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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Distribution system design optimization for cold load pickup  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a study on the optimal design of power distribution systems. Distribution substation transformer size and feeder sectionalizing switches are selected such that a cold load pickup situation can be handled while minimizing an annual cost function. The cases of a distribution substation with one or more transformer(s) are considered. In the latter case, the optimization problem is formulated based on the worst-case scenario of having one of the transformers out of service.

Wakileh, J.J.; Pahwa, A. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Development of a simplified cooling load design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in design day cooling load profiles for OH and UFAD systems;in design day cooling load profiles for OH and UFAD systems;showed that the cooling load profiles for UFAD and OH are

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

design day cooling load profiles, (2) impact of a thermallyday peak zone cooling load profile for UFAD and a well-mixedaffects the cooling load profiles, therefore it is possible

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Load Forecasting for Modern Distribution Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Load forecasting is a fundamental activity for numerous organizations and activities within a utility, including planning, operations, and control. Transmission and Distribution (T&D) planning and design engineers use the load forecast to determine whether any changes and additions are needed to the electric system to satisfy the anticipated load. Other load forecast users include system operations, financial ...

2013-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

5

Distribution load study aids system planning  

SciTech Connect

The Walnut Metering Project is an experimental substation and distribution system metering installation designed to provide quantitative data for distribution system planning. The design and operation of the metering equipment are discussed. After 3 years of operation it was concluded that the primary economic benefits anticipated from the determination of substation area diversity characteristics did not materialize because the peaking characteristics of the substations in the area were typically coincident with each other. However, the data obtained had a significant positive impact, both economically and operationally, in the field of equipment loadability, and is beneficial to activities related to load projections and distribution system planning. (LCL)

Scofield J.M.

1976-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Distribution substation load impacts of residential air conditioner load control  

SciTech Connect

An ongoing experiment to monitor the substation level load impacts of end-use load control is described. An overview of the data acquisition system, experimental procedures and analysis techniques are provided. Results of the 1983 and 1984 experiments demonstrate the value of aggregate load impact monitoring as a means of verifying load research results, calculating the diversity of end-use loads, and predicting the impacts of load management on the transmission and distribution systems.

Heffner, G.C.; Kaufman, D.A.

1985-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

How and why distribution loads vary  

SciTech Connect

Because the maximum-use rates of gas customers having differing appliance combinations do not coincide, a distribution system's peak-hour flow rate depends on the relative proportions of the load contributed by the appliances of all the different types of residential, commercial, and industrial customers. The maximum load on Central Hudson's distribution system coincides with the maximum hourly gas flow rate for all residential space-heating purposes; however, Central Hudson analyzes the peak-hour load of its commercial and industrial customers individually. The gas-system sendout presented as a sendout-duration curve is a convenient way to show how these various loads determine gas requirements and to compare the economics of alternative supply methods. The sendout-duration curve consists of long-term weather data plotted against time intervals of 1-365 days. If the threshold temperature and the heating load per degree-day are known, the curve allows the calculation of both normal and design annual peakshaving quantities.

Haber, D.P.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings Part 1: AnAnalysis of Policy, Building loads, Tariff Design, andAdoption in Commercial Buildings Part 1 An Analysis of

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings:Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, andTechnology Development  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Rapidly growing electricity demand brings into question theability of traditional grids to expand correspondingly while providingreliable service. An alternative path is the wider application ofdistributed energy resource (DER) that apply combined heat and power(CHP). It can potentially shave peak loads and satiate its growing thirstfor electricity demand, improve overall energy efficiency, and lowercarbon and other pollutant emissions. This research investigates a methodof choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at theBerkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the DistributedEnergy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds theoptimal combination of installed equipment from available DERtechnologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical andthermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a globaloptimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads canbe served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-sitegeneration, heat recovery, and cooling. Utility electricity and gastariffs are key factors determining the economic benefit of a CHPinstallation, however often be neglected. This paper describespreliminary analysis on CHP investment climate in the U.S. and Japan. DERtechnologies, energy prices, and incentive measures has beeninvestigated.

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

10

Load transfer coupling regression curve fitting for distribution load forecasting  

SciTech Connect

The planning of distribution facilities requires forecasts of future substation and feeder loads. Extrapolation based on a curve fit to past annual peak loads is currently the most popular manner of accomplishing this forecast. Curve fitting suffers badly from data shifts caused by switching as loads are routinely moved from one substation to another during the course of utility operations. This switching contaminates the data, reducing forecast accuracy. A new regression application reduces error due to these transfers by over an order of magnitude. A key to the usefulness of this method is that the amount of the transfer, and its direction (whether it was to or from a substation), is not a required input. The new technique, aspects of computer implementation of it, and a series of tests showing its advantage over normal multiple regression methods are given.

Willis, H.L.; Powell, R.W.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Design Ground Snow Loads for Ohio  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The weight of snow with a mean recurrence interval of 50 years, called the design ground snow load, is used by engineers and planners to estimate the weight of snow that roofs must be designed to support National maps of ground snow load have ...

Thomas W. Schmidlin; Dennis J. Edgell; Molly A. Delaney

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

AC distribution system for TFTR pulsed loads  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper outlines the AC distribution system associated with the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor and discusses the significant areas related to design, protection, and equipment selection, particularly where there is a departure from normal utility and industrial applications.

Carroll, R.F.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Lemmon, G.N.; Moo, W.I.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

An enhanced load transfer scheme for power distribution systems connected with distributed generation sources  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents an enhanced load transfer scheme for power distribution systems connected with distributed generation sources. Load transfer is an important approach to improve the reliability of power distribution systems. The proposed load transfer ... Keywords: distributed generation source, distribution feeder, distribution system, interconnection, load transfer

Wen-Chih Yang; Wei-Tzer Huang

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercialand Renewable Energy, Distributed Energy Program of the U.S.Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DER technologies, Japanese energy tariffs, and prototypicalon DER project costs, energy tariff reductions, or utilitypower, building energy efficiency, tariff, building loads,

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Unbalanced Load Flow for Weakly Meshed Distribution Systems with Distributed Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed Generation (DG) can bring support to distribution system, meanwhile, it bring unbalancedness in power source, load and line. Traditional load flow algorithms are not applicable to the weakly meshed distribution system with DGs. First, this ... Keywords: weakly meshed distribution system, distributed generation, unbalanced load flow, sensitivity compensation

Shao-Qiang Hu; Sen-Mao Li

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Dynamic load management for MMOGs in distributed environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To support thousands of concurrent players in virtual worlds simulated by contemporary Massively Multiplayer Online Games, most implementations employ static game world partitioning for distributing the load among multiple game server instances. Further, ... Keywords: load balancing, mmogs

Herbert Jordan; Radu Prodan; Vlad Nae; Thomas Fahringer

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Smard Grid Software Applications for Distribution Network Load Forecasting Eugene A. Feinberg, Jun Fei  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the distribution network. Keywords: load forecasting, feeder, transformer, load pocket, SmartGrid I. INTRODUCTION

Feinberg, Eugene A.

19

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: HAP System Design Load  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

HAP System Design Load HAP System Design Load HAP System Design Load logo. Provides the load estimating and system design features found in its popular cousin � Carrier�s Hourly Analysis Program (HAP). By focusing on system design features, the HAP System Design Load program serves as a simpler, more efficient tool for those users only interested in system design; energy simulation features are omitted. Like the HAP program, HAP System Design Load provides the ease of use of a Windows-based graphical user interface and the computing power of modern 32-bit software. HAP System Design Load uses a system-based approach to HVAC load estimating. This approach tailors sizing procedures and results to the specific type of system being considered. A wide variety of equipment types

20

Forecasting distribution system loads using curve shape clustering  

SciTech Connect

Trending using curve fitting to past small area load growth is an economical but not highly accurate method of forecasting loads for distribution planning. A new trending method uses clustering of historical load at the small area level as the forecast algorithm. This new method has significant performance advantages over normal curve fit methods and can be implemented in 16 bit integer arithmetic on most computers. The method and test results are discussed in detail.

Willis, H.L.; Northcote-Green, J.E.D.; Schauer, A.E.; Vismor, T.D.

1983-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Probability based load factors for design of concrete containment structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes a procedure for developing probability-based load combinations for the design of concrete containments. The proposed criteria are in a load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. The load factors and resistance factors are derived for use in limit states design and are based on a target limit state probability. In this paper, the load factors for accident pressure and safe shutdown earthquake are derived for three target limit state probabilities. Other load factors are recommended on the basis of prior experience with probability-based design criteria for ordinary building construction. 6 refs.

Hwang, H.; Kagami, S.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Market Driven Distributed Energy Storage Requirements for Load Management Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric energy storage systems are an enabling technology that could help meet the needs of electric utility by managing peak energy demands, helping shift the peak loads to off peak hours and improving the load factor of the electric distribution system. Applications of distributed energy storage systems (DESS) could also provide power quality and reliability benefits to customers and to the electric system. EPRI collaborated with several investor owned utilities to conduct a study to understand the te...

2007-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

23

Three Phase Probabilistic Load Flow in Radial Distribution Networks  

SciTech Connect

Probabilistic load flow is a helpful tool in accounting for inconsistent or unknown loads and generation. This is especially true with the push for renewable generation and demand response. This paper proposes an improved version of the probabilistic load flow solution for balanced distribution systems and takes the next step by applying it to unbalanced three phase systems. It is validated by comparing the solutions to that obtained by Monte Carlo simulation. The proposed method provides an accurate and practical way for finding the solution to the stochastic problems occurring in power distribution system analysis today.

Melhorn, Alexander C [ORNL; Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D [ORNL; Tomsovic, Kevin L [ORNL

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

24

Automated Load Balancing of Medium-Voltage Distribution Circuits  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The objective of this project is to investigate the possibility of using an automated system to maintain optimal load balance in distribution circuits. The practice used by many utilities is to use a line crew and engineering personnel to measure load balance at key points in each circuit and manually move single-phase lateral taps to different phases to obtain the desired load balance among the phases. This practice has many shortcomings: The load balance is achieved only for a single point in ...

2013-03-21T23:59:59.000Z

25

Unit load and material handling considerations in facility layout design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Dec 1, 2002 ... In this paper, the integration of unit load and material handling considerations in facility layout design is presented. This integration is based on...

26

Multi-State Load Models for Distribution System Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent work in the field of distribution system analysis has shown that the traditional method of peak load analysis is not adequate for the analysis of emerging distribution system technologies. Voltage optimization, demand response, electric vehicle charging, and energy storage are examples of technologies with characteristics having daily, seasonal, and/or annual variations. In addition to the seasonal variations, emerging technologies such as demand response and plug in electric vehicle charging have the potential to send control signals to the end use loads which will affect how they consume energy. In order to support time-series analysis over different time frames and to incorporate potential control signal inputs it is necessary to develop detailed end use load models which accurately represent the load under various conditions, and not just during the peak load period. This paper will build on previous work on detail end use load modeling in order to outline the method of general multi-state load models for distribution system analysis.

Schneider, Kevin P.; Fuller, Jason C.; Chassin, David P.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Combined transmission distribution load flow model employing system reduction and voltage variable load representation  

SciTech Connect

In the few decades since its introduction the digital computer has found widespread application within the electric power industry. One of the more fruitful areas for its utilization has been in the determination of the steady-state voltage conditions throughout the system. A power system naturally breaks down into two very distinct parts: transmission and distribution, and traditionally, the voltage problem has been separated the same way. In the transmission system it is referred to as a load flow problem, and in the distribution part it is called a voltage profile. In addition, the loads are often treated differently. Transmission loads are usually considered to be constant power, and the equations that result are therefore nonlinear. In the distribution portion the loads, though specified in terms of power, are sometimes handled as constant impedances, with linear equations. This work produced a new model wherein a mesh transmission system is combined with a radial distribution system and they are solved simultaneously. A system reduction technique is used to eliminate part of the transmission system from consideration, and thereby keep the problem at a manageable size. The solution algorithm incorporates a voltage variable load model which approximates the behavior of real loads more nearly than the common representations.

Enouen, P.W.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Influence Of Lateral Load Distributions On Pushover Analysis Effectiveness  

SciTech Connect

The effectiveness of two simple load distributions for pushover analysis recently proposed by the authors is investigated through a comparative study, involving static and dynamic analyses of seismic response of eccentrically braced frames. It is shown that in the upper floors only multimodal pushover procedures provide results close to the dynamic profile, while the proposed load patterns are always conservative in the lower floors. They over-estimate the seismic response less than the uniform distribution, representing a reliable alternative to the uniform or more sophisticated adaptive procedures proposed by seismic codes.

Colajanni, P.; Potenzone, B. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Civile, Universita di Messina, Contrada Di Dio, S. Agata, 98166 Messina (Italy)

2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

29

Fibre optical measuring network based on quasi-distributed amplitude sensors for detecting deformation loads  

SciTech Connect

A new design of a sensitive element for a fibre optical sensor of deformation loads is proposed. A distributed fibre optical measuring network, aimed at determining both the load application point and the load mass, has been developed based on these elements. It is shown that neural network methods of data processing make it possible to combine quasi-distributed amplitude sensors of different types into a unified network. The results of the experimental study of a breadboard of a fibre optical measuring network are reported, which demonstrate successful reconstruction of the trajectory of a moving object (load) with a spatial resolution of 8 cm, as well as the load mass in the range of 1 - 10 kg with a sensitivity of 0.043 kg{sup -1}. (laser optics 2012)

Kul'chin, Yurii N; Kolchinskiy, V A; Kamenev, O T; Petrov, Yu S

2013-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

30

Distribution System Design for Strategic Use of Distributed Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This project was undertaken to identify distribution system design characteristics that limit widespread distributed generation (DG) penetration in utility distribution systems and to suggest new system design paths that increase strategic use of DG by distribution system operators. This work in 2005 was the first phase (requirements definition) of a multi-year project in the EPRI Advanced Distribution Automation (ADA) program plan. The multi-year project calls for design, implementation, and testing of ...

2005-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

31

Probability based load combinations for design of category I structures  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a reliability analysis method and a procedure for developing the load combination design criteria for category I structures. For safety evaluation of category I concrete structures under various static and dynamic loads, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed. This reliability analysis method is also used as a tool for determining the load factors for design of category I structures. In this paper, the load combinations for design of concrete containments, corresponding to a target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10/sup -6/ in 4 years, are described. A comparison of containments designed using the ASME code and the proposed design criteria is also presented.

Reich, M.; Hwang, H.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

Hydrodynamic design loads for the OTEC cold water pipe  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ocean current and/or plant motion crossflows induce time dependent hydrodynamic loads on the OTEC cold water pipe due to vortex shedding. Design criteria were established for mean and fluctuating loads based on a review of the literature, analysis of test data acquired by SAI under a previous experimental program and an analytical extension of test results to higher Reynolds number. Baseline loads were specified for rigid cylinders in uniform flows. Modifications to the loads by current shear, stratification and cylinder motion, were investigated and final design criteria established. Limited structural response calculations were performed to demonstrate the use of the design criteria and to investigate briefly the possible structural response mode. Comparisons were made with alternate hydrodynamic loads, and recommendations were made for experimental verification.

Hove, D.; Shih, W.; Albano, E.

1978-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Comparison of Wind Power and Load Forecasting Error Distributions: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The introduction of large amounts of variable and uncertain power sources, such as wind power, into the electricity grid presents a number of challenges for system operations. One issue involves the uncertainty associated with scheduling power that wind will supply in future timeframes. However, this is not an entirely new challenge; load is also variable and uncertain, and is strongly influenced by weather patterns. In this work we make a comparison between the day-ahead forecasting errors encountered in wind power forecasting and load forecasting. The study examines the distribution of errors from operational forecasting systems in two different Independent System Operator (ISO) regions for both wind power and load forecasts at the day-ahead timeframe. The day-ahead timescale is critical in power system operations because it serves the unit commitment function for slow-starting conventional generators.

Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Orwig, K.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Modeling, loading, and preliminary design considerations for tall guyed towers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, the authors first summarize the results of an investigation they carried out on the collapse of a 1900 ft tall guyed tower under ice and wind loads. Based on this investigation, they then proceed to present some structural analysis recommendations relating to loading and modeling concerns. Special emphasis is placed on the importance of ice loading, and on the level of accuracy required in modeling the nonlinear response behavior. Finally, the conclusions drawn from this study are used to formulate preliminary design guidelines. This facilitates a systematic approach for the design of tall guyed towers. 23 refs.

Gantes, C.; Khoury, R.; Connors, J.J.; Pouangare, C. [Engg Information Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Offshore loading-system design is aimed at higher efficiency  

SciTech Connect

Mobil Shipping and Transporation Co. has completed the design of an offshore loading system aimed at overcoming the limitations of existing terminals. The loading/mooring/storage system (LMS) is a semisubmersible vessel with ship mooring and loading facilities atop a box-shaped crude storage structure, which is well below the water line away from the effect of waves and clear of loading tankers' bows. The storage volume equals or exceeds that of a VLCC. There are 15 dual-purpose cargo/ballast tanks in the lower section with a control tower over the center tank. The loading system is designed to load 800,000 bbl of crude in about 12 hr. Each tank contains a diagonally suspended synthetic rubber diaphragm that will isolate crude from water ballast. Computer simulations based on North Sea weather data indicate that the LMS will allow marine loading efficiencies of at least 95Vertical Bar3< with total storage of a week's production or more. Other advantages of the LMS include the ability to moor shuttle tankers up to 200,000 dwt; self-contained repair and maintenance capabilities; and mobility. Variations of anchoring and riser systems for the LMS are discussed.

1978-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

36

Indirect Drive Warm-Loaded Ignition Target Design  

SciTech Connect

This document summarizes the Indirect Drive Warm-Loaded Ignition Target design. These targets either use a fill tube or the capsule is strong enough to withstand the room temperature pressure of the DT fuel. Only features that affect the design of the NIF Cryogenic Target System (NCTS) are presented. The design presented is the current thinking and may evolve further. The NCTS should be designed to accommodate a range of targets and target scales, as described here. The interface location between the target and the NCTS cryostat is at the target base / gripper joint, the tamping gas gland/gland joint, and the electrical plug/receptacle joint.

Bernat, T P; Gibson, C R

2004-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

37

Plutonium Immobilization Project System Design Description for Can Loading System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The purpose of this System Design Description (SDD) is to specify the system and component functions and requirements for the Can Loading System and provide a complete description of the system (design features, boundaries, and interfaces), principles of operation (including upsets and recovery), and the system maintenance approach. The Plutonium Immobilization Project (PIP) will immobilize up to 13 metric tons (MT) of U.S. surplus weapons usable plutonium materials.

Kriikku, E.

2001-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

38

Sharing tacit design knowledge in a distributed design environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Throughout the life-cycle of a design project, architects rely heavily on their tacit design knowledge to support design decisions. Tacit knowledge is highly personal and implicit. As such, it encompasses expertise, intuitive understanding, and professional insight formed as a result of experience. Due to its implicit nature, tacit design knowledge is typically shared only among colleagues who work in the same office through face-toface interactions. With emerging Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) technologies, designers face new opportunities for capturing and reusing tacit design knowledge. However, there is no accepted CMC strategy for sharing tacit design knowledge in the Architecture, Engineering, and Construction (AEC) industry. This research investigates the impact of tacit design knowledge on design performance in a distributed design environment supported by CMC software. The software was developed and tested in three design studios in which design students sought advice from experts in remote locations. It provides tools for showing images, such as drawings and renderings, and for engaging in a written dialogue (chat session). The written and graphic artifacts of the conversation are stored in a Web-accessible database. The chat sessions included the identification, clarification, and explanation of real problems. Dialogue records provide evidence of a significant influence upon the studentsâ?? approach to conceptual design. Content analysis of the comments from the experts provides qualitative evidence for the softwareâ??s effectiveness. The participants shared past experience, professional recommendations, and intuitive expectations. In follow-up surveys, most participants reported that their experience with the software was very enjoyable and the software is well-designed to support sharing of design knowledge. This research also suggests that tacit design knowledge may be confidently captured and shared through careful strategic implementation of CMC technology in a distributed design environment. Demographic and attitudinal surveys of the participants suggest that enabling factors for sharing tacit design knowledge include knowledge sharing attitude, just-in-time expertise matching, and timing of the communication.

Woo, Jeong-Han

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Identification of Critical Parameters for Distribution Networks with DFIG and Dynamic loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Identification of Critical Parameters for Distribution Networks with DFIG and Dynamic loads M. S of distribution network with Doubly Fed Induction Generator (DFIG) is presented in a different way where an analysis to investigate the critical parameters for distribution systems with dynamic loads where DFIGs

Pota, Himanshu Roy

40

Voltage control of emerging distribution systems with induction motor loads using robust LQG approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

mode" in emerging distribution systems. The small-signal stability analysis indicates that load voltageVoltage control of emerging distribution systems with induction motor loads using robust LQG has significant performance to improve the voltage profile of the distributed generation system

Pota, Himanshu Roy

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Variability of Load and Net Load in Case of Large Scale Distributed Wind Power  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large scale wind power production and its variability is one of the major inputs to wind integration studies. This paper analyses measured data from large scale wind power production. Comparisons of variability are made across several variables: time scale (10-60 minute ramp rates), number of wind farms, and simulated vs. modeled data. Ramp rates for Wind power production, Load (total system load) and Net load (load minus wind power production) demonstrate how wind power increases the net load variability. Wind power will also change the timing of daily ramps.

Holttinen, H.; Kiviluoma, J.; Estanqueiro, A.; Gomez-Lazaro, E.; Rawn, B.; Dobschinski, J.; Meibom, P.; Lannoye, E.; Aigner, T.; Wan, Y. H.; Milligan, M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Influence of raised floor on zone design cooling load in commercial buildings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

design day zone cooling load profile is evaluated for anThe zone cooling load profiles and the thermal performanceaffects the zone cooling load profile and the peak cooling

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

Elevated Temperature Primary Load Design Method Using Pseudo Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Model  

SciTech Connect

A new primary load design method for elevated temperature service has been developed. Codification of the procedure in an ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III Code Case is being pursued. The proposed primary load design method is intended to provide the same margins on creep rupture, yielding and creep deformation for a component or structure that are implicit in the allowable stress data. It provides a methodology that does not require stress classification and is also applicable to a full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. Use of elastic-perfectly plastic analysis based on allowable stress with corrections for constraint, steady state stress and creep ductility is described. This approach is intended to ensure that traditional primary stresses are the basis for design, taking into account ductility limits to stress re-distribution and multiaxial rupture criteria.

Carter, Peter [Stress Engineering Services Inc.; Sham, Sam [ORNL; Jetter, Robert I [Consultant

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

44

Human-centered design meets cognitive load theory: designing interfaces that help people think  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Historically, the development of computer systems has been primarily a technology-driven phenomenon, with technologists believing that "users can adapt" to whatever they build. Human-centered design advocates that a more promising and enduring ... Keywords: cognitive load, educational interfaces, human-centered design, mobile interfaces, multimodal interfaces, pen-based interfaces, performance metrics, robustness, spoken language interfaces, tangible interfaces, usability

Sharon Oviatt

2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Definition: Generator-To-Load Distribution Factor | Open Energy...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

on an identified transmission facility or Flowgate.1 Related Terms Load Shift Factor, transmission lines, Generator Shift Factor, transmission line, flowgate, smart grid...

46

A Load Balancing Tool for Distributed Parallel Loops  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large scale applications typically contain parallel loops with many iterates. The iterates of a parallel loop may have variable execution times which translate into performance degradation of an application due to load imbalance. This paper describes ... Keywords: adaptive loop scheduling, dynamic load balancing

Ricolindo L. Cario; Ioana Banicescu

2005-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Detection of Periodic Beacon Loads in Electrical Distribution Substation Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This research explores methods for identifying a whether a load is sending a signal to the utility SCADA system. Such a system can identify whether various loads are signialing using existing SCADA infrastructure, that is, without added, high cost communications infrastructure.

Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Lu, Ning; Boyd, Paul A.; Trudnowski, Daniel; Chassin, David P.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Shaw, James M.

2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

48

Modeling simple trigeneration systems for the distribution of environmental loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Integration of thermoeconomics and Life Cycle Analysis was carried out within the framework of an Environmental Management Information System. This combined approach identified where environmental loads were generated and tracked environmental loads ... Keywords: CO2, Environmental Management Information System, Environmental costs, Material flow networks, Trigeneration, Umberto software

Monica Carvalho; Miguel A. Lozano; Luis M. Serra; Volker Wohlgemuth

2012-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Measuring advances in HVAC distribution system designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HVAC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

Franconi, Ellen

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design  

SciTech Connect

Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

Franconi, E.

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Impacts of Varying Penetration of Distributed Resources with & without Volt/Var Control: Case Study of Varying Load Types  

SciTech Connect

This paper provides a follow-up to an earlier one on impacts of distributed energy resources (DR) on distribution feeders. As DR penetration level on the feeder increases, there can be impacts to distribution system/feeder capacity, line losses, and voltage regulation. These can vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system or loading. The question is how high of a DR level can be accommodated without any major changes to system operation, system design and protection. Our objective for this work was to address the question of how the DR impacts vary in regards to both DR voltage regulation capability and load mix. A dynamic analysis was used to focus on the impacts of DR with and without volt/var control with different load composition on the distribution feeder. The study considered an example 10MVA distribution feeder in which two inverter-based DRs were used to provide voltage regulation. The results due to DR without voltage regulation capability are compared with DR capable of providing local (at its bus) voltage regulation. The analysis was repeated for four different feeder load compositions consisting of (1) constant power, (2) constant impedance, (3) constant current and (4) ZIP (equal combination of previous three).

Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Xu, Yan [ORNL; Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL; Irminger, Philip [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Network load-aware content distribution in overlay networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Massive content distribution on overlay networks stresses both the server and the network resources because of the large volumes of data, relatively high bandwidth requirement, and many concurrent clients. While the server limitation can be circumvented ... Keywords: Content distribution networks, Hypercube, Node selection, Overlay networks, Peer-to-peer networks, Server selection

Seung Chul Han; Ye Xia

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

On traffic load distribution and load balancing in dense wireless multihop networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the load balancing problem in a dense wireless multihop network, where a typical path consists of a large number of hops, that is, the spatial scales of a typical distance between source and destination and mean distance between the neighboring ...

Esa Hyyti; Jorma Virtamo

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Load balancing utilizing data redundancy in distributed volume rendering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In interactive volume rendering, the cost for rendering a certain block of the volume strongly varies with dynamically changing parameters (most notably the camera position and orientation). In distributed environments wherein each compute device ...

S. Frey; T. Ertl

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

part load ratio to chiller/cooling tower electric and boilerincludes the chiller, cooling tower, and circulation pumps.

Franconi, E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

The application of load models of electric appliances to distribution system analysis  

SciTech Connect

This paper proposes a methodology to apply the load models of key electric appliances in residential area for distribution system analysis. According to the load models, the transformer hourly loading is estimated during simulation iteration by the bus voltage and ambient temperature. A three phase load flow program is then executed to find the feeder daily profile of power consumption and system loss with the transformer hourly loading derived. Besides, the daily power consumption by each type of key appliances can also be solved. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, a distribution feeder of Taipower system is selected for computer simulation to find the potential of energy conservation by controlling the feeder service voltage at substation. Moreover, the load model of air conditioners, which are temperature sensitive appliances, is also considered in the program to find the impact of ambient temperature change to the power consumption of residential distribution feeders. It is concluded that the load models of key electric appliances can provide a useful tool for distribution engineers to enhance the accuracy of system analysis to estimate the operation efficiency of distribution system in a more effective manner.

Chen, C.S.; Wu, T.H.; Lee, C.C.; Tzeng, Y.M. [National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Abstract--This paper analyzes a distribution system load time series through autocorrelation coefficient, power spectral density,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

models [7], [8]. The load model developed in [7] provides different 24-hour load profiles for different seasons. The 24-hour load profile is obtained by a weighted sum of peak loads from different types1 Abstract--This paper analyzes a distribution system load time series through autocorrelation

Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

58

Minor Actinides Loading Optimization for Proliferation Resistant Fuel Design - BWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

One approach to address the United States Nuclear Power (NP) 2010 program for the advanced light water reactor (LWR) (Gen-III+) intermediate-term spent fuel disposal need is to reduce spent fuel storage volume while enhancing proliferation resistance. One proposed solution includes increasing burnup of the discharged spent fuel and mixing minor actinide (MA) transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel. Thus, we can reduce the spent fuel volume while increasing the proliferation resistance by increasing the isotopic ratio of 238Pu/Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, MAs are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. A typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of adding MAs (237Np and/or 241Am) to enhance proliferation resistance and improve fuel cycle performance for the intermediate-term goal of future nuclear energy systems. However, adding MAs will increase plutonium production in the discharged spent fuel. In this work, the Monte-Carlo coupling with ORIGEN-2.2 (MCWO) method was used to optimize the MA loading in the UO2 fuel such that the discharged spent fuel demonstrates enhanced proliferation resistance, while minimizing plutonium production. The axial averaged MA transmutation characteristics at different burnup were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality and the ratio of 238Pu/Pu discussed.

G. S. Chang; Hongbin Zhang

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Designing and Testing Controls to Mitigate Tower Dynamic Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report describes NREL's efforts to design, implement, and test advanced controls for maximizing energy extraction and reducing structural dynamic loads in wind turbines.

Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.; Stol, K. A.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Integrated models of distribution transformers and their loads for three-phase power flow analyses  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper introduces integrated models of distribution transformers and their loads for three-phase power flow analyses. All transformer connections can be easily included, such as single-phase, open wye, open delta and three-phase. For an existing three-phase power flow program without rigorous transformer models, only a slight modification of this program is needed to analyze distribution systems in more detail by using these proposed models. For those with rigorous transformer models, the rigorous transformer models usually make the program converge with difficulty, or even diverge. The convergence characteristics of these program can be dramatically improved if proposed integrated models are used instead of the rigorous transformer models. Moreover, these models can be easily applied by some functions of advanced distribution management systems or automatic mapping and facility management systems, such as transformer load management and feeder load management, to evaluate the individual phase loads along a feeder.

Chen, T.H.; Chang, Y.L. [National Taiwan Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Short-Term Load Forecasting Error Distributions and Implications for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Load forecasting in the day-ahead timescale is a critical aspect of power system operations that is used in the unit commitment process. It is also an important factor in renewable energy integration studies, where the combination of load and wind or solar forecasting techniques create the net load uncertainty that must be managed by the economic dispatch process or with suitable reserves. An understanding of that load forecasting errors that may be expected in this process can lead to better decisions about the amount of reserves necessary to compensate errors. In this work, we performed a statistical analysis of the day-ahead (and two-day-ahead) load forecasting errors observed in two independent system operators for a one-year period. Comparisons were made with the normal distribution commonly assumed in power system operation simulations used for renewable power integration studies. Further analysis identified time periods when the load is more likely to be under- or overforecast.

Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Balanced binary trees for ID management and load balance in distributed hash tables  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a low-cost, decentralized algorithm for ID management in distributed hash tables (DHTs) managed by a dynamic set of hosts. Each host is assigned an ID in the unit interval [0, 1). At any time, the set of IDs splits the interval into disjoint ... Keywords: DHT, ID management, P2P, binary tree, distributed hash table, load balance, peer to peer

Gurmeet Singh Manku

2004-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Towards Designing Distributed Systems with ConDIL  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Designing and maintaining a distributed system requires consideration of dependencies and invariants in the system's model. This paper suggests expressing distribution decisions in the system model based on the system's context. Hence, UML is enriched ... Keywords: design, designing distributed systems, rationale, resource management, system evolution

Felix Bbl

2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gabel and Andresen, HVAC Secondary Toolkil. Atlanta: ASHRAE,P_02 Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Designdesign and operation of the HVAC thermal distribution system

Franconi, E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Designing and Testing Contols to Mitigate Dynamic Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

The National Renewable Energy Laboratory is designing, implementing, and testing advanced controls to maximize energy extraction and reduce structural dynamic loads of wind turbines. These control designs are based on a linear model of the turbine that is generated by specialized modeling software. In this paper, we show the design and simulation testing of a control algorithm to mitigate blade, tower, and drivetrain loads using advanced state-space control design methods.

Wright, A.D.; Stol, K.A.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

A framework for distributed Web-based microsystem design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The increasing complexity of microsystem design mandates a distributed and collaborative design environment. The high integration levels call for tools and generators that allow exploration of the design space irrespective ...

Saha, Debashis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

Estimation of fatigue and extreme load distributions from limited data with application to wind energy systems.  

SciTech Connect

An estimate of the distribution of fatigue ranges or extreme loads for wind turbines may be obtained by separating the problem into two uncoupled parts, (1) a turbine specific portion, independent of the site and (2) a site-specific description of environmental variables. We consider contextually appropriate probability models to describe the turbine specific response for extreme loads or fatigue. The site-specific portion is described by a joint probability distribution of a vector of environmental variables, which characterize the wind process at the hub-height of the wind turbine. Several approaches are considered for combining the two portions to obtain an estimate of the extreme load, e.g., 50-year loads or fatigue damage. We assess the efficacy of these models to obtain accurate estimates, including various levels of epistemic uncertainty, of the turbine response.

Fitzwater, LeRoy M. (Stanford University, Stanford, CA)

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Load management alternatives to transmission and distribution construction: Toledo-Wren case study  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the development of a method to predict the feasibility of using load management as an alternative to construction of transmission and distribution capacity. A forecasting model was developed and applied to a particular case. Several problems were identified in the test case, necessitating modification of the model. The authors conclude that the modified version of the model allows accurate assessment of the effects of load management and conservation measures on transmission capacity. 13 figs. (JDH)

Englin, J.E.; Klan, M.S.; Lyke, A.J.; Tawil, J.J.; De Steese, J.G.; Tepel, R.C.

1987-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

The urban design of distributed energy resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distributed energy resources (DERs) are a considerable research focus for cities to reach emissions reduction goals and meet growing energy demand. DERs, consisting of local power plants and distribution infrastructure, ...

Sheehan, Travis (Travis P.)

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Transmission and Distribution Benefits of Direct Load Control: Seattle City Light and Snohomish Public Utility District Pilot Project Evaluations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two residential direct load control programs in the Puget Sound region have reduced peak loads at both the system as well as the local transmission and distribution levels. This report presents program load impact results estimated using metered and disaggregated end-use load data. Included is a detailed description of participants' attitudes toward the programs and their experiences with program implementation.

1994-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

71

Long-Term Probability Distribution of Wind Turbine Planetary Bearing Loads (Poster)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Among the various causes of bearing damage and failure, metal fatigue of the rolling contact surface is the dominant failure mechanism. The fatigue life is associated with the load conditions under which wind turbines operate in the field. Therefore, it is important to understand the long-term distribution of the bearing loads under various environmental conditions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's 750-kW Gearbox Reliability Collaborative wind turbine is studied in this work. A decoupled analysis using several computer codes is carried out. The global aero-elastic simulations are performed using HAWC2. The time series of the drivetrain loads and motions from the global dynamic analysis are fed to a drivetrain model in SIMPACK. The time-varying internal pressure distribution along the raceway is obtained analytically. A series of probability distribution functions are then used to fit the long-term statistical distribution at different locations along raceways. The long-term distribution of the bearing raceway loads are estimated under different environmental conditions. Finally, the bearing fatigue lives are calculated.

Jiang, Z.; Xing, Y.; Guo, Y.; Dong, W.; Moan, T.; Gao, Z.

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

The application of AM/FM system to distribution contingency load transfer  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, one of the geographic information management system (GIS) is applied to perform the automated mapping and facility management (AM/FM) of power distribution systems for contingency load transfer. Three phase load flow analysis is used to calculate the current flows of line switches by retrieving the network topology and facility attributes which have been stored in the AM/FM database. The current flows solved are then stored in the database as the attributes of line switches for load transfer analysis. When a system contingency such as fault or overload occurs, the load transfer is then executed to find the switches to be operated by the heuristic search method while subjected to the system operation rules. By the proposed method, the network topology can be easily updated and displayed in the computers by connectivity trace routine according to the switching operations. Since all the system facilities are stored in the AM/FM database according to the actual spatial coordinates, it provides practical information for the system operators and crews to allocate and operate the switches easily. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the integrated AM/FM system with application programs for distribution operation, a distribution system of Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) in Kaohsiung downtown area is selected for case study. It is found that contingency load transfer for distribution system operation can be enhanced significantly with the application of AM/FM systems significantly with the application of AM/FM systems to determine the switches to be operated and the corresponding spatial locations of the switches. The impact of load transfer to the system voltage profile and the feeder loading can also be analyzed to provide valuable information for the system operators.

Lee, T.E.; Chen, C.S.; Tzeng, Y.M.; Kang, M.S.; Lee, C.C. [National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Wu, J.S. [National Kaohsiung Institute of Technology (Taiwan, Province of China); Liu, T.S.S.; Chen, Y.M. [Taiwan Power Co., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Impact of key design parameters on neutron wall load in an ignited tokamak  

SciTech Connect

A study was performed to determine the impact of key design parameters on neutron wall load in an ignited deuterium-tritium (D-T) tokamak. Systems effects of parameter variations were determined using the Fusion Engineering Design Center (FEDC) Systems Code. Poloidal variations in neutron wall load were determined using the Monte Carlo Code for Neutron and Photon Transport (MCNP). The marked impact of key design parameters is quantitatively shown.

Reiersen, W.T.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Improved Load Plan Design Through Integer Programming Based Local Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present integer programming models of the service network design problem faced by less-than-truckload LTL freight transportation carriers and a solution approach for the large-scale instances that result in practical applications. To accurately represent ... Keywords: freight transportation, heuristic search, network design

Alan Erera, Michael Hewitt, Martin Savelsbergh, Yang Zhang

2013-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Optimal Design of Overhead Distribution Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

It is not uncommon for overhead distribution conductors to make contact with trees. These incidental contacts can be either intermittent or relatively persistent, are typically not detectable by overcurrent protection systems, and typically do not result in interruptions on distributions circuits. This project focuses on assessing voltage gradients and fault currents created when trees come into contact with distribution conductors, allowing current to flow through the tree from point of contact to earth...

2007-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

76

Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of this "thermal mixing", the heating and cooling loadsyear) Cooling Plant Heating Plant Fans Total Thermal Tobllthermal distribution system includes the components that carry the heating and cooling

Franconi, E.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Static load test of Arquin-designed CMU wall.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Arquin Corporation has developed a new method of constructing CMU (concrete masonry unit) walls. This new method uses polymer spacers connected to steel wires that serve as reinforcing as well as means of accurately placing the spacers so that the concrete block can be dry stacked. The hollows of the concrete block used in constructing the wall are then filled with grout. As part of a New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBAP), Sandia National Laboratories conducted a series of tests that statically loaded wall segments to compare the Arquin method to a more traditional method of constructing CMU walls. A total of 12 tests were conducted, three with the Arquin method using a W5 reinforcing wire, three with the traditional method of construction using a number 3 rebar as reinforcing, three with the Arquin method using a W2 reinforcing wire, and three with the traditional construction method but without rebar. The results of the tests showed that the walls constructed with the Arquin method and with a W5 reinforcing wire withstood more load than any of the other three types of walls that were tested.

Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cherry, Jeffery L.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Dynamic load test of Arquin-designed CMU wall.  

SciTech Connect

The Arquin Corporation has developed a new method of constructing CMU (concrete masonry unit) walls. This new method uses polymer spacers connected to steel wires that serve as reinforcing as well as a means of accurately placing the spacers so that the concrete block can be dry stacked. The hollows of the concrete block are then filled with grout. As part of a New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA), Sandia National Laboratories conducted a series of tests that dynamically loaded wall segments to compare the performance of walls constructed using the Arquin method to a more traditional method of constructing CMU walls. A total of four walls were built, two with traditional methods and two with the Arquin method. Two of the walls, one traditional and one Arquin, had every third cell filled with grout. The remaining two walls, one traditional and one Arquin, had every cell filled with grout. The walls were dynamically loaded with explosive forces. No significant difference was noted between the performance of the walls constructed by the Arquin method when compared to the walls constructed by the traditional method.

Jensen, Richard Pearson

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

A multiobjective, multidisciplinary design optimization methodology for the conceptual design of distributed satellite systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A multiobjective, multidisciplinary design optimization methodology for mathematically modeling the distributed satellite system (DSS) conceptual design problem as an optimization problem has been developed to advance the ...

Jilla, Cyrus D., 1974-

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Massively distributed systems: design issues and challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The forty year trend in the computing industry is away from centralized, high unit cost, low unit volume products toward distributed, low unit cost, high unit volume products. The next step in this process is the emergence of massively distributed systems. ...

Dan Nessett

1999-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

MEC-IDC: joint load balancing and power control for distributed Internet Data Centers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Internet Data Center (IDC) supports the reliable operations of many important Internet on-line services. As the demand on Internet services and cloud computing keep increasing in recent years, the power usage associated with IDC operations has been uprising ... Keywords: cyber-physical system, distributed internet data center, load balancing, power control

Lei Rao; Xue Liu; Marija Ilic; Jie Liu

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Molecular dynamics on distributed-memory MIMD computers with load balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We report two aspects of a computational molecular dynamics study of large-scale problems on a distributed-memory MIMD parallel computer: (1) efficiency and scalability results on Intel Paragon parallel computers with up to 512 nodes and (2) a new method for dynamic load balancing.

Deng, Y.; McCoy, R.A. [State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY (United States). Research Foundation; Marr, R.B.; Peierls, R.F. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Yasar, O. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

83

514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia Design cooling load calculation methods are, by the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia ABSTRACT Design cooling load calculation methods are test. In the tests proposed here, the ASHRAE heat balance method is used as a reference model. Details of confidence in load calculation methods and the computer implementations that they use. ASHRAE has a long

84

Wind and Load Forecast Error Model for Multiple Geographically Distributed Forecasts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The impact of wind and load forecast errors on power grid operations is frequently evaluated by conducting multi-variant studies, where these errors are simulated repeatedly as random processes based on their known statistical characteristics. To generate these errors correctly, we need to reflect their distributions (which do not necessarily follow a known distribution law), standard deviations, auto- and cross-correlations. For instance, load and wind forecast errors can be closely correlated in different zones of the system. This paper introduces a new methodology for generating multiple cross-correlated random processes to simulate forecast error curves based on a transition probability matrix computed from an empirical error distribution function. The matrix will be used to generate new error time series with statistical features similar to observed errors. We present the derivation of the method and present some experimental results by generating new error forecasts together with their statistics.

Makarov, Yuri V.; Reyes Spindola, Jorge F.; Samaan, Nader A.; Diao, Ruisheng; Hafen, Ryan P.

2010-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

85

Designing and scaling distributed VoD servers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Planning Video-on-Demand (VoD) services based on the server architecture and the available equipment is always a challenging task. We created a formal model to support the design of distributed video servers that adapt dynamically and automatically to ... Keywords: Configuration recommendation, Designing, Distributed video server, Scaling, Self-organization

Pter Krpti; Tibor Szkaliczki; Lszl Bszrmnyi

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

Peterka, J.A.; Derickson, R.G. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Lab.)

1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Collaborative Engine for Distributed Mechanical Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effective collaboration is essential for engineers at geographically dispersed locations to accomplish good design with less iteration. Over the last several years, more and more efforts have been put into such research ...

Ni, Qianfu

88

Design of highly distributed biofuel production systems .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??This thesis develops quantitative methods for evaluation and design of large-scale biofuel production systems with a particular focus on bioreactor-based fuel systems. In Chapter 2, (more)

Luo, Dexin

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

A better steam engine: Designing a distributed concentrating  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A better steam engine: Designing a distributed concentrating solar combined heat and power (DCS collector costs dominate. 2 #12;Distributed generation optionsg p · Biomass - methane, alcohol, dung, syngas transmission, etc. · Decreased cost of heat and electricity compared to other distributed renewables (

Kammen, Daniel M.

90

Optimal Design of Motor and Gear for Drives with High Acceleration and Load Torque  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimal Design of Motor and Gear for Drives with High Acceleration and Load Torque H. Grotstollen-acceleration product are transmitted unchanged by an ideal gear. At a first step those motors can be selected which offer sufficient rated power and power rate. When designing gears for each of these motors two ranges

Noé, Reinhold

91

Design of a real time switching control scheme for capacity compensation of distribution feeders  

SciTech Connect

A new control scheme for multilevel control of capacitors on radial distribution feeders is developed for implementation by an on-line, substation-based computer. The control objectives are the minimization of radial feeder losses of energy and power. Control is exercised through multilevel switching of existing shunt-connected static capacitors. It is shown how time-varying load data on existing feeders obtained through measurements at the substation can be taken into account. When reactive-load duration curves can be constructed for existing feeders, it is also shown how to optimally design the control scheme to include fixed and non-simultaneously switched capacitors.

Grainger, J.J.; El-Kib, A.A.; Lee, S.H.

1982-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

A Technique to Utilize Smart Meter Load Information for Adapting Overcurrent Protection for Radial Distribution Systems with Distributed Generations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Smart radial distribution grids will include advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and significant distributed generators (DGs) connected close to loads. DGs in these radial distribution systems (RDS) introduce bidirectional power flows (BPFs) and contribute to fault current. These BPFs may cause unwanted tripping of existing overcurrent (OC) protection devices and result in permanent outages for a large number of customers. This thesis presents a protection approach that modified an existing overcurrent protection scheme to reduce the number of customers affected by faults in RDS with DGs. Further, a technique is presented that utilizes customers loading information from smart meters in AMI to improve the sensitivity of substation OC relays by adaptively changing the pickup settings. The modified protection approach involves predefining zones in RDS with DGs and installing directional OC relays and circuit breakers at the zonal boundaries. Zonal boundary relays determine faulted zones by sharing information on the direction of detected faults current using binary state signals over a communication medium. The technique to adapt the substation relay pickup settings uses the demand measurements from smart meters for two 12-hour intervals from the previous day to determine the maximum diversified demand at the relay?s location. The pickup settings of the substation relay for the two 12-hour intervals during the following day for the zone supplied by the substation are adaptively set based on the current that corresponds to the maximum diversified demand from the previous day. The techniques were validated through simulations in EMTP/PSCAD using an expanded IEEE 34 node radial test feeder that included DGs and a secondary distribution level. By decentralizing the control of the zonal boundary breakers, the single point of failure was eliminated in the modified protection approach. The cases studied showed that the modified protection approach allows for selective identification and isolation of the faulted zones. Also, the sensitivity of the substation OC relay was improved by at least 24% by using the pickup settings for the two 12-hour intervals from the smart meter demand measurements compared to the pickup settings computed using the conventional methodology based on the maximum loading of the zone.

Ituzaro, Fred Agyekum

2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Finite element analysis of the Arquin-designed CMU wall under a dynamic (blast) load.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Arquin Corporation designed a CMU (concrete masonry unit) wall construction and reinforcement technique that includes steel wire and polymer spacers that is intended to facilitate a faster and stronger wall construction. Since the construction method for an Arquin-designed wall is different from current wall construction practices, finite element computer analyses were performed to estimate the ability of the wall to withstand a hypothetical dynamic load, similar to that of a blast from a nearby explosion. The response of the Arquin wall was compared to the response of an idealized standard masonry wall exposed to the same dynamic load. Results from the simulations show that the Arquin wall deformed less than the idealized standard wall under such loading conditions. As part of a different effort, Sandia National Laboratories also looked at the relative static response of the Arquin wall, results that are summarized in a separate SAND Report.

Lopez, Carlos; Petti, Jason P.

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Tower Design Load Verification on a 1-kW Wind Turbine: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind turbine testing at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) has been done to characterize both tower top loads and thrust loads for small wind turbines, which is part of an ongoing effort to model and predict small wind turbine behavior and the resulting stresses imposed on the supporting tower. To these ends, a 1-kW furling wind turbine mounted on a 10-meter tower was instrumented and monitored via a data acquisition system for nearly a year. This test was conducted to verify the design loads as predicted by the simple design equations provided in the draft revision of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) Small Wind Turbine Safety Standard 61400-02 CDV (hereafter called ''the draft Standard''). Data were captured for several operating conditions covered by the draft Standard. This paper addresses the collected data and what conclusions can be made from it.

Prascher, D.; Huskey, A.

2004-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Block IV solar cell module design and test specification for Intermediate Load Center applications  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Requirements are established for performance of terrestial solar cell modules intended for use in various test applications typically characterized as Intermediate Load Centers. During the 1979 to 1980 time period, such applications are expected to be in the 20 kilowatt to 500 kilowatt size range. In addition to module design and performance requirements, a series of characterization and qualification tests necessary to certify the module design for production, and the necessary performance tests for acceptance of modules are also specified.

Not Available

1978-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION OF THE EBR-II INITIAL FUEL LOADING FACILITY  

SciTech Connect

The need for the first core for EBR-11 resulted in the design and construction of the Initial Fuel Loading Facility for this reactor. The plant was built to provide the required initial loading, to train personnel, and to test prototype equipment for the remote reprocessing of fuel materials in the EBR- II Fuel Cycle Facility. The facilities include: remotely manipulated melting, casting, and pin processing equipment, a degreaser, hoods and their atmospheric control system, a gas-purification system, fuelelement-assembly equipment, mold- preparation and balance room, bonding furnaces, a maintenance shop, and a change area. (auth)

Ayer, J.E.; Shuck, A.B.

1961-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

Burdick, A.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Figures A typical wet steam Rankine cycle on a temperature-A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating2011 Abstract A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Assessment of Reactivity Margins and Loading Curves for PWR Burnup Credit Cask Designs  

SciTech Connect

This report presents studies to assess reactivity margins and loading curves for pressurized water reactor (PWR) burnup-credit criticality safety evaluations. The studies are based on a generic high-density 32-assembly cask and systematically vary individual calculational (depletion and criticality) assumptions to demonstrate the impact on the predicted effective neutron multiplication factor, k{sub eff}, and burnup-credit loading curves. The purpose of this report is to provide a greater understanding of the importance of input parameter variations and quantify the impact of calculational assumptions on the outcome of a burnup-credit evaluation. This study should provide guidance to regulators and industry on the technical areas where improved information will most enhance the estimation of accurate subcritical margins. Based on these studies, areas where future work may provide the most benefit are identified. The report also includes an evaluation of the degree of burnup credit needed for high-density casks to transport the current spent nuclear fuel inventory. By comparing PWR discharge data to actinide-only based loading curves and determining the number of assemblies that meet the loading criteria, this evaluation finds that additional negative reactivity (through either increased credit for fuel burnup or cask design/utilization modifications) is necessary to accommodate the majority of current spent fuel assemblies in high-capacity casks. Assemblies that are not acceptable for loading in the prototypic high-capacity cask may be stored or transported by other means (e.g., lower capacity casks that utilize flux traps and/or increased fixed poison concentrations or high-capacity casks with design/utilization modifications).

Wagner, J.C.

2002-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

100

A Distributed Load Balancing Algorithm for the Hot Cell Problem in Cellular Mobile Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We propose a novel distributed load balancing algorithm (D-LBSB) for the hot cell problem in cellular mobile networks. As an underlying approach, we start with a fixed channel assignment scheme where each cell is initially allocated a set of C (local) channels, each to be assigned on demand to a user in the cell. A cell is classified as `hot', if the degree of coldness of a cell (defined as the ratio of the number of available channels to the total number of channels for that cell) is less than or equal to some threshold value, h. Otherwise the cell is `cold'. D-LBSB proposes to migrate unused channels from suitable cold cells to the hot ones through a distributed channel borrowing algorithm. A Markov model for an individual cell is developed, where the state is determined by the number of occupied channels in the cell. The probability of a cell being hot and the call blocking probability in a cell are derived. Detailed simulation experiments are carried out in order to evaluate our pr...

Sajal K. Das; Sanjoy K. Sen; Rajeev Jayaram

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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101

Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Trolley Seismic Uplift Constraint Design Loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The MCO Handling Machine (MHM) trolley moves along the top of the MHM bridge girders on east-west oriented rails. To prevent trolley wheel uplift during a seismic event, passive uplift constraints are provided as shown in Figure 1-1. North-south trolley wheel movement is prevented by flanges on the trolley wheels. When the MHM is positioned over a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) storage tube, east-west seismic restraints are activated to prevent trolley movement during MCO handling. The active seismic constraints consist of a plunger, which is inserted into slots positioned along the tracks as shown in Figure 1-1. When the MHM trolley is moving between storage tube positions, the active seismic restraints are not engaged. The MHM has been designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis (Reference 3) reported seismic uplift restraint loading and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed with the east-west seismic restraints activated and the uplift restraints experiencing only vertical loading. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the east-west trolley restraints are not engaged. For this case, the associated trolley movements would result in east-west lateral loads on the uplift constraints due to friction, as shown in Figure 1-2. During preliminary evaluations, questions were raised as to whether the EDERER calculations considered the latest ALSTHOM seismic analysis loads (See NCR No. 00-SNFP-0008, Reference 5). Further evaluation led to the conclusion that the EDERER calculations used appropriate vertical loading, but the uplift restraints would need to be re-analyzed and modified to account for lateral loading. The disposition of NCR 00-SNFP-0008 will track the redesign and modification effort. The purpose of this calculation is to establish bounding seismic loads (vertical and horizontal) for input into the uplift restraint hardware redesign calculations. To minimize iterations on the uplift redesign effort, efforts were made to assure that the final loading input was reasonable but unquestionably on the conservative side.

SWENSON, C.E.

2000-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

102

Demonstrating Structural Adequacy of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures for Beyond Design-Basis Pressure Loadings  

SciTech Connect

ABSTRACT Demonstrating the structural integrity of U.S. nuclear power plant (NPP) containment structures, for beyond design-basis internal pressure loadings, is necessary to satisfy Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements and performance goals. This paper discusses methods for demonstrating the structural adequacy of the containment for beyond design-basis pressure loadings. Three distinct evaluations are addressed: (1) estimating the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment structure (10 CFR 50 and US NRC Standard Review Plan, Section 3.8) ; (2) demonstrating the structural adequacy of the containment subjected to pressure loadings associated with combustible gas generation (10 CFR 52 and 10 CFR 50); and (3) demonstrating the containment structural integrity for severe accidents (10 CFR 52 as well as SECY 90-016, SECY 93-087, and related NRC staff requirements memoranda (SRMs)). The paper describes the technical basis for specific aspects of the methods presented. It also presents examples of past issues identified in licensing activities related to these evaluations.

Braverman, J.I.; Morante, R.

2010-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

103

Current scaling of axially radiated power in dynamic hohlraums and dynamic hohlraum load design for ZR.  

SciTech Connect

We present designs for dynamic hohlraum z-pinch loads on the 28 MA, 140 ns driver ZR. The scaling of axially radiated power with current in dynamic hohlraums is reviewed. With adequate stability on ZR this scaling indicates that 30 TW of axially radiated power should be possible. The performance of the dynamic hohlraum load on the 20 MA, 100 ns driver Z is extensively reviewed. The baseline z-pinch load on Z is a nested tungsten wire array imploding onto on-axis foam. Data from a variety of x-ray diagnostics fielded on Z are presented. These diagnostics include x-ray diodes, bolometers, fast x-ray imaging cameras, and crystal spectrometers. Analysis of these data indicates that the peak dynamic radiation temperature on Z is between 250 and 300 eV from a diameter less than 1 mm. Radiation from the dynamic hohlraum itself or from a radiatively driven pellet within the dynamic hohlraum has been used to probe a variety of matter associated with the dynamic hohlraum: the tungsten z-pinch itself, tungsten sliding across the end-on apertures, a titanium foil over the end aperture, and a silicon aerogel end cap. Data showing the existence of asymmetry in radiation emanating from the two ends of the dynamic hohlraum is presented, along with data showing load configurations that mitigate this asymmetry. 1D simulations of the dynamic hohlraum implosion are presented and compared to experimental data. The simulations provide insight into the dynamic hohlraum behavior but are not necessarily a reliable design tool because of the inherently 3D behavior of the imploding nested tungsten wire arrays.

Mock, Raymond Cecil; Nash, Thomas J.; Sanford, Thomas W. L.

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Design and implementation of low power multistage amplifiers and high frequency distributed amplifiers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The advancement in integrated circuit (IC) technology has resulted in scaling down of device sizes and supply voltages without proportionally scaling down the threshold voltage of the MOS transistor. This, coupled with the increasing demand for low power, portable, battery-operated electronic devices, like mobile phones, and laptops provides the impetus for further research towards achieving higher integration on chip and low power consumption. High gain, wide bandwidth amplifiers driving large capacitive loads serve as error amplifiers in low-voltage low drop out regulators in portable devices. This demands low power, low area, and frequency-compensated multistage amplifiers capable of driving large capacitive loads. The first part of the research proposes two power and area efficient frequency compensation schemes: Single Miller Capacitor Compensation (SMC) and Single Miller Capacitor Feedforward Compensation (SMFFC), for multistage amplifiers driving large capacitive loads. The designs have been implemented in a 0.5??m CMOS process. Experimental results show that the SMC and SMFFC amplifiers achieve gain-bandwidth products of 4.6MHz and 9MHz, respectively, when driving a load of 25K?/120pF. Each amplifier operates from a ??1V supply, dissipates less than 0.42mW of power and occupies less than 0.02mm2 of silicon area. The inception of the latest IEEE standard like IEEE 802.16 wireless metropolitan area network (WMAN) for 10 -66 GHz range demands wide band amplifiers operating at high frequencies to serve as front-end circuits (e.g. low noise amplifier) in such receiver architectures. Devices used in cascade (multistage amplifiers) can be used to increase the gain but it is achieved at an expense of bandwidth. Distributing the capacitance associated with the input and the output of the device over a ladder structure (which is periodic), rather than considering it to be lumped can achieve an extension of bandwidth without sacrificing gain. This concept which is also known as distributed amplification has been explored in the second part of the research. This work proposes certain guidelines for the design of distributed low noise amplifiers operating at very high frequencies. Noise analysis of the distributed amplifier with real transmission lines is introduced. The analysis for gain and noise figure is verified with simulation results from a 5-stage distributed amplifier implemented in a 0.18??m CMOS process.

Mishra, Chinmaya

2004-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Load Forecasting on Special Days & Holidays in Power Distribution Substation Using Neural & Fuzzy Networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The demand for neural and fuzzy network techniques to predict the increasing load and its application has changed to an ordinary action. However the facts of the real world caused special and exceptional conditions to be created in this network. Like ... Keywords: Power system, Load forecasting, neural & fuzzy network, Short-term prediction of load.

Saeid Nahi

2006-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

106

Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

107

Application of immune algorithm-based particle swarm optimization for optimized load distribution among cascade hydropower stations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The immune algorithm-based particle swarm optimization (IA-PSO), which is proposed by involving the immune information processing mechanism into the original particle swarm optimal algorithm, improves the ability to find the globally excellent result ... Keywords: Cascade hydropower stations, Immune algorithm, Load distribution, PSO

Anqiang Li; Liping Wang; Jiqing Li; Changming Ji

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Design of Controls to Attenuate Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Designing wind turbines to maximize energy production and increase fatigue life is a major goal of the wind industry. To achieve this goal, we must design wind turbines to extract maximum energy and reduce component and system loads. This paper applies modern state-space control design methods to a two-bladed teetering-hub upwind machine located at the National Wind Technology Center*. The design objective is to regulate turbine speed in region 3 (above rated wind speed) and enhance damping in several low-damped flexible modes of the turbine. The controls approach is based on the Disturbance Accommodating Control (DAC) method and provides accountability for wind-speed disturbances. First, controls are designed using the single control input rotor collective pitch to stabilize the first drive-train torsion as well as the tower first fore-aft bending modes. Generator torque is then incorporated as an additional control input. This reduces some of the demand placed on the rotor collective pitch control system and enhances first drive train torsion mode damping. Individual blade pitch control is then used to attenuate wind disturbances having spatial variation over the rotor and effectively reduces blade flap deflections caused by wind shear.

Wright, A. D.; Balas, M. J.

2003-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Rock Joint Surfaces Measurement and Analysis of Aperture Distribution under Different Normal and Shear Loading Using GIS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Geometry of the rock joint is a governing factor for joint mechanical and hydraulic behavior. A new method of evaluating aperture distribution based on measurement of joint surfaces and three dimensional characteristics of each surface is developed. Artificial joint of granite surfaces are measured,processed, analyzed and three dimensional approaches are carried out for surface characterization. Parameters such as asperity's heights, slope angles, and aspects distribution at micro scale,local concentration of elements and their spatial localization at local scale are determined by Geographic Information System (GIS). Changes of aperture distribution at different normal stresses and various shear displacements are visualized and interpreted. Increasing normal load causes negative changes in aperture frequency distribution which indicates high joint matching. However, increasing shear displacement causes a rapid increase in the aperture and positive changes in the aperture frequency distribution which could be ...

Sharifzadeh, Mostafa; Esaki, Tetsuro

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

1-GWh diurnal load-leveling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system reference design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A point reference design has been completed for a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage system. The system is for electric utility diurnal load-leveling but can also function to meet much faster power demands including dynamic stabilization. This study explores several concepts of design not previously considered in the same detail as treated here. Because the study is for a point design, optimization in all respects is not complete. This report examines aspects of the coil, the superconductor supported off of the dewar shell, the dewar shell, and its configuration and stresses, the underground excavation and construction for holding the superconducting coil and its dewar, the helium refrigeration system, the electrical converter system, the vacuum system, the guard coil, and the costs. This report is divided into two major portions. The first is a general treatment of the work and the second is seven detailed technical appendices issued as separate reports. The information presented on the aluminum stabilizer for the conductor, on the excavation, and on the converter is based upon industrial studies contracted for this work.

Rogers, J.D.; Hassenzahl, W.V.; Schermer, R.I. (comps.)

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

High performance power flow algorithm for symmetrical distribution networks with unbalanced loading  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Size of the distribution and transmission networks to be planned or to be monitored in online systems is increasing significantly. The number of nodes of a complete distribution system exceeds several hundred thousand. As a consequence, efficient methods ...

Izudin Dzafic; Hans-Theo Neisius; Priyanka Mohapatra

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System Callaway Spring 2011 #12;Abstract A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar of analysis of Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power (DCS-CHP) systems is a design

California at Berkeley, University of

113

Capacity Assessment of a Transmission Tower under Wind Loading.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Transmission towers play a vital role in power distribution networks and are often subject to strong wind loads. Lattice tower design is often based on (more)

Mara, Thomas G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Protection system design for power distribution systems in the presence of distributed generation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The increasing presence of distributed generation and the steady modernization of power distribution system equipment have presented new opportunities in power distribution system studies. This (more)

Mao, Yiming

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

115

Adaptive load sharing for network processors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A novel scheme for processing packets in a router is presented that provides load sharing among multiple network processors distributed within the router. It is complemented by a feedback control mechanism designed to prevent processor overload. Incoming ... Keywords: computer networks, feedback control, load balancing, load sharing, packet processing, router architecture

Lukas Kencl; Jean-Yves Le Boudec

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Implementation of relaxed ACID properties for distributed load management in the electrical power industry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The consistency of data in central databases is normally implemented by using the ACID (Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation and Durability) properties of a DBMS (Data Base Management System). Distributed databases with high performance and availability ... Keywords: ACID properties, automatic process control, distributed systems, electrical power industry, relaxed atomicity property, smart grid conceptual model

Lars Frank; Rasmus Ulslev Pedersen

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

ATR LEU Monothlic and Dispersed with 10B Loading Minimization Design Neutronics Performance Analysis  

SciTech Connect

The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR), currently operating in the United States, is used for material testing at very high neutron fluxes. Powered with highly enriched uranium (HEU), the ATR has a maximum thermal power rating of 250 MWth. Because of the large test volumes located in high flux areas, the ATR is an ideal candidate for assessing the feasibility of converting HEU driven reactor cores to low-enriched uranium (LEU) cores. The present work investigates the optimized LEU Monolithic and Dispersed fuel with 10B loading minimization design and evaluates the subsequent neutronics operating effects of these optimized fuel designs. The MCNP ATR 1/8th core model was used to optimize the 235U and minimize the 10B loading in the LEU core, such that the differences in K-eff and heat flux profiles between the HEU and LEU cores were minimized. The fuel depletion methodology MCWO was used to calculate K eff versus effective full power days (EFPD) in this paper. The MCWO-calculated results for the optimized LEU Monolithic and Dispersed fuel cases demonstrated adequate excess reactivity such that the K-eff versus EFPD plot is similar to the ATR reference HEU case study. Each HEU fuel element contains 19 fuel plates with a fuel meat thickness of 0.508 mm (20 mil). In this work, the proposed LEU Monolithic (U-10Mo) core conversion case with nominal fuel meat thickness of 0.330 mm (13 mil) and 235U enrichment of 19.7 wt% is used to optimize the radial heat flux profile by varying the fuel meat thickness. The proposed LEU fuel meat varies from 0.203 mm (8.0 mil) to 0.254 mm (10.0 mil) at the inner four fuel plates (1-4) and outer four fuel plates (16-19). In addition, an optimized LEU dispersed (U7Mo) case with all the fuel meat thickness of 0.635 mm (25 mil) was also proposed. Then, for both Monolithic and dispersed cases, a burnable absorber 10B, was added in the inner and outer plates to reduce the initial excess reactivity, and the higher to average ratio of the inner/outer heat flux more effectively. The final minimized 10B loading for LEU case studies will have 0.635 g in the LEU fuel meat at the inner 2 fuel plates (1-2) and outer 2 fuel plates (18-19), which can achieve peak to average ratios similar to those for the ATR reference HEU case study. The investigation of this paper shows the optimized LEU Monolithic (U-10Mo) and Dispersed (U7Mo) cases can all meet the LEU conversion objectives.

G. S. Chang

2001-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Evaluation on Cooling Energy Load with Varied Envelope Design for High-Rise Residential Buildings in Malaysia  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

With the development of the economy in the recent years, Malaysia is maintaining a high economic growth and therefore, its energy consumption increases dramatically. Residential buildings are characterized by being envelope-load dominated buildings, hence are greatly influenced by the outside climatic conditions. Due to the hot humid climate of Malaysia, air conditioning system accounts for more than 45% of the total electricity used in the residential sector which is required to remove substantial amount of gained heat due to poor thermal envelope performance. This paper uses Ecotect software to analyze the impact of building envelope design on energy cooling load for residential building in Penang, Malaysia, which include area ratio of window to floor, exterior wall thermal insulation, and several kinds of shading system. This paper describes an integrated passive design approach to reduce the cooling requirement for high-rise apartments through an improved building envelope design. Comparing with the other passive strategies investigated in this paper, the results indicated that exterior wall thermal insulation is the best strategy to decrease both annual cooling energy load and peak cooling load which achieved a reduction of 10.2% and 26.3% respectively. However, the other passive strategies applied also have some marginal effect on decreasing the cooling load.

Al-Tamimi, N.; Fadzil, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Probability based load criteria for the design of nuclear structures: a critical review of the state-of-the-art  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Structures for nuclear power plant facilities must be designed to withstand safely and effectively all kinds of loads and load combinations that may be expected to occur during their lifetime. The traditional methods of structural design attempt to account for the inevitable variability in the loads, material strengths, in-service environments, and fabrication process, etc., through the use of safety factor, allowable stresses or load and resistance factors. These approaches may result in an unknown and nonuniform reliability because of the subjective manner in which the safety factors have been determined. The stochastic nature loads and the uncertainties in material properties dictate a probabilistic approach for a rational assessment of structural safety and performance. This report presents: an in-depth review of the state-of-the-art pertaining to probability-based analysis and design of civil engineering structures; basis for extending existing probability-based methods to seismic category I nuclear structures; and the availability of the pertinent data required to perform probabilistic analysis for seismic category I nuclear structures.

Shinozuka, M.; Ellingwood, B.R.; Wang, P.C.; Meyer, C.; Wen, Y.K.; Kao, S.; Shooman, M.L.; Philippacopoulos, A.J.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Options for improving the load matching capability of distributed photovoltaics: Methodology and application to high-latitude data  

SciTech Connect

At high latitudes, domestic electricity demand and insolation are negatively correlated on both an annual and a diurnal basis. With increasing integration of distributed photovoltaics (PV) in low-voltage distribution grids of residential areas, limits to the penetration level are set by voltage rise due to unmatched production and load. In this paper a methodology for determining the impacts of three options for increased load matching is presented and applied to high-latitude data. The studied options are PV array orientation, demand side management (DSM) and electricity storage. Detailed models for domestic electricity demand and PV output are used. An optimisation approach is applied to find an optimal distribution of PV systems on different array orientations and a best-case evaluation of DSM and a storage model are implemented. At high penetration levels, storage is the most efficient option for maximising the solar fraction, but at lower overproduction levels, the impact of DSM is equal or slightly better. An east-west orientation of PV arrays is suggested for high penetration levels, but the effect of the optimised orientation is small. Without an optimised storage operation, the overproduced power is more efficiently reduced by DSM than storage, although this is highly dependent on the applied DSM algorithm. Further research should be focused on the DSM potential and optimal operation of storage. (author)

Widen, Joakim; Waeckelgaard, Ewa [Department of Engineering Sciences, The Aangstroem Laboratory, Uppsala University, P.O. Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden); Lund, Peter D. [Advanced Energy Systems, Helsinki University of Technology, P.O. Box 2200, FI-02015 HUT, Helsinki (Finland)

2009-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: Final Report  

SciTech Connect

The project objective was to provide robust state estimation for distribution systems, comparable to what has been available on transmission systems for decades. This project used an algorithm called Branch Current State Estimation (BCSE), which is more effective than classical methods because it decouples the three phases of a distribution system, and uses branch current instead of node voltage as a state variable, which is a better match to current measurement.

Tom McDermott

2010-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

122

Construction of an informative hierarchical prior distribution. Application to electricity load forecasting  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, we are interested in the estimation and prediction of a parametric model on a short dataset upon which it is expected to overfit and perform badly. To overcome the lack of data (relatively to the dimension of the model) we propose the construction of a hierarchical informative Bayesian prior based upon another longer dataset which is assumed to share some similarities with the original, short dataset. We apply the methodology to a basic model for the electricity load forecasting on both simulated and real datasets, where it leads to a substantial improvement of the quality of the predictions.

Launay, Tristan; Lamarche, Sophie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Application of Distribution Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method Preprint Michael Kuss, Tony Markel, and William Kramer Presented at the 25th World Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium & Exhibition Shenzhen, China November 5 - 9, 2010 Conference Paper NREL/CP-5400-48827 January 2011 NOTICE The submitted manuscript has been offered by an employee of the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC (Alliance), a contractor of the US Government under Contract No. DE-AC36-08GO28308. Accordingly, the US Government and Alliance retain a nonexclusive royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for US Government purposes.

124

Tackling the Photovoltaic Integration Challenge in the Distribution Network with Deferrable Load  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

.g., water heater) as well as ESS (e.g., battery systems) can be used to reduce the reverse energy flow) from peak hours (e.g., 7 pm - 10 pm) to high solar radiation hours (e.g., 10 am - 2 pm) in order, the power may flow from households to the substation in the distribution network during high solar radiation

Wong, Vincent

125

A Study of Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Protective Load Control Strategy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

turbines: Doubly-fed Induction Generator (DFIG) and Fixed-speed Wind Turbine (FSWT) are compared), Distributed Generation System (DGS), Doubly- fed Induction Generator (DFIG), Fixed-speed Wind Turbine (FSWT (FSWT) and doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine (DFIG) have different characteristics, when

Chen, Zhe

126

Energy supply network design optimization for distributed energy systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Based on the fluctuations in power and heat demand of the consumers in a region, this paper presents a bi-level programming model for the regional DES (distributed energy system) network planning. The model aims to minimize the total cost of the regional ... Keywords: Bi-level programming, Distributed energy system, Energy supply network, Hybrid algorithm

Ming Dong; Fenglan He; Hairui Wei

2012-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Designing computational steering facilities for distributed agent based simulations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Agent-Based Models (ABMs) are a class of models which, by simulating the behavior of multiple agents (i.e., ndependent actions, interactions and adaptation), aim to emulate and/or predict complex phenomena. One of the general features of ABM simulations ... Keywords: agent-based simulation, computational steering, distributed systems, visualization of distributed models

Gennaro Cordasco, Rosario De Chiara, Francesco Raia, Vittorio Scarano, Carmine Spagnuolo, Luca Vicidomini

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

The Design and Implementation of Glasgow distributed Haskell 1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-strict distributed functional lan- guage. The language is intended for constructing scalable, reliable dis- tributed reliable because there is greater hardware and soft- ware redundancy: a failed hardware or software. #12; network of machines, with a simple model of failures. Small-scale distributed applications

Trinder, Phil

129

Combined cycle electric power plant with coordinated steam load distribution control  

SciTech Connect

A combined cycle electric power plant includes gas and steam turbines and a steam generator for recovering the heat in the exhaust gases exited from the gas turbine and for using the recovered heat to produce and supply steam to the steam turbine. The steam generator includes a superheater tube through which a fluid, e.g., water, is directed to be additionally heated into superheated steam by the exhaust gas turbine gases. An afterburner further heats the exhaust gas turbine gases passed to the superheater tube. The temperature of the gas turbine exhaust gases is sensed for varying the fuel flow to the afterburner by a fuel valve, whereby the temperatures of the gas turbine exhaust gases and therefore of the superheated steam, are controlled. Loading and unloading of the steam turbine is accomplished automatically in coordinated plant control as a function of steam throttle pressure.

Uram, R.

1979-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

130

Biomimetic design for an under-actuated leg exoskeleton for load-carrying augmentation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Metabolic studies have shown that there is a metabolic cost associated with carrying a load (Griffin et al, 2003). Further studies have shown that by applying forward propulsive forces a person can walk with a reduced ...

Walsh, Conor James

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

LoadReuse Analysis: Design and Evaluation Rastislav Bodk Rajiv Gupta Mary Lou Soffa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are the best hardware defense against the von Neumann memory bottleneck. Capitalizing on data local­ ity hoisting a copy of the load along path p3 . Commonly, the hoisting is formulated as partial redundancy elimination (PRE) [27, 29, 35]. is a2 = a4 along path p2? is a1 = a4 along path p1? is a0 != a4 ? hoist load a

California at Berkeley, University of

132

Load-Reuse Analysis: Design and Evaluation Rastislav Bodik Rajiv Gupta Mary Lou Soffa  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

are the best hardware defense against the von Neumann memory bottleneck. Capitalizing on data local- ity hoisting a copy of the load along path p3. Commonly, the hoisting is formulated as partial redundancyelimination (PRE) [27,29,35]. is a2 = a4 along path p2? is a1 = a4 along path p1? is a0 != a4 ? hoist load a4

Gupta, Rajiv

133

A Case Study on the Effects of Distribution Line Capacitors on Substation Bus Voltage Regulated with a Load Tap Changing (LTC) Power Transformer: Southern Company Smart Grid Demonstration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This case study describes research to address the adverse effects of distribution capacitors on substation bus voltage with a load-tap-changing (LTC) power transformer. By adding fixed and switched capacitors to the distribution system, Southern Company is able to maintain an efficient distribution grid by providing the reactive power near the end-use devices consuming this power. However, pressure to improve the efficiency of the distribution system has resulted in Southern Company adding a large ...

2013-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

134

A Distributed Information System Architecture for Collaborative Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Improving and streamlining the communication and decision processes used in Collaborative Product Development (CPD) requires a robust Distributed Information System that can enable intelligent notification, coordination and negotiation processes. In ... Keywords: Agents, Collaboration, Information System, Product Development, Web Services

Andrew Feller; Teresa Wu; Dan Shunk

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Analytical Tools to Predict Distribution Outage Restoration Load. Final Project Report.  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The main activity of this project has been twofold: (1) development of a computer model to predict CLPU(Cold Load Pickup) and (2) development of a field measurement and analysis method to obtain the input parameters of the CLPU model. The field measurement and analysis method is called the Step-Voltage-Test (STEPV). The Kootenai Electric Cooperative Appleway 51 feeder in Coeur d`Alene was selected for analysis in this project and STEPV tests were performed in winters of 92 and 93. The STEPV data was analyzed (method and results presented within this report) to obtain the Appleway 51 feeder parameters for prediction by the CLPU model. One only CLPU record was obtained in winter 1994. Unfortunately, the actual CLPU was not dramatic (short outage and moderate temperature) and did not display cyclic restoration current. A predicted Appleway 51 feeder CLPU was generated using the parameters obtained via the STEPV measurement/analysis/algorithm method at the same ambient temperature and outage duration as the measured actual CLPU. The predicted CLPU corresponds reasonably well with the single actual CLPU data obtained in winter 1994 on the Appleway 51 feeder.

Law, John

1994-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

136

A Global Optimization Approach to a Water Distribution Network DesignProblem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we address a global optimization approach to a water distribution network design problem. Traditionally, a variety of local optimization schemes have been developed for such problems, each new method discovering improved solutions for ... Keywords: Water distribution systems, network design, reformulation-linearization technique (RLT)

Hanif D. Sherali; Ernest P. Smith

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

From Waste to Hydrogen: An Optimal Design of Energy Production and Distribution Network  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 From Waste to Hydrogen: An Optimal Design of Energy Production and Distribution Network Nathan and distribution systems for hydrogen production from agricultural residues, which is a representative green energy of producing clean energy from renewable resources. This paper focuses on the optimal design of the production

Fan, Yueyue

138

Design of artificial neural networks for distribution feeder loss analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To enhance the efficiency for power loss analysis of voluminous distribution feeders, ANN-based simplified power loss models with the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) algorithm have been developed for overhead feeders and underground feeders, respectively. The ... Keywords: Artificial neural network, Customer information system, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, Outage management system

Tsung-En Lee; Chin-Ying Ho; Chia-Hung Lin; Meei-Song Kang

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Design of SOA integration for 3C distribution channel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In today's market, peer competition is getting vigorous and distribution channel has become the key for enterprises to obtain competitive advantage and bargaining power. In the global competition business environment, market and demand is changing everyday, ... Keywords: MDA, SOA, business process integration, legacy system, web services

Ying-Hong Wang; Jingo Chenghorng Liao

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Investigation of Thermal Feedback Design for Improved Load-Following Capability of Thorium Molten Salt Reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The increasing deployment of renewable energy sources has raised concerns about the ramp-rate limitations of conventional steam and combustion turbines in providing load following during solar photovoltaic transients. As one of the promising Generation ... Keywords: molten salt reactors, thorium

Andrew M. Dodson, Roy A. Mccann

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Brief paper: Distributed parameter system optimum control design via finite element discretization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The problem of designing an optimum distributed parameter system is considered. Fundamental concepts pertaining to the solution of optimum controls for distributed parameter systems by finite element methods are devised. It is demonstrated that methods ... Keywords: Distributed parameter systems, finite element method, numerical methods, optimal control, partial differential equations

R. K. Cavin, III; S. C. Tandon

1977-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

US, 2009. ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, Chapter 18, American2004. ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook, Chapter 14, American

Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Architecture Reference Design for Distributed Energy Resource Integration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The integration of significant distributed energy resources (DER) highlights the complexities of the smart grid. A DER system encapsulates most of the operational issues of the larger grid but often with smaller timelines for action. In addition, as the level of DER grows in a system, opportunities for localized problems to escalate into larger system issues also increase. This effort develops guidelines for deploying technology and systems that meet emerging requirements for DER communication and contro...

2010-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

144

Accurate Short Term Load Forecasting for an ESKOM Major Distribution Region in South Africa: An Application of EPRI ANNSTLF  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ANNSTLF (Artificial Neural Network Short-term Load Forecaster), developed by EPRI, is a Microsoft Windows-based neural-network load forecasting software that uses historical load and weather parameters to predict future load values. The software requires customization for each utility. This project involved customizing ANNSTLF for the Eastern Region of the South African energy company ESKOM.

2005-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

145

WaveDyn: A Design Tool for Performance & Operational Loads Modeling of WECs  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Experience with Validating MHK Tools Experience with Validating MHK Tools National Renewable Energy Laboratory - Broomfield, CO - July 9 th 2012 Contents * Overview of GL Garrad Hassan * List of Tools/Core Expertise: Dedicated Software * Waves: Resource assessment and site data analysis * WaveDyn: WEC performance and loads calculation (time-domain) * WaveFarmer: Planning and optimization of a WEC array * Tides: Resource assessment and site data analysis * Tidal Bladed: Tidal Turbine performance and loads calculation (time-domain) * TidalFarmer: Planning and optimization of a tidal turbine array * Validation Experience * Tidal Bladed * ReDAPT * PerAWaT * WaveDyn Who are GL Garrad Hassan? * Industry-leading independent renewable energy consultancy * Established in 1984 * Over 950 full time staff, in 42 locations, across 24 countries worldwide

146

Reference design of 100 MW-h lithium/iron sulfide battery system for utility load leveling  

SciTech Connect

The first year in a two-year cooperative effort between Argonne National Laboratory and Rockwell International to develop a conceptual design of a lithium alloy/iron sulfide battery for utility load leveling is presented. A conceptual design was developed for a 100 MW-h battery system based upon a parallel-series arrangement of 2.5 kW-h capacity cells. The sales price of such a battery system was estimated to be very high, $80.25/kW-h, exclusive of the cost of the individual cells, the dc-to-ac converters, site preparation, or land acquisition costs. Consequently, the second year's efforts were directed towards developing modified designs with significantly lower potential costs.

Zivi, S.M.; Kacinskas, H.; Pollack, I.; Chilenskas, A.A.; Barney, D.L.; Grieve, W.; McFarland, B.L.; Sudar, S.; Goldstein, E.; Adler, E.

1980-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed optically accessible D.I. diesel engine  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Two-dimensional (2-D) laser-sheet imaging has been used to examine the soot and liquid-phase fuel distributions in a newly designed, optically accessible, direct-injection Diesel engine of the heavy-duty size class. The design of this engine preserves the intake port geometry and basic dimensions of a Cummins N-series production engine. It also includes several unique features to provide considerable optical access. Liquid-phase fuel and soot distribution studies were conducted at a medium speed (1,200 rpm) using a Cummins closed-nozzle fuel injector. The scattering was used to obtain planar images of the liquid-phase fuel distribution. These images show that the leading edge of the liquid-phase portion of the fuel jet reaches a maximum length of 24 mm, which is about half the combustion bowl radius for this engine. Beyond this point virtually all the fuel has vaporized. Soot distribution measurements were made at a high load condition using three imaging diagnostics: natural flame luminosity, 2-D laser-induced incandescence, and 2-D elastic scattering. This investigation showed that the soot distribution in the combusting fuel jet develops through three stages. First, just after the onset of luminous combustion, soot particles are small and nearly uniformly distributed throughout the luminous region of the fuel jet. Second, after about 2 crank angle degrees a pattern develops of a higher soot concentration of larger sized particles in the head vortex region of the jet and a lower soot concentration of smaller sized particles upstream toward the injector. Third, after fuel injection ends, both the soot concentration and soot particle size increase rapidly in the upstream portion of the fuel jet.

Dec, J.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Espey, C. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States)

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

148

Design of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System for Viet Nam | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System for Viet Nam of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System for Viet Nam Jump to: navigation, search Name Design of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System for Viet Nam Agency/Company /Organization UN-REDD Programme Sector Land Focus Area Biomass, Forestry Topics Co-benefits assessment, Implementation, Policies/deployment programs, Background analysis Resource Type Publications Website http://www.un-redd.org/Publica Country Vietnam UN Region South-Eastern Asia References Design of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System for Viet Nam[1] Design of a REDD-compliant Benefit Distribution System for Viet Nam Screenshot "Viet Nam is one of nine countries where the UN-REDD Programme is supporting the development of REDD+ readiness. In preparing for REDD+,

149

Design and implementation of data distribution management in IEEE 1516 HLA/RTI  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Data Distribution Management (DDM) services, one category of HLA management services, control filters for data transmission and reception of data volume among simulators. In this paper, we propose design concept of DDM and show its implementation ... Keywords: HLA, IEEE1516 RTI, data distribution management, minimized unicast

Jung Hyun Ahn; Jae Hyun Kim; Tag Gon Kim

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

The distributed multilevel ant-stigmergy algorithm used at the electric-motor design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This article presents an optimization method used at the electric-motor design. The goal of the optimization was to find the geometrical parameter values that would generate the rotor and the stator geometries with minimum power losses. A new, distributed ... Keywords: Ant-colony optimization, Distributed computing, Multi-parameter optimization, Numerical simulation, Stigmergy, Universal electric-motor

Peter Koroec; Jurij ilc

2008-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

The E ect of Heavy-Tailed Job Size Distributions on Computer System Design.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The E ect of Heavy-Tailed Job Size Distributions on Computer System Design. Mor Harchol-Balter Laboratory for Computer Science MIT, NE43-340 Cambridge, MA 02139 harchol@theory.lcs.mit.edu Abstract Heavy physical phenomena to sociological phenomena. Recently heavy-tailed distributions have been discovered

Harchol-Balter, Mor

152

Design of a high-pressure research flow loop for the experimental investigation of liquid loading in gas wells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Liquid loading in producing gas wells is the inability of the produced gas to remove produced liquids from the wellbore. A review of existing flow loops worldwide revealed that specialized areas of research such as liquid loading in gas wells are still lacking dedicated test facilities. This project presents the design of a new dedicated facility to be located at the TowerLab at the Richardson building with adequate operating conditions to reproduce the flow regimes encountered prior to and after the onset of liquid loading in gas wells. The facility consists of a compressed air system, pipelines for air and water, a pressure vessel containing glass beads, an injection manifold, and flow control and monitoring devices. Our results show that three compressors working in parallel is the most technical and economic configuration for the TowerLab based on the overall costs provided by the supplier, the footprint but most importantly the flexibility. The design of the pressure vessel required a cylindrical body with top and bottom welded-flat head covers with multiple openings to minimize its weight. The pipelines connecting major equipment and injection manifold located at the pressure vessel were selected based on the superficial velocities for air and water. These values also showed the need for independent injection using two manifolds instead of commingling flow through a tee joint. The use of digital pressure gauges with an accuracy of 0.05 to 25% and coriolis or vortex meters to measure air flowrate is also suggested. For the water line, installation of turbine meters results in the most economic approach.

Fernandez Alvarez, Juan Jose

2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Miniaturized Multi-Band Antenna Design via Element Collocation and Inductive Feed Loading  

SciTech Connect

In a FY09 SDRD project, four separate antennas were designed to receive signals of interest covering a broad range of frequencies. While the elements exceeded specifications, the array footprint is substantial. Research performed by the CU Microwave Active Antenna Group in collaboration with RSL, showed promise in realizing a reduced structure. This work will expand upon this previous research. This project will result in a prototype quad-band antenna.

Martin, R. P.

2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

154

The IOA Language and Toolset: Support for Designing, Analyzing, and Building Distributed Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report describes a new language for distributed programming, the IOA language, together with a high-level design and preliminary implementation for a suite of tools, the IOA toolset, to support the production of high-quality distributed software. The language and tools are based on the I/O automaton model, which has been used to describe and verify distributed algorithms. The toolset supports a development process that begins with a high-level specification, refines that specification via successively more detailed designs, and ends by automatically generating distributed programs. The toolset encourages system decomposition, which helps make distributed programs understandable and easy to modify. It also provides a variety of validation methods (theorem proving, model checking, and simulation), which can be used to ensure that the generated programs are correct, subject to assumptions about externally-provided system services (e.g., communication services), and about the correctness of hand-coded data type implementations.

Stephen J. Garland; Nancy A. Lynch

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Magnet cold mass high load supports thermal response and performance design correlation  

SciTech Connect

Through General Dynamics Convair Division's experience in the design, detail analysis, and manufacturing of structural supports for superconducting magnet cryostats suspended in a vacuum enclosure, a data base, well suited for the development of correlations of pertinent thermal performance criteria for stainless steel supports, has been created. The thermal requirements of these supports in fusion applications are well defined for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF) and have been analyzed in detail for cool-down response and steady-state performance, using Convair's THERMAL ANALYZER computer program. From the output of these thermal conditioning simulations, correlations were developed for magnet LHe heating from supports in terms of strut geometric parameters.

Jones, G.R.; Christensen, E.H.

1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

A CAE-integrated distributed collaborative design system for finite element analysis of complex product based on SOOA  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Large-scale finite element analysis of complex product needs a wider support from external CAE resources. This paper proposes a method of the distributed concurrent and collaborative design in the distributed intelligent resources environment to use ... Keywords: Collaborative design, Distributed CAE resources, Service object-oriented architecture (SOOA)

Jiaqing Yu; Jianzhong Cha; Yiping Lu; Wensheng Xu; M. Sobolewski

2010-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Calculation of the Solar Load onto Occupants in a Room using Bidirectional Scattering Distribution Functions and a View Factor Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and a given solar radiation..52 Table 3direct and diffuse solar radiation for a design day, useddirect and diffuse solar radiation for a design day, used

Jedek, Christoph

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Distribution:  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

JAN26 19% JAN26 19% Distribution: OR00 Attn: h.H.M.Roth DFMusser ITMM MMMann INS JCRyan FIw(2) Hsixele SRGustavson, Document rocm Formal file i+a@mmm bav@ ~@esiaw*cp Suppl. file 'Br & Div rf's s/health (lic.only) UNITED STATES ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION SPECIAL NUCLEAB MATERIAL LICENSE pursuant to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Chapter 1, P&t 70, "Special Nuclear Material Reg)llatiqm," a license is hereby issued a$hortztng the licensee to rekeive and possess the special nuclear material designated below; to use such special nuclear mat&ial for the purpose(s) and at the place(s) designated below; and to transfer such material to per&s authorized to receive it in accordance with the regula,tions in said Part.

159

Networked Loads in the Distribution Grid Zhifang Wang, Xiao Li, Vishak Muthukumar, Anna Scaglione, Sean Peisert, Chuck McParland  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of the ICT-driven SmartGrid. In this paper we discuss a design and simulation environment which provides throughout the developed world are investing in modernization of their energy grids. The SmartGrid footprint on our environment. Designing such ICT-driven SmartGrids imposes major challenges concerning

Peisert, Sean

160

Design of the Trigger Interface and Distribution Board for CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade  

SciTech Connect

The design of the Trigger Interface and Distribution (TID) board for the 12 GeV Upgrade at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at TJNAL is described. The TID board distributes a low jitter system clock, synchronized trigger, and synchronized multi-purpose SYNC signal. The TID also initiates data acquisition for the crate. With the TID boards, a multi-crate system can be setup for experiment test and commissioning. The TID board can be selectively populated as a Trigger Interface (TI) board, or a Trigger Distribution (TD) board for the 12 GeV upgrade experiments. When the TID is populated as a TI, it can be located in the VXS crate and distribute the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC through the VXS P0 connector; it can also be located in the standard VME64 crate, and distribute the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC through the VME P2 connector or front panel. It initiates the data acquisition for the front crate where the TI is positioned in. When the TID is populated as a TD, it fans out the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC from trigger supervisor to the front end crates through optical fibres. The TD monitors the trigger processing on the TIs, and gives feedback to the TS for trigger flow control. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) is utilised on TID board to provide programmability. The TID boards were intensively tested on the bench, and various setups.

Gu, Jianhui; Dong, Hai; Cuevas, R; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Heyes, William; Jastrzembski, Edward; Kaneta, Scott; Nganga, Nicholas; Moffit, Bryan; Raydo, Benjamin; Timmer, Carl

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for distributed generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50environmentally benign distributed generation in a varietyfor inexpensive Distributed Generation (DG) technologies in

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (Japanese translation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations.

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

163

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (Japanese translation)  

SciTech Connect

The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations.

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

164

Methodology for designing the fuzzy resolver for a radial distribution system fault locator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Power System Automation Lab at Texas A&M University developed a fault location scheme that can be used for radial distribution systems. When a fault occurs, the scheme executes three stages. In the first stage, all data measurements and system information is gathered and processed into suitable formats. In the second stage, three fault location methods are used to assign possibility values to each line section of a feeder. In the last stage, a fuzzy resolver is used to aggregate the outputs of the three fault location methods and assign a final possibility value to each line section of a feeder. By aggregating the outputs of the three fault location methods, the fuzzy resolver aims to obtain a smaller subset of line sections as potential faulted sections than the individual fault location methods. Fuzzy aggregation operators are used to implement fuzzy resolvers. This dissertation reports on a methodology that was developed utilizing fuzzy aggregation operators in the fuzzy resolver. Three fuzzy aggregation operators, the min, OWA, and uninorm, and two objective functions were used to design the fuzzy resolver. The methodologies to design fuzzy resolvers with respect to a single objective function and with respect to two objective functions were presented. A detailed illustration of the design process was presented. Performance studies of designed fuzzy resolvers were also performed. In order to design and validate the fuzzy resolver methodology, data were needed. Due to the lack of real field data, simulating a distribution feeder was a feasible alternative to generate data. The IEEE 34 node test feeder was modeled. Time current characteristics (TCC) based protective devices were added to this feeder. Faults were simulated on this feeder to generate data. Based on the performance studies of designed fuzzy resolvers, the fuzzy resolver designed using the uninorm operator without weights is the first choice. For this fuzzy resolver, no optimal weights are needed. In addition, fuzzy resolvers using the min operator and OWA operator can be used to design fuzzy resolvers. For these two operators, the methodology for designing fuzzy resolvers with respect to two objective functions was the appropriate choice.

Li, Jun

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Control system design for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture in IGCC power plants while loading-following  

SciTech Connect

Load-following requirements for future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with precombustion CO{sub 2} capture are expected to be far more challenging as electricity produced by renewable energy is connected to the grid and strict environmental limits become mandatory requirements. In this work, loadfollowing studies are performed using a comprehensive dynamic model of an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture developed in Aspen Engineering Suite (AES). Considering multiple single-loop controllers for power demand load following, the preferred IGCC control strategy from the perspective of a power producer is gas turbine (GT) lead with gasifier follow. In this strategy, the GT controls the load by manipulating its firing rate while the slurry feed flow to the gasifier is manipulated to control the syngas pressure at the GT inlet. The syngas pressure control is an integrating process with significant time delay mainly because of the large piping and equipment volumes between the gasifier and the GT inlet. A modified proportionalintegralderivative (PID) control is considered for IGCC syngas pressure control. The desired CO{sub 2} capture rate must be maintained while the IGCC plant follows the load. For maintaining the desired CO{sub 2} capture rate, the control performance of PID control is compared with linear model predictive control (LMPC). The results show that the LMPC outperforms PID control for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture rates in an IGCC power plant while load following.

Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Discharge circuits and loads  

SciTech Connect

This will be an overview in which some of the general properties of loads are examined: their interface with the energy storage and switching devices; general problems encountered with different types of loads; how load behavior and fault modes can impact on the design of a power conditioning system (PCS).

Sarjeant, W.J.

1980-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

167

Power Distribution and Conditioning for a Small Student Satellite Design of the NUTS Backplane & EPS Module  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Center for Space-related Education). The projects goal is to design, manufacture and launch a double CubeSat by 2014. As part of the NUTS satellite design, there is a need for a system backplane, which different sub-modules can be plugged into. The backplane will form the basis of the satellite, and must provide distribution of power and communication buses to the rest of the system. The Electrical Power System is a very important part of any satellite mission, and must handle power conversion and battery charging, as well as provide regulated supply to the rest of the system. Together with the system backplane, an EPS module has to be designed for the NUTS satellite. The candidate will: Gain an overview of the project and outline the necessary requirements and constraints. Become familiar with previous work on the subject. Propose a solution for a system backplane and electrical power system. Implement and test prototypes of the solutions, as extensively as allowed by the project time frame. Evaluate the proposed design and the results obtained from testing.

Dewald De Bruyn; Co-supervisor Roger Birkel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix A: energy storage coil and superconductor  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The technical aspects of a 1-GWh Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) coil for use as a diurnal load-leveling device in an electric utility system are presented. The superconductor for the coil is analyzed, and costs for the entire coil are developed.

Schermer, R.I.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Reference wind speed distributions and height profiles for wind turbine design and performance evaluation applications. [USA  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The purpose of this report is to provide a set of reference or standard values of wind profiles, wind speed distributions and their effects on wind turbine performance for engineering design applications. Based on measured Weibull distribution parameters, representative average, low, and high variance data are given for height profiles of mean, 25 percentile, and 75 percentile wind speeds; and for wind speed probability density (velocity frequency) functions and cumulative probability (velocity duration) functions at selected heights. Results of a sensitivity analysis of the dependence of wind turbine performance parameters on cut-in speed, and rated speed for various mean wind and wind variance regimes are also presented. Wind turbine performance is expressed in terms of capacity factor (ratio of mean power output to rated power) and recovery factor (ratio of mean energy output to energy theoretically available in the wind). The representative high, mean, and low variance cases were determined from calculated Weibull distributions at 140 sites across the Continental U.S., and all of the representative functions are evaluated at mean wind speeds of 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 m/s at standard 10 m level.

Justus, C.G.; Hargraves, W.R.; Mikhail, A.

1976-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

A design approach to a risk review for fuel cell-based distributed cogeneration systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A risk review of a fuel cell-based distributed co-generation (FC-Based DCG) system was conducted to identify and quantify the major technological system risks in a worst-case scenario. A risk review entails both a risk assessment and a risk analysis of a designed system, and it is part of risk engineering. Thorough literature reviews and expert interviews were conducted in the field of fuel cells. A thorough literature review of the risk engineering field was also conducted. A procedure for a risk review of the FC-Based DCG System was developed. The representative system design was identified by the current DCG design technology. The risk assessment was carried out, identifying the system components and potential failure modes and consequences. Then, using probabilities of failure for the various system components, the risk associated with a particular system design was determined. A Monte Carlo simulation on the total system reliability was used to evaluate the potential for system failure at a time of 1 hour, 5 hours, 10 hours, 50 hours, 100 hours and 500 hours of continuous operation. The original system was found to be acceptable at the initial times, but after 100 hours was predicted to fail. The components which consistently contribute significantly to the overall system risk are the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) and the nickel-metal foam flow fields. A revised system was analyzed with the reliability of the MEA and the Ni-foam set to 100%. After the revision, the components which contributed significantly to the system risk were the pumps. Simulations were run for several alternative systems to provide feedback on risk management suggestions. The risk engineering process developed with the design approach for this research is applicable to any system and it accommodates the use of many different risk engineering tools.

Luthringer, Kristin Lyn

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

Study on a method of design for rural power distribution lines based on 3D GIS technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to study a three-dimensional GIS method of design for power distribution lines in rural areas, by applying SuperMap to the GIS, and to integrate the visual computer programming environment in the secondary development. A three-dimensional ... Keywords: Digital elevation model, GIS, Power distribution lines, Section map

Yong Yang; Yong-Fu Liu; Ying-Li Cao

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

172

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)  

SciTech Connect

The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations. This study begins with an examination of existing DER research. Building energy loads were then generated through simulation (DOE-2) and scaled to match available load data in the literature. Energy tariffs in Japan and the U.S. were then compared: electricity prices did not differ significantly, while commercial gas prices in Japan are much higher than in the U.S. For smaller DER systems, the installation costs in Japan are more than twice those in the U.S., but this difference becomes smaller with larger systems. In Japan, DER systems are eligible for a 1/3 rebate of installation costs, while subsidies in the U.S. vary significantly by region and application. For 10,000 m{sup 2} buildings, significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the economically optimal results. This was most noticeable in the sports facility, followed the hospital and hotel. This research demonstrates that office buildings can benefit from CHP, in contrast to popular opinion. For hospitals and sports facilities, the use of waste heat is particularly effective for water and space heating. For the other building types, waste heat is most effectivel

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

173

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations. This study begins with an examination of existing DER research. Building energy loads were then generated through simulation (DOE-2) and scaled to match available load data in the literature. Energy tariffs in Japan and the U.S. were then compared: electricity prices did not differ significantly, while commercial gas prices in Japan are much higher than in the U.S. For smaller DER systems, the installation costs in Japan are more than twice those in the U.S., but this difference becomes smaller with larger systems. In Japan, DER systems are eligible for a 1/3 rebate of installation costs, while subsidies in the U.S. vary significantly by region and application. For 10,000 m{sup 2} buildings, significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the economically optimal results. This was most noticeable in the sports facility, followed the hospital and hotel. This research demonstrates that office buildings can benefit from CHP, in contrast to popular opinion. For hospitals and sports facilities, the use of waste heat is particularly effective for water and space heating. For the other building types, waste heat is most effectively use

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

174

Distributed Storage for Intermittent Energy Sources: Control Design and Performance Limits  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

One of the most important challenges in the integration of renewable energy sources into the power grid lies in their `intermittent' nature. The power output of sources like wind and solar varies with time and location due to factors that cannot be controlled by the provider. Two strategies have been proposed to hedge against this variability: 1) use energy storage systems to effectively average the produced power over time; 2) exploit distributed generation to effectively average production over location. We introduce a network model to study the optimal use of storage and transmission resources in the presence of random energy sources. We propose a Linear-Quadratic based methodology to design control strategies, and we show that these strategies are asymptotically optimal for some simple network topologies. For these topologies, the dependence of optimal performance on storage and transmission capacity is explicitly quantified.

Kanoria, Yashodhan; Tse, David; Zhang, Baosen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Optimal design of mixed AC-DC distribution systems for commercial buildings.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With the advent of inexpensive computing and efficient power electronics, the load mix in commercial buildings has experienced a fundamental shift away from almost exclusively (more)

Frank, Stephen M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

SURVEY DESIGN FOR SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION FITTING: A FISHER MATRIX APPROACH  

SciTech Connect

The spectral energy distribution (SED) of a galaxy contains information on the galaxy's physical properties, and multi-wavelength observations are needed in order to measure these properties via SED fitting. In planning these surveys, optimization of the resources is essential. The Fisher Matrix (FM) formalism can be used to quickly determine the best possible experimental setup to achieve the desired constraints on the SED-fitting parameters. However, because it relies on the assumption of a Gaussian likelihood function, it is in general less accurate than other slower techniques that reconstruct the probability distribution function (PDF) from the direct comparison between models and data. We compare the uncertainties on SED-fitting parameters predicted by the FM to the ones obtained using the more thorough PDF-fitting techniques. We use both simulated spectra and real data, and consider a large variety of target galaxies differing in redshift, mass, age, star formation history, dust content, and wavelength coverage. We find that the uncertainties reported by the two methods agree within a factor of two in the vast majority ({approx}90%) of cases. If the age determination is uncertain, the top-hat prior in age used in PDF fitting to prevent each galaxy from being older than the universe needs to be incorporated in the FM, at least approximately, before the two methods can be properly compared. We conclude that the FM is a useful tool for astronomical survey design.

Acquaviva, Viviana; Gawiser, Eric [Department of Physics and Astronomy Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Bickerton, Steven J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Grogin, Norman A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Guo Yicheng [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Lee, Seong-Kook [School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul, 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

177

Enhancing Composition Window of Bicontinuous Structures by Designed Polydispersity Distribution of ABA Triblock Copolymers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The phase behavior of polydisperse ABA triblock copolymers is studied using dissipative particle dynamics simulations, focusing on the emergence and property of bicontinuous structures. Bicontinuous structures are characterized by two separate, intermeshed nanoscopic domains extending throughout the material. The connectivity of polymeric bicontinuous structures makes them highly desirable for many applications. For conventional monodisperse diblock and triblock copolymers, regular bicontinuous structures (i.e., gyroid and Fddd) can be formed over a narrow composition window of ~3%. We demonstrate that the composition window for the formation of bicontinuous structures can be regulated by designed polydispersity distributions of ABA triblock copolymers. In particular, introducing polydispersity in both A and B blocks can lead to a significant enhancement of the composition window of bicontinuous structures with both continuous A and B domains. The mechanism of the bicontinuous structure enhancement is elucidated from the distribution of the long and short blocks. Furthermore, it is shown that the polymeric bicontinuous structures from polydisperse ABA triblock copolymers possess good continuity throughout the sample, making them ideal candidates for advanced applications.

Yue Li; Hu-Jun Qian; Zhong-Yuan Lu; An-Chang Shi

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

178

Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

enables the management of large groups of distributed loads under a single innovative control schemes to use the flexibility of electrical loads for power system purposes....

179

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components. 16 figs.

Spletzer, B.L.

1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs which can be combined to determine any one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Load cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load cell combines the outputs of a plurality of strain gauges to measure components of an applied load. Combination of strain gauge outputs allows measurement of any of six load components without requiring complex machining or mechanical linkages to isolate load components. An example six axis load cell produces six independent analog outputs, each directly proportional to one of the six general load components.

Spletzer, Barry L. (Albuquerque, NM)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Distributed Solar Incentive Programs: Recent Experience and Best Practices for Design and Implementation  

SciTech Connect

Based on lessons from recent program experience, this report explores best practices for designing and implementing incentives for small and mid-sized residential and commercial distributed solar energy projects. The findings of this paper are relevant to both new incentive programs as well as those undergoing modifications. The report covers factors to consider in setting and modifying incentive levels over time, differentiating incentives to encourage various market segments, administrative issues such as providing equitable access to incentives and customer protection. It also explores how incentive programs can be designed to respond to changing market conditions while attempting to provide a longer-term and stable environment for the solar industry. The findings are based on interviews with program administrators, regulators, and industry representatives as well as data from numerous incentive programs nationally, particularly the largest and longest-running programs. These best practices consider the perspectives of various stakeholders and the broad objectives of reducing solar costs, encouraging long-term market viability, minimizing ratepayer costs, and protecting consumers.

Bird, L.; Reger, A.; Heeter, J.

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

A majorization-minimization approach to design of power distribution networks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We consider optimization approaches to design cost-effective electrical networks for power distribution. This involves a trade-off between minimizing the power loss due to resistive heating of the lines and minimizing the construction cost (modeled by a linear cost in the number of lines plus a linear cost on the conductance of each line). We begin with a convex optimization method based on the paper 'Minimizing Effective Resistance of a Graph' [Ghosh, Boyd & Saberi]. However, this does not address the Alternating Current (AC) realm and the combinatorial aspect of adding/removing lines of the network. Hence, we consider a non-convex continuation method that imposes a concave cost of the conductance of each line thereby favoring sparser solutions. By varying a parameter of this penalty we extrapolate from the convex problem (with non-sparse solutions) to the combinatorial problem (with sparse solutions). This is used as a heuristic to find good solutions (local minima) of the non-convex problem. To perform the necessary non-convex optimization steps, we use the majorization-minimization algorithm that performs a sequence of convex optimizations obtained by iteratively linearizing the concave part of the objective. A number of examples are presented which suggest that the overall method is a good heuristic for network design. We also consider how to obtain sparse networks that are still robust against failures of lines and/or generators.

Johnson, Jason K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Cooperative innovation in the commons : rethinking distributed collaboration and intellectual property for sustainable design innovation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Addressing global design challenges in the environment and underserved communities requires a cooperative approach towards sustainable design innovation, one that embraces multidisciplinary expertise, participatory design ...

Sawhney, Nitin, 1971-

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

185

Optimization of distribution transformer efficiency characteristics. Final report, March 1979  

SciTech Connect

A method for distribution transformer loss evaluation was derived. The total levalized annual cost method was used and was extended to account properly for conditions of energy cost inflation, peak load growth, and transformer changeout during the evaluation period. The loss costs included were the no-load and load power losses, no-load and load reactive losses, and the energy cost of regulation. The demand and energy components of loss costs were treated separately to account correctly for the diversity of load losses and energy cost inflation. The complete distribution transformer loss evaluation equation is shown, with the nomenclature and definitions for the parameters provided. Tasks described are entitled: Establish Loss Evaluation Techniques; Compile System Cost Parameters; Compile Load Parameters and Loading Policies; Develop Transformer Cost/Performance Relationship; Define Characteristics of Multiple Efficiency Transformer Package; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Single Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; Minimize Life Cycle Cost Based on Multiple Efficiency Characteristic Transformer Design; and Interpretation.

1980-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Application of measured loads to wind turbine fatigue and reliability analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Cyclic loadings produce progressive damage that can ultimately result in wind turbine structural failure. There are many issues that must be dealt with in turning load measurements into estimates of component fatigue life. This paper deals with how the measured loads can be analyzed and processed to meet the needs of both fatigue life calculations and reliability estimates. It is recommended that moments of the distribution of rainflow-range load amplitudes be calculated and used to characterize the fatigue loading. These moments reflect successively more detailed physical characteristics of the loading (mean, spread, tail behavior). Moments can be calculated from data samples and functional forms can be fitted to wind conditions, such as wind speed and turbulence intensity, with standard recession techniques. Distributions of load amplitudes that accurately reflect the damaging potential of the loadings can be estimated from the moments at any, wind condition of interest. Fatigue life can then be calculated from the estimated load distributions, and the overall, long-term, or design spectrum can be generated for any particular wind-speed distribution. Characterizing the uncertainty in the distribution of cyclic loads is facilitated by using a small set of descriptive statistics for which uncertainties can be estimated. The effects of loading parameter uncertainty can then be transferred to the fatigue life estimate and compared with other uncertainties, such as material durability.

Veers, P.S. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Winterstein, S.R. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Structural load combinations  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the latest results of the program entitled, ''Probability Based Load Combinations For Design of Category I Structures''. In FY 85, a probability-based reliability analysis method has been developed to evaluate safety of shear wall structures. The shear walls are analyzed using stick models with beam elements and may be subjected to dead load, live load and in-plane eqrthquake. Both shear and flexure limit states are defined analytically. The limit state probabilities can be evaluated on the basis of these limit states. Utilizing the reliability analysis method mentioned above, load combinations for the design of shear wall structures have been established. The proposed design criteria are in the load and resistance factor design (LRFD) format. In this study, the resistance factors for shear and flexure and load factors for dead and live loads are preassigned, while the load factor for SSE is determined for a specified target limit state probability of 1.0 x 10/sup -6/ or 1.0 x 10/sup -5/ during a lifetime of 40 years. 23 refs., 9 tabs.

Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Ellingwood, B.; Shinozuka, M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

188

Using generative design patterns to generate parallel code for a distributed memory environment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A design pattern is a mechanism for encapsulating the knowledge of experienced designers into a re-usable artifact. Parallel design patterns reflect commonly occurring parallel communication and synchronization structures. Our tools, CO2P3S (Correct ... Keywords: design patterns, frameworks, parallel programming, programming tools

Kai Tan; Duane Szafron; Jonathan Schaeffer; John Anvik; Steve MacDonald

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Monitoring of Electrical End-Use Loads in Commercial Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Southern California Edison is currently conducting a program to collect end-use metered data from commercial buildings in its service area. The data will provide actual measurements of end-use loads and will be used in research and in designing energy management programs oriented toward end-use applications. The focus of the program is on five major types of commercial buildings: offices, grocery stores, restaurants, retail stores, and warehouses. End-use metering equipment is installed at about 50 buildings, distributed among these five types. The buildings selected have average demands of 100 to 300 kW. The metered end-uses vary among building types and include HVAC, lighting, refrigeration. plug loads, and cooking. Procedures have been custom-designed to facilitate collection and validation of the end-use load data. For example, the Load Profile Viewer is a PC-based software program for reviewing and validating the end-use load data.

Martinez, M.; Alereza, T.; Mort, D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemfor Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Powerin parabolic trough solar power technology. Journal of Solar

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental impact study: CSP vs. CdTe thin filmsolar CHP Rankine CSP concentrating distributed the concentrating solar power (CSP) troughs in the central

Norwood, Zachary Mills

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Survivability models for the assessment of smart grid distribution automation network designs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smart grids are fostering a paradigm shift in the realm of power distribution systems. Whereas traditionally different components of the power distribution system have been provided and analyzed by different teams through different lenses, smart grids ... Keywords: fault tolerance, smart grid, survivability, transient analysis

Alberto Avritzer; Sindhu Suresh; Daniel Sadoc Menasch; Rosa Maria Meri Leo; Edmundo de Souza e Silva; Morganna Carmem Diniz; Kishor Trivedi; Lucia Happe; Anne Koziolek

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Economical design of gate-commutated inverters for the grid-tied distributed generators  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The cost-effectiveness of small distributed generating resources is vital to the success of the high penetration of distributed generators within the microgrid concept. A common mechanism is the use of highly efficient inverters following the electrical storage systems. In this paper

Mujahidul Islam; Adedamola Omole; Arif Islam; Alexander Domijan Jr.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

194

Holistic optimization of distribution automation network designs using survivability modeling and power flow equations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Smart grids are fostering a paradigm shift in the realm of power distribution systems. Whereas traditionally different components of the power distribution system have been provided and analyzed by different teams, smart grids require a unified and holistic ... Keywords: smart-grids

Anne Koziolek; Alberto Avritzer; Daniel Sadoc Menasch

2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

A Benders decomposition approach for a distribution network design problem with consolidation and capacity considerations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We develop a model for a strategic freight-forwarding network design problem in which the design decisions involve the locations and capacities of consolidation and deconsolidation centers, and capacities on linehaul linkages as well as the shipment ... Keywords: Benders decomposition, Consolidation, Network design

Halit Ster; Homarjun Agrahari

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

The design and prototype of RUDA, a distributed grid accounting system  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Grid environment contains a large and growing number of widely distributed sites with heterogeneous resources. It is a great challenge to dynamically manage and account for usage data of Grid resources, such as computational, network, and storage ...

M. L. Chen; A. Geist; D. E. Bernholdt; K. Chanchio; D. L. Million

2005-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Inventory deployment and market area segmentation in a two-echelon distribution network design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Most of the logistics systems involve a multi-level distribution system structure due to value added by a multi-level configuration. Interactions of these levels, i.e. echelons, should be considered while making strategic ...

Varol, Nebibe, 1980-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Wastewater Subsurface Drip Distribution: Peer-Reviewed Guidelines for Design, Operation, and Maintenance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Subsurface drip distribution is the most efficient method currently available for application and subsurface dispersal of wastewater to soil. Because it is so effective, drip distribution represents a viable option for wastewater disposal and reuse for all soil types. The technology is commonly used at sites where point source discharges and National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits are not appropriate due to environmental sensitivity of receiving streams. It is also commonly used a...

2004-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

Computing leakage current distributions and determination of minimum leakage vectors for combinational designs.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Analyzing circuit leakage and minimizing leakage during the standby mode of oper- ation of a circuit are important problems faced during contemporary circuit design. Analysis (more)

Gulati, Kanupriya

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Dynamic model of power system operation incorporating load control  

SciTech Connect

Load management has been proposed as a means whereby an electric utility can reduce its requirements for additional generation, transmission, and distribution investments, shift fuel dependency from limited to more abundant energy resources, and improve the efficiency of the electric energy system. There exist, however, serious technological and economic questions which must be answered to define the cost trade-offs between initiating a load management strategy or adding additional capacity to meet the load. One aspect of this complex problem is to determine how the load profile might be modified by the load management option being considered. Towards this end, a model has been developed to determine how a power system with an active load control system should be operated to make the best use of its available resources. The model is capable of handling all types of conventional generating sources including thermal, hydro, and pumped storage units, and most appliances being considered for direct control including those with inherent or designed storage characteristics. The model uses a dynamic programming technique to determine the optimal operating strategy for a given set of conditions. The use of the model is demonstrated. Case study results indicate that the production cost savings that can be achieved through the use of direct load control are highly dependent on utility characteristics, load characteristics, storage capacity, and penetration. The load characteristics that produce the greatest savings are: large storage capacity; high coincidence with the system peak; large connected load per point; and moderately high diversity fraction.

Kuliasha, M.A.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Advanced Distributed Energy Resource Compliant Distribution Circuits for High Reliability  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Electric power distribution systems and their designs have not advanced much over the past 50 years. Industry restructuring has caused many utilities to defer infrastructure investments, and implement business as usual and conservative distribution system expansion plans. Many drivers are now causing utilities to rethink how the infrastructure of the future should be built out and how best to incorporate new technology. Drivers include higher demand for reliability, the ability to better manage loads, in...

2005-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

202

Design and optimization of global distribution supply chain at McCain Foods  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Network design has been successfully used by numerous organizations to achieve supply chain excellence through cost effectiveness and superior utilization of resources. This thesis addresses how network optimization methods ...

Gentiletti, Andrea

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Design of Air-cooled Microchannel Condensers for Mal-distributed Air Flow Conditions .  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Air-cooled condensers are routinely designed for a variety of applications, including residential air-conditioning systems. Recent attempts at improving the performance of these heat exchangers have (more)

Subramaniam, Vishwanath

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A SAMPLER FOR MEASURING THE NEAR-BOTTOM VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

conducted with the sampler dealt with evaluations of mesh size and tickler chain. Experiments indicated doubled when a tickler chain was used. The sampler may have application to both shrimp biologists organisms; and (4) a tickler chain on shrimp catch rate and vertical distribution. 1 Northwest Fisheries

205

Design and analysis of an adaptive object replication algorithm in distributed network systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, we propose an adaptive object replication algorithm for distributed network systems, analyze its performance from both theoretical and experimental standpoints. We first present a mathematical cost model that considers all the costs associated ... Keywords: Allocation scheme, Communication cost, Competitive analysis, I/O cost, Object replication

Lin Wujuan; Bharadwaj Veeravalli

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Reclaimed water distribution network design under temporal and spatial growth and demand uncertainties  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A significant-but underutilized-water resource is reclaimed water, i.e., treated wastewater that is reintroduced for various purposes. Especially in water scarce regions, reclaimed water is often the only remaining source of water to meet increasing ... Keywords: Demand and network growth uncertainty, Reclaimed water distribution system, Stochastic optimization, Water resources management

Weini Zhang, Gunhui Chung, Pguy Pierre-Louis, Gzin Bayraksan, Kevin Lansey

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

An Agent-based Strategy for Deploying Analysis Models into Specification and Design for Distributed APS Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Despite the extensive use of the agent technology in the Supply Chain Management field, its integration with Advanced Planning and Scheduling (APS) tools still represents a promising field with several open research questions. Specifically, the literature falls short in providing an integrated framework to analyze, specify, design and implement simulation experiments covering the whole simulation cycle. Thus, this paper proposes an agent-based strategy to convert the 'analysis' models into 'specification' and 'design' models combining two existing methodologies proposed in the literature. The first one is a recent and unique approach dedicated to the 'analysis' of agent-based APS systems. The second one is a well-established methodological framework to 'specify' and 'design' agent-based supply chain systems. The proposed conversion strategy is original and is the first one allowing simulation analysts to integrate the whole simulation development process in the domain of distributed APS.

de Santa-Eulalia, Luis Antonio; Frayret, Jean-Marc

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

208

A reliability assessment methodology for distribution systems with distributed generation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reliability assessment is of primary importance in designing and planning distribution systems that operate in an economic manner with minimal interruption of customer loads. With the advances in renewable energy sources, Distributed Generation (DG), is forecasted to increase in distribution networks. The study of reliability evaluation of such networks is a relatively new area. This research presents a new methodology that can be used to analyze the reliability of such distribution systems and can be applied in preliminary planning studies for such systems. The method uses a sequential Monte Carlo simulation of the distribution system?s stochastic model to generate the operating behavior and combines that with a path augmenting Max flow algorithm to evaluate the load status for each state change of operation in the system. Overall system and load point reliability indices such as hourly loss of load, frequency of loss of load and expected energy unserved can be computed using this technique. On addition of DG in standby mode of operation at specific locations in the network, the reliability indices can be compared for different scenarios and strategies for placement of DG and their capacities can be determined using this methodology.

Duttagupta, Suchismita Sujaya

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Load Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Visualization and Controls Peer Review Visualization and Controls Peer Review Load Control for System Reliability and Measurement-Based Stability Assessment Dan Trudnowski, PhD, PE Montana Tech Butte, MT 59701 dtrudnowski@mtech.edu 406-496-4681 October 2006 2 Presentation Outline * Introduction - Goals, Enabling technologies, Overview * Load Control - Activities, Status * Stability Assessment - Activities, Status * Wrap up - Related activities, Staff 3 Goals * Research and develop technologies to improve T&D reliability * Technologies - Real-time load control methodologies - Measurement-based stability-assessment 4 Enabling Technologies * Load control enabled by GridWise technology (e.g. PNNL's GridFriendly appliance) * Real-time stability assessment enabled by Phasor Measurement (PMU) technology 5 Project Overview * Time line: April 18, 2006 thru April 17, 2008

210

A density based approach to the access point layout smart distribution grid design optimization problem  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) is an integral part of the smart grid. It plays a significant role in control and management for utilities. Along with its pervasiveness, effective AMI network design has drawn more attention. To some extent, the ... Keywords: genetic algorithm, layout optimization, multi-objective optimization, neighborhood area network, smart grid

Bin Zhang; Kamran Shafi; Hussein A. Abbass

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

1486 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON COMPUTER-AIDED DESIGN OF INTEGRATED CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. 25, NO. 8, AUGUST 2006 Modeling and Analysis of Loading Effect on Leakage  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, AUGUST 2006 Modeling and Analysis of Loading Effect on Leakage of Nanoscaled Bulk-CMOS Logic Circuits geometry and the doping profile) and at the circuit level (through the node voltages). Due to the circuit. In this paper, the effect of loading on a leakage of a circuit is analyzed for the first time. The authors have

Bhunia, Swarup

212

Definition: Real-Time Load Transfer | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Real-time load transfer is achieved through real-time feeder reconfiguration and optimization to relieve load on equipment, improve asset utilization, improve distribution...

213

MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION - Report on Review of Requirements and Capabilities for Analyzing and Responding to Beyond Design Basis Events  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

September 16, 2011 September 16, 2011 MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION FROM: SUBJECT: DANIEL B. PONEMA Report on Review of Requirements and Capabilities for Analyzing and Responding to Beyond Design Basis Events Following the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the Department of Energy (DOE) took several actions to review the safety of its nuclear facilities. These actions focused on learning how DOE can better prepare to manage potential beyond design basis events. A summary of these actions and the resulting insights, and recommended opportunities and actions to improve nuclear safety at DOE> are included in the attached report. I have directed the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) to work with DOE's Nuclear Safety and Security Coordinating Council, and the Program and Field Offices of

214

MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION - Report on Review of Requirements and Capabilities for Analyzing and Responding to Beyond Design Basis Events  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

September 16, 2011 September 16, 2011 MEMORANDUM FOR DISTRIBUTION FROM: SUBJECT: DANIEL B. PONEMA Report on Review of Requirements and Capabilities for Analyzing and Responding to Beyond Design Basis Events Following the March 2011 accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, the Department of Energy (DOE) took several actions to review the safety of its nuclear facilities. These actions focused on learning how DOE can better prepare to manage potential beyond design basis events. A summary of these actions and the resulting insights, and recommended opportunities and actions to improve nuclear safety at DOE> are included in the attached report. I have directed the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) to work with DOE's Nuclear Safety and Security Coordinating Council, and the Program and Field Offices of

215

Yearly distributed insolation model and optimum design of a two dimensional compound parabolic concentrator  

SciTech Connect

Optimum acceptance angle of a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) is studied by the use of an insolation model proposed in this paper. The insolation consists of two components: diffuse and direct. The direct radiation is supposed to be distributed in the field within {+-}23.5{degree} of declination on the celestial hemisphere and the diffuse radiation is assumed to have uniform irradiance. This yearly insolation model suggests that the optimum half-acceptance angle at the two-dimensional CPC becomes 26{degree} irrespective of the change of the diffuse radiation fraction. This result leads us to the conclusion that, almost all over the world, a common CPC could be used as an optimum concentration for many solar radiation collecting systems. 11 refs., 8 figs.

Suzuki, Akio; Kobayashi, Shigeo [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology (Japan)

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Properly Understanding the Impacts of Distributed Resources on Distribution Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The subject paper discusses important impacts of distributed resources on distribution networks and feeders. These include capacity, line losses, voltage regulation, and central system support (such as volt/var via central generators and substation) as the number, placement and penetration levels of distributed resources are varied. Typically, the impacts of distributed resources on the distribution system are studied by using steady-state rather than dynamic analysis tools. However, the response time and transient impacts of both system equipment (such as substation/feeder capacitors) and distributed resources needs to be taken into account and only dynamic analysis will provide the full impact results. ORNL is wrapping up a study of distributed resources interconnected to a large distribution system considering the above variables. A report of the study and its results will be condensed into a paper for this panel session. The impact of distributed resources will vary as the penetration level reaches the capacity of the distribution feeder/system. The question is how high of a penetration of distributed resource can be accommodated on the distribution feeder/system without any major changes to system operation, design and protection. The impacts most surely will vary depending upon load composition, distribution and level. Also, it is expected that various placement of distributed resources will impact the distribution system differently.

Rizy, D Tom [ORNL; Li, Fangxing [ORNL; Li, Huijuan [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Adhikari, Sarina [ORNL; Kueck, John D [ORNL

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

LOADING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device is presented for loading or charging bodies of fissionable material into a reactor. This device consists of a car, mounted on tracks, into which the fissionable materials may be placed at a remote area, transported to the reactor, and inserted without danger to the operating personnel. The car has mounted on it a heavily shielded magazine for holding a number of the radioactive bodies. The magazine is of a U-shaped configuration and is inclined to the horizontal plane, with a cap covering the elevated open end, and a remotely operated plunger at the lower, closed end. After the fissionable bodies are loaded in the magazine and transported to the reactor, the plunger inserts the body at the lower end of the magazine into the reactor, then is withdrawn, thereby allowing gravity to roll the remaining bodies into position for successive loading in a similar manner.

Ohlinger, L.A.

1958-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

12 Figure 5. Distribution of PV Electricity Generation byFigure 6. Distribution of PV Electricity Generation by MPR-Figure 5. Distribution of PV Electricity Generation by

Darghouth, Naim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Passive damping of beam vibrations through distributed electric networks and piezoelectric transducers: prototype design and experimental validation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The aim of this work is two-fold: to design devices for passive electric damping of structural vibrations by distributed piezoelectric transducers and electric networks, and to experimentally validate the effectiveness of such a damping concept. Two different electric networks are employed, namely a purely resistive network and an inductive-resistive one. The presented devices can be considered as distributed versions of the well-known resistive and resonant shunt of a single piezoelectric transducer. The technicalfeasibility and damping effectiveness of the proposed novel devices are assessed through the construction of an experimental prototype. Experimental results are shown to be in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. It is proved that the presented technique allows for a substantial reduction in the inductances used when compared with those required by the single resonant shunted transducer. In particular, it is shown that the required inductance decreases when the number of piezoelectric elements is increased. The electric networks are optimized in order to reduce forced vibrations close to the first resonance frequency. Nevertheless, the damping effectiveness for higher modes is experimentally proved. As well as specific results, fundamental theoretical and experimental considerations for passive distributed vibration control are provided.

F. dell'Isola; C. Maurini; M. Porfiri

2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

220

Cooling load estimation methods  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

McFarland, R.D.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Multidimensional spectral load balancing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of and apparatus for graph partitioning involving the use of a plurality of eigenvectors of the Laplacian matrix of the graph of the problem for which load balancing is desired. The invention is particularly useful for optimizing parallel computer processing of a problem and for minimizing total pathway lengths of integrated circuits in the design stage.

Hendrickson, Bruce A. (Albuquerque, NM); Leland, Robert W. (Albuquerque, NM)

1996-12-24T23:59:59.000Z

222

Design and characterization of a spatially distributed multibeam field emission x-ray source for stationary digital breast tomosynthesis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) is a limited angle computed tomography technique that can distinguish tumors from its overlying breast tissues and has potentials for detection of cancers at a smaller size and earlier stage. Current prototype DBT scanners are based on the regular full-field digital mammography systems and require partial isocentric motion of an x-ray tube over certain angular range to record the projection views. This prolongs the scanning time and, in turn, degrades the imaging quality due to motion blur. To mitigate the above limitations, the concept of a stationary DBT (s-DBT) scanner has been recently proposed based on the newly developed spatially distributed multibeam field emission x-ray (MBFEX) source technique using the carbon nanotube. The purpose of this article is to evaluate the performance of the 25-beam MBFEX source array that has been designed and fabricated for the s-DBT system. The s-DBT system records all the projection images by electronically activating the multiple x-ray beams from different viewing angles without any mechanical motion. The configuration of the MBFEX source is close to the published values from the Siemens Mammomat system. The key issues including the x-ray flux, focal spot size, spatial resolution, scanning time, beam-to-beam consistency, and reliability are evaluated using the standard procedures. In this article, the authors describe the design and performance of a distributed x-ray source array specifically designed for the s-DBT system. They evaluate the emission current, current variation, lifetime, and focal spot sizes of the source array. An emission current of up to 18 mA was obtained at 0.5x0.3 mm effective focal spot size. The experimentally measured focal spot sizes are comparable to that of a typical commercial mammography tube without motion blurring. Trade-off between the system spatial resolution, x-ray flux, and scanning time are also discussed. Projection images of a breast phantom were collected using the x-ray source array from 25 different viewing angles without motion. These preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed s-DBT scanner. The technology has the potential to increase the resolution and reduce the imaging time for DBT. With the present design of 25 views, they demonstrated experimentally the feasibility of achieving 11 s scanning time at full detector resolution with 0.5x0.3 mm source resolution without motion blur. The flexibility in configuration of the x-ray source array will also allow system designers to consider imaging geometries that are difficult to achieve with the conventional single-source rotating approach.

Qian Xin; Rajaram, Ramya; Calderon-Colon, Xiomara; Yang Guang; Phan, Tuyen; Lalush, David S.; Lu Jianping; Zhou, Otto [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) and Department of Biomedical Engineering, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina 27659 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) and Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States); Curriculum in Applied Sciences and Engineering, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States) and Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599 (United States)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

223

MTS Table Top Load frame  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

MTS Table Top Load frame MTS Table Top Load frame The Non-destructive Evaluation group operates an MTS Table Top Load frame for ultimate strength and life cycle testing of various ceramic, ceramic-matrix (FGI), carbon, carbon fiber, cermet (CMC) and metal alloy engineering samples. The load frame is a servo-hydraulic type designed to function in a closed loop configuration under computer control. The system can perform non-cyclic, tension, compression and flexure testing and cyclic fatigue tests. The system is comprised of two parts: * The Load Frame and * The Control System. Load Frame The Load Frame (figure 1) is a cross-head assembly which includes a single moving grip, a stationary grip and LVDT position sensor. It can generate up to 25 kN (5.5 kip) of force in the sample under test and can

224

LOADED WAVEGUIDES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

>Loaded waveguides are described for the propagation of electromagnetic waves with reduced phase velocities. A rectangular waveguide is dimensioned so as to cut-off the simple H/sub 01/ mode at the operating frequency. The waveguide is capacitance loaded, so as to reduce the phase velocity of the transmitted wave, by connecting an electrical conductor between directly opposite points in the major median plane on the narrower pair of waveguide walls. This conductor may take a corrugated shape or be an aperature member, the important factor being that the electrical length of the conductor is greater than one-half wavelength at the operating frequency. Prepared for the Second U.N. International ConferThe importance of nuclear standards is duscussed. A brief review of the international callaboration in this field is given. The proposal is made to let the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) coordinate the efforts from other groups. (W.D.M.)

Mullett, L.B.; Loach, B.G.; Adams, G.L.

1958-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

225

Interruptible load control for Taiwan Power Company  

SciTech Connect

Load management is the planning and implementation of those utility activities designed to influence customer use of electricity in ways that will produce desired changes in the utility's load shape. Interruptible load program is an option of load management which provides incentive rate to customers to interrupt or reduce the power demand during the system peak period or emergency condition. Therefore, how to design a proper incentive rate is the most important issue in implementing this program. This paper describes three alternatives designed for the interruptible load program, one of which was activated by Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) and some preliminary results were obtained. The effect of the interruptible load to the system peak demand reduction and the change of daily load curve for large industrial customers were analyzed. This paper estimates the avoided cost and design more appropriate incentive rate structure for interruptible load program.

Chen, C.S.; Leu, J.T. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering, National Sun Yat-Sen Univ., Kaohsiung (TW))

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Load Balancing Content-Based Publish/Subscribe Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed content-based publish/subscribe systems suffer from performance degradation and poor scalability caused by uneven load distributions typical in real-world applications. The reason for this shortcoming is the lack of a load balancing scheme. ... Keywords: PADRES, Publish/subscribe, ToPSS, content-based routing, load balancing, load estimation, offload algorithms, subscriber migration

Alex King Yeung Cheung; Hans-Arno Jacobsen

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Impact of load type on microgrid stability  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

Monnin, Jared P

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

The Promise of Load Balancing the Parameterization of Moist Convection Using a Model Data Load Index  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The parameterization of physical processes in atmospheric general circulation models contributes to load imbalances among individual processors of message-passing distributed-multiprocessor systems. Load imbalances increase the overall time to ...

S. P. Muszala; D. A. Connors; J. J. Hack; G. Alaghband

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Reliability analysis of RC containment structures under combined loads  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses a reliability analysis method and load combination design criteria for reinforced concrete containment structures under combined loads. The probability based reliability analysis method is briefly described. For load combination design criteria, derivations of the load factors for accidental pressure due to a design basis accident and safe shutdown earthquake (SSE) for three target limit state probabilities are presented.

Hwang, H.; Reich, M.; Kagami, S.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

As part of designing a village electric power system, the present and future electric loads must be defined, including both seasonal and daily usage patterns. However, in many cases, detailed electric load information is not readily available. NREL developed the Alaska Village Electric Load Calculator to help estimate the electricity requirements in a village given basic information about the types of facilities located within the community. The purpose of this report is to explain how the load calculator was developed and to provide instructions on its use so that organizations can then use this model to calculate expected electrical energy usage.

Devine, M.; Baring-Gould, E. I.

2004-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Enhancing adaptability of distributed groupware applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed Groupware applications must be designed to cope with an increasingly diverse set of operational conditions. The available network bandwidth and latency, the network connectivity, the number of users, the type of devices, the system load, ... Keywords: adaptability, adaptive, adaptive layer, context awareness, groupware, mobile devices

Tebalo Tsoaeli; Judith Bishop

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Demand or Request: Will Load Behave?  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Power planning engineers are trained to design an electric system that satisfies predicted electrical demand under stringent conditions of availability and power quality. Like responsible custodians, we plan for the provision of electrical sustenance and shelter to those in whose care regulators have given us the responsibility to serve. Though most customers accept this nurturing gladly, a growing number are concerned with the economic costs and environmental impacts of service at a time when technology (particularly distributed generation, storage, automation, and information networks) offers alternatives for localized control and competitive service. As customers and their systems mature, a new relationship with the electricity provider is emerging. Demand response is perhaps the first unsteady step where the customer participates as a partner in system operations. This paper explores issues system planners need to consider as demand response matures to significant levels beyond direct load control and toward a situation where service is requested and bargains are reached with the electricity provider based on desired load behavior. On one hand, predicting load growth and behavior appears more daunting than ever. On the other, for the first time load becomes a new resource whose behavior can be influenced during system operations to balance system conditions.

Widergren, Steven E.

2009-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

233

Review: Stability of nonlinear masonry members under combined load  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Under examination is the post buckling of unreinforced load-bearing masonry walls or piers subject to a combined load consisting of a uniformly distributed axial load and a concentrated eccentric load at the top end. Fixed free-ended prismatic columns ... Keywords: Brick walls, Combined load, Instability, Masonry, No-tension material, Nonlinear constitutive law

Igino Mura

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Design  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Design Design of a Multithreaded Barnes-Hut Algorithm for Multicore Clusters Technical Report Junchao Zhang and Babak Behzad Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign {jczhang, bbehza2}@illinois.edu Marc Snir Department of Computer Science, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and MCS Division, Argonne National Laboratory snir@anl.gov Abstract We describe in this paper an implementation of the Barnes-Hut al- gorithm on multicore clusters. Based on a partitioned global ad- dress space (PGAS) library, the design integrates intranode mul- tithreading and internode one-sided communication, exemplifying a PGAS + X programming style. Within a node, the computation is decomposed into tasks (subtasks), and multitasking is used to hide network latency. We study the tradeoffs between locality in private caches and locality in shared caches

235

Design, prototyping and preliminary testing of an elastic-powered climbing exoskeleton  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Human powered elastic mechanisms can be used to reduce work requirements of muscles, by storing and releasing energy to more evenly distribute work load. An exoskeleton was designed to delay human fatigue during rock ...

Briner, Hazel (Hazel Linn)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Buildings Stock Load Control  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on electricity demand control by applying some strategies in existing building to reduce it during the extreme climate period. The first part of this paper presents the objectives of the study: ? to restrict the startup polluting manufacturing units (power station), ? to limit the environmental impacts (greenhouse emission), ? to reduce the transport and distribution electricity infrastructures The second part presents the approach used to rise the objectives : ? To aggregat the individual loads and to analyze the impact of different strategies from load shedding to reduce peak power demand by: ? Developing models of tertiary buildings stocks (Schools, offices, Shops, hotels); ? Making simulations for different load shedding strategies to calculate potential peak power saving. The third part is dedicated to the description of the developed models: An assembly of the various blocks of the library of simbad and simulink permit to model building. Finally the last part prensents the study results: Graphs and tables to see the load shedding strategies impacts.

Joutey, H. A.; Vaezi-Nejad, H.; Clemoncon, B.; Rosenstein, F.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

metering, the average price paid for PV generation under thecredits some or all PV production at prices based on thethe average MPR-based price at a 25% PV-to-load ratio and $

Darghouth, Naim R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Measured Peak Equipment Loads in Laboratories  

SciTech Connect

This technical bulletin documents measured peak equipment load data from 39 laboratory spaces in nine buildings across five institutions. The purpose of these measurements was to obtain data on the actual peak loads in laboratories, which can be used to rightsize the design of HVAC systems in new laboratories. While any given laboratory may have unique loads and other design considerations, these results may be used as a 'sanity check' for design assumptions.

Mathew, Paul A.

2007-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

239

The Distributional and Environmental Effects of Time-Varying Prices in Competitive Electricity Markets  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Source: EPAs CEMS. Electricity Load Distribution 2.0e-04 NoLoad Figure 2a: Electricity load distribution (in MWh) withreal-time pricing Electricity Load Distribution 2.0e-04 All

Holland, Stephen P.; MANSUR, ERIN T

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IMPROVEMENTS TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURE By BEREKET TO THE RADIANT TIME SERIES METHOD COOLING LOAD CALCULATION PROCEDURE Dissertation Approved: Dr. Jeffrey D- Original RTSM.......................................................153 4.4.1 RTSM Peak Design Cooling Load

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate.

Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley; Darghouth, Naim R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Optimal design of a high-speed slotless permanent magnet synchronous generator with soft magnetic composite stator yoke and rectifier load  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents a specific design methodology of a DC generation system using a high-speed slotless generator with surface-mounted magnets and soft magnetic composite (SMC) stator yoke connected to a rectifier. The method is based on an analytical ... Keywords: Eddy currents, High-speed generation system, Optimal design, Permanent magnet machine, Soft magnetic composite material

Ahmed Chebak; Philippe Viarouge; Jrme Cros

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) regulations, individualorganizations contacted included FERC, the New York State

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by natural gas engine (GE), gas turbine (GT), microturbine (Technology Fuel Cell Gas Turbine Microturbine Natual Gas$/kW) Hour(h) Gas Engine Gas Turbine Gas Turbine CHP Note:

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

245

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Table 1 shows the electricity tariffs of several facilitiesTable 1 Comparison of Electricity Tariff in Selected U.S.cooling. Utility electricity and gas tariffs are key factors

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

microturbines,150 ton absorption chiller and CHP SELFGEN,funding) $184,522 for absorption chiller and heat exchanger

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

247

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

energy output is in the form of useful thermal energy. Where useful thermal energy results from power production,half the annual useful thermal energy output equals not less

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

system, Natural gas CHP utilization energy supply equipmentsystem, Natural gas CHP utilization energy supply equipment

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gas Reciprocating Engine Photovoltaic Fuel Cell with HeatMT), fuel cell (FC), and photovoltaic (PV). All equipment (

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy Regulatory Committee (FERC) regulations, individual states determine incentivesstate and local jurisdiction on incentives may include rebates on DER project costs, energy

Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

High-Power Rf Load  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Properly Evaluating load-following products  

SciTech Connect

The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

253

Monitoring of the electrical distribution network operation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distribution network operation is determined by the behaviour of the load. To plan and analyse the electrical network operation, precise modelling of load is substantial. The adequate approach to understand the electrical distribution network operation ... Keywords: SCADA, busloads, distribution network, load monitoring, mathematical model of load, network operation monitoring, state estimation

Jako Kilter; Mati Meldorf

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Static identification of delinquent loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The effective use of processor caches is crucial to the performance of applications. It has been shown that cache misses are not evenly distributed throughout a program. In applications running on RISC-style processors, a small number of delinquent load instructions are responsible for most of the cache misses. Identification of delinquent loads is the key to the success of many cache optimization and prefetching techniques. In this paper, we propose a method for identifying delinquent loads that can be implemented at compile time. Our experiments over eighteen benchmarks from the SPEC suite shows that our proposed scheme is stable across benchmarks, inputs, and cache structures, identifying an average of 10 % of the total number of loads in the benchmarks we tested that account for over 90 % of all data cache misses. As far as we know, this is the first time a technique for static delinquent load identification with such a level of precision and coverage has been reported. While comparable techniques can also identify load instructions that cover 90 % of all data cache misses, they do so by selecting over 50 % of all load instructions in the code, resulting in a high number of false positives. If basic block profiling is used in conjunction with our heuristic, then our results show that it is possible to pin down just 1.3 % of the load instructions that account for 82 % of all data cache misses. 1.

Vlad-mihai Panait; Amit Sasturkar

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

An effective loading method of americium targets in fast reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently, the development of target fuel with high americium (Am) content has been launched for the reduction of the overall fuel fabrication cost of the minor actinide (MA) recycling. In the framework of the development, this study proposes an effective loading method of Am targets in fast reactors. As a result of parametric survey calculations, we have found the ring-shaped target loading pattern between inner and outer core regions. This loading method is satisfactory both in core characteristics and in MA transmutation property. It should be noted that the Am targets can contribute to the suppression of the core power distribution change due to burnup. The major drawback of Am target is the production of helium gas. A target design modification by increasing the cladding thickness is found to be the most feasible measure to cope with the helium production. (authors)

Ohki, Shigeo; Sato, Isamu; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Load Shape Library Version 1.0  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The downloadable report details EPRI's efforts to develop a framework of a load database and web-accessible repository of end-use and whole-premise data for application to energy efficiency assessments. The tool provides access to the best available end-use load data and whole-premise data by sector, region and building type. Improved end-use load research data will benefit load forecasters, system planners, energy efficiency program managers and rate design analysts by facilitating integration ...

2013-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

257

Compatibility Tests for Dissimilar Types of Distributed Generation Powering a Microgrid  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Microgrids are small power systems that can operate independently of the bulk power system. They are composed of one or more distributed resources (DR) and electrical loads that are interconnected by a distribution system. Most of today's microgrids are fairly simple in design, consisting of a single generator supplying a dedicated load or of multiple identical generating units ganged to operate much like a single unit. This report addresses technical issues involved when dissimilar generators are used.

2003-03-12T23:59:59.000Z

258

A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service. Second topical report  

SciTech Connect

The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled ``An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems`` [Ref.1.1], identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three topical reports, an assessment of the technical options posed by the above trade-offs is presented. The assessment is based on the current status of gas turbine technology. Several industry and university experts were contacted to contribute to the study. Literature sources and theoretical considerations are used only to provide additional background and insight to the technology involved.

Thomas, R.L.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

259

A review of potential turbine technology options for improving the off-design performance of direct coal-fired gas turbines in base load service  

SciTech Connect

The January, 1988 draft topical report, entitled An Assessment of Off-Design Particle Control Performance on Direct Coal-Fired Gas Turbine Systems'' (Ref.1.1), identified the need to assess potential trade-offs in turbine aerodynamic and thermodynamic design which may offer improvements in the performance, operational and maintenance characteristics of open-cycle, direct coal-fired, combustion gas turbines. In this second of a series of three topical reports, an assessment of the technical options posed by the above trade-offs is presented. The assessment is based on the current status of gas turbine technology. Several industry and university experts were contacted to contribute to the study. Literature sources and theoretical considerations are used only to provide additional background and insight to the technology involved.

Thomas, R.L.

1988-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

HVAC Equipment Design Options for Near-Zero-Energy Homes - Scoping Assessment of Radiant Panel Distribution System Options  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although the energy efficiency of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment has increased substantially in recent years, new approaches are needed to continue this trend. Conventional unitary equipment and system designs have matured to a point where cost-effective, dramatic efficiency improvements that meet near-zero-energy housing (NZEH) goals require a radical rethinking of opportunities to improve system performance. The large reductions in HVAC energy consumption necessary to support the NZEH goals require a systems-oriented analysis approach that characterizes each element of energy consumption, identifies alternatives, and determines the most cost-effective combination of options. In particular, HVAC equipment must be developed that addresses the range of special needs of NZEH applications in the areas of reduced HVAC and water heating energy use, humidity control, ventilation, uniform comfort, and ease of zoning. In FY05, ORNL conducted a scoping-level assessment of HVAC system options for NZEH homes (Baxter 2005). That report examined some twenty HVAC and water heating (HVAC/WH) systems in two 1800 ft2 houses--one constructed to Building America Research Benchmark standards and one a prototype NZEH. Both centrally ducted and two-zone systems were examined in that study. The highest scoring options using the ranking criteria described in that report were air-source and ground-source integrated heat pumps (IHP), and these were selected by DOE for further development. Among the feedback received to the FY05 report was a comment that systems using radiant panel (floor or ceiling) distribution options were not included among the system examined. This present report describes an assessment of a few such radiant panel systems under the same analysis and ranking criteria used in Baxter (2005). The rankings of the radiant system options reported herein are based on scoring by the team of building equipment researchers at ORNL. It is DOE's prerogative to revisit the criteria and obtain scoring from additional perspectives as part of its decision making process. If the criteria change, the ORNL team will be happy to re-score.

Baxter, Van David [ORNL

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Networked Loads in the Distribution Grid  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and Cooling Plant (CHCP) Domes1c Thermal DA100 Controler Yokogawa YS170 CHCP Old Alarm panel Conv PLC

Wang, Zhifang; Li, Xiao; Muthukumar, Vishak; Scaglione, Anna; Peisert, Sean; McParland, Chuck

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Feasibility study and preliminary design for fishing (TUNA) vessel fuel storage and distribution. Final report. Export trade information  

SciTech Connect

The report is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Conclusions and Recommendations; (3) Existing Conditions and Facilities for a Fuel Distribution Center; (4) Pacific Ocean Regional Tuna Fisheries and Resources; (5) Fishing Effort in the FSMEEZ 1992-1994; (6) Current Transshipping Operations in the Western Pacific Ocean; (7) Current and Probale Bunkering Practices of United States, Japanese, Koren, and Taiwanese Offshore-Based Vessels Operating in FSM and Adjacent Waters; (8) Shore-Based Fish-Handling/Processing; (9) Fuels Forecast; (10) Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution; (11) Cost Estimates; (12) Economic Evaluation of Fuel Supply, Storage and Distribution.

NONE

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Periodic load balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Multiprocessor load balancing aims to improve performance by moving jobs from highly loaded processors to more lightly loaded processors. Some schemes allow only migration of new jobs upon arrival, while other schemes allow migration of ... Keywords: heavy traffic diffusion approximations, load balancing, periodic load balancing, reflected Brownian motion, resource sharing, transient behavior

Gsli Hjlmtsson; Ward Whitt

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Wind loads on flat plate photovoltaic array fields. Phase II. Final report  

SciTech Connect

This report describes a theoretical study of the aerodynamic forces resulting from winds acting on flat plate photovoltaic arrays. Local pressure distributions and total aerodynamic forces on the arrays are shown. Design loads are presented to cover the conditions of array angles relative to the ground from 20/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/, variable array spacings, a ground clearance gap up to 1.2 m (4 ft) and array slant heights of 2.4 m (8 ft) and 4.8 m (16 ft). Several means of alleviating the wind loads on the arrays are detailed. The expected reduction of the steady state wind velocity with the use of fences as a load alleviation device are indicated to be in excess of a factor of three for some conditions. This yields steady state wind load reductions as much as a factor of ten compared to the load incurred if no fence is used to protect the arrays. This steady state wind load reduction is offset by the increase in turbulence due to the fence but still an overall load reduction of 2.5 can be realized. Other load alleviation devices suggested are the installation of air gaps in the arrays, blocking the flow under the arrays and rounding the edges of the array. Included is an outline of a wind tunnel test plan to supplement the theoretical study and to evaluate the load alleviation devices.

Miller, R.; Zimmerman, D.

1979-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems  

SciTech Connect

This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

Burdick, A.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

266

Optimization of distribution transformer efficiency characteristics. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A method for distribution transformer loss evaluation was derived. The total levelized annual cost method was used and was extended to account properly for conditions of energy cost inflation, peak load growth, and transformer changeout during the evaluation period. The loss costs included were the no-load and load power losses, no-load and load reactive losses, and the energy cost of regulation. The demand and energy components of loss costs were treated separately to account correctly for the diversity of load losses and energy cost inflation. An analysis was performed to find what level of transformer loss yields the minimum total levelized annual cost for a given kVA rating and a given set of load and cost parameters. Initial transformer costs as a function of no-load loss, load loss, and kVA were generated and used in the evaluation. Both single and multiple efficiency designs were considered. The total levelized annual costs of the two designs were compared. In each case the multiple efficiency design was less costly. A sensitivity analysis was performed to find the change in total levelized annual cost due to changes in the input parameters. Also, an analysis was conducted to determine the amount of energy required to produce the materials for distribution transformers. It was determined that the energy content of the extra materials used to produce a higher efficiency transformer was less than the amount of energy saved in operating costs. Therefore, from a total energy standpoint, it is worth using the extra energy to manufacture a more efficient transformer. Recommendations for distribution transformer efficiency characteristics and recommendations for further investigation are included. (LCL)

Braunstein, H.

1979-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

267

Decentralized agent-based underfrequency load shedding  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

As part of the transition to a smart grid efforts are being made to decentralize control of electric power systems and modernize protection schemes that are currently in use. One specific application of distributed control is underfrequency load shedding ... Keywords: UFLS, Underfrequency load shedding, intelligent agents

Sara Mullen; Getiria Onsongo

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Protecting consumer privacy from electric load monitoring  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The smart grid introduces concerns for the loss of consumer privacy; recently deployed smart meters retain and distribute highly accurate profiles of home energy use. These profiles can be mined by Non Intrusive Load Monitors (NILMs) to expose much of ... Keywords: load monitor, privacy, smart meter

Stephen McLaughlin; Patrick McDaniel; William Aiello

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

3 Thermal Distribution Design Load and Electricity Intensities, by Building Activity Education 0.5 1.3 Food Sales 1.1 6.4 Food Service 1.5 6.4 Health Care 1.5 5.6 Lodging 0.5 1.9...

270

End-use load control for power system dynamic stability enhancement  

SciTech Connect

Faced with the prospect of increasing utilization of the transmission and distribution infrastructure without significant upgrade, the domestic electric power utility industry is investing heavily in technologies to improve network dynamic performance through a program loosely referred to as Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS). Devices exploiting recent advances in power electronics are being installed in the power system to offset the need to construct new transmission lines. These devices collectively represent investment potential of several billion dollars over the next decade. A similar development, designed to curtail the peak loads and thus defer new transmission, distribution, and generation investment, falls under a category of technologies referred to as demand side management (DSM). A subset of broader conservation measures, DSM acts directly on the load to reduce peak consumption. DSM techniques include direct load control, in which a utility has the ability to curtail specific loads as conditions warrant. A novel approach has been conceived by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to combine the objectives of FACTS and the technologies inherent in DSM to provide a distributed power system dynamic controller. This technology has the potential to dramatically offset major investments in FACTS devices by using direct load control to achieve dynamic stability objectives. The potential value of distributed versus centralized grid modulation has been examined by simulating the western power grid under extreme loading conditions. In these simulations, a scenario is analyzed in which active grid stabilization enables power imports into the southern California region to be increased several hundred megawatts beyond present limitations. Modeling results show distributed load control is up to 30 percent more effective than traditional centralized control schemes in achieving grid stability.

Dagle, J.E.; Winiarski, D.W.; Donnelly, M.K.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

271

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Building America Innovations profile describes work by Building America research teams who field tested simplified duct designs in hundreds of homes, confirming the performance of short compact duct runs, with supply registers near interior walls.

272

The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Practices in State Net Metering Policies and InterconnectionThe Economic Cost of Net Metering in Maryland: Who Bears theImpact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings

Darghouth, Naim R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Practices in State Net Metering Policies and InterconnectionThe Economic Cost of Net Metering in Maryland: Who Bears theof Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from

Darghouth, Naim R.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pricing Beneficial to Solar PV in New York City? PreparedSubstantial Benefit of Solar PV. The Electricity Journal,36: MRW & Associates. 2007. Solar PV and Retail Rate Design.

Darghouth, Naim

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool CBE UFAD Cooling Design Tool logo The Center for the Built Environment's research team has developed a simplified, practical design procedure and associated software tool to determine cooling load requirements of underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems. These are provided to improve the accuracy of airflow, thermal decay data, thermal comfort calculations, system design, and the operation of UFAD buildings. Screen Shots Keywords UFAD, underfloor, Cooling load calculator, cooling, stratification, thermal comfort Validation/Testing N/A Expertise Required Knowledge about cooling load calculation and UFAD. Users N/A Audience Practicing architects and engineers involved in the design, specification, and analysis of UFADs. Instructional tool in colleges and universities.

276

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of investment New Power Generation/Distribution EnterprisesDG Distributed Generation Disco distribution company DOEof fuel) Electricity generation, transmission, distribution

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

277

DAVIC - Distributed Energy Automation via Implicit Communication  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

distributed process, determined by its sub-processes - in our case the loads and distributed generation. Network-based coordination needs to be done very carefully and...

278

Battery loading device  

SciTech Connect

A battery loading device for loading a power source battery, built in small appliances having a battery loading chamber for selectively loading a number of cylindrical unit batteries or a one body type battery having the same voltage as a number of cylindrical unit batteries, whereby the one body type battery and the battery loading chamber are shaped similarly and asymmetrically in order to prevent the one body type battery from being inserted in the wrong direction.

Phara, T.; Suzuki, M.

1984-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

279

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

composition:Thetotalloadprofileobtainedfrom loadindividualloadtypesif loadprofilesofindividualloadcompositionvalidation:Loadprofilesgeneratedbytheload

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Gravity Load Collapse of Building Frames during Earthquakes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gravity Load Collapse of Building Frames during Earthquakes J. P. Moehle, K. J. Elwood, H. Sezen to frames designed primarily for gravity loads. Columns generally were not designed to have strengths capacity of the column. As the axial capacity diminishes, the gravity loads carried by the column must

Sezen, Halil

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Econophysical Dynamics of Market-Based Electric Power Distribution Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

As energy markets begin clearing at sub-hourly rates, their interaction with load control systems becomes a potentially important consideration. A simple model for the control of thermal systems using market-based power distribution strategies is proposed, with particular attention to the behavior and dynamics of electric building loads and distribution-level power markets. Observations of dynamic behavior of simple numerical model are compared to that of an aggregate continuous model. The analytic solution of the continuous model suggests important deficiencies in each. The continuous model provides very valuable insights into how one might design such load control system and design the power markets they interact with. We also highlight important shortcomings of the continuous model which we believe must be addressed using discrete models.

Nicolas Ho; David P. Chassin

2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

282

Distributed Systems for Energy Management  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

buildings-to-grid, responsive loads, on-line monitoring of efficiency programs, microgrids, and other forms of distributed resource management. A key challenge will be the...

283

Peak load management: Potential options  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews options that may be alternatives to transmission construction (ATT) applicable both generally and at specific locations in the service area of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). Some of these options have potential as specific alternatives to the Shelton-Fairmount 230-kV Reinforcement Project, which is the focus of this study. A listing of 31 peak load management (PLM) options is included. Estimated costs and normalized hourly load shapes, corresponding to the respective base load and controlled load cases, are considered for 15 of the above options. A summary page is presented for each of these options, grouped with respect to its applicability in the residential, commercial, industrial, and agricultural sectors. The report contains comments on PLM measures for which load shape management characteristics are not yet available. These comments address the potential relevance of the options and the possible difficulty that may be encountered in characterizing their value should be of interest in this investigation. The report also identifies options that could improve the efficiency of the three customer utility distribution systems supplied by the Shelton-Fairmount Reinforcement Project. Potential cogeneration options in the Olympic Peninsula are also discussed. These discussions focus on the options that appear to be most promising on the Olympic Peninsula. Finally, a short list of options is recommended for investigation in the next phase of this study. 9 refs., 24 tabs.

Englin, J.E.; De Steese, J.G.; Schultz, R.W.; Kellogg, M.A.

1989-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

On Load Balancing in a Dense Wireless  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the load balancing problem in a dense wireless multihop network, where a typical path consists of large number of hops, i.e., the spatial scales of a typical distance between source and destination, and mean distance between the neighbouring nodes are strongly separated. In this limit, we present a general framework for analysing the traffic load resulting from a given set of paths and traffic demands. We formulate the load balancing problem as a minmax problem and give two lower bounds for the achievable minimal maximum traffic load. The framework is illustrated by an example of uniformly distributed traffic demands in a unit disk with a few families of paths given in advance. With these paths we are able to decrease the maximum traffic load by factor of 33 40% depending on the assumptions. The obtained traffic load level also comes quite near the tightest lower bound.

Multihop Network Esa; Esa Hyyti

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Conditional model of peak and minimum loads and the load duration curve for electricity  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a model that extends the traditional model of electricity demand to account for intra-period load variation, the kind of variation that is important for evaluating marginal-cost-reflecting price structures. The time-of-day rate is one such price structure. The traditional model of electricity demand explains inter-period demand variation. It says nothing about load variation. The report explains how a model that integrates with previous studies of electricity demand might be formulated. It specifies two concrete models within this framework and estimates them for a number of different utility companies. The model's within-sample-period performance in predicting peak loads is presented for one version of the model extension along with estimations for other variations. In addition a number of plots of actual load distributions, a summation of load variation information, against the actual load distributions, are presented and used to evaluate the performance of specific models.

Trimble, J.L.; Stallings, D.E.; Thomas, B.

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

Design method to determine the optimal distribution and amount of insulation for in-ground heat storage tanks  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The seasonal sensible heat storage model developed by F.C. Hooper and C.R. Attwater is modified to describe the thermal behaviour of the soil regime surrounding cylindrical, in-ground, heat storage tanks with optimally distributed insulation. The model assumes steady-state heat transfer, and the surrounding soil is considered to be homogeneous and isotropic. Changes in soil thermal properties due to moisture migration, whether driven by thermal or hydrostatic gradients, are assumed negligible. The optimal distribution is determined using the method of Lagrange multipliers. It is shown that the marginal cost per unit of energy lost and per unit of tank surface area must be the same at all points on the surface of the tank as the condition for minimum total heat loss with a given total investment in insulation. This condition appears to apply for all axi-symmetric in-ground tank geometries. For a given volume of insulation, the incremental increase in storage efficiency with an optimal redistribution of the insulation is a function of tank geometry. The problem of determining the optimal total investment in insulation for a given marginal cost of fuel is described and a method of solution is outlined.

Williams, G.T.; Attwater, C.R.; Hooper, F.C.

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Lifeline-based global load balancing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

On shared-memory systems, Cilk-style work-stealing has been used to effectively parallelize irregular task-graph based applications such as Unbalanced Tree Search (UTS). There are two main difficulties in extending this approach to distributed memory. ... Keywords: distributed work-stealing, global load balancing, uts, x10

Vijay A. Saraswat; Prabhanjan Kambadur; Sreedhar Kodali; David Grove; Sriram Krishnamoorthy

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Property:Distributed Generation System Power Application | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Application Application Jump to: navigation, search This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "Distributed Generation System Power Application" Showing 21 pages using this property. D Distributed Generation Study/10 West 66th Street Corp + Based Load + Distributed Generation Study/Aisin Seiki G60 at Hooligans Bar and Grille + Based Load + Distributed Generation Study/Arrow Linen + Based Load + Distributed Generation Study/Dakota Station (Minnegasco) + Based Load +, Backup + Distributed Generation Study/Elgin Community College + Based Load +, Backup + Distributed Generation Study/Emerling Farm + Based Load + Distributed Generation Study/Floyd Bennett + Based Load + Distributed Generation Study/Harbec Plastics + Based Load + Distributed Generation Study/Hudson Valley Community College + Based Load +

289

An analog and digital data acquisition system for Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring (NILM) is a method for characterizing and monitoring discrete loads connected to a power distribution system. This can include a ship, a car, or a utility distribution system. The entire concept ...

Clifford, Zachary Alan

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

http://escholarship.org/uc/item/70f4n03z. ASHRAE Journalcalculations for UFAD. ASHRAE Journal 49(10):36 44. 3.Ventilation. Atlanta: ASHRAE. 4. Loudermilk, K. 1999.

Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

S-Band Loads for SLAC Linac  

SciTech Connect

The S-Band loads on the current SLAC linac RF system were designed, in some cases, 40+ years ago to terminate 2-3 MW peak power into a thin layer of coated Kanthal material as the high power absorber [1]. The technology of the load design was based on a flame-sprayed Kanthal wire method onto a base material. During SLAC linac upgrades, the 24 MW peak klystrons were replaced by 5045 klystrons with 65+ MW peak output power. Additionally, SLED cavities were introduced and as a result, the peak power in the current RF setup has increased up to 240 MW peak. The problem of reliable RF peak power termination and RF load lifetime required a careful study and adequate solution. Results of our studies and three designs of S-Band RF load for the present SLAC RF linac system is discussed. These designs are based on the use of low conductivity materials.

Krasnykh, A.; Decker, F.-J.; /SLAC; LeClair, R.; /INTA Technologies, Santa Clara

2012-08-28T23:59:59.000Z

292

A fuzzy logic based approach to direct load control  

SciTech Connect

Demand side management programs are strategies designed to alter the shape of the load curve. In order to successfully implement such a strategy, customer acceptance of the program is vital. It is thus desirable to design a model for direct load control which may accommodate customer preferences. This paper presents a methodology for optimizing both customer satisfaction and utility unit commitment savings, based on a fuzzy load model for the direct load control of appliances.

Bhattacharyya, K.; Crow, M.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Potential for Distributed Generation in Japanese PrototypePotential for Distributed Generation in Japanese PrototypePotential for Distributed Generation in Japanese Prototype

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 2. Distributed Energy Resources Customer AdoptionPublic Utilities Commission DER Distributed Energy ResourcesDER-CAM Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Fuzzy rule-based methodology for residential load behaviour forecasting during power systems restoration  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Inadequate load pickup during power system restoration can lead to overload and underfrequency conditions, and even restart the blackout process, due to thermal energy losses. Thus, load behaviour estimation during restoration is desirable to avoid inadequate ... Keywords: artificial intelligence, energy management systems, fuzzy logic, load behaviour estimation, power system distribution, power system restoration, residential load forecasting, thermostatically controlled loads

Lia Toledo Moreira Mota; Alexandre Assis Mota; Andre Luiz Morelato Franca

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Energy manager design for microgrids  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

refrigeration, space heating, water heating, and loads that can only be met by combustible Energy Manager Design

Firestone, Ryan; Marnay, Chris

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Case Studies and Methodologies for Using Distributed Energy Resources for Transmission and Distribution Support Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utility transmission and distribution (T&D) systems require extensive investment for infrastructure upkeep. For some utilities, these investments may require a budget of $50 million or more annually. As much of the nation's T&D system was constructed decades ago, extensive maintenance is necessary simply to continue to operate these systems as designed. In addition, load growth over time is causing many parts of these systems to approach overloading conditions, which typically require upgrades to accommo...

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

299

Analysis of sweeping heat loads on divertor plate materials  

SciTech Connect

The heat flux on the divertor plate of a fusion reactor is probably one of the most limiting constraints on its lifetime. The current heat flux profile on the outer divertor plate of a device like ITER is highly peaked with narrow profile. The peak heat flux can be as high as 30--40 MW/m{sup 2} with full width at half maximum (FWHM) is in the order of a few centimeters. Sweeping the separatrix along the divertor plate is one of the options proposed to reduce the thermomechanical effects of this highly peaked narrow profile distribution. The effectiveness of the sweeping process is investigated parametrically for various design values. The optimum sweeping parameters of a particular heat load will depend on the design of the divertor plate as well as on the profile of such a heat load. In general, moving a highly peaked heat load results in substantial reduction of the thermomechanical effects on the divertor plate. 3 refs., 8 figs.

Hassanein, A.

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

300

Analysis of sweeping heat loads on divertor plate materials  

SciTech Connect

The heat flux on the divertor plate of a fusion reactor is probably one of the most limiting constraints on its lifetime. The current heat flux profile on the outer divertor plate of a device like ITER is highly peaked with narrow profile. The peak heat flux can be as high as 30--40 MW/m{sup 2} with full width at half maximum (FWHM) is in the order of a few centimeters. Sweeping the separatrix along the divertor plate is one of the options proposed to reduce the thermomechanical effects of this highly peaked narrow profile distribution. The effectiveness of the sweeping process is investigated parametrically for various design values. The optimum sweeping parameters of a particular heat load will depend on the design of the divertor plate as well as on the profile of such a heat load. In general, moving a highly peaked heat load results in substantial reduction of the thermomechanical effects on the divertor plate. 3 refs., 8 figs.

Hassanein, A.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Peak load control energy saving and cycling system  

SciTech Connect

A control system for limiting peak load demand and/or saving electrical energy by cycling the individual loads within an electrical distribution system is described. Electrical power usage in a distribution system is continuously monitored and compared to a pre-set limit. Loads can be added and cycled according to a limit set by the operator. Loads can also be dropped in response to a signal proportional to the electrical power usage in a distribution system within limits defined by the operator.

Burch, J.

1976-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

302

Avoiding Distribution System Upgrade Costs Using Distributed Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

PNNL, in cooperation with three utilities, developed a database and methodology to analyze and characterize the avoided costs of Distributed Generation (DG) deployment as an alternative to traditional distribution system investment. After applying a number of screening criteria to the initial set of 307 cases, eighteen were selected for detailed analysis. Alternative DG investment scenarios were developed for these cases to permit capital, operation, maintenance, and fuel costs to be identified and incorporated into the analysis. The customer-owned backup power generator option was also investigated. The results of the analysis of the 18 cases show that none yielded cost savings under the alternative DG scenarios. However, the DG alternative systems were configured using very restrictive assumptions concerning reliability, peak rating, engine types and acceptable fuel. In particular it was assumed that the DG alternative in each case must meet the reliability required of conventional distribution systems (99.91% reliability). The analysis was further constrained by a requirement that each substation meet the demands placed upon it by a one in three weather occurrence. To determine if, by relaxing these requirements, the DG alternative might be more viable, one project was re-examined. The 99.91% reliability factor was still assumed for normal operating conditions but redundancy required to maintain reliability was relaxed for the relatively few hours every three years where extreme weather caused load to exceed present substation capacity. This resulted in the deferment of capital investment until later years and reduced the number of engines required for the project. The cost of both the conventional and DG alternative also dropped because the centralized power generation, variable O&M, and DG fuels costs were calculated based on present load requirements in combination with long-term forecasts of load growth, as opposed to load requirements plus a buffer based on predictions of extraordinary weather conditions. Application of the relaxed set of assumptions reduced the total cost of the DG alternative by roughly 57 percent from $7.0 million to $3.0 million. The reduction, however, did not change the overall result of the analysis, as the cost of the conventional distribution system upgrade alternative remained lower at $1.7 million. This paper also explores the feasibility of using a system of backup generators to defer investment in distribution system infrastructure. Rather than expanding substation capacity at substations experiencing slow load growth rates, PNNL considered a scenario where diesel generators were installed on location at customers participating in a program designed to offer additional power security and reliability to the customer and connection to the grid. The backup generators, in turn, could be used to meet peak demand for a limited number of hours each year, thus deferring distribution system investment. Data from an existing program at one of the three participating utilities was used to quantify the costs associated with the backup generator scenario. The results of the customer owned backup power generator analysis showed that in all cases the nominal cost of the DG scenario is more than the nominal cost of the base-case conventional distribution system upgrade scenario. However, in two of the cases the total present value costs of the alternative backup generator scenarios were between 15 and 22% less than those for the conventional scenarios. Overall, the results of the study offer considerable encouragement that the use of DG systems can defer conventional distribution system upgrades under the right conditions and when the DG configurations are intelligently designed. Using existing customer-owned DG to defer distribution system upgrades appears to be an immediate commercially-viable opportunity.

Schienbein, Lawrence A.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Nguyen, Tony B.; Brown, Daryl R.; DeSteese, John G.; Speer, Gregory A.

2004-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

303

Using DER in Transmission-Constrained Urban Load Pockets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Urban load centers are characterized by their dense population, environmental constraints, as well as transmission-constrained electricity delivery. They also have potentially high infrastructure investment costs for distribution system investments to meet peak load growth. This report looks at seven areas in the United States that have been identified as transmission-constrained load pockets, focusing on opportunities for using distributed energy resources (DER).

2007-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

304

Using partial safety factors in wind turbine design and testing  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the relationship between wind turbine design and testing in terms of the certification process. An overview of the current status of international certification is given along with a description of limit-state design basics. Wind turbine rotor blades are used to illustrate the principles discussed. These concepts are related to both International Electrotechnical Commission and Germanischer Lloyd design standards, and are covered using schematic representations of statistical load and material strength distributions. Wherever possible, interpretations of the partial safety factors are given with descriptions of their intended meaning. Under some circumstances, the authors` interpretations may be subjective. Next, the test-load factors are described in concept and then related to the design factors. Using technical arguments, it is shown that some of the design factors for both load and materials must be used in the test loading, but some should not be used. In addition, some test factors not used in the design may be necessary for an accurate test of the design. The results show that if the design assumptions do not clearly state the effects and uncertainties that are covered by the design`s partial safety factors, outside parties such as test labs or certification agencies could impose their own meaning on these factors.

Musial, W.D.; Butterfield, C.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Analysis of Voltage Rise Effect on Distribution Network with Distributed  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

appearance of hidden loads and affect the voltage profile of low voltage distribution network. To overcomeAnalysis of Voltage Rise Effect on Distribution Network with Distributed Generation M. A. Mahmud. This paper presents a detail analysis of how does voltage rise on distribution network due to the penetration

Pota, Himanshu Roy

306

Design and dimensioning of an edge router using Markov model  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the formulation, modelling and analysis of network traffic for the purpose of designing an edge router. Presuming packet arrival in Poisson's process and departure or service time distribution to be exponential, a Markov model ... Keywords: CTMC, IID, MMPP, Markov modulated Poisson process, QoS, buffer capacity, buffer occupancy, computer networks, continuous time Markov chain, edge routers, independent identically distributed, link speed, load factor, network traffic, quality of service

Partha Bhattacharjee; Goutam Sanyal

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Cooling load differences between radiant and air systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the effect of thermal mass on cooling loads, and thereforelift radiant cooling using building thermal mass, Departmentlevel thermal modelling are recommended for design cooling

Feng, Jingjuan Dove; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

308

Distributed Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Untapped Value of Backup Generation Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized solutions. These backup generators exist today in large numbers and provide utilities with another option to reduce peak load, relieve transmission congestion, and improve power reliability. Backup generation is widely deployed across the United States. Carnegie Mellon's Electricity

309

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

310

Load sensing system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

311

Matching equipment size to the cooling load  

SciTech Connect

This article presents a heat extraction rate analysis method, using ASHRAE algorithms that enables HVAC system designers to optimally size cooling equipment. The final stage of the cooling load calculation process determines the heat extraction rate required to achieve design conditions. Put another way, this stage determines the equipment capacity required to match the cooling load profile, and it does so in a manner that predicts the resulting space temperature profile, and it does so in a manner that predicts the resulting space temperature profile. It is a stage in the design process that, in practice, may not be given the attention it deserves.

Bloom, B. (Harvey Toub Engineering, Atlanta, GA (United States))

1993-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

An Adaptive Threshold Load Balancing Scheme for the End-to-End Reconfigurable System  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, an adaptive threshold load balancing (ATLB) scheme is proposed for the joint load control (JOLDC) in the end-to-end reconfigurable system. The dynamic threshold based on heterogeneous load measurement is designed to adapt to varying load ... Keywords: Heterogeneous, Load balancing, Reconfigurability, Terminal selection, Vertical handover

Yongjing Zhang; Kui Zhang; Cheng Chi; Yang Ji; Zhiyong Feng; Ping Zhang

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Assessment of Wind Loads On Power Lines--Methodology and Applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Wind load on electrical conductors is one of the most critical design loads for transmission structures, but many methods of determining wind load have only recently been validated experimentally. This document draws on EPRI field research to assist engineers in accurately determining design wind loads for conductors and helping utilities construct new transmission lines and upgrade existing lines at minimum cost while retaining reliability.

1997-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

314

Distributed cognitive walkthrough (DCW): a walkthrough-style usability evaluation method based on theories of distributed cognition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Keywords: distributed cognition, interaction design, usability evaluation, walkthrough inspection method

Joel U. Eden

2007-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Combi Systems for Low Load homes  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

text styles text styles Combi Systems for Low Load Homes Center for Energy and Environment, NorthernSTAR, Ben Schoenbauer * Low load homes are more common than ever. * Typical space heating and DHW equipment have capacities larger than necessary * A single heating plant could provide high efficiency heat at lower costs, increased durability and improved combustion safety Context Technical Approach * A condensing water heater and hydronic air handler will used to provide space and water heating loads in almost 300 weatherized homes. * System specifications, sizing, and installation optimization guidelines were all developed. * Contractor capability was developed in MN market, but may not be developed in all local. 4 Recommended Guidance * Determine peak load on system: - Space heating design load (ie 40,000 Btu/hr)

316

Residential equipment part load curves for use in DOE-2  

SciTech Connect

DOE-2 (DOE2 90) includes several correlation curves that predict the energy use of systems underpart load conditions. DOE-2 simulates systems on an hour-by-hour basis, so the correlations are intended to predict part load energy use (and efficiency) as a function of the part load ratio (PLR) for each hour, where PLR = Hourly Load/Available Capacity. Generally residential and small commercial HVAC equipment meets the load at off-design conditions by cycling on and off. Therefore, the part load correlations must predict the degradation due to this on and off operation over an hourly interval.

Henderson, Hugh; Huang, Y.J.; Parker, D.

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

The effect of load parameters on system thermal performance  

SciTech Connect

The effects of load size, load profile and hot water set temperature on system thermal performance are investigated in order to determine the relative importance of these design parameters in sizing a solar water heating system. The WATSUN IV computer program was used to introduce various load sizes, load profiles and set temperatures to a base model. The results indicate that variations in load size have a significant effect on the thermal performance of the system. However, variations in load profile and hot water set temperature seem to have no significant effect on system performance.

Vakili, M.

1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads  

SciTech Connect

As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

319

Passive load control for large wind turbines.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Wind energy research activities at Sandia National Laboratories focus on developing large rotors that are lighter and more cost-effective than those designed with current technologies. Because gravity scales as the cube of the blade length, gravity loads become a constraining design factor for very large blades. Efforts to passively reduce turbulent loading has shown significant potential to reduce blade weight and capture more energy. Research in passive load reduction for wind turbines began at Sandia in the late 1990's and has moved from analytical studies to blade applications. This paper discusses the test results of two Sandia prototype research blades that incorporate load reduction techniques. The TX-100 is a 9-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling with the use of off-axis carbon in the skin. The STAR blade is a 27-m long blade that induces bend-twist coupling by sweeping the blade in a geometric fashion.

Ashwill, Thomas D.

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Watershed Mercury Loading Framework  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report explains and illustrates a simplified stochastic framework, the Watershed Mercury Loading Framework, for organizing and framing site-specific knowledge and information on mercury loading to waterbodies. The framework permits explicit treatment of data uncertainties. This report will be useful to EPRI members, state and federal regulatory agencies, and watershed stakeholders concerned with mercury-related human and ecological health risk.

2003-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

322

Load-management decision  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Utilities require baseload, intermediate, and peaking plants to meet fluctuating customer demand. These can be supplemented with off-peak generation and storage and load management, which can take the form of direct utility control over interruptible and deferrable customers or customer incentives that require off-peak demand. Utilities should make a careful analysis of their load profile, their generation mix, their ability to shift loads, and customer attitudes before deciding on a load-management program that fits their individual needs. They should also be aware that load management is only a limited resource with a number of uncertainties. Research programs into customer relations, system reliability, communications devices, and special control switches and meters will help to relieve some of the uncertainties. (DCK)

Lihach, N.; Gupta, P.

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Distribution System Planning with Distributed Generation: Optimal versus Heuristic Approach.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Distribution system design and planning is facing a major change in paradigm because of deregulation of the power industry and with rapid penetration of distributed (more)

Bin Humayd, Abdullah

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

Statistical Distributions Applied to Design  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 4   Area under the normal curve from -?? to the mean plus z standard deviations...0.9972 0.9973 0.9974 2.8 0.9974 0.9975 0.9976 0.9977 0.9977 0.9978 0.9979 0.9979 0.9980 0.9981 2.9 0.9981 0.9982 0.9982 0.9983 0.9984 0.9984 0.9985 0.9985 0.9986 0.9986 3.0 0.9987 0.9987 0.9987 0.9988 0.9988 0.9989 0.9989 0.9989 0.9990 0.9990 3.1 0.9990 0.9991 0.9991 0.9991 0.9992 0.9992 0.9992...

325

Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading  

SciTech Connect

This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

Oyague, F.

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

G&T adds versatile load management system  

SciTech Connect

Wolverine`s load management system was designed in response to the need to reduce peak demand. The Energy Management System (EMS) prepares short term (seven day) load forecasts, based on a daily peak demand forecst, augmented by a similar day profile based on weather conditions. The software combines the similar day profile with the daily peak demand forecast to yield an hourly load forecast for an entire week. The software uses the accepted load forecast case in many application functions, including interchange scheduling, unit commitment, and transaction evaluation. In real time, the computer updates the accepted forecast hourly, based in actual changes in the weather and load. The load management program executes hourly. The program uses impact curves to calculate a load management strategy that reduces the load forecast below a desired load threshold.

Nickel, J.R.; Baker, E.D.; Holt, J.W.; Chan, M.L.

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Technical evaluation of the adequacy of station electric distribution system voltages for the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the technical evaluation of the adequacy of the station electric distribution system voltages for the Yankee Rowe Nuclear Power Station. The evaluation is to determine if the onsite distribution system, in conjunction with the offsite power sources, has sufficient capacity to automatically start and operate all Class 1E loads within the equipment voltage ratings under certain conditions established by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The analysis shows that the station electric distribution system has the capacity and capability to supply voltage to the Class 1E equipment with their design ratings for the worst case loading condition.

Selan, J.C.

1981-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

328

Ice Loads on a Lattice Tower Estimated by Weather Station Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Atmospheric ice loads are a major design criterion of tall structures in cold regions. In this paper the possibility to derive the design ice loads using analysis of meteorological observations made routinely at a weather station is studied. Ice ...

Eva Sundin; Lasse Makkonen

1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (Japanese translation)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Solutions ??????????? Grants? FERC? iv ?Distributed Energy??????????????? ??????????(FERC) ????????????????????DER ????????????????????????????????FERC, the New York State Public

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Simulation and design of solar thermal processes  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methods of simulation and design of solar thermal processes have been developed and used in process system studies. During the period of this contract, new process component model formulations have been developed, including: transient LiBr--H/sub 2/O absorption cooler; CPC and other ''advanced'' collectors; and windows, storage wall and shading devices for passive solar heating. Systems studies have included: parallel and series solar/heat pump combinations; phase change storage in solar heating; absorption cooling with and without cooler transients. The general solar process simulation program, TRNSYS, has been further developed, documented, distributed and supported. Design procedure studies have led to development of a method for calculating the phi, the average solar radiation availability, and the development of the phi, f-chart method for design of closed-loop solar heating systems which (a) can have load temperatures other than 20/sup 0/C, and (b) have approximately constant COP of any energy converters between storage and load.

Not Available

1978-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Energy-Aware Load Balancing in Content Delivery Networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Internet-scale distributed systems such as content delivery networks (CDNs) operate hundreds of thousands of servers deployed in thousands of data center locations around the globe. Since the energy costs of operating such a large IT infrastructure are a significant fraction of the total operating costs, we argue for redesigning CDNs to incorporate energy optimizations as a first-order principle. We propose techniques to turn off CDN servers during periods of low load while seeking to balance three key design goals: maximize energy reduction, minimize the impact on client-perceived service availability (SLAs), and limit the frequency of on-off server transitions to reduce wear-and-tear and its impact on hardware reliability. We propose an optimal offline algorithm and an online algorithm to extract energy savings both at the level of local load balancing within a data center and global load balancing across data centers. We evaluate our algorithms using real production workload traces from a large commercial ...

Mathew, Vimal; Shenoy, Prashant

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Infrastructure for Integrated Electronics Design & ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Infrastructure for Integrated Electronics Design & Manufacturing (IIEDM) Project. ... designed to support distributed supply chain integration and e ...

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

333

Load Profiling Based Routing for Guaranteed Bandwidth Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. To support the stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements of real-time (e.g. audio/video) applications in integrated services networks, several routing algorithms that allow for the reservation of the needed bandwidth over a Virtual Circuit (VC), established on one of several candidate routes, have been proposed. Traditionally, such routing is done using the least-loaded concept, and thus results in balancing the load across the set of candidate routes. In this paper, we propose the use of load profiling as an attractive alternative to load balancing for routing guaranteed bandwidth VCs (flows). Load profiling techniques allow the distribution of "available" bandwidth across a set of candidate routes to match the characteristics of incoming VC QoS requests. We thoroughly characterize the performance of VC routing using load profiling and contrast it to routing using load balancing and load packing. We do so both analytically and via extensive simulations of multi-class traffic r...

Ibrahim Matta; Azer Bestavros; Marwan Krunz

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Definition: Base Load | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Load Load Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Base Load The minimum amount of electric power delivered or required over a given period at a constant rate.[1] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Baseload (also base load, or baseload demand) is the minimum amount of power that a utility or distribution company must make available to its customers, or the amount of power required to meet minimum demands based on reasonable expectations of customer requirements. Baseload values typically vary from hour to hour in most commercial and industrial areas. Related Terms electricity generation, power, smart grid References ↑ Glossary of Terms Used in Reliability Standards An in Like Like You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. line Glossary Definition Retrieved from

335

Program on Technology Innovation: Five-Wire Feasibility on Con Edison's Distribution Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The feasibility of a five-wire distribution system has gained interest in recent years. The five-wire distribution system features an isolated neutral that carries unbalanced load current. The main advantages of the five-wire distribution system include lower stray voltage and magnetic fields and easier detection of high-impedance faults. Under normal conditions, the five-wire design operates very similar to the four-wire design with one major exception all the return current is confined to the neutral t...

2006-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

336

building load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

337

electric load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

338

commercial load | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

339

residential load | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL...

340

HLW Glass Waste Loadings  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

HLW HLW Glass Waste Loadings Ian L. Pegg Vitreous State Laboratory The Catholic University of America Washington, DC Overview Overview  Vitrification - general background  Joule heated ceramic melter (JHCM) technology  Factors affecting waste loadings  Waste loading requirements and projections  WTP DWPF  DWPF  Yucca Mountain License Application requirements on waste loading  Summary Vitrification  Immobilization of waste by conversion into a glass  Internationally accepted treatment for HLW  Why glass?  Amorphous material - able to incorporate a wide spectrum of elements over wide ranges of composition; resistant to radiation damage  Long-term durability - natural analogs Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large  Relatively simple process - amenable to nuclearization at large scale  There

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

OpenEI - load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are given by a location defined by the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for which the weather data was collected. Commercial load data is sorted by the (TMY) site as a...

342

Structural Design of a Horizontal-Axis Tidal Current Turbine Composite Blade  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This paper describes the structural design of a tidal composite blade. The structural design is preceded by two steps: hydrodynamic design and determination of extreme loads. The hydrodynamic design provides the chord and twist distributions along the blade length that result in optimal performance of the tidal turbine over its lifetime. The extreme loads, i.e. the extreme flap and edgewise loads that the blade would likely encounter over its lifetime, are associated with extreme tidal flow conditions and are obtained using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Given the blade external shape and the extreme loads, we use a laminate-theory-based structural design to determine the optimal layout of composite laminas such that the ultimate-strength and buckling-resistance criteria are satisfied at all points in the blade. The structural design approach allows for arbitrary specification of the chord, twist, and airfoil geometry along the blade and an arbitrary number of shear webs. In addition, certain fabrication criteria are imposed, for example, each composite laminate must be an integral multiple of its constituent ply thickness. In the present effort, the structural design uses only static extreme loads; dynamic-loads-based fatigue design will be addressed in the future. Following the blade design, we compute the distributed structural properties, i.e. flap stiffness, edgewise stiffness, torsion stiffness, mass, moments of inertia, elastic-axis offset, and center-of-mass offset along the blade. Such properties are required by hydro-elastic codes to model the tidal current turbine and to perform modal, stability, loads, and response analyses.

Bir, G. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Li, Y.

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

EPRI First-Generation Advanced Radial Feeder for the Distribution System of the Future  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report describes a design for integrating distributed generation (DG) on a radial feeder, amounting to 75% of the feeder's peak load. A standard IEEE radial test feeder was used for the study, which was conducted using software tools readily available to utilities. Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) to IEC 61850 mappings were developed to enable adaptive voltage control on the feeder. This type of automation to enable the strategic use of DG has not been implemented before.

2006-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

344

Analysis of industrial load management  

SciTech Connect

Industrial Load Management, ILM, has increased the possibilities of changing load profiles and raising load factors. This paper reports on load profile measurements and feasible load management applications that could be implemented in industry e.g. bivalent systems for heating of premises and processes, load priority systems, energy storage and rescheduling processes or parts of processes due to differential electricity rates. Industrial load variations on hourly, daily and seasonal basis are treated as well as the impact by load management on load curves e g peak clipping, valley filling and increased off-peak electricity usage.

Bjork, C.O.; Karlsson, B.G.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF FIXED FOUNDATION WIND TURBINES  

SciTech Connect

Recent analysis of offshore wind turbine foundations using both applicable API and IEC standards show that the total load demand from wind and waves is greatest in wave driven storms. Further, analysis of overturning moment loads (OTM) reveal that impact forces exerted by breaking waves are the largest contributor to OTM in big storms at wind speeds above the operating range of 25 m/s. Currently, no codes or standards for offshore wind power generators have been adopted by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) for use on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Current design methods based on allowable stress design (ASD) incorporate the uncertainty in the variation of loads transferred to the foundation and geotechnical capacity of the soil and rock to support the loads is incorporated into a factor of safety. Sources of uncertainty include spatial and temporal variation of engineering properties, reliability of property measurements applicability and sufficiency of sampling and testing methods, modeling errors, and variability of estimated load predictions. In ASD these sources of variability are generally given qualitative rather than quantitative consideration. The IEC 61400‐3 design standard for offshore wind turbines is based on ASD methods. Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods are being increasingly used in the design of structures. Uncertainties such as those listed above can be included quantitatively into the LRFD process. In LRFD load factors and resistance factors are statistically based. This type of analysis recognizes that there is always some probability of failure and enables the probability of failure to be quantified. This paper presents an integrated approach consisting of field observations and numerical simulation to establish the distribution of loads from breaking waves to support the LRFD of fixed offshore foundations.

Nichols, R.

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

346

Composite Load Model Evaluation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: the model initializes properly, all the parameter settings are functioning, and the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

347

A new generation of load sharing algorithms: the semi-adaptive load sharing algorithm  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distributed systems have become a popular computing environment. Due to their high potentials in improving performance and resource sharing, the evolution and maturing of technologies such as networks and computer hardware, have led to more realizations of distributed computing capabilities. One of the key factors that impacts the system's performance is how load sharing is handled. Most of the work done in load sharing algorithms focused on either one of two approaches: the static approach, or the dynamic approach. Static load sharing is characterized with its simplicity and minimal overhead induced on the system when performing load distribution. This is attributed to the fact that their load sharing decisions do not require any information exchange between nodes. However, static algorithms are not capable of adapting to traffic changes. Hence, this will affect the distributed system adaptability and stability features against load alteration. The second approach in load sharing algorithums is the dynamic approach. In this approach, nodes base their sharing decisions on the knowledge of the status on other nodes. This knowledge enables nodes to make improved decisions when selecting a remote execution site. Therefore, these algorithms provide the distributed system with adaptability and stability. Nevertheless, information exchange between nodes has proven to be expensive. The problem lies in the communication and processing overheads which these algorithms impose on the system. This research work presents a Semi-Adaptive load sharing approach that attempts to lay a common ground between the dynamic and the static approaches. This approach provides the system with adaptability features at are supplied with tools to control the level of adaptability and information exchange in the system. It is argued that this approach is adaptable, scalable, stable, fault tolerant, and will generate low and controlled system overheads. Two implementations of the Semi-Adaptive approach are presented: The Controller Load Sharing Protocol (CLSP) and The Pool Load Sharing Protocol (PLSP). The study of CLSP and PLSP include simulating their performance under various conditions. The simulation include comparing the performance of these two protocols against two load sharing algorithms representing the static and dynamic families. Furthermore, the properties of CLSP and PLSP are investigated. Finally, based on the study and analysis of both protocols, the research work proposes possible areas of improvement in the final conclusion.

Morsy, Hazem Kamal

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

348

Optimizing the Design of Biomass Hydrogen Supply ChainsUsing Real-World Spatial Distributions: A Case Study Using California Rice Straw  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen demand and the biomass supply distributed in space?and distribution of biomass supply what is the least-costfacilities be? o Which biomass supply points should serve

Parker, Nathan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Optimizing the Design of Biomass Hydrogen Supply Chains Using Real-World Spatial Distributions: A Case Study Using California Rice Straw  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

hydrogen demand and the biomass supply distributed in space?and distribution of biomass supply what is the least-costfacilities be? o Which biomass supply points should serve

Parker, Nathan C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program  

SciTech Connect

This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

351

ENGINEERED SETPOINTS FOR AUTONOMOUS DISTRIBUTED SENSORS AND ...  

Loads on an electric power system are configured with under frequency relays in which the frequency setpoints and delay times for reclosure are uniformly distributed.

352

A migration tool to support resource and load sharing in heterogeneous computing environments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed computing systems potentially provide significant advantages and benefits such as enhanced performance, extensibility, reliability, and better resource and load sharing. However, the evolution of hardware and software has unavoidably led ... Keywords: Client-server, Heterogeneous systems, Load balancing, Migrations

P.D Le; B Srinivasan

1997-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

Power Generation And Distribution Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 200 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 103 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 76 Feed-pump hydraulic performance and design improvement, Phase I: research program design. Final report Brown, W.H.; Gopalakrishnan, S.; Fehlau, R.; Thompson, W.E.; Wilson, D.G. (1982) 69 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 65 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Peerenboom, J.P. (1997) 52 Controlled low strength materials (CLSM), reported by ACI Committee

354

Dynamic load balancing with adaptive factoring methods in scientific applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

To improve the performance of scientific applications with parallel loops, dynamic loop scheduling methods have been proposed. Such methods address performance degradations due to load imbalance caused by predictable phenomena like nonuniform data distribution ... Keywords: Adaptive weighted factoring, Dynamic load balancing

Ricolindo L. Cario; Ioana Banicescu

2008-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

355

Design of Roadside Barrier Systems Placed on Mechanically Stabilized Earth (MSE) Retaining Walls  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Millions of square feet of mechanically stabilized earth retaining wall are constructed annually in the United States. When used in highway fill applications in conjunction with bridges, these MSE walls are typically constructed with a roadside barrier system supported on the edge of the wall. This barrier system generally consists of a traffic barrier or bridge rail placed on a continuous footing or structural slab. The footing is intended to reduce the influence of barrier impact loads on the retaining wall system by distributing the load over a wide area and to provide stability for the barrier against sliding or overturning. The proper design of the roadside barrier, the structural slab, and the MSE wall system requires a good understanding of relevant failure modes, how barrier impact loads are transferred into the wall system, and the magnitude and distribution of these loads. In this study, a procedure is developed that provides guidance for designing: 1. the barrier-moment slab, 2. the wall reinforcement, and 3. the wall panels. These design guidelines are developed in terms of AASHTO LRFD procedures. The research approach consisted of engineering analyses, finite element analyses, static load tests, full-scale dynamic impact tests, and a full-scale vehicle crash test. It was concluded that a 44.5 kN (10 kips) equivalent static load is appropriate for the stability design of the barrier-moment slab system. This will result in much more economical design than systems developed using the 240 kN (54 kips) load that some user agencies are using. Design loads for the wall reinforcement and wall panels are also presented.

Kim, Kang

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Stochastic Analysis of Waterhammer and Applications in Reliability-Based Structural Design for Hydro Turbine Penstocks  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract: The randomness of transient events, and the variability in factors which influence the magnitudes of resultant pressure fluctuations, ensures that waterhammer and surges in a pressurized pipe system are inherently stochastic. To bolster and improve reliability-based structural design, a stochastic model of transient pressures is developed for water conveyance systems in hydropower plants. The statistical characteristics and probability distributions of key factors in boundary conditions, initial states and hydraulic system parameters are analyzed based on a large record of observed data from hydro plants in China; and then the statistical characteristics and probability distributions of annual maximum waterhammer pressures are simulated using Monte Carlo method and verified by the analytical probabilistic model for a simplified pipe system. In addition, the characteristics (annual occurrence, sustaining period and probability distribution) of hydraulic loads for both steady and transient states are discussed. Illustrating with an example of penstock structural design, it is shown that the total waterhammer pressure should be split into two individual random variable loads: the steady/static pressure and the waterhammer pressure rise during transients; and that different partial load factors should be applied to each individual load to reflect its unique physical and stochastic features. Particularly, the normative load (usually the unfavorable value at 95-percentage point) for steady/static hydraulic pressure should be taken from the probability distribution of its maximum values during the pipe's design life, while for waterhammer pressure rise, as the second variable load, the probability distribution of its annual maximum values is used to determine its normative load.

Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL; Karney, Professor Byran W. [University of Toronto; Suo, Prof. Lisheng [Hohai University, China; Colombo, Dr. Andrew [University of Toronto

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Integrated Thermal Analysis of the FRIB Cryomodule Design  

SciTech Connect

Thermal analysis of the FRIB cryomodule design is performed to determine the heat load to the cryogenic plant, to minimize the cryogenic plant load, to simulate thermal shield cool down as well as to determine the pressure relief sizes for failure conditions. Static and dynamic heat loads of the cryomodules are calculated and the optimal shield temperature is determined to minimize the cryogenic plant load. Integrated structural and thermal simulations of the 1100-O aluminium thermal shield are performed to determine the desired cool down rate to control the temperature profile on the thermal shield and to minimize thermal expansion displacements during the cool down. Pressure relief sizing calculations for the SRF helium containers, solenoids, helium distribution piping, and vacuum vessels are also described.

Y. Xu, M. Barrios, F. Casagrande, M.J. Johnson, M. Leitner, D. Arenius, V. Ganni, W.J. Schneider, M. Wiseman

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Mass-Loaded Flows  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A key process within astronomy is the exchange of mass, momentum, and energy between diffuse plasmas in many types of astronomical sources (including planetary nebulae, wind-blown bubbles, supernova remnants, starburst superwinds, and the intracluster medium) and dense, embedded clouds or clumps. This transfer affects the large scale flows of the diffuse plasmas as well as the evolution of the clumps. I review our current understanding of mass-injection processes, and examine intermediate-scale structure and the global effect of mass-loading on a flow. I then discuss mass-loading in a variety of diffuse sources.

J. M. Pittard

2006-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

359

A three phase load flow algorithm for Shipboard Power Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Load Flow (Power Flow) is the determination of the steady state operating conditions for the system. This is a very important tool utilized by many real time applications in power systems. Traditional load flow methods, which incorporate Gauss-Seidel and/or Newton Raphson techniques, were primarily developed for transmission system analysis. Distribution load flow analysis must incorporate its unique characteristics such as unbalanced loads, distributed loads, radial network structure, and one, two, or three phase lines. Also, there are a variety of components included in distribution systems such as switches, transformers, voltage regulators, and distributed generators. Therefore, the traditional methods cannot be directly applied to distribution systems since the assumptions made for transmission systems are not valid for the unique characteristics of distribution systems. A Shipboard Power System (SPS) is a finite inertia electric power system. The generation, transmission, and distribution systems in SPSs are tightly coupled. In reality, the transmission system consists of the lines that interconnect the generator buses in a ring configuration. The distribution system consists of lines, transformers, and loads connected in a radial configuration. When analyzing a SPS, its distinct characteristics must be taken into consideration. Therefore, just as transmission and distribution systems have unique methods of analysis, SPSs also need a unique method of analysis. A load flow algorithm for a SPS must consider its distribution system characteristics as well as the unique characteristics of SPSs. The work presented in this thesis discussed a load flow algorithm developed for Shipboard Power Systems and terrestrial wye and delta connected radial distribution systems. The issues in developing a load flow algorithm for a SPS are addressed and the solution is presented. This solution combines three methods that addressed the issues of multiple sources, ring configuration, and radial load flow. This algorithm was tested on the IEEE 37 Bus Radial Distribution Test Feeder and a simplified Shipboard Power Test System developed by researchers in the Power System Automation Laboratory. The results produced minimal percent error when compared to the actual output results.

Medina-Calder?on, M?onica M

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

High Performance Adaptive Distributed Scheduling Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Exascale computing requires complex runtime systems that need to consider affinity, load balancing and low time and message complexity for scheduling massive scale parallel computations. Simultaneous consideration of these objectives makes online distributed ... Keywords: Distributed Scheduling, Adaptive Scheduling, Performance Analysis

Ankur Narang, Abhinav Srivastava, R. K. Shyamasundar

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Advanced applications for distribution system optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The primary objective for distribution system operation has always been to provide acceptable voltage for all customers under all loading conditions while maintaining safe conditions for the field workforce and the general public and protecting distribution ...

R. W. Uluski

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

OpenEI Community - load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

363

OpenEI Community - electric load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

364

OpenEI Community - building load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

365

OpenEI Community - residential load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

366

OpenEI Community - commercial load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

367

OpenEI Community - building load data  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Utility Rate OpenEI Community...

368

Optimizing the Design of Biomass Hydrogen Supply ChainsUsing Real-World Spatial Distributions: A Case Study Using California Rice Straw  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

connections. Intracity pipeline lengths will be determinedThe intracity pipeline network length can also be expressedO&M ($/year) Pipeline Distribution Length of Pipeline (km)

Parker, Nathan

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Optimizing the Design of Biomass Hydrogen Supply Chains Using Real-World Spatial Distributions: A Case Study Using California Rice Straw  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

connections. Intracity pipeline lengths will be determinedThe intracity pipeline network length can also be expressedO&M ($/year) Pipeline Distribution Length of Pipeline (km)

Parker, Nathan C

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

LOADING AND UNLOADING DEVICE  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device for loading and unloading fuel rods into and from a reactor tank through an access hole includes parallel links carrying a gripper. These links enable the gripper to go through the access hole and then to be moved laterally from the axis of the access hole to the various locations of the fuel rods in the reactor tank.

Treshow, M.

1960-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

371

Advanced Design Studies  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional pro ject to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2? . Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas. However the distribution of the alphas on the device first wall indicates that a viable solution likely exists. It is noted that future designs must be sought which specifically address the fusion alphas through an integrated approach involving physics and engineering teams.

Steiner, Don [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

A comparison of measured wind park load histories with the WISPER and WISPERX load spectra  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The blade-loading histories from two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines are compared with the variable-amplitude test-loading histories known as the WISPER and WISPERX spectra. These standardized loading sequences were developed from blade flapwise load histories taken from nine different horizontal-axis wind turbines operating under a wide range of conditions in Europe. The subject turbines covered a broad spectrum of rotor diameters, materials, and operating environments. The final loading sequences were developed as a joint effort of thirteen different European organizations. The goal was to develop a meaningful loading standard for horizontal-axis wind turbine blades that represents common interaction effects seen in service. In 1990, NREL made extensive load measurements on two adjacent Micon 65/13 wind turbines in simultaneous operation in the very turbulent environment of a large wind park. Further, before and during the collection of the loads data, comprehensive measurements of the statistics of the turbulent environment were obtained at both the turbines under test and at two other locations within the park. The trend to larger but lighter wind turbine structures has made an understanding of the expected lifetime loading history of paramount importance. Experience in the US has shown that the turbulence-induced loads associated with multi-row wind parks in general are much more severe than for turbines operating individually or within widely spaced environments. Multi-row wind parks are much more common in the US than in Europe. In this paper we report on our results in applying the methodology utilized to develop the WISPER and WISPERX standardized loading sequences using the available data from the Micon turbines. While the intended purpose of the WISPER sequences were not to represent a specific operating environment, we believe the exercise is useful, especially when a turbine design is likely to be installed in a multi-row wind park.

Kelley, N.D.

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Load Management - A Better Way  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ohio Edison Company serves about 800,000 customers in Ohio and Pennsylvania, making it one of the 20 largest electric utilities in the nation. The 'cost of service' concept has been basic to rate design throughout the history of the company, and is evident today as the demand related charges have escalated in recent rate cases reflecting the higher costs of installing new generating facilities at today's high construction and financing costs. This paper will describe one of the many applications of load management techniques which has enabled the company to shift well over 100,000 kilowatts of customer load from the on-peak period to the off-peak period in the last four to five years. This is helping delay the need for new plants and allows existing plants to be more fully utilized, resulting in lower costs to customers who use their electric service wisely and possibly lower rate increases in the future than would have been required otherwise.

Easley, J. F.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

374

Load Component Database of Household Appliances and Small Office Equipment  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper discusses the development of a load component database for household appliances and office equipment. To develop more accurate load models at both transmission and distribution level, a better understanding on the individual behaviors of home appliances and office equipment under power system voltage and frequency variations becomes more and more critical. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has begun a series of voltage and frequency tests against home appliances and office equipments since 2005. Since 2006, Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has collaborated with BPA personnel and developed a load component database based on these appliance testing results to facilitate the load model validation work for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In this paper, the testing procedure and testing results are first presented. The load model parameters are then derived and grouped. Recommendations are given for aggregating the individual appliance models to feeder level, the models of which are used for distribution and transmission level studies.

Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu; Puyleart, Francis; Yang, Steve

2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

375

Load Following in Geothermal Plants: Capabilities and Challenges  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Typically, geothermal power plants are baseload facilities, but they may be operated in a load-following mode in the same manner as conventional steam plants. As grid penetration of renewable resources increases - especially those generation types with diurnal variations such as wind and solar - the ability of other power plants to load-follow becomes increasingly valuable.Load following is challenging in terms of the design, operations, and maintenance of flash and binary geothermal ...

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

376

Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations  

SciTech Connect

This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

Burdick, A.

2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Load Capacity of Bodies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For the stress analysis in a plastic body $\\Omega$, we prove that there exists a maximal positive number $C$, the \\emph{load capacity ratio,} such that the body will not collapse under any external traction field $t$ bounded by $Y_{0}C$, where $Y_0$ is the elastic limit. The load capacity ratio depends only on the geometry of the body and is given by $$ \\frac{1}{C}=\\sup_{w\\in LD(\\Omega)_D} \\frac{\\int_{\\partial\\Omega}|w|dA} {\\int_{\\Omega}|\\epsilon(w)|dV}=\\left\\|\\gamma_D\\right\\|. $$ Here, $LD(\\Omega)_D$ is the space of isochoric vector fields $w$ for which the corresponding stretchings $\\epsilon(w)$ are assumed to be integrable and $\\gamma_D$ is the trace mapping assigning the boundary value $\\gamma_D(w)$ to any $w\\in LD(\\Omega)_D$.

Reuven Segev

2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

378

Load responsive hydrodynamic bearing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A load responsive hydrodynamic bearing is provided in the form of a thrust bearing or journal bearing for supporting, guiding and lubricating a relatively rotatable member to minimize wear thereof responsive to relative rotation under severe load. In the space between spaced relatively rotatable members and in the presence of a liquid or grease lubricant, one or more continuous ring shaped integral generally circular bearing bodies each define at least one dynamic surface and a plurality of support regions. Each of the support regions defines a static surface which is oriented in generally opposed relation with the dynamic surface for contact with one of the relatively rotatable members. A plurality of flexing regions are defined by the generally circular body of the bearing and are integral with and located between adjacent support regions. Each of the flexing regions has a first beam-like element being connected by an integral flexible hinge with one of the support regions and a second beam-like element having an integral flexible hinge connection with an adjacent support region. A least one local weakening geometry of the flexing region is located intermediate the first and second beam-like elements. In response to application of load from one of the relatively rotatable elements to the bearing, the beam-like elements and the local weakening geometry become flexed, causing the dynamic surface to deform and establish a hydrodynamic geometry for wedging lubricant into the dynamic interface.

Kalsi, Manmohan S. (Houston, TX); Somogyi, Dezso (Sugar Land, TX); Dietle, Lannie L. (Stafford, TX)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

379

Malczewski Product Design LLC | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Malczewski Product Design LLC Malczewski Product Design LLC Jump to: navigation, search Name Malczewski Product Design LLC Place Neenah, Wisconsin Zip 54956 Sector Wind energy Product Product development start-up planning to design, develop, patent, and distribute a new type of wind generator. Coordinates 44.186095°, -88.461954° Loading map... {"minzoom":false,"mappingservice":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","zoom":14,"types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"geoservice":"google","maxzoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"title":"","label":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"copycoords":false,"static":false,"wmsoverlay":"","layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","locations":[{"text":"","title":"","link":null,"lat":44.186095,"lon":-88.461954,"alt":0,"address":"","icon":"","group":"","inlineLabel":"","visitedicon":""}]}

380

Statistical Review of UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents a comprehensive statistical review of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used electrical appliances in the UK residential load sector. It focuses on individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, and also provides information on the reactive power characteristics of the load, which is often neglected from standard consumption statistics. This data is particularly important for power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability distribution functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information which provides a useful database for the wider research community.

Tsagarakis, G; Kiprakis, A E

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Japanese Prototype Buildings: A DER-CAM AnalysisPolicy, Tariff Design, Building Energy Use, and Technologyin Japanese Prototype Buildings: English Version Preface

Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

How and why side cooling of high-heat-load optics works.  

SciTech Connect

The temperature gradients in a side-cooled mirror would create a thermal bending moment along the mirror length. For a slender side-cooled mirror with longitudinally uniform incident beam, the tangential slope error is primarily due to the bowing deformation caused by this thermal bending moment. The thermal bending moment depends on the temperature distribution, which is a function of the mirror geometry, heat load, and cooling design. Optimal design of a side-cooled mirror can achieve a 'favorable' temperature profile to make the thermal bending moment, with respect to the substrate neutral plane, approach zero, so that the bowing deformation of the mirror is minimized. To understand the deformation of a side-cooled mirror and achieve an optimal design, a theoretical formulation is developed.

Li, Y.; Khounsary, A.; Nair, S.; Experimental Facilities Division (APS); IIT

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Compensation of Beam Loading in the ALS Injector Linac  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to offset the beam loading. ALS Injector Requirements Gun.gun, bunchers, and 50 MeV linac of the ALS injection system.The ALS injector design has been described in previous

Selph, F.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

ANN - based distribution system reconfiguration  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) - based distribution system reconfiguration scheme to reduce system loss. The ANN is trained for different load levels and different network topologies. The proposed scheme has been tested using a 38 - bus distribution system. The results are very promising.

Momoh, J.A.; Wang, Yanchun [Howard Univ., Washington, DC (United States). Electrical Engineering Dept.; Rizy, D.T. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Conceptual design of the FRIB cryogenic system  

SciTech Connect

The Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB) is a new nuclear science facility funded by the DOE Office of Science and Michigan State University (MSU). FRIB is currently under design and will be located on the MSU campus. The centerpiece of FRIB is a heavy ion linac utilizing superconducting RF cavities and magnets which in turn requires a large cryogenic system. The cryogenic system consists of a commercially produced helium refrigeration plant and an extensive distribution system. Superconducting components will operate at both 4.5 K and 2 K. This paper describes the conceptual design of the system including the expected heat loads and operating modes. The strategy for procuring a custom turnkey helium refrigeration plant from industry, an overview of the distribution system, the interface of the cryogenic system to the conventional facilities and the project schedule are also described.

Weisend II, J G; Bull, Brad; Burns, Chris; Fila, Adam; Kelley, Patrick; Laumer, Helmut; Mann, Thomas; McCartney, Allyn; Jones, S

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

The Application and Verification of ASHRAE 152-2004 (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems) to DOE-2-1e Simulation Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This report describes the application and verification of duct model on DOE 2.1e version 119 using ASHRAE 152-2004 (Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems). It begins with a concept of duct model which is developed by ASHRAE and shows the application and the verification of the duct model to DOE 2.1e version 119 simulation program.

Kim, S.; Haberl, J. S.

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Variable loading roller  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An automatic loading roller for transmitting torque in traction drive devices in manipulator arm joints includes a two-part camming device having a first cam portion rotatable in place on a shaft by an input torque and a second cam portion coaxially rotatable and translatable having a rotating drive surface thereon for engaging the driven surface of an output roller with a resultant force proportional to the torque transmitted. Complementary helical grooves in the respective cam portions interconnected through ball bearings interacting with those grooves effect the rotation and translation of the second cam portion in response to rotation of the first. 14 figs.

Williams, D.M.

1988-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

388

Status of load management storage demonstrations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

DOE is funding a nationwide demonstration of electric load management through the use of utility-controlled, customer-side thermal energy storage for residential space conditioning. The general concept of the projects was developed with the assistance of a broadly based working group drawn from the utility industry. This paper presents the current status of these demonstrations. Ten demonstrations are underway - five heat storage and five cool storage - using between 30 and 50 near-commercial thermal storage devices. The installations and experimental program are designed to: (1) collect reliable load research data for assessing the impact on the utility system; (2) delineate and solve installation problems; (3) establish maintainability; (4) illuminate customer and utility acceptance; and (5) generate cost data. The results obtained are expected to assist utilities in making local load-management decisions, to assist DOE in establishing priorities for R and D efforts in load management, and to provide objective information related to the electric system impact, energy conservation, and cost-effectiveness of this form of load management.

Long, H M; Mohre, D L

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Building Energy Software Tools Directory: TRACE Load 700  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Load 700 Load 700 TRACE Load 700 logo. Use TRACE Load 700 software - the building and load design modules of TRACE 700, Trane Air Conditioning Economics - to evaluate the effect of building orientation, size, shape, and mass based on hourly weather data and the resulting heat-transfer characteristics of air and moisture. To assure calculation integrity, the program uses algorithms recommended by the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). Choose from eight different ASHRAE cooling and heating methodologies, including the Exact Transfer Function. The program encourages "what if" analyses, allowing the user to enter construction details in any order and then easily change the resulting building model as the design progresses. Multiple project views and "drag-and-drop"

390

Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings  

SciTech Connect

Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Strategic Intelligence Update: Energy Storage & Distributed Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed generation and energy storage technologies add value to a wide range of applications within the electric utility enterprise. Energy storage at megawatt-hour scales can be used to enable generators to better follow load and stabilize transmission voltage and frequency. Both distributed generation and energy storage systems can help utilities shift and manage peak loads within the distribution system, improve reliability, and potentially help defer infrastructure upgrades. Bulk energy storage e...

2009-08-07T23:59:59.000Z

392

Strategic Intelligence Update: Distributed Generation & Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed generation and energy storage technologies add value to a wide range of applications within the electric utility enterprise. Energy storage at megawatt-hour scales can be used to enable generators to better follow load and stabilize transmission voltage and frequency. Both distributed generation and energy storage systems can help utilities shift and manage peak loads within the distribution system, improve reliability, and potentially help defer infrastructure upgrades. Bulk energy storage e...

2009-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

393

Strategic Intelligence Update: Energy Storage & Distributed Generation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed generation and energy storage technologies add value to a wide range of applications within the electric utility enterprise. Energy storage at megawatt-hour scales can be used to enable generators to better follow load and stabilize transmission voltage and frequency. Both distributed generation and energy storage systems can help utilities shift and manage peak loads within the distribution system, improve reliability, and potentially help defer infrastructure upgrades. Bulk energy storage e...

2009-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

394

Strategic Intelligence Update: Distributed Generation & Energy Storage  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed generation and energy storage technologies add value to a wide range of applications within the electric utility enterprise. Energy storage at megawatt-hour scales can be used to enable generators to better follow load and stabilize transmission voltage and frequency. Both distributed generation and energy storage systems can help utilities shift and manage peak loads within the distribution system, improve reliability, and potentially help defer infrastructure upgrades. Bulk energy storage e...

2009-10-08T23:59:59.000Z

395

Using an Energy Performance Based Design-Build Process to Procure...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

distribution transformers, all workstation loads, elevators, control systems loads, etc. District heating and cooling energy inputs were also included as part of the whole...

396

Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations  

SciTech Connect

Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

Not Available

1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Interaction of loading pattern and nuclear data uncertainties in reactor core calculations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Along with best-estimate calculations for design and safety analysis, understanding uncertainties is important to determine appropriate design margins. In this framework, nuclear data uncertainties and their propagation to full core calculations are a critical issue. To deal with this task, different error propagation techniques, deterministic and stochastic are currently developed to evaluate the uncertainties in the output quantities. Among these is the sampling based uncertainty and sensitivity software XSUSA which is able to quantify the influence of nuclear data covariance on reactor core calculations. In the present work, this software is used to investigate systematically the uncertainties in the power distributions of two PWR core loadings specified in the OECD UAM-Benchmark suite. With help of a statistical sensitivity analysis, the main contributors to the uncertainty are determined. Using this information a method is studied with which loading patterns of reactor cores can be optimized with regard to minimizing power distribution uncertainties. It is shown that this technique is able to halve the calculation uncertainties of a MOX/UOX core configuration. (authors)

Klein, M.; Gallner, L.; Krzykacz-Hausmann, B.; Pautz, A.; Velkov, K.; Zwermann, W. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GRS MbH, Boltzmannstr. 14, D- 85748 Garching b. Muenchen (Germany)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Computational load in model physics of the parallel NCAR community climate model  

SciTech Connect

Maintaining a balance of computational load over processors is a crucial issue in parallel computing. For efficient parallel implementation, complex codes such as climate models need to be analyzed for load imbalances. In the present study we focus on the load imbalances in the physics portion of the community climate model`s (CCM2) distributed-memory parallel implementation on the Intel Touchstone DELTA computer. We note that the major source of load imbalance is the diurnal variation in the computation of solar radiation. Convective weather patterns also cause some load imbalance. Land-ocean contrast is seen to have little effect on computational load in the present version of the model.

Michalakes, J.G.; Nanjundiah, R.S.

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

SYSPLAN. Load Leveling Battery System Costs  

SciTech Connect

SYSPLAN evaluates capital investment in customer side of the meter load leveling battery systems. Such systems reduce the customer`s monthly electrical demand charge by reducing the maximum power load supplied by the utility during the customer`s peak demand. System equipment consists of a large array of batteries, a current converter, and balance of plant equipment and facilities required to support the battery and converter system. The system is installed on the customer`s side of the meter and controlled and operated by the customer. Its economic feasibility depends largely on the customer`s load profile. Load shape requirements, utility rate structures, and battery equipment cost and performance data serve as bases for determining whether a load leveling battery system is economically feasible for a particular installation. Life-cycle costs for system hardware include all costs associated with the purchase, installation, and operation of battery, converter, and balance of plant facilities and equipment. The SYSPLAN spreadsheet software is specifically designed to evaluate these costs and the reduced demand charge benefits; it completes a 20 year period life cycle cost analysis based on the battery system description and cost data. A built-in sensitivity analysis routine is also included for key battery cost parameters. The life cycle cost analysis spreadsheet is augmented by a system sizing routine to help users identify load leveling system size requirements for their facilities. The optional XSIZE system sizing spreadsheet which is included can be used to identify a range of battery system sizes that might be economically attractive. XSIZE output consisting of system operating requirements can then be passed by the temporary file SIZE to the main SYSPLAN spreadsheet.

Hostick, C.J. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

400

A simple distribution method for two-dimensional temperature/humidity bin data  

SciTech Connect

A distribution model is developed for relative humidity, and additional relationships are presented that allow the distribution model to be used on an hourly basis with either monthly-average daily relative humidity or monthly-average daily dry-bulb temperature and clearness index as the only meteorological data input. A procedure is described that allows the estimation of two-dimensional dry-bulb temperature/humidity ratio bin data from the distribution models for dry-bulb temperature and relative humidity. Comparisons of measured and estimated dry-bulb temperature/humidity ratio bin data are presented. A design method for the cooling load on a residential air conditioner is described, and air conditioning loads are calculated using both measured and estimated dry-bulb temperature/humidity ratio bin data.

Erbs, D.G.; Klein, S.A.; Beckman, W.A.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Distributed Generation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

with another option to reduce peak load, relieve transmission congestion, and improve power reliability. Backup generation is widely deployed across the United States. Carnegie...

402

CSEM WP 104 Variation of Distribution Factors with Loading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is part of the Center for the Study of Energy Markets (CSEM) Working Paper Series. CSEM is a program of the University of California Energy Institute, a multi- campus research unit of the University of California is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, the University of Texas at Austin, and was a CSEM Visiting

California at Berkeley. University of

403

Extreme wind load estimates based on Gumbel distribution of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

... morning breezes and so forth-are as unwarranted as inferences on the height of adults based on the heights of children in a kinder- garten class. ...

2013-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

404

Gas turbine control and load sharing of a shipboard power system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The objective of this research is to design a controller for a gas turbine of an ElectricShipboard Power System (ESPS) and to develop a load (more)

Fernandes, Anisha M. C., 1980-

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

The Potential for Supply-Following Loads to Enable Deep Renewables...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

electrical loads that are responsive to grid conditions such as energy availability or electricity price. This talk presents the design, implementation, and evaluation of three...

406

Variational Approach for Predicting the Load Deformation Response of a Double Stretched Membrane Reflector Module  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents an analytical model useful for design and sizing purposes to describe the load deformation response of a stretched membrane reflector module structural system.

Murphy, L. M.

1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

PPL: distribution transformer | The Better Buildings Alliance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Plug & Process Loads » Install a Plug & Process Loads » Install a distribution transformer that will reduce energy use by more than 15% using the distribution transformer specification Activities Technology Solutions Teams Lighting & Electrical Space Conditioning Plug & Process Loads Food Service Refrigeration Laboratories Energy Management & Information Systems Public Sector Teams Market Solutions Teams Install a distribution transformer that will reduce energy use by more than 15% using the distribution transformer specification The Plug & Process Loads team developed a low-voltage, dry-type distribution transformer specification that outlines energy-related product requirements. Purchasers can use this document to procure high-efficiency, high-quality products from manufacturers. The specification is unique, as

408

UWIG Distributed Wind Impacts Analysis Tool Progress Report: Utility Wind Interest Group Distributed Wind Impacts Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed wind generation systems consist of small clusters of wind turbines located near small load centers and connected directly to the distribution system. Depending on the electrical characteristics of the distribution line, the type of wind turbine, and the relative locations of the interconnection to the distribution system, the substation, and customer connections, distributed wind generation can significantly affect the stability, power quality, and operations of the distribution line. As a re...

2004-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

409

Information Sharing Across Transmission and Distribution Operations  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the real-time operation of the grid, there is a natural dividing line between the bulk power, or transmission, system and the distribution system. The increasing deployment of distributed resourcesincluding distributed energy resources (distributed generation) and curtailable load (demand response)will require update of transmission and distribution system processes and applications that ensure reliable and efficient grid operation. Closer coordination of activities will be necessary as both systems a...

2010-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

410

Ductless Hydronic Distribution  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

DUCTLESS HYDRONIC DUCTLESS HYDRONIC DISTRIBUTION Alliance for Residential Building Innovation David Springer, Davis Energy Group Context  Target: Builders of high performance new homes & deep retrofits  Why is this technology key to meeting performance goals of future homes?  Distribution Efficiency * Distribution efficiency for well insulated, tight ducts in attics ≈ 85% * Duct energy losses drives placement of ducts inside conditioned space, which adds cost and interferes with structure and architecture * Ductless hydronic systems can approach 100% distribution efficiency; piping needs little space  Delivery Energy * Fans: 0.58 W/cfm or 9 (heating) to 27 (cooling) W/kBtuh * Pumps: 8 W/gpm, or 0.8 W/kBtuh Context  Sizing * Conventional systems tend to be too large for low load homes

411

Distributed Generation Heat Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Economic and environmental drivers are promoting the adoption of combined heat and power (CHP) systems. Technology advances have produced new and improved distributed generation (DG) units that can be coupled with heat recovery hardware to create CHP systems. Performance characteristics vary considerably among DG options, and it is important to understand how these characteristics influence the selection of CHP systems that will meet both electric and thermal site loads.

2002-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

412

Distribution System Research Priorities  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Mark McGranaghan Mark McGranaghan EPRI ELECTRICITY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM WORKSHOP Crystal City, VA September 24, 2012 Distribution System Research Priorities 2 © 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. The Power System Roadmaps start with a Vision Future Power System will require new technologies, infrastructure, and control systems 3 © 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. R&D Roadmaps - Coordination is Critical Roadmaps are living documents 4 © 2012 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Developing the next generation grid * Industry needs new technologies, communication protocols, and information management methods - More variable generation sources and controllable loads - Aging infrastructure

413

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 719 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 628 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 343 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 290 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Peerenboom, J.P. (1997) 248 Controlled low strength materials (CLSM), reported by ACI Committee 229 Rajendran, N. (1997) 106 Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer (2007)

414

Assessment of existing studies of wind loading on solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

In developing solar collectors, wind loading is the major structural design consideration. Wind loading investigations have focused on establishing safe bounds for steady state loading and verifying rational but initial and conservative design approaches for the various solar collector concepts. As such, the effort has been very successful, and has contributed greatly to both the recognition and qualitative understanding of many of the physical phenomena involved. Loading coefficients corresponding to mean wind velocities have been derived in these prior studies to measure the expected structural loading on the various solar collectors. Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three or possibly more seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

Murphy, L. M.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Wind loading on solar collectors  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors has been reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, have been compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, have been estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L.M.

1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Load management and the La Vereda passive solar community  

SciTech Connect

Reviewed are preliminary data available from some of the passive solar homes now operational at the La Vereda subdivision in Santa Fe, New Mexico. The major emphasis is Load Management - an electric utility term pertaining to when and how much energy is used by the customer. A customer's home is considered to be Load Managed when its major demands for electricity occur at times during the day when the utility has surplus generation capacity. For most utilities this surplus occurs during the night and is referred to as the off-peak period. Compared to conventional electric homes, the La Vereda passive solar homes are Naturally Load Managed because most of their backup heating requirements occur during the utility's off-peak period. Naturally Load Managed homes like these allow the backup heating system to operate freely whenever the space needs heat. Load data from six La Vereda homes are compared to similar data from 1) a group of nonsolar super-insulated total electric homes, and 2) the utility's winter system peak day load profile. The comparison verifies the Natural Load Management characteristics of the well-designed passive solar home. The free operation of the backup heating system, especially during cloudy or severe weather, can reduce the Natural Load Management characteristics of the La Verda homes. Is it possible to Force Load Management on a home, regardless of weather conditions and still guarantee that all space heating requirements are satisfied with off-peak energy. One home at La Vereda is discussed that has an experimental Forced Load Management backup heating system designed to use energy only during the utility's off-peak period. Load data from this home is presented and compared to other homes at La Verda.

Pyde, S.E.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

After the change in the economics of generating electricity which took place in 1973, many utilities are examining options to hold down their costs. One fact which is clear is that the difference between peak and off peak generating costs is much larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces during peak periods are both examples of load control which lower the costs borne by the utility. The other option is the use of seasonal surcharges or time-of-day rates to induce customers to alter their usage patterns. Both these load management options focus on reducing utility costs overall without regard to the cost to the consumers affected by the load management options. The issue, then, is whether industrial customers can find opportunities to lower their costs under load management.

Males, R.; Hassig, N.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Distributed Control for Smart Lighting.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this research, we investigate designing a smart lighting system. By extending and enhancing the centralized and distributed control algorithms we try to address the (more)

Phadke, Swanand Shripad

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Buildings Energy Data Book: 5.5 Thermal Distribution Systems  

Buildings Energy Data Book (EERE)

5 5 Typical Commercial Building Thermal Energy Distribution Design Load Intensities (Watts per SF) Distribution System Fans Other Central System Supply Fans Cooling Tower Fan Central System Return Fans Air-Cooled Chiller Condenser Fan 0.6 Terminal Box Fans 0.5 Exhaust Fans (2) Fan-Coil Unit Fans (1) Condenser Fans 0.6 Packaged or Split System Indoor Blower 0.6 Pumps Chilled Water Pump Condenser Water Pump Heating Water Pump Note(s): Source(s): 0.1 - 0.2 0.1 - 0.2 1) Unducted units are lower than those with some ductwork. 2) Strong dependence on building type. BTS/A.D. Little, Energy Consumption Characteristics of Commercial Building HVAC Systems, Volume II:Thermal Distribution, Auxiliary Equipment, and Ventilation, Oct. 1999, Table 3-1, p. 3-6. 0.3 - 1.0 0.1 - 0.3 0.1 - 0.4

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Dynamic load balancing of applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Dynamic load balancing of applications  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

Wheat, S.R.

1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

423

Case study of the propagation of a small flaw under PWR loading conditions and comparison with the ASME code design life. Comparison of ASME Code Sections III and XI  

SciTech Connect

A cooperative study was performed by EG and G Idaho, Inc., and Oak Ridge National Laboratory to investigate the degree of conservatism and consistency in the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Section III fatigue evaluation procedure and Section XI flaw acceptance standards. A single, realistic, sample problem was analyzed to determine the significance of certain points of criticism made of an earlier parametric study by staff members of the Division of Engineering Standards of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The problem was based on a semielliptical flaw located on the inside surface of the hot-leg piping at the reactor vessel safe-end weld for the Zion 1 pressurized-water reactor (PWR). Two main criteria were used in selecting the problem; first, it should be a straight pipe to minimize the computational expense; second, it should exhibit as high a cumulative usage factor as possible. Although the problem selected has one of the highest cumulative usage factors of any straight pipe in the primary system of PWRs, it is still very low. The Code Section III fatigue usage factor was only 0.00046, assuming it was in the as-welded condition, and fatigue crack-growth analyses predicted negligible crack growth during the 40-year design life. When the analyses were extended past the design life, the usage factor was less than 1.0 when the flaw had propagated to failure. The current study shows that the criticism of the earlier report should not detract from the conclusion that if a component experiences a high level of cyclic stress corresponding to a fatigue usage factor near 1.0, very small cracks can propagate to unacceptable sizes.

Yahr, G.T.; Gwaltney, R.C.; Richardson, A.K.; Server, W.L.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Work stealing and persistence-based load balancers for iterative overdecomposed applications  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applications often involve iterative execution of identical or slowly evolving calculations. Such applications require incremental rebalancing to improve load balance across iterations. In this paper, we consider the design and evaluation of two distinct ... Keywords: dynamic load balancing, hierarchical load balancer, iterative applications, persistence, task scheduling, work stealing

Jonathan Lifflander; Sriram Krishnamoorthy; Laxmikant V. Kale

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Generalized solar load ratio correlation for direct gain buildings  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A generalized solar load ratio correlation has been developed for direct gain buildings by generating relationships between the correlation parameters and two fundamental design parameters. The first design parameter is the steady state conductance of the solar aperture, U/sub c/. The second is the effective heat capacity of the solar zone, EHC.

Wray, W.O.; Best, E.D.

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that

427

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that

428

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Integrated Modeling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Integrated Modeling Integrated Modeling NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction (VALR) team predicts the impact of advanced vehicle cooling technologies before testing by using an integrated modeling process. Evaluating the heat load on a vehicle under real world conditions is a difficult task. An accepted method to evaluate passenger compartment airflow and heat transfer is computational fluid dynamics. (CFD). Combining analytical models with CFD provides a powerful tool to assist industry both on current vehicles and on future design studies. Flow chart showing the vehicle integrated modeling process which considers solar radiation, air conditioning, and vehicles with CAD, glazing, cabin thermal/fluid, and thermal comfort modeling tools. Results are provided for fuel economy, tailpipe emissions and occupant thermal comfort.

429

Two-phase jet loads. [PWR  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Two-phase jets are currently being studied to improve engineering models for the prediction of loads on pipes and structures during LOCAs. Multi-dimensional computer codes such as BEACON/MOD2, CSQ, and TRAC-P1A are being employed to predict flow characteristics and flow-structure loading. Our ultimate goal is to develop a new approximate engineering model which is superior to the F.J. Moody design model. Computer results are compared with data obtained from foreign sources, and a technique for using the TRAC-P1A vessel component as a containment model is presented. In general, good agreement with the data is obtained for saturated stagnation conditions; however, difficulties are encountered for subcooled stagnation conditions, possibly due to nucleation delay and non-equilibrium effects.

Tomasko, D.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

430

SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS  

SciTech Connect

The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

431

Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India Title Miscellaneous and Electronic Loads Energy Efficiency Opportunities for Commercial Buildings: A Collaborative Study by the United States and India Publication Type Report Refereed Designation Unknown LBNL Report Number LBNL-6287E Year of Publication 2013 Authors Ghatikar, Girish, Iris H. Y. Cheung, and Steven Lanzisera Secondary Authors Wardell, Bob, Manoj Deshpande, Jayraj Ugarkar, and Infosys Technologies Limited Date Published 04/2013 Keywords Electronic loads, energy efficiency opportunities for commercial buildings Short Title MELs Refereed Designation Unknown Attachment Size PDF 1.44 MB Google Scholar BibTex

432

AEDG Implementation Recommendations: Cooling and Heating Loads | Building  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cooling and Heating Loads Cooling and Heating Loads The Advanced Energy Design Guide (AEDG) for Small Office Buildings, 30% series, seeks to achieve 30% savings over ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999. This guide focuses on improvements to small office buildings, less than 20,000ft2. The recommendations in this article are adapted from the implementation section of the guide and focus on heating and cooling system design loads for the purpose of sizing systems and equipment should be calculated in accordance with generally accepted engineering standards and handbooks such as ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals. Publication Date: Wednesday, May 13, 2009 air_cooling_and_heating_loads.pdf Document Details Affiliation: DOE BECP Focus: Compliance Building Type: Commercial Code Referenced: ASHRAE Standard 90.1-1999

433

Monitoring of electrical end-use loads in commercial buildings  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A California utility is currently conducting a program to collect end-use metered data from commercial buildings in its service area. The data will provide actual measurements of end-use loads and will be used in research and in designing energy management programs oriented toward end-use applications. The focus of the program is on five major types of commercial buildings: offices, grocery stores, restaurants, retail stores, and warehouses. End-use metering equipment is installed at about 50 buildings selected have average demands of 100kW to 300 kW. The metered end-uses vary among building types and include HVAC, lighting, refrigeration, plug loads, and cooking. Procedures have been custom-designed to facilitate collection and validation of the end-use load data. PC-based software programs have been developed for reviewing and validating the end-sue load data and for generating reports.

Martinez, M. (Southern California Edison, CA (US)); Alereza, T.; Mort, D. (ADM Associates, Sacramento, CA (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

LOAD FORECASTING Eugene A. Feinberg  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

's electricity price forecasting model, produces forecast of gas demand consistent with electric load. #12Gas demand Council's Market Price of Electricity Forecast Natural GasDemand Electric Load Aggregating Natural between the natural gas and electricity and new uses of natural gas emerge. T natural gas forecasts

Feinberg, Eugene A.

435

Definition: Deferred Distribution Capacity Investments | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Deferred Distribution Capacity Investments Deferred Distribution Capacity Investments Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Deferred Distribution Capacity Investments As with the transmission system, reducing the load and stress on distribution elements increases asset utilization and reduces the potential need for upgrades. Closer monitoring and load management on distribution feeders could potentially extend the time before upgrades or capacity additions are required.[1] Related Terms load, transmission lines, transmission line, sustainability References ↑ SmartGrid.gov 'Description of Benefits' An inl LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ine Glossary Definition Retrieved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Deferred_Distribution_Capacity_Investments&oldid=502613

436

building load | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

load load Dataset Summary Description This dataset contains hourly load profile data for 16 commercial building types (based off the DOE commercial reference building models) and residential buildings (based off the Building America House Simulation Protocols). This dataset also includes the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) for statistical references of building types by location. Source Commercial and Residential Reference Building Models Date Released April 18th, 2013 (9 months ago) Date Updated July 02nd, 2013 (7 months ago) Keywords building building demand building load Commercial data demand Energy Consumption energy data hourly kWh load profiles Residential Data Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Annually

437

Wind load reduction for heliostats  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

438

Load as a reliability resource in restructured electricity markets  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recent electricity price spikes demonstrate the value that demand-side responses could bring to a restructured US electricity system. This report considers how even a modest increase in demand elasticity could dramatically reduce these extremes in price volatility. The report provides a three-part assessment addressing the ability of customer's load to participate in competitive markets and the current and potential future role of customer loads as system reliability resources. The study begins by evaluating the extent to which customer loads might be able to provide electricity reliability or ancillary services and reviewing aspects of a large utility's direct load control program. The second phase of the assessment contains a survey of ways in which load has been used as a system reliability resource focusing on programs triggered by system conditions and a real-time price signal. It reviews the experience of: (1) the California ISO's Demand Relief and Participating Load programs; (2) Interruptible load programs in California; (3) the New England ISO's Load Management program; and (4) a ''mature'' program in New Zealand. The third phase of the assessment examines the status of the underlying metering, communication, and control technologies used to effect customer responses. The final section of the report provides a vision of how the future might look and uses it to outline a program of needed R&D to increase the role of customer loads as system reliability resources. Key elements of this research program include: addressing the needs of system operators, making effective use of load management assets, making use of new program design concepts, the design of end-use technologies, and benefiting from program experiences.

Kueck, J.D.; Kirby, B.J.; Eto, J.; Staunton, R.H.; Marnay, C.; Martinez, A.; Goldman, C.

2001-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

439

Some Aspects of Distribution System Planning in the Context of Investment in Distributed Generation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A paradigm shift in distribution system design and planning is being led by the deregulation of the power industry and the increasing adoption of distributed (more)

Wong, Steven M.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Selected Statistical Methods for Analysis of Load Research Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Applying innovative statistical methods, researchers developed a probabilistic approach that treats loads as random variables. Though preliminary, these findings can lead to a better understanding of load research design and more efficient use of the data. This report is available only to funders of Program 101A or 101.001. Funders may download this report at http://my.primen.com/Applications/DE/Community/index.asp .

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience  

SciTech Connect

In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Energy Efficiency Standards for Distribution Transformers: The...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

for Distribution Transformers: The Importance of the Load Factor Assessment from an Energy Saving Point of View. Speaker(s): Norma Anglani Date: April 10, 2001 - 12:00pm...

443

Evaluation of concrete masonry unit walls for lateral natural phenomena hazards loads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Older single-story facilities (Pre-1985 vintage) are commonly constructed of structural steel framing with concrete masonry unit (CMU) walls connected to columns and roof girders of the steel framing system. The CMU walls are designed for lateral wind and seismic loads (perpendicular to the wall) and transmit shear loads from the roof diaphragm to the foundation footings. The lateral loads normally govern their design. The structural framing system and the roof diaphragm system are straight forward when analyzing or upgrading the structure for NPH loads. Because of a buildings design vintage, probable use of empirical methodology, and poor design basis documentation (and record retention); it is difficult to qualify or upgrade CMU walls for lateral Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) loads in accordance with References 1, 2 and 3. This paper discusses three analytical approaches and/or techniques (empirical, working stress and yield line) to determine the collapse capacity of a laterally loaded CMU wall, and compares their results

Faires, W.E. Jr.

1996-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

444

Commercial application of aluminum honeycomb and foam in load bearing tubular structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Small dimension engineering tubular structures subjected to a complex load system are designed like hollow circular shells. For minimum weight design, the ratio between the shell radius and the thickness has to be as large ...

Bartolucci, Stefano, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Reliability based investigation of design factors  

SciTech Connect

Second-moment probabilistic techniques are used to formulate structural resistances and loads and to derive reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors for design. Existing concepts of the second-moment reliability theory have been extended to the practical case of multiple load combinations. This development consistently includes the stochastic character of loads and the unpredictable nature of their combinations. For this purpose, a new technique for the evaluation of load combinations is presented, whereby the moments of the extreme of combined loads is obtained in terms of the moments of individual loads and parameters describing their random fluctuations in time. Reliability-based safety, load, and strength factors are derived in terms of the acceptable level of risk, the coefficients of variation of the loads and resistance, uncertainties associated with errors in modeling and estimation, and a set of parameters describing the stochastic nature of loads and their combinations.

1978-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

446

Nanoscale strength distribution in amorphous versus crystalline metals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Low-load nanoindentation can be used to assess not only the plastic yield point, but the distribution of yield points in a material. This paper reviews measurements of the so-called nanoscale strength distribution (NSD) ...

Packard, C.E.

447

load data | OpenEI Community  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

51 51 Varnish cache server Home Groups Community Central Green Button Applications Developer Utility Rate FRED: FRee Energy Database More Public Groups Private Groups Features Groups Blog posts Content Stream Documents Discussions Polls Q & A Events Notices My stuff Energy blogs 429 Throttled (bot load) Error 429 Throttled (bot load) Throttled (bot load) Guru Meditation: XID: 2142234851 Varnish cache server load data Home Sfomail's picture Submitted by Sfomail(48) Member 17 May, 2013 - 12:03 Commercial and Residential Hourly Load Data Now Available on OpenEI! building load building load data commercial load data dataset datasets electric load data load data load profile OpenEI residential load TMY3 United States Load data Image source: NREL Files: application/zip icon System Advisor Model Tool for Downloading Load Data

448

A continuous distribution approach for production costing  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, a new approach to approximate the equivalent load duration curve (ELDC) and evaluate the production cost by using a multi-parameter distribution is presented. The parameters of this distribution can be determined from the hourly load and generating unit data. A new more efficient algorithm for determining the parameters is also introduced. The results obtained from the proposed, the Grame-Charlier and the recursive method are reported for several cases to compared the efficiency and accuracy.

Singh, C. (Texas A and M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Kim, J.O. (Cheon-An National Coll., Chung-Nam (Korea, Republic of). Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

photovoltaicsgenerationon distributionsystems?photovoltaicsgenerationondistribution systems?anddistributionsystemswithdistributedgeneration:An

Lesieutre, Bernard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Distribution Research Area Strategic Plan  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The electric distribution system has served customers effectively for more than 100 years. It continues to serve customers reliably, but it will face unprecedented challenges in the coming years, driven by such factors as increasing demands for energy, aging infrastructure, space and capacity limitations, environmental constraints, varying load types, new "smart" technologies, and distributed generation. Without a concerted effort by the industry to anticipate and respond to the impending challenges, the...

2011-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

451

Attached sunspace design analysis  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

An introduction to new design analysis information for attached sunspaces is presented. The 28 sunspace reference designs are described. Note is taken of those designs (the semi-enclosed geometries) analyzed more recently than the previously published reports. The role of sensitivity studies is discussed, and some sample plots of sunspace performance sensitivity to key design parameters are presented. The monthly solar load ratio (SLR) correlations are reviewed with emphasis on the modified SLR used in the sunspace analysis. The application of the sunspace SLR correlations to monthly design analysis is outlined.

Jones, R.W.; McFarland, R.D.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3) for different fan-powered mixing box designs and controloperating fan-powered mixing boxes in all of their designs.design, while still satisfying the building's cooling load. Consequently, fans and

Bauman, F.S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Commercial thermal distribution systems, Final report for CIEE/CEC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Implications Specify actual fan design kW/CFM if desired. Ifconstant flow rate fan design power part-load-ratiorelevant than the original fan design data. Similarly, if

Xu, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

454

Spinning Reserve from Responsive Load  

SciTech Connect

As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host a spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) supplied real-time metering and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and testing. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect.

Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL; Laughner, T [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA); Morris, K [Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

The Load and Availability of Byzantine Quorum Systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Replicated services accessed via quorums enable each access to be performed at only a subset (quorum) of the servers and achieve consistency across accesses by requiring any two quorums to intersect. Recently, b-masking quorum systems, ... Keywords: Byzantine failures, availability, distributed computing, load, quorum systems, replication

Dahlia Malkhi; Michael K. Reiter; Avishai Wool

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Practical use of three-dimensional inverse method for compressor blade design  

SciTech Connect

The practical utility of a three-dimensional inverse viscous method is demonstrated by carrying out a design modification of a first-stage rotor in an industrial compressor. In this design modification study, the goal is to improve the efficiency of the original blade while retaining its overall aerodynamic, structural, and manufacturing characteristics. By employing a simple modification to the blade pressure loading distribution (which is the prescribed flow quantity in this inverse method), the modified blade geometry is predicted to perform better than the original design over a wide range of operating points, including an improvement in choke margin.

Damle, S.; Dang, T. [Syracuse Univ., NY (United States). Dept. of Mechanical, Aerospace and Mfg. Engineering; Stringham, J.; Razinsky, E. [Solar Turbines, Inc., San Diego, CA (United States)

1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Optimal Planning of a Load Transfer Substation Pair between Two Normally Closed-Loop Feeders Considering Minimization of System Power Losses Using a Genetic Algorithm  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper proposes an effective approach for planning a load transfer substation pair(LTSP) between two normally closed-loop feeders considering minimization of system power losses. Firstly, the annual equivalent load of each load point is calculated. ... Keywords: distribution feeder, normally closed-loop feeder, distribution substation, genetic algorithm, power losses

Wei-Tzer Huang; Kai-chao Yao; Shiuan-Tai Chen; Hsiau-Hsian Nien; Deng-Chung Lin; Po-Tung Huang

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Wind loading on solar concentrators: some general considerations  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A survey has been completed to examine the problems and complications arising from wind loading on solar concentrators. Wind loading is site specific and has an important bearing on the design, cost, performance, operation and maintenance, safety, survival, and replacement of solar collecting systems. Emphasis herein is on paraboloidal, two-axis tracking systems. Thermal receiver problems also are discussed. Wind characteristics are discussed from a general point of view; current methods for determining design wind speed are reviewed. Aerodynamic coefficients are defined and illustrative examples are presented. Wind tunnel testing is discussed, and environmental wind tunnels are reviewed; recent results on heliostat arrays are reviewed as well. Aeroelasticity in relation to structural design is discussed briefly. Wind loads, i.e., forces and moments, are proportional to the square of the mean wind velocity. Forces are proportional to the square of concentrator diameter, and moments are proportional to the cube of diameter. Thus, wind loads have an important bearing on size selection from both cost and performance standpoints. It is concluded that sufficient information exists so that reasonably accurate predictions of wind loading are possible for a given paraboloidal concentrator configuration, provided that reliable and relevant wind conditions are specified. Such predictions will be useful to the design engineer and to the systems engineer as well. Information is lacking, however, on wind effects in field arrays of paraboloidal concentrators. Wind tunnel tests have been performed on model heliostat arrays, but there are important aerodynamic differences between heliostats and paraboloidal dishes.

Roschke, E. J.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Distributed Generation Source Stiffness and Its Impact on Voltage Distortion  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Distributed generators with loads that create high harmonics can cause excessive voltage distortion. This report's objective was to evaluate under controlled laboratory conditions voltage distortion resulting from application of nonlinear load for three different types of rotary generators and one inverter-based generator. Test results also were used to verify the analytical model for predicting voltage distortion from nonlinear load application.

2001-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

460

Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

load and PV generation distributions. In this section of theTable B-4. PV generation distribution, by TOU period (customer PV generation distribution, by wholesale price bin,

Darghouth, Naim Richard

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distribution design load" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Inverse optimal design of the radiant heating in materials processing and manufacturing  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Combined convective, conductive, and radiative heat transfer is analyzed during heating of a continuously moving load in the industrial radiant oven. A transient, quasi-three-dimensional model of heat transfer between a continuous load of parts moving inside an oven on a conveyor belt at a constant speed and an array of radiant heaters/burners placed inside the furnace enclosure is developed. The model accounts for radiative exchange between the heaters and the load, the conduction in the load, and convective heat transfer between the moving load and oven environment. The thermal model developed has been used to construct a general framework for an inverse optimal design of an industrial oven as an example. In particular, the procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt nonlinear least squares optimization algorithm has been developed to obtain the optimal temperatures of the heaters/burners that need to be specified to achieve a prescribed temperature distribution of the surface of a load. The results of calculations for several sample cases are reported to illustrate the capabilities of the procedure developed for the optimal inverse design of an industrial radiant oven.

Fedorov, A.G.; Lee, K.H.; Viskanta, R. [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)] [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Advanced nonintrusive load monitoring system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

There is a need for flexible, inexpensive metering technologies that can be deployed in many different monitoring scenarios. Individual loads may be expected to compute information about their power consumption. Utility ...

Wichakool, Warit, 1977-

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

463

OpenEI - building load  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

are given by a location defined by the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) for which the weather data was collected. Commercial load data is sorted by the (TMY) site as a...

464

Permanent Load Shift Control Strategies  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of Permanent Load Shifting for HVAC and other storage assets as it relates to summer on-peak demand, how it can be dynamically and autonomously controlled, and its relationship...

465

Building load control and optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Simulation and design of solar thermal processes  

SciTech Connect

Methods of simulation and design of solar thermal processes have been developed and used in process system studies. During the period of this contract, new process component model formulations have been developed, including: transient LiBr--H/sub 2/O absorption cooler; CPC and other ''advanced'' collectors; and windows, storage wall and shading devices for passive solar heating. Systems studies have included: parallel and series solar/heat pump combinations; phase change storage in solar heating; absorption cooling with and without cooler transients. The general solar process simulation program, TRNSYS, has been further developed, documented, distributed and supported. Design procedure studies have led to development of a method for calculating the phi, the average solar radiatio