement by two-line TDLAS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Huinan [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 200093, Shanghai, China and IVG, University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057, Duisburg (Germany); Chen, Jun; Cai, Xiaoshu [School of Energy and Power Engineering, University of Shanghai for Science and Technology, 200093, Shanghai (China); Greszik, Daniel; Dreier, Thomas; Schulz, Christof [IVG, University of Duisburg-Essen, 47057, Duisburg (Germany)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber-based two-line tunable diode-laser absorption sensor with two near-infrared (NIR) distributed-feedback (DFB) diode lasers at ?1.4 ?m was used for non-intrusive time-resolved liquid water film thickness measurement. When probing the liquid film at two different wavelengths with significantly different absorption cross-sections, the additional signal losses due to surface fowling, reflection and beam steering can be eliminated. In this work, the evaporation process of a liquid film on transparent quartz plate was tracked and large fluctuations of film thickness were found at the end of the evaporation.

  19. alpha line profile: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    calculations of IP line profiles based on hot model distributions of interplanetary hydrogen. We also find that the line profiles get narrower during solar maximum. The results...

  20. Authorization of Line Extension (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Any entity permitted to establish an electric light and power plant, and/or transmission or distribution lines within a city, village, or public electric light and power district, may also extend...

  1. Unknown: Multifocal scalp hair loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shamsadini, Sadollah; Esfandiarpoor, Iraj; Zeinali, Hamid; Kalantari, Behjat; Ebrahimi, Hoseiali

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unknown: Multifocal scalp hair loss Sadllah Shamsadini 1 ,four patches of scalp hair loss. What is your diagnosis?

  2. Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rubel, Edwin

    Chemical Biology Chemical Screening for Hair Cell Loss and Protection in the Zebrafish Lateral Line Rubel,1,2 and David W. Raible1,4 Abstract In humans, most hearing loss results from death of hair cells, the mechanosensory receptors of the inner ear. Two goals of current hearing research are to protect hair cells from

  3. Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.

    2012-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.

  4. Measurements of Beam Ion Loss from the Compact Helical System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D. S. Darrow, M. Isobe, Takashi Kondo, M. Sasao, and the CHS Group National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu, Japan

    2010-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Beam ion loss from the Compact Helical System (CHS) has been measured with a scintillator-type probe. The total loss to the probe, and the pitch angle and gyroradius distributions of that loss, have been measured as various plasma parameters were scanned. Three classes of beam ion loss were observed at the probe position: passing ions with pitch angles within 10o of those of transition orbits, ions on transition orbits, and ions on trapped orbits, typically 15o or more from transition orbits. Some orbit calculations in this geometry have been performed in order to understand the characteristics of the loss. Simulation of the detector signal based upon the following of orbits from realistic beam deposition profiles is not able to reproduce the pitch angle distribution of the losses measured. Consequently it is inferred that internal plasma processes, whether magnetohydrodynamic modes, radial electric fields, or plasma turbulence, move previously confined beam ions to transition orbits, resulting in their loss.

  5. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong (1309, Low Block, Lei Moon House Ap Lei Chau Estate, Hong Kong, HK); Chau, Hoi Fung (Flat C, 42nd Floor, Tower 1, University Heights 23 Pokfield Road, Pokfulam, Hong Kong, HK)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.

  6. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.

  7. Microsoft Word - notification of sampling line loss.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE625Data ShowC - PatentJuly 2004BPA For 2nd10

  8. The Price of Synchrony: Resistive Losses due to Phase Synchronization in Power Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bassam Bamieh; Dennice F. Gayme

    2012-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We investigate the total resistive losses incurred in returning a power network of identical generators to a synchronous state following a transient stability event or in maintaining this state in the presence of persistent stochastic disturbances. We formulate this cost as the input-output $H^2$ norm of a linear dynamical system with distributed disturbances. We derive an expression for the total resistive losses that scales with the size of the network as well as properties of the generators and power lines, but is independent of the network topology. This topologically invariant scaling of what we term the price of synchrony is in contrast to typical power system stability notions like rate of convergence or the region of attraction for rotor-angle stability. Our result indicates that highly connected power networks, whilst desirable for higher phase synchrony, do not offer an advantage in terms of the total resistive power losses needed to achieve this synchrony. Furthermore, if power flow is the mechanism used to achieve synchrony in highly-distributed-generation networks, the cost increases unboundedly with the number of generators.

  9. Helium release rates and ODH calculations from RHIC magnet cooling line failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A catastrophic failure of the magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, could discharge cold helium into the RHIC tunnel and cause an Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH) problem. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the insulating vacuum volumes and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces are included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Results, including helium discharge rates, helium inventory loss, and the resulting oxygen concentration in the RHIC tunnel area, are reported. Good agreement had been achieved when comparing the simulation results, a RHIC sector depressurization test measurement, and some simple analytical calculations.

  10. Modelling and Computation of AC Fields and Losses in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sóbester, András

    electricity but inherently has energy losses associated with (joule) heating. Fault current limiters would be installed in transmission and distribution systems, especially for electric utilities and large energy users. High-Tc superconductors experience energy loss when exposed to time-varying magnetic fields or carrying

  11. Catalogue of a Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Larisa (Larisa A.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Catalogue of a Loss is a collection of sixty-two prose poems written within the past year and half. The work is printed on 4x6 cards. Each poem may be read individually from a single card or the poems can be read in ...

  12. Power distribution engineering: Fundamentals and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, J.J.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Covering virtually all areas of distribution engineering, this thoroughly up-to-date reference examines the unique behavior of utilities and provides the practical knowledge necessary to solve real-world distribution problems. Simplifying seemingly difficult concepts and calculations, Power Distribution Engineering addresses topics typically associated with power quality such as sags, swells, harmonics, electromagnetic fields, and stray voltage; describes different types of system designs and grounding as well as values for voltage, line lengths, and load and fault levels; details the loading, construction, and rating of various transformers; presents methods to maximize the effectiveness of capacitor placement; explains overcurrent and overvoltage protection of distribution systems; evaluates utilities using economic techniques that incorporate ideas such as present worth, carrying charge, cost of losses, operating costs, and customer satisfaction. Furnishing over 425 helpful equations, tables, drawings, and photographs, Power Distribution Engineering is an invaluable resource for electrical and electronics, utility distribution, power systems, control, protection, and relaying engineers, as well as graduate students in these disciplines.

  13. AN ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK BASED TRANSMISSION LOSS ALLOCATION FOR BILATERAL CONTRACTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saskatchewan, University of

    et al [2] have proposed a transmission loss allocation method by tracing the generator and load contributions to line flows. This method traces the contributions of each generator and of each load to the line in the lines are traced and a proportional sharing principle is used. Expósito et al [5] have proposed a method

  14. Optimization Online - Communication-Efficient Distributed ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuchen Zhang

    2015-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Jan 5, 2015 ... Communication-Efficient Distributed Optimization of Self-Concordant Empirical Loss. Yuchen Zhang(yuczhang ***at*** eecs.berkeley.edu)

  15. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation Water Heaters and Hot Water DistributionLaboratory). 2008. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distributionfor instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss

  16. Radio-Frequency Inverters With Transmission-Line Input Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Phinney, Joshua W.

    A soft-switching inverter topology (the Class Phi ) is presented which draws dc source current through a transmission line or a lumped-network approximation of a distributed line. By aligning the inverter switching frequency ...

  17. Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Toohey, Darin W.

    1 Lecture 17 Midlatitude Ozone: Loss and Trends ATOC/CHEM 5151 #12;2 Importance of midlatitude ozone · Covers most of the world's populated areas · Provides protection from UV #12;3 Ozone loss picture, c. 1988 #12;4 Lower vs. Upper stratosphere #12;5 Ozone loss, post 1988 · Discovery of ozone hole

  18. BIODIVERSITY Accounting for tree line shift, glacier

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zimmermann, Niklaus E.

    BIODIVERSITY RESEARCH Accounting for tree line shift, glacier retreat and primary succession land cover (tree line shift, glacier retreat and primary succession) into species distribution model. Methods We fit linear mixed effects (LME) models to historical changes in forest and glacier cover

  19. On-line secret sharing Laszlo Csirmaz

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tardos, Gábor

    On-line secret sharing L´aszl´o Csirmaz G´abor Tardos Abstract In a perfect secret sharing scheme the dealer distributes shares to participants so that qualified subsets can recover the secret, while unqualified subsets have no information on the secret. In an on-line secret sharing scheme the dealer assigns

  20. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  1. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly D. [JLAB; Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Knudsen, Peter N. [JLAB; Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB; Barrios, Matthew N. [Michigan State; Jones, S. [Michigan State; Johnson, M. [Michigan State; Casagrande, Fabio [Michigan State

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  2. AC losses in type-II superconductors induced by nonuniform fluctuations of external magnetic field

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    as the economic gains of implementation of type-II superconductors in power transmission lines, current leads amplitude. The results can be used to estimate the AC losses in flywheels, electric motors, magnetic shields

  3. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON APPLIED SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, VOL. 14, NO. 1, MARCH 2004 69 AC Losses in Type-II Superconductors Induced by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prigozhin, Leonid

    -II superconductors in power transmission lines, current leads, fault current limiters, magnetic shields, bearings losses in flywheels, electric motors, magnetic shields, etc. Index Terms--AC losses, asymptotic solution

  4. MHD Induced Neutral Beam Ion Loss from NSTX Plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.S. Darrow, E.D. Fredrickson, N.N. Gorelenkov, A.L. Roquemore, and K. Shinohara

    2007-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Bursts of ~60 kHz activity on Mirnov coils occur frequently in NSTX plasmas and these are accompanied by bursts of neutral beam ion loss over a range in pitch angles. These losses have been measured with a scintillator type loss probe imaged with a high speed (>10,000 frames/s) video camera, giving the evolution of the energy and pitch angle distributions of the lost neutral beam ions over the course of the events. The instability occurs below the TAE frequency in NSTX (~100 kHz) in high beta plasmas and may be a beta driven Alfvén acoustic (BAAE) mode.

  5. Tax aspects of casualty losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lehmann, August Herman

    1960-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sudden, unex- 1 pected or unusual nature. The word also signifies an accident, a mishap, or some sudden invasion by a hostile agency. It excludes the progressive deterioration of property through a steadily operating cause, and the loss of an article.... F. T, R. 432, rulings and Court decisions indicate that there may be a tendency to dis- regard suddenness as a requirement for a casualty loss deduction. The casualty loss deduction is allowed only for the loss of pro- 3 perty and the property...

  6. The millimeter-wave properties of superconducting microstrip lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The millimeter-wave properties of superconducting microstrip lines A. Vayonakis£, C. Luo , H of the millimeter-wave properties of superconducting thin-film microstrip transmission lines. Our exper- imental, with a temperature-independent loss tangent of 5 3 ¦0 5 ¢10 3 for our samples. INTRODUCTION Superconducting

  7. The feasibility of replacing or upgrading utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Cohn, S.M.; Purucker, S.L.

    1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It is estimated that electric utilities use about 40 million distribution transformers in supplying electricity to customers in the United States. Although utility distribution transformers collectively have a high average efficiency, they account for approximately 61 billion kWh of the 229 billion kWh of energy lost annually in the delivery of electricity. Distribution transformers are being replaced over time by new, more efficient, lower-loss units during routine utility maintenance of power distribution systems. Maintenance is typically not performed on units in service. However, units removed from service with appreciable remaining life are often refurbished and returned to stock. Distribution transformers may be removed from service for many reasons, including failure, over- or underloading, or line upgrades such as voltage changes or rerouting. When distribution transformers are removed from service, a decision must be made whether to dispose of the transformer and purchase a lower-loss replacement or to refurbish the transformer and return it to stock for future use. This report contains findings and recommendations on replacing utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance, which is required by section 124(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the practicability, cost-effectiveness, and potential energy savings of replacing or upgrading existing transformers during routine utility maintenance and to develop recommendations on was to achieve the potential energy savings.

  8. Energy Loss in Nuclear Drell-Yan Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jian-Jun Yang; Guang-Lie Li

    1998-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    By means of the nuclear parton distributions which can be used to provide a good explanation for the EMC effect in the whole x range, we investigate the energy loss effect in nuclear Drell-Yan process. When the cross section of lepton pair production is considered varying with the center-of-mass energy of the nucleon-nucleon collision, we find that the nuclear Drell-Yan(DY) ratio is suppressed due to the energy loss, which balances the overestimate of the DY ratio only in consideration of the effect of nuclear parton distributions.

  9. Stopping and time reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss tuning of coupled-resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Shanhui

    Stopping and time reversing a light pulse using dynamic loss tuning of coupled-resonator delay. ID 85496); published November 12, 2007 We introduce a light-stopping process that uses dynamic loss processing [1,2]. For this pur- pose, dynamically tuned delay lines based on cas- caded optical resonators

  10. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and...

  11. Damping of bending waves in truss beams by electrical transmission lines with PZT actuators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    Damping of bending waves in truss beams by electrical transmission lines with PZT actuators F. dell of the truss beam with an electrical transmission line by a line distribution of PZT actuators. It has been-order transmission line, and that such a line is not suitable to damp bending waves. In the present paper, we propose

  12. Temperatures in the blast furnace refractory lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebel, R.; Streuber, C. [Didier-M and P Energietechnik GmbH, Wiesbaden (Germany); Steiger, R. [Didier-M and P Engineering Services, Highland, IN (United States); Jeschar, R. [TU Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Energieverfahrenstechnik und Brennstofftechnik

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The campaign life duration of a blast furnace is mainly determined by the condition of the refractory lining in heavy-duty zones such as the hearth, bosh, belly and lower stack. To achieve a desired lifetime, the temperature of the lining in these areas thereby proved to be the decisive controllable parameter. Low operating temperatures result in prolonged service life and are attained through high cooling efficiency. Besides the refractory grade chosen, the wear profile is mainly determined by the type of cooling system applied and the cooling intensity. Therefore, an appropriate compromise between long service life and energy losses has to be found in each case. In order to predict the service life of a lining it is important to know the wear condition at all times during the campaign. The paper describes the approaches the authors have made so far on European blast furnaces, on a theoretical and practical basis, on how to analyze the lining wear.

  13. Rapid Spatial Distribution Seismic Loss Analysis for Multistory Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deshmukh, Pankaj Bhagvatrao

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Tall building frames that respond to large seismic ground motions tend to have significant spatial variability of damage over their height, often with a concentration of that damage in the lower stories. In spite of this spatial variability...

  14. Design considerations of translmission line superconductors for fast-cycling accelerator magnets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Piekarz, H.; /Fermilab

    2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel design options of HTS and LTS superconductor lines for fast-cycling accelerator magnets are presented. The cryogenic power losses in using these conductors in transmission line application to energize the accelerator magnet string are discussed. A test arrangement to measure power loss of the proposed superconductor lines operating up to 2 T/s ramp rate and 0.5 Hz repetition cycle is described.

  15. Control of cooling losses at high pulverized coal injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. Van [Sidmar N.V., Gent (Belgium)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the problems which is encountered by many blast furnace operators is the appropriate control of the cooling losses of the blast furnace. This problem has been aggravated by the introduction of pulverized coal injection. Even with equal burden and coke composition, both Sidmar furnaces behave differently with respect to the cooling losses. This phenomenon is possibly attributable to the different profile and cooling circuitry of the furnaces. Among other parameters the angles of bosh and stack may favor the formation of scabs or not. Some operators experience a decrease of their cooling losses, other operators have problems to limit their cooling losses to an acceptable level. As a result, different operating practices exist with respect to the burden distribution. The increase of the ore to coke ratio with pulverized coal injection suggests that the coke and sinter quality has to be monitored very carefully in order to avoid permeability problems.

  16. STAFF PAPER A Review of Transmission Losses in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    from 5.4 percent to 6.9 percent during 2002 to 2008, based on Energy Commission data. This staff paper of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. Staff also would like to acknowledge Al Alvarado and distribution loss values in planning studies. In this effort, staff analyzed data, researched literature

  17. Fluid system for controlling fluid losses during hydrocarbon recovery operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, M.H.; Smejkal, K.D.

    1993-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A fluid system is described for controlling fluid losses during hydrocarbon recovery operations, comprising: water; a distribution of graded calcium carbonate particle sizes; and at least one modified lignosulfonate, which is a lignosulfonate modified by polymerizing it at least to an extent effective to reduce its water solubility.

  18. Turbine tip clearance loss mechanisms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mazur, Steven (Steven Andrew)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations (RANS and URANS) were used to assess the impact of two specific design features, and of aspects of the actual turbine environment, on turbine blade tip loss. The calculations were ...

  19. Location of Leaks in Pressure Testable Direct Burial Steam Distribution Conduits 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sittel, M. G.; Messock, R. K.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , resulting in increased thermal energy losses and eventual damage to the steam line. Breaches in the outer conduit are difficult to locate, and damage to the steam line may progress until the entire line requires replacement. Thermal energy losses are high...

  20. Theoretical X-ray Line Profiles from Colliding Wind Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Henley, D B; Pittard, J M

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present theoretical X-ray line profiles from a range of model colliding wind systems. In particular, we investigate the effects of varying the stellar mass-loss rates, the wind speeds, and the viewing orientation. We find that a wide range of theoretical line profile shapes is possible, varying with orbital inclination and phase. At or near conjunction, the lines have approximately Gaussian profiles, with small widths (HWHM ~ 0.1 v_infty) and definite blue- or redshifts (depending on whether the star with the weaker wind is in front or behind). When the system is viewed at quadrature, the lines are generally much broader (HWHM ~ v_infty), flat-topped and unshifted. Local absorption can have a major effect on the observed profiles - in systems with mass-loss rates of a few times 10^{-6} Msol/yr the lower energy lines (E wind of the primary. The orbital variation ...

  1. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON ADVANCED PACKAGING, VOL. 25, NO. 3, AUGUST 2002 385 Finite Ground Coplanar Waveguide (FGC) Low Loss,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tentzeris, Manos

    distribution networks often require two transmission lines to cross over each other. In this paper transmission lines, transmission lines. I. INTRODUCTION MONOLITHIC microwave and millimeter-wave inte- grated transmission lines to cross over each other as shown schematically in Fig. 1. These crossover junctions

  2. Efficiency loss in resource allocation games

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Yunjian

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The overarching goals of this thesis are to quantify the efficiency loss due to market participant strategic behavior, and to design proper pricing mechanisms that reduce the efficiency loss. The concept of efficiency loss ...

  3. Cancer Vulnerabilities Unveiled by Genomic Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nijhawan, Deepak

    Due to genome instability, most cancers exhibit loss of regions containing tumor suppressor genes and collateral loss of other genes. To identify cancer-specific vulnerabilities that are the result of copy number losses, ...

  4. A study of microstrip delay lines on high dielectric constant substrates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ashour, Thomas Joseph

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . . . . . . . . . . . . , 27 . 30 IILG. Conclusions. 45 IV DELAY LINES ON MCT SUBSTRATES . . 46 IV. A. Introduction. IV. B. Preliminary Design. . . . 46 IV. C. Delay Line Design IV. D, Testing Procedure IV. E. Iteradve Design Process. . IV. F. Delay Line Results... lines. . . . . . . . . 41 17 The (a) insertion loss and (b) time delay characteristics for a 1186 ps delay line over temperature . 42 18 274 ps delay lines on (a) MCT20 and (b) MCT40. . . . . . . 47 19 Delay lines with tuning chips on (a) MCT20...

  5. A majorization-minimization approach to design of power distribution networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jason K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider optimization approaches to design cost-effective electrical networks for power distribution. This involves a trade-off between minimizing the power loss due to resistive heating of the lines and minimizing the construction cost (modeled by a linear cost in the number of lines plus a linear cost on the conductance of each line). We begin with a convex optimization method based on the paper 'Minimizing Effective Resistance of a Graph' [Ghosh, Boyd & Saberi]. However, this does not address the Alternating Current (AC) realm and the combinatorial aspect of adding/removing lines of the network. Hence, we consider a non-convex continuation method that imposes a concave cost of the conductance of each line thereby favoring sparser solutions. By varying a parameter of this penalty we extrapolate from the convex problem (with non-sparse solutions) to the combinatorial problem (with sparse solutions). This is used as a heuristic to find good solutions (local minima) of the non-convex problem. To perform the necessary non-convex optimization steps, we use the majorization-minimization algorithm that performs a sequence of convex optimizations obtained by iteratively linearizing the concave part of the objective. A number of examples are presented which suggest that the overall method is a good heuristic for network design. We also consider how to obtain sparse networks that are still robust against failures of lines and/or generators.

  6. Acceleration of the Greenland ice sheet mass loss as observed by GRACE: Confidence and sensitivity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acceleration of the Greenland ice sheet mass loss as observed by GRACE: Confidence and sensitivity: Greenland mass loss acceleration confidence intervals GRACE a b s t r a c t We examine the scale and spatial distribution of the mass change acceleration in Greenland and its statistical significance, using processed

  7. Mapping Greenland's mass loss in space and time Christopher Harig1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Frederik J.

    Mapping Greenland's mass loss in space and time Christopher Harig1 and Frederik J. Simons lost from the Greenland ice cap, based on satellite gravity data collected by the Gravity Recovery distribution of Greenland's mass loss and how the geographical pattern has varied on relatively shorter time

  8. Repeater Insertion in RLC Lines for Minimum Propagation Delay Yehea I. Ismail and Eby G. Friedman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ismail, Yehea

    - A closed form expression for the propagation delay of a CMOS gate driving a distributed RLC line in an RLC line is provided in the appendix. II. Propagation Delay of a CMOS Gate Driving an RLC Load An arbitrary CMOS gate driving an RLC transmission line representation of an interconnect line is shown in Fig

  9. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  10. Radio frequency communication system utilizing radiating transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Struven, Warren C. (San Carlos, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A radio communication system for use in tunnels, mines, buildings or other shielded locations in which a pair of radiating transmission lines (30), (31) extend through such location in spaced coextensive relation to each other. Each transmission line (30), (31) has at least one unidirectional amplifier (32), (33) interposed therein with the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (32) of one transmission line (30) being opposite to the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (33) of the other transmission line (31). Each of the amplifiers (32), (33) has a gain which is less than the coupling loss between the transmission lines (30), (31). Two or more mobile transceivers (35) in the location served by the system are coupled to the transmission lines (30), (31) by electromagnetic wave propagation in space in order to communicate directly with each other at a given radio frequency within the frequency range of the system.

  11. Electric Transmission Lines (Nebraska)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Public Service Commission has jurisdiction over all electricity transmission lines crossing over or under railroad tracks at public highway crossings. This section contains general regulations...

  12. Emission Lines from the Gas Disk around TW Hydra and the Origin of the Inner Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gorti, Uma; Najita, Joan; Pascucci, Ilaria

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We compare line emission calculated from theoretical disk models with optical to sub-millimeter wavelength observational data of the gas disk surrounding TW Hya and infer the spatial distribution of mass in the gas disk. The model disk that best matches observations has a gas mass ranging from $\\sim10^{-4}-10^{-5}$\\ms\\ for $0.06{\\rm AU} 13.6$eV) flux from TW Hya. H$_2$ pure rotational line emission comes primarily from $r\\sim 1-30$AU. [OI]63$\\mu$m, HCO$^+$ and CO pure rotational lines all arise from the outer disk at $r\\sim30-120$AU. We discuss planet formation and photoevaporation as causes for the decrease in surface density of gas and dust inside 4 AU. If a planet is present, our results suggest a planet mass $\\sim 4-7$M$_J$ situated at $\\sim 3$AU. Using our photoevaporation models and the best surface density profile match to observations, we estimate a current photoevaporative mass loss rate of $4\\times10^{-9}$\\ms\\ yr$^{-1}$ and a remaining disk lifetime of $\\sim 5$ million years.

  13. Configuration and Validation of the LHC Beam Loss Monitoring System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zamantzas, C; Emery, J; Fitzek, J; Follin, F; Jackson, S; Kain, V; Kruk, G; Misiowiec, M; Roderick, C; Sapinski, M

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The LHC Beam Loss Monitoring (BLM) system is one of the most complex instrumentation systems deployed in the LHC. As well as protecting the machine, the system is also used as a means of diagnosing machine faults, and providing feedback of losses to the control room and several systems such as the Collimation, the Beam Dump and the Post-Mortem. The system has to transmit and process signals from over 4’000 monitors, and has approaching 3 million configurable parameters. This paper describes the types of configuration data needed, the means used to store and deploy all the parameters in such a distributed system and how operators are able to alter the operating parameters of the system, particularly with regard to the loss threshold values. The various security mechanisms put in place, both at the hardware and software level, to avoid accidental or malicious modification of these BLM parameters are also shown for each case.

  14. A New Linearization Method of Unbalanced Electrical Distribution Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Ceylan, Oguzhan [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract--- With increasing penetration of distributed generation in the distribution networks (DN), the secure and optimal operation of DN has become an important concern. As DN control and operation strategies are mostly based on the linearized sensitivity coefficients between controlled variables (e.g., node voltages, line currents, power loss) and control variables (e.g., power injections, transformer tap positions), efficient and precise calculation of these sensitivity coefficients, i.e. linearization of DN, is of fundamental importance. In this paper, the derivation of the node voltages and power loss as functions of the nodal power injections and transformers' tap-changers positions is presented, and then solved by a Gauss-Seidel method. Compared to other approaches presented in the literature, the proposed method takes into account different load characteristics (e.g., constant PQ, constant impedance, constant current and any combination of above) of a generic multi-phase unbalanced DN and improves the accuracy of linearization. Numerical simulations on both IEEE 13 and 34 nodes test feeders show the efficiency and accuracy of the proposed method.

  15. Charm Quark Energy Loss in QCD Matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    W. C. Xiang; H. T. Ding; D. C. Zhou; D. Rohrich

    2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy loss of heavy quarks in a quark-gluon plasma of finite size is studied within the light-cone integral approach. A simple analytical formulation of the radiative energy loss of heavy quarks is derived. This provides a convenient way to quantitatively estimate the quark energy loss. Our results show that if the energy of a heavy quark is much larger than its mass, the radiative energy loss approaches the radiative energy loss of light quarks.

  16. Uniform Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    randomly and equally likely a point in that interval), the uniform distribution ... Roughly speaking, this means that from any distribution we can create the uniform.

  17. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  18. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  19. Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Ronald P. (Peters Township, Washington County, PA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

  20. Intrinsic AGN Absorption Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fred Hamann

    2000-06-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Strong absorption lines are common in rest-frame UV spectra of AGNs due to a variety of resonant transitions, for example the HI Lyman series lines (most notably Ly-alpha 1216) and high-ionization doublets like CIV 1549,1551. The lines are called ``intrinsic'' if the absorbing gas is physically related to the AGN, e.g. if the absorber resides broadly within the radius of the AGN's surrounding ``host'' galaxy. Intrinsic absorption lines are thus valuable probes of the kinematics, physical conditions and elemental abundances in the gas near AGNs. Studies of intrinsic absorbers have historically emphasized the broad absorption lines (BALs) in quasars. Today we recognize a wider variety of intrinsic lines in a wider range of objects. For example, we now know that Seyfert 1 galaxies (the less luminous cousins of quasars) have intrinsic absorption. We also realize that intrinsic lines can form in a range of AGN environments --- from the dynamic inner regions like the BALs, to the more quiescent outer host galaxies >10 kpc away. This article provides a brief introduction to current observational and theoretical work on intrinsic AGN absorbers.

  1. Optimum Allocation and Sizing of DG Unit for Efficiency Enhancement of Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    of appropriate size and location of DG reduces total power loss in a distribution system significantly and hence, Power loss reduction, Sensitivity analysis. I. INTRODUCTION Distributed Generation (DG) has gained its size and inappropriate allocation of generation may lead to higher power loss than when there is no DG

  2. The Antares emission nebula and mass loss of alpha Sco A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Reimers; H. -J. Hagen; R. Baade; K. Braun

    2008-09-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The Antares nebula is a peculiar emission nebula seen in numerous Fe II lines and in radio free-free emission, probably associated with the H II region caused by alpha Sco B in the wind of alpha Sco A. High-resolution spectra with spatial resolution were used to study the emission line spectrum, the physical nature of the nebula and to determine the mass-loss rate of the M supergiant alpha Sco A.

  3. Coherent soliton communication lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yushko, O. V., E-mail: olesya.yushko@gmail.com; Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K. [Novosibirsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  4. Independent Signs of Lower Mass-Loss Rates for O-Type Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith

    2007-10-18T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss observational evidence -- independent of the direct spectral diagnostics of stellar winds themselves -- suggesting that mass-loss rates for O stars need to be revised downward by roughly a factor of three or more, in line with recent observed mass-loss rates for clumped winds. These independent constraints include the large observed mass-loss rates in LBV eruptions, the large masses of evolved massive stars like LBVs and WNH stars, WR stars in lower metallicity environments, observed rotation rates of massive stars at different metallicity, supernovae that seem to defy expectations of high mass-loss rates in stellar evolution, and other clues. I pay particular attention to the role of feedback that would result from higher mass-loss rates, driving the star to the Eddington limit too particular attention to the role of feedback that would result from higher mass-loss rates, driving the star to the Eddington limit too soon, and therefore making higher rates appear highly implausible. Some of these arguments by themselves may have more than one interpretation, but together they paint a consistent picture that steady line-driven winds of O-type stars have lower mass-loss rates and are significantly clumped.

  5. DETERMINATION OF NON-THERMAL VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM SERTS LINEWIDTH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coyner, Aaron J. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Davila, Joseph M., E-mail: aaron.j.coyner@nasa.gov [Code 671, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-thermal velocities obtained from the measurement of coronal Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) linewidths have been consistently observed in solar EUV spectral observations and have been theorized to result from many plausible scenarios including wave motions, turbulence, or magnetic reconnection. Constraining these velocities can provide a physical limit for the available energy resulting from unresolved motions in the corona. We statistically determine a series of non-thermal velocity distributions from linewidth measurements of 390 emission lines from a wide array of elements and ionization states observed during the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Research Telescope and Spectrograph 1991-1997 flights covering the spectral range 174-418 A and a temperature range from 80,000 K to 12.6 MK. This sample includes 248 lines from active regions, 101 lines from quiet-Sun regions, and 41 lines were observed from plasma off the solar limb. We find a strongly peaked distribution corresponding to a non-thermal velocity of 19-22 km s{sup -1} in all three of the quiet-Sun, active region, and off-limb distributions. For the possibility of Alfven wave resonance heating, we find that velocities in the core of these distributions do not provide sufficient energy, given typical densities and magnetic field strengths for the coronal plasma, to overcome the estimated coronal energy losses required to maintain the corona at the typical temperatures working as the sole mechanism. We find that at perfect efficiency 50%-60% of the needed energy flux can be produced from the non-thermal velocities measured.

  6. Theoretical X-ray Line Profiles from Colliding Wind Binaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. B. Henley; I. R. Stevens; J. M. Pittard

    2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We present theoretical X-ray line profiles from a range of model colliding wind systems. In particular, we investigate the effects of varying the stellar mass-loss rates, the wind speeds, and the viewing orientation. We find that a wide range of theoretical line profile shapes is possible, varying with orbital inclination and phase. At or near conjunction, the lines have approximately Gaussian profiles, with small widths (HWHM ~ 0.1 v_\\infty) and definite blue- or redshifts (depending on whether the star with the weaker wind is in front or behind). When the system is viewed at quadrature, the lines are generally much broader (HWHM ~ v_\\infty), flat-topped and unshifted. Local absorption can have a major effect on the observed profiles - in systems with mass-loss rates of a few times 10^{-6} Msol/yr the lower energy lines (E wind of the primary. The orbital variation of the line widths and shifts is reduced in a low inclination binary. The extreme case is a binary with i = 0 degrees, for which we would expect no line profile variation.

  7. Rapidity losses in heavy-ion collisions from AGS to RHIC energies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. C. Zhou; Z. B. Yin; D. C. Zhou

    2009-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the rapidity losses in central heavy-ion collisions from AGS to RHIC energies with the mean rapidity determined from the projectile net-baryon distribution after collisions. The projectile net-baryon distribution in the full rapidity range was obtained by removing the target contribution phenomenologically at forward rapidity region from the experimental net-baryon measurements and taking into account the projectile contribution at backward rapidity region. Based on the full projectile net-baryon distributions, calculation results show that the rapidity loss stops increasing from the SPS top energy to RHIC energies, indicating that baryon transport does not depend strongly on energy at high energies.

  8. Direct optoelectronic generation and detection of sub-ps-electrical pulses on sub-mm-coaxial transmission lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -mm-coaxial transmission lines Tae-In Jeona) and D. Grischkowskyb) School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Oklahoma efficient direct optoelectronic generation of sub-ps-THz pulses on 50 coaxial transmission lines with a 330 larger bandwidths with 1/10 the loss of lithographically defined co- planar transmission lines.3 Although

  9. Loss mechanisms in turbine tip clearance flows

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Arthur (Arthur C.)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical simulations of tip clearance ow have been carried out to dene the loss generation mechanisms associated with tip leakage in unshrouded axial turbines. Mix- ing loss between the leakage, which takes the form of a ...

  10. Loss of coordination in competitive supply chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teo, Koon Soon

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The loss of coordination in supply chains quantifies the inefficiency (i.e. the loss of total profit) due to the presence of competition in the supply chain. In this thesis, we discuss four models: one model with multiple ...

  11. Holes in Spectral Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fontana, Peter R.; Srivastava, Rajendra P.

    1973-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The decay of an atom in the presence of a static perturbation is investigated. The perturbation couples a decaying state with a nondecaying state. A "hole" appears in the emission line at a frequency equal to the frequency difference between...

  12. Line Extension Alternatives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Public Service Board (PSB) of Vermont developed rules regarding utility line extension requests. While the majority of the rules focus on the procedure followed (and associated fees) for the...

  13. Electric Transmission Lines (Iowa)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Electric transmission lines capable of operating at 69 kV or greater cannot be constructed along, across, or over any public highways or grounds outside of cities without a franchise from the...

  14. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  15. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, Victor R. (Tracy, CA); Watwood, Donald B. (Tracy, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  16. 7, 1009710129, 2007 Chemical ozone loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ACPD 7, 10097­10129, 2007 Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes et al. Title Chemistry and Physics Discussions Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes 1 , R. M Chemical ozone loss in the Arctic winter 1991­1992 S. Tilmes et al. Title Page Abstract Introduction

  17. 4, 21672238, 2004 Ozone loss and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    ACPD 4, 2167­2238, 2004 Ozone loss and chlorine activation in the Arctic winters 1991­2003 S Union 2004 Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions Ozone loss and chlorine activation Correspondence to: S. Tilmes (simone.tilmes@t-online.de) 2167 #12;ACPD 4, 2167­2238, 2004 Ozone loss and chlorine

  18. Technical report Minimizing Calibrated Loss using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Technical report Minimizing Calibrated Loss using Stochastic Low-Rank Newton Descent for large algorithm (SGD) for the minimization of classical Hinge Loss in the primal space. Although com- plexity- imization of any calibrated loss in the primal space. SLND approximates the inverse Hessian by the best low

  19. June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Science Subject Feed Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 118 > Electric power high-voltage transmission lines:...

  20. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems. Volume 1: National assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Tesche, F.M. [6714 Norway Road, Dallas, TX (United States); Zaininger, H.W. [Zaininger Engineering Co., San Jose, CA (United States)

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Renewable energy technologies such as photovoltaic, solar thermal electricity, and wind turbine power are environmentally beneficial sources of electric power generation. The integration of renewable energy sources into electric power distribution systems can provide additional economic benefits because of a reduction in the losses associated with transmission and distribution lines. Benefits associated with the deferment of transmission and distribution investment may also be possible for cases where there is a high correlation between peak circuit load and renewable energy electric generation, such as photovoltaic systems in the Southwest. Case studies were conducted with actual power distribution system data for seven electric utilities with the participation of those utilities. Integrating renewable energy systems into electric power distribution systems increased the value of the benefits by about 20 to 55% above central station benefits in the national regional assessment. In the case studies presented in Vol. II, the range was larger: from a few percent to near 80% for a case where costly investments were deferred. In general, additional savings of at least 10 to 20% can be expected by integrating at the distribution level. Wind energy systems were found to be economical in good wind resource regions, whereas photovoltaic systems costs are presently a factor of 2.5 too expensive under the most favorable conditions.

  1. Cross delay line sensor characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owens, Israel J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Remelius, Dennis K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tiee, Joe J [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Buck, Steven E [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Whittemore, Stephen R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Thompson, David C [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shirey, Robert [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There exists a wealth of information in the scientific literature on the physical properties and device characterization procedures for complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), charge coupled device (CCD) and avalanche photodiode (APD) format detectors. Numerous papers and books have also treated photocathode operation in the context of photomultiplier tube (PMT) operation for either non imaging applications or limited night vision capability. However, much less information has been reported in the literature about the characterization procedures and properties of photocathode detectors with novel cross delay line (XDL) anode structures. These allow one to detect single photons and create images by recording space and time coordinate (X, Y & T) information. In this paper, we report on the physical characteristics and performance of a cross delay line anode sensor with an enhanced near infrared wavelength response photocathode and high dynamic range micro channel plate (MCP) gain (> 10{sup 6}) multiplier stage. Measurement procedures and results including the device dark event rate (DER), pulse height distribution, quantum and electronic device efficiency (QE & DQE) and spatial resolution per effective pixel region in a 25 mm sensor array are presented. The overall knowledge and information obtained from XDL sensor characterization allow us to optimize device performance and assess capability. These device performance properties and capabilities make XDL detectors ideal for remote sensing field applications that require single photon detection, imaging, sub nano-second timing response, high spatial resolution (10's of microns) and large effective image format.

  2. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  3. QCD Collisional Energy Loss Reexamined

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peshier, A. [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Giessen, 35392 Giessen (Germany)

    2006-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that at a large temperature and E{yields}{infinity} the QCD collisional energy loss reads dE/dx{approx}{alpha}(m{sub D}{sup 2})T{sup 2}. Compared to previous approaches, which led to dE{sup B}/dx{approx}{alpha}{sup 2}T{sup 2}ln(ET/m{sub D}{sup 2}) similar to the Bethe-Bloch formula in QED, we take into account the running of the strong coupling. As one significant consequence, due to asymptotic freedom, dE/dx becomes E independent for large parton energies. Some implications with regard to heavy ion collisions are pointed out.

  4. Genomic Responses to the Loss of LRPPRC MITOCHONDRIAL AND NUCLEAR GENOMIC RESPONSES TO LOSS OF LRPPRC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mootha, Vamsi K.

    of Systems Biology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02446 USA Running head: Genomic Responses to the LossGenomic Responses to the Loss of LRPPRC 1 MITOCHONDRIAL AND NUCLEAR GENOMIC RESPONSES TO LOSS with the loss of LRPPRC. Using this strategy, we discovered a specific role for LRPPRC in the expression of all

  5. Multilayer Platform for Ultra-Low-Loss Waveguide Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1, 2012 Multilayer Platform for Ultra-Low-Loss Waveguidepreviously demonstrated ultra-low-loss technologies. Groupet al. : MULTILAYER PLATFORM FOR ULTRA-LOW-LOSS WAVEGUIDE

  6. A Review of Loss Mechanisms and Key Design Choices for High Intensity Hadron Rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warsop, C.M. [Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The peak performance reached in a high intensity ring is closely related to the ability to minimise and control beam loss. The need to increase intensity has to be balanced against possible increased induction of radioactivity and the risk of interrupted operations. Losses are dependent on many factors and influence most aspects of machine design. In principle, only one aspect of low loss design needs to be sub-optimal to impose severe intensity limitations. Here, an outline is given of the key factors that need to be considered, focussing primarily on low to medium energy proton machines. Topics include space charge, instabilities, electron effects, injection and main lattice choices. Finally, we note that major progress has been made in refining low loss designs but there is still important work to be done in predicting loss levels and distributions in detail.

  7. Omega Transmission Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vehmas, Joni

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we show how bi-anisotropic media with omega-type response can be realized using periodically loaded transmission lines. General conditions for the needed unit cell circuit block are derived. Also, an implementation is shown and analyzed.

  8. Command Line Tools Cloud Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferrara, Katherine W.

    Command Line Tools Cloud Computing #12;Everybody (or nearly everybody) loves GUI. AWS Command Line of advanced features. After surviving the cloud computing class till now, Your are almost a command line guru! You need AWS command line tools, ec2-api-tools, to maximize the power of AWS cloud computing. Plugging

  9. Optimal capacitor placement, replacement and control in large-scale unbalanced distribution systems: System modeling and a new formulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, H.D.; Wang, J.C.; Tong, J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Electrical Engineering; Darling, G. [NYSEG Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States). Distribution System Dept.

    1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper undertakes the problem of optimal capacitor placement, replacement and control in large-scale unbalanced, radial or loop distribution networks. The problem is how to optimally determine the locations to install (or replace, or remove) capacitors, the types and sizes of capacitors to be installed (or replaced) and, during each load level, the control schemes for each capacitor in the nodes of a general three-phase unbalanced distribution system such that a desired objective function is minimized while the load constraints, network constraints and operational constraints (e.g. the voltage profile) at different load levels are satisfied. The objective function considered consists of two terms: cost for energy loss and cost related to capacitor purchase, capacitor installation, capacitor replacement and capacitor removal. Comprehensive modelings of different components are presented which include primary power networks, three-phase transformers (different winding connections, off-nominal tap ratio, core and copper losses), co-generators, voltage sensitive load models for single-phase, two-phase and three-phase loads, shunt capacitors and reactors. The new problem is formulated as a combinatorial optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function. The configuration space essential in the design of an annealing-based solution methodology for the new problem is derived. An effective solution methodology for solving the new problem and numerical studies on a realistic, unbalanced distribution network, a 291-bus with 305 distribution lines and 6 transformers, with varying loading conditions, will be presented in a companion paper.

  10. Optimal capacitor placement, replacement and control in large-scale unbalanced distribution systems: System modeling and a new formulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chiang, H.D.; Wang, J.C.; Tong, J. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Electrical Engineering; Darling, G. [NYSEG Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States). Distribution System Dept.

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper undertakes the problem of optimal capacitor placement, replacement and control in large-scale unbalanced, radial or loop distribution networks. The problem is how to optimally determine the locations to install (or replace, or remove) capacitors, the types and sizes of capacitors to be installed (or replaced) and, during each load level, the control schemes for each capacitor in the nodes of a general three-phase unbalanced distribution system such that a desired objective function is minimized while the load constraints, network constraints and operational constraints (e.g. the voltage profile) at different load levels are satisfied. The objective function considered consists of two terms: cost for energy loss and cost related to capacitor purchase, capacitor installation, capacitor replacement and capacitor removal. Comprehensive modelings of different components are presented which include primary power networks, three-phase transformers (different winding connections, off-nominal tap ratio, core and copper losses), co-generators, voltage sensitive load models for single-phase, two-phase and three-phase loads, shunt capacitors and rectors. The new problem is formulated as a combinational optimization problem with a non-differentiable objective function. The configuration space essential in the design of a annealing-based solution methodology for solving the new problem and numerical studies on a realistic, unbalanced distribution network, a 291-bus with 305 distribution lines and 6 transformers, with varying loading conditions, will be presented in a companion paper.

  11. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  12. Topic 1: Basics of Power Systems A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    ) Transmission Lines Several Hundred Miles Switching Stations Transformers Circuit Breakers #12;Power Systems Grid 7 · Power Distribution: Medium Voltage (MV) Transmission Lines ( in Smart Grid 11 Nodes: Buses Links: Transmission Lines Generator Load #12;Power Grid Graph Representation

  13. Formation depths of Fraunhofer lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gurtovenko, E A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have summed up our investigations performed in 1970--1993. The main task of this paper is clearly to show processes of formation of spectral lines as well as their distinction by validity and by location. For 503 photospheric lines of various chemical elements in the wavelength range 300--1000 nm we list in Table the average formation depths of the line depression and the line emission for the line centre and on the half-width of the line, the average formation depths of the continuum emission as well as the effective widths of the layer of the line depression formation. Dependence of average depths of line depression formation on excitation potential, equivalent widths, and central line depth are demonstrated by iron lines.

  14. Investigation of broadband over power line channel capacity of shipboard power system cables for ship communications networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akinnikawe, Ayorinde

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    cables. The work used a multiconductor transmission line theory based approach to model the channel response of SPS distribution lines and estimated the channel throughput capacity using a “water-filling” communication technique. This work found that BPL...

  15. Reduce Radiation Losses from Heating Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This DOE Industrial Technologies Program tip sheet describes how to save energy and costs by reducing expensive heat losses from industrial heating equipment, such as furnaces.

  16. Analysis of TPV Network Losses (a Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DM DePoy; MW Dashiell; DD Rahner; LR Danielson; JE Oppenlander; JL Vell; RJ Wehrer

    2004-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    This talk focuses on the theoretical analysis of electrical losses associated with electrically networking large numbers of TPV cells to produce high power TPV power generators.

  17. Beam Cooling with ionisation losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Rubbia; A. Ferrari; Y. Kadi; V. Vlachoudis

    2006-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel type of particle "cooling", called Ionization Cooling, is applicable to slow (v of the order of 0.1c) ions stored in a small ring. The many traversals through a thin foil enhance the nuclear reaction probability, in a steady configuration in which ionisation losses are recovered at each turn by a RF-cavity. For a uniform target "foil" the longitudinal momentum spread diverges exponentially since faster (slower) particles ionise less (more) than the average. In order to "cool" also longitudinally, a chromaticity has to be introduced with a wedge shaped "foil". Multiple scattering and straggling are then "cooled" in all three dimensions, with a method similar to the one of synchrotron cooling, but valid for low energy ions. Particles then stably circulate in the beam indefinitely, until they undergo for instance nuclear processes in the thin target foil. This new method is under consideration for the nuclear production of a few MeV/A ion beams. Simple reactions, for instance Li 7 + D Li 8 + p, are more favourably exploited with the heavier ion colliding against a gas-jet D2 target. Kinematics is generally very favourable, with emission angles in a narrow angular cone and a relatively concentrated outgoing energy spectrum which allows an efficient collection as a neutral gas in a tiny volume with a technology at high temperatures perfected at ISOLDE. It is however of a much more general applicability. The method appears capable of producing a "table top" storage ring with an accumulation rate in excess of 10**14 Li-8 radioactive ion/s for possible use for radioactive beams for physics studies (for example for beta-beams) or for therapy.

  18. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project Profile: Verizon Central Office Building ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project...

  19. Abstract--Distribution factors play a key role in many system security analysis and market applications. The injection shift

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for and the computationally efficient evaluation of LODFs under multiple- line outages. Index Terms--power transfer distribution factors, line outage distribution factors, multiple-line outages, system security. I. INTRODUCTION. Given the usefulness of LODFs in the study of security with many outaged lines, such as in blackouts

  20. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreaking of BlytheDepartment ofEnergy1EnergyEnergy Insulate Steam

  1. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels DataDepartment of Energy Your Density Isn't YourTransport(FactDepartment of Energy InvestingS10IS007of EnergyDepartmentNOTEnergy

  2. Drill string transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David S. (Lehi, UT); Bradford, Kline (Orem, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2006-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  3. Transmission line: design manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farr, H.H.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this manual is to outline the various requirements for, and the procedures to be followed in the design of power transmission lines by the Bureau of Reclamation, US Department of the Interior. Numerous design studies, which have been made on specific aspects of transmission line design, are included with explanations of their applications. Information is presented concerning such aspects as selection of type of construction, conductor sags and tensions, insulation, lightning protection, clearance patterns, galloping conductors, structure limitation and guying charts, and structure spotting. Structure design examples are limited to wood-pole construction. Interpretations of the National Electrical Safety Code and other codes are made as required. Some of the example problems were developed when the sixth edition of NESC was current, and are so noted; however, most examples use the 1977 edition of NESC.

  4. Eruptive Mass Loss in Very Massive Stars and Population III Stars

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nathan Smith

    2006-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    I discuss the role played by short-duration eruptive mass loss in the evolution of very massive stars. Giant eruptions of Luminous Blue Variables (LBVs) like the 19th century event of eta Carinae can remove large quantities of mass almost instantaneously, making them significant in stellar evolution. They can potentially remove much more mass from the star than line-driven winds, especially if stellar winds are highly clumped such that previous estimates of O star mass-loss rates need to be revised downward. When seen in other galaxies as ``supernova impostors'', these LBV eruptions typically last for less than a decade, and they can remove of order 10 Msun as indicated by massive nebulae around LBVs. Such extreme mass-loss rates cannot be driven by radiation pressure on spectral lines, because the lines will completely saturate during the events. Instead, these outbursts must either be continuum-driven super-Eddington winds or outright hydrodynamic explosions, both of which are insensitive to metallicity. As such, this eruptive mode of mass loss could also play a pivotal role in the evolution and ultimate fate of massive metal-poor stars in the early universe. If they occur in these Population III stars, such eruptions would also profoundly affect the chemical yield and types of remnants from early supernovae and hypernovae thought to be the origin of long gamma ray bursts.

  5. Low energy beam line at the AGOR facility

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toprek, Dragan; Formanoy, Iwo; Brandenburg, Sytze [VINCA Institute of Nuclear Sciences, Laboratory for Nuclear and Plasma Physics, B.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia and Montenegro); Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut (KVI), Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA, Groningen (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The origin of the low transmission through the low energy beam line between the electron cyclotron resonance source and the AGOR cyclotron has been investigated. Measurements of beam size and emittance, determined with the ''varying quadrupole method,'' are compared with calculations including fringe fields up to third order with the code COSY INFINITY. Calculations and measurements qualitatively agree; the calculations exhibit the large beam losses observed. On the basis of the calculations new settings have been determined, resulting in a significant increase of the transmission. To achieve full transmission a complete redesign of the beam line, in particular of the bending magnets, is needed.

  6. Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stemler, Gary E. (Vancouver, WA); Scott, Donald N. (Vancouver, WA)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

  7. Kalman Filtering in Correlated Losses Sachin Adlakha

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adlakha, Sachin

    Kalman Filtering in Correlated Losses Sachin Adlakha Department of Electrical Engineering Stanford in presence of correlated losses using a Kalman Filter . This scenario arises in performing vehicle tracking for the Kalman estimator to lose some observations. We study the behavior of Kalman filter in such correlated

  8. > MEPS06 Preprint Version Transmission Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    .phulpin@supelec.fr Abstract - In the deregulated electrical power system, the allocation of transmission losses is becoming a key issue. The electric transmission power system is more and more constrained due to the increasing electrical power system, the allocation of transmission losses is becoming a key issue. The electric

  9. MANAGING JOB LOSS and FINANCIAL STRESS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MANAGING JOB LOSS and FINANCIAL STRESS a Personal and Family Guide CENTER ON THE FAMILY #12;2 Managing Job Loss and Financial Stress The issues associated with losing one's job or having hours cut also have other assistance (e.g., job placement, resume preparation, retraining), of which you should

  10. CLASSICAL CEPHEIDS REQUIRE ENHANCED MASS LOSS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neilson, Hilding R.; Langer, Norbert; Izzard, Robert [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, University of Bonn, Auf dem Huegel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Engle, Scott G.; Guinan, Ed, E-mail: neilsonh@etsu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Villanova University, 800 Lancaster Ave. Villanova, PA 19085 (United States)

    2012-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurements of rates of period change of Classical Cepheids probe stellar physics and evolution. Additionally, better understanding of Cepheid structure and evolution provides greater insight into their use as standard candles and tools for measuring the Hubble constant. Our recent study of the period change of the nearest Cepheid, Polaris, suggested that it is undergoing enhanced mass loss when compared to canonical stellar evolution model predictions. In this work, we expand the analysis to rates of period change measured for about 200 Galactic Cepheids and compare them to population synthesis models of Cepheids including convective core overshooting and enhanced mass loss. Rates of period change predicted from stellar evolution models without mass loss do not agree with observed rates, whereas including enhanced mass loss yields predicted rates in better agreement with observations. This is the first evidence that enhanced mass loss as suggested previously for Polaris and {delta} Cephei must be a ubiquitous property of Classical Cepheids.

  11. Heat loss from an open cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McDonald, C.G. [California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomona, CA (United States). Coll. of Engineering

    1995-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cavity type receivers are used extensively in concentrating solar thermal energy collecting systems. The Solar Total Energy Project (STEP) in Shenandoah, Georgia is a large scale field test for the collection of solar thermal energy. The STEP experiment consists of a large field array of solar collectors used to supplement the process steam, cooling and other electrical power requirements of an adjacent knitwear manufacturing facility. The purpose of the tests, conducted for this study, was to isolate and quantify the radiative, conductive, and convective components of total heat loss, and to determine the effects of operating temperature, receiver angle, and aperture size on cavity heat loss. An analytical model for radiative heat loss was developed and compared with two other methods used to determine radiative heat loss. A proposed convective heat loss correlation, including effects of aperture size, receiver operating temperature, and receiver angle is presented. The resulting data is a source to evaluate the STEP measurements.

  12. NEW EVIDENCE FOR MASS LOSS FROM ? CEPHEI FROM H I 21 cm LINE OBSERVATIONS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marengo, M.

    Recently published Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the classical Cepheid archetype ? Cephei revealed an extended dusty nebula surrounding this star and its hot companion HD 213307. At far-infrared wavelengths, the ...

  13. Sender-Based Heuristics for Distinguishing Congestion Losses from Wireless Transmission Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vaidya, Nitin

    Sender-Based Heuristics for Distinguishing Congestion Losses from Wireless Transmission Losses Saad-3112, USA E-mail: saadb@cs.tamu.edu Phone : (409) 845-5007 Fax : (409) 847-8578 Technical Report #98-013 Abstract TCP is a popular transport protocol used in present-day internet. When packet losses occur, TCP

  14. Differentiated Services: A New Direction for Distinguishing Congestion Losses from Wireless Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Differentiated Services: A New Direction for Distinguishing Congestion Losses from Wireless Losses Sa^ad Biaz Nitin H. Vaidya ¡£¢ sbiaz@eng.auburn.edu nhv@crhc.uiuc.edu February 21, 2003 Technical Report # CSSE03-02 Abstract Currently, a TCP sender considers all losses as congestion signals and reacts

  15. Distributed DBMS Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yangjun

    Distributed DBMS Outline Introduction What is a distributed DBMS Problems Current state-of-affairs Background Distributed DBMS Architecture Distributed Database Design Semantic Data Control Distributed Query Processing Distributed Transaction Management Parallel Database Systems Distributed Object DBMS

  16. Emission Line Properties of the Large Bright Quasar Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karl Forster; Paul J. Green; Thomas L. Aldcroft; Marianne Vestergaard; Craig B. Foltz; Paul C. Hewett

    2000-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    We present measurements of the optical/UV emission lines for a large homogeneous sample of 993 quasars from the Large Bright Quasar Survey. Our largely automated technique accounts for continuum breaks and galactic reddening, and we perform multicomponent fits to emission line profiles, including the effects of blended iron emission, and of absorption lines both galactic and intrinsic. Here we describe the fitting algorithm and present the results of line fits to the LBQS sample, including upper limits to line equivalent widths when warranted. The distribution of measured line parameters, principally equivalent width and FWHM, are detailed for a variety of lines, including upper limits. We thus initiate a large-scale investigation of correlations between the high energy continuum and emission lines in quasars, to be extended to complementary samples using similar techniques. High quality, reproducible measurements of emission lines for uniformly selected samples will advance our understanding of active galaxies, especially in a new era of large surveys selected by a variety of complementary methods.

  17. Utility Lines and Facilities (Montana)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These regulations apply to the construction of utility and power lines and facilities. They address the use of public right-of-ways for such construction, underground power lines, and construction...

  18. Normal Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    User

    NORMAL DlSTRlBUTION TABLE. Entries represent the area under the standardized normal distribution from -w to z, Pr(Z

  19. Maersk Line Equipment guide

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilA Approved:AdministrationAnalysisDarby/%2AOU1a ComplexMaersk Line Equipment

  20. AC Losses of Prototype HTS Transmission Cables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demko, J.A.; Dresner, L.; Hughey, R.L.; Lue, J.W.; Olsen, S.K.; Sinha, U.; Tolbert, J.C.

    1998-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Since 1995 Southwire Company and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have jointly designed, built, and tested nine, l-m long, high temperature superconducting (HTS) transmission cable prototypes. This paper summarizes the AC loss measurements of five of the cables not reported elsewhere, and compares the losses with each other and with theory developed by Dresner. Losses were measured with both a calorimetric and an electrical technique. Because of the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes, the cables can be operated stably beyond their critical currents. The AC losses were measured in this region as well as below critical currents. Dresner's theory takes into account the broad resistive transition of the HTS tapes and calculates the AC losses both below and above the critical current. The two sets of AC 10SS data agree with each other and with the theory quite welL In particular, at low currents of incomplete penetration, the loss data agree with the theoretical prediction of hysteresis loss based on only the outer two Iayers carrying the total current.

  1. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  2. Multi-transmission-line-beam interactive system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Figotin, Alexander; Reyes, Guillermo [Department of Mathematics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-3875 (United States)] [Department of Mathematics, University of California at Irvine, Irvine, California 92697-3875 (United States)

    2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We construct here a Lagrangian field formulation for a system consisting of an electron beam interacting with a slow-wave structure modeled by a possibly non-uniform multiple transmission line (MTL). In the case of a single line we recover the linear model of a traveling wave tube due to J. R. Pierce. Since a properly chosen MTL can approximate a real waveguide structure with any desired accuracy, the proposed model can be used in particular for design optimization. Furthermore, the Lagrangian formulation provides: (i) a clear identification of the mathematical source of amplification, (ii) exact expressions for the conserved energy and its flux distributions obtained from the Noether theorem. In the case of uniform MTLs we carry out an exhaustive analysis of eigenmodes and find sharp conditions on the parameters of the system to provide for amplifying regimes.

  3. THE GEOMETRY OF ACCRETION AND MASS LOSS ON PMS STARS THROUGH THE EPOCH OF JOVIAN-MASS PLANET FORMATION: A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, Glenn

    be estimated from Monte-Carlo Radiative Transfer modeling of the IR spectral energy distribution. A pilot studyTHE GEOMETRY OF ACCRETION AND MASS LOSS ON PMS STARS THROUGH THE EPOCH OF JOVIAN-MASS PLANET-Perot Narrow-Band Imaging of Jets 13 2.5.7 Spectral Energy Distribution Assembly 13 2.5.8 Monte-Carlo Radiative

  4. An efficient algorithm for real-time network reconfiguration in large scale unbalanced distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.C.; Chiang, H.D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Electrical Engineering; Darling, G.R. [NYSEG Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States). Distribution System Dept.

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Real-time applications demand fast computation, this paper proposes an efficient algorithm for real-time network reconfiguration on large unbalanced distribution networks. A novel formulation of the network reconfiguration to achieve loss minimization and load balancing is given. To reduce computational requirements for the solution algorithm, well justified power flow and loss reduction formulas in terms of the on/off status of network switches are proposed for efficient system updating. The algorithm relies only on a few full power flow studies based on system states attained by explicit expressions using backward-forward sweeps for efficient computation of system`s states at the critical system operating points. The solution algorithm runs in an amount of time linearly proportional to the number of tie switches and the number of sectionalizing switches in the system. The solution algorithm has been implemented into a software package and tested on unbalanced distribution systems including a system with 292-buses, 76-laterals, 7 transformers, 45 switches and 255 lines sections under diverse system conditions.

  5. An efficient algorithm for real-time network reconfiguration in large scale unbalanced distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, J.C.; Chiang, H.D. [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). School of Electrical Engineering; Darling, G.R. [NYSEG Corp., Binghamton, NY (United States). Distribution System Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Real-time applications demand fast computation, this paper proposes an efficient algorithm for real-time network reconfiguration on large unbalanced distribution networks. A novel formulation of the network reconfiguration to achieve loss minimization and load balancing is given. To reduce computational requirements for the solution algorithm, well justified power flow and loss reduction formulas in terms of the on/off status of network switches are proposed for efficient system updating. The algorithm relies only a few full power flow studies based on system states attained by explicit expressions using backward-forward sweeps for efficient computation of system`s states at the critical system operating points. The solution algorithm runs in an amount of time linearly proportional to the number of tie switches and the number of sectionalizing switches in the system. The solution algorithm has been implemented into a software package and tested on unbalanced distribution systems including a system with 292-buses, 76-laterals, 7 transformers, 45 switches and 255 lines sections under diverse system conditions.

  6. Energy Loss Effect in High Energy Nuclear Drell-Yan Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chun-Gui Duan; Li-Hua Song; Li-Juan Huo; Guang-Lie Li

    2004-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The energy loss effect in nuclear matter, which is another nuclear effect apart from the nuclear effect on the parton distribution as in deep inelastic scattering process, can be measured best by the nuclear dependence of the high energy nuclear Drell-Yan process. By means of the nuclear parton distribution studied only with lepton deep inelastic scattering experimental data, measured Drell-Yan production cross sections for 800GeV proton incident on a variety of nuclear targets are analyzed within Glauber framework which takes into account energy loss of the beam proton. It is shown that the theoretical results with considering the energy loss effect are in good agreement with the FNAL E866.

  7. REVISTA FACULTAD DE INGENIERIA, U.T.A. (CHILE), VOL. 4, 1997 RECONFIGURATION OF ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Catholic University of Chile (Universidad Católica de Chile)

    an electric power distribution network under normal operating conditions to reduce the active losses. Keywords: Distribution Systems, Electric losses, Network reconfiguration, Load flow. 1 Departamento de of the distribution networks work with minimum monitoring systems, mainly with local and manual control of capacitors

  8. Report on fuel pool water loss tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zalenski, R.F. [West Valley Nuclear Services Co., West Valley, NY (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To resolve potential concerns on the integrity of the fuel storage pool at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP), a highly accurate testing technique was developed to quantify water losses from the pool. The fuel pool is an unlined, single wall, reinforced concrete structure containing approximately 818,000 gallons of water. Since an initial test indicated that water losses could possibly be attributed solely to evaporation, a cover was suspended and sealed over the pool to block evaporation losses. High accuracy water level and temperature instrumentation was procured and installed. The conclusions of this report indicate that unaccounted-for water losses from the pool are insignificant and there is no detectable leakage within the range of test accuracy.

  9. Telling Absence: War Widows, Loss and Memory 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Loipponen, Jaana

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis concerns feminist sociological analysis of war loss and its consequences as experienced and told by Finnish Karelian war widows of World War 2. They lost their partners and had to leave their homes by force, ...

  10. Reduction of Hydrocarbon Losses to Flare Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Page, J.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    merit consideration because the losses and associated economic penalties are assumed to be small. Flare gas flow is not easily measured and as a result, most plants are unaware of how much product they are actually losing during normal operation...

  11. Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    TexasAgriculturalExtensionService The Texas A&M University System Reducing Livestock Losses to Toxic Plants B-1499 Sand Shinnery L Perennial Broomweed Texas Agricultural Extension Service a71 Zerle L. Carpenter, Director a71 The Texas A&M University... ................... ...... ... 6 BehaviorModification.................................. 7 Management Techniques forReducingToxic Plant Losses... 8 LiteratureCited........................................ 9 Poisonous Plants ofTexas...............................10 Editor: Judy Winn...

  12. Reducing Livestock Losses To Toxic Plants 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGinty, Allan; Machen, Richard V.

    2000-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    TexasAgriculturalExtensionService The Texas A&M University System Reducing Livestock Losses to Toxic Plants B-1499 Sand Shinnery L Perennial Broomweed Texas Agricultural Extension Service a71 Zerle L. Carpenter, Director a71 The Texas A&M University... ................... ...... ... 6 BehaviorModification.................................. 7 Management Techniques forReducingToxic Plant Losses... 8 LiteratureCited........................................ 9 Poisonous Plants ofTexas...............................10 Editor: Judy Winn...

  13. Physical Effects of Distributed PV Generation on California's Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cohen, Michael A

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Deployment of high-penetration photovoltaic (PV) power is expected to have a range of effects -- both positive and negative -- on the distribution grid. The magnitude of these effects may vary greatly depending upon feeder topology, climate, PV penetration level, and other factors. In this paper we present a simulation study of eight representative distribution feeders in three California climates at PV penetration levels up to 100\\%, supported by a unique database of distributed PV generation data that enables us to capture the impact of PV variability on feeder voltage and voltage regulating equipment. When comparing the influence of feeder location (i.e. climate) versus feeder type on outcomes, we find that location more strongly influences the incidence of reverse power flow, reductions in peak loading and the presence of voltage excursions. On the other hand, we find that feeder characteristics more strongly influence the magnitude of loss reduction and changes in voltage regulator operations. We find th...

  14. DISTRIBUTED DATABASES INTRODUCTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Chengfei

    D DISTRIBUTED DATABASES INTRODUCTION The development of network and data communication tech- nology distributed database management. Naturally, the decen- tralized approach reflects the distributed aspects in the definition of a distributed database exist. First, a distributed database is distributed

  15. Study of the longitudinal distribution of power generated in a random distributed feedback Raman fibre laser with unidirectional pumping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churkin, D V; El-Taher, A E; Vatnik, I D; Babin, Sergei A

    2012-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The longitudinal distribution of the Stokes-component power in a Raman fibre laser with a random distributed feedback and unidirectional pumping is measured. The fibre parameters (linear loss and Rayleigh backscattering coefficient) are calculated based on the distributions obtained. A numerical model is developed to describe the lasing power distribution. The simulation results are in good agreement with the experimental data. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  16. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  17. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  18. Control of stochasticity in magnetic field lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristel Chandre; Michel Vittot; Guido Ciraolo; Philippe Ghendrih; Ricardo Lima

    2005-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method of control which is able to create barriers to magnetic field line diffusion by a small modification of the magnetic perturbation. This method of control is based on a localized control of chaos in Hamiltonian systems. The aim is to modify the perturbation locally by a small control term which creates invariant tori acting as barriers to diffusion for Hamiltonian systems with two degrees of freedom. The location of the invariant torus is enforced in the vicinity of the chosen target. Given the importance of confinement in magnetic fusion devices, the method is applied to two examples with a loss of magnetic confinement. In the case of locked tearing modes, an invariant torus can be restored that aims at showing the current quench and therefore the generation of runaway electrons. In the second case, the method is applied to the control of stochastic boundaries allowing one to define a transport barrier within the stochastic boundary and therefore to monitor the volume of closed field lines.

  19. MODELING OF STOCHASTIC MAGNETIC FLUX LOSS FROM THE EDGE OF A POOIDALLY DIVERTED TOKAMAK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EVANS, TE,; MOYER, RA; MONAT, P

    2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK A271 MODELING OF STOCHASTIC MAGNETIC FLUX LOSS FROM THE EDGE OF A POOIDALLY DIVERTED TOKAMAK. A field line integration code is used to study the loss of edge poloidal magnetic flux due to stochastic magnetic fields produced by an error field correction coil (C-coil) in DIII-D for various plasma shapes, coil currents and edge magnetic shear profiles. The authors find that the boundary of a diverted tokamak is more sensitive to stochastic flux loss than a nondiverted tokamak. The C-coil has been used to produce a stochastic layer in an ohmic diverted discharge with characteristics similar to those seen in stochastic boundary experiments in circular limiter ohmic plasmas, including: (1) an overall increase in recycling, (2) a broadening of the recycling profile at the divertor, and (3) a flattening of the boundary profiles over the extent of the stochastic layer predicted by the field line integration code. Profile flattening consistent with field line integration results is also seen in some high performance discharges with edge transport barriers. The prediction of a significant edge stochastic layer even in discharges with high performance and edge radial transport barriers indicates that either the self-consistent plasma response heals the stochastic layer or that edge stochastic layers are compatible with edge radial transport barriers.

  20. Running Head: The Autonomic Nervous System's responses to losses Loss aversion in the eye and in the heart: The

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yechiam, Eldad

    Running Head: The Autonomic Nervous System's responses to losses Loss aversion in the eye and in the heart: The Autonomic Nervous System's responses to losses Guy Hochman and Eldad Yechiam Technion@tx.technion.ac.il #12;ANS responses to losses 2 Loss aversion in the eye and in the heart: The Autonomic Nervous System

  1. Design and Construction of a Fast Ion Loss Faraday Cup Array Diagnostic for JET

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.S. Darrow; S. Bauumel; F.E. Cecil; V. Kiptily; R. Ellis; L. Pedrick; A. Werner

    2004-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    A thin foil Faraday cup array is being built to measure the loss of 3.5 MeV alpha particles and MeV ion cyclotron heating (ICH) tail ions on JET. It will consist of nine detectors spread over five different poloidal locations and three radial positions. They will measure the poloidal distribution and radial scrape off of the losses. The detectors will be comprised of four layers of thin (2.5 micron) Ni foil, giving some resolution of the lost particle energy distribution as different ranges of energies will stop in different layers of the detector. One detector will utilize eight thinner (1.0 micron) foils to obtain a better resolved energy distribution. These detectors will accept particles incident up to 45{sup o} from the normal to the foils.

  2. ac loss measurement: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tape, tem- perature dependence, total ac loss, transport loss. I. INTRODUCTION HIGH 6 Heat Loss Measurement Using Infrared Imaging Texas A&M University - TxSpace Summary: in...

  3. A Novel Robust Communication Algorithm for Distributed Secondary Control of Islanded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vasquez, Juan Carlos

    A Novel Robust Communication Algorithm for Distributed Secondary Control of Islanded Micro of distributed generators (DGs) and loads, placed in low voltage (LV) and medium voltage (MV) distribution transmission/distribution losses and preventing electrical network congestion by shifting the generation closer

  4. Experimental Measurement of a Model Pipeline Dredge Entrance Loss Coefficient and Modification of a Spreadsheet for Estimating Model Dredge Performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girani, Joseph

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    to the experimental head loss of the study. The theoretical methods matched the experimental results more closely at higher flow rates, achieving approximately 5.7% (no screen) and 6.9% (screen) average error for the suction line at a flow rate of 25.2 L/sec (400 GPM...

  5. Integrated Computing, Communication, and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajura, Richard; Feliachi, Ali

    2008-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Restructuring of the electricity market has affected all aspects of the power industry from generation to transmission, distribution, and consumption. Transmission circuits, in particular, are stressed often exceeding their stability limits because of the difficulty in building new transmission lines due to environmental concerns and financial risk. Deregulation has resulted in the need for tighter control strategies to maintain reliability even in the event of considerable structural changes, such as loss of a large generating unit or a transmission line, and changes in loading conditions due to the continuously varying power consumption. Our research efforts under the DOE EPSCoR Grant focused on Integrated Computing, Communication and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems. This research is applicable to operating and controlling modern electric energy systems. The controls developed by APERC provide for a more efficient, economical, reliable, and secure operation of these systems. Under this program, we developed distributed control algorithms suitable for large-scale geographically dispersed power systems and also economic tools to evaluate their effectiveness and impact on power markets. Progress was made in the development of distributed intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. The methodologies employed combine information technology, control and communication, agent technology, and power systems engineering in the development of intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. In the event of scheduled load changes or unforeseen disturbances, the power system is expected to minimize the effects and costs of disturbances and to maintain critical infrastructure operational.

  6. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  7. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Tim S [ORNL

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  8. Transmission Channel Model and Capacity of Overhead Multi-conductor Medium-Voltage Power-lines for Broadband Communications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kavehrad, Mohsen

    Transmission Channel Model and Capacity of Overhead Multi-conductor Medium-Voltage Power-lines signal transmission, power-line has many non-ideal properties as a communications medium. Impedance-voltage power distribution networks for broadband power-line communications applications. Keywords - channel

  9. Key distributionKey distribution Key distribution, symmetric encryption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fisher, Michael

    COMP 522 Key distributionKey distribution COMP 522 Key distribution, symmetric encryption From in a secure way and must keep the key secure" · Important issue: how to distribute secret keys? COMP 522 Key distribution, manual delivery For two parties A and B: · A key could be created by A and delivered physically

  10. Draft "Michigan Saves" Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sample loan loss reserve agreement between a state or local government and a financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund.

  11. ac loss characteristics: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and solar heat gain characteristics of a home's windows performance by reducing heat loss (in the winter), and cooling loss and solar heat gain (in the summer 86...

  12. Energy Use Loss and Opportunities Analysis: U.S. Manufacturing...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Use Loss and Opportunities Analysis: U.S. Manufacturing & Mining Energy Use Loss and Opportunities Analysis: U.S. Manufacturing & Mining energyuselossopportunitiesanalysis.pdf...

  13. Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells...

  14. Factors affect offshore production loss control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ash, C.S.

    1986-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Many aspects of petroleum measurement on an offshore production platform are the same as at an onshore facility, but there are some unique differences. Before going into them it should be noted that even in today's climate of low or declining oil prices that stock loss control is still important. Improving measurement of the quantity of oil transfers can help reduce the amount of stock that is ''unaccounted for'' or lost. As stock loss is reduced, the salable quantity increases, the gross revenue increases, and the net revenue increases. Even in cases where transfers are between two departments of the same company, accurate measurement and proper accountability are required because they often are the basis for determining costs and can thus affect the price that is charged on a later custody transfer. Inefficiencies in intracompany transfers can often hide real losses which may occur during intercompany transfers.

  15. Rethinking the QCD collisional energy loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Peshier

    2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that to leading order the collisional energy loss of an energetic parton in the hot quark gluon plasma reads $dE/dx \\sim \\alpha(m_D^2)T^2$, where the scale of the coupling is determined by the (parametrically soft) Debye screening mass. Compared to previous expressions derived by Bjorken and other authors, $dE^B/dx \\sim \\alpha^2 T^2 \\ln(ET/m_D^2)$, the rectified result takes into account the running of the coupling, as dictated by quantum corrections beyond tree level. As one significant consequence, due to asymptotic freedom, the QCD collisional energy loss becomes independent of the jet energy in the limit $E \\gg T$. It is advocated that this resummation improved perturbative result might be useful to (re-)estimate the collisional energy loss for temperatures relevant in heavy ion phenomenology.

  16. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Anan

    2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, {var_epsilon}. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  17. Parton Energy Loss with Detailed Balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Enke Wang; Xin-Nian Wang

    2001-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Stimulated gluon emission and thermal absorption in addition to induced radiation are considered for an energetic parton propagating inside a quark- gluon plasma. In the presence of thermal gluons, stimulated emission reduces while absorption increases the parton's energy. The net effect is a reduction of the parton energy loss. Though decreasing asymptotically as $T/E$ with the parton energy, the relative reduction is found to be important for intermediate energies. The modified energy dependence of the energy loss will affect the shape of suppression of moderately high $p_T$ hadrons due to jet quenching in high-energy heavy-ion collisions.

  18. The QCD collisional energy loss revised

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Peshier

    2006-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that to leading order the QCD collisional energy loss reads $dE/dx \\sim \\alpha(m_D^2)T^2$. Compared to prevalent expressions, $dE^B/dx \\sim \\alpha^2 T^2 \\ln(ET/m_D^2)$, which could be considered adaptions of the (QED) Bethe-Bloch formula, the rectified result takes into account the running coupling, as dictated by renormalization. As one significant consequence, due to asymptotic freedom, the collisional energy loss becomes independent of the jet energy $E$. Some implications with regard to heavy ion collisions are pointed out.

  19. User Interfaces 1 Command Line Interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Verschelde, Jan

    User Interfaces 1 Command Line Interfaces getting arguments of the command line a command line 2013 1 / 39 #12;User Interfaces 1 Command Line Interfaces getting arguments of the command line a command line interface to store points fitting points with polyfit of numpy 2 Encapsulation by Object

  20. Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy Krakauer and Krakauer, J Obes Weight Loss Ther 2014, 4:2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krakauer, Nir Y.

    Obesity & Weight Loss Therapy Krakauer and Krakauer, J Obes Weight Loss Ther 2014, 4:2 http the original author and source are credited. Keywords: Waist circumference; Body shape index; Obesity Introduction Obesity has historically been a sign of good health, except at the greatestexcess[1

  1. TransCom model simulations of CH? and related species: linking transport, surface flux and chemical loss with CH? variability in the troposphere and lower stratosphere

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Patra, P. K.

    A chemistry-transport model (CTM) intercomparison experiment (TransCom-CH?) has been designed to investigate the roles of surface emissions, transport and chemical loss in simulating the global methane distribution. Model ...

  2. 1284 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 26, NO. 2, APRIL 2011 Improving SVM-Based Nontechnical Loss Detection in Power Utility Using

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ducatelle, Frederick

    classification. I. INTRODUCTION DISTRIBUTON losses in power utilities originating from electricity theft-Based Nontechnical Loss Detection in Power Utility Using the Fuzzy Inference System Jawad Nagi, Keem Siah Yap, Sieh of fraud and electricity theft in power distribution utilities. Pre- vious work was carried out by using

  3. A power line impedance spectrum analyzer using real-time digital signal processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Margolis, Michael G

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Power distribution system impedance as seen by power converters and other non-linear loads is important for the determination of harmonic current injection and propagation caused by these loads. This thesis presents a real-time power line impedance...

  4. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek J. S.; Cheng L.; Diamond, D.

    2014-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents calculations of the fuel cladding temperature during loss-of-coolant accidents in the NBSR. The probability of a pipe failure is small and procedures exist to minimize the loss of water and assure emergency cooling water flows into the reactor core during such an event. Analysis in the past has shown that the emergency cooling water would provide adequate cooling if the water filled the flow channels within the fuel elements. The present analysis is to determine if there is adequate cooling if the water drains from the flow channels. Based on photographs of how the emergency water flows into the fuel elements from the distribution pan, it can be assumed that this water does not distribute uniformly across the flow channels but rather results in a liquid film flowing downward on the inside of one of the side plates in each fuel element and only wets the edges of the fuel plates. An analysis of guillotine breaks shows the cladding temperature remains below the blister temperature in fuel plates in the upper section of the fuel element. In the lower section, the fuel plates are also cooled by water outside the element that is present due to the hold-up pan and temperatures are lower than in the upper section. For small breaks, the simulation results show that the fuel elements are always cooled on the outside even in the upper section and the cladding temperature cannot be higher than the blister temperature. The above results are predicated on assumptions that are examined in the study to see their influence on fuel temperature.

  5. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  6. Chemistry and line emission from evolving Herbig Ae disks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Jonkheid; C. P. Dullemond; M. R. Hogerheijde; E. F. van Dishoeck

    2006-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Aims: To calculate chemistry and gas temperature of evolving protoplanetary disks with decreasing mass or dust settling, and to explore the sensitivity of gas-phase tracers. Methods: The density and dust temperature profiles for a range of models of flaring and self-shadowed disks around a typical Herbig Ae star are used together with 2-dimensional ultraviolet (UV) radiative transfer to calculate the chemistry and gas temperature. In each model the line profiles and intensities for the fine structure lines of [O I], [C II] and [C I] and the pure rotational lines of CO, CN, HCN and HCO+ are determined. Results: The chemistry shows a strong correlation with disk mass. Molecules that are easily dissociated, like HCN, require high densities and large extinctions before they can become abundant. The products of photodissociation, like CN and C2H, become abundant in models with lower masses. Dust settling mainly affects the gas temperature, and thus high temperature tracers like the O and C+ fine structure lines. The carbon chemistry is found to be very sensitive to the adopted PAH abundance. The line ratios CO/13CO, CO/HCO+ and [O I] 63 um/146 um can be used to distinguish between disks where dust growth and settling takes place, and disks that undergo overall mass loss.

  7. Distributed application management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Jeannie Raye

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    User Interface . 3.5.2. Command-line Interface . 3.5.3.of Plush command-line interface. . . . . . . . . . Plushthe use of a shell or command-line interpreter. Of course,

  8. Introduction to Dynamic Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roma "La Sapienza", Università di

    Introduction to Dynamic Distributed SystemsSystems #12;Outline Introduction Churn Building Applications in Dynamic Distributed Systems RegistersRegisters Eventual Leader election Connectivity in Dynamic Distributed Systems #12;Dynamic Distributed Systems: Context & Motivations Advent of Complex Distributed

  9. Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Konstantin; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any com...

  10. Energy loss of fast quarks in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garvey, G. T. (Gerald T.); Johnson, Mikkel B.; Leitch, M. J.; McGaughey, P. L. (Patrick L.); Peng, J. C. (Jen-Chieh); Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Moss, J. M. (Joel Marshall)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report an analysis of the nuclear dependence of the yield of Drell-Yan (DY) dimuons from the 800 GeV/c proton bombardment of {sup 2}H, C, Ca, Fe, and W targets. A light-cone formulation of the DY process is employed in the rest frame of the nucleus. In this frame, for x{sub 2} <loss and shadowing, in a consistent formulation. Shadowing, involving no free parameters, is calculated within the light-cone dipole formalism. Initial-state energy loss, the only unknown in the problem, is determined from afit to the nuclear-dependence ratio versus x{sub 1}. With the assumption of constant energy loss per unit path length, we find -dE/dz = 2.32 {+-} 0.52 {+-} 0.5 GeV/fm. This is the first observation of a nonzero energy loss of partons traveling in nuclear environment.

  11. Queues with simultaneous loss on Dave Thornley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ould-Khaoua, Mohamed

    London SW7 2BZ England djt@doc.ic.ac.uk #12; 2 Breakdowns and repairs In a uniform multi-processor serverQueues with simultaneous loss on breakdowns Dave Thornley #3; June 15, 2002 Abstract We take a queue with breakdowns and repairs of processors in which the queue length does not change

  12. Queues with simultaneous loss on Dave Thornley

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Imperial College, London

    of Computing Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine Huxley Building 180 Queen's Gate London SW7 2BZ England djt@doc.ic.ac.uk #12; 2 Breakdowns and repairs In a uniform multi-processor server, weQueues with simultaneous loss on breakdowns Dave Thornley #3; Abstract We take a queue

  13. Report of Refrigerated Medication Loss UConn Health

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    Report of Refrigerated Medication Loss UConn Health Please complete form & return to John Dempsey Other (Specify): Phone: E-mail: Address: Location of Refrigerator Affected: Date/time refrigerator was out of temperature range: Describe the event below: How long was the refrigerator out of range (hours

  14. Standby and Off-Mode Energy Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Standby and Off-Mode Energy Losses In New Appliances Measured in Shops #12;ISBN: 978 with the University of Coimbra. Its research interests include energyefficient technologies, renewable energies, and energy planning. Recent work includes the coordination of several European projects on market

  15. Revolving Loan Funds and Loan Loss Reserves

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) State Energy Program (SEP) guidance to states, Indian tribes, and overseas U.S. territories receiving SEP grants under the 209 Recovery Act dealing with loan loss reserves for revolving loan funds.

  16. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville Power AdministrationField Campaign:INEA : Papers SubfoldersU.S. RefiningDistributed EnergyUntapped

  17. A practical modification of horizontal line sampling for snag and cavity tree inventory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A practical modification of horizontal line sampling for snag and cavity tree inventory M.J. Ducey features in forests, but they are often sparsely distributed, making efficient inventories problematic. We present a straightforward modification of horizontal line sampling de- signed to facilitate inventory

  18. Shell-instability generated waves by low energy electrons on converging magnetic field lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Shell-instability generated waves by low energy electrons on converging magnetic field lines D of observations of such shell type distributions having positive slope in velocity space at low energies, about 10´cre´au (2006), Shell-instability generated waves by low energy electrons on converging magnetic field lines

  19. On-line optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger Statoil Mongstad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    On-line optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger network Tore Lid #3; Statoil Mongstad N-5954 modeling and on-line optimization of a crude unit heat exchanger network at the Statoil Mongstad re#12;nery. The objective is to minimize the energy input in the gas #12;red heater by optimally distributing the cold crude

  20. EMISSION LINE PROPERTIES ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM PRECOSTAR FAINT OBJECT SPECTROGRAPH HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE SPECTRAL ATLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Green, Paul

    EMISSION LINE PROPERTIES ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI FROM PRE­COSTAR FAINT OBJECT SPECTROGRAPH HUBBLE/optical emission some most detailed information obtainable about intrinsic properties quasars. Studies of density of correlations between emission lines and overall quasar spectral energy distributions that su#ered from

  1. > REPLACE THIS LINE WITH YOUR PAPER IDENTIFICATION NUMBER (DOUBLE-CLICK HERE TO EDIT) power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    --The detection of island formation in power networks is prerequisite for the study of security analysis into the topological impacts of outaged lines on system connectivity from the use power transfer distribution factor-time and offline environments for security analysis and control. Index Terms-- island formation, multiple line

  2. Effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss of oil-filled caverns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoffman, E L

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Finite element analyses of oil-filled caverns were performed to investigate the effects of cavern depth on surface subsidence and storage loss, a primary performance criteria of SPR caverns. The finite element model used for this study was axisymmetric, approximating an infinite array of caverns spaced at 750 ft. The stratigraphy and cavern size were held constant while the cavern depth was varied between 1500 ft and 3000 ft in 500 ft increments. Thirty year simulations, the design life of the typical SPR cavern, were performed with boundary conditions modeling the oil pressure head applied to the cavern lining. A depth dependent temperature gradient of 0.012{degrees}F/ft was also applied to the model. The calculations were performed using ABAQUS, a general purpose of finite element analysis code. The user-defined subroutine option in ABAQUS was used to enter an elastic secondary creep model which includes temperature dependence. The calculations demonstrated that surface subsidence and storage loss rates increase with increasing depth. At lower depths the difference between the lithostatic stress and the oil pressure is greater. Thus, the effective stresses are greater, resulting in higher creep rates. Furthermore, at greater depths the cavern temperatures are higher which also produce higher creep rates. Together, these factors result in faster closure of the cavern. At the end of the 30 year simulations, a 1500 ft-deep cavern exhibited 4 percent storage loss and 4 ft of subsidence while a 3000 ft-deep cavern exhibited 33 percent storage loss and 44 ft of subsidence. The calculations also demonstrated that surface subsidence is directly related to the amount of storage loss. Deeper caverns exhibit more subsidence because the caverns exhibit more storage loss. However, for a given amount of storage loss, nearly the same magnitude of surface subsidence was exhibited, independent of cavern depth.

  3. Index for the Evaluation of Distributed Generation Impacts on Distribution System Luis F. Ochoa (1,2)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Gareth

    decisions that lead to the best management of the system, regarding both technical and economical aspects. Various studies have demonstrated that integration of DG in distribution networks may create technical in voltage control processes, diminish or increase losses, etc. In fact, all our knowledge about distribution

  4. Design and Performance Evaluation of an Hybrid Reservation-Polling MAC Protocol for Power-Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tinnirello, Ilenia

    channel. Moreover, by slightly reducing the system utilization, a target 1% packet loss ratio can be met remote electricity meter reading, energy management, appliance control and maintenance, home automation) is a quickly developing technology, aiming at the utilization of low-voltage power lines for the transmission

  5. Energy Conservation Through the Use of Modular Refractory Fiber Linings - An Unexpected Divided

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kleeman, L. A.; Mewhinney, T. R.; Proctor, S. J.

    1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    temperature, heat loss, velocity, etc.), and was free of operation failures. These efforts produced the Z-BLOK* Module Refractory Fiber Lining, which was first installed in an operating furnace in April, 1975. After obtaining a patent for this unique modular...

  6. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B. (Oakland, CA)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  7. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1985-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  8. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R. (Provo, UT); Hall, Jr., H. Tracy (Provo, UT); Pixton, David (Lehi, UT); Dahlgren, Scott (Provo, UT); Sneddon, Cameron (Provo, UT); Briscoe, Michael (Lehi, UT); Fox, Joe (Spanish Fork, UT)

    2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  9. Understanding Loss Mechanisms and Efficiency Improvement Options for HCCI Engines Using Detailed Exergy Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saxena, Samveg

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Exergy Loss from Cylinder Gases Combustion Heat Loss Exhaustheptane and Natural Gas blends Combustion in HCCI Engines,”from Cylinder Gases (%) Loss Mechanisms Combustion Heat Loss

  10. The energy injection and losses in the Monte Carlo simulations of a diffusive shock

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Xin

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although diffusive shock acceleration (DSA) could be simulated by some well-established models, the assumption of the injection rate from the thermal particles to the superthermal population is still a contentious problem. But in the self-consistent Monte Carlo simulations, because of the prescribed scattering law instead of the assumption of the injected function, hence particle injection rate is intrinsically defined by the prescribed scattering law. We expect to examine the correlation of the energy injection with the prescribed multiple scattering angular distributions. According to the Rankine-Hugoniot conditions, the energy injection and the losses in the simulation system can directly decide the shock energy spectrum slope. By the simulations performed with multiple scattering law in the dynamical Monte Carlo model, the energy injection and energy loss functions are obtained. As results, the case applying anisotropic scattering law produce a small energy injection and large energy losses leading to a s...

  11. SU-E-I-20: Dead Time Count Loss Compensation in SPECT/CT: Projection Versus Global Correction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siman, W; Kappadath, S [UT MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Purpose: To compare projection-based versus global correction that compensate for deadtime count loss in SPECT/CT images. Methods: SPECT/CT images of an IEC phantom (2.3GBq 99mTc) with ?10% deadtime loss containing the 37mm (uptake 3), 28 and 22mm (uptake 6) spheres were acquired using a 2 detector SPECT/CT system with 64 projections/detector and 15 s/projection. The deadtime, Ti and the true count rate, Ni at each projection, i was calculated using the monitor-source method. Deadtime corrected SPECT were reconstructed twice: (1) with projections that were individually-corrected for deadtime-losses; and (2) with original projections with losses and then correcting the reconstructed SPECT images using a scaling factor equal to the inverse of the average fractional loss for 5 projections/detector. For both cases, the SPECT images were reconstructed using OSEM with attenuation and scatter corrections. The two SPECT datasets were assessed by comparing line profiles in xyplane and z-axis, evaluating the count recoveries, and comparing ROI statistics. Higher deadtime losses (up to 50%) were also simulated to the individually corrected projections by multiplying each projection i by exp(-a*Ni*Ti), where a is a scalar. Additionally, deadtime corrections in phantoms with different geometries and deadtime losses were also explored. The same two correction methods were carried for all these data sets. Results: Averaging the deadtime losses in 5 projections/detector suffices to recover >99% of the loss counts in most clinical cases. The line profiles (xyplane and z-axis) and the statistics in the ROIs drawn in the SPECT images corrected using both methods showed agreement within the statistical noise. The count-loss recoveries in the two methods also agree within >99%. Conclusion: The projection-based and the global correction yield visually indistinguishable SPECT images. The global correction based on sparse sampling of projections losses allows for accurate SPECT deadtime loss correction while keeping the study duration reasonable.

  12. CSEM WP 104 Variation of Distribution Factors with Loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley. University of

    on the topology of the electric power system, the behavior of controllable transmission system elements distribution factors depend on the operating point and topology of an electric power system. However right schemes for transmis- sion rights [4, 5], capacity to flow power on a line or a group of lines

  13. Restoration strategy for power distribution networks using optimal supervisory control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lim, Jong-Tae

    the supervisory control technique to a line-restoration problem aiming to increase the steady-state security level of lines and transformers and the bus voltage for the security assessment. 2 Preliminary The supervisoryRestoration strategy for power distribution networks using optimal supervisory control M.-S. Lee

  14. Transmission Lines Emulating Moving Media

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vehmas, Joni; Tretyakov, Sergei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we show how the electromagnetic phenomena in moving magnetodielectric media can be emulated using artificial composite structures at rest. In particular, we introduce nonreciprocal periodically loaded transmission lines which support waves obeying the same rules as plane electromagnetic waves in moving media. Because the actual physical structure is at rest, in these transmission lines there are no fundamental limitations on the velocity values, which may take values larger than the speed of light or even complex values (considering complex amplitudes in the time-harmonic regime). An example circuit of a unit cell of a "moving" transmission line is presented and analyzed both numerically and experimentally. The special case of composite right/left handed host line is also studied numerically. Besides the fundamental interest, the study is relevant for potential applications in realizing engineered materials for various transformations of electromagnetic fields.

  15. The beauty of laser lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Sue-Mie

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A line, the simplest way to express an artist's feelings or interpretation of an object, has its own emotions that an artist can employ for her purpose. Laser light, the most self-concentrated, self-sustained and directed, ...

  16. VISAR: Line-imaging interferometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hemsing, W.F.; Mathews, A.R.; Warnes, R.H.; George, M.J.; Whittemore, G.R.

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) was applied to measure velocity across the diameter of a metal plate explosively accelerated to 5.5 km/s. Amplified, single- frequency laser light was focused to illuminate a line on the metal surface. The line's image was focused through the interferometer to a streak camera that swept in time and recorded directly on film. During the experiment, the Doppler-shift caused motion of the interference fringes. Analysis of the digitized film record yielded a continuum of time-resolved velocity histories. Velocity gradients across the plate that first swept radially inward, then reflected outward, were clearly measured. Increased power provided by the laser amplifier greatly improved the signal-to-noise ratio compared to our previous line VISAR experiments. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  17. Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2011-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.

  18. Tuneable dielectric films having low electrical losses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimos, Duane Brian (Albuquerque, NM); Schwartz, Robert William (Albuquerque, NM); Raymond, Mark Victor (Albuquerque, NM); Al-Shareef, Husam Niman (Boise, ID); Mueller, Carl (Lakewood, CO); Galt, David (Denver, CO)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to a method for forming dielectric thin films having substantially reduced electrical losses at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies relative to conventional dielectric thin films. The reduction in losses is realized by dramatically increasing the grain sizes of the dielectric films, thereby minimizing intergranular scattering of the microwave signal due to grain boundaries and point defects. The increase in grain size is realized by heating the film to a temperature at which the grains experience regrowth. The grain size of the films can be further increased by first depositing the films with an excess of one of the compoents, such that a highly mobile grain boundary phase is formed.

  19. Fin-line horn antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reindel, John (San Diego, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A fin line circuit card containing a fin line slot feeds a dipole antenna ich extends a quarterwave outside the waveguide and provides an energy beam focal point at or near the open end of the waveguide. The dipole antenna thus maintains a wide and nearly constant beamwidth, low VSWR and a circular symmetric radiation pattern for use in electronic warfare direction finding and surveillance applications.

  20. Experimental performance evaluation of line-focus sun trackers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.C.

    1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two sun trackers have been tested for tracking accuracy on an sun tracker. Both performed well during the entire test period. Their tracking performance as a function of insolation level was established, and their overall tracking accuracy (rms tracking error) was calculated. Both the flux-line and the shadowband tracker were found to have an effective rms error of about 1 milliradian. This information was used to determine the impact that the two trackers have on the annual energy performance of typical parabolic trough concentrating collectors. One milliradian rms tracking errors were found to result in negligibly small annual performance losses.

  1. Recent Stirling engine loss - understanding results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tew, R.C.; Thieme, L.G.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    For several years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other US Government agencies have been funding experimental and analytical efforts to improve the understanding of Stirling thermodynamic losses. NASA`s objective is to improve Stirling engine design capability to support the development of new engines for space power. An overview of these efforts was last given at the 1988 IECEC. Recent results of this research are reviewed.

  2. Optimal Inverter VAR Control in Distribution Systems with High PV Penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Farivar, Masoud; Clarke, Christopher; Low, Steven

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The intent of the study detailed in this paper is to demonstrate the benefits of inverter var control on a fast timescale to mitigate rapid and large voltage fluctuations due to the high penetration of photovoltaic generation and the resulting reverse power flow. Our approach is to formulate the volt/var control as a radial optimal power flow (OPF) problem to minimize line losses and energy consumption, subject to constraints on voltage magnitudes. An efficient solution to the radial OPF problem is presented and used to study the structure of optimal inverter var injection and the net benefits, taking into account the additional cost of inverter losses when operating at non-unity power factor. This paper will illustrate how, depending on the circuit topology and its loading condition, the inverter's optimal reactive power injection is not necessarily monotone with respect to their real power output. The results are demonstrated on a distribution feeder on the Southern California Edison system that has a very ...

  3. Spitzer spectral line mapping of supernova remnants: I. Basic data and principal component analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David A. Neufeld; David J. Hollenbach; Michael J. Kaufman; Ronald L. Snell; Gary J. Melnick; Edwin A. Bergin; Paule Sonnentrucker

    2007-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the results of spectroscopic mapping observations carried out toward small (1 x 1 arcmin) regions within the supernova remnants W44, W28, IC443, and 3C391 using the Infrared Spectrograph of the Spitzer Space Telescope. These observations, covering the 5.2 - 37 micron spectral region, have led to the detection of a total of 15 fine structure transitions of Ne+, Ne++, Si+, P+, S, S++, Cl+, Fe+, and Fe++; the S(0) - S(7) pure rotational lines of molecular hydrogen; and the R(3) and R(4) transitions of hydrogen deuteride. In addition to these 25 spectral lines, the 6.2, 7.7, 8.6, 11.3 and 12.6 micron PAH emission bands were also observed. Most of the detected line transitions have proven strong enough to map in several sources, providing a comprehensive picture of the relative distribution of the various line emissions observable in the Spitzer/IRS bandpass. A principal component analysis of the spectral line maps reveals that the observed emission lines fall into five distinct groups, each of which may exhibit a distinct spatial distribution: (1) lines of S and H2 (J > 2); (2) the H2 S(0) line; (3) lines of ions with appearance potentials less than 13.6 eV; (4) lines of ions with appearance potentials greater than 13.6 eV, not including S++; (5) lines of S++. Lines of group (1) likely originate in molecular material subject to a slow, nondissociative shock that is driven by the overpressure within the supernova remnant, and lines in groups (3) - (5) are associated primarily with dissociative shock fronts with a range of (larger) shock velocities. The H2 S(0) line shows a low-density diffuse emission component, and - in some sources - a shock-excited component.

  4. Extensive horizontal gene transfer, duplication, and loss of chlorophyll synthesis genes in the algae

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Randhawa, Tejinder; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two non-homologous, isofunctional enzymes catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll a synthesis in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae and land plants: the light independent (LIPOR) and light-dependent (POR) protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases. Whereas the distribution of these enzymes in cyanobacteria and land plants is well understood, the presence, loss, duplication, and replacement of these genes have not been surveyed in the polyphyletic and remarkably diverse eukaryotic algal lineages.

  5. Iterative Loss Minimization with 1-Norm Constraint and Guarantees on Sparsity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srebro, Nathan

    be a distribution over X � Y. Our goal is to approximately solve the following optimization problem min w E(x,y)D[L( w, x , y)] s.t. w 1 B , (1) where L : R � Y R is a loss function. Furthermore, we would like therefore implies that we can find w such that · w 0 = O(( B/ )2 ) · For all w with w 1 B we have E[L( w, x

  6. Energy loss of charm quarks from $J/?$ production in cold nuclear matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li-Hua Song; Wen-Dan Miao; Chun-Gui Duan

    2013-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    $J/\\psi$ suppression in p-A collisions is studied by considering the nuclear effects on parton distribution, energy loss of beam proton and the finial state energy loss of color octet $c\\overline{c}$. The leading-order computations for $J/\\psi$ production cross-section ratios $R_{W/Be}(x_{F})$ are presented and compared with the selected E866 experimental data with the $c\\overline{c}$ remaining colored on its entire path in the medium. It is shown that the combination of the different nuclear effects accounts quite well for the observed $J/\\psi$ suppression in the experimental data. It is found that the $J/\\psi$ suppression on $R_{W/Be}(x_{F})$ from the initial state nuclear effects is more important than that induced by the energy loss of color octet $c\\overline{c}$ in the large $x_F$ region. Whether the $c\\overline{c}$ pair energy loss is linear or quadratic with the path length is not determined. The obtained $c\\overline{c}$ pair energy loss per unit path length $\\alpha=2.78\\pm0.81$ GeV/fm, which indicates that the heavy quark in cold nuclear matter can lose more energy compared to the outgoing light quark.

  7. Magnetic properties and loss separation in iron-silicone-MnZn ferrite soft magnetic composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Shen; Sun, Aizhi; Xu, Wenhuan; Zou, Chao; Yang, Jun; Dong, Juan [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Science and Technology Beijing, Beijing (China)

    2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper investigates the magnetic and structural properties of iron-based soft magnetic composites coated with silicone-MnZn ferrite hybrid. The organic silicone resin was added to improve the flexibility of the insulated iron powder and causes better adhesion between particles to increase the mechanical properties. Scanning electron microscopy and distribution maps show that the iron particle surface is covered with a thin layer of silicone-MnZn ferrite. Silicone-MnZn ferrite coated samples have higher permeability when compared with the non-magnetic silicone resin coated compacts. The real part of permeability increases by 34.18% when compared with the silicone resin coated samples at 20 kHz. In this work, a formula for calculating the total loss component by loss separation method is presented and finally the different parts of total losses are calculated. The results show that the eddy current loss coefficient is close to each other for the silicone-MnZn ferrite, silicone resin and MnZn ferrite coated samples (0.0078loss coefficient is lower for the silicone-MnZn ferrite coated sample (k{sub 2} =1.4058) in comparison with other samples.

  8. Towards identifying the mechanisms underlying field-aligned edge-loss of HHFW power on NSTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Bertelli, N.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Maingi, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, L.; Scotti, F.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Ahn, J-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); and others

    2014-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast-wave heating will be a major heating scheme on ITER, as it can heat ions directly and is relatively unaffected by the large machine size unlike neutral beams. However, fast-wave interactions with the plasma edge can lead to deleterious effects such as, in the case of the high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) system on NSTX, large losses of fast-wave power in the scrape off layer (SOL) under certain conditions. In such scenarios, a large fraction of the lost HHFW power is deposited on the upper and lower divertors in bright spiral shapes. The responsible mechanism(s) has not yet been identified but may include fast-wave propagation in the scrape off layer, parametric decay instability, and RF currents driven by the antenna reactive fields. Understanding and mitigating these losses is important not only for improving the heating and current-drive on NSTX-Upgrade but also for understanding fast-wave propagation across the SOL in any fast-wave system. This talk summarizes experimental results demonstrating that the flow of lost HHFW power to the divertor regions largely follows the open SOL magnetic field lines. This lost power flux is relatively large close to both the antenna and the last closed flux surface with a reduced level in between, so the loss mechanism cannot be localized to the antenna. At the same time, significant losses also occur along field lines connected to the inboard edge of the bottom antenna plate. The power lost within the spirals is roughly estimated, showing that these field-aligned losses to the divertor are significant but may not account for the total HHFW loss. To elucidate the role of the onset layer for perpendicular fast-wave propagation with regards to fast-wave propagation in the SOL, a cylindrical cold-plasma model is being developed. This model, in addition to advanced RF codes such as TORIC and AORSA, is aimed at identifying the underlying mechanism(s) behind these SOL losses, to minimize their effects in NSTX-U, and to predict their importance in ITER.

  9. Distributed DBMS I Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yangjun

    Distributed DBMS Outline I Introduction I Background I Distributed DBMS Architecture I Distributed Data server approach Parallel architectures Parallel DBMS techniques Parallel execution models Parallel Database Systems Distributed Object DBMS Database Interoperability Concluding Remarks #12

  10. Florida Electric Transmission Line Siting Act (Florida)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Transmission Line Siting Act (TLSA) is the state’s centralized process for licensing electrical transmission lines which; (a) are 230 kV or larger; (b) cross a county line; and, (c) are 15...

  11. Distributed Theorem Proving for Distributed Hybrid Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Platzer, André

    system with a varying number of arbitrarily many cars. 1 Introduction Hybrid systems with joint discrete a multi-agent system, e.g., distributed car control systems. Such systems form distributed hybrid systemsDistributed Theorem Proving for Distributed Hybrid Systems David W. Renshaw, Sarah M. Loos

  12. Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sule, Petr [NEW MEXICO CONSORTIUM

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any communication. On our model distribution circuit, we illustrate the feasibility of high levels of PV penetration and a significant (20% or higher) reduction in losses.

  13. Optimal Control of Coal Segregation using On-line Analyzers R. Ganguli, J. C. Yingling, J. Sottile, Dept. of Mining Eng.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kumar, Ratnesh

    1 Optimal Control of Coal Segregation using On-line Analyzers R. Ganguli, J. C. Yingling, J 40506 ABSTRACT The capability for on-line measurement of the quality characteristics of conveyed coal of coal that must be washed at the mine and thereby reduces processing costs, recovery losses, and refuse

  14. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  15. Quasar Absorption Lines as a Function of Quasar Orientation Measures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gordon T. Richards; S. A. Laurent-Muehleisen; Robert H. Becker; Donald G. York

    2001-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We present high resolution radio data at 3.5 and 20 cm from the VLA in the A configuration for 144 quasars with known CIV absorption line properties. Using these measurements, we compare and contrast a number of quasar orientation indicators. These quantities are used to study the velocity distribution of CIV absorption lines as a function of quasar orientation measures. That there is an excess of narrow, high-velocity CIV absorbers in flat-spectrum quasars as compared to steep-spectrum quasars is confirmed. Orientation indicators that are not based upon spectral indices (e.g. R_V and the core-to-lobe ratio) do not show the same effect. These seemingly contradictory results may be reconciled if the absorber distribution is not strictly a function of orientation, but rather a function of intrinsic radio properties that may or may not be good orientation indicators.

  16. Africa planned gas lines will meet future demand

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The burgeoning European market for natural gas is expected to create major gas line construction. The potential for North Africa looks particularly promising in 1991. Italy's ENI has proposed a 6,000-km (3,728-mi) gas network in North Africa to connect gas-rich Libya and Algeria with Morocco and Mauritania, making large volumes available to the European market. According to the proposal, a gas line would run from the Sirte Basin in Libya west to Mauritania. Extending the line eastward through Egypt and on to the Arabian Peninsula would provide export access. In this paper initial studies are examine reserve projections for the next 20 years, then based on results, a transmission/distribution network will be designed, including an offshore gathering system.

  17. What can emission lines tell us?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. Stasinska

    2007-04-03T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Generalities 2 Empirical diagnostics based on emission lines 3 Photoionization modelling 4 Pending questions 5 Appendix: Lists of useful lines and how to deal with them

  18. System Losses and Assessment Trade Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Shropshire; Steve Piet; Nick Soelberg; Robert Cherry; Roger Henry; David Meikrantz; Greg Teske; Eric Shaber; Candido Pereira

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) study has developed new analysis methods to examine old and new technology options toward the goal of improving fuel cycle systems. We have integrated participants and information from AFCI Systems Analysis, Transmutation Fuels, Separations, and Waste Form Campaigns in the Systems Losses and Assessment Trade Study. The initial objectives of this study were to 1) increase understanding of system interdependencies and thereby identify system trade-offs that may yield important insights, 2) define impacts of separations product purity on fuel manufacture and transmutation reactivity, 3) define impacts from transuranic (TRU) losses to waste, 4) identify the interrelationships involved in fuels and separations technology performance, and 5) identify system configuration adjustments with the greatest potential for influencing system losses. While bounding and analyzing this initial problem, we also identified significantly higher-level programmatic drivers with broad implications to the current fuel cycle research charter and the general issue of a DOE complex wide need for a comprehensive and integrated nuclear material management as addressed by the new DOE Order 410.2 titled “Management of Nuclear Materials”. The initial modeling effort developed in this study for a much smaller subset of material (i.e., commercial fuel) and a selected transmutation scheme (i.e., fast reactor recycling) is a necessary first step towards examining a broader set of nuclear material management options, dispositioning strategies and integrated waste management options including potential areas of research leverage. The primary outcome from this initial study has been an enhanced integration among Campaigns and associated insights and analysis methods. Opportunities for improved understanding between the groups abound. The above lanthanide-actinide example highlights the importance of evaluating options via integration across the Campaigns. Plans for Fiscal Year 2010 are being made in a coordinated fashion such that the knowledge gained from the research performed by the Campaigns can benefit on-going work of the study, and that improved understanding of the system relationships can be used to guide the specific research and development (R&D) activities within the Campaigns. In FY-10, the System Losses and Assessment Trade Study will carry-over activities from FY-09. We will continue to refine impurity and loss estimates and impurity limits on fuels by incorporating results from ongoing R&D. And we will begin work on an enhanced nuclear material management model to allow us to continue to improve our overall system understanding of the trade-offs between separations, fuel fabrication, waste forms, waste disposition, SNM losses, reactor performance, and proliferation resistance. In the future, we can also better understand how used fuel and other forms of remote-handled SNM can be better integrated into an overall nuclear material management program that will evolve for the DOE complex via Order 410.2 (DOE 2009).

  19. Dumbarton Express Line DB heading to Stanford Oval. AC Transit Line U on Palm Drive.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dumbarton Express Line DB heading to Stanford Oval. AC Transit Line U on Palm Drive. Photo: Karl Nielsen Photo: Dong Wang Schedules: AC Transit Line U Dumbarton Express Line DB Connections with BART Transit Line U Line U provides express service between Stanford and the Fremont BART station. Other East

  20. Heat Loss Measurement Using Infrared Imaging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seeber, S. A.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for these types of information may be made in the field using a small hand-held computer that provides a permanent print out of the re~ sults. Large surface area measurements are made with the aid of a portable micro computer. A grid representaton... reduced surface tempera tures: a clogged check valve on a ste'm line, excessive moisture in paper drying operations, accumulations of combustion by products on exhaust gas stacks and pipes, wet insulation on cryogenic storage ve~? sels...

  1. Magnetic field-line lengths inside interplanetary magnetic flux ropes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Qiang; Krucker, Sam

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on the detailed and systematic study of field-line twist and length distributions within magnetic flux ropes embedded in Interplanetary Coronal Mass Ejections (ICMEs). The Grad-Shafranov reconstruction method is utilized together with a constant-twist nonlinear force-free (Gold-Hoyle) flux rope model to reveal the close relation between the field-line twist and length in cylindrical flux ropes, based on in-situ Wind spacecraft measurements. We show that the field-line twist distributions within interplanetary flux ropes are inconsistent with the Lundquist model. In particular we utilize the unique measurements of magnetic field-line lengths within selected ICME events as provided by Kahler et al. (2011) based on energetic electron burst observations at 1 AU and the associated type III radio emissions detected by the Wind spacecraft. These direct measurements are compared with our model calculations to help assess the flux-rope interpretation of the embedded magnetic structures. By using the differen...

  2. Collisional energy loss of heavy quarks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alex Meistrenko; Andre Peshier; Jan Uphoff; Carsten Greiner

    2013-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a transport approach for heavy quarks in a quark-gluon plasma, which is based on improved binary collision rates taking into account quantum statistics, the running of the QCD coupling and an effective screening mass adjusted to hard-thermal loop calculations. We quantify the effects of in-medium collisions by calculating the heavy flavor nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow for RHIC energies, which are comparable to radiative effects. We also derive an analytic formula for the mean collisional energy loss of an energetic heavy quark in a streaming quark gluon plasma.

  3. Reducing Energy Loss | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYouTube YouTube Note: Since the.pdfBreakingMay 2015 < prevQuick Guide:U.N.June 8,PastRadiation LossesReducingReducing

  4. Mapping and uncertainty analysis of energy and pitch angle phase space in the DIII-D fast ion loss detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pace, D. C., E-mail: pacedc@fusion.gat.com; Fisher, R. K.; Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Pipes, R. [Department of Physics, University of Hawaii, Hilo, Hawaii 96720-4091 (United States)

    2014-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    New phase space mapping and uncertainty analysis of energetic ion loss data in the DIII-D tokamak provides experimental results that serve as valuable constraints in first-principles simulations of energetic ion transport. Beam ion losses are measured by the fast ion loss detector (FILD) diagnostic system consisting of two magnetic spectrometers placed independently along the outer wall. Monte Carlo simulations of mono-energetic and single-pitch ions reaching the FILDs are used to determine the expected uncertainty in the measurements. Modeling shows that the variation in gyrophase of 80 keV beam ions at the FILD aperture can produce an apparent measured energy signature spanning across 50-140 keV. These calculations compare favorably with experiments in which neutral beam prompt loss provides a well known energy and pitch distribution.

  5. Effect of the plasma shapes on intrinsic rotation due to collisionless ion orbit loss in the tokamak edge plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ou, Jing, E-mail: ouj@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Heifei 230031 (China); Center for Magnetic Fusion Theory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Heifei 230031 (China); Wu, Guojiang [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Heifei 230031 (China); Li, Xinxia [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Heifei 230031 (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of South China, Hengyang 421001 (China)

    2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Distribution of the intrinsic rotation due to collisionless ion orbit loss near the tokamak edge region is studied by using an analytical model based on ion guiding center orbit approximation. A peak of the averaged ion orbit loss momentum fraction is found very near inside the separatrix region in a double null divertor configuration but is not found inside the last closed flux surface region in an outer limiter configuration. For the double null divertor configuration, the intrinsic rotation due to ion orbit loss depends on the plasma shape. With the increase in elongation and triangularity, the peak of the averaged ion orbit loss momentum fraction increases and it moves inward for the lower plasma current.

  6. Draft 'Michigan Saves' Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sample loan loss reserve agreement between a state or local government and a financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund. Author: State of Michigan

  7. abrupt mass loss: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of two SNe, 2002ap and 2006jc, for Wolf-Rayet star mass-loss rates and long Gamma-ray bursts. John Eldridge 5 Mass loss and supernova progenitors Astrophysics (arXiv)...

  8. Quasistellar Objects: Intervening Absorption Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jane C. Charlton; Christopher W. Churchill

    2000-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We briefly review, at a level appropriate for graduate students and non-specialists, the field of quasar absorption lines (QALs). Emphasis is on the intervening absorbers. We present the anatomy of a quasar spectrum due to various classes of intervening absorption systems, and a brief historical review of each absorber class (Lyman-alpha forest and Lyman limit systems, and metal-line and damped Lyman-alpha absorbers). We also provide several heuristic examples on how the physical properties of both the intergalactic medium and the gaseous environments associated with earlier epoch galaxies can be inferred from QALs. The evolution of these environments from z=4 are discussed.

  9. The Column Density Distribution of the Lyman-Alpha Forest: A Measure of Small Scale Power

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lam Hui; Nickolay Y. Gnedin; Yu Zhang

    1997-02-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Absorption lines in the Lyman-alpha forest can be thought of as peaks in neutral hydrogen density along lines of sight. The column density distribution (the number density of absorption lines as a function of column density) is then a statistic of density peaks, which contains information about the underlying power spectrum. In particular, we show that the slope of the distribution provides a measure of power on scales smaller than those probed by studies of present-day large scale structure.

  10. UNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF RETURN-CURRENT LOSSES ON THE X-RAY EMISSION FROM SOLAR FLARES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holman, Gordon D., E-mail: Gordon.D.Holman@nasa.gov [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2012-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    I obtain and examine the implications of one-dimensional analytic solutions for return-current losses on an initially power-law distribution of energetic electrons with a sharp low-energy cutoff in flare plasma with classical (collisional) resistivity. These solutions show, for example, that return-current losses are not sensitive to plasma density, but are sensitive to plasma temperature and the low-energy cutoff of the injected nonthermal electron distribution. A characteristic distance from the electron injection site, x{sub rc}, is derived. At distances less than x{sub rc} the electron flux density is not reduced by return-current losses, but plasma heating can be substantial in this region, in the upper, coronal part of the flare loop. Before the electrons reach the collisional thick-target region of the flare loop, an injected power-law electron distribution with a low-energy cutoff maintains that structure, but with a flat energy distribution below the cutoff energy, which is now determined by the total potential drop experienced by the electrons. Modifications due to the presence of collisional losses are discussed. I compare these results with earlier analytical results and with more recent numerical simulations. Emslie's conjecture that there is a maximum integrated X-ray source brightness on the order of 10{sup -15} photons cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} cm{sup -2} is examined. I find that this is not actually the maximum brightness and its value is parameter dependent, but it is nevertheless a valuable benchmark for identifying return-current losses in hard X-ray spectra. I discuss an observational approach to identifying return-current losses in flare data, including identification of a return-current 'bump' in X-ray light curves at low photon energies.

  11. Characterizing Shading Losses on Partially Shaded PV Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.

    2010-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Presentation on shaded PV power loss, practical issues with modeling shaded PV, and methods of implementing partially shaded PV modeling.

  12. Status of wake and array loss research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliott, D.L.

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In recent years, many projects have evaluated wind turbine wake effects and resultant array losses in both Europe and the United States. This paper examines the status of current knowledge about wake effects and array losses and suggests future research. Single-turbine wake characteristics have been studied extensively and are generally described well by existing theoretical models. Field measurements of wake effects in wind turbine arrays are largely limited to small arrays, with 2 to 4 rows of turbines. Few data have been published on wake effects within large arrays. Measurements of wake deficits downwind of large arrays that deficits are substantially larger and extend farther downwind than expected. Although array design models have been developed, these models have been tested and verified using only limited data from a few rows of wind turbines in complex terrain, whereas some of the largest arrays have more than 40 rows of wind turbines. Planned cooperative efforts with the wind industry will obtain existing data relevant to analyzing energy deficits within large arrays and identifying data sets for potential use in array model verification efforts. Future research being considered include a cooperative research experiment to obtain more definitive data on wake deficits and turbulence within and downwind of large arrays. 16 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Simulations and measurements of beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Bruce; R. W. Assmann; V. Boccone; C. Bracco; M. Brugger; M. Cauchi; F. Cerutti; D. Deboy; A. Ferrari; L. Lari; A. Marsili; A. Mereghetti; D. Mirarchi; E. Quaranta; S. Redaelli; G. Robert-Demolaize; A. Rossi; B. Salvachua; E. Skordis; C. Tambasco; G. Valentino; T. Weiler; V. Vlachoudis; D. Wollmann

    2014-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide proton beams of unprecedented energy, in order to extend the frontiers of high-energy particle physics. During the first very successful running period in 2010--2013, the LHC was routinely storing protons at 3.5--4 TeV with a total beam energy of up to 146 MJ, and even higher stored energies are foreseen in the future. This puts extraordinary demands on the control of beam losses. An un-controlled loss of even a tiny fraction of the beam could cause a superconducting magnet to undergo a transition into a normal-conducting state, or in the worst case cause material damage. Hence a multi-stage collimation system has been installed in order to safely intercept high-amplitude beam protons before they are lost elsewhere. To guarantee adequate protection from the collimators, a detailed theoretical understanding is needed. This article presents results of numerical simulations of the distribution of beam losses around the LHC that have leaked out of the collimation system. The studies include tracking of protons through the fields of more than 5000 magnets in the 27 km LHC ring over hundreds of revolutions, and Monte-Carlo simulations of particle-matter interactions both in collimators and machine elements being hit by escaping particles. The simulation results agree typically within a factor 2 with measurements of beam loss distributions from the previous LHC run. Considering the complex simulation, which must account for a very large number of unknown imperfections, and in view of the total losses around the ring spanning over 7 orders of magnitude, we consider this an excellent agreement. Our results give confidence in the simulation tools, which are used also for the design of future accelerators.

  14. An investigation of simplified loss formula evaluation of total and incremental power system losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malinowski, James Henry

    1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the requirements i' or the degree of NASTER OF SCIENCE NaF~ 1962 Na)or Sub)ect: Electrical Engineering AN INVESTIGlLTION OF SIMPLIFIED LOSS FORMULA EVALUATION OF TOTAL AND INCREMENTAL POWER SYSTEM LOSSES A Thesis JAMES HENRY MALINOWSKI Approved as to style... e o o o e 0 e 32 BIBLIOGRAPHY ~ e o ~ o ~ a o ~ a a o ~ o o o o o o 37 CHAPTER I IRTRODUCTZOH The past decade, l9$0-1960, has seen the electric power industry of the United States more than double its installed capacity and annual energy...

  15. Parton energy loss and momentum broadening at NLO in high temperature QCD plasmas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghiglieri, Jacopo

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present an overview of a perturbative-kinetic approach to jet propagation, energy loss, and momentum broadening in a high temperature quark-gluon plasma. The leading-order kinetic equations describe the interactions between energetic jet-particles and a non-abelian plasma, consisting of on-shell thermal excitations and soft gluonic fields. These interactions include 22 scatterings, collinear bremsstrahlung, and drag and momentum diffusion. We show how the contribution from the soft gluonic fields can be factorized into a set of Wilson line correlators on the light cone. We review recent field-theoretical developments, rooted in the causal properties of these correlators, which simplify the calculation of the appropriate Wilson lines in thermal field theory. With these simplifications lattice measurements of transverse momentum broadening have become possible, and the kinetic equations describing parton transport have been extended to next-to-leading order in the coupling g.

  16. MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT LOSS AND TEMPERATURE OF THE MAGNETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    MODELING OF EDDY CURRENT LOSS AND TEMPERATURE OF THE MAGNETS IN PERMANENT MAGNET MACHINES@umich.edu Received 24 November 2010 Accepted 16 June 2011 The eddy current loss in the magnets of permanent magnet- mium-iron-boron (NdFeB), and slot/tooth harmonics, there is eddy current loss generated inside

  17. Arctic ozone loss and climate sensitivity: Updated threedimensional model study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feng, Wuhu

    Arctic ozone loss and climate sensitivity: Updated three­dimensional model study Chipperfield winter­spring chemical ozone loss from 1991 2003, its observed correlation with low temperatures. CTM throughout studied. The model reproduces large column winters also captures shape of ozone loss profile

  18. The Capacity Loss of Dense Constellations Tobias Koch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    high SNR, our results recover the power loss of 1.53dB for square signal constellations without-noise channels for suitably high signal- to-noise ratio. Our expression for the capacity loss recovers the power loss of 1.53dB for square signal constellations. I. INTRODUCTION As it is well known, the channel

  19. Loss Factor of the PEP-II Rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Novokhatski, A; Sullivan, M.; /SLAC

    2008-07-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An RF power balance method is used to measure the synchrotron radiation losses and the wake field losses. We present the history of the losses in the Low Energy Ring (LER) and the High Energy Ring (HER) during the last several runs of PEP-II.

  20. Greed, Leverage, and Potential Losses: A Prospect Theory Perspective

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    and losses, reference point, portfolio choice 1 Introduction "Greed" as a non-technical term is fairlyGreed, Leverage, and Potential Losses: A Prospect Theory Perspective Hanqing Jin and Xun Yu Zhou with leverage and potential losses, in the context of a continuous-time behavioral portfolio choice model under

  1. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox (Columbia, MO)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  2. Camera Calibration Using Line Correspondences

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hartley, Richard

    Camera Calibration Using Line Correspondences Richard I. Hartley G.E. CRD, Schenectady, NY, 12301. The three cameras may have different unknown calibrations, and the essential matrices corresponding to each, camera calibration and scene reconstruction. In the case where all the three cameras are assumed to have

  3. What controls the [O III] 5007 line strength in AGN?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexei Baskin; Ari Laor

    2005-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    AGN display an extreme range in the narrow emission line equivalent widths. Specifically, in the PG quasar sample the equivalent width of the narrow [O III] 5007 line has a range of >300, while the broad Hb line, for example, has a range of 10 only. The strength of [O III] 5007 is modulated by the covering factor, CF, of the narrow line region (NLR) gas, its density n_e, and ionization parameter U. To explore which of these factors produces the observed large range in [O III] 5007 strength, we measure the strength of the matching narrow Hb and [O III] 4363 lines, detected in 40 out of the 87 z<0.5 PG quasars in the Boroson & Green sample. The photoionization code CLOUDY is then used to infer CF, n_e, and U in each object, assuming a single uniform emitting zone. We find that the range of CF (~0.02-0.2) contributes about twice as much as the range in both n_e and U towards modulating the strength of the [O III] 5007 line. The CF is inversely correlated with luminosity, but it is not correlated with L_Edd as previously speculated. The single zone [O III] 5007 emitting region is rather compact, having R=40L_44^0.45 pc. These emission lines can also be fit with an extreme two zone model, where [O III] 4363 is mostly emitted by a dense (n_e=10^7) inner zone at R=L_44^0.5 pc, and [O III] 5007 by a low density (n_e=10^3) extended outer zone at R=750L_44^0.34 pc. Such an extended [O III] 5007 emission should be well resolved by HST imaging of luminous AGN. Further constraints on the radial gas distribution in the NLR can be obtained from the spectral shape of the IR continuum emitted by the associated dust.

  4. An examination of the costs and critical characteristics of electric utility distribution system capacity enhancement projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; Fathelrahman, Eihab M.

    2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report classifies and analyzes the capital and total costs (e.g., income tax, property tax, depreciation, centralized power generation, insurance premiums, and capital financing) associated with 130 electricity distribution system capacity enhancement projects undertaken during 1995-2002 or planned in the 2003-2011 time period by three electric power utilities operating in the Pacific Northwest. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with participating utilities, has developed a large database of over 3,000 distribution system projects. The database includes brief project descriptions, capital cost estimates, the stated need for each project, and engineering data. The database was augmented by additional technical (e.g., line loss, existing substation capacities, and forecast peak demand for power in the area served by each project), cost (e.g., operations, maintenance, and centralized power generation costs), and financial (e.g., cost of capital, insurance premiums, depreciations, and tax rates) data. Though there are roughly 3,000 projects in the database, the vast majority were not included in this analysis because they either did not clearly enhance capacity or more information was needed, and not available, to adequately conduct the cost analyses. For the 130 projects identified for this analysis, capital cost frequency distributions were constructed, and expressed in terms of dollars per kVA of additional capacity. The capital cost frequency distributions identify how the projects contained within the database are distributed across a broad cost spectrum. Furthermore, the PNNL Energy Cost Analysis Model (ECAM) was used to determine the full costs (e.g., capital, operations and maintenance, property tax, income tax, depreciation, centralized power generation costs, insurance premiums and capital financing) associated with delivering electricity to customers, once again expressed in terms of costs per kVA of additional capacity. The projects were sorted into eight categories (capacitors, load transfer, new feeder, new line, new substation, new transformer, reconductoring, and substation capacity increase) and descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, total cost, number of observations, and standard deviation) were constructed for each project type. Furthermore, statistical analysis has been performed using ordinary least squares regression analysis to identify how various project variables (e.g., project location, the primary customer served by the project, the type of project, the reason for the upgrade, size of the upgrade) impact the unit cost of the project.

  5. Global warming, insurance losses and financial industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Low, N.C. [UOB Life Assurance Limited, Singapore (Singapore)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Global warming causes extremely bad weather in the near term. They have already caught the attention of the insurance industry, as they suffered massive losses in the last decade. Twenty-one out of the 25 largest catastrophes in the US, mainly in the form of hurricanes have occurred in the last decade. The insurance industry has reacted by taking the risk of global warming in decisions as to pricing and underwriting decisions. But they have yet to take a more active role in regulating the factors that contributes to global warming. How global warming can impact the financial industry and the modern economy is explored. Insurance and modern financial derivatives are key to the efficient functioning of the modern economy, without which the global economy can still function but will take a giant step backward. Any risk as global warming that causes economic surprises will hamper the efficient working of the financial market and the modern economy.

  6. DECENTRALIZED VOLTAGE CONTROL TO MINIMIZE DISTRIBUTION LOSSES IN AN ISLANDED MICROGRID

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peng, Huei

    to deploy renewable energy sources such as solar and wind to reduce reliance on fossil fuels. In addition by inverters, there may not exist any inertia at all. In such cases, regulating the grid frequency becomes power sources and energy storage systems such as batteries requires new power and voltage control

  7. SIR distribution analysis in cellular networks considering the joint impact of path-loss,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coupechoux, Marceau

    and fast fading Dorra Ben Cheikh1,2 , Jean-Marc Kelif1 , Marceau Coupechoux2 , and Philippe Godlewski2 1

  8. Distribution and Medical Impact of Loss-of-Function Variants in the Finnish Founder Population

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Altshuler, David

    Exome sequencing studies in complex diseases are challenged by the allelic heterogeneity, large number and modest effect sizes of associated variants on disease risk and the presence of large numbers of neutral variants, ...

  9. A numerical technique for the determination of the pressure distribution in the presence of convective motion 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Croft, Robert Landis

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    , . . . . . . . . . , SECTION 7 SUNMARY 'Page 48 REFERENCES. APPENDIX A. APPENDIX B. 51 52 55 APPENDIX C. 61 VITA 66 LIST OF FIGURRS Figure The finite difference grid over R. . 3. The matrix T n Actual potential temperature distribution, T, fcr the hydrostatic... case. 18 40 n distribution (solid line) and 9 distribution (dashed line) for the hydrostatic case. . . . . . , . . . . C. l. Solution surface for the motion case with y=l/10. Method of storage of values in arrays F and U. . . . 45 64 LIST...

  10. Pretzelosity distribution function

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Avakian; A. V. Efremov; P. Schweitzer; F. Yuan

    2008-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The 'pretzelosity' distribution is discussed. Theoretical properties, model results, and perspectives to access experimental information on this leading twist, transverse momentum dependent parton distribution function are reviewed. Its relation to helicity and transversity distributions is highlighted.

  11. Learning poisson binomial distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daskalakis, Constantinos

    We consider a basic problem in unsupervised learning: learning an unknown Poisson Binomial Distribution. A Poisson Binomial Distribution (PBD) over {0,1,...,n} is the distribution of a sum of n independent Bernoulli random ...

  12. Energy Management of Steam Distribution Systems Through Energy Audits and Computerized Reporting Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rivers, N.; Mandzuk, N.

    ENERGY KANAGEKBNT OF STEAM DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS THROUGH BNKRGY AUDITS AND COItPlTl'ERIZED REPORTING PROGRAtIS NORMAN J. RIVERS and HARTIN MANDZUK Armstrong Machine Works, Inc. Three Rivers, Michigan ABSTRACT This presentation will highlight... the economic losses associated with steam distribution systems and how to establish good energy management programs to reduce energy cost by 15 to 25 percent. Recognizing energy losses in steam systems involves I 1. Steam lost through defective valves...

  13. Efficient generic on-line/off-line (threshold) signatures without key exposure q

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Kwangjo

    security requirements. Ó 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 1. Introduction The notion of on-line/off-line manufacturing process or as a background computation whenever the card is connected to power, and the on-lineEfficient generic on-line/off-line (threshold) signatures without key exposure q Xiaofeng Chen a

  14. The MICE Muon Beam Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonio, Marco [High Energy Physics Group, Department of Physics, Imperial College London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) at RAL, muons are produced and transported in a dedicated beam line connecting the production point (target) to the cooling channel. We discuss the main features of the beamline, meant to provide muons with momenta between 140 MeV/c and 240 MeV/c and emittances up to 10 mm rad, which is accomplished by means of a diffuser. Matching procedures to the MICE cooling channel are also described. In summer 2010 we performed an intense data taking campaign to finalize the calibration of the MICE Particle Identification (PID) detectors and the understanding of the beam line, which completes the STEPI phase of MICE. We highlight the main results from these data.

  15. About Industrial Distributed Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office's (AMO's) Industrial Distributed Energy activities build on the success of predecessor DOE programs on distributed energy and combined heat and power (CHP) while...

  16. In-line thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pento, Robert (Algonquin, IL); Marks, James E. (Glenville, NY); Staffanson, Clifford D. (S. Glens Falls, NY)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

  17. Ann. Geophysicae 14, 1462--1472 (1996) EGS --Springer-Verlag 1996 Enhanced incoherent scatter plasma lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the calculated and observed plasma line enhancements is good. The enhance- ment from the superthermal in the suprathermal distribution, are most important for the plasma line enhancement. The level of superthermal flux is proportional to the electron temperature, but when superthermal electrons are present they can greatly enha

  18. Monte Carlo Method for Calculating Oxygen Abundances and Their Uncertainties from Strong-Line Flux Measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bianco, Federica B; Oh, Seung Man; Fierroz, David; Liu, Yuqian; Kewley, Lisa; Graur, Or

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present the open-source Python code pyMCZ that determines oxygen abundance and its distribution from strong emission lines in the standard metallicity scales, based on the original IDL code of Kewley & Dopita (2002) with updates from Kewley & Ellison (2008), and expanded to include more recently developed scales. The standard strong-line diagnostics have been used to estimate the oxygen abundance in the interstellar medium through various emission line ratios in many areas of astrophysics, including galaxy evolution and supernova host galaxy studies. We introduce a Python implementation of these methods that, through Monte Carlo (MC) sampling, better characterizes the statistical reddening-corrected oxygen abundance confidence region. Given line flux measurements and their uncertainties, our code produces synthetic distributions for the oxygen abundance in up to 13 metallicity scales simultaneously, as well as for E(B-V), and estimates their median values and their 66% confidence regions. In additi...

  19. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  20. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  1. Terra Nova, Vol 18, No 5, 353-364 K. de Jong and J.R. Wijbrans Apparent partial loss age spectra of Neoarchean hornblende in Russia 2006 Blackwell Publishing Ltd

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    of hornblende, the presence of exsolution features and/or included contaminant minerals (Berger, 1975; Berry with homogeneously distributed Ar and that minerals have been unaffected by Ar loss or gain. It similarly brings

  2. Understanding ion cyclotron harmonic fast wave heating losses in the scrape off layer of tokamak plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bertelli, N [PPPL; Jaeger, E F; Hosea, J C; Phillips, C K; Berry, L; Bonoli, P T; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Green, D; LeBlanc, B [PPPL; Perkins, R J; Ryan, P M; Taylor, G; Valeo, E J; Wilso, J R; Wright, J C

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Fast waves at harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency, which have been used successfully on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), will also play an important role in ITER and are a promising candidate for the Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF) designs based on spherical torus (ST). Experimental studies of high harmonic fast waves (HHFW) heating on the NSTX have demonstrated that substantial HHFW power loss occurs along the open field lines in the scrape-off layer (SOL), but the mechanism behind the loss is not yet understood. The full wave RF code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain, is applied to specific NSTX discharges in order to predict the effects and possible causes of this power loss. In the studies discussed here, a collisional damping parameter has been implemented in AORSA as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. A prediction for the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) experiment, that will begin operation next year, is also presented, indicating a favorable condition for the experiment due to a wider evanescent region in edge density.*Research supported by the U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 with Princeton University.

  3. Line-driven disk wind models with an improved line force

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Proga; J. M. Stone; J. E. Drew

    1999-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe an efficient method of calculating the radiation pressure due to spectral lines, including all the terms in the velocity gradient tensor. We apply this method to calculate the two-dimensional, time-dependent structure of winds from luminous disks. Qualitative features of our new models are very similar to those we calculated including only the dominant terms in the tensor (Proga, Stone & Drew 1998, hereafter PSD). In particular, we find that models which displayed unsteady behaviour in PSD are also unsteady with the new method, and gross properties of the winds, such as mass-loss rate and characteristic velocity are not changed by the more accurate approach. The largest change caused by the new method is in the disk-wind opening angle: winds driven only by the disk radiation are more polar with the new method while winds driven by the disk and central object radiation are typically more equatorial. In the closing discussion, we provide further insight into the way the geometry of the radiation field and consequent flow determines the time properties of the flow.

  4. IN-LINE HIGH-RATE DEPOSITION OF ALUMINUM ONTO RISE SOLAR CELLS BY ELECTRON BEAM TECHNOLOGY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of solar cells has an important role herein, since the contact quality strongly influences the electrical of contacts is one of the technical challenges of this process step. The front contact lines must be as narrow to carry the generated current with only few resistance losses. Back contacted solar cells offer

  5. FLI-1 Flightless-1 and LET-60 Ras control germ line morphogenesis in C. elegans

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Jiamiao; Dentler, William L., Jr; Lundquist, Erik A.

    2008-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

    for the germ line morphogenesis defect by DIC optics and DAPI staining (Figure 11A) [30,32,33]. The hypomorphic loss-of-function allele n2021 caused a ky535-like germ line defect in 44% of gonad arms, and the stronger let-60 loss-of-function alleles s1124, s...1045), let-23(sy10), lin-31(n301). LGIII: fli-1(ky535), fli-1(tm362), tnIs6 [plim-7::gfp], dpy- 17(e164), unc-32(e189), mpk-1(ku1), eT1. LGIV: let- 60(n2021), let-60(s1124), let-60(s1155), let-60(s59), let- 60(sy93), let-60(sy92), let-60(sy99), let-60(n...

  6. Spectral energy distribution for GJ406

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ya. V. Pavlenko; H. R. A. Jones; Yu. Lyubchik; J. Tennyson; D. J. Pinfield

    2005-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results of modelling the bulk of the spectral energy distribution (0.35 - 5 micron) for GJ406 (M6V). Synthetic spectra were calculated using the NextGen, Dusty and Cond model atmospheres and incorporate line lists for H2O, TiO, CrH, FeH, CO, MgH molecules as well as the VALD line list of atomic lines. A comparison of synthetic and observed spectra gives Tef = 2800 +/- 100 K. We determine M$_bol = 12.13 +/- 0.10 for which evolutionary models by Baraffe et al. (2003) suggest an age of around 0.1 -- 0.35 Gyr consistent with its high activity. The age and luminosity of GJ406 correspond to a wide range of plausible masses (0.07 -- 0.1 Msun).

  7. Detonation propagation in a high loss configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jackson, Scott I [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Shepherd, Joseph E [CALTECH

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work presents an experimental study of detonation wave propagation in tubes with inner diameters (ID) comparable to the mixture cell size. Propane-oxygen mixtures were used in two test section tubes with inner diameters of 1.27 mm and 6.35 mm. For both test sections, the initial pressure of stoichiometric mixtures was varied to determine the effect on detonation propagation. For the 6.35 mm tube, the equivalence ratio {phi} (where the mixture was {phi} C{sub 3}H{sub 8} + 50{sub 2}) was also varied. Detonations were found to propagate in mixtures with cell sizes as large as five times the diameter of the tube. However, under these conditions, significant losses were observed, resulting in wave propagation velocities as slow as 40% of the CJ velocity U{sub CJ}. A review of relevant literature is presented, followed by experimental details and data. Observed velocity deficits are predicted using models that account for boundary layer growth inside detonation waves.

  8. Cool horizons lead to information loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Borun D. Chowdhury

    2013-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    There are two evidences for information loss during black hole evaporation: (i) a pure state evolves to a mixed state and (ii) the map from the initial state to final state is non-invertible. Any proposed resolution of the information paradox must address both these issues. The firewall argument focuses only on the first and this leads to order one deviations from the Unruh vacuum for maximally entangled black holes. The nature of the argument does not extend to black holes in pure states. It was shown by Avery, Puhm and the author that requiring the initial state to final state map to be invertible mandates structure at the horizon even for pure states. The proof works if black holes can be formed in generic states and in this paper we show that this is indeed the case. We also demonstrate how models proposed by Susskind, Papadodimas et al. and Maldacena et al. end up making the initial to final state map non-invertible and thus make the horizon "cool" at the cost of unitarity.

  9. Tailored ion energy distributions on plasma electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Economou, Demetre J. [Plasma Processing Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4004 (United States)] [Plasma Processing Laboratory, Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Houston, Houston, Texas 77204-4004 (United States)

    2013-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As microelectronic device features continue to shrink approaching atomic dimensions, control of the ion energy distribution on the substrate during plasma etching and deposition becomes increasingly critical. The ion energy should be high enough to drive ion-assisted etching, but not too high to cause substrate damage or loss of selectivity. In many cases, a nearly monoenergetic ion energy distribution (IED) is desired to achieve highly selective etching. In this work, the author briefly reviews: (1) the fundamentals of development of the ion energy distribution in the sheath and (2) methods to control the IED on plasma electrodes. Such methods include the application of “tailored” voltage waveforms on an electrode in continuous wave plasmas, or the application of synchronous bias on a “boundary electrode” during a specified time window in the afterglow of pulsed plasmas.

  10. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  11. Studies of charging stream trajectories and burden distribution in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M.J.; Mayfield, P.L.; Zulli, P.; Rex, A.J.; Tanzil, W.B.U.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work discusses the sensitivity of key blast furnace performance parameters to different gas flow distributions achieved by altering the burden distribution. The changes in burden distribution are brought about by different charging stream trajectories, and methods developed and evaluated for measuring the trajectories both on and off line are described.

  12. PS'2006 -Photonics in Switching Conference An Intelligent Network Management System with Multi-Tier Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    -Tier Distributed Intelligence for Optical Packet-Agile Transport Networks Jinqiang Yang and S.J. Ben Yoo Department introduces multi-tier distributed intelligence into the network management plane in order to address-line traffic engineering over optical packet-switching networks facilitated by the multi-tier distributed

  13. Introduction to Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pous, Damien

    1 Introduction to Distributed Systems Fabienne Boyer, LIG, fabienne.boyer@inria.fr Sources: Cours d'Olivier Gruber, Sacha Krakowiak, Sara Bouchenak, UJF Fabienne Boyer, Distributed Programming 2 Objectives Study conceptual and practical aspects of distributed systems l Client-server model l Distributed protocols l

  14. Distributed Paging Yair Bartal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartal, Yair

    . We survey distributed data management problems including distributed paging, file allocation fantastically on an annual basis. This survey deals with distributed data management problems. Such prob­ lems in distributed data management is the de­ sign of a dynamic allocation of file copies in a network in order

  15. Capillary electrophoresis-fluorescence line narrowing system (CE-FLNS) for on-line structural characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowiak, R.J.; Small, G.J.; Shields, P.A.

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is interfaced with low temperature fluorescence line-narrowing (FLN) spectroscopy for on-line structural characterization of separated molecular analytes. 21 figs.

  16. Capillary electrophoresis-fluorescence line narrowing system (CE-FLNS) for on-line structural characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowiak, Ryszard J. (Ames, IA); Small, Gerald J. (Ames, IA); Shields, Peter A. (Reading, MA)

    1999-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is interfaced with low temperature fluorescence line-narrowing (FLN) spectroscopy for on-line structural characterization of separated molecular analytes.

  17. Partonic Energy Loss and the Drell-Yan Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    G. T. Garvey; J. C. Peng

    2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We examine the current status of the extraction of the rate of partonic energy loss in nuclei from A dependent data. The advantages and difficulties of using the Drell-Yan process to measure the energy loss of a parton traversing a cold nuclear medium are discussed. The prospects of using relatively low energy proton beams for a definitive measurement of partonic energy loss are presented.

  18. Controlled Tripping of Overheated Lines Mitigates Power Outages

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pfitzner, René; Chertkov, Michael

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study cascades of blackouts in the model of the Polish (transmission) power grid (2700 nodes and 3504 transmission lines). A cascade is initiated by a sufficiently severe initial contingency tripping. The cascade advances via sequential tripping of many more overheated lines (with the thermal limits exceeded), islanding loads and generators and eventually arriving at a fixed point with the surviving part of the system being power- flow-balanced and the rest of the system being outaged. Utilizing the quasi-static model for cascade propagation, introduced in our earlier study (Statistical Classification of Cascading Failures in Power Grids, IEEE PES GM 2011), we analyze how the severity of the cascade depends on the order of tripping overheated lines. Our main observation is that the order of tripping has a tremendous effect on the size of the resulting outage: the probability distribution function of the outage size is broad; moreover in many of the cases studied, picking an overheated line at random result...

  19. FB Line Basis for Interim Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shedrow, B.

    1998-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The safety analysis of the FB-Line Facility indicates that the operation of FB-Line to support the current mission does not present undue risk to the facility and co-located workers, general public, or the environment.

  20. Nuclear vorticity and the low-energy nuclear response - Towards the neutron drip line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Papakonstantinou; J. Wambach; E. Mavrommatis; V. Yu. Ponomarev

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition density and current provide valuable insight into the nature of nuclear vibrations. Nuclear vorticity is a quantity related to the transverse transition current. In this work, we study the evolution of the strength distribution, related to density fluctuations, and the vorticity strength distribution, as the neutron drip line is approached. Our results on the isoscalar, natural-parity multipole response of Ni isotopes, obtained by using a self-consistent Skyrme-Hartree-Fock + Continuum RPA model, indicate that, close to the drip line, the low-energy response is dominated by L>1 vortical transitions.

  1. Comment to the article "Temperature dependence of ultracold neutron loss rates" E.Korobkina et al., PRB 70,035409

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Serebrov

    2009-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    In work [1] ("Temperature dependence of ultracold neutron loss rates" E.Korobkina et al., PRB 70,035409) results of measurement of temperature dependence of losses of ultracold neutrons (UCN) in a range from 4 K to 300 K at UCN storage in a copper trap are presented. At interpretation of experimental data it was artificially considered only the difference of losses rate 1/tau(T)= 1/tau_exp(T)- 1/tau_exp(10K), (tau - UCN storage time in the trap). It has been accepted for temperature dependence of losses which changes from 0 to 3.3*10-4 per one collision of UCN with a trap surface. However, the analysis of raw experimental data shows that in a trap at temperature 10 K there is losses 1.0*10-3 per collision. They are considerably (in 3 times) more than discussed temperature dependence and almost 10 times more than losses due to capture cross section on copper. It is the most probable that these losses are connected with leakage of UCN through a slit of trap shutter. Change of the size of a slits on 25% at change of temperature from 300K to 10K can quite explain discussed temperature dependence. Certainly, hydrogen is present on a surface, but as it was shown at work [2] (V.P.Alfimenkov et al., JETP., Vol. 55, No. 2 25 Jan.1992) temperature dependence in 3 times lower, even on the undegased surfaces than on the degassed and deuterated surface in work [1]. At last, deuteration of a trap surface allows almost completely to suppress temperature dependence connected with presence of hydrogen [2]. The conclusion of work [1] is that hydrogen is localized on a surface in the form of a film, instead of distribution in the surface substance. This conclusion contradicts results of measurement of energy dependence of UCN losses in work [2]. More detailed analysis of work [1] and works [2] is presented below.

  2. Report on the Loss of the Mars Polar Lander and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leveson, Nancy

    ........................................................................................... 1 1.2.1 Investigation of the MCO Loss .................................................................................................................. 1 1.2.2 Post-MCO Corrective Actions for Mars Polar Lander

  3. Correlation Of Surface Heat Loss And Total Energy Production...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Correlation Of Surface Heat Loss And Total Energy Production For Geothermal Systems Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Paper: Correlation...

  4. Draft Michigan SAVES Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sample LRF agreement between a grantee and an financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund.

  5. Polarization Losses under Accelerated Stress Test Using Multiwalled...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Accelerated Stress Test Using Multiwalled Carbon Nanotube Supported Pt Catalyst in PEM Fuel Cells. Polarization Losses under Accelerated Stress Test Using Multiwalled Carbon...

  6. Analysis of beam loss induced abort kicker instability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang W.; Sandberg, J.; Ahrens, L.; Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mi, J.; Pai, C.; Tan, Y.

    2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Through more than a decade of operation, we have noticed the phenomena of beam loss induced kicker instability in the RHIC beam abort systems. In this study, we analyze the short term beam loss before abort kicker pre-fire events and operation conditions before capacitor failures. Beam loss has caused capacitor failures and elevated radiation level concentrated at failed end of capacitor has been observed. We are interested in beam loss induced radiation and heat dissipation in large oil filled capacitors and beam triggered thyratron conduction. We hope the analysis result would lead to better protection of the abort systems and improved stability of the RHIC operation.

  7. ac losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Transport AC loss in high temperature superconducting coils University of Cambridge - Dspace Summary: 's electromagnetic properties and...

  8. Geometry and scaling of tangled vortex lines in three-dimensional random wave fields

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexander J. Taylor; Mark R. Dennis

    2015-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The short- and long-scale behaviour of tangled wave vortices (nodal lines) in random three-dimensional wave fields is studied via computer experiment. The zero lines are tracked in numerical simulations of periodic superpositions of three-dimensional complex plane waves. The probability distribution of local geometric quantities such as curvature and torsion are compared to previous analytical and new Monte Carlo results from the isotropic Gaussian random wave model. We further examine the scaling and self-similarity of tangled wave vortex lines individually and in the bulk, drawing comparisons with other physical systems of tangled filaments.

  9. Chromospheric Dynamics and Line Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Hammer; P. Ulmschneider

    2007-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The solar chromosphere is very dynamic, due to the presence of large amplitude hydrodynamic waves. Their propagation is affected by NLTE radiative transport in strong spectral lines, which can in turn be used to diagnose the dynamics of the chromosphere. We give a basic introduction into the equations of NLTE radiation hydrodynamics and describe how they are solved in current numerical simulations. The comparison with observation shows that one-dimensional codes can describe strong brightenings quite well, but the overall chromospheric dynamics appears to be governed by three-dimensional shock propagation.

  10. Line-focus sun trackers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gee, R.

    1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Sun trackers have been a troublesome component for line-focus concentrating collector systems. The problems have included poor accuracy, component failures, false locks on clouds, and restricted tracker operating ranges. In response to these tracking difficulties, a variety of improved sun trackers have been developed. A testing program is underway at SERI to determine the tracking accuracy of this new generation of sun trackers. The three major types of trackers are defined, some recent sun tracker developments are described, and the testing that is underway is outlined.

  11. Radiative transfer in molecular lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Asensio Ramos; J. Trujillo Bueno; J. Cernicharo

    2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The highly convergent iterative methods developed by Trujillo Bueno and Fabiani Bendicho (1995) for radiative transfer (RT) applications are generalized to spherical symmetry with velocity fields. These RT methods are based on Jacobi, Gauss-Seidel (GS), and SOR iteration and they form the basis of a new NLTE multilevel transfer code for atomic and molecular lines. The benchmark tests carried out so far are presented and discussed. The main aim is to develop a number of powerful RT tools for the theoretical interpretation of molecular spectra.

  12. ShaRE Credit Line

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOnItemResearch > TheNuclearHomelandMultivariate Metal-Organic FrameworksCredit Line

  13. Advances in fuel management and on-line core monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stout, R.B.; Hansen, L.E.; Patten, T.W.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation (ANF) has developed and implemented advanced core power distribution monitoring methods for BWRs and PWRs based on the three dimensional nodal simulator codes used for incore fuel management design and analysis. The use of these methods has resulted in a more accurate assessment of the core power distribution and corresponding increased operating margins. These increased margins allow for more economical fuel cycle designs. Since the initial application in 1982, ANF has made enhancements to the incore monitoring system. These enhancements have permitted more rapid analysis of local power changes, power distribution projections during ascent to full power and on-line statistical analysis of the incore detector signal. The on-line analysis implemented in BWRs has also been developed for application PWRs. In the future, reactors are expected to operate with longer fuel cycles, more aggressive low radial leakage loadings, load follow and use higher burnup fuel. These advances will require more burnable neutron absorbers and more sophisticated fuel designs. To accommodate these advances, the fuel management methodologies and measurement system will require improvements. The state-of-the-art methods provided by ANF provide incore monitoring systems compatible with these expected needs.

  14. Line Management Perspective: National Nuclear Security Administration...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Line Management Perspective: National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Addthis Description Slide Presentation by Jim...

  15. Methods of Using Existing Wire Lines (power lines, phone lines, internet lines) for Totally Secure Classical Communication Utilizing Kirchoff's Law and Johnson-like Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laszlo B. Kish

    2006-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We outline some general solutions to use already existing and currently used wire lines, such as power lines, phone lines, internet lines, etc, for the unconditionally secure communication method based on Kirchoff's Law and Johnson-like Noise (KLJN). Two different methods are shown. One is based on filters used at single wires and the other one utilizes a common mode voltage superimposed on a three-phase powerline.

  16. Methods of Using Existing Wire Lines (power lines, phone lines, internet lines) for Totally Secure Classical Communication Utilizing Kirchoff's Law and Johnson-like Noise

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kish, L B

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We outline some general solutions to use already existing and currently used wire lines, such as power lines, phone lines, internet lines, etc, for the unconditionally secure communication method based on Kirchoff's Law and Johnson-like Noise (KLJN). Two different methods are shown. One is based on filters used at single wires and the other one utilizes a common mode voltage superimposed on a three-phase powerline.

  17. Discontinuities in transmission lines and wave guides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathis, Harold Fletcher

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DISCONTINUITIES IN TRANSMISSION LINES AND WAVEGUIDES H. F. MATHIS DISCONTINUITIES IN TRANSMISSION LINES AND liVAVNGUIDBS A Thesis By Harola Fletcher htathis Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee DISCONTINUITIES... Subject. Electrical Engineering COHERENT S PAGE I Introduct ion, II Dl. scontlnuit les in Transmission Lines 2 1. Some Seneral char aeter 1 st 1 ca of the transmission lines. . . , . . . , ~ 5 2 ~ 2. Types of dlscontlnuitles ln transmls- sl...

  18. A Roundtable Overview Driving the Top Line

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A Roundtable Overview Driving the Top Line #12;© 2012 Glassmeyer/McNamee Center for Digital of the Center for Digital Strategies. Driving the Top Line A Thought Leadership Roundtable on Digital, Switzerland for a discussion on how information technology can help companies drive top-line revenue. In many

  19. Oxygen-induced changes in electron-energy-loss spectra for Al, Be and Ni. [Al; Be; Ni

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madden, H.H.; Landers, R.; Kleiman, G.G. (Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), 13081-970 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brasil); Zehner, D.M. (Solid State Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States))

    1999-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) data are presented to illustrate line shape changes that occur as a result of oxygen interaction with metal surfaces. The metals were aluminum, beryllium and nickel. Core-level EELS data were taken for excitations from Al(2p), Be(1s), Ni(3p/3s) and O(1s) levels to the conduction band (CB) density of states (DOS) of the materials. The primary beam energies for the spectra were 300, 450, 300, and 1135 eV, respectively. The data are presented in both the (as measured) first-derivative and the integral forms. The integral spectra were corrected for coherent background losses and analyzed for CB DOS information. These spectra were found to be in qualitative agreement with published experimental and theoretical studies of these materials. One peak in the spectra for Al oxide is analyzed for its correlation with excitonic screening of the Al(2p) core hole. Similar evidence for exciton formation is found in the Ni(3p) spectra for Ni oxide. Data are also presented showing oxygen-induced changes in the lower-loss-energy EELS curves that, in the pure metal, are dominated by plasmon-loss and interband-transition signals. Single-scattering loss profiles in the integral form of the data were calculated using a procedure of Tougaard and Chorkendorff [S. Tougaard and I. Chorkendorff, Phys. Rev. B. [bold 35], 6570 (1987)]. For all three oxides these profiles are dominated by a feature with a loss energy of around 20[endash]25 eV. Although this feature has been ascribed by other researchers as due to bulk plasmon losses in the oxide, an alternative explanation is that the feature is simply due to O(2s)-to-CB-level excitations. An even stronger feature is found at 7 eV loss energy for Ni oxide. Speculation is given as to its source. The line shapes in both the core-level and noncore-level spectra can also be used simply as [open quotes]fingerprints[close quotes] of the surface chemistry of the materials. Our data were taken using commercially available surface analysis equipment and serve to complement surface information provided by Auger electron and/or x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. [copyright] [ital 1999 American Vacuum Society.

  20. Method and apparatus for reducing the harmonic currents in alternating-current distribution networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, L.H.; Hance, R.D.; Kristalinski, A.L.; Visser, A.T.

    1996-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved apparatus and method reduce the harmonic content of AC line and neutral line currents in polyphase AC source distribution networks. The apparatus and method employ a polyphase Zig-Zag transformer connected between the AC source distribution network and a load. The apparatus and method also employs a mechanism for increasing the source neutral impedance of the AC source distribution network. This mechanism can consist of a choke installed in the neutral line between the AC source and the Zig-Zag transformer. 23 figs.

  1. Method and apparatus for reducing the harmonic currents in alternating-current distribution networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beverly, Leon H. (Lockport, IL); Hance, Richard D. (Elburn, IL); Kristalinski, Alexandr L. (Naperville, IL); Visser, Age T. (Geneva, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved apparatus and method reduce the harmonic content of AC line and neutral line currents in polyphase AC source distribution networks. The apparatus and method employ a polyphase Zig-Zag transformer connected between the AC source distribution network and a load. The apparatus and method also employs a mechanism for increasing the source neutral impedance of the AC source distribution network. This mechanism can consist of a choke installed in the neutral line between the AC source and the Zig-Zag transformer.

  2. Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar abundance problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzik, Joyce Ann [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Keady, John [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kilcrease, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar models calibrated with the new element abundance mixture of Asplund et al. published in 2005 no longer produce good agreement with the sound speed, convection zone depth, and convection zone helium abundance inferred from solar oscillation data. Attempts to modify the input physics of the standard model, for example, by including enhanced diffusion, increased opacities, accretion, convective overshoot, or gravity waves have not restored the good agreement attained with the prior abundances. Here we present new models including early mass loss via a stronger solar wind. Early mass loss has been investigated prior to the solar abundance problem to deplete lithium and resolve the 'faint early sun problem'. We find that mass loss modifies the core structure and deepens the convection zone, and so improves agreement with oscillation data using the new abundances: however the amount of mass loss must be small to avoid destroying all of the surface lithium, and agreement is not fully restored. We also considered the prospects for increasing solar interior opacities. In order to increase mixture opacities by the 30% required to mitigate the abundance problem, the opacities of individual elements (e.g., O, N, C, and Fe) must be revised by a factor of two to three for solar interior conditions: we are investigating the possibility of broader calculated line wings for bound-bound transitions at the relevant temperatures to enhance opacity. We find that including all of the elements in the AGS05 opacity mixture (through uranium at atomic number Z=92) instead of only the 17 elements in the OPAL opacity mixture increases opacities by a negligible 0.2%.

  3. Water Loss Test Results for Lateral A Before and After Lining Hidalgo County Irrigation District No. 2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leigh, E.; Fipps, G.

    Texas Cooperative Extension ? Texas Agricultural Experiment Station Texas A&M University System 1 Extension Associate, and Professor and Extension Agricultural Engineer, respectively, Biological and Agricultural Engineering, 2117 Texas A&M... Length 802 feet Dec.2, 2004 Total Depth 5.7 feet (avg.) 16:10 16:17 Location: Off of ?I? Road, south of Military Hwy (281). Staff Gage Readings SG1 SG2 SG3 Date Readings Time Readings Time Readings Time 1 30-Nov. 5.08 16:10 1.72 16:12 4...

  4. Microsoft Word - Completion of an Evalution of Impact of Loss of 2 Hydrogen & Methane Monitoring Sample Lines.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645U.S. DOEThe Bonneville PowerCherries 82981-1cnHighandSWPA / SPRA / USACE SWPAURTeC:8 3.After-Hoursof

  5. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design de...

  6. Total Absorption Gamma-ray Spectrometer (TAGS) Intensity Distributions from INL's Gamma-Ray Spectrometry Center

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Greenwood, R. E.

    A 252Cf fission-product source and the INL on-line isotope separator were used to supply isotope-separated fission-product nuclides to a total absorption -ray spectrometer. This spectrometer consisted of a large (25.4-cm diameter x 30.5-cm long) NaI(Tl) detector with a 20.3-cm deep axial well in which is placed a 300-mm2 x 1.0-mm Si detector. The spectra from the NaI(Tl) detector are collected both in the singles mode and in coincidence with the B-events detected in the Si detector. Ideally, this detector would sum all the energy of the B- rays in each cascade following the population of daughter level by B- decay, so that the event could be directly associated with a particular daughter level. However, there are losses of energy from attenuation of the rays before they reach the detector, transmission of rays through the detector, escape of secondary photons from Compton scattering, escape of rays through the detector well, internal conversion, etc., and the measured spectra are thus more complicated than the ideal case and the analysis is more complex. Analysis methods have been developed to simulate all of these processes and thus provide a direct measure of the B- intensity distribution as a function of the excitation energy in the daughter nucleus. These data yield more accurate information on the B- distribution than conventional decay-scheme studies for complex decay schemes with large decay energies, because in the latter there are generally many unobserved and observed but unplaced rays. The TAGS data have been analyzed and published [R. E. Greenwood et al., Nucl Instr. and metho. A390(1997)] for 40 fission product-nuclides to determine the B- intensity distributions. [Copied from the TAGS page at http://www.inl.gov/gammaray/spectrometry/tags.shtml]. Those values are listed on this page for quick reference.

  7. Energy Upgrade California in Los Angeles County, Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Energy Upgrade California in Los Angeles County, Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement. Example of loan loss reserve agreement.

  8. SPOT PRICING FRAMEWORK FOR LOSS GUARANTEED INTERNET SERVICE CONTRACTS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalyanaraman, Shivkumar

    . In a two-component approach to pricing, a nonlinear pricing scheme is used for cost recovery and a utility for cost recovery, and (ii) an options-based approach to price the risk of deviations in the loss based QoSPOT PRICING FRAMEWORK FOR LOSS GUARANTEED INTERNET SERVICE CONTRACTS Aparna Gupta Decision

  9. average energy losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    average energy losses First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Comparing energy loss...

  10. additional energy losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    additional energy losses First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Comparing energy loss...

  11. How Compatible is Perfect Competition with Transmission Loss Allocation Methods?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    the problem of transmission loss allocation in a power system where the generators, the demands and the system. INTRODUCTION IN power systems where generation and transmission are unbundled, the transmission operationalHow Compatible is Perfect Competition with Transmission Loss Allocation Methods? Jing Dai, Yannick

  12. Estimation of Convection Loss from Paraboloidal Dish Cavity Receivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    In general, cavity receivers employed in the sun-tracking paraboloidal dish concentrator are subjected the numerical investigation of natural and combined convection loss from cavity receivers employed in solar is a significant source of energy loss from thermal receivers used with dish solar concentrators. This paper

  13. Linear-optics manipulations of photon-loss codes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konrad Banaszek; Wojciech Wasilewski

    2007-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We discuss codes for protecting logical qubits carried by optical fields from the effects of amplitude damping, i.e. linear photon loss. We demonstrate that the correctability condition for one-photon loss imposes limitations on the range of manipulations than can be implemented with passive linear-optics networks.

  14. Advanced EL inspection with predictive estimation of module power loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    with no relation to its significance on potential power degradation 7pi4_robotics GmbH #12;The idea: Estimate power photovoltaic modules due to micro-cracks" #12;Three step approach to estimate power loss PL1 : power loss

  15. Legal Access to Geographic Information: Measuring Losses or Developing Responses?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onsrud, Harlan J.

    are obvious and a focus on measuring losses in such situations seems misplaced when energies might be better and measurements those in power positions are often able to divert attention and energy away from the goals digital data environments. As a result, widespread loss of access to information and works of knowledge

  16. Analysis of partial loss reward models and its application

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Telek, Miklós

    Analysis of partial loss reward models and its application #3; M. Telek 1 , S. R#19;acz 2 1. The applicability of partial loss re- ward models and the proposed numerical analysis methods are demonstrated via the performance analysis of a computer system executing long running batch programs with checkpointing. Keywords

  17. Losses in superconducting Niobium Films caused by Interface Tunnel Exchange

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Junginger, Tobias; Welsch, Carsten

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Identifying the loss mechanisms of niobium film cavities enables an accurate determination of applications for future accelerator projects and points to research topics required to mitigate their limitations. Measurements on samples show that the electric field is a dominant loss mechanism for niobium films, acting through interface tunneling between localized states in surface oxides and delocalized states in the superconducting niobium.

  18. Predicting Performance of PESQ in Case of Single Frame Losses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wichmann, Felix

    Predicting Performance of PESQ in Case of Single Frame Losses Christian Hoene, Enhtuya Dulamsuren-Lalla Technical University of Berlin, Germany Fax: +49 30 31423819 Email: hoene@ieee.org Abstract ITU's objective can measure the impact of single frame losses ­ a source of impairment for which PESQ has not been

  19. Technical note Insertion loss testing of active noise reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Willy

    Technical note Insertion loss testing of active noise reduction headsets using acoustic fixture Jie. Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Toronto, 10 King's College Road, Toronto, ON measured insertion losses of four types of commercially avail- able ANR headsets using an Acoustic Test

  20. Mechanical Loss in Tantala/Silica Dielectric Mirror Coatings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steven D. Penn; Peter H. Sneddon; Helena Armandula; Joseph C. Betzwieser; Gianpietro Cagnoli; Jordan Camp; D. R. M. Crooks; Martin M. Fejer; Andri M. Gretarsson; Gregory M. Harry; Jim Hough; Scott E. Kittelberger; Michael J. Mortonson; Roger Route; Sheila Rowan; Christophoros C. Vassiliou

    2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Current interferometric gravitational wave detectors use test masses with mirror coatings formed from multiple layers of dielectric materials, most commonly alternating layers of SiO2 (silica) and Ta2O5 (tantala). However, mechanical loss in the Ta2O5/SiO2 coatings may limit the design sensitivity for advanced detectors. We have investigated sources of mechanical loss in the Ta2O5/SiO2 coatings, including loss associated with the coating-substrate interface, with the coating-layer interfaces, and with the bulk material. Our results indicate that the loss is associated with the bulk coating materials and that the loss of Ta2O5 is substantially larger than that of SiO2.

  1. Unsplit bipolar pulse forming line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark A. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2011-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module and system for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, and fourth planar conductors which form a sequentially arranged interleaved stack having opposing first and second ends, with dielectric layers between the conductors. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the first end, and the first and fourth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second end via a shorting plate. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short at the first end a high voltage from the third planar conductor to the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  2. Magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bacon, Larry D. (Albuquerque, NM); Ballard, William P. (Albuquerque, NM); Clark, M. Collins (Albuquerque, NM); Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetically insulated transmission line oscillator employs self-generated magnetic fields to generate microwave energy. An anode of the oscillator includes slow-wave structures which are formed of a plurality of thin conductive vanes defining cavities therebetween, and a gap is formed between the anode and a cathode of the oscillator. In response to a pulsed voltage applied to the anode and cathode, self-generated magnetic fields arfe produced in a cross-field orientation with respect to the orientation of the electric field between the anode and the cathode. The cross-field magnetic fields insulate the flow of electrons in the gap and confine the flow of electrons within the gap.

  3. Gamma-Ray Burst Lines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael S. Briggs

    1999-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The evidence for spectral features in gamma-ray bursts is summarized. As a guide for evaluating the evidence, the properties of gamma-ray detectors and the methods of analyzing gamma-ray spectra are reviewed. In the 1980's, observations indicated that absorption features below 100 keV were present in a large fraction of bright gamma-ray bursts. There were also reports of emission features around 400 keV. During the 1990's the situation has become much less clear. A small fraction of bursts observed with BATSE have statistically significant low-energy features, but the reality of the features is suspect because in several cases the data of the BATSE detectors appear to be inconsistent. Furthermore, most of the possible features appear in emission rather than the expected absorption. Analysis of data from other instruments has either not been finalized or has not detected lines.

  4. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, Kenneth E. (Naperville, IL)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non-superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propogating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N.sup.2 ambiguity of charged particle events.

  5. Superconducting transmission line particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, K.E.

    1988-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    A microvertex particle detector for use in a high energy physic collider including a plurality of parallel superconducting thin film strips separated from a superconducting ground plane by an insulating layer to form a plurality of superconducting waveguides. The microvertex particle detector indicates passage of a charged subatomic particle by measuring a voltage pulse measured across a superconducting waveguide caused by the transition of the superconducting thin film strip from a superconducting to a non- superconducting state in response to the passage of a charged particle. A plurality of superconducting thin film strips in two orthogonal planes plus the slow electromagnetic wave propagating in a superconducting transmission line are used to resolve N/sup 2/ ambiguity of charged particle events. 6 figs.

  6. Distribution Integrity Management Plant (DIMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzales, Jerome F. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is the distribution integrity management plan (Plan) for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 192, Subpart P Distribution Integrity Management Programs (DIMP) for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan was developed by reviewing records and interviewing LANL personnel. The records consist of the design, construction, operation and maintenance for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. The records system for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System is limited, so the majority of information is based on the judgment of LANL employees; the maintenance crew, the Corrosion Specialist and the Utilities and Infrastructure (UI) Civil Team Leader. The records used in this report are: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) 7100.1-1, Report of Main and Service Line Inspection, Natural Gas Leak Survey, Gas Leak Response Report, Gas Leak and Repair Report, and Pipe-to-Soil Recordings. The specific elements of knowledge of the infrastructure used to evaluate each threat and prioritize risks are listed in Sections 6 and 7, Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization respectively. This Plan addresses additional information needed and a method for gaining that data over time through normal activities. The processes used for the initial assessment of Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization are the methods found in the Simple, Handy Risk-based Integrity Management Plan (SHRIMP{trademark}) software package developed by the American Pipeline and Gas Agency (APGA) Security and Integrity Foundation (SIF). SHRIMP{trademark} uses an index model developed by the consultants and advisors of the SIF. Threat assessment is performed using questions developed by the Gas Piping Technology Company (GPTC) as modified and added to by the SHRIMP{trademark} advisors. This Plan is required to be reviewed every 5 years to be continually refined and improved. Records for all piping system installed after the effective date of this Plan will be captured and retained in the UI records documentation system. Primary Utility Asbuilts are maintained by Utilities Mapping (UMAP) and additional records are maintained on the N drive. Engineering Change Notices (ECNs) are stored on the N drive under configuration management and kept up by Utilities and Infrastructure Division Office (UI-DO). Records include, at a minimum, the location where new piping and appurtenances are installed and the material of which they are constructed.

  7. Quantum key distribution with entangled photon sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xiongfeng Ma; Chi-Hang Fred Fung; Hoi-Kwong Lo

    2007-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A parametric down-conversion (PDC) source can be used as either a triggered single photon source or an entangled photon source in quantum key distribution (QKD). The triggering PDC QKD has already been studied in the literature. On the other hand, a model and a post-processing protocol for the entanglement PDC QKD are still missing. In this paper, we fill in this important gap by proposing such a model and a post-processing protocol for the entanglement PDC QKD. Although the PDC model is proposed to study the entanglement-based QKD, we emphasize that our generic model may also be useful for other non-QKD experiments involving a PDC source. Since an entangled PDC source is a basis independent source, we apply Koashi-Preskill's security analysis to the entanglement PDC QKD. We also investigate the entanglement PDC QKD with two-way classical communications. We find that the recurrence scheme increases the key rate and Gottesman-Lo protocol helps tolerate higher channel losses. By simulating a recent 144km open-air PDC experiment, we compare three implementations -- entanglement PDC QKD, triggering PDC QKD and coherent state QKD. The simulation result suggests that the entanglement PDC QKD can tolerate higher channel losses than the coherent state QKD. The coherent state QKD with decoy states is able to achieve highest key rate in the low and medium-loss regions. By applying Gottesman-Lo two-way post-processing protocol, the entanglement PDC QKD can tolerate up to 70dB combined channel losses (35dB for each channel) provided that the PDC source is placed in between Alice and Bob. After considering statistical fluctuations, the PDC setup can tolerate up to 53dB channel losses.

  8. Non-Linear Transmission Line (NLTL) Microwave Source Lecture Notes the United States Particle Accelerator School

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Russell, Steven J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Carlsten, Bruce E. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-26T23:59:59.000Z

    We will quickly go through the history of the non-linear transmission lines (NLTLs). We will describe how they work, how they are modeled and how they are designed. Note that the field of high power, NLTL microwave sources is still under development, so this is just a snap shot of their current state. Topics discussed are: (1) Introduction to solitons and the KdV equation; (2) The lumped element non-linear transmission line; (3) Solution of the KdV equation; (4) Non-linear transmission lines at microwave frequencies; (5) Numerical methods for NLTL analysis; (6) Unipolar versus bipolar input; (7) High power NLTL pioneers; (8) Resistive versus reactive load; (9) Non-lineaer dielectrics; and (10) Effect of losses.

  9. Simulations and measurements of beam loss patterns at the CERN Large Hadron Collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruce, R; Boccone, V; Bracco, C; Brugger, M; Cauchi, M; Cerutti, F; Deboy, D; Ferrari, A; Lari, L; Marsili, A; Mereghetti, A; Mirarchi, D; Quaranta, E; Redaelli, S; Robert-Demolaize, G; Rossi, A; Salvachua, B; Skordis, E; Tambasco, C; Valentino, G; Weiler, T; Vlachoudis, V; Wollmann, D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is designed to collide proton beams of unprecedented energy, in order to extend the frontiers of high-energy particle physics. During the first very successful running period in 2010--2013, the LHC was routinely storing protons at 3.5--4 TeV with a total beam energy of up to 146 MJ, and even higher stored energies are foreseen in the future. This puts extraordinary demands on the control of beam losses. An un-controlled loss of even a tiny fraction of the beam could cause a superconducting magnet to undergo a transition into a normal-conducting state, or in the worst case cause material damage. Hence a multi-stage collimation system has been installed in order to safely intercept high-amplitude beam protons before they are lost elsewhere. To guarantee adequate protection from the collimators, a detailed theoretical understanding is needed. This article presents results of numerical simulations of the distribution of beam losses around the LHC that have leaked out of the co...

  10. Nonlinear localized modes in PT-symmetric optical media with competing gain and loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Midya, Bikashkali, E-mail: bikash.midya@gmail.com [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108 (India)] [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata 700108 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rroychoudhury123@gmail.com [Advanced Center for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, Kolkata 700075 (India)] [Advanced Center for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, Kolkata 700075 (India)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The existence and stability of the nonlinear spatial localized modes are investigated in parity-time symmetric optical media characterized by a generic complex hyperbolic refractive index distribution with competing gain and loss profile. The exact analytical expression of the localized modes are found for all values of the competing parameter and in the presence of both the self-focusing and self-defocusing Kerr nonlinearity. The effects of competing gain/loss profile on the stability structure of these localized modes are discussed with the help of linear stability analysis followed by the direct numerical simulation of the governing equation. The spatial localized modes in two-dimensional geometry as well as the transverse power-flow density associated with these localized modes are also examined. -- Highlights: • Existence of localized modes is investigated in PT-symmetric complex potentials. • Exact analytical expression of the localized modes is obtained. • Effect of gain/loss profile on the stability of these localized modes is discussed. • Localized modes in 2D and associated transverse power-flow density are also examined.

  11. Distributed Basis Pursuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Index Terms—Basis pursuit, distributed optimization, sensor networks, augmented ... and image denoising and restoration [1], [2], compression, fitting and ...

  12. Transversity Parton Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alexei Prokudin

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transversity distribution is one of the three fundamental parton distributions that completely describe polarized spin 1/2 nucleon. Its chiral odd nature prevented for many years its experimental exploration, however presently we have obtained great deal of information about this distribution. This includes experimental data from Semi Inclusive Deep Inelastic Scattering, knowledge of scale dependence and phenomenological extractions. I will discuss main features of this distribution and indicate the future improvements of our knowledge.

  13. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petr Sulc; Konstantin Turitsyn; Scott Backhaus; Michael Chertkov

    2010-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design decision that weighs on the speed and quality of communication required is whether the control should be centralized or distributed (i.e. local). In general, we find that local control schemes are capable for maintaining voltage within acceptable bounds. We consider the benefits of choosing different local variables on which to control and how the control system can be continuously tuned between robust voltage control, suitable for daytime operation when circuit conditions can change rapidly, and loss minimization better suited for nighttime operation.

  14. Water Heaters and Hot Water Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lutz, Jim

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculationsheat loss testing; part load performance curves for instantaneous gas water heaters; and pressure loss calculations

  15. Distributed Power Electronics for PV Systems (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An overview of the benefits and applications of microinverters and DC power optimizers in residential systems. Some conclusions from this report are: (1) The impact of shade is greater than just the area of shade; (2) Additional mismatch losses include panel orientation, panel distribution, inverter voltage window, soiling; (3) Per-module devices can help increase performance, 4-12% or more depending on the system; (4) Value-added benefits (safety, monitoring, reduced design constraints) are helping their adoption; and (5) The residential market is growing rapidly. Efficiency increases, cost reductions are improving market acceptance. Panel integration will further reduce price and installation cost. Reliability remains an unknown.

  16. Hot Water Distribution System Model Enhancements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoeschele, M.; Weitzel, E.

    2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project involves enhancement of the HWSIM distribution system model to more accurately model pipe heat transfer. Recent laboratory testing efforts have indicated that the modeling of radiant heat transfer effects is needed to accurately characterize piping heat loss. An analytical methodology for integrating radiant heat transfer was implemented with HWSIM. Laboratory test data collected in another project was then used to validate the model for a variety of uninsulated and insulated pipe cases (copper, PEX, and CPVC). Results appear favorable, with typical deviations from lab results less than 8%.

  17. DATA ACQUISITION FOR SNS BEAM LOSS MONITOR SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    YENG,Y.GASSNER,D.HOFF,L.WITKOVER,R.

    2003-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) beam loss monitor system uses VME based electronics to measure the radiation produced by lost beam. Beam loss signals from cylindrical argon-filled ion chambers and neutron detectors will be conditioned in analog front-end (AFE) circuitry. These signals will be digitized and further processed in a dedicated VME crate. Fast beam inhibit and low-level, long-term loss warnings will be generated to provide machine protection. The fast loss data will have a bandwidth of 35kHz. While the low level, long-term loss data will have much higher sensitivity. This is further complicated by the 3 decade range of intensity as the Ring accumulates beam. Therefore a bandwidth of 100kHz and dynamic range larger than 21 bits data acquisition system will be required for this purpose. Based on the evaluation of several commercial ADC modules in preliminary design phase, a 24 bits Sigma-Delta data acquisition VME bus card was chosen as the SNS BLM digitizer. An associated vxworks driver and EPICS device support module also have been developed at BNL. Simulating test results showed this system is fully qualified for both fast loss and low-level, long-term loss application. The first prototype including data acquisition hardware setup and EPICS software (running database and OPI clients) will be used in SNS Drift Tube Linac (DTL) system commissioning.

  18. Occupancy and site distribution of europium in barium magnesium aluminate Eu Mossbauer spectroscopy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boolchand, Punit

    Occupancy and site distribution of europium in barium magnesium aluminate by 151 Eu Mo¨ssbauer Mo¨ssbauer spectroscopy. Analysis of the Mo¨ssbauer line shapes reveals a pentamodal or higher site

  19. DistFlow ODE: Modeling, analyzing and controlling long distribution feeder

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Danhua

    We consider a linear feeder connecting multiple distributed loads and generators to the sub-station. Voltage is controlled directly at the sub-station, however, voltage down the line shifts up or down, in particular depending ...

  20. NSLS-II Transport Line Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fliller R. P.; Wahl, W.; Anderson, A.; Benish, B.; DeBoer, W.; Ganetis, G.; Heese, R.; Hseuh, H.-C.; Hu, J.-P.; Johanson, M.P.; Kosciuk, B.N.; Padrazo, D.; Roy, K.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Tuozzolo, J.; Wang, G.

    2012-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) is a state-of-the-art 3-GeV third generation light source currently under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory. The NSLS-II injection system consists of a 200 MeV linac, a 3-GeV booster synchrotron and associated transfer lines. The first part of the Linac to Booster Transport (LBT) line has been installed for linac commissioning. This part includes all components necessary to commission the NSLS-II linac. The second part of this transport line is undergoing installation. Initial results of hardware commissioning will be discussed. The Booster to Storage Ring (BSR) transport line underwent a design review. The first part of the BSR transport line, consisting of all components necessary to commission the booster will be installed in 2012 for booster commissioning. We report on the final design of the BSR line along with the plan to commission the booster.

  1. Elucidating Jet Energy Loss Using Jets: Prospects from ATLAS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    N. Grau; for the ATLAS Collaboration

    2009-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Jets at the LHC are expected to provide the testing ground for studying QCD energy loss. In this contribution, we briefly outline the strategy that will be used to measure jets in ATLAS and how we will go about studying energy loss. We describe the utility of measuring the jet $R_{AA}$, the fragmentation function, and heavy flavor jets. Utilizing the collision energy provided by the LHC and the nearly hermetic and highly segmented calorimeter, ATLAS is expected to make important contributions to the understanding of parton energy loss using fully reconstructed jets.

  2. Impacts of the Venezuelan Crude Oil Production Loss

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This assessment of the Venezuelan petroleum loss examines two areas. The first part of the analysis focuses on the impact of the loss of Venezuelan crude production on crude oil supply for U.S. refiners who normally run a significant fraction of Venezuelan crude oil. The second part of the analysis looks at the impact of the Venezuelan production loss on crude markets in general, with particular emphasis on crude oil imports, refinery crude oil throughput levels, stock levels, and the changes in price differences between light and heavy crude oils.

  3. Mode imaging and loss evaluation of semiconductor waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mochizuki, Toshimitsu [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Fukushima Renewable Energy Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, 2-2-9 Machiike-dai, Koriyama, Fukushima (Japan); Kim, Changsu; Yoshita, Masahiro; Nakamura, Takahiro; Akiyama, Hidefumi [Institute for Solid State Physics, The University of Tokyo, Kashiwanoha 5-1-5, Kashiwa, Chiba (Japan); Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, New Jersey 08544 (United States)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    An imaging and loss evaluation method for semiconductor waveguides coupled with non-doped quantum wells is presented. Using the internal emission of the wells as a probe light source, the numbers and widths of the modes of waveguides with various ridge sizes were evaluated by CCD imaging, and the obtained values were consistent with effective index method calculation. Waveguide internal losses were obtained from analyses of the Fabry-Pérot fringes of waveguide emission spectra. We quantified the quality of 29 single-mode waveguide samples as an internal loss and variation of 10.2 ± 0.6??cm{sup ?1}.

  4. book review: Species distribution models for species distribution modellers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dormann, Carsten F

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Mapping  species  distributions:  spa? tial inference and news and update  book review  Species distribution models for species distribution modellers  Ecological niches and 

  5. Gamma-Ray Line Observations with RHESSI

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David M. Smith

    2004-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) has been observing gamma-ray lines from the Sun and the Galaxy since its launch in February 2002. Here I summarize the status of RHESSI observations of solar lines (nuclear de-excitation, neutron capture, and positron annihilation), the lines of $^{26}$Al and $^{60}$Fe from the inner Galaxy, and the search for positron annihilation in novae.

  6. First Observation of the {Lambda}(1405) Line Shape in Electroproduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iowa State U.; Carnegie Mellon U.

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report the first observation of the line shape of the {Lambda}(1405) from electroproduction, and show that it is not a simple Breit-Wigner resonance. Electroproduction of K{sup +}{Lambda}(1405) off the proton was studied by using data from CLAS at Jefferson Lab in the range 1.0line shape. In our fits, the line shape corresponds approximately to predictions of a two-pole meson-baryon picture of the {Lambda}(1405), with a lower mass pole near 1368 MeV/c{sup 2} and a higher mass pole near 1423 MeV/c{sup 2}. Furthermore, with increasing photon virtuality the mass distribution shifts toward the higher mass pole.

  7. Local Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the re...

  8. DOE Sustainability Reporting Open Line Help Call

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Sustainability Performance Office (SPO) sponsors open line help calls to assist DOE sites and national laboratories with the annual sustainability reporting process. Representatives from the...

  9. Rubber linings answer to many problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mehra, L. [Quality Linings Co., Aurora, CO (United States)

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The uses of rubber linings in different fields industries are discussed.The physical properties of rubber both natural and synthetic rubber are listed and their importance is evaluated. The aging of rubber is discussed in detail, including effects of temperature on aging of rubber. By virtue of its inherent elasticity and chemical resistance, rubber linings have found many uses in the protection of mining equipment, water treatment tanks and vessels, flue gas desulfurization equipment in power plants and varied process and storage vessels in chemical industries. Rubber has found extensive use in civil engineering field as expansion joints and bladders in dams. Electrical resistance of rubber is useful for its application as an insulating material. Rubber is chemically resistant to acids, alkalies and many salt solutions. Rubber linings are therefore used for protection of steel against these acids, alkalies or salt solutions. The extreme elasticity of rubber has been found useful in its application as a lining material in areas subject to high abrasion. Frequently rubber linings are the linings of choice when a combination of abrasion and chemical attack are to be protected against. Constantly, new formulations of rubber lining compounds are being developed just as new chemical processes are being made. The flexibility of compounding and the relative ease of putting layers of different rubber formulations together in multilayered formulations of rubber lining compounds is leading to new uses of this lining material.

  10. Transmission Line Security Monitor: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Svoboda

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Electric Power Transmission Line Security Monitor System Operational Test is a project funded by the Technical Support Working Group (TSWG). TSWG operates under the Combating Terrorism Technical Support Office that functions under the Department of Defense. The Transmission Line Security Monitor System is based on technology developed by Idaho National Laboratory. The technology provides a means for real-time monitoring of physical threats and/or damage to electrical transmission line towers and conductors as well as providing operational parameters to transmission line operators to optimize transmission line operation. The end use is for monitoring long stretches of transmission lines that deliver electrical power from remote generating stations to cities and industry. These transmission lines are generally located in remote transmission line corridors where security infrastructure may not exist. Security and operational sensors in the sensor platform on the conductors take power from the transmission line and relay security and operational information to operations personnel hundreds of miles away without relying on existing infrastructure. Initiated on May 25, 2007, this project resulted in pre-production units tested in realistic operational environments during 2010. A technology licensee, Lindsey Manufacturing of Azusa California, is assisting in design, testing, and ultimately production. The platform was originally designed for a security monitoring mission, but it has been enhanced to include important operational features desired by electrical utilities.

  11. Emergency Management Lines of Inquiry, April 2008

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Inspection Criteria, Activities, and Lines of Inquiry Functional Area: Hazards Survey (HS) and Emergency Planning Hazards Assessment (EPHA) Inspection Criteria: Emergency...

  12. Detonator comprising a nonlinear transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elizondo-Decanini, Juan M

    2014-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Detonators are described herein. In a general embodiment, the detonator includes a nonlinear transmission line that has a variable capacitance. Capacitance of the nonlinear transmission line is a function of voltage on the nonlinear transmission line. The nonlinear transmission line receives a voltage pulse from a voltage source and compresses the voltage pulse to generate a trigger signal. Compressing the voltage pulse includes increasing amplitude of the voltage pulse and decreasing length of the voltage pulse in time. An igniter receives the trigger signal and detonates an explosive responsive to receipt of the trigger signal.

  13. An adaptive algorithm for the detection of high impedance faults on power distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCall, Kurt Eric

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Science in Electrical Engineering. The objective is to design an adaptive algorithm that will automatically detect high impedance faults on a utility power distribution line or in other power systems. The algorithm is efficient enough to perform... it is impossible to have personnel continuously monitor many lines to detect these situations, an automated solution is needed. A fault detection device will have to be able to recognize abnormal situations by monitoring the electrical condition of the lines...

  14. Energy-loss- and thickness-dependent contrast in atomic-scale electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Haiyan [Universit_e de Toulouse, Toulouse, France (Europe); National Institute of Standards Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Xin, Huolin L. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Zhu, Ye [Monash Univ., Melbourne, VIC (Australia); Dwyer, Christian [Peter Grunberg Institute, Julich, Germany (Europe)

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic-scale elemental maps of materials acquired by core-loss inelastic electron scattering often exhibit an undesirable sensitivity to the unavoidable elastic scattering, making the maps counter-intuitive to interpret. Here, we present a systematic study that scrutinizes the energy-loss and sample-thickness dependence of atomic-scale elemental maps acquired using 100 keV incident electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope. For single-crystal silicon, the balance between elastic and inelastic scattering means that maps generated from the near-threshold Si-L signal (energy loss of 99 eV) show no discernible contrast for a thickness of 0.5? (? is the electron mean-free path, here approximately 110 nm). At greater thicknesses we observe a counter-intuitive “negative” contrast. Only at much higher energy losses is an intuitive “positive” contrast gradually restored. Our quantitative analysis shows that the energy-loss at which a positive contrast is restored depends linearly on the sample thickness. This behavior is in very good agreement with our double-channeling inelastic scattering calculations. We test a recently-proposed experimental method to correct the core-loss inelastic scattering and restore an intuitive “positive” chemical contrast. The method is demonstrated to be reliable over a large range of energy losses and sample thicknesses. The corrected contrast for near-threshold maps is demonstrated to be (desirably) inversely proportional to sample thickness. Implications for the interpretation of atomic-scale elemental maps are discussed.

  15. Simulation of Thermal Plant Optimization and Hydraulic Aspects of Thermal Distribution Loops for Large Campuses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Q.

    simulation models for chilled water and heating hot water distribution systems. The simulation model was used in a $2.3 million Ross Street chilled water pipe replacement project at Texas A&M University. A second project conducted at the University... of Texas at San Antonio was used as an example to demonstrate how to identify and design an optimal distribution system by using a simulation model. The author found that the minor losses of these closed loop thermal distribution systems...

  16. Onsite Distributed Generation Systems For Laboratories, Laboratories for the 21st Century: Best Practices (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide provides general information on implementing onsite distributed generation systems in laboratory environments. Specific technology applications, general performance information, and cost data are provided to educate and encourage laboratory energy managers to consider onsite power generation or combined heat and power (CHP) systems for their facilities. After conducting an initial screening, energy managers are encouraged to conduct a detailed feasibility study with actual cost and performance data for technologies that look promising. Onsite distributed generation systems are small, modular, decentralized, grid-connected, or off-grid energy systems. These systems are located at or near the place where the energy is used. These systems are also known as distributed energy or distributed power systems. DG technologies are generally considered those that produce less than 20 megawatts (MW) of power. A number of technologies can be applied as effective onsite DG systems, including: (1) Diesel, natural gas, and dual-fuel reciprocating engines; (2) Combustion turbines and steam turbines; (3) Fuel cells; (4) Biomass heating; (5) Biomass combined heat and power; (6) Photovoltaics; and (7) Wind turbines. These systems can provide a number of potential benefits to an individual laboratory facility or campus, including: (1) High-quality, reliable, and potentially dispatchable power; (2) Low-cost energy and long-term utility cost assurance, especially where electricity and/or fuel costs are high; (3) Significantly reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Typical CHP plants reduce onsite GHG by 40 to 60 percent; (4) Peak demand shaving where demand costs are high; (5) CHP where thermal energy can be used in addition to electricity; (6) The ability to meet standby power needs, especially where utility-supplied power is interrupted frequently or for long periods and where standby power is required for safety or emergencies; and (7) Use for standalone or off-grid systems where extending the grid is too expensive or impractical. Because they are installed close to the load, DG systems avoid some of the disadvantages of large, central power plants, such as transmission and distribution losses over long electric lines.

  17. A Sparse Representation Approach to Online Estimation of Power System Distribution Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    , constructed from the transmission network, line parameters, and historical and forecasted power generation.g., a transmission line or generator), a condition known as N-1 security [2]. Using an up-to- date system model1 A Sparse Representation Approach to Online Estimation of Power System Distribution Factors Yu

  18. Loan Loss Reserve Fund Impacts on Standard Residential Underwriting Guidelines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    State and local governments can use loan loss reserve (LLR) funds to persuade lenders to offer more flexible terms during the underwriting process. The availability of an LLR can have the following...

  19. altitudinal field loss: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Roe et al.'s model as DFT (decision field theory) and Usher and McClelland's model as the LCA (leaky, competing accumulator) model. Does Loss Aversion Pose a Problem for DFT? As...

  20. alloying element losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 141 Turbine tip clearance loss mechanisms MIT - DSpace Summary: Three-dimensional numerical...

  1. Applying thresholds to forecast potential biodiversity loss from human development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hilderbrand, Robert H.

    thresholds to projected increases in residential development in the Middle Patuxent River watershed by 2030 in the Potapsco River watershed of Maryland could result in the loss of nearly 60% of the benthic

  2. Habitat loss and the structure of plantanimal mutualistic networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fortuna, Miguel A.

    LETTER Habitat loss and the structure of plant­animal mutualistic networks Miguel A. Fortuna Sevilla, Spain *Correspondence: E-mail: fortuna@ebd.csic.es Abstract Recent papers have described

  3. Loan Loss Reserves: Lessons from the Field (Text Version)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Merrian Fuller: Hi, and welcome to the Department of Energy's webinar on using loan-loss reserves report financing programs. My name is Marian Fuller, I work with Lawrence Berkeley National...

  4. Ovarian hormone loss induces bioenergetic deficits and mitochondrial -amyloid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    Ovarian hormone loss induces bioenergetic deficits and mitochondrial -amyloid Jia Yaoa , Ronald by ovariectomy (OVX) in nontransgenic mice significantly decreased brain bioenergetics, and induced mitochondrial. Treatment with E2 at OVX prevented OVX-induced mitochondrial deficits, sustained mitochondrial bioenergetic

  5. array wake losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 UZOL & CAMCI1 ENDWALL HEAT TRANSFER, TOTAL PRESSURE LOSS AND WAKE FLOW FIELD Engineering Websites Summary: . The...

  6. Optimizing hysteretic power loss of magnetic ferrite nanoparticles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Ritchie

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis seeks to correlate hysteretic power loss of tertiary ferrite nanoparticles in alternating magnetic fields to trends predicted by physical models. By employing integration of hysteresis loops simulated from ...

  7. apical support loss: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bags. We instead consider the problem of predicting instance labels while learning from data labeled only at the bag level. We propose Rank-Loss Support Instance Machines, which...

  8. acute interneuron loss: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    sets for previously unseen bags. We instead consider the problem of predicting instance labels while learning from data labeled only at the bag level. We propose Rank-Loss...

  9. Written emotional expression: Effects on weight loss and maintenance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hockemeyer, Jill Renee

    2007-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

    the negative effects of distress on weight loss and maintenance through improved emotional self-regulatory processes. This study examined the effects of expressive writing on weight regain, stress, and emotional eating among individuals who have recently lost...

  10. appendix gap losses: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    kicker performance and its effect on the beam losses will be described. Kourbanis, I; Biggs, J; Brown, B; Capista, D; Jensen, C C; Krafczyk, G E; Morris, D K; Scott, D; Seiya, K;...

  11. ChitChat : making video chat robust to packet loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jue, 1986-

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Video chat is increasingly popular among Internet users (e.g. Skype, Windows Live Messenger, Google Talk). Often, however, chatting sessions suffer from packet loss, which causes video outage and poor quality. Existing ...

  12. ChitChat: Making Video Chat Robust to Packet Loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jue

    2010-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Video chat is increasingly popular among Internet users. Often, however, chatting sessions suffer from packet loss, which causes video outage and poor quality. Existing solutions however are unsatisfying. Retransmissions ...

  13. Compression effects on pressure loss in flexible HVAC ducts

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abushakra, Bass; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings.Pressure Loss in Flexible HVAC Ducts Bass Abushakra, Ph.D.to Determine Flow Resistance of HVAC Air Ducts and Fittings.

  14. Motion based seismic design and loss estimation of diagrid structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liptack, Robert J. (Robert Jeffrey)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Diagrids are becoming an increasingly popular structural system in high rise design and construction. Little research has been performed on the seismic performance of Diagrids and how it integrates with seismic loss ...

  15. Effect of thermalized charm on heavy quark energy loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Souvik Priyam Adhya; Mahatsab Mandal; Sreemoyee Sarkar; Pradip K. Roy; Sukalyan Chattopadhyay

    2014-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The recent experimental results on the flow of $J/\\psi$ at LHC show that ample amount of charm quarks is present in the quark gluon plasma and probably they are thermalized. In the current study we investigate the effect of thermalized charm quarks on the heavy quark energy loss to leading order in the QCD coupling constant. It is seen that the energy loss of charm quark increases considerably due to the inclusion of thermal charm quarks. Running coupling has also been implemented to study heavy quark energy loss and we find substantial increase in the heavy quark energy loss due to heavy-heavy scattering at higher temperature to be realized at LHC energies.

  16. Loss-Resilient Proactive Data Transmission in Wireless Sensor Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Jianliang

    environments. Moreover, sensor nodes are con- strained by energy, computation power and storage. Existing to the destination without loss. However, existing reliable transmission techniques either are too costly forecast, structural condition assessment) require reliable data communications, such that a target

  17. Polarization energy loss in hot viscous quark-gluon plasma

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bing-Feng Jiang; Defu Hou; Jia-Rong Li

    2014-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The gluon polarization tensor for the quark-gluon plasma with shear viscosity is derived with the viscous chromohydrodynamics. The longitudinal and transverse dielectric functions are evaluated from the gluon polarization tensor, through which the polarization energy loss suffered by a fast quark traveling through the viscous quark-gluon plasma is investigated. The numerical analysis indicates that shear viscosity significantly reduces the polarization energy loss.

  18. Agricultural science students' perceptions and knowledge of hearing loss

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Slaydon, Sunny Leigh

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    very large part of the personal lives of most farmers? (Lankford 2002) In 1996 Woodford, Lawrence, Fazalare, and Martin designed a study ?to determine the extent of hearing loss experienced by high school agriculture teachers in West Virginia... AGRICULTURAL SCIENCE STUDENTS? PERCEPTIONS AND KNOWLEDGE OF HEARING LOSS A Thesis by SUNNY LEIGH SLAYDON Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements...

  19. Beam Loss Monitors in the NSLS Storage Rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer,S.L.; Fedurin, M.

    2009-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Beam loss monitors (BLM) have been used for more than two decades in the VUV ring at the NSLS. These have proved useful for optimizing injection and operation of the ring. Recently similar monitors have been installed in the X-ray ring and are being used to better understand injection, as well as operation of the ring. These units have been compared with the Bergoz BLMs, which have been mostly useful for understanding operating beam losses.

  20. GOALS, EXPECTATIONS, AND SATISFACTION IN THE MAINTENANCE OF WEIGHT LOSS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chang, Olivia L.

    2009-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    ......................................................................25 Satisfaction and Weight Loss 37 Measurement of Goals, Expectations, and Satisfaction with Weight Loss...............41 Goals, Expectations, and Satisfaction in the Treatment of Obesity 43 Limitations of Previous Research... of approximately 15-25% of initial weight in 2 to 4 months of treatment, but may also result in substantially greater weight regain than more conventional, calorie-restrictive diets (Wadden & Osei, 2002). Pharmacological interventions have been presented...

  1. Compositions and chemical bonding in ceramics by quantitative electron energy-loss spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bentley, J.; Horton, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); McHargue, C.J. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States); McKernan, S.; Carter, C.B. [Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis, MN (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Revcolevschi, A. [Univ. de Paris-Sud, Lab. de Chemie des Solides (France); Tanaka, S.; Davis, R.F. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Quantitative electron energy-loss spectrometry was applied to a range of ceramic materials at a spatial resolution of <5 nm. Analysis of Fe L{sub 23} white lines indicated a low-spin state with a charge transfer of {approximately}1.5 electrons/atom onto the Fe atoms implanted into (amorphized) silicon carbide. Gradients of 2 to 5% in the Co:O stoichiometry were measured across 100-nm-thick Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} layers in an oxidized directionally solidified CoO-ZrO{sub 2} eutectic, with the highest O levels near the ZrO{sub 2}. The energy-loss near-edge structures were dramatically different for the two cobalt oxides; those for CO{sub 3}O{sub 4} have been incorrectly ascribed to CoO in the published literature. Kinetically stabilized solid solubility occurred in an AlN-SiC film grown by low-temperature molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) on {alpha}(6H)-SiC, and no detectable interdiffusion occurred in couples of MBE-grown AlN on SiC following annealing at up to 1750C. In diffusion couples of polycrystalline AlN on SiC, interfacial 8H sialon (aluminum oxy-nitride) and pockets of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-rich {beta}{prime} sialon in the SiC were detected.

  2. SPECT imaging with the long bore collimator: Loss in sensitivity vs improved contrast resolution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, S.; Polak, J.F.; Holman, B.L.; Eisner, R.L.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A long bore (LB) collimator (16 cm thick) was compared with the standard low energy all purpose (LEAP) collimator for SPECT imaging. Line spread functions at various depths were measured in scatter material (planar imaging). Both collimators have similar full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) values yet the LB has less resolution loss with distance and consistently lower full-width-at-tenth-maximum (FWTM) values. An assessment of overall performance was made by planar imaging of the Rollo phantom with both collectors. Performance was judged by calculating the chi-square for the observed and expected contrasts of spherical cold targets (2.54, 1.91, 1.27 and 0.95 cm diameter). In all cases, LB scored consistently better than the LEAP. SPECT imaging of a bar phantom (spacing 2.25 cm) filled with I-123 (p,2n) confirmed the superior contrast resolution of the LB. Using SPECT data from 5 clinical I-123 IMP brain studies and from measurements of % rms noise as a function of total slice counts in a cylindrical phantom, the authors calculate that LB images would have a % rms noise of 8.7% compared to 5.7% for LEAP images acquired over the same time interval. The authors conclude that SPECT of the brain with the LB would lead to improved contrast resolution and a minimal increase in % rms noise despite a significant loss in sensitivity.

  3. Fuzzy logic based operated device identification in power distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manivannan, Karthick Muthu

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the po~er lines and the other components of distribution systems make them vulnerable to various factors like weather, disturbances caused by animals or human activity, overloading of the system and the aging of or defect in, the components...

  4. AC Loss Measurements on a 2G YBCO Coil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rey, Christopher M [ORNL] [ORNL; Duckworth, Robert C [ORNL] [ORNL; Schwenterly, S W [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is collaborating with Waukesha Electric Systems (WES) to continue development of HTS power transformers. For compatibility with the existing power grid, a commercially viable HTS transformer will have to operate at high voltages in the range of 138 kV and above, and will have to withstand 550-kV impulse voltages as well. Second-generation (2G) YBCO coated conductors will be required for an economically-competitive design. In order to adequately size the refrigeration system for these transformers, the ac loss of these HTS coils must be characterized. Electrical AC loss measurements were conducted on a prototype high voltage (HV) coil with co-wound stainless steel at 60 Hz in a liquid nitrogen bath using a lock-in amplifier technique. The prototype HV coil consisted of 26 continuous (without splice) single pancake coils concentrically centered on a stainless steel former. For ac loss measurement purposes, voltage tap pairs were soldered across each set of two single pancake coils so that a total of 13 separate voltage measurements could be made across the entire length of the coil. AC loss measurements were taken as a function of ac excitation current. Results show that the loss is primarily concentrated at the ends of the coil where the operating fraction of critical current is the highest and show a distinct difference in current scaling of the losses between low current and high current regimes.

  5. Abstract--The distribution system provides major opportunities for smart grid concepts. One way to approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    efficiencies through the use of waste heat. Managing significant levels of DER with a wide and dynamic set fuel efficiency through capturing waste heat, use of renewable energy, higher power quality and smarter 35% efficient because of line losses and smoke stack waste heat. Approximately 20% of the generation

  6. C. Livadas and I. Keidar, "The Case for Exploiting Packet Loss Locality in Multicast Loss Recovery," Technical Report MIT/LCS/TR-867, Lab. for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lynch, Nancy

    C. Livadas and I. Keidar, "The Case for Exploiting Packet Loss Locality in Multicast Loss Recovery," Technical Report MIT/LCS/TR-867, Lab. for Computer Science, MIT, Cambridge, MA, Oct. 2002. The Case for Exploiting Packet Loss Locality in Multicast Loss Recovery Carolos Livadas Laboratory for Computer Science

  7. LA NACION LINE Ciencia/Salud

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilf, Peter

    LA NACION LINE Ciencia/Salud Viernes 4 de Abril de 2003 LA NACION LINE | Ed. Anteriores | 4 de Abril de 2003 | Ciencia/Salud | Nota Estudio del Museo Egidio Feruglio, de Trelew La diversidad vegetal://www.lanacion.com.ar/03/04/04/sl_486019.asp LA NACION | 04/04/2003 | Página 14 | Ciencia/Salud Volver a ediciones

  8. Speed-line for 3D animation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Won Chan

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    My thesis describes a tool which creates speed-lines automatically in 3D computer animations. Speed-lines are usually used in comic books to express fast motions in a still image. They are also used in 2D animations. ...

  9. results and benefits... The Bittern Line Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Everest, Graham R

    results and benefits... The Bittern Line Carbon Neutral Stations Transport Regeneration Ltd. June 2008 c a s e s t u d yCRed carbon reduction Project Summary Our client, Transport Regeneration Ltd., aims to make nine stations on the Bittern Line between Norwich and Sheringham carbon neutral

  10. The Linux Command Line Second Internet Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahl, David B.

    The Linux Command Line Second Internet Edition William E. Shotts, Jr. A LinuxCommand.org Book #12....................................................................................................xvi Why Use The Command Line to their respective owners. This book is part of the LinuxCommand.org project, a site for Linux education and advo

  11. Optical on line techniques for nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doizi, D. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Div. DEN, DANS/DPC/SECR/LSRM (France); Pailloux, A.; Maury, C.; Sirven, J. B.; Dauvois, V.; Roujou, J. L.; Rosset, C. D. [CEA, Nuclear Energy Div. DEN, DANS/DPC (France); Hartmann, J. M. [CNRS., UMR 7583, LISA, Creteil (France)

    2011-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Optical on line techniques enable non intrusive physical measurements in harsh environments (high temperature, high pressure, radioactivity, ...). Optical absorption spectrometries such as UV-Visible, FTIR, CRDS have been successfully used to study gas phase speciation in different nuclear applications. LIBS which relies on laser matter interactions is a on line optical technique for solids and liquids elementary analysis. (authors)

  12. A Suzaku Observation of the Low-Ionization Fe-Line Emission from RCW 86

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masaru Ueno; Rie Sato; Jun Kataoka; Aya Bamba; Ilana Harrus; Junko Hiraga; John P. Hughes; Caroline A. Kilbourne; Katsuji Koyama; Motohide Kokubun; Hiroshi Nakajima; Masanobu Ozaki; Robert Petre; Tadayuki Takahashi; Takaaki Tanaka; Hiroshi Tomida; Hiroya Yamaguchi

    2006-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The newly operational X-ray satellite Suzaku observed the southwestern quadrant of the supernova remnant (SNR) RCW 86 in February 2006 to study the nature of the 6.4 keV emission line first detected with the Advanced Satellite for Cosmology and Astronomy (ASCA). The new data confirm the existence of the line, localizing it for the first time; most of the line emission is adjacent and interior to the forward shock and not at the locus of the continuum hard emission. We also report the first detection of a 7.1 keV line that we interpret as the K-beta emission from low-ionization iron. The Fe-K line features are consistent with a non-equilibrium plasma of Fe-rich ejecta with n_{e}t <~ 10^9 cm^-3 s and kT_{e} ~ 5 keV. This combination of low n_{e}t and high kT_{e} suggests collisionless electron heating in an SNR shock. The Fe K-alpha line shows evidence for intrinsic broadening, with a width of 47 (34--59) eV (99% error region). The difference of the spatial distributions of the hard continuum above 3 keV and the Fe-K line emission support a synchrotron origin for the hard continuum.

  13. Analysis of Voltage Rise Effect on Distribution Network with Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Analysis of Voltage Rise Effect on Distribution Network with Distributed Generation M. A. Mahmud.hossain@adfa.edu.au, and H.Pota@adfa.edu.au). Abstract: Connections of distributed generation (DG) in distribution networks are increasing. These connections of distributed generation cause voltage rise in the distribution network

  14. Design of the ILC RTML extraction lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seletskiy, S.; Tenenbaum, P.; Walz, D.; /SLAC; Solyak, N.; /Fermilab

    2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ILC [1] Damping Ring to the Main Linac beamline (RTML) contains three extraction lines (EL). Each EL can be used both for an emergency abort dumping of the beam and tune-up continual train-by-train extraction. Two of the extraction lines are located downstream of the first and second stages of the RTML bunch compressor, and must accept both compressed and uncompressed beam with energy spreads of 2.5% and 0.15%, respectively. In this paper we report on an optics design that allowed minimizing the length of the extraction lines while offsetting the beam dumps from the main line by the distance required for acceptable radiation levels in the service tunnel. The proposed extraction lines can accommodate beams with different energy spreads while at the same time providing the beam size acceptable for the aluminum dump window.

  15. Power line damage, electrical outages, reduced in the {open_quotes}sleet belt{close_quotes}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Companies that depend on reliable supplies of electricity, as well as electrical utilities, need to defend against weather-related damage and power outages. Weather-related damage claims in the U.S. totaled $16 billion during the ten-year span from 1980 through 1989 and have already reached $48 billion in the first five years of this decade, evidence that climate change could be causing more severe storms. This makes technology that minimizes weather damage all the more welcome. Ice and snow build-up on high-voltage electric power lines in a moderate to high winds causes high-amplitude low-frequency mechanical vibrations, called galloping. When power lines react aero-elastically to these conditions, undamped vibration tears apart transmission towers and fittings or propels lines into each other, shorting out large circuits. Besides causing costly electric system outages and structural damage, this dramatic phenomenon steals power through higher electricity line losses that occur when other conductors have to carry more power to compensate for a tripped or damaged line. In a 1981 survey, 17 of 38 utilities reported that galloping was a moderate to severe problem, and 11 reported that they had a galloping event at least once a year. Fifty-seven percent of the incidents included flashover, and 60% included structural damage.

  16. DIGITAL VISION & PHOTODISC Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simeone, Osvaldo

    of scalability and energy efficiency and offers new opportunities through the interplay with specific distributed, to the advances in telegraphy and, later, wireless transmission. Railroad transportation, geodesy (measurement

  17. MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    * Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 December 20, 2007 MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION FROM: MICHAEL W. OWEN

  18. Distribution of Correspondence

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Defines correct procedures for distribution of correspondence to the Naval Reactors laboratories. Does not cancel another directive. Expired 8-30-97.

  19. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  20. Distributionally Robust Convex Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

    2College of Management and Technology, École Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, ... They also allow us to characterize distributional families in terms of.

  1. Product Lines that supply other Product Lines: A Service-Oriented Approach Salvador Trujillo

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apel, Sven

    Product Lines that supply other Product Lines: A Service-Oriented Approach Salvador Trujillo@uni-passau.de Abstract A software product line is a family of software products that share a set of core assets with the goal of reuse. In this paper, we focus on a scenario in which different products from different product

  2. Calculating Routes A Long a Line Assumes that lines exist as a shapefile

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    Calculating Routes A Long a Line Assumes that lines exist as a shapefile Step 1 ­ Create a Route from the Line Shapefile Go to ArcToolBox ­ Linear Referencing Tools ­ Create Route. Fill in Fields;Step 4 ­ Convert to Shapefile Make the event file permanent. Right click on the event table

  3. 1 Smart Distribution: Coupled Microgrids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. H. Lasseter

    Abstract-- The distribution system provides major opportunities for smart grid concepts. One way to approach distribution system problems is to rethinking our distribution system to include the integration of high levels of distributed energy resources, using microgrid concepts. Basic objectives

  4. The Heat Loss Analysis and Commissioning of a Commercial Helium Dewar (SULI paper)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bellamy, Marcus; /New Mexico U. /SLAC

    2006-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A low temperature cryostat suitable for many different experiments will be commissioned at the cryogenic test facility at SLAC. The scope of the project is to make commission a commercial Helium dewar. The building of the top flange will be followed from its design phase through to its finished assembly. In addition, diagnostic tools such as thermometry, level detector, pressure gauge, transfer lines for He and N2, vent lines with relief valves for He and N2 will be incorporated. Instrumentation to read and plot this data will also be included. Once the cryostat is assembled, we will cool down the cryostat to measure its performance. A typical consumption rate of Helium will be measured and from this, the overall heat leak to the dewar will be calculated. A processing instrumentation diagram (PID) of the dewar system was created with SolidEdge and was later approved and published as an official SLAC document. The plots comparing the liquid level changes of the 36 inch probe with the time and the heat loss as a function of time proved to be a valid indication that the data was interpreted and recorded correctly and that the dewar was put together successfully.

  5. Experimental study of head loss and filtration for LOCA debris

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, D.V.; Souto, F.J. [Science and Engineering Associates, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of controlled experiments were conducted to obtain head loss and filtration characteristics of debris beds formed of NUKON{trademark} fibrous fragments, and obtain data to validate the semi-theoretical head loss model developed in NUREG/CR-6224. A thermally insulated closed-loop test set-up was used to conduct experiments using beds formed of fibers only and fibers intermixed with particulate debris. A total of three particulate mixes were used to simulate the particulate debris. The head loss data were obtained for theoretical fiber bed thicknesses of 0.125 inches to 4.0 inches; approach velocities of 0.15 to 1.5 ft/s; temperatures of 75 F and 125 F; and sludge-to-fiber nominal concentration ratios of 0 to 60. Concentration measurements obtained during the first flushing cycle were used to estimate the filtration efficiencies of the debris beds. For test conditions where the beds are fairly uniform, the head loss data were predictable within an acceptable accuracy range by the semi-theoretical model. The model was equally applicable for both pure fiber beds and the mixed beds. Typically the model over-predicted the head losses for very thin beds and for thin beds at high sludge-to-fiber mass ratios. This is attributable to the non-uniformity of such debris beds. In this range the correlation can be interpreted to provide upper bound estimates of head loss. This is pertinent for loss of coolant accidents in boiling water reactors.

  6. Distribution and kinematics of the HCN(3-2) emission down to the innermost region in the envelope of the O-rich star W Hya

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Muller Sebastien; Dinh-V-Trung; He Jin-Hua; Lim Jeremy

    2008-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    We report high angular resolution observations of the HCN (3-2) line emission in the circumstellar envelope of the O-rich star W Hya with the Submillimeter Array. The proximity of this star allows us to image its molecular envelope with a spatial resolution of just ~40 AU, corresponding to about 10 times the stellar diameter. We resolve the HCN (3-2) emission and find that it is centrally peaked and has a roughly spherically symmetrical distribution. This shows that HCN is formed in the innermost region of the envelope (within ~10 stellar radii), which is consistent with predictions from pulsation-driven shock chemistry models, and rules out the scenario in which HCN forms through photochemical reactions in the outer envelope. Our model suggests that the envelope decreases steeply in temperature and increases smoothly in velocity with radius, inconsistent with the standard model for mass-loss driven by radiative pressure on dust grains. We detect a velocity gradient of ~5 km/s in the NW--SE direction over the central 40 AU. This velocity gradient is reminescent of that seen in OH maser lines, and could be caused by the rotation of the envelope or by a weak bipolar outflow.

  7. ISCAS 2000 -IEEE InternationalSymposium on Circuits and Systems, May 28-31,2000, Geneva, Switzerland A NOVEL TUNING TECHNIQUE FOR DISTRIBUTED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajimiri, Ali

    of the drain line is then fed back to the input of the gate line. The forward wave on the gate line-cost alternative capable of integrating the microwave front-end with the digital-signal-processing back- end a distributed amplifier in the reverse gain mode, using the output from the idle drain load as the feedback

  8. Software distribution using xnetlib

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongarra, J.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US). Dept. of Computer Science]|[Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Rowan, T.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (US); Wade, R.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (US). Dept. of Computer Science

    1993-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Xnetlib is a new tool for software distribution. Whereas its predecessor netlib uses e-mail as the user interface to its large collection of public-domain mathematical software, xnetlib uses an X Window interface and socket-based communication. Xnetlib makes it easy to search through a large distributed collection of software and to retrieve requested software in seconds.

  9. DISTRIBUTION John R. Jones

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DISTRIBUTION John R. Jones Qualung aspen is the most widely distributed native North American tree aspen (Populus tremula), has a wider range (Weigle and Frothingham 1911). In the humid East, aspen plateaus. Aspen is one of the most common trees in the interior West, where its range (fig.1)coincides

  10. Kinetic and Friction Head Loss Impacts on Horizontal Water Supply and Aquifer Storage and Recovery Wells 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Blumenthal, Benjamin

    2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

    well construction or intra-wellbore head loss. Currently no analytical groundwater model rigorously accounts for intra-wellbore kinetic and friction head loss. We have developed a semi-analytical, intra-wellbore head loss model dynamically linked...

  11. Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si3N4 wavequides

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    R. Gao, and A. Garito, “Ultra-Low-Loss Polymer Waveguides,”Ultra-low-loss high-aspect-ratio Si 3 N 4 waveguides Jaredan approach to make ultra-low-loss waveguides using stable

  12. System Losses Study - FIT (Fuel-cycle Integration and Tradeoffs)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven J. Piet; Nick R. Soelberg; Samuel E. Bays; Robert S. Cherry; Denia Djokic; Candido Pereira; Layne F. Pincock; Eric L. Shaber; Melissa C. Teague; Gregory M. Teske; Kurt G. Vedros

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This team aimed to understand the broad implications of changes of operating performance and parameters of a fuel cycle component on the entire system. In particular, this report documents the study of the impact of changing the loss of fission products into recycled fuel and the loss of actinides into waste. When the effort started in spring 2009, an over-simplified statement of the objective was “the number of nines” – how would the cost of separation, fuel fabrication, and waste management change as the number of nines of separation efficiency changed. The intent was to determine the optimum “losses” of TRU into waste for the single system that had been the focus of the Global Nuclear Energy Program (GNEP), namely sustained recycle in burner fast reactors, fed by transuranic (TRU) material recovered from used LWR UOX-51 fuel. That objective proved to be neither possible (insufficient details or attention to the former GNEP options, change in national waste management strategy from a Yucca Mountain focus) nor appropriate given the 2009-2010 change to a science-based program considering a wider range of options. Indeed, the definition of “losses” itself changed from the loss of TRU into waste to a generic definition that a “loss” is any material that ends up where it is undesired. All streams from either separation or fuel fabrication are products; fuel feed streams must lead to fuels with tolerable impurities and waste streams must meet waste acceptance criteria (WAC) for one or more disposal sites. And, these losses are linked in the sense that as the loss of TRU into waste is reduced, often the loss or carryover of waste into TRU or uranium is increased. The effort has provided a mechanism for connecting these three Campaigns at a technical level that had not previously occurred – asking smarter and smarter questions, sometimes answering them, discussing assumptions, identifying R&D needs, and gaining new insights. The FIT model has been a forcing function, helping the team in this endeavor. Models don’t like “TBD” as an input, forcing us to make assumptions and see if they matter. A major addition in FY 2010 was exploratory analysis of “modified open fuel” cycles, employing “minimum fuel treatment” as opposed to full aqueous or electrochemical separation treatment. This increased complexity in our analysis and analytical tool development because equilibrium conditions do not appear sustainable in minimum fuel treatment cases, as was assumed in FY 2009 work with conventional aqueous and electrochemical separation. It is no longer reasonable to assume an equilibrium situation exists in all cases.

  13. Performance and Economic Analysis of Distributed Power Electronics in Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deline, C.; Marion, B.; Granata, J.; Gonzalez, S.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed electronics like micro-inverters and DC-DC converters can help recover mismatch and shading losses in photovoltaic (PV) systems. Under partially shaded conditions, the use of distributed electronics can recover between 15-40% of annual performance loss or more, depending on the system configuration and type of device used. Additional value-added features may also increase the benefit of using per-panel distributed electronics, including increased safety, reduced system design constraints and added monitoring and diagnostics. The economics of these devices will also become more favorable as production volume increases, and integration within the solar panel?s junction box reduces part count and installation time. Some potential liabilities of per-panel devices include increased PV system cost, additional points of failure, and an insertion loss that may or may not offset performance gains under particular mismatch conditions.

  14. A Multi Agent-Based Framework for Simulating Household PHEV Distribution and Electric Distribution Network Impact

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cui, Xiaohui [ORNL] [ORNL; Liu, Cheng [ORNL] [ORNL; Kim, Hoe Kyoung [ORNL] [ORNL; Kao, Shih-Chieh [ORNL] [ORNL; Tuttle, Mark A [ORNL] [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL] [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The variation of household attributes such as income, travel distance, age, household member, and education for different residential areas may generate different market penetration rates for plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). Residential areas with higher PHEV ownership could increase peak electric demand locally and require utilities to upgrade the electric distribution infrastructure even though the capacity of the regional power grid is under-utilized. Estimating the future PHEV ownership distribution at the residential household level can help us understand the impact of PHEV fleet on power line congestion, transformer overload and other unforeseen problems at the local residential distribution network level. It can also help utilities manage the timing of recharging demand to maximize load factors and utilization of existing distribution resources. This paper presents a multi agent-based simulation framework for 1) modeling spatial distribution of PHEV ownership at local residential household level, 2) discovering PHEV hot zones where PHEV ownership may quickly increase in the near future, and 3) estimating the impacts of the increasing PHEV ownership on the local electric distribution network with different charging strategies. In this paper, we use Knox County, TN as a case study to show the simulation results of the agent-based model (ABM) framework. However, the framework can be easily applied to other local areas in the US.

  15. Energy-loss- and thickness-dependent contrast in atomic-scale electron energy-loss spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tan, Haiyan; Xin, Huolin L.; Zhu, Ye; Dwyer, Christian

    2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Atomic-scale elemental maps of materials acquired by core-loss inelastic electron scattering often exhibit an undesirable sensitivity to the unavoidable elastic scattering, making the maps counter-intuitive to interpret. Here, we present a systematic study that scrutinizes the energy-loss and sample-thickness dependence of atomic-scale elemental maps acquired using 100 keV incident electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope. For single-crystal silicon, the balance between elastic and inelastic scattering means that maps generated from the near-threshold Si-L signal (energy loss of 99 eV) show no discernible contrast for a thickness of 0.5? (? is the electron mean-free path, here approximately 110 nm). Atmore »greater thicknesses we observe a counter-intuitive “negative” contrast. Only at much higher energy losses is an intuitive “positive” contrast gradually restored. Our quantitative analysis shows that the energy-loss at which a positive contrast is restored depends linearly on the sample thickness. This behavior is in very good agreement with our double-channeling inelastic scattering calculations. We test a recently-proposed experimental method to correct the core-loss inelastic scattering and restore an intuitive “positive” chemical contrast. The method is demonstrated to be reliable over a large range of energy losses and sample thicknesses. The corrected contrast for near-threshold maps is demonstrated to be (desirably) inversely proportional to sample thickness. Implications for the interpretation of atomic-scale elemental maps are discussed.« less

  16. Abstract--Implementation of Distribution Automation (DA) and Demand Side Management (DSM) intended to serve both

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Abstract--Implementation of Distribution Automation (DA) and Demand Side Management (DSM) intended with differentiate QoS in a multitasking environment. I. INTRODUCTION ODERN society demands a reliable and high by the distribution utility for the security. REMPLI (Remote Energy Management over Power Lines and Internet) system

  17. The Relationship Between the High Energy Continuum and Emission Lines in QSOs: A Low-Redshift Sample

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul J. Green

    1996-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

    Quasar emission lines are sensitive to both the luminosity and shape of the quasars' high energy continuum - primarily in the soft X-ray and the (obscured) extreme ultraviolet. We initiate the first large-scale, multi-line investigation of correlations between the QSO soft X-ray continuum and UV line emission, using an IUE/Einstein sample. We characterize the distributions of line equivalent and velocity widths (EW and FWHM) of 85 QSOs in the IUE atlas of Lanzetta et al. (1993), using a new error analysis for objective, automated line measurements, and contrast measured line parameters to the QSO continuum spectral energy distributions (SEDs). We find significant correlations between EW and UV luminosity (e.g., the well-studied Baldwin effect) for Lya, CIV, HeII, and CIII. EW(CIII) and EW(HeII) show previously unreported correlations with Lx which for CIII appears to be primary. The line ratios CIII/Lya and HeII/Lya both show strongest dependence on Lx. EW(Lya) correlates strongly with spectral slopes \\alpha_{uv} and \\alpha_{ox}, but NOT with Lx. We argue that one simple geometrical interpretation of the Baldwin effect (BEff) as a result of a distribution of disk inclinations is not plausible. The BEff weakens or disappears when line emission is correctly compared to the luminosity in the continuum bandpass relevant to its production, which suggests that the BEff is due to a change in SED with luminosity. Our prediction that no BEff relative to X-ray luminosity should be found for FeII or MgII emission lines, will be tested in a later paper, extended to a wider redshift/luminosity range.

  18. Energy optimization of water distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In order to analyze pump operating scenarios for the system with the computer model, information on existing pumping equipment and the distribution system was collected. The information includes the following: component description and design criteria for line booster stations, booster stations with reservoirs, and high lift pumps at the water treatment plants; daily operations data for 1988; annual reports from fiscal year 1987/1988 to fiscal year 1991/1992; and a 1985 calibrated KYPIPE computer model of DWSD`s water distribution system which included input data for the maximum hour and average day demands on the system for that year. This information has been used to produce the inventory database of the system and will be used to develop the computer program to analyze the system.

  19. Security of quantum key distribution with arbitrary individual imperfections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Øystein Marøy; Lars Lydersen; Johannes Skaar

    2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the security of the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol for Quantum Key Distribution (QKD), with arbitrary individual imperfections simultaneously in the source and detectors. We provide the secure key generation rate, and show that only two parameters must be bounded to ensure security; the basis dependence of the source and a detector blinding parameter. The system may otherwise be completely uncharacterized and contain large losses.

  20. Bone Growth, Maintenance and Loss in the Neolithic Community of Çatalhöyük, Turkey: Preliminary Results

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Agarwal, Sabrina; Glencross, Bonnie; Beauchesne, Patrick

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Bone Growth, Maintenance and Loss in the Neolithic CommunityThe examination of bone maintenance and loss is another wellchanging patterns of bone maintenance typically observed in