National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for distribution line losses

  1. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  2. Updated Web Tool Focuses on Bottom Line for Distributed Wind...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Updated Web Tool Focuses on Bottom Line for Distributed Wind Turbines Updated Web Tool Focuses on Bottom Line for Distributed Wind Turbines January 10, 2013 - 2:43pm Addthis This...

  3. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines This tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies. STEAM TIP SHEET #2 Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines (January 2012) (385.81 KB) More Documents & Publications Use a Vent Condenser to Recover Flash Steam Energy

  4. Influence of the airflow speed along transmission lines on the DC corona discharge loss, using finite element approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shemshadi, A.; Akbari, A.; Niayesh, K.

    2012-07-15

    Corona discharge is of great interest from the physical point of view and due to its numerous practical applications in industry and especially one of the most important sources of loss in the high voltage transmission lines. This paper provides guidelines for the amount of electric loss caused by corona phenomenon occurred around a DC high voltage wire placed between two flat plates and influence of wind speed rate on the amount of corona loss using COMSOL Multiphysics. So electric potential distribution patterns and charge density diffusion around the wire are studied in this article.

  5. A versatile technique to minimize electrical losses in distribution feeders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kyaruzi, A.L.

    1994-12-31

    This dissertation presents a method of minimizing electrical losses in radial distribution feeders by the use of shunt capacitors. The engineering benefits of reducing peak electrical power and energy losses are compared to the costs associated with the current engineering practice of buying, installing and servicing capacitor banks in the distribution feeders. The present analysis defines this cost-benefit problem and the formulation of the problem of nonuniform feeders with different wire gauges at various feeder sections. Standard utility capacitor bank sizes are used to give a more realistic model. An original computer solution methodology based on techniques developed for this study determines: (i) Whether it is economical to install compensating capacitor banks on a particular radial distribution feeder or not. (ii) The locations at which capacitor banks should be installed. (iii) The types and sizes of capacitor banks to be installed. (iv) The time setting of switched capacitor banks. The techniques have been applied to a typical radial distribution feeder in Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania. The results and the engineering implications of this work are discussed and recommendations for the engineering community made.

  6. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers We ...

  7. ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable line stations...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable line stations) (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name ETM (Distribution Network Automation on 10 kV cable...

  8. Updated Web Tool Focuses on Bottom Line for Distributed Wind...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fourth Quarter 2012 edition of the Wind Program R&D Newsletter. Comparing the combined impact of current state and federal policies for distributed wind and exploring the best ways ...

  9. Loss resilience for two-qubit state transmission using distributed phase sensitive amplification

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dailey, James; Agarwal, Anjali; Toliver, Paul; Peters, Nicholas A.

    2015-11-12

    We transmit phase-encoded non-orthogonal quantum states through a 5-km long fibre-based distributed optical phase-sensitive amplifier (OPSA) using telecom-wavelength photonic qubit pairs. The gain is set to equal the transmission loss to probabilistically preserve input states during transmission. While neither state is optimally aligned to the OPSA, each input state is equally amplified with no measurable degradation in state quality. These results promise a new approach to reduce the effects of loss by encoding quantum information in a two-qubit Hilbert space which is designed to benefit from transmission through an OPSA.

  10. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines - Steam Tip Sheet #2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    This revised AMO tip sheet on insulating steam distribution and condensate return lines provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  11. Estimating Energy and Water Losses in Residential Hot WaterDistribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, James

    2005-02-26

    Residential single family building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include; the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy needed to reheat water that was already heated once before. Average losses of water are estimated to be 6.35 gallons (24.0 L) per day. (This is water that is rundown the drain without being used while waiting for hot water.) The amount of wasted hot water has been calculated to be 10.9 gallons (41.3L) per day. (This is water that was heated, but either is not used or issued after it has cooled off.) A check on the reasonableness of this estimate is made by showing that total residential hot water use averages about 52.6 gallons (199 L) per day. This indicates about 20 percent of average daily hot water is wasted.

  12. Microsoft Word - Completion of an Evalution of Impact of Loss of 2 Hydrogen & Methane Monitoring Sample Lines.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    78:UFC5486 Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office P. O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 August 22, 2008 Mr. James Bearzi, Chief Hazardous Waste Bureau New Mexico Environment Department 2905 Rodeo Park Drive East, Building 1 Santa Fe, New Mexico 87505-6303 Subject: Notification of Completion of an Evaluation of the Impact of the Loss of Two Hydrogen and Methane Monitoring Sampling Lines Dear Mr. Bearzi: As required under Permit Condition IV.F.5.e, the Permittees are hereby notifying the

  13. Determination of High-Frequency Current Distribution Using EMTP-Based Transmission Line Models with Resulting Radiated Electromagnetic Fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mork, B; Nelson, R; Kirkendall, B; Stenvig, N

    2009-11-30

    Application of BPL technologies to existing overhead high-voltage power lines would benefit greatly from improved simulation tools capable of predicting performance - such as the electromagnetic fields radiated from such lines. Existing EMTP-based frequency-dependent line models are attractive since their parameters are derived from physical design dimensions which are easily obtained. However, to calculate the radiated electromagnetic fields, detailed current distributions need to be determined. This paper presents a method of using EMTP line models to determine the current distribution on the lines, as well as a technique for using these current distributions to determine the radiated electromagnetic fields.

  14. CONSTRAINTS ON POROSITY AND MASS LOSS IN O-STAR WINDS FROM THE MODELING OF X-RAY EMISSION LINE PROFILE SHAPES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leutenegger, Maurice A.; Sundqvist, Jon O.; Owocki, Stanley P.

    2013-06-10

    We fit X-ray emission line profiles in high resolution XMM-Newton and Chandra grating spectra of the early O supergiant {zeta} Pup with models that include the effects of porosity in the stellar wind. We explore the effects of porosity due to both spherical and flattened clumps. We find that porosity models with flattened clumps oriented parallel to the photosphere provide poor fits to observed line shapes. However, porosity models with isotropic clumps can provide acceptable fits to observed line shapes, but only if the porosity effect is moderate. We quantify the degeneracy between porosity effects from isotropic clumps and the mass-loss rate inferred from the X-ray line shapes, and we show that only modest increases in the mass-loss rate ({approx}< 40%) are allowed if moderate porosity effects (h{sub {infinity}} {approx}< R{sub *}) are assumed to be important. Large porosity lengths, and thus strong porosity effects, are ruled out regardless of assumptions about clump shape. Thus, X-ray mass-loss rate estimates are relatively insensitive to both optically thin and optically thick clumping. This supports the use of X-ray spectroscopy as a mass-loss rate calibration for bright, nearby O stars.

  15. Star formation relations and CO spectral line energy distributions across the J-ladder and redshift

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greve, T. R.; Leonidaki, I.; Xilouris, E. M.; Wei, A.; Henkel, C.; Zhang, Z.-Y.; Van der Werf, P.; Meijerink, R.; Aalto, S.; Armus, L.; Daz-Santos, T.; Evans, A. S.; Fischer, J.; Gao, Y.; Gonzlez-Alfonso, E.; Harris, A.; Naylor, D. A.; Smith, H. A.; Spaans, M.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We present FIR [50-300 ?m]CO luminosity relations (i.e., log L{sub FIR}=?log L{sub CO}{sup ?}+?) for the full CO rotational ladder from J = 1-0 up to J = 13-12 for a sample of 62 local (z ? 0.1) (Ultra) Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs; L {sub IR[8-1000} {sub ?m]} > 10{sup 11} L {sub ?}) using data from Herschel SPIRE-FTS and ground-based telescopes. We extend our sample to high redshifts (z > 1) by including 35 submillimeter selected dusty star forming galaxies from the literature with robust CO observations, and sufficiently well-sampled FIR/submillimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs), so that accurate FIR luminosities can be determined. The addition of luminous starbursts at high redshifts enlarge the range of the FIRCO luminosity relations toward the high-IR-luminosity end, while also significantly increasing the small amount of mid-J/high-J CO line data (J = 5-4 and higher) that was available prior to Herschel. This new data set (both in terms of IR luminosity and J-ladder) reveals linear FIRCO luminosity relations (i.e., ? ? 1) for J = 1-0 up to J = 5-4, with a nearly constant normalization (? ? 2). In the simplest physical scenario, this is expected from the (also) linear FIR(molecular line) relations recently found for the dense gas tracer lines (HCN and CS), as long as the dense gas mass fraction does not vary strongly within our (merger/starburst)-dominated sample. However, from J = 6-5 and up to the J = 13-12 transition, we find an increasingly sublinear slope and higher normalization constant with increasing J. We argue that these are caused by a warm (?100 K) and dense (>10{sup 4} cm{sup 3}) gas component whose thermal state is unlikely to be maintained by star-formation-powered far-UV radiation fields (and thus is no longer directly tied to the star formation rate). We suggest that mechanical heating (e.g., supernova-driven turbulence and shocks), and not cosmic rays, is the more likely source of energy for this component. The global CO

  16. Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Anbo; Yu, Zhihao

    2015-11-30

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program “Distributed Fiber Optic Sensor for On-Line Monitoring of Coal Gasifier Refractory Health,” funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at Virginia Tech. The scope of work entails analyses of traveling grating generation technologies in an optical fiber, as well as the interrogation of the gratings to infer a distributed temperature along the fiber, for the purpose of developing a real-time refractory health condition monitoring technology for coal gasifiers. During the project period, which is from 2011-2015, three different sensing principles were studied, including four-wave mixing (FWM), coherent optical time-domain reflectometer (C-OTDR) and Brillouin optical time-domain analysis (BOTDA). By comparing the three methods, the BOTDA was selected for further development into a complete bench-top sensing system for the proposed high-temperature sensing application. Based on the input from Eastman Chemical, the industrial collaborator on this project, a cylindrical furnace was designed and constructed to simulate typical gasifier refractory temperature conditions in the laboratory, and verify the sensor’s capability to fully monitor refractory conditions on the back-side at temperatures up to 1000°C. In the later stages of the project, the sensing system was tested in the simulated environment for its sensing performance and high-temperature survivability. Through theoretical analyses and experimental research on the different factors affecting the sensor performance, a sensor field deployment strategy was proposed for possible future sensor field implementations.

  17. Distributed seeding for narrow-line width hard x-ray free-electron lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nguyen, Dinh Cong; Anisimov, Petr Mikhaylovich; Buechler, Cynthia Eileen; Lewellen, IV, John W.; Marksteiner, Quinn R.

    2015-09-09

    We describe a new FEL line-narrowing technique called distributed seeding (DS), using Si(111) Bragg crystal monochromators to enhance the spectral brightness of the MaRIE hard X-ray freeelectron laser. DS differs from self-seeding in three important aspects. First, DS relies on spectral filtering of the radiation at multiple locations along the undulator, with a monochromator located every few power gain lengths. Second, DS performs filtering early in the exponential gain region before SASE spikes start to appear in the radiation longitudinal profile. Third, DS provides the option to select a wavelength longer than the peak of the SASE gain curve, which leads to improved spectral contrast of the seeded FEL over the SASE background. Timedependent Genesis simulations show the power-vs-z growth curves for DS exhibit behaviors of a seeded FEL amplifier, such as exponential growth region immediately after the filters. Of the seeding approaches considered, the two-stage DS spectra produce the highest contrast of seeded FEL over the SASE background and that the three-stage DS provides the narrowest linewidth with a relative spectral FWHM of 8 X 10-5 .

  18. The Orientation Distributions of Lines, Surfaces, and Interfaces Around Three-Phase Boundaries in Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, Shen; Helmick, Lam; Miller, Herbert M.; Johnson, Christopher; Wilson, Lane; Gemmen, Randall; Petrova, Rumyana; Barmak, Katayun; Gerdes, Kirk; Rohrer, Gregory S.; Salvador, Paul A.

    2011-11-01

    Three-dimensional electron backscatter diffraction was used to measure the crystallographic distribution of the electrochemically relevant triple phase boundary lines and surfaces near them in SOFC cathodes made up of a porous mixture of yttria-stabilized zirconia and lanthanum strontium manganese oxide, both before and after mild electrochemical loading. All distributions were observed to be nearly isotropic, but non-random textures above the detection threshold were observed. The distributions differ between the two cells, as do the phase fractions and the electrochemical history. The different distributions are interpreted as evidence that steady-state distributions vary locally with phase fractions or that they evolve during the initial operation of the fuel cell. The rates at which triple lines, pore surfaces, and interface boundaries in the porous mixture approach a steady-state value appear to decrease with the average amount of mass transport required to reorient that specific feature. This work provides initial insights into the crystallography of interfaces in a multiphase ceramic material.

  19. Homozygous deletions on the short arm of chromosome 9 in ovarian adenocarcinoma cell lines and loss of heterozygosity in sporadic tumors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chenevix-Trench, G.; Kerr, J.; Hurst, T.; Sanderson, B.; Coglan, M.; Ward, B.; Khoo, S.K. ); Friedlander, M.; Leary, J.

    1994-07-01

    Rat ovarian surface epithelial cells transformed spontaneously in vitro have been found to have homozygous deletions of the interferon alpha (IFNA) gene. This suggests that inactivation of a tumor-suppressor gene in this region may be crucial for the development of ovarian cancer. The authors therefore used microsatellite markers and Southern analysis to examine the homologous region in humans - the short arm of chromosome 9 - for deletions in sporadic ovarian adenocarcinomas and ovarian tumor cell lines. Loss of heterozygosity occurred in 34 (37%) of 91 informative sporadic tumors, including some benign, low-malignant-potential and early-stage tumors, suggesting that it is an early event in the development of ovarian adenocarcinoma. Furthermore, homozygous deletions on 9p were found in 2 of 10 independent cell lines. Deletion mapping of the tumors and lines indicates that the candidate suppressor gene inactivated as a consequence lies between D9S171 and the IFNA locus, a region that is also deleted in several other tumors and that contains the melanoma predisposition gene, MLM. 52 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Rule based decision support system for single-line fault detection in a delta-delta connected distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Momoh, J.A.; Dias, L.G.; Thor, T. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Laird, D. )

    1994-05-01

    Single-line fault detection, faulted feeder identification, fault type classification, fault location and fault impedance estimation, continue to pose a problem to delta-delta connected distribution systems such as the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (LADWP) which has over 1,500 feeder circuits at the 4.8kV voltage level. This paper describes a rule based decision support (RBDS) system application to single-line fault detection in a delta-delta connected distribution system. The RBDS system is built from knowledge acquired through exhaustive simulation based on non-arcing type fault situations. It is primarily designed to detect the presence of a fault, identify the faulted feeder, the faulted phase and classify the fault type. It is also designed to gauge the proximity of the fault to the substation and to assess the fault impedance. A fault in the distribution system, upon identification, triggers an alarm with explanatory facility leading to the fault. The RBDS system was tested with different sets of simulated data and proved successful in most cases. Additional tests will be done using field data made available by LADWP. The RBDS system module is a prototype integrated fault detection scheme to be installed in a LADWP distribution substation.

  1. Estimation of steady-state and transcient power distributions for the RELAP analyses of the 1963 loss-of-flow and loss-of-pressure tests at BR2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dionne, B.; Tzanos, C. P.

    2011-05-23

    To support the safety analyses required for the conversion of the Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, the simulation of a number of loss-of-flow tests, with or without loss of pressure, has been undertaken. These tests were performed at BR2 in 1963 and used instrumented fuel assemblies (FAs) with thermocouples (TC) imbedded in the cladding as well as probes to measure the FAs power on the basis of their coolant temperature rise. The availability of experimental data for these tests offers an opportunity to better establish the credibility of the RELAP5-3D model and methodology used in the conversion analysis. In order to support the HEU to LEU conversion safety analyses of the BR2 reactor, RELAP simulations of a number of loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure tests have been undertaken. Preliminary analyses showed that the conservative power distributions used historically in the BR2 RELAP model resulted in a significant overestimation of the peak cladding temperature during the transient. Therefore, it was concluded that better estimates of the steady-state and decay power distributions were needed to accurately predict the cladding temperatures measured during the tests and establish the credibility of the RELAP model and methodology. The new approach ('best estimate' methodology) uses the MCNP5, ORIGEN-2 and BERYL codes to obtain steady-state and decay power distributions for the BR2 core during the tests A/400/1, C/600/3 and F/400/1. This methodology can be easily extended to simulate any BR2 core configuration. Comparisons with measured peak cladding temperatures showed a much better agreement when power distributions obtained with the new methodology are used.

  2. Using ultra narrow bandwidth to overcome traditional problems with distribution line carrier

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, P.C.; Hunt, L.R.

    1995-12-31

    It has long been common knowledge among communication engineers that wide bandwidth signals require more energy to overcome noise than do narrow band signals. This is why, during adverse conditions Morse code radio communications can get through when voice can`t. To achieve similar range: A television transmitter (6000 kHz bandwidth) requires 200,000 watts; A music broadcast transmitter (60 kHz bandwidth) requires 2000 watts; A voice only transmitter (3 kHz bandwidth) requires 100 watts. Carry this principle to extremes: An Ultra Narrow Bandwidth (UNB) transmitter (.00001 kHz bandwidth) requires .003 watts. This paper explores the advantages of using Ultra Narrow Bandwidth (UNB) in power line carrier systems. Using an Automatic Meter Reading System as an example, the authors explore how UNB allows (or sometimes requires) a change in system architecture, which creates further advantages.

  3. The distribution of ion orbit loss fluxes of ions and energy from the plasma edge across the last closed flux surface into the scrape-off layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stacey, Weston M.; Schumann, Matthew T.

    2015-04-15

    A more detailed calculation strategy for the evaluation of ion orbit loss of thermalized plasma ions in the edge of tokamaks is presented. In both this and previous papers, the direct loss of particles from internal flux surfaces is calculated from the conservation of canonical angular momentum, energy, and magnetic moment. The previous result that almost all of the ion energy and particle fluxes crossing the last closed flux surface are in the form of ion orbit fluxes is confirmed, and the new result that the distributions of these fluxes crossing the last closed flux surface into the scrape-off layer are very strongly peaked about the outboard midplane is demonstrated. Previous results of a preferential loss of counter current particles leading to a co-current intrinsic rotation peaking just inside of the last closed flux surface are confirmed. Various physical details are discussed.

  4. NEW STRONG-LINE ABUNDANCE DIAGNOSTICS FOR H II REGIONS: EFFECTS OF κ-DISTRIBUTED ELECTRON ENERGIES AND NEW ATOMIC DATA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dopita, Michael A.; Sutherland, Ralph S.; Nicholls, David C.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Vogt, Frédéric P. A.

    2013-09-01

    Recently, Nicholls et al., inspired by in situ observations of solar system astrophysical plasmas, suggested that the electrons in H II regions are characterized by a κ-distribution of energies rather than a simple Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution. Here, we have collected together new atomic data within a modified photoionization code to explore the effects of both the new atomic data and the κ-distribution on the strong-line techniques used to determine chemical abundances in H II regions. By comparing the recombination temperatures (T {sub rec}) with the forbidden line temperatures (T {sub FL}), we conclude that κ ∼ 20. While representing only a mild deviation from equilibrium, this result is sufficient to strongly influence abundances determined using methods that depend on measurements of the electron temperature from forbidden lines. We present a number of new emission line ratio diagnostics that cleanly separate the two parameters determining the optical spectrum of H II regions—the ionization parameter q or U and the chemical abundance, 12+log(O/H). An automated code to extract these parameters is presented. Using the homogeneous data set from van Zee et al., we find self-consistent results between all of these different diagnostics. The systematic errors between different line ratio diagnostics are much smaller than those found in the earlier strong-line work. Overall, the effect of the κ-distribution on the strong-line abundances derived solely on the basis of theoretical models is rather small.

  5. Overview spectra and axial distribution of spectral line intensities in a high-current vacuum arc with CuCr electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lisnyak, M.; Pipa, A. V.; Gorchakov, S. E-mail: weltmann@inp-greifswald.de; Iseni, S.; Franke, St.; Khapour, A.; Methling, R.; Weltmann, K.-D. E-mail: weltmann@inp-greifswald.de

    2015-09-28

    Spectroscopic investigations of free-burning vacuum arcs in diffuse mode with CuCr electrodes are presented. The experimental conditions of the investigated arc correspond to the typical system for vacuum circuit breakers. Spectra of six species Cu I, Cu II, Cu III, Cr I, Cr II, and Cr III have been analyzed in the wavelength range 350–810 nm. The axial intensity distributions were found to be strongly dependent on the ionization stage of radiating species. Emission distributions of Cr II and Cu II can be distinguished as well as the distributions of Cr III and Cu III. Information on the axial distribution was used to identify the spectra and for identification of overlapping spectral lines. The overview spectra and some spectral windows recorded with high resolution are presented. Analysis of axial distributions of emitted light, which originates from different ionization states, is presented and discussed.

  6. Benchmarking for electric utilities, tree trimming benchmarking, service line installation to single family residence, and distribution revenue meter testing and repair

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harder, J.

    1994-12-31

    An American Public Power Association (APPA) task force study on benchmarking for electric utilities is presented. Benchmark studies were made of three activities: (1) Tree trimming; (2) Service line installation to single family residence; (3) Distribution revenue meter testing and repair criteria. The results of the study areas are summarized for 15 utilities. The methodologies used for data collection and analysis are discussed. 28 figs., 9 tabs.

  7. NONLINEAR COLOR-METALLICITY RELATIONS OF GLOBULAR CLUSTERS. V. NONLINEAR ABSORPTION-LINE INDEX VERSUS METALLICITY RELATIONS AND BIMODAL INDEX DISTRIBUTIONS OF M31 GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Sooyoung; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Chung, Chul; Lee, Young-Wook; Caldwell, Nelson; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Kang, Yongbeom; Rey, Soo-Chang

    2013-05-10

    Recent spectroscopy on the globular cluster (GC) system of M31 with unprecedented precision witnessed a clear bimodality in absorption-line index distributions of old GCs. Such division of extragalactic GCs, so far asserted mainly by photometric color bimodality, has been viewed as the presence of merely two distinct metallicity subgroups within individual galaxies and forms a critical backbone of various galaxy formation theories. Given that spectroscopy is a more detailed probe into stellar population than photometry, the discovery of index bimodality may point to the very existence of dual GC populations. However, here we show that the observed spectroscopic dichotomy of M31 GCs emerges due to the nonlinear nature of metallicity-to-index conversion and thus one does not necessarily have to invoke two separate GC subsystems. We take this as a close analogy to the recent view that metallicity-color nonlinearity is primarily responsible for observed GC color bimodality. We also demonstrate that the metallicity-sensitive magnesium line displays non-negligible metallicity-index nonlinearity and Balmer lines show rather strong nonlinearity. This gives rise to bimodal index distributions, which are routinely interpreted as bimodal metallicity distributions, not considering metallicity-index nonlinearity. Our findings give a new insight into the constitution of M31's GC system, which could change much of the current thought on the formation of GC systems and their host galaxies.

  8. Distribution:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive

  9. CONSTRAINING THE DISTRIBUTION OF DARK MATTER IN THE INNER GALAXY WITH AN INDIRECT DETECTION SIGNAL: THE CASE OF A TENTATIVE 130 GeV {gamma}-RAY LINE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang Ruizhi; Feng Lei; Li Xiang; Fan Yizhong

    2013-06-20

    Dark matter distribution in the very inner region of our Galaxy is still debated. In N-body simulations, a cuspy dark matter halo density profile is favored. Several dissipative baryonic processes, however, are found to be able to significantly flatten dark matter distribution, and a cored dark matter halo density profile is possible. Baryons dominate the gravitational potential in the inner Galaxy, hence a direct constraint on the abundance of dark matter particles is rather challenging. Recently, a few groups have identified a tentative 130 GeV line signal in the Galactic center, which could be interpreted as the signal of dark matter annihilation. Using current 130 GeV line data and adopting the generalized Navarro-Frenk-White profile of the dark matter halo-local dark matter density {rho}{sub 0} = 0.4 GeV cm{sup -3} and r{sub s} = 20 kpc-we obtain a 95% confidence level lower (upper) limit on the inner slope of dark matter density distribution, {alpha} = 1.06 (the cross section of dark matter annihilation into {gamma}-rays ({sigma}v){sub {chi}{chi}{sub {yields}{sub {gamma}{gamma}}}} = 1.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -27} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1}). Such a slope is consistent with the results of some N-body simulations and, if the signal is due to dark matter, suggests that baryonic processes may be unimportant.

  10. Current trends in the application of non-ceramic insulators for transmission & distribution lines subject to contamination

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riordan, K.C.

    1994-12-31

    Non-Ceramic Insulators (NCI) have been in application for more than 25 years. During this time, manufacturers have worked diligently to improve product designs and polymer materials. Today, the use of Non-Ceramic Polymer insulators is proliferating as Utilities become more confident in this advanced technology. The application advantages of NCI technology are more widely recognized and understood and credibility is growing in the long term service performance of these insulators. Current estimates place the NCI market share as high as 50% of the total US transmission insulator market. Indeed, Reliable Power Products is proud to advise that their insulators have been selected for the first 500 KV-DC transmission line in the USA to use 100% composite polymer insulators. With the combination of Los Angeles Department of Water and Power (Los Angeles to Las Vegas) and Salt River Project (Las Vegas to Phoenix), a total of almost 1,000 Kms. of transmission line will be insulated with Silicone Rubber Polymer Insulators. The total project will include almost 15,000 insulator strings. User confidence is not confined to the USA market. The application of NCI`s by International Utilities has also experienced significant growth. This may be evidenced by EHV installations in South America, Middle East, South Africa, Australia and South East Asia.

  11. Properly Understanding the Impacts of Distributed Resources on Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rizy, D Tom; Li, Fangxing; Li, Huijuan; Adhikari, Sarina; Kueck, John D

    2010-01-01

    The subject paper discusses important impacts of distributed resources on distribution networks and feeders. These include capacity, line losses, voltage regulation, and central system support (such as volt/var via central generators and substation) as the number, placement and penetration levels of distributed resources are varied. Typically, the impacts of distributed resources on the distribution system are studied by using steady-state rather than dynamic analysis tools. However, the response time and transient impacts of both system equipment (such as substation/feeder capacitors) and distributed resources needs to be taken into account and only dynamic analysis will provide the full impact results. ORNL is wrapping up a study of distributed resources interconnected to a large distribution system considering the above variables. A report of the study and its results will be condensed into a paper for this panel session. The impact of distributed resources will vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system. The question is how high of a penetration of distributed resource can be accommodated on the distribution feeder/system without any major changes to system operation, design and protection. The impacts most surely will vary depending upon load composition, distribution and level. Also, it is expected that various placement of distributed resources will impact the distribution system differently.

  12. Loss and thermal noise in plasmonic waveguides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Syms, R. R. A. Solymar, L.

    2014-06-07

    Rytov's theory of thermally generated radiation is used to find the noise in two-dimensional passive guides based on an arbitrary distribution of lossy isotropic dielectric. To simplify calculations, the Maxwell curl equations are approximated using difference equations that also permit a transmission-line analogy, and material losses are assumed to be low enough for modal losses to be estimated using perturbation theory. It is shown that an effective medium representation of each mode is valid for both loss and noise and, hence, that a one-dimensional model can be used to estimate the best achievable noise factor when a given mode is used in a communications link. This model only requires knowledge of the real and imaginary parts of the modal dielectric constant. The former can be found by solving the lossless eigenvalue problem, while the latter can be estimated using perturbation theory. Because of their high loss, the theory is most relevant to plasmonic waveguides, and its application is demonstrated using single interface, slab, and slot guide examples. The best noise performance is offered by the long-range plasmon supported by the slab guide.

  13. THE SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTIONS OF z ∼ 8 GALAXIES FROM THE IRAC ULTRA DEEP FIELDS: EMISSION LINES, STELLAR MASSES, AND SPECIFIC STAR FORMATION RATES AT 650 MYR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Labbé, I.; Bouwens, R. J.; Franx, M.; Oesch, P. A.; Illingworth, G. D.; Magee, D.; González, V.; Trenti, M.; Van Dokkum, P. G.; Stiavelli, M.

    2013-11-10

    Using new ultradeep Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) photometry from the IRAC Ultra Deep Field program, we investigate the stellar populations of a sample of 63 Y-dropout galaxy candidates at z ∼ 8, only 650 Myr after the big bang. The sources are selected from HST/ACS+WFC3/IR data over the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), two HUDF parallel fields, and wide area data over the CANDELS/GOODS-South. The new Spitzer/IRAC data increase the coverage in [3.6] and [4.5] to ∼120h over the HUDF reaching depths of ∼28 (AB,1σ). The improved depth and inclusion of brighter candidates result in direct ≥3σ InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) detections of 20/63 sources, of which 11/63 are detected at ≥5σ. The average [3.6]-[4.5] colors of IRAC detected galaxies at z ∼ 8 are markedly redder than those at z ∼ 7, observed only 130 Myr later. The simplest explanation is that we witness strong rest-frame optical emission lines (in particular [O III] λλ4959, 5007 + Hβ) moving through the IRAC bandpasses with redshift. Assuming that the average rest-frame spectrum is the same at both z ∼ 7 and z ∼ 8 we estimate a rest-frame equivalent width of contributing 0.56{sup +0.16}{sub -0.11} mag to the [4.5] filter at z ∼ 8. The corresponding W{sub Hα}=430{sup +160}{sub -110} Å implies an average specific star formation rate of sSFR=11{sub -5}{sup +11} Gyr{sup –1} and a stellar population age of 100{sub -50}{sup +100} Myr. Correcting the spectral energy distribution for the contribution of emission lines lowers the average best-fit stellar masses and mass-to-light ratios by ∼3 ×, decreasing the integrated stellar mass density to ρ{sup *}(z=8,M{sub UV}<-18)=0.6{sup +0.4}{sub -0.3}×10{sup 6} M{sub sun} Mpc{sup –3}.

  14. Reduced AC losses in HTS coated conductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2004-10-05

    Methods for reducing hysteresis losses in superconductor coated ribbons where a flux distribution is set into the superconductor coated ribbon prior to the application of alternating current.

  15. CONTINUOUS EXTRACTED BEAM IN THE AGS FAST EXTERNAL BEAM LINE.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GLENN,J.W.; TSOUPAS,N.; BROWN,K.A.; BIRYUKOV,V.M.

    2001-06-18

    A method to split off a few percent of the 6 x 10{sup 13} AGS beam delivered to the Slow External Beam (SEB) lines and send it down the Fast External Beam line (FEB) has been developed. The mission is to feed a counter experiment off the FEB that directly measures the neutrino mass using the muon storage ring. The use of normal thin septum splitters would have an excessive loss overhead and been optically difficult. The AGS Slow Extraction uses a third integer resonance with sextuple strength so the resonance width is a few percent of the beam width. This results in a low density tail which will be clipped by a bent crystal and deflected into the FEB channel. This clipping off of the tail should reduce losses in the SEB transport line. Details of modeled orbits, particle distribution and extraction trajectories into and out off the crystal will be given.

  16. Microsoft Word - Completion of an Evalution of Impact of Loss...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Completion of an Evaluation of the Impact of the Loss of Two Hydrogen and Methane Monitoring Sampling Lines Dear Mr. Bearzi: As required under Permit Condition...

  17. LINE-ABOVE-GROUND ATTENUATOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilds, R.B.; Ames, J.R.

    1957-09-24

    The line-above-ground attenuator provides a continuously variable microwave attenuator for a coaxial line that is capable of high attenuation and low insertion loss. The device consists of a short section of the line-above- ground plane type transmission lime, a pair of identical rectangular slabs of lossy material like polytron, whose longitudinal axes are parallel to and indentically spaced away from either side of the line, and a geared mechanism to adjust amd maintain this spaced relationship. This device permits optimum fineness and accuracy of attenuator control which heretofore has been difficult to achieve.

  18. Loan Loss Reserve Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Loan Loss Reserve Agreement, from the Tool Kit Framework: Small Town University Energy Program (STEP).

  19. Line Projects

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Grand Coulee Transmission Line Replacement Project Hooper Springs McNary-John Day Montana-to-Washington Transmission System Upgrade Project - M2W Olympia-Grand Coulee No. 1...

  20. Microsoft Word - notification of sampling line loss.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    68:UFC5486 Department of Energy Carlsbad Field Office P. O. Box 3090 Carlsbad, New Mexico 88221 July 17, 2008 Mr. James Bearzi, Chief Hazardous Waste Bureau New Mexico Environment...

  1. Microsoft Word - notification of sampling line loss.doc

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    10 1 January 2010 Short-Term Energy Outlook Supplement: Outlook for Non-OPEC Supply in 2010-2011 1 Summary Two large categories define the world's producing countries of crude oil and other liquid fuels 2 (hereafter "liquids"): those that are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and those that are outside that group (non-OPEC). This article takes a closer look at the latter category. After growing by 630,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) in 2009, EIA

  2. Angular output of hollow, metal-lined, waveguide Raman sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biedrzycki, Stephen; Buric, Michael P.; Falk, Joel; Woodruff, Steven D.

    2012-04-20

    Hollow, metal-lined waveguides used as gas sensors based on spontaneous Raman scattering are capable of large angular collection. The collection of light from a large solid angle implies the collection of a large number of waveguide modes. An accurate estimation of the propagation losses for these modes is required to predict the total collected Raman power. We report a theory/experimental comparison of the Raman power collected as a function of the solid angle and waveguide length. New theoretical observations are compared with previous theory appropriate only for low-order modes. A cutback experiment is demonstrated to verify the validity of either theory. The angular distribution of Raman light is measured using aluminum and silver-lined waveguides of varying lengths.

  3. CEBAF beam loss accounting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ursic, R.; Mahoney, K.; Hovater, C.; Hutton, A.; Sinclair, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a beam loss accounting system for the CEBAF electron accelerator. This system samples the beam curent throughout the beam path and measures the beam current accurately. Personnel Safety and Machine Protection systems use this system to turn off the beam when hazardous beam losses occur.

  4. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lo, Hoi-Kwong; Chau, Hoi Fung

    1998-01-01

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically.

  5. Quantum cryptographic system with reduced data loss

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lo, H.K.; Chau, H.F.

    1998-03-24

    A secure method for distributing a random cryptographic key with reduced data loss is disclosed. Traditional quantum key distribution systems employ similar probabilities for the different communication modes and thus reject at least half of the transmitted data. The invention substantially reduces the amount of discarded data (those that are encoded and decoded in different communication modes e.g. using different operators) in quantum key distribution without compromising security by using significantly different probabilities for the different communication modes. Data is separated into various sets according to the actual operators used in the encoding and decoding process and the error rate for each set is determined individually. The invention increases the key distribution rate of the BB84 key distribution scheme proposed by Bennett and Brassard in 1984. Using the invention, the key distribution rate increases with the number of quantum signals transmitted and can be doubled asymptotically. 23 figs.

  6. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Knudsen, Peter N.; Arenius, Dana M.; Barrios, Matthew N.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  7. Symmetric generalized binomial distributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bergeron, H.; Curado, E. M. F.; Instituto Nacional de Cincia e Tecnologia - Sistemas Complexos, Rua Xavier Sigaud 150, 22290-180 - Rio de Janeiro, RJ ; Gazeau, J. P.; APC, UMR 7164, Univ Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cit, 75205 Paris ; Rodrigues, Ligia M. C. S. E-mail: evaldo@cbpf.br E-mail: ligia@cbpf.br

    2013-12-15

    In two recent articles, we have examined a generalization of the binomial distribution associated with a sequence of positive numbers, involving asymmetric expressions of probabilities that break the symmetry win-loss. We present in this article another generalization (always associated with a sequence of positive numbers) that preserves the symmetry win-loss. This approach is also based on generating functions and presents constraints of non-negativeness, similar to those encountered in our previous articles.

  8. Helium release rates and ODH calculations from RHIC magnet cooling line failure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liaw, C.J.; Than, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.

    2011-03-28

    A catastrophic failure of the magnet cooling lines, similar to the LHC superconducting bus failure incident, could discharge cold helium into the RHIC tunnel and cause an Oxygen Deficiency Hazard (ODH) problem. A SINDA/FLUINT{reg_sign} model, which simulated the 4.5K/4 atm helium flowing through the magnet cooling system distribution lines, then through a line break into the insulating vacuum volumes and discharging via the reliefs into the RHIC tunnel, had been developed. Arc flash energy deposition and heat load from the ambient temperature cryostat surfaces are included in the simulations. Three typical areas: the sextant arc, the Triplet/DX/D0 magnets, and the injection area, had been analyzed. Results, including helium discharge rates, helium inventory loss, and the resulting oxygen concentration in the RHIC tunnel area, are reported. Good agreement had been achieved when comparing the simulation results, a RHIC sector depressurization test measurement, and some simple analytical calculations.

  9. DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIER INCORPORATING FEEDBACK

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, P.R. Jr.

    1958-10-21

    An improved distributed amplifier system employing feedback for stabilization is presented. In accordance with the disclosed invention, a signal to be amplified is applled to one end of a suitable terminated grid transmission line. At intervals along the transmission line, the signal is fed to stable, resistance-capacitance coupled amplifiers incorporating feedback loops therein. The output current from each amplifier is passed through an additional tube to minimize the electrostatic capacitance between the tube elements of the last stage of the amplifier, and fed to appropriate points on an output transmission line, similar to the grid line, but terminated at the opposite (input) end. The output taken from the unterminated end of the plate transmission line is proportional to the input voltage impressed upon the grid line.

  10. Opportunities for Energy Efficiency Improvements in the U.S. Electricity Transmission and Distribution System

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    From 2000-2012, about 6% of U.S. electricity generation did not reach any customer, instead being lost in the transmission and distribution system. This report describes sources of energy loss in the transmission and distribution of electricity, and reviews research on both the magnitude and potential for reducing these losses. Strategies to improve energy efficiency on the grid include upgrades in physical infrastructure as well as information technologies and operational strategies that can help grid operators make the system run more efficiently. The report also describes engineering, economic, and policy barriers to implementing these loss reduction strategies. For transmission, emerging technologies such as superconductors and power flow control technologies can reduce transmission loss 50% or more, but these technologies may not be cost-effective in all areas. On the distribution system, theoretical studies of reducing overloading lines through reconfiguration have identified loss reductions of up to 40%; however, studies of real systems have observed loss reductions of only 5-20%.

  11. Draft Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Emissions and Loss of CO2 Uptake from Vegetation ... In 2013 natural gas plants provided approximately 45 percent ... draft EIS through several methods, including distribution of ...

  12. Draft Northern Pass Transmission Line Project Environmental Impact...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... S-28 Table S-14. Construction Emissions and Loss of CO2 ... capacity (primarily coal and oil units) are ... draft EIS through several methods, including distribution of ...

  13. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Mr. Dyer Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Sheila Beck Plains and Eastern Clean Line ...

  14. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Change.org Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Mr. Leftwich Plains and Eastern Clean Line ...

  15. Eliminate Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Excessive In-Plant Distribution System Voltage Drops Studies indicate that in-plant electrical distribution system losses-due to voltage unbalance, over- and undervoltage, low ...

  16. Anonymous Help Line

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Anonymous Help Line Ombuds Anonymous Help Line Committed to the fair and equitable treatment of all employees, contractors, and persons doing business with the Laboratory. Contact...

  17. Line Equipment Operator

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are several Line Equipment Operator positions located in Washington and Oregon. A successful candidate in this position will perform Line Equipment Operator work operating trucks and all...

  18. Line spectrum and ion temperature measurements from tungsten...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Tungsten ions were distributed in the LHD plasma by injecting a pellet consisting of a small piece of tungsten metal and polyethylene tube. Many lines having different wavelengths ...

  19. Energy loss of charm quarks in the quark-gluon plasma: Collisional vs radiative losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mustafa, Munshi G.

    2005-07-01

    In considering the collisional energy loss rates of heavy quarks from hard light parton interactions, we computed the total energy loss of a charm quark for a static medium. For the energy range E{approx}5-10 GeV of charm quark, it proved to be almost the same order as that of radiative ones estimated to a first-order opacity expansion. The collisional energy loss becomes much more important for lower energy charm quarks, and this feature could be very interesting for the phenomenology of hadrons spectra. Using such collisional energy loss rates, we estimate the momentum loss distribution employing a Fokker-Planck equation and the total energy loss of a charm quark for an expanding quark-gluon plasma under conditions resembling the energies presently available at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The fractional collisional energy loss is found to be suppressed by a factor of 5 as compared to the static case and does not depend linearly on the system size. We also investigate the heavy to light hadrons D/{pi} ratio at moderately large (5-10 GeV/c) transverse momenta and comment on its enhancement.

  20. Loss maps of RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robert-Demolaize,G.

    2007-10-01

    State-of-the-art tracking tools were recently developed at CERN to study the cleaning efficiency of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collimation system [1]. These tools are fully transportable, meaning that any accelerator lattice that includes a collimation system can be simulated. Each of the two Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) [2] beam lines features a multi-stage collimation system, therefore dedicated datasets from RHIC operations with proton beams can be used to benchmark the tracking codes and assess the accuracy of the predicted hot spots along the LHC.

  1. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Comment submitted on ...

  2. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comment from Mr. Garrett Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Ms. Rutherford Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Ms. Campbell

  3. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Comment from Downwind, LLC Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Sheila Beck Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Crystal Yarbrough

  4. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Fallon Sanford Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Mr. Leftwich Plains and Eastern Clean ...

  5. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Federal Register...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Federal Register Notice, Volume 80, No. 81 - April 28, 2015 Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Federal Register ...

  6. NREL: Energy Analysis - Distributed Generation Energy Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The red horizontal lines represent the first standard deviation of the mean. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored the distributed ...

  7. Minimizing Energy Losses in Ducts

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Insulating, air sealing, and placing ducts within the conditioned space of your home will reduce energy losses.

  8. Nuclear reactor overflow line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Severson, Wayne J.

    1976-01-01

    The overflow line for the reactor vessel of a liquid-metal-cooled nuclear reactor includes means for establishing and maintaining a continuous bleed flow of coolant amounting to 5 to 10% of the total coolant flow through the overflow line to prevent thermal shock to the overflow line when the reactor is restarted following a trip. Preferably a tube is disposed concentrically just inside the overflow line extending from a point just inside the reactor vessel to an overflow tank and a suction line is provided opening into the body of liquid metal in the reactor vessel and into the annulus between the overflow line and the inner tube.

  9. EIS Distribution

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This DOE guidance presents a series of recommendations related to the EIS distribution process, which includes creating and updating a distribution list, distributing an EIS, and filing an EIS with the EPA.

  10. The feasibility of replacing or upgrading utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P.R.; Van Dyke, J.W.; McConnell, B.W.; Cohn, S.M.; Purucker, S.L.

    1995-04-01

    It is estimated that electric utilities use about 40 million distribution transformers in supplying electricity to customers in the United States. Although utility distribution transformers collectively have a high average efficiency, they account for approximately 61 billion kWh of the 229 billion kWh of energy lost annually in the delivery of electricity. Distribution transformers are being replaced over time by new, more efficient, lower-loss units during routine utility maintenance of power distribution systems. Maintenance is typically not performed on units in service. However, units removed from service with appreciable remaining life are often refurbished and returned to stock. Distribution transformers may be removed from service for many reasons, including failure, over- or underloading, or line upgrades such as voltage changes or rerouting. When distribution transformers are removed from service, a decision must be made whether to dispose of the transformer and purchase a lower-loss replacement or to refurbish the transformer and return it to stock for future use. This report contains findings and recommendations on replacing utility distribution transformers during routine maintenance, which is required by section 124(c) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992. The objectives of the study are to evaluate the practicability, cost-effectiveness, and potential energy savings of replacing or upgrading existing transformers during routine utility maintenance and to develop recommendations on was to achieve the potential energy savings.

  11. Distribution capacitor automation that controls voltage and saves energy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, B.R.

    1994-12-31

    The Electric Distribution Business Line of Southern California Edison Company (SCE) has begun a program to improve the distribution system operations and electrical efficiency. The program, called the Distribution System Efficiency Enhancement Program (DSEEP), consists of five principal projects: Automated Switching, Circuit Lock-Out Alarming, Substation Monitoring and Control, Outage Management, and Distribution Capacitor Automation Project (DCAP). DCAP is the largest and most sophisticated of the projects being implemented. The project takes advantage of fine-tuning customer voltages for conservation voltage regulation (CVR) benefits as well as minimizes line losses by reducing unnecessary reactive power flow. DCAP can also help to increase transmission line and substation capacity by improving system power factor. The DCAP system takes advantage of the distributed processing capability of meters, capacitor controllers, radios, and substation processors. DCAP uses two-way packet radios and new electronic meters that read real-time customer voltages as well as energy consumption. The radios transmit customer meter voltage information and capacitor status to substation processors, where a control algorithm runs to determine which capacitors should be turned on or off. The objective of DCAP is to reduce over-all net energy transfer from the substation to the customer and meet system VAR requirements. SCE has tested the system on 66 circuit capacitors (including 3 substation capacitors) on 18 circuits served from two substations. The positive results of the DCAP demonstrations has led to an aggressive roll-out plan for system-wide implementation of automating over 7600 switched capacitors by year-end 1995.

  12. Temperatures in the blast furnace refractory lining

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebel, R.; Streuber, C.; Steiger, R.; Jeschar, R.

    1995-12-01

    The campaign life duration of a blast furnace is mainly determined by the condition of the refractory lining in heavy-duty zones such as the hearth, bosh, belly and lower stack. To achieve a desired lifetime, the temperature of the lining in these areas thereby proved to be the decisive controllable parameter. Low operating temperatures result in prolonged service life and are attained through high cooling efficiency. Besides the refractory grade chosen, the wear profile is mainly determined by the type of cooling system applied and the cooling intensity. Therefore, an appropriate compromise between long service life and energy losses has to be found in each case. In order to predict the service life of a lining it is important to know the wear condition at all times during the campaign. The paper describes the approaches the authors have made so far on European blast furnaces, on a theoretical and practical basis, on how to analyze the lining wear.

  13. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd Alan

    2008-09-02

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  14. Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V.; Pitts, Todd Alan

    2009-02-24

    Scannerless loss modulated flash color range imaging methods and apparatus are disclosed for producing three dimensional (3D) images of a target within a scene. Apparatus and methods according to the present invention comprise a light source providing at least three wavelengths (passbands) of illumination that are each loss modulated, phase delayed and simultaneously directed to illuminate the target. Phase delayed light backscattered from the target is spectrally filtered, demodulated and imaged by a planar detector array. Images of the intensity distributions for the selected wavelengths are obtained under modulated and unmodulated (dc) illumination of the target, and the information contained in the images combined to produce a 3D image of the target.

  15. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  16. Rectangular Dielectric-lined Accelerator Structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang Changbiao; Yakovlev, V.P.; Hirshfield, J.L.

    2004-12-07

    Results are reported from analysis of a rectangular X-band dielectric-lined accelerator structure operating in the symmetric LSM-11 mode that has a number of favorable attributes, by comparison with dielectric-lined cylindrical structures. These attributes include use of two planar one-piece precision-ground TiN coated dielectric slabs free of joints, open slots along two opposing metallic faces to suppress all anti-symmetric higher-order modes and to facilitate high-speed pumping, and significant reduction of wall losses by use of evanescent vacuum gaps beyond the dielectric slabs. It is shown that a structure operating at 11.424 GHz can be built with a shunt impedance > 60 M{omega}/m using low-loss alumina as the dielectric.

  17. Improvements in the computation of balances and localization of commercial losses of electric energy in 0.38-kV networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vorotnitskii, V. Z.; Zaslonov, S. V.; Lysyuk, S. S.

    2006-11-15

    An example of four 0.38-kV overhead distribution lines fed from a 10/0.4-kV transformer substation of the Grodno Electrical Networks (Belarus') and supplying electricity to a cottage area is used for analyzing energy balances and commercial losses in the networks. It is shown that the reliability of such analysis can be ensured by the use of modern software and electronic energy meters recording a retrospective of half-hourly intervals of active and reactive electric energy.

  18. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  19. Transmission Business Line

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Transmission Business Line Non-Federal Financing of Transmission Projects - March 2004 Critical paths on the Northwest transmission grid are congested and the system is near or at...

  20. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Marshall

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hughes | Department of Energy from Marshall Hughes Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Marshall Hughes Comment submitted on updated Part 2 application. Comment from Marshall Hughes 07-10-15.pdf (14.91 KB) More Documents & Publications Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Mr. Dyer Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Sheila Beck Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Patti McCutchen

  1. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-01

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  2. Transmission Line Security Monitor

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    The Transmission Line Security Monitor is a multi-sensor monitor that mounts directly on high-voltage transmission lines to detect, characterize and communicate terrorist activity, human tampering and threatening conditions around support towers. For more information about INL's critical infrastructure protection research, visit http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  3. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2006-01-01

    This revised ITP tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial steam systems using low-cost, proven practices and technologies.

  4. 37 - Gibbs - System Losses in HelioScope v1.1.pptx

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Component Based Loss Factors Paul Gibbs May 2, 2013 Presented at the 2013 Sandia PV Performance Modeling Workshop Santa Clara, CA. May 1-2, 2013 Published by Sandia National Laboratories with the Permission of the Author. Component level modeling enables a rigorous evaluation of the loss-tree * Component Level Modeling * Line Losses - Granularity - Value Component-level Modeling * Module Level Electronics - Principles of Operation - Implications for Modeling Voltage drops throughout the array

  5. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, ...

  6. Distribution Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    On September 24-26, 2012, the GTT presented a workshop on grid integration on the distribution system at the Sheraton Crystal City near Washington, DC.

  7. Flow line sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholls, Colin I.

    1992-07-14

    An on-line product sampling apparatus and method for measuring product samples from a product stream (12) in a flow line (14) having a sampling aperture (11), includes a sampling tube (18) for containing product samples removed from flow line (14). A piston (22) removes product samples from the product stream (12) through the sampling aperture (11) and returns samples to product stream (12). A sensor (20) communicates with sample tube (18), and senses physical properties of samples while the samples are within sample tube (18). In one embodiment, sensor (20) comprises a hydrogen transient nuclear magnetic resonance sensor for measuring physical properties of hydrogen molecules.

  8. Coherent soliton communication lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yushko, O. V. Redyuk, A. A.; Fedoruk, M. P.; Turitsyn, S. K.

    2014-11-15

    The data transmission in coherent fiber-optical communication lines using solitons with a variable phase is studied. It is shown that nonlinear coherent structures (solitons) can be applied for effective signal transmission over a long distance using amplitude and optical-phase keying of information. The optimum ratio of the pulse width to the bit slot at which the spectral efficiency (transmitted bits per second and hertz) is maximal is determined. It is shown that soliton fiber-optical communication lines can ensure data transmission at a higher spectral efficiency as compared to traditional communication lines and at a high signal-to-noise ratio.

  9. Control of cooling losses at high pulverized coal injection rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bonte, L.; Nieuwerburgh, H. Van

    1996-12-31

    One of the problems which is encountered by many blast furnace operators is the appropriate control of the cooling losses of the blast furnace. This problem has been aggravated by the introduction of pulverized coal injection. Even with equal burden and coke composition, both Sidmar furnaces behave differently with respect to the cooling losses. This phenomenon is possibly attributable to the different profile and cooling circuitry of the furnaces. Among other parameters the angles of bosh and stack may favor the formation of scabs or not. Some operators experience a decrease of their cooling losses, other operators have problems to limit their cooling losses to an acceptable level. As a result, different operating practices exist with respect to the burden distribution. The increase of the ore to coke ratio with pulverized coal injection suggests that the coke and sinter quality has to be monitored very carefully in order to avoid permeability problems.

  10. Lineman (Live Line)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There are several Lineman (Liveline) positions located in Spokane, Washington. A successful candidate in this position will perform construction and maintenance work for live-line on wood and steel...

  11. Maersk Line Equipment guide

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Maersk Line containers has an average age of less than six years and a stringent maintenance programme ensures they are always ready for service. Each container in our fleet...

  12. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, Victor R.; Watwood, Donald B.

    1994-01-01

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard.

  13. Power line detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Latorre, V.R.; Watwood, D.B.

    1994-09-27

    A short-range, radio frequency (RF) transmitting-receiving system that provides both visual and audio warnings to the pilot of a helicopter or light aircraft of an up-coming power transmission line complex. Small, milliwatt-level narrowband transmitters, powered by the transmission line itself, are installed on top of selected transmission line support towers or within existing warning balls, and provide a continuous RF signal to approaching aircraft. The on-board receiver can be either a separate unit or a portion of the existing avionics, and can also share an existing antenna with another airborne system. Upon receipt of a warning signal, the receiver will trigger a visual and an audio alarm to alert the pilot to the potential power line hazard. 4 figs.

  14. Line Extension Alternatives

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Public Service Board (PSB) of Vermont developed rules regarding utility line extension requests. While the majority of the rules focus on the procedure followed (and associated fees) for the...

  15. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Aguiar, Jeffery A.

    2015-09-15

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to determine the chemistry and oxidation state of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 thin film battery electrodes in liquid cells for in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). Using the L2,3 white line intensity ratio method we determine the oxidation state of Mn and Ti in a liquid electrolyte solvent and discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity.

  16. Radio frequency communication system utilizing radiating transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Struven, Warren C.

    1984-01-01

    A radio communication system for use in tunnels, mines, buildings or other shielded locations in which a pair of radiating transmission lines (30), (31) extend through such location in spaced coextensive relation to each other. Each transmission line (30), (31) has at least one unidirectional amplifier (32), (33) interposed therein with the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (32) of one transmission line (30) being opposite to the sense of the unidirectional amplifier (33) of the other transmission line (31). Each of the amplifiers (32), (33) has a gain which is less than the coupling loss between the transmission lines (30), (31). Two or more mobile transceivers (35) in the location served by the system are coupled to the transmission lines (30), (31) by electromagnetic wave propagation in space in order to communicate directly with each other at a given radio frequency within the frequency range of the system.

  17. The 2mrad Crossing Angle Interaction Region and Extraction Line

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Appleby, R.; U., Manchester; Angal-Kalinin, D.; Dadoun, O.; Bambade, P.; Parker, B.; Keller, L.; Moffeit, K.; Nosochkov, Y.; Seryi, A.; Spencer, C.; Carter, J.; Royal Holloway, U.of London; Napoly, O.; /DAPNIA, Saclay

    2006-07-12

    A complete optics design for the 2mrad crossing angle interaction region and extraction line was presented at Snowmass 2005. Since this time, the design task force has been working on developing and improving the performance of the extraction line. The work has focused on optimizing the final doublet parameters and on reducing the power losses resulting from the disrupted beam transport. In this paper, the most recent status of the 2mrad layout and the corresponding performance are presented.

  18. Oblique inlet pressure loss for swirling flow entering a catalyst substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Persoons, T.; Vanierschot, M.; Van den Bulck, E. [Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Celestijnenlaan 300A, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-05-15

    This experimental study investigates the oblique inlet pressure loss for the entry of an annular swirling flow into an automotive catalyst substrate. The results are applicable to a wide range of compact heat exchangers. For zero swirl, the total pressure loss agrees with established expressions for pressure loss in developing laminar flow in parallel channels with finite wall thickness. For positive swirl, the additional pressure loss due to oblique flow entry is correlated to the tangential velocity upstream of the catalyst, measured using laser-Doppler anemometry. The obtained oblique inlet pressure loss correlation can improve the accuracy of numerical calculations of the flow distribution in catalysts. (author)

  19. Transmission line capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, K.R.; Brown, D.R.

    1995-05-01

    The displacement or deferral of conventional AC transmission line installation is a key benefit associated with several technologies being developed with the support of the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management (OEM). Previous benefits assessments conducted within OEM have been based on significantly different assumptions for the average cost per mile of AC transmission line. In response to this uncertainty, an investigation of transmission line capital cost data was initiated. The objective of this study was to develop a database for preparing preliminary estimates of transmission line costs. An extensive search of potential data sources identified databases maintained by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the Western Area Power Administration (WAPA) as superior sources of transmission line cost data. The BPA and WAPA data were adjusted to a common basis and combined together. The composite database covers voltage levels from 13.8 to 765 W, with cost estimates for a given voltage level varying depending on conductor size, tower material type, tower frame type, and number of circuits. Reported transmission line costs vary significantly, even for a given voltage level. This can usually be explained by variation in the design factors noted above and variation in environmental and land (right-of-way) costs, which are extremely site-specific. Cost estimates prepared from the composite database were compared to cost data collected by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) for investor-owned utilities from across the United States. The comparison was hampered because the only design specifications included with the FERC data were voltage level and line length. Working within this limitation, the FERC data were not found to differ significantly from the composite database. Therefore, the composite database was judged to be a reasonable proxy for estimating national average costs.

  20. Inertial confinement fusion method producing line source radiation fluence

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rose, Ronald P.

    1984-01-01

    An inertial confinement fusion method in which target pellets are imploded in sequence by laser light beams or other energy beams at an implosion site which is variable between pellet implosions along a line. The effect of the variability in position of the implosion site along a line is to distribute the radiation fluence in surrounding reactor components as a line source of radiation would do, thereby permitting the utilization of cylindrical geometry in the design of the reactor and internal components.

  1. Insulate Steam Distribution and Condensate Return Lines, Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and help ensure proper steam pressure at plant equipment. Any surface over 120F should be insulated, including boiler surfaces, steam and condensate return piping, and fttings. ...

  2. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project Profile: Verizon Central Office Building ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Distributed Energy Program Project ...

  3. Vehicle Technologies Office: Parasitic Loss Reduction Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Current areas of focus for the parasitic loss reduction activity include: Aerodynamic drag reduction research, to characterize and respond to energy losses caused by wind and ...

  4. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    from Dr. Contreras Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Dr. Contreras Comment submitted on updated Part 2 application. PDF icon Comment from Dr. Contreras ...

  5. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ms. Callahan Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Ms. Callahan Comment submitted on updated Part 2 application. PDF icon Comment from Ms. Callahan ...

  6. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and ... B.J. (2003) 77 Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: ...

  7. Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation and Distribution:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and ... S.A. (1981) 60 Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: ...

  8. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and ... D.R. (1997) 67 Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: ...

  9. Bonneville upgrades lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-30

    A stretch of Bonneville Power Administration transmission line between Spokane and the Grand Coulee Dam is an 82-mile bottleneck as it is the last 115-kv section of [open quotes]road[close quotes] along a 500-kv transmission [open quotes]highway[close quotes]. Soon the administration will change all that. A number of independent and utility powerplants have been proposed in Idaho, Montana and the Spokane, Wash., area during the 1990s. As the operators will need to move their power, Bonneville is planning to build a $144-million, 500-kv line to upgrade the 115-kv section. The agency is planning to use its existing right-of-way.

  10. AC Loss Analysis on the Superconducting Coupling Magnet in MICE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Hong; Wang, Li; Green, Michael; Li, LanKai; Xu, FengYu; Liu, XiaoKun; Jia, LinXinag

    2008-07-08

    A pair of coupling solenoids is used in MICE experiment to generate magnetic field which keeps the muons within the iris of thin RF cavity windows. The coupling solenoids have a 1.5-meter inner diameter and will produce 7.4 T peak magnetic field. Three types of AC losses in coupling solenoid are discussed. The affect of AC losses on the temperature distribution within the cold mass during charging and rapid discharging process is analyzed also. The analysis result will be further confirmed by the experiment of the prototype solenoid for coupling solenoid, which will be designed, fabricated and tested at ICST.

  11. ONE NEVADA LINE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE PROJECT SUMMARY In February 2011, the Department of Energy issued a $343 million loan guarantee to finance the One Nevada Transmission Line (ON Line) project, a 235-mile, 500 kV AC transmission line capable of carrying 600 MW of power to the grid running

  12. Optimization of distribution transformer efficiency characteristics. Final report, March 1979

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    A method for distribution transformer loss evaluation was derived. The total levalized annual cost method was used and was extended to account properly for conditions of energy cost inflation, peak load growth, and transformer changeout during the evaluation period. The loss costs included were the no-load and load power losses, no-load and load reactive losses, and the energy cost of regulation. The demand and energy components of loss costs were treated separately to account correctly for the diversity of load losses and energy cost inflation. The complete distribution transformer loss evaluation equation is shown, with the nomenclature and definitions for the parameters provided. Tasks described are entitled: Establish Loss Evaluation Techniques; Compile System Cost Parameters; Compile Load Parameters and Loading Policies; Develop Transformer Cost/Performance Relationship; Define Characteristics of Multiple Efficiency Transformer Package; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Single Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Multiple Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; and Interpretation.

  13. New Path to Loss-Free Electricity | U.S. DOE Office of Science...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    details of electron distribution reveal a novel mechanism for current to flow without energy loss. Print Text Size: A A A Subscribe FeedbackShare Page Click to enlarge photo....

  14. Fluid properties determine flow line blockage potential

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hunt, A.

    1996-07-15

    A thorough understanding of fluid properties helps in determining the potential of hydrates, paraffins, or asphaltenes to block subsea flow lines. Thermal, chemical, and mechanical methods are the main ways for preventing deposition. Already in both the North Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, blockages have led to significant losses in production and reserves recovery. This first article in a two-part series discusses thermal and chemical methods in overcoming fluid behavior problems caused by hydrate and other fluid constituents in subsea multiphase flow. The paper discusses subsea production, possible problems, nucleation, growth, deposition, preventing deposition, hydrate predictions, multiphase flow, and hydrate inhibition.

  15. DETERMINATION OF NON-THERMAL VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS FROM SERTS LINEWIDTH OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coyner, Aaron J. [Department of Physics, Catholic University of America, 620 Michigan Avenue, Washington, DC 20064 (United States); Davila, Joseph M., E-mail: aaron.j.coyner@nasa.gov [Code 671, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2011-12-01

    Non-thermal velocities obtained from the measurement of coronal Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) linewidths have been consistently observed in solar EUV spectral observations and have been theorized to result from many plausible scenarios including wave motions, turbulence, or magnetic reconnection. Constraining these velocities can provide a physical limit for the available energy resulting from unresolved motions in the corona. We statistically determine a series of non-thermal velocity distributions from linewidth measurements of 390 emission lines from a wide array of elements and ionization states observed during the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Research Telescope and Spectrograph 1991-1997 flights covering the spectral range 174-418 A and a temperature range from 80,000 K to 12.6 MK. This sample includes 248 lines from active regions, 101 lines from quiet-Sun regions, and 41 lines were observed from plasma off the solar limb. We find a strongly peaked distribution corresponding to a non-thermal velocity of 19-22 km s{sup -1} in all three of the quiet-Sun, active region, and off-limb distributions. For the possibility of Alfven wave resonance heating, we find that velocities in the core of these distributions do not provide sufficient energy, given typical densities and magnetic field strengths for the coronal plasma, to overcome the estimated coronal energy losses required to maintain the corona at the typical temperatures working as the sole mechanism. We find that at perfect efficiency 50%-60% of the needed energy flux can be produced from the non-thermal velocities measured.

  16. PLAINS & EASTERN CLEAN LINE TRANSMISSION LINE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Section 1222 of the Energy Policy Act 2005 » PLAINS & EASTERN CLEAN LINE TRANSMISSION LINE PLAINS & EASTERN CLEAN LINE TRANSMISSION LINE On March 25, 2016, U.S. Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz announced that the Department of Energy (DOE) will participate in the development of the Plains & Eastern Clean Line project (Project), a major clean energy infrastructure project. Through section 1222 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Congress authorized DOE to promote electric

  17. Plains & Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line - Part 2 Application |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Transmission Line - Part 2 Application Plains & Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line - Part 2 Application In addition to conducting a NEPA review of the proposed Plains & Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line project, DOE will also conduct due diligence on non-NEPA factors such as the project's technical and financial feasibility and whether the project is in the public interest. DOE will conduct a thorough review that includes making all required statutory

  18. Powerloads on the front end components and the duct of the heating and diagnostic neutral beam lines at ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, M. J.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Geli, F.; Graceffa, J.; Urbani, M.; Schunke, B.; Chareyre, J.; Dlougach, E.; Krylov, A.

    2015-04-08

    The heating and current drive beam lines (HNB) at ITER are expected to deliver ∼16.7 MW power per beam line for H beams at 870 keV and D beams at 1 MeV during the H-He and the DD/DT phases of ITER operation respectively. On the other hand the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) line shall deliver ∼2 MW power for H beams at 100 keV during both the phases. The path lengths over which the beams from the HNB and DNB beam lines need to be transported are 25.6 m and 20.7 m respectively. The transport of the beams over these path lengths results in beam losses, mainly by the direct interception of the beam with the beam line components and reionisation. The lost power is deposited on the surfaces of the various components of the beam line. In order to ensure the survival of these components over the operational life time of ITER, it is important to determine to the best possible extent the operational power loads and power densities on the various surfaces which are impacted by the beam in one way or the other during its transport. The main factors contributing to these are the divergence of the beamlets and the halo fraction in the beam, the beam aiming, the horizontal and vertical misalignment of the beam, and the gas profile along the beam path, which determines the re-ionisation loss, and the re-ionisation cross sections. The estimations have been made using a combination of the modified version of the Monte Carlo Gas Flow code (MCGF) and the BTR code. The MCGF is used to determine the gas profile in the beam line and takes into account the active gas feed into the ion source and neutraliser, the HNB-DNB cross over, the gas entering the beamline from the ITER machine, the additional gas atoms generated in the beam line due to impacting ions and the pumping speed of the cryopumps. The BTR code has been used to obtain the power loads and the power densities on the various surfaces of the front end components and the duct modules for different scenarios of ITER

  19. Electrical and Biological Effects of Transmission Lines: A Review.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Jack M.

    1989-06-01

    This review describes the electrical properties of a-c and d-c transmission lines and the resulting effects on plants, animals, and people. Methods used by BPA to mitigate undesirable effects are also discussed. Although much of the information in this review pertains to high-voltage transmission lines, information on distribution lines and electrical appliances is included. The electrical properties discussed are electric and magnetic fields and corona: first for alternating-current (a-c) lines, then for direct current (d-c).

  20. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  1. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, Hiroyuki; Lin-Liu, Yuh-Ren; DeGrassie, John S.

    1991-01-01

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other.

  2. CRUCIBLE LINING METHOD

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bone, W.H.; Schmidt, W.W.

    1958-11-01

    A method is presented for forming refractory liners in cylindrical reaction vessels used for the reductlon of uranium tetrafluoride to metallic uranium. A preliminary form, having positioning lugs attached thereto, is inserted into the reaction vessel and the refractory powder, usually CaO, is put in the annular space between the form and the inner wall of the reaction vessel. A jolting table is used to compact this charge of liner material ln place, and after thls has been done, the preliminary form is removed and the flnal form or plug is lnserted without disturbing the partially completed lining. The remainder of the lining charge is then introduced and compacted by jolting, after which the form is removed.

  3. Drill string transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David S.; Bradford, Kline; Fox, Joe

    2006-03-28

    A transmission line assembly for transmitting information along a downhole tool comprising a pin end, a box end, and a central bore traveling between the pin end and the box end, is disclosed in one embodiment of the invention as including a protective conduit. A transmission line is routed through the protective conduit. The protective conduit is routed through the central bore and the ends of the protective conduit are routed through channels formed in the pin end and box end of the downhole tool. The protective conduit is elastically forced into a spiral or other non-linear path along the interior surface of the central bore by compressing the protective conduit to a length within the downhole tool shorter than the protective conduit.

  4. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized

  5. Distribution Category:

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    - Distribution Category: Remedial Action and Decommissioning Program (UC-70A) DOE/EV-0005/48 ANL-OHS/HP-84-104 ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY 9700 South Cass Avenue Argonne, Illinois 60439 FORMERLY UTILIZED MXD/AEC SITES REMEDIAL ACTION PROGRAM RADIOLOGICAL SURVEY OF THE HARSHAW CHEMICAL COMPANY CLEVELAND. OHIO Prepared by R. A. Wynveen Associate Division Director, OHS W. H. Smith Senior Health Physicist C. M. Sholeen Health Physicist A. L. Justus Health Physicist K. F. Flynn Health Physicist

  6. Modelling economic losses of historic and present-day high-impact winter windstorms in Switzerland

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Welker, Christoph; Martius, Olivia; Stucki, Peter; Bresch, David; Dierer, Silke; Bronnimann, Stefan

    2016-03-30

    This study investigates the wind gusts and associated economic loss patterns of high-impact winter windstorms in Switzerland between 1871 and 2011. A novel approach for simulating windstorm-related gusts and losses at regional to local scales is applied to a sample of 84 windstorms. The approach involves the dynamical downscaling of the Twentieth Century Reanalysis (20CR) ensemble mean to 3-km horizontal grid size using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Economic losses are simulated at municipal level for present-day asset distribution based on the downscaled (parameterised) wind gusts at high spatiotemporal resolution using the open-source impact model climada. A comparisonmore » with insurance loss data for two recent windstorms ("Lothar'' in 1999, "Joachim'' in 2011) indicates that the loss simulation allows to realistically simulate the spatial patterns of windstorm losses. The loss amplitude is strongly underestimated for 'Lothar', while it is in reasonable agreement for 'Joachim'. Possible reasons are discussed. Uncertainties concerning the loss simulation arise from the wind gust estimation method applied; estimates can differ considerably among the different methods, in particular over high orography. Furthermore, the quality of the loss simulation is affected by the underlying simplified assumptions regarding the distribution of assets and their susceptibilities to damage. For the whole windstorm sample, composite averages of simulated wind gust speed and loss are computed. Both composites reveal high values for the densely populated Swiss Plateau and lower values for south-eastern Switzerland; metropolitan areas stand out in the loss composite. Eight of the top 10 events concerning the losses simulated for present-day asset distribution and summed over all Swiss municipalities occurred after 1950. Furthermore, it remains uncertain whether this is due to decadal-scale changes of winter windstorms in Switzerland or merely due to a possible

  7. PLAINS & EASTERN CLEAN LINE TRANSMISSION LINE | Department of...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PLAINS & EASTERN CLEAN LINE TRANSMISSION LINE On March 25, 2016, U.S. Secretary of Energy Dr. Ernest Moniz announced that the Department of Energy (DOE) will participate in the ...

  8. Quantification of Shallow-junction Dopant Loss during CMOS Process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buh, G.H.; Park, T.; Jee, Y.; Hong, S.J.; Ryoo, C.; Yoo, J.; Lee, J.W.; Yon, G.H.; Jun, C.S.; Shin, Y.G.; Chung, U.-In; Moon, J.T.

    2005-09-09

    We analyzed dopant concentration and profiles in source drain extension (SDE) by using in-line low energy electron induced x-ray emission spectrometry (LEXES), four point probe (FPP), and secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). By monitoring the dopant dose with LEXES, dopant loss in implantation and annealing process was successfully quantified. To measure the actual SDE sheet resistance in CMOS device structure without probe penetration in FPP, we fabricated a simple SDE sheet-resistance test structure (SSTS) by modifying a conventional CMOS process. It was found that the sheet resistances determined with SSTS are larger than those measured with FPP. There are three mechanisms of dopants loss in CMOS process: 1) wet-etching removal during photo resist cleaning, 2) out-diffusion, and 3) deactivation by post-thermal process. We quantified the loss of the dopant in SDE during the CMOS process, and found that the wet-etching removal and out-diffusion are the most significant causes for dopant loss in n-SDE and p-SDE, respectively.

  9. Wind farm array wake losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.W.; McCarthy, E.F.

    1997-12-31

    A wind turbine wake study was conducted in the summer of 1987 at an Altamont Pass wind electric generating facility. The wind speed deficits, turbulence, and power deficits from an array consisting of several rows of wind turbines is discussed. A total of nine different test configurations were evaluated for a downwind spacing ranging from 7 rotor diameters (RD) to 34 RD and a cross wind spacing of 1.3 RD and 2.7 RD. Wake power deficits of 15% were measured at 16 RD and power losses of a few percent were even measurable at 27 RD for the closer cross wind spacing. For several rows of turbines separated by 7-9 RD the wake zones overlapped and formed compound wakes with higher velocity deficits. The wind speed and direction turbulence in the wake was much higher than the ambient turbulence. The results from this study are compared to the findings from other similar field measurements.

  10. Low-loss LIGA-micromachined conductor-backed coplanar waveguide.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Forman, Michael A.

    2004-12-01

    A mesoscale low-loss LIGA-micromachined conductor-backed coplanar waveguide is presented. The 517 {micro}m lines are the tallest uniplanar LIGA-fabricated microwave transmission lines to date, as well as the first to be constructed of copper rather than nickel. The conductor-backed micromachined CPW on quartz achieves a measured attenuation of 0.064 dB/cm at 15.5 GHz.

  11. Resilience of multiphoton entanglement under losses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durkin, Gabriel A.; Simon, Christoph; Eisert, Jens; Bouwmeester, Dirk

    2004-12-01

    We analyze the resilience under photon loss of the bipartite entanglement present in multiphoton states produced by parametric down-conversion. The quantification of the entanglement is made possible by a symmetry of the states that persists even under polarization-independent losses. We examine the approach of the states to the set of positive partial transpose states as losses increase, and calculate the relative entropy of entanglement. We find that some bipartite distillable entanglement persists for arbitrarily high losses.

  12. Probing battery chemistry with liquid cell electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unocic, Raymond R.; Baggetto, Loic; Veith, Gabriel M.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Sacci, Robert L.; Dudney, Nancy J.; More, Karren Leslie; Aguiar, Jeffery A.

    2015-09-15

    Electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) was used to determine the chemistry and oxidation state of LiMn2O4 and Li4Ti5O12 thin film battery electrodes in liquid cells for in situ scanning/transmission electron microscopy (S/TEM). Using the L2,3 white line intensity ratio method we determine the oxidation state of Mn and Ti in a liquid electrolyte solvent and discuss experimental parameters that influence measurement sensitivity.

  13. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T.

    2008-03-18

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  14. Antenna structure with distributed strip

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-10-21

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element is in proximity to a ground conductor. The folded line and the distributed strip can be electrically interconnected and substantially coplanar. The ground conductor can be spaced from, and coplanar to, the radiating element, or can alternatively lie in a plane set at an angle to the radiating element. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise a ground plane and radiating element on opposed sides of a printed wiring board. Other embodiments of the antenna comprise conductors that can be arranged as free standing "foils". Other embodiments include antennas that are encapsulated into a package containing the antenna.

  15. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M.

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  16. Code System to Detect Recurring Loss of Special Nuclear Materials.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-08-23

    Version 00 NRCPAGE is used in safeguards applications to detect a recurring loss of special nuclear material by frequent evaluation (sequential analysis) of accountability data. Standard sequential testing procedures are traditionally based on sequences of independent and normally distributed measurements. This same approach can be applied to materials balance (MB) data. Here, the term materials balance has a meaning similar to inventory difference and represents a materials loss indicator localized in time and space. However,more » distinct Mbs cannot be reasonably treated as statistically independent and may not always be reasonably treated as normally distributed. Furthermore, the covariance structure associated with a given MB sequence is not known and must be estimated. Nonindependence is treated by converting the MB sequence to the innovation sequence, sometimes called the ITMUF sequence or the sequence of MUF residuals, which are statistically independent and amenable to sequential test procedures. A one-sided page's test, effective for a wide range of recurring loss scenarios, is applied to the standardized innovation sequence. The program can be easily modified to suit particular needs; the models for the assumption of multivariate normality for MBs when computing the innovation sequence or the test procedure can be changed as can the input/output format, dimensioning, local error checking, and simulation work. Input files can be sequentially constructed using local text editors to update existing files. Output files can be read by graphics, report writer, or other stand-alone utility routines.« less

  17. Yield Line Evaluation Methodology for Reinforced Concrete Structures

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1998-12-30

    Yield line theory is an analytical technique that can be used to determine the ultimate bending capacity of flat reinforced concrete plates subject to distributed and concentrated loadings. Alternately, yield line theory, combined with rotation limits can be used to determine the energy absorption capacity of plates subject to impulsive and impact loadings. Typical components analyzed by yield line theory are basemats, floor and roof slabs subject to vertical loads along with walls subject tomore » out of plane loadings. One limitation of yield line theory is that it is computationally difficult to evaluate some mechanisms. This problem is aggravated by the complex geometry and reinforcing layouts commonly found in practice. The program has the capability to either evaluate a single user defined mechanism or to iterate over a range of mechanisms to determine the minimum ultimate capacity. The program is verified by comparison to a series of yield line mechanisms with known solutions.« less

  18. Self-monitoring high voltage transmission line suspension insulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stemler, Gary E.; Scott, Donald N.

    1981-01-01

    A high voltage transmission line suspension insulator (18 or 22) which monitors its own dielectric integrity. A dielectric rod (10) has one larger diameter end fitting attachable to a transmission line and another larger diameter end fitting attachable to a support tower. The rod is enclosed in a dielectric tube (14) which is hermetically sealed to the rod's end fittings such that a liquidtight space (20) is formed between the rod and the tube. A pressurized dielectric liquid is placed within that space. A discoloring dye placed within this space is used to detect the loss of the pressurized liquid.

  19. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Federal Register Notice,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Volume 80, No. 81 - April 28, 2015 | Department of Energy Federal Register Notice, Volume 80, No. 81 - April 28, 2015 Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Federal Register Notice, Volume 80, No. 81 - April 28, 2015 The Department of Energy (DOE) requests public comment on the first complete application submitted in response to its June 10, 2010 Request for Proposals for New or Upgraded Transmission Line Projects Under Section 1222 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 in the Federal

  20. EC Transmission Line Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bigelow, Tim S

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of this document is to identify materials acceptable for use in the US ITER Project Office (USIPO)-supplied components for the ITER Electron cyclotron Heating and Current Drive (ECH&CD) transmission lines (TL), PBS-52. The source of material property information for design analysis shall be either the applicable structural code or the ITER Material Properties Handbook. In the case of conflict, the ITER Material Properties Handbook shall take precedence. Materials selection, and use, shall follow the guidelines established in the Materials Assessment Report (MAR). Materials exposed to vacuum shall conform to the ITER Vacuum Handbook. [Ref. 2] Commercial materials shall conform to the applicable standard (e.g., ASTM, JIS, DIN) for the definition of their grade, physical, chemical and electrical properties and related testing. All materials for which a suitable certification from the supplier is not available shall be tested to determine the relevant properties, as part of the procurement. A complete traceability of all the materials including welding materials shall be provided. Halogenated materials (example: insulating materials) shall be forbidden in areas served by the detritiation systems. Exceptions must be approved by the Tritium System and Safety Section Responsible Officers.

  1. Bipolar pulse forming line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rhodes, Mark A.

    2008-10-21

    A bipolar pulse forming transmission line module for linear induction accelerators having first, second, third, fourth, and fifth planar conductors which form an interleaved stack with dielectric layers between the conductors. Each conductor has a first end, and a second end adjacent an acceleration axis. The first and second planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, the fourth and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the second ends, and the first and fifth planar conductors are connected to each other at the first ends via a shorting plate adjacent the first ends. The third planar conductor is electrically connectable to a high voltage source, and an internal switch functions to short a high voltage from the first end of the third planar conductor to the first end of the fourth planar conductor to produce a bipolar pulse at the acceleration axis with a zero net time integral. Improved access to the switch is enabled by an aperture through the shorting plate and the proximity of the aperture to the switch.

  2. Best Management Practice #3: Distribution System Audits, Leak Detection, and Repair

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A distribution system audit, or leak detection and repair program, may help federal facilities identify and reduce water losses and be better stewards of water as a resource.

  3. Numerical simulation of electron energy loss near inhomogeneous dielectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garcia de Abajo, F.J.

    1997-12-01

    The nonrelativistic energy loss suffered by fast electrons passing near dielectric interfaces of arbitrary shape is calculated by solving Poisson{close_quote}s equation using the boundary-charge method. The potential induced by a moving electron is expressed in terms of surface-charge distributions placed at the interfaces. These surface charges, obtained by self-consistently solving the resulting integral equation, act back on the electron producing a retarding force and hence energy loss. The dielectrics are described by frequency-dependent dielectric functions. Two particular cases are discussed in further detail: interfaces invariant under translation along one particular direction and axially symmetric interfaces. Previous results for simple geometries, such as planes, spheres, and cylinders, based upon analytical solutions, are fully reproduced within this approach. Calculations are presented for electrons moving near wedges, coupled parallel cylinders, coupled spheres, and toroidal surfaces. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  4. Transmission Losses Product (pbl/products)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Smoothing and Intertie Service (Pilot) Firstgov Pricing for Transmission Losses Product Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Power Services offers to sell transmission...

  5. Analysis of TPV Network Losses (a Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DM DePoy; MW Dashiell; DD Rahner; LR Danielson; JE Oppenlander; JL Vell; RJ Wehrer

    2004-12-08

    This talk focuses on the theoretical analysis of electrical losses associated with electrically networking large numbers of TPV cells to produce high power TPV power generators.

  6. Loan Loss Reserves: Lessons from the Field

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This webinar, held on Sept. 20, 2010, provides in formation on loan loss reserve funds and lessons from the field on their use.

  7. Loan Loss Reserve Fund Program Development

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Typically, grantees will work with interested parties or partners to develop a clean energy loan and a loan loss reserve fund program that involves the following steps:

  8. NETL LINES OF DEMARCATION 09282012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    LINES OF DEMARCATION September 28, 2012 Contact: Site Operations Division or ESS&H Division with Questions The oversight, upkeep, and segregation of NETL infrastructure components, including lines of demarcation between ORD and OIO, will be as follows: 1. Common utility headers including gas compression systems that enter or exit the site will be maintained by the Office of Institutional Operations (OIO). A line of responsibility demarcation between OIO and ORD will be established at the

  9. FRIB Cryogenic Distribution System and Status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao; Dixon, Kelly D.; Laverdure, Nathaniel A.; Yang, Shuo; Nellis, Timothy; Jones, S.; Casagrande, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    The MSU-FRIB cryogenic distribution system supports the 2 K primary, 4 K primary, and 35 - 55 K shield operation of more than 70 loads in the accelerator and the experimental areas. It is based on JLab and SNS experience with bayonet-type disconnects between the loads and the distribution system for phased commissioning and maintenance. The linac transfer line, which features three separate transfer line segments for additional independence during phased commissioning at 4 K and 2 K, connects the folded arrangement of 49 cryomodules and 4 superconducting dipole magnets and a fourth transfer line supports the separator area cryo loads. The pressure reliefs for the transfer line process lines, located in the refrigeration room outside the tunnel/accelerator area, are piped to be vented outdoors. The transfer line designs integrate supply and return flow paths into a combined vacuum space. The main linac distribution segments are produced in a small number of standard configurations; a prototype of one such configuration has been fabricated at Jefferson Lab and has been installed at MSU to support testing of a prototype FRIB cryomodule.

  10. Low-loss metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin Liu, Si-yuan; Ding, Guo-wen; Yang, Hua; Yu, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Hai-feng; Wang, Shen-yun

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, a low-loss and high transmission analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. It is obtained by the excitation of the low-loss electric toroidal dipolar response, which confines the magnetic field inside a dielectric substrate with toroidal geometry. The metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) structure is composed of the cut wire and asymmetric split-ring resonators. The transmission level is as high as 0.88, and the radiation loss is greatly suppressed, which can be proved by the surface currents distributions, the magnetic field distributions, and the imaginary parts of the effective permeability and permittivity. It offers an effective way to produce low-loss and high transmission metamaterial EIT.

  11. Electric Transmission Line Siting Compact

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... creates a method for states to site multi-state electric transmission lines. Three 4 levels of organization are provided: 5 A state project review panel within each ...

  12. Emergency pipe line repair connects subsea pipe lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lerique, M.P.; Thiberge, P. ); Wright, N. )

    1990-11-01

    Emergency repair of any subsea line pipe must form a high-integrity, metal-to-metal seal. This paper presents a remote, diverless repair system that utilizes master flanges, a connector and a spool piece to repair line pipe in deep offshore waters.

  13. Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses Minimize Boiler Short Cycling Losses This tip sheet on minimizing boiler short cycling losses provides how-to advice for improving industrial...

  14. EIA - Coal Distribution

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report > Annual Coal Distribution Archives Annual Coal Distribution Archive Release Date: February 17, 2011 Next Release Date: December 2011 Domestic coal ...

  15. Local time variations of high-energy plasmaspheric ion pitch angle distributions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sarno-Smith, Lois K.; Liemohn, Michael W.; Skoug, Ruth M.; Larsen, Brian Arthur; Moldwin, Mark B.; Katus, Roxanne M.; Wygant, John R.

    2016-07-05

    Recent observations from the Van Allen Probes Helium Oxygen Proton Electron (HOPE) instrument revealed a persistent depletion in the 1–10 eV ion population in the postmidnight sector during quiet times in the 2 < L < 3 region. This study explores the source of this ion depletion by developing an algorithm to classify 26 months of pitch angle distributions measured by the HOPE instrument. We correct the HOPE low energy fluxes for spacecraft potential using measurements from the Electric Field and Waves (EFW) instrument. A high percentage of low count pitch angle distributions is found in the postmidnight sector coupledmore » with a low percentage of ion distributions peaked perpendicular to the field line. A peak in loss cone distributions in the dusk sector is also observed. Here, these results characterize the nature of the dearth of the near 90° pitch angle 1–10 eV ion population in the near-Earth postmidnight sector. This study also shows, for the first time, low-energy HOPE differential number fluxes corrected for spacecraft potential and 1–10 eV H+ fluxes at different levels of geomagnetic activity.« less

  16. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    evaluated through reactivity and product composition were carried out on thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) equipment. These tests were evaluated and then followed by bench-scale studies at 1123 K using an integrated bench-scale fluidized-bed gasifier (IBG) which can be operated in the semicontinuous batch mode. Products from tests were solid (ash), liquid (tar), and gas. Tar was separated on an open chromatographic column. Analysis of the gas product was carried out using on-line Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). For selected tests, gas was collected periodically and analyzed using a refinery gas analyzer GC (gas chromatograph). The solid product was not extensively analyzed. This report is a part of a search into emerging gasification technologies that can provide power under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries, and it is probable that scaled-down applications for use in remote areas will become viable. The appendix to this report contains a list, description, and sources of currently available gasification technologies that could be or are being commercially applied for distributed generation. This list was gathered from current sources and provides information about the supplier, the relative size range, and the status of the technology.

  17. Modeling particle loss in ventilation ducts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sippola, Mark R.; Nazaroff, William W.

    2003-04-01

    Empirical equations were developed and applied to predict losses of 0.01-100 {micro}m airborne particles making a single pass through 120 different ventilation duct runs typical of those found in mid-sized office buildings. For all duct runs, losses were negligible for submicron particles and nearly complete for particles larger than 50 {micro}m. The 50th percentile cut-point diameters were 15 {micro}m in supply runs and 25 {micro}m in return runs. Losses in supply duct runs were higher than in return duct runs, mostly because internal insulation was present in portions of supply duct runs, but absent from return duct runs. Single-pass equations for particle loss in duct runs were combined with models for predicting ventilation system filtration efficiency and particle deposition to indoor surfaces to evaluate the fates of particles of indoor and outdoor origin in an archetypal mechanically ventilated building. Results suggest that duct losses are a minor influence for determining indoor concentrations for most particle sizes. Losses in ducts were of a comparable magnitude to indoor surface losses for most particle sizes. For outdoor air drawn into an unfiltered ventilation system, most particles smaller than 1 {micro}m are exhausted from the building. Large particles deposit within the building, mostly in supply ducts or on indoor surfaces. When filters are present, most particles are either filtered or exhausted. The fates of particles generated indoors follow similar trends as outdoor particles drawn into the building.

  18. Coastal land loss in Texas - An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morton, R.A.; Paine, J.G. )

    1990-09-01

    Each year in Texas more than 1,500 acres of prime real estate and productive wetlands are destroyed along the Gulf shoreline and near the bay margins primarily as a result of coastal erosion and submergence. Wetland losses constitute about half of the total land losses. Historical analyses of maps and aerial photographs since the mid-1800s indicate that land losses are accelerating and that human activities are either directly or indirectly responsible for the increased losses, Natural decreases in sediment supply since the modern sea-level stillstand have been exacerbated by (1) river basin projects that reduce the volume of sediment transported to the coast and (2) coastal structures and navigation projects that prevent redistribution of littoral sediments along the coast. Erosion is primarily caused by high wave and current energy combined with an inadequate supply of sediment. Erosion is responsible for higher local rates of land loss than submergence, and the erosion losses are more perceptible, especially after major storms when the greatest losses occur. The principal components of submergence are subsidence and the eustatic rise in sea level. Together these components are recorded by tide gauges as a relative rise in sea level. Submergence converts uplands to wetlands and wetlands to open water. These surficial changes occur mostly on the coastal plain but are also observed on barrier islands and bayhead deltas and within entrenched valleys. Although compactional subsidence is a natural process operating in the Gulf Coast basin, most of the accelerated land-surface subsidence in Texas is attributed to extraction of shallow ground water or production of hydrocarbons at moderate depths. Faults activated by the withdrawal of these fluids concentrate the subsidence near the fault planes. Coastal land losses caused by dredging are less than those caused by erosion and submergence, but they constitute a growing percentage of total land losses.

  19. SSRL Beam Lines Map | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SSRL Beam Lines Map Beam Line by Number | Beam Line by Techniques | Photon Source Parameters

  20. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Russell B.

    1987-01-01

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  1. Pulse shaping with transmission lines

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1985-08-15

    A method and apparatus for forming shaped voltage pulses uses passive reflection from a transmission line with nonuniform impedance. The impedance of the reflecting line varies with length in accordance with the desired pulse shape. A high voltage input pulse is transmitted to the reflecting line. A reflected pulse is produced having the desired shape and is transmitted by pulse removal means to a load. Light activated photoconductive switches made of silicon can be utilized. The pulse shaper can be used to drive a Pockels cell to produce shaped optical pulses.

  2. Electrical transmission line diametrical retainer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hall, David R.; Hall, Jr., H. Tracy; Pixton, David; Dahlgren, Scott; Sneddon, Cameron; Briscoe, Michael; Fox, Joe

    2004-12-14

    The invention is a mechanism for retaining an electrical transmission line. In one embodiment of the invention it is a system for retaining an electrical transmission line within down hole components. In accordance with one aspect of the invention, the system includes a plurality of downhole components, such as sections of pipe in a drill string. The system also includes a coaxial cable running between the first and second end of a drill pipe, the coaxial cable having a conductive tube and a conductive core within it. The invention allows the electrical transmission line to with stand the tension and compression of drill pipe during routine drilling cycles.

  3. Integrated Computing, Communication, and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajura, Richard; Feliachi, Ali

    2008-09-24

    Restructuring of the electricity market has affected all aspects of the power industry from generation to transmission, distribution, and consumption. Transmission circuits, in particular, are stressed often exceeding their stability limits because of the difficulty in building new transmission lines due to environmental concerns and financial risk. Deregulation has resulted in the need for tighter control strategies to maintain reliability even in the event of considerable structural changes, such as loss of a large generating unit or a transmission line, and changes in loading conditions due to the continuously varying power consumption. Our research efforts under the DOE EPSCoR Grant focused on Integrated Computing, Communication and Distributed Control of Deregulated Electric Power Systems. This research is applicable to operating and controlling modern electric energy systems. The controls developed by APERC provide for a more efficient, economical, reliable, and secure operation of these systems. Under this program, we developed distributed control algorithms suitable for large-scale geographically dispersed power systems and also economic tools to evaluate their effectiveness and impact on power markets. Progress was made in the development of distributed intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. The methodologies employed combine information technology, control and communication, agent technology, and power systems engineering in the development of intelligent control agents for reliable and automated operation of integrated electric power systems. In the event of scheduled load changes or unforeseen disturbances, the power system is expected to minimize the effects and costs of disturbances and to maintain critical infrastructure operational.

  4. Cascaded'' pilot regulators help reduce LPG loss in hot weather

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-08-08

    Fina Oil and Chemical Co. and Fisher Controls International used engineering resourcefulness to overcome heat-induced product loss from LPG storage bullets at Fina's Port Arthur, Tex., refinery. Fina had installed Fisher's Easy Joe 399A-6365, a pilot-operated, back-pressure-type regulator, on its LPG storage facility in 1991 as part of a fuel products modernization project. The regulators helped control the accumulation of noncondensible vapors, which collect in the storage bullets above the LPG. But summer heat extremes and surges in the tanks and lines made it possible for the operating pressure to increase so that the safety relief valve was activated before the pilot regulator was able to stabilize the pressure. The installation of pilot-type regulators, in cascaded, or series, formation, reduced product venting through relief valves.

  5. NETL LINES OF DEMARCATION 09282012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A line of responsibility demarcation between OIO and ORD will be established at the shutoff on the branch leading to or from an R&D project or laboratory area. OIO will install a ...

  6. Low loss laser glass: Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Izumitani, T.; Toratani, H.; Meissner, H.E.

    1987-01-15

    The objective of this work was a process development on making a laser glass with loss coefficient of 10/sup -4/cm/sup -1/ at 1.05..mu... The key issues for making such a low loss glass will be to use pure raw materials, to reduce OH content and to prevent contamination from the melting environment. A sublimation method was tried to prepare pure P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ batch material. In an attempt to distinguish contributions to the overall loss, glasses were melted in furnaces which were controlled in moisture as well as contamination. Evaluation of glass samples at LLNL are expected to provide guidance on the importance of various process parameters. A new 0.5 liter furnace which almost completely prevents contamination by the furnace environment has been constructed to obtain useful information for making a low loss glass on a production scale.

  7. Fin-line horn antenna

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reindel, John

    1990-01-01

    A fin line circuit card containing a fin line slot feeds a dipole antenna ich extends a quarterwave outside the waveguide and provides an energy beam focal point at or near the open end of the waveguide. The dipole antenna thus maintains a wide and nearly constant beamwidth, low VSWR and a circular symmetric radiation pattern for use in electronic warfare direction finding and surveillance applications.

  8. Radiation and ionization energy loss simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Xin -Hu; Ye, Yun -Xiu; Chen, Jian -Ping; Lu, Hai -Jiang; Zhu, Peng -Jia; Jiang, Feng -Jian

    2015-07-17

    The radiation and ionization energy loss are presented for single arm Monte Carlo simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab. Radiation and ionization energy loss are discussed for $^{12}C$ elastic scattering simulation. The relative momentum ratio $\\frac{\\Delta p}{p}$ and $^{12}C$ elastic cross section are compared without and with radiation energy loss and a reasonable shape is obtained by the simulation. The total energy loss distribution is obtained, showing a Landau shape for $^{12}C$ elastic scattering. This simulation work will give good support for radiation correction analysis of the GDH sum rule experiment.

  9. Radiation and ionization energy loss simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yan, Xin -Hu; Ye, Yun -Xiu; Chen, Jian -Ping; Lu, Hai -Jiang; Zhu, Peng -Jia; Jiang, Feng -Jian

    2015-07-17

    The radiation and ionization energy loss are presented for single arm Monte Carlo simulation for the GDH sum rule experiment in Hall-A at Jefferson Lab. Radiation and ionization energy loss are discussed formore » $$^{12}C$$ elastic scattering simulation. The relative momentum ratio $$\\frac{\\Delta p}{p}$$ and $$^{12}C$$ elastic cross section are compared without and with radiation energy loss and a reasonable shape is obtained by the simulation. The total energy loss distribution is obtained, showing a Landau shape for $$^{12}C$$ elastic scattering. This simulation work will give good support for radiation correction analysis of the GDH sum rule experiment.« less

  10. Analysis Model for Domestic Hot Water Distribution Systems: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maguire, J.; Krarti, M.; Fang, X.

    2011-11-01

    A thermal model was developed to estimate the energy losses from prototypical domestic hot water (DHW) distribution systems for homes. The developed model, using the TRNSYS simulation software, allows researchers and designers to better evaluate the performance of hot water distribution systems in homes. Modeling results were compared with past experimental study results and showed good agreement.

  11. Letter from Deputy Secretary Poneman to Clean Line Energy Regarding...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Line: Comment from Ms. Schroeder Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Mr. Zuniga Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Mr. Cain...

  12. Beam Loss Studies for Rare Isotope Driver Linacs Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangler, T P; Kurennoy, S S; Billen, J H; Crandall, K R; Qiang, J; Ryne, R D; Mustapha, B; Ostroumov, P; Zhao, Q; York, and R. C.

    2008-03-26

    The Fortran 90 RIAPMTQ/IMPACT code package is a pair of linked beam-dynamics simulation codes that have been developed for end-to-end computer simulations of multiple-charge-state heavy-ion linacs for future exotic-beam facilities. These codes have multiple charge-state capability, and include space-charge forces. The simulations can extend from the low-energy beam-transport line after an ECR ion source to the end of the linac. The work has been performed by a collaboration including LANL, LBNL, ANL, and MSU. The code RIAPMTQ simulates the linac front-end beam dynamics including the LEBT, RFQ, and MEBT. The code IMPACT simulates the beam dynamics of the main superconducting linac. The codes have been benchmarked for rms beam properties against previously existing codes at ANL and MSU. The codes allow high-statistics runs on parallel supercomputing platforms, particularly at NERSC at LBNL, for studies of beam losses. The codes also run on desktop PC computers for low-statistics work. The code package is described in more detail in a recent publication [1] in the Proceedings of PAC07 (2007 US Particle Accelerator Conference). In this report we describe the main activities for the FY07 beam-loss studies project using this code package.

  13. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The DOE Systems Integration team funds distribution grid integration research and development (R&D) activities to address the technical issues that surround distribution grid planning,...

  14. Annual Coal Distribution Report

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Annual Coal Distribution Report Release Date: April 16, 2015 | Next Release Date: March 2016 | full report | RevisionCorrection Revision to the Annual Coal Distribution Report ...

  15. About Industrial Distributed Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office's (AMO's) Industrial Distributed Energy activities build on the success of predecessor DOE programs on distributed energy and combined heat and power (CHP) while...

  16. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Origin State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2009 Final February 2011 2 Overview of 2009 Coal Distribution Tables...

  17. ONE NEVADA LINE | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ONE NEVADA LINE ONE NEVADA LINE DOE-LPO_Project-Posters_STOR-TRSM_One-Nevada-Line.pdf (323.38 KB) More Documents & Publications STEPHENTOWN SPINDLE CX-011989: Categorical Exclusion Determination CRESCENT DUNES

  18. Statistical line-by-line model for atomic spectra in intermediate...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Statistical line-by-line model for atomic spectra in intermediate coupling Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Statistical line-by-line model for atomic spectra in ...

  19. X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line spectra Citation Details In-Document Search Title: X-ray line polarization spectroscopy of Li-like satellite line ...

  20. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Anan

    2010-12-15

    The field of metamaterials is driven by fascinating and far-reaching theoretical visions, such as perfect lenses, invisibility cloaking, and enhanced optical nonlinearities. However, losses have become the major obstacle towards real world applications in the optical regime. Reducing the losses of optical metamaterials becomes necessary and extremely important. In this thesis, two approaches are taken to reduce the losses. One is to construct an indefinite medium. Indefinite media are materials where not all the principal components of the permittivity and permeability tensors have the same sign. They do not need the resonances to achieve negative permittivity, {var_epsilon}. So, the losses can be comparatively small. To obtain indefinite media, three-dimensional (3D) optical metallic nanowire media with different structures are designed. They are numerically demonstrated that they are homogeneous effective indefinite anisotropic media by showing that their dispersion relations are hyperbolic. Negative group refraction and pseudo focusing are observed. Another approach is to incorporate gain into metamaterial nanostructures. The nonlinearity of gain is included by a generic four-level atomic model. A computational scheme is presented, which allows for a self-consistent treatment of a dispersive metallic photonic metamaterial coupled to a gain material incorporated into the nanostructure using the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. The loss compensations with gain are done for various structures, from 2D simplified models to 3D realistic structures. Results show the losses of optical metamaterials can be effectively compensated by gain. The effective gain coefficient of the combined system can be much larger than the bulk gain counterpart, due to the strong local-field enhancement.

  1. Increasing the Capacity of Existing Power Lines

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of wind cooling on transmission lines concurrent with wind power generation, identifying additional capacity and line sag and clearance concerns to the ground, or nearby object. ...

  2. MODELING OF STOCHASTIC MAGNETIC FLUX LOSS FROM THE EDGE OF A POOIDALLY DIVERTED TOKAMAK

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    EVANS, TE,; MOYER, RA; MONAT, P

    2002-06-01

    OAK A271 MODELING OF STOCHASTIC MAGNETIC FLUX LOSS FROM THE EDGE OF A POOIDALLY DIVERTED TOKAMAK. A field line integration code is used to study the loss of edge poloidal magnetic flux due to stochastic magnetic fields produced by an error field correction coil (C-coil) in DIII-D for various plasma shapes, coil currents and edge magnetic shear profiles. The authors find that the boundary of a diverted tokamak is more sensitive to stochastic flux loss than a nondiverted tokamak. The C-coil has been used to produce a stochastic layer in an ohmic diverted discharge with characteristics similar to those seen in stochastic boundary experiments in circular limiter ohmic plasmas, including: (1) an overall increase in recycling, (2) a broadening of the recycling profile at the divertor, and (3) a flattening of the boundary profiles over the extent of the stochastic layer predicted by the field line integration code. Profile flattening consistent with field line integration results is also seen in some high performance discharges with edge transport barriers. The prediction of a significant edge stochastic layer even in discharges with high performance and edge radial transport barriers indicates that either the self-consistent plasma response heals the stochastic layer or that edge stochastic layers are compatible with edge radial transport barriers.

  3. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block Plains

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma | Department of Energy Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block Plains and Eastern Clean Line: Arkansas and Oklahoma Comment submitted on updated Part 2 application. Comment from Block Plains & Eastern Clean Line Arkansas and Oklahoma 06-08-15.pdf (1.21 MB) More Documents & Publications Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Block

  4. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Dr. Contreras

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Dr. Contreras Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Dr. Contreras Comment submitted on updated Part 2 application. Comment from Dr. Contreras 6-10-15.pdf (608.36 KB) More Documents & Publications Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Dr. Contreras Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Dr. Contreras Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Dr. Contreras

  5. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  6. Annual Coal Distribution

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2015-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  7. Coiled transmission line pulse generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McDonald, Kenneth Fox

    2010-11-09

    Methods and apparatus are provided for fabricating and constructing solid dielectric "Coiled Transmission Line" pulse generators in radial or axial coiled geometries. The pour and cure fabrication process enables a wide variety of geometries and form factors. The volume between the conductors is filled with liquid blends of monomers, polymers, oligomers, and/or cross-linkers and dielectric powders; and then cured to form high field strength and high dielectric constant solid dielectric transmission lines that intrinsically produce ideal rectangular high voltage pulses when charged and switched into matched impedance loads. Voltage levels may be increased by Marx and/or Blumlein principles incorporating spark gap or, preferentially, solid state switches (such as optically triggered thyristors) which produce reliable, high repetition rate operation. Moreover, these Marxed pulse generators can be DC charged and do not require additional pulse forming circuitry, pulse forming lines, transformers, or an a high voltage spark gap output switch. The apparatus accommodates a wide range of voltages, impedances, pulse durations, pulse repetition rates, and duty cycles. The resulting mobile or flight platform friendly cylindrical geometric configuration is much more compact, light-weight, and robust than conventional linear geometries, or pulse generators constructed from conventional components. Installing additional circuitry may accommodate optional pulse shape improvements. The Coiled Transmission Lines can also be connected in parallel to decrease the impedance, or in series to increase the pulse length.

  8. Chemometrics/on-line measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Rourke, P.E. )

    1989-11-01

    The possible future of on-line analytical-quality measurements for improved process control and more timely safeguards measurements is examined in the light of a current project at Savannah River. A measurement system involving a fiber-optic spectrophotometer and the application of mathematical techniques called chemometrics is described.

  9. Distributed Wind Ordinances: Slides

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    an introduction to distributed wind projects and a brief overview of topics to consider when developing a distributed wind energy ordinance. Distributed Wind Ordinances Photo from Byers and Renier Construction, NREL 18820 Distributed Wind Ordinances The U.S. Department of Energy defines distributed wind projects as: (a) The use of wind turbines, on- or off-grid, at homes, farms and ranches, businesses, public and industrial facilities, or other sites to offset all or a portion of the local

  10. EIA -Quarterly Coal Distribution

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    - Coal Distribution Quarterly Coal Distribution Archives Release Date: August 17, 2016 Next Release Date: December 22, 2016 The Quarterly Coal Distribution Report (QCDR) provides detailed quarterly data on U.S. domestic coal distribution by coal origin, coal destination, mode of transportation and consuming sector. All data are preliminary and superseded by the final Coal Distribution - Annual Report. Year/Quarters By origin State By destination State Report Data File Report Data File 2009

  11. Code System to Calculate Particle Penetration Through Aerosol Transport Lines.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-07-14

    Version 00 Distribution is restricted to US Government Agencies and Their Contractors Only. DEPOSITION1.03 is an interactive software program which was developed for the design and analysis of aerosol transport lines. Models are presented for calculating aerosol particle penetration through straight tubes of arbitrary orientation, inlets, and elbows. An expression to calculate effective depositional velocities of particles on tube walls is derived. The concept of maximum penetration is introduced, which is the maximum possible penetrationmore » through a sampling line connecting any two points in a three-dimensional space. A procedure to predict optimum tube diameter for an existing transport line is developed. Note that there is a discrepancy in this package which includes the DEPOSITION 1.03 executable and the DEPOSITION 2.0 report. RSICC was unable to obtain other executables or reports.« less

  12. Energy loss of fast quarks in nuclei

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garvey, G. T.; Johnson, Mikkel B.; Leitch, M. J.; McGaughey, P. L.; Peng, J. C.; Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Moss, J. M.

    2001-01-01

    We report an analysis of the nuclear dependence of the yield of Drell-Yan (DY) dimuons from the 800 GeV/c proton bombardment of {sup 2}H, C, Ca, Fe, and W targets. A light-cone formulation of the DY process is employed in the rest frame of the nucleus. In this frame, for x{sub 2} <loss and shadowing, in a consistent formulation. Shadowing, involving no free parameters, is calculated within the light-cone dipole formalism. Initial-state energy loss, the only unknown in the problem, is determined from afit to the nuclear-dependence ratio versus x{sub 1}. With the assumption of constant energy loss per unit path length, we find -dE/dz = 2.32 {+-} 0.52 {+-} 0.5 GeV/fm. This is the first observation of a nonzero energy loss of partons traveling in nuclear environment.

  13. Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar abundance...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar abundance problem Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Early solar mass loss, opacity uncertainties, and the solar ...

  14. Draft Michigan Saves Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Sample loan loss reserve fund agreement from Michigan Saves. Author: Michigan SAVES Michigan Saves Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement More Documents & Publications Draft "Michigan...

  15. Collisional energy loss above the critical temperature in QCD...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Collisional energy loss above the critical temperature in QCD Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Collisional energy loss above the critical temperature in QCD Authors: Lin, ...

  16. Loan Loss Reserve Funds Webinars | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Provides a listing of past L loan loss reserve fund webinars and associated files. Author: U. S. Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Loan Loss Reserve Fund ...

  17. Draft "Michigan Saves" Loan Loss Reserve Fund Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A sample loan loss reserve agreement between a state or local government and a financial institution setting the terms and conditions of the loan loss reserve fund.

  18. Energy Use Loss and Opportunities Analysis: U.S. Manufacturing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Use Loss and Opportunities Analysis: U.S. Manufacturing & Mining Energy Use Loss and Opportunities Analysis: U.S. Manufacturing & Mining energyuselossopportunitiesanalysis.pdf ...

  19. Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Understanding Collection-Related Losses in Organic Solar Cells...

  20. Particle Rate and Host Accelerator Beam Loss on the MICE Experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dobbs, Adam James

    2011-10-01

    A study is presented of particle rates in the MICE Muon Beamline and their relationship to beam loss produced in ISIS. A brief overview of neutrino physics is presented, together with a discussion on the Neutrino Factory as a motivation for MICE. An overview of MICE itself is then presented, highlighting the need for a systematic understanding of the relationship between the MICE target parameters, ISIS beam loss, and MICE particle rate. The variation of beam loss with target depth is examined and observed to be non-linear. The variation of beam loss with respect to the target dip time in the ISIS cycle is examined and observed to be approximately linear for dip times between 11.1 ms and 12.6 ms after ISIS injection, before tailing at earlier dip times. The variation of beam loss with particle rate is also observed to follow an approximately linear relationship from 0.05 V.ms to 4.7 V.ms beam loss, with a further strong indication that this continues up to 7.1 V.ms. Particle identification using time-of-flight data is used to give an insight into the relative abundances of each particle species present in the MICE beam. Estimates of muon rate are then produced as a function of beam loss. At a level of 2 V.ms beam loss ~10:9 muons per spill for a 3.2 ms spill with negative π → μ optics, and ~31:1 muons per 1 ms spill with positive π → μ optics are observed. Simulations using the ORBIT particle tracking code of the beam loss distributions around the ISIS ring, caused by the MICE target, are also presented and the implications for MICE running discussed.

  1. Analysis of Loss-of-Coolant Accidents in the NBSR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baek J. S.; Cheng L.; Diamond, D.

    2014-05-23

    This report documents calculations of the fuel cladding temperature during loss-of-coolant accidents in the NBSR. The probability of a pipe failure is small and procedures exist to minimize the loss of water and assure emergency cooling water flows into the reactor core during such an event. Analysis in the past has shown that the emergency cooling water would provide adequate cooling if the water filled the flow channels within the fuel elements. The present analysis is to determine if there is adequate cooling if the water drains from the flow channels. Based on photographs of how the emergency water flows into the fuel elements from the distribution pan, it can be assumed that this water does not distribute uniformly across the flow channels but rather results in a liquid film flowing downward on the inside of one of the side plates in each fuel element and only wets the edges of the fuel plates. An analysis of guillotine breaks shows the cladding temperature remains below the blister temperature in fuel plates in the upper section of the fuel element. In the lower section, the fuel plates are also cooled by water outside the element that is present due to the hold-up pan and temperatures are lower than in the upper section. For small breaks, the simulation results show that the fuel elements are always cooled on the outside even in the upper section and the cladding temperature cannot be higher than the blister temperature. The above results are predicated on assumptions that are examined in the study to see their influence on fuel temperature.

  2. A reactor core on-line monitoring program - COMP

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, C.; Wu, H.; Cao, L.

    2012-07-01

    A program named COMP is developed for on-line monitoring PWRs' in-core power distribution in this paper. Harmonics expansion method is used in COMP. The Unit 1 reactor of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Plant (Daya Bay NPP) in China is considered for verification. The numerical results show that the maximum relative error between measurement and reconstruction results from COMP is less than 5%, and the computing time is short, indicating that COMP is capable for online monitoring PWRs. (authors)

  3. Sandia Energy - Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distribution Grid Integration Home Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Photovoltaics Grid Integration Distribution Grid Integration Distribution Grid...

  4. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, Robert W.; Dobelbower, M. Christian

    1995-01-01

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  5. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  6. Beam losses due to abrupt crab cavity failures in the LHC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baer, T.; Barranco, J.; Calaga, R.; Tomas, R.; Wenninger, B.; Yee, B.; Zimmermann, F.

    2011-03-28

    A major concern for the implementation of crab crossing in a future High-Luminosity LHC (HL-LHC) is machine protection in an event of a fast crab-cavity failure. Certain types of abrupt crab-cavity amplitude and phase changes are simulated to characterize the effect of failures on the beam and the resulting particle-loss signatures. The time-dependent beam loss distributions around the ring and particle trajectories obtained from the simulations allow for a first assessment of the resulting beam impact on LHC collimators and on sensitive components around the ring. Results for the nominal LHC lattice is presented.

  7. Effect of pipe insulation losses on a loss-of-heat sink accident for an LMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horak, W.C.; Guppy, J.G.; Wood, P.M.

    1985-01-01

    The efficacy of pipe radiation losses as a heat sink during LOHS in a loop-type LMR plant is investigated. The Super System Code (SSC), which was modified to include pipe radiation losses, was used to simulate such an LOHS in an LMR plant. In order to enhance these losses, the pipes were assumed to be insulated by rock wool, a material whose thermal conductivity increases with increasing temperature. A transient was simulated for a total of eight days, during which the coolant temperatures peaked well below saturation conditions and then declined steadily. The coolant flow rate in the loop remained positive throughout the transient.

  8. getnim - NIM's Command Line Interface

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    getnim command getnim - NIM's Command Line Interface This page describes the inquiry-only command called getnim that users can use interactively and in scripts to get their account balances. GETNIM(l) NERSC GETNIM(l) NAME getnim - query the NERSC banking database for remaining allocation, resources and repository information SYNOPSIS getnim [ options ] -Rrname or getnim [ options ] -Rrname { -uuid | -Uuname } or getnim [ options ][ -D ] { -uuid | -Uuname } or getnim [ options ] -Rrname { -l | -L

  9. In-line thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    2000-01-01

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

  10. In-Line Thermoelectric Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    1998-07-28

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an-in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions maybe perpendicular to the direction-of current flow through the module.

  11. Tuneable dielectric films having low electrical losses

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimos, Duane Brian; Schwartz, Robert William; Raymond, Mark Victor; Al-Shareef, Husam Niman; Mueller, Carl; Galt, David

    2000-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method for forming dielectric thin films having substantially reduced electrical losses at microwave and millimeter wave frequencies relative to conventional dielectric thin films. The reduction in losses is realized by dramatically increasing the grain sizes of the dielectric films, thereby minimizing intergranular scattering of the microwave signal due to grain boundaries and point defects. The increase in grain size is realized by heating the film to a temperature at which the grains experience regrowth. The grain size of the films can be further increased by first depositing the films with an excess of one of the compoents, such that a highly mobile grain boundary phase is formed.

  12. Scannerless laser range imaging using loss modulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandusky, John V.

    2011-08-09

    A scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus is disclosed which utilizes an amplitude modulated cw light source to illuminate a field of view containing a target of interest. Backscattered light from the target is passed through one or more loss modulators which are modulated at the same frequency as the light source, but with a phase delay .delta. which can be fixed or variable. The backscattered light is demodulated by the loss modulator and detected with a CCD, CMOS or focal plane array (FPA) detector to construct a 3-D image of the target. The scannerless 3-D imaging apparatus, which can operate in the eye-safe wavelength region 1.4-1.7 .mu.m and which can be constructed as a flash LADAR, has applications for vehicle collision avoidance, autonomous rendezvous and docking, robotic vision, industrial inspection and measurement, 3-D cameras, and facial recognition.

  13. Energy loss rate in disordered quantum well

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tripathi, P.; Ashraf, S. S. Z.; Hasan, S. T.; Sharma, A. C.

    2014-04-24

    We report the effect of dynamically screened deformation potential on the electron energy loss rate in disordered semiconductor quantum well. Interaction of confined electrons with bulk acoustic phonons has been considered in the deformation coupling. The study concludes that the dynamically screened deformation potential coupling plays a significant role as it substantially affects the power dependency of electron relaxation on temperature and mean free path.

  14. Recent Stirling engine loss - understanding results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tew, R.C.; Thieme, L.G.; Dudenhoefer, J.E.

    1994-09-01

    For several years, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and other US Government agencies have been funding experimental and analytical efforts to improve the understanding of Stirling thermodynamic losses. NASA`s objective is to improve Stirling engine design capability to support the development of new engines for space power. An overview of these efforts was last given at the 1988 IECEC. Recent results of this research are reviewed.

  15. Loss/gain on ignition test report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winstead, M.L.

    1996-01-10

    Document provides the results of tests done on Product Cans from the HC-21C sludge stabilization process. Tests included running a simulated Thermogravimetric Analysis, TGA, on the processed material that have received Loss On Ignition (LOI) sample results that show a gain on ignition or a high LOI and reprocessing product cans with high LOIs. Also, boat material temperatures in the furnace were tracked during the testing.

  16. New Mechanism for Quark Energy Loss

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Casalderrey-Solana, Jorge; Fernandez, Daniel; Mateos, David

    2010-04-30

    We show that a heavy quark moving sufficiently fast through a quark-gluon plasma may lose energy by Cherenkov-radiating mesons. We demonstrate that this takes place in all strongly coupled, large-N{sub c} plasmas with a gravity dual. The energy loss is exactly calculable in these models despite being an O(1/N{sub c}) effect. We discuss implications for heavy-ion collision experiments.

  17. Distributed Wind 2015

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Distributed Wind 2015 is committed to the advancement of both distributed and community wind energy. This two day event includes a Business Conference with sessions focused on advancing the...

  18. Doubly Distributed Transactions

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-08-25

    Doubly Distributed Transactions (D2T) offers a technique for managing operations from a set of parallel clients with a collection of distributed services. It detects and manages faults. Example code with a test harness is also provided

  19. Fuel cells in distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Sullivan, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    In the past the vertically integrated electric utility industry has not utilized Distributed Generation (DG) because it was viewed as competition to central station power production. Gas utilities have been heavily and aggressively involved in the promotion of gas fired DG because for them it is additional load that may also balance the winter load. With deregulation and restructuring of the electricity industry DG is now viewed in a different light. For those utilities that have sold their generation assets DG can be a new retail service to provide to their customers. For those who are still vertically integrated, DG can be an asset management tool at the distribution level. DG can be utilized to defer capital investments involving line and substation upgrades. Coupled to this new interest in DG technologies and their performance characteristics are the associated interests in implementation issues. These range from the codes and standards requirements and hardware for interfacing to the grid as well as C{sup 3}-I (command, control, communication--intelligence) issues. The latter involves dispatching on-grid or customer sited resources, monitoring their performance and tracking the economic transactions. Another important aspect is the impact of DG resources (size, number and location) on service area dynamic behavior (power quality, reliability, stability, etc.). EPRI has ongoing programs addressing all these aspects of DG and the distribution grid. Since fuel cells can be viewed as electrochemical engines, and as with thermomechanical engines, there doesn't have to be a best fuel cell. Each engine can serve many markets and some will be better suited than others in a specific market segment (e.g. spark ignition in cars and turbines in planes). This paper will address the status of developing fuel cell technologies and their application to various market areas within the context of Distributed Generation.

  20. SN 2009ip: CONSTRAINTS ON THE PROGENITOR MASS-LOSS RATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ofek, E. O.; Lin, L.; Goegues, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kasliwal, M. M.; Cao, Y.

    2013-05-01

    Some supernovae (SNe) show evidence for mass-loss events taking place prior to their explosions. Measuring their pre-outburst mass-loss rates provides essential information regarding the mechanisms that are responsible for these events. Here we present XMM-Newton and Swift X-ray observations taken after the latest, and presumably the final, outburst of SN 2009ip. We use these observations as well as new near-infrared and visible-light spectra and published radio and visible-light observations to put six independent order-of-magnitude constraints on the mass-loss rate of the SN progenitor prior to the explosion. Our methods utilize the X-ray luminosity, the bound-free absorption, the H{alpha} luminosity, the SN rise time, free-free absorption, and the bolometric luminosity of the outburst detected prior to the explosion. Assuming spherical mass loss with a wind-density profile, we estimate that the effective mass-loss rate from the progenitor was between 10{sup -3} and 10{sup -2} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}, over a few years prior to the explosion, with a velocity of {approx}10{sup 3} km s{sup -1}. This mass-loss rate corresponds to a total circumstellar matter (CSM) mass of {approx}0.04 M{sub Sun }, within 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} cm of the SN. We note that the mass-loss rate estimate based on the H{alpha} luminosity is higher by an order of magnitude. This can be explained if the narrow-line H{alpha} component is generated at radii larger than the shock radius, or if the CSM has an aspherical geometry. We discuss simple geometries which are consistent with our results.

  1. A coupled effect of nuclear and electronic energy loss on ion irradiation damage in lithium niobate

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yanwen; Xue, Haizhou; Jin, Ke; Crespillo, Miguel L.; Wang, Xuelin; Weber, William J.

    2016-01-09

    Understanding irradiation effects induced by elastic energy loss to atomic nuclei and inelastic energy loss to electrons in a crystal, as well as the coupled effect between them, is a scientific challenge. Damage evolution in LiNbO3 irradiated by 0.9 and 21 MeV Si ions at 300 K has been studied utilizing Rutherford backscattering spectrometry in channeling mode. During the low-energy ion irradiation process, damage accumulation produced due to elastic collisions is described utilizing a disorder accumulation model. Moreover, low electronic energy loss is shown to induce observable damage that increases with ion fluence. For the same electronic energy loss, themore » velocity of the incident ion could affect the energy and spatial distribution of excited electrons, and therefore effectively modify the diameter of the ion track. Furthermore, nonlinear additive phenomenon of irradiation damage induced by high electronic energy loss in pre-damaged LiNbO3 has been observed. The result indicates that pre-existing damage induced from nuclear energy loss interacts synergistically with inelastic electronic energy loss to promote the formation of amorphous tracks and lead to rapid phase transformation, much more efficient than what is observed in pristine crystal solely induced by electronic energy loss. As a result, this synergistic effect is attributed to the fundamental mechanism that the defects produced by the elastic collisions result in a decrease in thermal conductivity, increase in the electron-phonon coupling, and further lead to higher intensity in thermal spike from intense electronic energy deposition along high-energy ion trajectory.« less

  2. Distribution Integrity Management Plant (DIMP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gonzales, Jerome F.

    2012-05-07

    This document is the distribution integrity management plan (Plan) for the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan meets the requirements of 49 CFR Part 192, Subpart P Distribution Integrity Management Programs (DIMP) for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. This Plan was developed by reviewing records and interviewing LANL personnel. The records consist of the design, construction, operation and maintenance for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System. The records system for the LANL Natural Gas Distribution System is limited, so the majority of information is based on the judgment of LANL employees; the maintenance crew, the Corrosion Specialist and the Utilities and Infrastructure (UI) Civil Team Leader. The records used in this report are: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA) 7100.1-1, Report of Main and Service Line Inspection, Natural Gas Leak Survey, Gas Leak Response Report, Gas Leak and Repair Report, and Pipe-to-Soil Recordings. The specific elements of knowledge of the infrastructure used to evaluate each threat and prioritize risks are listed in Sections 6 and 7, Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization respectively. This Plan addresses additional information needed and a method for gaining that data over time through normal activities. The processes used for the initial assessment of Threat Evaluation and Risk Prioritization are the methods found in the Simple, Handy Risk-based Integrity Management Plan (SHRIMP{trademark}) software package developed by the American Pipeline and Gas Agency (APGA) Security and Integrity Foundation (SIF). SHRIMP{trademark} uses an index model developed by the consultants and advisors of the SIF. Threat assessment is performed using questions developed by the Gas Piping Technology Company (GPTC) as modified and added to by the SHRIMP{trademark} advisors. This Plan is required to be reviewed every 5 years to be continually refined and improved. Records

  3. Tailored ion energy distributions on plasma electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Economou, Demetre J.

    2013-09-15

    As microelectronic device features continue to shrink approaching atomic dimensions, control of the ion energy distribution on the substrate during plasma etching and deposition becomes increasingly critical. The ion energy should be high enough to drive ion-assisted etching, but not too high to cause substrate damage or loss of selectivity. In many cases, a nearly monoenergetic ion energy distribution (IED) is desired to achieve highly selective etching. In this work, the author briefly reviews: (1) the fundamentals of development of the ion energy distribution in the sheath and (2) methods to control the IED on plasma electrodes. Such methods include the application of “tailored” voltage waveforms on an electrode in continuous wave plasmas, or the application of synchronous bias on a “boundary electrode” during a specified time window in the afterglow of pulsed plasmas.

  4. Integration of distributed resources in electric utility systems: Current interconnection practice and unified approach. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barker, P.; Leskan, T.; Zaininger, H.; Smith, D.

    1998-11-01

    Deregulation of the electric utility industry, new state and federal programs, and technology developments are making distributed resources (DR) an increasingly utilized option to provide capacity for growing or heavily loaded electric power systems. Optimal DR placement near loads provides benefits not attainable from bulk generation system additions. These include reduced loading of the T and D system, reduced losses, voltage support, and T and D equipment upgrade deferments. The purpose of this document is to review existing interconnection practices and present interconnection guidelines are relevant to the protection, control, and data acquisition requirements for the interconnection of distributed resources to the utility system. This is to include protection performance requirements, data collection and reporting requirements, on-line communication requirements, and ongoing periodic documentation requirements. This document also provides guidelines for the practical placement and sizing of resources as pertinent to determining the interconnection equipment and system control requirements. The material contained herein has been organized into 4 sections dealing with application issues, existing practices, a unified interconnection approach, and future work. Section 2 of the report discusses the application issues associated with distributed resources and deals with various engineering issues such as overcurrent protection, voltage regulation, and islanding. Section 3 summarizes the existing utility interconnection practices and guidelines as determined from the documents provided by participating utilities. Section 4 presents a unified interconnection approach that is intended to serve as a guide for interconnection of distributed resources to the utility system. And finally, Section 5 outlines possible future areas of study to expand upon the topics discussed in this report.

  5. Stability of drift-cyclotron loss-cone waves in H-mode plasmas

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Farmer, W. A.; Morales, G. J.

    2016-05-24

    The drift-cyclotron loss-cone mode was first studied in mirror machines. In such devices, particles with small pitch angles are not confined, creating a hole in the velocity distribution function that is a source of free energy and leads to micro-instabilities in the cyclotron-range of frequencies. In the edge region of tokamak devices operating under H-mode conditions, ion loss also occurs. In this case, gradient drift carries ions moving opposite to the plasma current preferentially into the divertor, creating a one-sided loss cone. A simple analysis shows that for the quiescent H-mode plasmas in DIII-D the critical gradient for instability ismore » exceeded within 2 cm of the separatrix, and the maximum growth rate at the separatrix is 3×107 s-1.« less

  6. An examination of the costs and critical characteristics of electric utility distribution system capacity enhancement projects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balducci, Patrick J.; Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; Fathelrahman, Eihab M.

    2004-06-01

    This report classifies and analyzes the capital and total costs (e.g., income tax, property tax, depreciation, centralized power generation, insurance premiums, and capital financing) associated with 130 electricity distribution system capacity enhancement projects undertaken during 1995-2002 or planned in the 2003-2011 time period by three electric power utilities operating in the Pacific Northwest. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), in cooperation with participating utilities, has developed a large database of over 3,000 distribution system projects. The database includes brief project descriptions, capital cost estimates, the stated need for each project, and engineering data. The database was augmented by additional technical (e.g., line loss, existing substation capacities, and forecast peak demand for power in the area served by each project), cost (e.g., operations, maintenance, and centralized power generation costs), and financial (e.g., cost of capital, insurance premiums, depreciations, and tax rates) data. Though there are roughly 3,000 projects in the database, the vast majority were not included in this analysis because they either did not clearly enhance capacity or more information was needed, and not available, to adequately conduct the cost analyses. For the 130 projects identified for this analysis, capital cost frequency distributions were constructed, and expressed in terms of dollars per kVA of additional capacity. The capital cost frequency distributions identify how the projects contained within the database are distributed across a broad cost spectrum. Furthermore, the PNNL Energy Cost Analysis Model (ECAM) was used to determine the full costs (e.g., capital, operations and maintenance, property tax, income tax, depreciation, centralized power generation costs, insurance premiums and capital financing) associated with delivering electricity to customers, once again expressed in terms of costs per kVA of additional capacity

  7. Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Save The

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ozarks | Department of Energy from Save The Ozarks Plains and Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line: Comment from Save The Ozarks Comment submitted on updated Part 2 application. Comment by Save the Ozarks 07-13-15.pdf (112.79 KB) More Documents & Publications Plains & Eastern Clean Line Transmission Line - Part 2 Application Plains & Eastern Clean Line Project Proposal for New or Upgraded Transmission Line Projects Under Section 1222 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 Plains and

  8. CXD 4601, Line Yard Fence Project (4601)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Line Yard Fence Project (4601) Y-12 Site Office Oak Ridge, Anderson County, Tennessee The proposed action is to install fencing around the Old Line Yard to provide protected...

  9. FB Line Basis for Interim Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shedrow, B.

    1998-10-19

    The safety analysis of the FB-Line Facility indicates that the operation of FB-Line to support the current mission does not present undue risk to the facility and co-located workers, general public, or the environment.

  10. Capillary electrophoresis-fluorescence line narrowing system (CE-FLNS) for on-line structural characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowiak, R.J.; Small, G.J.; Shields, P.A.

    1999-04-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is interfaced with low temperature fluorescence line-narrowing (FLN) spectroscopy for on-line structural characterization of separated molecular analytes. 21 figs.

  11. Capillary electrophoresis-fluorescence line narrowing system (CE-FLNS) for on-line structural characterization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowiak, Ryszard J.; Small, Gerald J.; Shields, Peter A.

    1999-04-27

    Capillary electrophoresis (CE) is interfaced with low temperature fluorescence line-narrowing (FLN) spectroscopy for on-line structural characterization of separated molecular analytes.

  12. O.A.R. 734-055 - Pole Lines, Buried Cables, Pipe lines, Signs...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    rules outline the requirements for location, installation, construction, maintenance and use of pole lines, buried cables, pipe lines, signs miscellaneous operations...

  13. Extensive horizontal gene transfer, duplication, and loss of chlorophyll synthesis genes in the algae

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Randhawa, Tejinder; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2015-02-10

    Two non-homologous, isofunctional enzymes catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll a synthesis in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms such as cyanobacteria, eukaryotic algae and land plants: the light independent (LIPOR) and light-dependent (POR) protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases. Whereas the distribution of these enzymes in cyanobacteria and land plants is well understood, the presence, loss, duplication, and replacement of these genes have not been surveyed in the polyphyletic and remarkably diverse eukaryotic algal lineages.

  14. 01ii Beam Line - 2

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    STA N FO R D LIN EA R A C C ELER A TO R C EN TER Fall 2001, Vol. 31, No. 3 Guest Editor MICHAEL RIORDAN Editors RENE DONALDSON, BILL KIRK Contributing Editors GORDON FRASER JUDY JACKSON, AKIHIRO MAKI MICHAEL RIORDAN, PEDRO WALOSCHEK Editorial Advisory Board PATRICIA BURCHAT, DAVID BURKE LANCE DIXON, EDWARD HARTOUNI ABRAHAM SEIDEN, GEORGE SMOOT HERMAN WINICK Illustrations TERRY ANDERSON Distribution CRYSTAL TILGHMAN A PERIODICAL OF PARTICLE PHYSICS CONTENTS FALL 2001 VOL. 31, NUMBER 3 The Beam

  15. Naked Stony Corals: Skeleton Loss in Scleractinia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Medina, Monica; Collins, Allen G.; Takaoka, Tori L.; Kuehl,Jennifer; Boore, Jeffrey L.

    2005-12-01

    Hexacorallia includes the Scleractinia, or stony corals, characterized by having an external calcareous skeleton made of aragonite, and the Corallimorpharia, or mushroom corals, that lack such a skeleton. Although each group has traditionally been considered monophyletic, some molecular phylogenetic analyses have challenged this, suggesting that skeletal features are evolutionarily plastic, and reviving notions that the scleractinian skeleton may be ephemeral and that the group itself may be polyphyletic. Nevertheless, the most comprehensive phylogenetic study of Hexacorallia supported scleractinian monophyly (REF), and so this remains controversial. In order to resolve this contentious issue, we sequenced the complete mitochondrial genome sequences of nine scleractinians and four corallimorpharians and performed phylogenetic analysis that also included three outgroups (an octocoral and two sea anemones). Our data provide the first strong evidence that Scleractinia is paraphyletic and that the Corallimorpharia is derived from within the group, from which we conclude that skeletal loss has occurred in the latter group secondarily. It is possible that a driving force in such skeletal loss could be the high levels of CO{sub 2} in the ocean during the mid-Cretaceous, which would have impacted aragonite solubility. We estimate from molecular divergence measures that the Corallimorpharia arose in the mid-Cretaceous, approximately 87 million years ago (Ma), supporting this view. These data also permit us to date the origin of Scleractinia to 265 Ma, narrowing the gap between the group's phylogenetic origin and its earliest fossil record.

  16. Antenna with distributed strip and integrated electronic components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodenbeck, Christopher T. (Albuquerque, NM); Payne, Jason A. (Albuquerque, NM); Ottesen, Cory W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-08-05

    An antenna comprises electrical conductors arranged to form a radiating element including a folded line configuration and a distributed strip configuration, where the radiating element can be in proximity to a ground conductor and/or arranged as a dipole. Embodiments of the antenna include conductor patterns formed on a printed wiring board, having a ground plane, spacedly adjacent to and coplanar with the radiating element. An antenna can comprise a distributed strip patterned on a printed wiring board, integrated with electronic components mounted on top of or below the distributed strip, and substantially within the extents of the distributed strip. Mounting of electronic components on top of or below the distributed strip has little effect on the performance of the antenna, and allows for realizing the combination of the antenna and integrated components in a compact form. An embodiment of the invention comprises an antenna including a distributed strip, integrated with a battery mounted on the distributed strip.

  17. Studies of charging stream trajectories and burden distribution in the blast furnace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCarthy, M.J.; Mayfield, P.L.; Zulli, P.; Rex, A.J.; Tanzil, W.B.U.

    1993-01-01

    This work discusses the sensitivity of key blast furnace performance parameters to different gas flow distributions achieved by altering the burden distribution. The changes in burden distribution are brought about by different charging stream trajectories, and methods developed and evaluated for measuring the trajectories both on and off line are described.

  18. SPUF - a simple polyurethane foam mass loss and response model.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hobbs, Michael L.; Lemmon, Gordon H.

    2003-07-01

    A Simple PolyUrethane Foam (SPUF) mass loss and response model has been developed to predict the behavior of unconfined, rigid, closed-cell, polyurethane foam-filled systems exposed to fire-like heat fluxes. The model, developed for the B61 and W80-0/1 fireset foam, is based on a simple two-step mass loss mechanism using distributed reaction rates. The initial reaction step assumes that the foam degrades into a primary gas and a reactive solid. The reactive solid subsequently degrades into a secondary gas. The SPUF decomposition model was implemented into the finite element (FE) heat conduction codes COYOTE [1] and CALORE [2], which support chemical kinetics and dynamic enclosure radiation using 'element death.' A discretization bias correction model was parameterized using elements with characteristic lengths ranging from 1-mm to 1-cm. Bias corrected solutions using the SPUF response model with large elements gave essentially the same results as grid independent solutions using 100-{micro}m elements. The SPUF discretization bias correction model can be used with 2D regular quadrilateral elements, 2D paved quadrilateral elements, 2D triangular elements, 3D regular hexahedral elements, 3D paved hexahedral elements, and 3D tetrahedron elements. Various effects to efficiently recalculate view factors were studied -- the element aspect ratio, the element death criterion, and a 'zombie' criterion. Most of the solutions using irregular, large elements were in agreement with the 100-{micro}m grid-independent solutions. The discretization bias correction model did not perform as well when the element aspect ratio exceeded 5:1 and the heated surface was on the shorter side of the element. For validation, SPUF predictions using various sizes and types of elements were compared to component-scale experiments of foam cylinders that were heated with lamps. The SPUF predictions of the decomposition front locations were compared to the front locations determined from real-time X

  19. Distributed generation systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  20. Towards identifying the mechanisms underlying field-aligned edge-loss of HHFW power on NSTX

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Bertelli, N.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Maingi, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, L.; Scotti, F.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A.; and others

    2014-02-12

    Fast-wave heating will be a major heating scheme on ITER, as it can heat ions directly and is relatively unaffected by the large machine size unlike neutral beams. However, fast-wave interactions with the plasma edge can lead to deleterious effects such as, in the case of the high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) system on NSTX, large losses of fast-wave power in the scrape off layer (SOL) under certain conditions. In such scenarios, a large fraction of the lost HHFW power is deposited on the upper and lower divertors in bright spiral shapes. The responsible mechanism(s) has not yet been identified but may include fast-wave propagation in the scrape off layer, parametric decay instability, and RF currents driven by the antenna reactive fields. Understanding and mitigating these losses is important not only for improving the heating and current-drive on NSTX-Upgrade but also for understanding fast-wave propagation across the SOL in any fast-wave system. This talk summarizes experimental results demonstrating that the flow of lost HHFW power to the divertor regions largely follows the open SOL magnetic field lines. This lost power flux is relatively large close to both the antenna and the last closed flux surface with a reduced level in between, so the loss mechanism cannot be localized to the antenna. At the same time, significant losses also occur along field lines connected to the inboard edge of the bottom antenna plate. The power lost within the spirals is roughly estimated, showing that these field-aligned losses to the divertor are significant but may not account for the total HHFW loss. To elucidate the role of the onset layer for perpendicular fast-wave propagation with regards to fast-wave propagation in the SOL, a cylindrical cold-plasma model is being developed. This model, in addition to advanced RF codes such as TORIC and AORSA, is aimed at identifying the underlying mechanism(s) behind these SOL losses, to minimize their effects in NSTX-U, and to predict

  1. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    TF RailroadVesselShip Fuel It is also noted that Destination State code of "X Export" indicates movements to foreign destinations. 1 68 Domestic Coal Distribution...

  2. Distribution of Correspondence

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    1996-08-30

    Defines correct procedures for distribution of correspondence to the Naval Reactors laboratories. Does not cancel another directive. Expired 8-30-97.

  3. Ductless Hydronic Distribution Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation is from a Building America webinar conducted on November 8, 2011, by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) about ductless hydronic distribution systems.

  4. PV distribution system

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    distribution system - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us ... Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ...

  5. Distribution Grid Integration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & ... of the distributed, or local, power generation into the electric power system. ...

  6. Annual Coal Distribution Tables

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Domestic Distribution of U.S. Coal by Destination State, Consumer, Destination and Method of Transportation, 2001 (Thousand Short Tons) DESTINATION: Alabama State of Origin by...

  7. Coal Distribution Database, 2006

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Report - Annual provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is...

  8. Cooling water distribution system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Orr, Richard

    1994-01-01

    A passive containment cooling system for a nuclear reactor containment vessel. Disclosed is a cooling water distribution system for introducing cooling water by gravity uniformly over the outer surface of a steel containment vessel using an interconnected series of radial guide elements, a plurality of circumferential collector elements and collector boxes to collect and feed the cooling water into distribution channels extending along the curved surface of the steel containment vessel. The cooling water is uniformly distributed over the curved surface by a plurality of weirs in the distribution channels.

  9. Loss of sex chromosomes in the hematopoietic disorders: Questions, concerns and data interpretation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slovak, M.L. [City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The significance of sex chromosome aberrations in the hematopoietic disorders has not yet been defined. Interpretive problems stem from (1) the loss of a sex chromosome associated with aging, (2) sex chromosome loss as the sole aberration in leukemia is rare, (3) random -(X or Y) is observed frequently in bone marrow samples, and (4) constitutional sex chromosome anomalies must be ruled out in cancer and follow-up may not be possible. The COH database identified 41 patients (pts) with sex chromosome loss. Loss of a sex chromosome was common in myeloid disorders (21/41). In t(8;21) leukemia (n=10), -(X or Y) was a common secondary karyotypic change. Additionally, -Y was associated with clonal evolution in 2 Ph + CML pts. In 2 elderly pts with myeloid disorders, -(X or Y) was observed in complex karyotypes with dmins; however, in the lymphoproliferative disorders -(X or Y) was noted in elderly pts without apparent pathogenetic significance. Three pts had constitutional sex chromosome aberrations: CML in 45,X; ALL in 47, XXY; and RAEB-IT in mos45,X/46,XX. In the mos45,X/46,XX pt, the leukemic clone was associated with the 45,X line without other karyotypic changes. Non-clonal aberrations were observed in 11 cases; in 3 cases these non-clonal losses were observed in serial samples. In a sex-mismatched BMT case, -(X or Y) in 4 cells was one of the first pathogenetic signs of leukemia relapse. These data suggest (1) interpretation of sex chromosome loss in leukemia must be made with caution and after a baseline sample, (2) non-clonal aberrations should be recorded, and (3) -(X or Y) appears to have pathogenetic significance in the myeloid disorders. Multi-institutional studies are needed to define (1) the incidence of leukemia in pts with constitutional sex chromosome anomalies and (2) the incidence and significance of sex chromosome aberrations as the primary (sole) cytogenetic aberration in leukemia.

  10. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.