Sample records for distribution design load

  1. Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide, Americanfor design cooling loads in Underfloor Air Distribution (for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

  2. Assessment and Improvements of the CBE Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Cooling Load Design Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor air distribution (UFAD) design guide. AmericanUnderfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Cooling Load Design Toolload design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD)

  3. Development of a simplified cooling load design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide, Atlanta:application and design of underfloor air distributionfor design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

  4. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:Load Design Tool for Underfloor Air Distribution Systems. ”for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

  5. Designing criteria for building power systems supplying distributed non-linear loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasselli, U.; Parise, G. [Univ. of Rome La Sapienza (Italy). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In commercial and institutional buildings, the wider use of power electronics equipment, such as computer switch-mode power supplies and compact fluorescent lights with electronic ballasts, can create many problems. These loads are generally single-phase with a 3rd harmonic current that can be equal or more than 60%. The aim of this paper is that of analyzing several specific aspects of power system design, such as: sizing of circuits; and the selection of circuits, by correlating them with this specific problem of distributed nonlinear load supply. The proposed criteria can be utilized both in a short-term action for resolution of specific problems, and in medium-term action for development of new optimization procedures of power system design.

  6. Design Concepts for Power Distribution Equipment Serving Non-Linear Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massey, G. W.

    This paper explores the effects of power system harmonics induced by non-sinusoidal loads on electrical distribution equipment. The first portion examines the harmonic phenomenon to more fully understand harmonic current behavior from an intuitive...

  7. Development of a simplified cooling load design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    occupants) W = zone cooling load (supply and return plenumm]. W L is the zone cooling load (supply and return plenumthe total UFAD cooling load between the supply plenum, the

  8. Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of the UFAD cooling load between the supply plenum, zone (split the UFAD cooling load into the supply plenum, the zonesplit the UFAD cooling load into the supply plenum, zone and

  9. Development of a simplified cooling load design tool for underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    into account in the heat load calculation; (2) for the firststratification on heat load calculations was raised but itload calculation section the following advice was given: (1) the convective heat

  10. Scalable Load Distribution and Load Balancing for Dynamic Parallel Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Emery

    shown that the algorithm scales according to the definition of scalability given following. LoadScalable Load Distribution and Load Balancing for Dynamic Parallel Programs E. Berger and J. C of an integrated load distribution-load balancing algorithm which was targeted to be both efficient and scalable

  11. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Policy, Building loads, Tariff Design, and Technologyof Policy, Building loads, Tariff Design, and Technologygiven prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical and

  12. A comparison between two underfloor air distribution (UFAD) design tools

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Bin; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred S; Chen, Qingyan

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TWO UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) DESIGN TOOLS Bin CHENunderfloor air distribution (UFAD) design tools (ASHRAE RP-air distribution (UFAD), Cooling load, Design tool, HVAC

  13. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings:Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, andTechnology Development

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Rapidly growing electricity demand brings into question theability of traditional grids to expand correspondingly while providingreliable service. An alternative path is the wider application ofdistributed energy resource (DER) that apply combined heat and power(CHP). It can potentially shave peak loads and satiate its growing thirstfor electricity demand, improve overall energy efficiency, and lowercarbon and other pollutant emissions. This research investigates a methodof choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at theBerkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the DistributedEnergy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds theoptimal combination of installed equipment from available DERtechnologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical andthermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a globaloptimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads canbe served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-sitegeneration, heat recovery, and cooling. Utility electricity and gastariffs are key factors determining the economic benefit of a CHPinstallation, however often be neglected. This paper describespreliminary analysis on CHP investment climate in the U.S. and Japan. DERtechnologies, energy prices, and incentive measures has beeninvestigated.

  14. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by Dynamic Neutron Radiography Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by...

  15. Distributed XML Design Serge Abiteboul

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Distributed XML Design Serge Abiteboul INRIA Saclay ­ �le-de-France & University Paris Sud, FR that a distribution design of the document tree is given, provid- ing an XML tree some of whose leaves are "docking.4 [Distributed Systems]: Distributed databases; H.2.1 [Logical Design]: Data models; Schema and subschema General

  16. Application of the Grillage Methodology to Determine Load Distribution Factors for Spread Slab Beam Bridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Petersen-Gauthier, Joel

    2013-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Transverse load distribution behavior amongst bridge girders is influenced by many parameters including girder material properties, spacing, skew, deck design, and stiffening element interactions. In order to simply and conservatively approximate...

  17. Impact of Dynamic PHEVs Load on Renewable Sources based Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Impact of Dynamic PHEVs Load on Renewable Sources based Distribution System F. R. Islam, H. R. Pota.Roy@student.adfa.edu.au Abstract--In this paper, charging effect of dynamic Plug in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is presented in a renewable energy based electricity distribution system. For planning and designing a distribution system

  18. Improved Load Distribution for Load Rating of Low-Fill Box Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Acharya, Raju

    2012-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    . The distribution of live loads on the top slab of a box culvert plays a major role in determining the rating factor of the culvert. The current AASHTO guidelines do not consider the effects of pavements present above the fill while determining the load distribution...

  19. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franconi, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in HV AC Distribution System Design Ellen FranconiAdvances in HVAC Distribution System Design Ellen Franconisavings result from distribution system design improvements,

  20. Transformer design and application considerations for nonsinusoidal load currents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, L.W. [General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States)] [General Electric Co., Rome, GA (United States)

    1996-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The use of adjustable-speed drives requires transformers capable of withstanding high levels of harmonic currents under normal operating conditions. Experience has been that overheating problems are much more common with dry-type transformers than with liquid-filled transformers. Transformer insulation life is determined by the hot spot temperature but confirmation of hot spot temperature rise is one performance characteristic which is ignored in industry standards. This is especially important for transformers rated for nonsinusoidal load currents. Hot spot allowances used in IEEE standards for ventilated dry-type transformers were developed in 1944 and recent data indicates that revisions are required. The design of transformers for nonsinusoidal load currents should include an analysis of the eddy loss distribution in the windings and calculation of the hot spot temperature rise. Calculations and thermal tests giving only average winding temperature rises are not sufficient. Thermal tests with nonsinusoidal currents and measurements of hot spot temperature rises are extremely difficult on large transformers. The combination of testing and analysis may be the only economically practical approach. Analysis indicates that the dry type transformer hot spot temperature is very sensitive to the eddy loss magnitude and distribution. The Underwriters Laboratories Inc. (UL) K-factor rated dry type transformer and the recommended practices given in ANSI/IEEE C57.110 are reviewed. When purchasing transformers subject to nonsinusoidal load currents, considerations should be given to the manufacturer`s development program and capability to calculate the eddy loss distribution and hot spot temperatures.

  1. Design Loads for Wind Turbines using the Environmental Contour Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Design Loads for Wind Turbines using the Environmental Contour Method Korn Saranyasoontorn, TX 78712 When interest is in establishing ultimate design loads for wind turbines such that a service). The parametric conditional load distri- butions require extensive turbine response simulations over the entire

  2. PARAMETRIC MODELS FOR ESTIMATING WIND TURBINE FATIGUE LOADS FOR DESIGN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sweetman, Bert

    loads. #12;2 INTRODUCTION Design constraints for wind turbine structures fall into either extreme load1 PARAMETRIC MODELS FOR ESTIMATING WIND TURBINE FATIGUE LOADS FOR DESIGN Lance Manuel1 Paul S, TX 78712 2 Sandia National Laboratories, Wind Energy Technology Department, Albuquerque, NM 87185

  3. Designing Distributed Applications with Mobile Code Paradigms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carzaniga, Antonio

    Designing Distributed Applications with Mobile Code Paradigms Antonio Carzaniga Politecnico di code, design paradigms, distributed applica­ tions. INTRODUCTION Distributed systems have been with the design of distributed applications, that aims at identifying the distributable components

  4. Networked Loads in the Distribution Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhifang; Li, Xiao; Muthukumar, Vishak; Scaglione, Anna; Peisert, Sean; McParland, Chuck

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lu, and Deborah A. Frincke. Smart-Grid Security Issues. IEEELoads in the Distribution Grid Zhifang Wang ? , Xiao Li † ,Transformer   sensors   Grid   Cyber  system   Cooling    

  5. The Load Distribution Problem in a Processor Ring Francis C.M. Lau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Francis C.M.

    the load balancing procedure into the following phases: load measurement, calculation of load averageThe Load Distribution Problem in a Processor Ring Francis C.M. Lau Department of Computer Science picture of the system load and the average load, the load distribution problem is to find a suitable

  6. Designing Distributed Applications with Mobile Code Paradigms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carzaniga, Antonio

    Designing Distributed Applications with Mobile Code Paradigms Antonio Carzaniga Politecnico di the selection of the correct paradigm for a given distributed application. Keywords Mobile code, design with the design of distributed applications, that aims at identifying the distributable components

  7. Dynamic Load Balancing for the Distributed Mining of Molecular Structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berthold, Michael R.

    Dynamic Load Balancing for the Distributed Mining of Molecular Structures Giuseppe Di Fatta, Member the data mining community, where algorithms to find frequent graphs have received increasing attention over a distributed approach to the frequent subgraph mining problem to discover interesting patterns in molecular

  8. Design-Load Basis for LANL Structures, Systems, and Components

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    I. Cuesta

    2004-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document supports the recommendations in the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Engineering Standard Manual (ESM), Chapter 5--Structural providing the basis for the loads, analysis procedures, and codes to be used in the ESM. It also provides the justification for eliminating the loads to be considered in design, and evidence that the design basis loads are appropriate and consistent with the graded approach required by the Department of Energy (DOE) Code of Federal Regulation Nuclear Safety Management, 10, Part 830. This document focuses on (1) the primary and secondary natural phenomena hazards listed in DOE-G-420.1-2, Appendix C, (2) additional loads not related to natural phenomena hazards, and (3) the design loads on structures during construction.

  9. 514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia Design cooling load calculation methods are, by the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Handbook--Fundamentals (ASHRAE 1997) and the Cooling and Heating Load Calculation Manual (Mc514 ASHRAE Transactions: Symposia ABSTRACT Design cooling load calculation methods are Load Calculation Methods (942-RP)" are also given. INTRODUCTION Design cooling load calculation

  10. The Load Distribution Problem in a Ring of Processors Francis C.M. Lau \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lau, Francis C.M.

    into the following phases: load measurement, calculation of load average, generation of load distribution scheduleThe Load Distribution Problem in a Ring of Processors Francis C.M. Lau \\Lambda Department of Computer Science The University of Hong Kong March 1998 Abstract Given a global picture of the system load

  11. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    fraction (SPF) of cooling Supply Plenum SPF heat transfer bythrough the supply ple- Figure 2: Design day cooling loadsupply represent the????????????????????????????????????????????? air temperature, diffuser type and number, room setpoint instantaneous cooling

  12. Lessons learned in modeling Underfloor Air Distribution system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Bauman, Fred; Feng, Jingjuan; Hoyt, Tyler

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

  13. Comparison of Wind Power and Load Forecasting Error Distributions: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Florita, A.; Orwig, K.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The introduction of large amounts of variable and uncertain power sources, such as wind power, into the electricity grid presents a number of challenges for system operations. One issue involves the uncertainty associated with scheduling power that wind will supply in future timeframes. However, this is not an entirely new challenge; load is also variable and uncertain, and is strongly influenced by weather patterns. In this work we make a comparison between the day-ahead forecasting errors encountered in wind power forecasting and load forecasting. The study examines the distribution of errors from operational forecasting systems in two different Independent System Operator (ISO) regions for both wind power and load forecasts at the day-ahead timeframe. The day-ahead timescale is critical in power system operations because it serves the unit commitment function for slow-starting conventional generators.

  14. Fuel loading and homogeneity analysis of HFIR design fuel plates loaded with uranium silicide fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Blumenfeld, P.E.

    1995-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Twelve nuclear reactor fuel plates were analyzed for fuel loading and fuel loading homogeneity by measuring the attenuation of a collimated X-ray beam as it passed through the plates. The plates were identical to those used by the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) but were loaded with uranium silicide rather than with HFIR`s uranium oxide fuel. Systematic deviations from nominal fuel loading were observed as higher loading near the center of the plates and underloading near the radial edges. These deviations were within those allowed by HFIR specifications. The report begins with a brief background on the thermal-hydraulic uncertainty analysis for the Advanced Neutron Source (ANS) Reactor that motivated a statistical description of fuel loading and homogeneity. The body of the report addresses the homogeneity measurement techniques employed, the numerical correction required to account for a difference in fuel types, and the statistical analysis of the resulting data. This statistical analysis pertains to local variation in fuel loading, as well as to ``hot segment`` analysis of narrow axial regions along the plate and ``hot streak`` analysis, the cumulative effect of hot segment loading variation. The data for all twelve plates were compiled and divided into 20 regions for analysis, with each region represented by a mean and a standard deviation to report percent deviation from nominal fuel loading. The central regions of the plates showed mean values of about +3% deviation, while the edge regions showed mean values of about {minus}7% deviation. The data within these regions roughly approximated random samplings from normal distributions, although the chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) test for goodness of fit to normal distributions was not satisfied.

  15. Development of load and resistance factor design for FRP strengthening of reinforced concrete structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atadero, Rebecca Anne

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    distribution and the loads follow normal distributions.of time-span specific load models follows, a more detailedfollows the technique detailed in the Transportation Research Circular, Calibration to Determine Load and

  16. Designing Distributed, Real-Time Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mills, Kevin

    - - Designing Distributed, Real-Time Systems Kevin L. Mills INFT 796 SUMMER 1993 DIRECTED READINGS IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING WITH DR. H. GOMAA GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY #12;Designing Distributed, Real-Time Systems problem faced by designers of software systems, and particularly by designers of distributed, real

  17. Describing and Analyzing Distributed Software System Designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Avrunin, George S.

    Describing and Analyzing Distributed Software System Designs GEORGE S. AVRUNIN and JACK C. WILEDEN by applying it to a realistic distributed software-system design problem involving mutual exclusion Additional Key Words and Phrases: Analysis of software design, design notation, distributed mutual exclusion

  18. Using a 3D Needle Tissue Interaction Loading basis to optimize the design of an instrumented needle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Using a 3D Needle ­Tissue Interaction Loading basis to optimize the design of an instrumented-IMAG UMR5525, Grenoble, France Keywords: Needle deformation; Load distribution; Instrumented needle of the needle which does not follow the planned trajectory. Furthermore, the amount of irradiation during

  19. Paper No. 2006-JSC-397 Agarwal Design Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical Extrapolation from Limited Field Data

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    Paper No. 2006-JSC-397 Agarwal Design Loads for an Offshore Wind Turbine using Statistical a field measurement campaign. At the Blyth offshore wind farm in the United Kingdom, a 2MW wind turbine of variability in the parameters for load distribution is investigated. KEY WORDS: Offshore wind turbines

  20. Tailoring UNITY to Distributed Program Design ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charpentier, Michel

    Tailoring UNITY to Distributed Program Design ? Michel Charpentier, Mamoun Filali, Philippe Mauran. As a general framework, UNITY does not offer any specific facility for the design of distributed systems to help the design of distributed systems in UNITY. 1 Introduction UNITY is intended to be a general

  1. Tailoring UNITY to Distributed Program Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grigoras, .Romulus

    Tailoring UNITY to Distributed Program Design Michel Charpentier, Mamoun Filali, Philippe Mauran, G. As a general framework, UNITY does not offer any specific facility for the design of distributed systems to help the design of distributed systems in UNITY. 1 Introduction UNITY is intended to be a general

  2. Thermal decay in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems: Fundamentals and influence on system performance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Kwang Ho; Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (

  3. Architecture induced by distributed backstepping design Mihailo R. Jovanovic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jovanovic, Mihailo

    Architecture induced by distributed backstepping design Mihailo R. Jovanovi´c jmihailo architecture induced by distributed backstepping design? We demonstrate that distributed backstepping design be designed. Index Terms-- Systems on Lattices; Distributed Back- stepping Design; Controller Architecture. I

  4. Adjustable Robust Parameter Design with Unknown Distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ihsan Yanikoglu

    2013-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    Mar 27, 2013 ... Adjustable Robust Parameter Design with Unknown Distributions. ihsan Yanikoglu(i.yanikoglu ***at*** uvt.nl) Dick den Hertog(d.denhertog ...

  5. Elevated Temperature Primary Load Design Method Using Pseudo Elastic-Perfectly Plastic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carter, Peter [Stress Engineering Services Inc.] [Stress Engineering Services Inc.; Sham, Sam [ORNL] [ORNL; Jetter, Robert I [Consultant] [Consultant

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new primary load design method for elevated temperature service has been developed. Codification of the procedure in an ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Section III Code Case is being pursued. The proposed primary load design method is intended to provide the same margins on creep rupture, yielding and creep deformation for a component or structure that are implicit in the allowable stress data. It provides a methodology that does not require stress classification and is also applicable to a full range of temperature above and below the creep regime. Use of elastic-perfectly plastic analysis based on allowable stress with corrections for constraint, steady state stress and creep ductility is described. This approach is intended to ensure that traditional primary stresses are the basis for design, taking into account ductility limits to stress re-distribution and multiaxial rupture criteria.

  6. Design and evaluation of a cellular rectifier system with distributed control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, David J.

    This paper presents the design and experimental evaluation of a six-cell 6 kW cellular (parallel) rectifier system which operates at nearly unity power factor. The cellular rectifier system implements both distributed load ...

  7. Composite bridge behavior and load distribution influenced by shakedown and diaphragms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilstrap, Christopher Max

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    and the corresponding distribution factors compared almost identically before and after shakedown. Negative moments and distribution factors for the girder cross- sections near the interior pier regions were only slightly larger (less than 10'%%d) following shakedown...'%%d for one lane of truck loads and 8-10'%%d for more than one lane of truck loads. These trends were less in the positive- moment regions and for multiple-lanes loaded. The distribution factors computed from the experimental and finite...

  8. Abstract--This paper presents the impact of different types of load models in distribution network with distributed wind

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    as a major enabler of the smart grid for the integration of small and medium sized renewable energy based that modeling of loads has a significant impact on the voltage dynamics of the distribution systemAbstract--This paper presents the impact of different types of load models in distribution network

  9. QUANTIFYING THE CONVERGENCE TIME OF DISTRIBUTED DESIGN PROCESSES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Kemper E.

    QUANTIFYING THE CONVERGENCE TIME OF DISTRIBUTED DESIGN PROCESSES Erich Devendorf Research Engineer design processes. In distributed design, large systems are decomposed into smaller, coupled design individual objectives. The number of iterations required to reach equilibrium solutions in distributed design

  10. Construction of an Informative Hierarchical Prior Distribution: Application to Electricity Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    on the wavelet transform to forecast the load curve seen as a functional-valued autoregressive Hilbertian processConstruction of an Informative Hierarchical Prior Distribution: Application to Electricity Load the methodology to a working model for the electricity load forecasting on both simulated and real datasets, where

  11. Micro-grid operation of inverter based distributed generation with voltage and frequency dependent loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeineldin, H. H.

    Distribution systems are experiencing increasing penetration of distributed generation (DG). One attractive option is to use the available DG capacity during utility outages by forming planned micro-grids. Load sharing ...

  12. Detection of Periodic Beacon Loads in Electrical Distribution Substation Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Guttromson, Ross T.; Lu, Ning; Boyd, Paul A.; Trudnowski, Daniel; Chassin, David P.; Bonebrake, Christopher A.; Shaw, James M.

    2006-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This research explores methods for identifying a whether a load is sending a signal to the utility SCADA system. Such a system can identify whether various loads are signialing using existing SCADA infrastructure, that is, without added, high cost communications infrastructure.

  13. Minimized Space Conditioning Distribution Strategy for Low-load Homes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This presentation was given at the Summer 2012 DOE Building America meeting on July 26, 2012, and addressed the question ŤWhat are the best HVAC solutions for low-load, high performance homes?"

  14. Pattern-driven Partitioning in Designing Distributed Object Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simons, Anthony J. H.

    Pattern-driven Partitioning in Designing Distributed Object Applications Widayashanti P. Sardjono of the fundamental challenges in designing distributed object applications (DOAs) is application partitioning, particularly distributable ones, are discovered. This research proposes a technique to help designers

  15. AIAA-2004-0502 A COMPARISON OF WIND TURBINE DESIGN LOADS IN DIFFERENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    in the gross wind environment and in the extreme response given wind conditions to establish nominal designAIAA-2004-0502 1 A COMPARISON OF WIND TURBINE DESIGN LOADS IN DIFFERENT ENVIRONMENTS USING INVERSE, Austin, TX 78712 ABSTRACT* The influence of turbulence conditions on the design loads for wind turbines

  16. Distributed Load Demand Scheduling in Smart Grid to Minimize Electricity Generation Cost

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    Distributed Load Demand Scheduling in Smart Grid to Minimize Electricity Generation Cost Siyu Yue- ple users cooperate to perform load demand scheduling in order to minimize the electricity generation between electricity consumption and generation. On the consumption side, electric demand ramps up

  17. Distributed Internet-based Load Altering Attacks against Smart Power Grids

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    technology in advanced demand side management and given the growth in power consumption in the computation by compromising direct load control command signals, demand side management price signals, or cloud computation distribution system. Keywords: Smart grid security, Internet-based load altering attacks, demand side

  18. Designing and Testing Controls to Mitigate Tower Dynamic Loads in the Controls Advanced Research Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wright, A. D.; Fingersh, L. J.; Stol, K. A.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes NREL's efforts to design, implement, and test advanced controls for maximizing energy extraction and reducing structural dynamic loads in wind turbines.

  19. Development of a methodology to discriminate incipient insulator faults from distribution system load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Christopher Scott

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of incipient insulator faults 4. Determining characteristics most likely to discriminate incipient insulator faults from distribution system load current From this work, the aggregate of the non-harmonic components and the high frequency energy of the leakage...

  20. Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building America Top Innovation Integration of HVAC System Design with Simplified Duct Distribution - Building...

  1. Improved Load Plan Design Through Integer Programming Based ...

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2011-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The fundamental building block in load planning is a direct trailer, or a direct. ... of shipment and trailer dispatching; (2) integrated consideration of the movement ...

  2. Short-Term Load Forecasting Error Distributions and Implications for Renewable Integration Studies: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, B. M.; Lew, D.; Milligan, M.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load forecasting in the day-ahead timescale is a critical aspect of power system operations that is used in the unit commitment process. It is also an important factor in renewable energy integration studies, where the combination of load and wind or solar forecasting techniques create the net load uncertainty that must be managed by the economic dispatch process or with suitable reserves. An understanding of that load forecasting errors that may be expected in this process can lead to better decisions about the amount of reserves necessary to compensate errors. In this work, we performed a statistical analysis of the day-ahead (and two-day-ahead) load forecasting errors observed in two independent system operators for a one-year period. Comparisons were made with the normal distribution commonly assumed in power system operation simulations used for renewable power integration studies. Further analysis identified time periods when the load is more likely to be under- or overforecast.

  3. Minor Actinides Loading Optimization for Proliferation Resistant Fuel Design - BWR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. S. Chang; Hongbin Zhang

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    One approach to address the United States Nuclear Power (NP) 2010 program for the advanced light water reactor (LWR) (Gen-III+) intermediate-term spent fuel disposal need is to reduce spent fuel storage volume while enhancing proliferation resistance. One proposed solution includes increasing burnup of the discharged spent fuel and mixing minor actinide (MA) transuranic nuclides (237Np and 241Am) in the high burnup fuel. Thus, we can reduce the spent fuel volume while increasing the proliferation resistance by increasing the isotopic ratio of 238Pu/Pu. For future advanced nuclear systems, MAs are viewed more as a resource to be recycled, and transmuted to less hazardous and possibly more useful forms, rather than simply disposed of as a waste stream in an expensive repository facility. MAs play a much larger part in the design of advanced systems and fuel cycles, not only as additional sources of useful energy, but also as direct contributors to the reactivity control of the systems into which they are incorporated. A typical boiling water reactor (BWR) fuel unit lattice cell model with UO2 fuel pins will be used to investigate the effectiveness of adding MAs (237Np and/or 241Am) to enhance proliferation resistance and improve fuel cycle performance for the intermediate-term goal of future nuclear energy systems. However, adding MAs will increase plutonium production in the discharged spent fuel. In this work, the Monte-Carlo coupling with ORIGEN-2.2 (MCWO) method was used to optimize the MA loading in the UO2 fuel such that the discharged spent fuel demonstrates enhanced proliferation resistance, while minimizing plutonium production. The axial averaged MA transmutation characteristics at different burnup were compared and their impact on neutronics criticality and the ratio of 238Pu/Pu discussed.

  4. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Franconi, E.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Substantial commercial building energy savings have been achieved by improving the performance of the HV AC distribution system. The energy savings result from distribution system design improvements, advanced control capabilities, and use of variable-speed motors. Yet, much of the commercial building stock remains equipped with inefficient systems. Contributing to this is the absence of a definition for distribution system efficiency as well as the analysis methods for quantifying performance. This research investigates the application of performance indices to assess design advancements in commercial building thermal distribution systems. The index definitions are based on a first and second law of thermodynamics analysis of the system. The second law or availability analysis enables the determination of the true efficiency of the system. Availability analysis is a convenient way to make system efficiency comparisons since performance is evaluated relative to an ideal process. A TRNSYS simulation model is developed to analyze the performance of two distribution system types, a constant air volume system and a variable air volume system, that serve one floor of a large office building. Performance indices are calculated using the simulation results to compare the performance of the two systems types in several locations. Changes in index values are compared to changes in plant energy, costs, and carbon emissions to explore the ability of the indices to estimate these quantities.

  5. An Overview of the Design of Distributed Oz Seif Haridi

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haridi, Seif

    An Overview of the Design of Distributed Oz Seif Haridi Swedish Institute of Computer Science (SICS a design for a distributed programming sys­ tem, Distributed Oz, that abstracts away the network to be comparable to centralized (i.e., non­distributed) program­ ming. We propose to achieve this by designing

  6. Long-Term Probability Distribution of Wind Turbine Planetary Bearing Loads (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Z.; Xing, Y.; Guo, Y.; Dong, W.; Moan, T.; Gao, Z.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Among the various causes of bearing damage and failure, metal fatigue of the rolling contact surface is the dominant failure mechanism. The fatigue life is associated with the load conditions under which wind turbines operate in the field. Therefore, it is important to understand the long-term distribution of the bearing loads under various environmental conditions. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's 750-kW Gearbox Reliability Collaborative wind turbine is studied in this work. A decoupled analysis using several computer codes is carried out. The global aero-elastic simulations are performed using HAWC2. The time series of the drivetrain loads and motions from the global dynamic analysis are fed to a drivetrain model in SIMPACK. The time-varying internal pressure distribution along the raceway is obtained analytically. A series of probability distribution functions are then used to fit the long-term statistical distribution at different locations along raceways. The long-term distribution of the bearing raceway loads are estimated under different environmental conditions. Finally, the bearing fatigue lives are calculated.

  7. Design of a quasi-passive parallel leg exoskeleton to augment load carrying for walking

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valiente, Andrew (Andrew J.)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Biomechanical experiments suggest that it may be possible to build a leg exoskeleton to reduce the metabolic cost of walking while carrying a load. A quasi-passive, leg exoskeleton is presented that is designed to assist ...

  8. Field tests and new design procedure for laterally loaded drilled shafts in clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierschwale, Mark W.

    1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FIELD TESTS AND NEW DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR LATERALLY LOADED DRILLED SHAFTS IN CLAY A Thesis by l1ARK WILLIAM BIERSCHWALE Submitted to ihe Graduate College Texas A8M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE December 1980 Major Subject: Civil Engineering FIELD TESTS AND NEW DESIGN PROCEDURE FOR LATERALLY LOADED DRILLED SHAFTS IN CLAY A Thesis by NARK WILLIAM BIERSCHWALE Approved as to style and content by: Harry M. Coyle - Chairman...

  9. Design and Simulation of a Boron-loaded Neutron Spectrometer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martin, Thomas

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The measurement of the distribution of kinetic energy carried by neutron particles is of interest to the health physics and radiation protection industry. Neutron particle spectral fluence is essential to the calculation of absorbed dose, equivalent...

  10. Carbon-aware Load Balancing for Geo-distributed Cloud Services

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lui, John C.S.

    Carbon-aware Load Balancing for Geo-distributed Cloud Services Zhi Zhou1 Fangming Liu1 Yong Xu1 Chinese University of Hong Kong. Abstract--Recently, datacenter carbon emission has become an emerging of the electricity carbon footprint can be fully exploited to further green the cloud running on top

  11. A differentiable dynamic network loading model that yields queue length distributions and accounts for spillback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bierlaire, Michel

    A differentiable dynamic network loading model that yields queue length distributions and accounts, this is so because the kinematic wave model (KWM), the mainstay of traffic flow theory, only applies for spillback Carolina Osorio Gunnar Fl¨otter¨od Michel Bierlaire Abstract We derive a dynamic network

  12. Wind load design methods for ground-based heliostats and parabolic dish collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterka, J.A.; Derickson, R.G. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Fluid Dynamics and Diffusion Lab.

    1992-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this design method is to define wind loads on flat heliostat and parabolic dish collectors in a simplified form. Wind loads are defined for both mean and peak loads accounting for the protective influence of upwind collectors, wind protective fences, or other wind-blockage elements. The method used to define wind loads was to generalize wind load data obtained during tests on model collectors, heliostats or parabolic dishes, placed in a modeled atmospheric wind in a boundary-layer wind-tunnel at Colorado State University. For both heliostats and parabolic dishes, loads are reported for solitary collectors and for collectors as elements of a field. All collectors were solid with negligible porosity; thus the effects of porosity in the collectors is not addressed.

  13. Dynamic load test of Arquin-designed CMU wall.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Richard Pearson

    2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arquin Corporation has developed a new method of constructing CMU (concrete masonry unit) walls. This new method uses polymer spacers connected to steel wires that serve as reinforcing as well as a means of accurately placing the spacers so that the concrete block can be dry stacked. The hollows of the concrete block are then filled with grout. As part of a New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBA), Sandia National Laboratories conducted a series of tests that dynamically loaded wall segments to compare the performance of walls constructed using the Arquin method to a more traditional method of constructing CMU walls. A total of four walls were built, two with traditional methods and two with the Arquin method. Two of the walls, one traditional and one Arquin, had every third cell filled with grout. The remaining two walls, one traditional and one Arquin, had every cell filled with grout. The walls were dynamically loaded with explosive forces. No significant difference was noted between the performance of the walls constructed by the Arquin method when compared to the walls constructed by the traditional method.

  14. Static load test of Arquin-designed CMU wall.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Richard Pearson; Cherry, Jeffery L.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arquin Corporation has developed a new method of constructing CMU (concrete masonry unit) walls. This new method uses polymer spacers connected to steel wires that serve as reinforcing as well as means of accurately placing the spacers so that the concrete block can be dry stacked. The hollows of the concrete block used in constructing the wall are then filled with grout. As part of a New Mexico Small Business Assistance Program (NMSBAP), Sandia National Laboratories conducted a series of tests that statically loaded wall segments to compare the Arquin method to a more traditional method of constructing CMU walls. A total of 12 tests were conducted, three with the Arquin method using a W5 reinforcing wire, three with the traditional method of construction using a number 3 rebar as reinforcing, three with the Arquin method using a W2 reinforcing wire, and three with the traditional construction method but without rebar. The results of the tests showed that the walls constructed with the Arquin method and with a W5 reinforcing wire withstood more load than any of the other three types of walls that were tested.

  15. Cost Modeling and Design Techniques for Integrated Package Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smilowitz, Karen

    Cost Modeling and Design Techniques for Integrated Package Distribution Systems Karen R. Smilowitz and Carlos F. Daganzo December 23, 2005 Abstract Complex package distribution systems are designed using-scale integrated distribution networks. While the network design problem is quite complex, we demonstrate

  16. On Codebook Design for Distributed Relay Beamforming Network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dong, Min

    On Codebook Design for Distributed Relay Beamforming Network Min Zheng and Min Dong Department-antenna beamforming in point-to-point systems [1]­[3], the quantization design for distributed relay beamforming has design for quantized distributed relay beamforming. Each relay in the network has its individual power

  17. Designing Directories in Distributed Systems: A Systematic Framework

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Designing Directories in Distributed Systems: A Systematic Framework K. Mani Chandy and Eve M of directory­based distributed applications. We evaluate a space of directory designs using our frame­ work. We distributed applications, including directory design. We propose a weaker con­ cept: estimation. We define

  18. A framework for distributed Web-based microsystem design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Saha, Debashis, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The increasing complexity of microsystem design mandates a distributed and collaborative design environment. The high integration levels call for tools and generators that allow exploration of the design space irrespective ...

  19. Linkage design effect on the reliability of surface micromachined microengines driving a load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanner, D.M.; Peterson, K.A.; Irwin, L.W.; Tangyunyong, P.; Miller, W.M.; Eaton, W.P.; Smith, N.F.; Rodgers, M.S.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The reliability of microengines is a function of the design of the mechanical linkage used to connect the electrostatic actuator to the drive. The authors have completed a series of reliability stress tests on surface micromachined microengines driving an inertial load. In these experiments, the authors used microengines that had pin mechanisms with guides connecting the drive arms to the electrostatic actuators. Comparing this data to previous results using flexure linkages revealed that the pin linkage design was less reliable. The devices were stressed to failure at eight frequencies, both above and below the measured resonance frequency of the microengine. Significant amounts of wear debris were observed both around the hub and pin joint of the drive gear. Additionally, wear tracks were observed in the area where the moving shuttle rubbed against the guides of the pin linkage. At each frequency, they analyzed the statistical data yielding a lifetime (t{sub 50}) for median cycles to failure and {sigma}, the shape parameter of the distribution. A model was developed to describe the failure data based on fundamental wear mechanisms and forces exhibited in mechanical resonant systems. The comparison to the model will be discussed.

  20. Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Franconi, E.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Gabel and Andresen, HVAC Secondary Toolkil. Atlanta: ASHRAE,P_02 Measuring Advances in HVAC Distribution System Designdesign and operation of the HVAC thermal distribution system

  1. Nonlinear DSTATCOM controller design for distribution network with distributed generation to enhance voltage stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Nonlinear DSTATCOM controller design for distribution network with distributed generation Accepted 19 June 2013 Keywords: Distributed generation Distribution network DSATACOM Partial feedback linearization Voltage control a b s t r a c t This paper presents a nonlinear controller design for a DSTATCOM

  2. Algorithms for Selfish Agents Mechanism Design for Distributed Computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    Algorithms for Selfish Agents Mechanism Design for Distributed Computation Noam Nisan \\Lambda mechanism design in our distributed computation setting. We do not intend here to give a balanced Abstract This paper considers algorithmic problems in a distributed setting where the participants cannot

  3. Design of Dissimilarity Measures: a New Dissimilarity between Species Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guillas, Serge

    Design of Dissimilarity Measures: a New Dissimilarity between Species Distribution Areas Christian, 20146 Hamburg, Germany Abstract. We give some guidelines for the choice and design of dissimilarity mea distribution areas in biogeography. Species distribution data can be digitized as presences and absences

  4. State Control Design for Linear Systems with Distributed Time Delays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    State Control Design for Linear Systems with Distributed Time Delays Daniel Gontkovic and RĂłbert with distributed time delays. Using an extended form of the Lyapunov- Krasovskii functional the controller design involving distributed time delays is a problem of large practical interest where intensive activity are done

  5. Cost Modeling and Design Techniques for Integrated Package Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daganzo, Carlos F.

    Cost Modeling and Design Techniques for Integrated Package Distribution Systems Karen R. Smilowitz and Carlos F. Daganzo June 27, 2002 Abstract Complex package distribution systems are designed using idealizations of network geometries, operating costs, demand and customer distributions, and routing patterns

  6. A multiobjective, multidisciplinary design optimization methodology for the conceptual design of distributed satellite systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jilla, Cyrus D., 1974-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A multiobjective, multidisciplinary design optimization methodology for mathematically modeling the distributed satellite system (DSS) conceptual design problem as an optimization problem has been developed to advance the ...

  7. Sharing tacit design knowledge in a distributed design environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, Jeong-Han

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Throughout the life-cycle of a design project, architects rely heavily on their tacit design knowledge to support design decisions. Tacit knowledge is highly personal and implicit. As such, it encompasses expertise, intuitive understanding...

  8. System level design of power distribution network for mobile computing platforms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shayan Arani, Amirali

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regulator based Power Distribution Design under WorstRegulator based Power Distribution Design under WorstRegulator based Power Distribution Design under Worst

  9. INFLUENCE OF DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:to design and operate underfloor air distribution (UFAD)DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (

  10. The urban design of distributed energy resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sheehan, Travis (Travis P.)

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources (DERs) are a considerable research focus for cities to reach emissions reduction goals and meet growing energy demand. DERs, consisting of local power plants and distribution infrastructure, ...

  11. Key factors affecting voltage oscillations of distribution networks with distributed generation and induction motor loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    of distributed energy sources such as, combined heat and power (CHP), wind, solar, and fuel cells, are expected and IT, The University of New South Wales, Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia b Future Grid Research Centre, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia c Griffith School of Engineering, Griffith University

  12. Design and implementation of a multiaxial loading capability during heating on an engineering neutron diffractometer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benafan, O., E-mail: othmane.benafan@nasa.gov [NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States); Padula, S. A. [NASA Glenn Research Center, Structures and Materials Division, Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Skorpenske, H. D.; An, K. [Spallation Neutron Source, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Vaidyanathan, R. [Advanced Materials Processing and Analysis Center, Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A gripping capability was designed, implemented, and tested for in situ neutron diffraction measurements during multiaxial loading and heating on the VULCAN engineering materials diffractometer at the spallation neutron source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The proposed capability allowed for the acquisition of neutron spectra during tension, compression, torsion, and/or complex loading paths at elevated temperatures. The design consisted of age-hardened, Inconel{sup ®} 718 grips with direct attachment to the existing MTS load frame having axial and torsional capacities of 100 kN and 400 N·m, respectively. Internal cooling passages were incorporated into the gripping system for fast cooling rates during high temperature experiments up to ?1000 K. The specimen mounting couplers combined a threaded and hexed end-connection for ease of sample installation/removal without introducing any unwanted loads. Instrumentation of this capability is documented in this work along with various performance parameters. The gripping system was utilized to investigate deformation in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes (e.g., isothermal, isobaric, and cyclic), and preliminary results are presented. The measurements facilitated the quantification of the texture, internal strain, and phase fraction evolution in NiTi shape memory alloys under various loading/control modes.

  13. An integrated optimal design method for utility power distribution systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fehr, Ralph E

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This dissertation presents a comprehensive and integrated design methodology to optimize both the electrical and the economic performance of a utility power distribution system. The… (more)

  14. Causality and sensitivity analysis in distributed design simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Jaehyun, 1970-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerous collaborative design frameworks have been developed to accelerate the product development, and recently environments for building distributed simulations have been proposed. For example, a simulation framework ...

  15. Finite element analysis of the Arquin-designed CMU wall under a dynamic (blast) load.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Carlos; Petti, Jason P.

    2008-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Arquin Corporation designed a CMU (concrete masonry unit) wall construction and reinforcement technique that includes steel wire and polymer spacers that is intended to facilitate a faster and stronger wall construction. Since the construction method for an Arquin-designed wall is different from current wall construction practices, finite element computer analyses were performed to estimate the ability of the wall to withstand a hypothetical dynamic load, similar to that of a blast from a nearby explosion. The response of the Arquin wall was compared to the response of an idealized standard masonry wall exposed to the same dynamic load. Results from the simulations show that the Arquin wall deformed less than the idealized standard wall under such loading conditions. As part of a different effort, Sandia National Laboratories also looked at the relative static response of the Arquin wall, results that are summarized in a separate SAND Report.

  16. Steady-sate and load-follow characteristics of various BWR fuel designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takei, K.; Kogai, T.; Matsumoto, T.; Umehara, H.; Uchida, M.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the results of an irradiation study carried out in the Halden boiling water reactor (HBWR). The objective of this irradiation was to clarify the performance of various BWR fuel designs - helium prepressurization (0.3 MPa), pellet shape modification (annular and short-length annular) and barrier cladding (copper and zirconium) - under steady-state and load-follow operations.

  17. Nuclear Engineering and Design 189 (1999) 757 Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuen, Walter W.

    Nuclear Engineering and Design 189 (1999) 7­57 Lower head integrity under steam explosion loads T Engineering, Building 208, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 South Cass A6enue, Argonne, IL 60439, USA Received 24 August 1998; accepted 24 November 1998 Abstract Lower head integrity under steam explosion

  18. A Computational Method for Determining Distributed Aerodynamic Loads on Planforms of Arbitrary Shape in Compressible Subsonic Flow

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, Matthew Alan

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods presented in this work are intended to provided an easy to understand and easy to apply method for determining the distributed aerodynamic loads and aerodynamic characteristics of planforms of nearly arbitrary shape. Through application...

  19. Designing pricing strategies for coordination of networked distributed energy resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liberzon, Daniel

    Designing pricing strategies for coordination of networked distributed energy resources Bahman, by a group of distributed energy resources (DERs). The aggregator interacts with the wholesale electricity. The objective is for the aggregator to design a pricing strategy for incentivizing DERs to modify their active

  20. DESIGNING AN ECOLOGY OF DISTRIBUTED AGENTS Nelson Minar

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGNING AN ECOLOGY OF DISTRIBUTED AGENTS by Nelson Minar B.A. Mathematics (1994) Reed College, Departmental Committee on Graduate Students Program in Media Arts and Sciences #12; #12; DESIGNING AN ECOLOGY is an organizing principle for documents. This thesis introduces the idea of an ecology of distributed agents

  1. A model of stress distribution in soft tissue under non-uniform loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cunningham, Thomas Roy

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    30 0 1 + v r 3r 72o + ' = 0 + 'V 32' ('18) 1 1 32G O' T ? T + 0 rz 2 rz 1 + u 3r3z r (19) where S is the hulk stress and is defined as: B=o+o+c r 0 z (20) These equations assume relatively small displacements, homogeneity, and Hooke's law...A MODEL OF STRESS DISTRIBUTION IN SOFT TISSUE UNDER NON-UNIFORM LOADING A Thesis by THOMAS ROY CUNNINGHAM Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A 8 M University ir partiai fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  2. Collaborative Engine for Distributed Mechanical Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ni, Qianfu

    Effective collaboration is essential for engineers at geographically dispersed locations to accomplish good design with less iteration. Over the last several years, more and more efforts have been put into such research ...

  3. Load distribution effects and repair procedures for existing skewed plate girder bridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crozier, Allen R

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    and intermittently along the span. " The investigations of the requirements for these members must include: 1) Transfer of lateral wind loads from the bottom flange of the girder to the deck and from the deck to the bearings. 2) Stability of the bottom flange... flange stresses due to the skew angle counteracts the increase that would result from the complete removal of diaphragms from the bridge. Thus, diaphragm removal would only bring the stress levels in the girders back to the design stress levels...

  4. On Assessing the Accuracy of Offshore Wind Turbine Reliability-Based Design Loads from the Environmental Contour Method

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    On Assessing the Accuracy of Offshore Wind Turbine Reliability-Based Design Loads from to derive design loads for an active stall-regulated offshore wind turbine. Two different Danish offshore contour method; wind turbine; offshore; reliability. INTRODUCTION Inverse reliability techniques

  5. RTDS-Based Design and Simulation of Distributed P-Q Power Resources in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taylor, Zachariah David

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Smart Grid on distribution system design," in Proc. of thestorage system design for distribution network," in Proc. ofdesign can noticeably improve the operational performance of the power distribution

  6. Distributed Multi-robot Work Load Partition In Manufacturing Girma S Tewolde, Changhua Wu, Yu Wang, Weihua Sheng

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    manufacturing and industrial scenarios, mobile robots are used to service a large number of points of interestDistributed Multi-robot Work Load Partition In Manufacturing Automation Girma S Tewolde, Changhua multiple mobile robots for servicing large numbers of points of interest in a distributed fashion

  7. DESIGNING AN ECOLOGY OF DISTRIBUTED AGENTS Master's Thesis Proposal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGNING AN ECOLOGY OF DISTRIBUTED AGENTS Master's Thesis Proposal November 5, 1997 Revised Lab #12; #12; Contents 1 Introduction 1 1.1 Ecologies of Programs of Computational Ecologies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 1.5 Summary of Expected Contributions

  8. Using ductwork to improve supply plenum temperature distribution in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasut, Wilmer

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    overhead air distribution design(1). 1.3 Thermal comfortS. Under Floor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. s.l. :load design tool for underfloor air distribution systems.

  9. Evenly distributed unitaries: on the structure of unitary designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Gross; K. Audenaert; J. Eisert

    2007-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    We clarify the mathematical structure underlying unitary $t$-designs. These are sets of unitary matrices, evenly distributed in the sense that the average of any $t$-th order polynomial over the design equals the average over the entire unitary group. We present a simple necessary and sufficient criterion for deciding if a set of matrices constitutes a design. Lower bounds for the number of elements of 2-designs are derived. We show how to turn mutually unbiased bases into approximate 2-designs whose cardinality is optimal in leading order. Designs of higher order are discussed and an example of a unitary 5-design is presented. We comment on the relation between unitary and spherical designs and outline methods for finding designs numerically or by searching character tables of finite groups. Further, we sketch connections to problems in linear optics and questions regarding typical entanglement.

  10. Demonstrating Structural Adequacy of Nuclear Power Plant Containment Structures for Beyond Design-Basis Pressure Loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braverman, J.I.; Morante, R.

    2010-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

    ABSTRACT Demonstrating the structural integrity of U.S. nuclear power plant (NPP) containment structures, for beyond design-basis internal pressure loadings, is necessary to satisfy Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) requirements and performance goals. This paper discusses methods for demonstrating the structural adequacy of the containment for beyond design-basis pressure loadings. Three distinct evaluations are addressed: (1) estimating the ultimate pressure capacity of the containment structure (10 CFR 50 and US NRC Standard Review Plan, Section 3.8) ; (2) demonstrating the structural adequacy of the containment subjected to pressure loadings associated with combustible gas generation (10 CFR 52 and 10 CFR 50); and (3) demonstrating the containment structural integrity for severe accidents (10 CFR 52 as well as SECY 90-016, SECY 93-087, and related NRC staff requirements memoranda (SRMs)). The paper describes the technical basis for specific aspects of the methods presented. It also presents examples of past issues identified in licensing activities related to these evaluations.

  11. Configuration Distribution and Designs of Codes in the Johnson Scheme

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Etzion, Tuvi

    Configuration Distribution and Designs of Codes in the Johnson Scheme Tuvi Etzion Technion between perfect codes in the Johnson scheme and designs, and provide new tools for proving Delsarte conjecture that there are no nontrivial perfect codes in the Johnson scheme. Three topics will be considered

  12. Current scaling of axially radiated power in dynamic hohlraums and dynamic hohlraum load design for ZR.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mock, Raymond Cecil; Nash, Thomas J.; Sanford, Thomas W. L.

    2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present designs for dynamic hohlraum z-pinch loads on the 28 MA, 140 ns driver ZR. The scaling of axially radiated power with current in dynamic hohlraums is reviewed. With adequate stability on ZR this scaling indicates that 30 TW of axially radiated power should be possible. The performance of the dynamic hohlraum load on the 20 MA, 100 ns driver Z is extensively reviewed. The baseline z-pinch load on Z is a nested tungsten wire array imploding onto on-axis foam. Data from a variety of x-ray diagnostics fielded on Z are presented. These diagnostics include x-ray diodes, bolometers, fast x-ray imaging cameras, and crystal spectrometers. Analysis of these data indicates that the peak dynamic radiation temperature on Z is between 250 and 300 eV from a diameter less than 1 mm. Radiation from the dynamic hohlraum itself or from a radiatively driven pellet within the dynamic hohlraum has been used to probe a variety of matter associated with the dynamic hohlraum: the tungsten z-pinch itself, tungsten sliding across the end-on apertures, a titanium foil over the end aperture, and a silicon aerogel end cap. Data showing the existence of asymmetry in radiation emanating from the two ends of the dynamic hohlraum is presented, along with data showing load configurations that mitigate this asymmetry. 1D simulations of the dynamic hohlraum implosion are presented and compared to experimental data. The simulations provide insight into the dynamic hohlraum behavior but are not necessarily a reliable design tool because of the inherently 3D behavior of the imploding nested tungsten wire arrays.

  13. Influence of raised floor on zone design cooling load in commercial buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    office”. The equipment loads follow the schedules of theload is 10.8 W/m 2 and it follows the load shown in Table 3.interior zone follows the internal heat load, i.e. people

  14. System level design of power distribution network for mobile computing platforms.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shayan Arani, Amirali

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Providing a reliable power distribution network (PDN) is a critical design challenge for mobile system on chip platforms. A well-designed power distribution network should be… (more)

  15. Method for operating a nuclear reactor to accommodate load follow while maintaining a substantially constant axial power distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mueller, N.P.; Rossi, C.E.; Scherpereel, L.R.

    1980-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention provides a method of operating a nuclear reactor having a negative reactivity moderator temperature coefficient with the object of maintaining a uniform and symmetric xenon distribution above and below substantially the center of the core over a substantial axial length of the core during normal reactor operation including load follow. In one embodiment variations in the xenon distribution are controlled by maintaining a substantially symmetric axial power distribution. The axial offset, which is employed as an indication of the axial power distribution, is maintained substantially equal to a target value , which is modified periodically to account for core burnup. A neutron absorbing element within the core coolant, or moderator, is employed to assist control of reactivity changes associated with changes in power, with the full-length control rods mainly employed to adjust variations in the axial power distribution while the part-length rodsremain completely withdrawn from the fuel region of the core. Rapid changes in reactivity are implemented, to accommodate corresponding changes in load, by a controlled reduction of the core coolant temperature. Thus, active core coolant temperature control is employed to control the reactivity of the core during load follow operation and effectively increase the spinning reserve capability of a power plant without altering the axial power distribution.

  16. Application of Distribution Transformer Thermal Life Models to Electrified Vehicle Charging Loads Using Monte-Carlo Method: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuss, M.; Markel, T.; Kramer, W.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrated purchasing patterns of plug-in vehicles may result in localized distribution transformer overload scenarios. Prolonged periods of transformer overloading causes service life decrements, and in worst-case scenarios, results in tripped thermal relays and residential service outages. This analysis will review distribution transformer load models developed in the IEC 60076 standard, and apply the model to a neighborhood with plug-in hybrids. Residential distribution transformers are sized such that night-time cooling provides thermal recovery from heavy load conditions during the daytime utility peak. It is expected that PHEVs will primarily be charged at night in a residential setting. If not managed properly, some distribution transformers could become overloaded, leading to a reduction in transformer life expectancy, thus increasing costs to utilities and consumers. A Monte-Carlo scheme simulated each day of the year, evaluating 100 load scenarios as it swept through the following variables: number of vehicle per transformer, transformer size, and charging rate. A general method for determining expected transformer aging rate will be developed, based on the energy needs of plug-in vehicles loading a residential transformer.

  17. Arching in Distribution of Active Load on Retaining Walls Srinivasa S. Nadukuru, S.M.ASCE1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michalowski, Radoslaw L.

    of Civil Engineers. CE Database subject headings: Arches; Retaining structures; Load distribution have a two- century history, but with no significant modifications these meth- ods are widely used the plastic state is assumed within the wedge). The outcome of the Coulomb solution is typically represented

  18. Simplified design and evaluation of liquid storage tanks relative to earthquake loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poole, A.B.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A summary of earthquake-induced damage in liquid storage tanks is provided. The general analysis steps for dynamic response of fluid-filled tanks subject to horizontal ground excitation are discussed. This work will provide major attention to the understanding of observed tank-failure modes. These modes are quite diverse in nature, but many of the commonly appearing patterns are believed to be shell buckling. A generalized and simple-to-apply shell loading will be developed using Fluegge shell theory. The input to this simplified analysis will be horizontal ground acceleration and tank shell form parameters. A dimensionless parameter will be developed and used in predictions of buckling resulting from earthquake-imposed loads. This prediction method will be applied to various tank designs that have failed during major earthquakes and during shaker table tests. Tanks that have not failed will also be reviewed. A simplified approach will be discussed for early design and evaluation of tank shell parameters and materials to provide a high confidence of low probability of failure during earthquakes.

  19. Design of an Experimental Facility for the Validation of Cooling Load Calculation Procedures.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eldridge, David Stewart

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Two test cells were constructed to validate the ASHRAE cooling load calculation procedures developed under RP-875 and codified in the ASHRAE Loads Toolkit (RP987). The… (more)

  20. Goh et al. Reply: We introduced in a recent Letter [1] the load distribution following a power law on scale-free (SF)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Doochul

    Goh et al. Reply: We introduced in a recent Letter [1] the load distribution following a power law on scale-free (SF) networks. In addition, it was conjectured that the load exponent is universal as long. In this Reply, we notice that the discrepancy is mainly caused by different usages of definition of load in [1

  1. Goh et al. Reply: We introduced in a recent Letter [1] the load distribution following a power law on scalefree (SF) net

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kahng, Byungnam

    Goh et al. Reply: We introduced in a recent Letter [1] the load distribution following a power law on scale­free (SF) net­ works. In addition, it was conjectured that the load exponent d is universal. In this reply, we notice that the discrepancy is mainly caused by different usages of definition of load in [1

  2. Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

  3. Resilience-Based Design of Natural Gas Distribution Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bruneau, Michel

    Case Study Resilience-Based Design of Natural Gas Distribution Networks G. P. Cimellaro, Ph.D., A response to natural disasters. In this paper, a new performance index measuring the functionality of a gas; Disaster resilience; Vulnerability; Gas networks; Damage assessment; Lifelines; Serviceability; Natural gas

  4. Distributing many points on spheres: minimal energy and designs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johann S. Brauchart; Peter J. Grabner

    2014-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

    This survey discusses recent developments in the context of spherical designs and minimal energy point configurations on spheres. The recent solution of the long standing problem of the existence of spherical $t$-designs on $\\mathbb{S}^d$ with $\\mathcal{O}(t^d)$ number of points by A. Bondarenko, D. Radchenko, and M. Viazovska attracted new interest to this subject. Secondly, D. P. Hardin and E. B. Saff proved that point sets minimising the discrete Riesz energy on $\\mathbb{S}^d$ in the hypersingular case are asymptotically uniformly distributed. Both results are of great relevance to the problem of describing the quality of point distributions on $\\mathbb{S}^d$, as well as finding point sets, which exhibit good distribution behaviour with respect to various quality measures.

  5. Tackling the Photovoltaic Integration Challenge in the Distribution Network with Deferrable Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    to jointly shave the peak load and reduce the reverse energy flow. We formulate the energy consumption on demand side management (DSM) [5]­[7] focus on reducing the peak load. Peak shaving reduces the energy]­[7] can be adopted to tackle other problems besides peak shaving, such as the PV integration challenge

  6. Wind load comparison for the ASCE standard 7 and the Hanford site design criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giller, R.A., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This document provides calculations and discussions to compare Hanford Site wind load criteria with the current national standard for wind loads (ASCE 7, 1995). Site criteria uses the 1988 edition ASCE 7.

  7. 552 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE T~EOR~ AND TECHNIQUES, VOL MT'J-35, NO 6, JUNE 1987 Field Theory Design of Ferrite-Loaded

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bornemann, Jens

    Design of Ferrite-Loaded Waveguide Nonreciprocal Phase Shifters with Multisection Ferrite or Dielectric Abstract -- Impedance-matched ferrite-loaded waveguide nonreciprocal phase shifters are designed using t discontinuities. Computer-optimized Ku -band ferrite stepped design examples, of 45° and 90° nonreciprocal

  8. A Computational Market Model for Distributed Configuration Design Michael P. Wellman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellman, Michael P.

    of distributed configuration design problems. Given a design problem, the model defines a computational economy viewpoint for analyzing distributed design problems. #12;This page intentionally blank #12. Computational support for distributed design collaboration presents a variety of new challenges (Cutkosky et al

  9. Introducing Flexible Quantity Contracts into Distributed SoC and Embedded System Design Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Introducing Flexible Quantity Contracts into Distributed SoC and Embedded System Design Processes and flexible contracts regulate cooperation and cost distribution. The process ef- fectively delays the design a distributed design process. Today we already find dis- tributed design processes in automotive engineering

  10. Building Design Services in a Distributed Service Architecture Charles S. Han1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Stanford University

    Building Design Services in a Distributed Service Architecture Charles S. Han1 , John C. Kunz2 design services over the Internet. The benefits of the framework for distributed design services are at least twofold. First, the framework provides a means to distribute design services in a modular

  11. Distributed control for reconfigurable FPGA systems: a high-level design approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Distributed control for reconfigurable FPGA systems: a high-level design approach Chiraz Trabelsi to increase design productivity. This approach combines control distribution and high-level modeling in order to decrease design complexity and enhance design reuse and scalability. Control distribution is based

  12. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating2011 Abstract A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributedprovided for a steam Rankine cycle heat engine achieving 50%

  13. Field Trial of a Low-Cost, Distributed Plug Load Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Auchter, B.; Cautley, D.; Ahl, D.; Earle, L.; Jin, X.

    2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers have struggled to inventory and characterize the energy use profiles of the ever-growing category of so-called miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) because plug-load monitoring is cost-prohibitive to the researcher and intrusive to the homeowner. However, these data represent a crucial missing link to our understanding of how homes use energy, and we cannot control what we do not understand. Detailed energy use profiles would enable the nascent automated home energy management (AHEM) industry to develop effective control algorithms that target consumer electronics and other plug loads. If utility and other efficiency programs are to incent AHEM devices, they need large-scale datasets that provide statistically meaningful justification of their investments by quantifying the aggregate energy savings achievable. To address this need, we have investigated a variety of plug-load measuring devices available commercially and tested them in the laboratory to identify the most promising candidates for field applications. The scope of this report centers around the lessons learned from a field validation of one proof-of-concept system, called Smartenit (formerly SimpleHomeNet). The system was evaluated based on the rate of successful data queries, reliability over a period of days to weeks, and accuracy. This system offers good overall performance when deployed with up to ten end nodes in a residential environment, although deployment with more nodes and in a commercial environment is much less robust. We conclude that the current system is useful in selected field research projects, with the recommendation that system behavior is observed over time.

  14. Finite element analysis and design of large diameter flexible vertical pipes subjected to incremental compacted backfill loads and creep effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hossain, Mohammad Kabir

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS AND DESiGN OF LARGE DIANETER FLEXIBLE VERTICAL PIPES SUBJECTED TO INCREMENTAL COMPACTED BACKFILL LOADS AND CREEP EFFECTS A Thesis by MOHAMMAD KABIR HOSSAIN Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A... BACKFILL LOADS AND CREEP EFFECTS A Thesis by MOHAMMAD KABIR HOSSAIN Approved as to sty1e and content by: R be+r L. Lytton (Chair of Committee) Ozden 0. Ochoa (Member) Derek V. Morris (Member) ames T P Yao (Head of rtment) ABSTRACT Finite...

  15. Voltage control of emerging distribution systems with induction motor loads using robust LQG approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    , electricity is mainly produced by large generation plants, generally located near the primary energy sources has significant performance to improve the voltage profile of the distributed generation system & Sons, Ltd. key words: distributed generation; eigenvalue; H1 norm; induction motor; linear quadratic

  16. A Design-for-Change Approach: Developing Distributed Applications from Enterprise Models

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pires, LuĂ­s Ferreira

    A Design-for-Change Approach: Developing Distributed Applications from Enterprise Models Remco M, The Netherlands Abstract This paper presents a novel approach to distributed applications design. The proposed and Application Designs We have used the Reference Model for Open Distributed Processing (RM-ODP) [9, 10, 11, 12

  17. Distributed XML Repositories: Top-down Design and Transparent Query Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gertz, Michael

    Distributed XML Repositories: Top-down Design and Transparent Query Processing Michael Gertz Jan over the Web. However, design and query processing models for distributed XML data have not yet been studied in detail. The goal of this paper is to study the design and management of distributed XML

  18. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Development of a Distributed Design Toolkit for Analyzing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lewis, Kemper E.

    American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics 1 Development of a Distributed Design Toolkit - SUNY, Buffalo, NY, 14260 The distribution of a complex system design problem into smaller, coupled a toolkit that enables the modeling and analysis of distributed design process architectures using basic

  19. Interaction systems design and the protocol-and middleware-centred paradigms in distributed application development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Sinderen, Marten

    Interaction systems design and the protocol- and middleware-centred paradigms in distributed the benefits and importance of interaction systems design in the development of distributed applications. We in the development of distributed applications. Typical design methods based on the re-use of middleware platforms

  20. DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A SAMPLER FOR MEASURING THE NEAR-BOTTOM VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGN AND EVALUATION OF A SAMPLER FOR MEASURING THE NEAR-BOTTOM VERTICAL DISTRIBUTION OF PINK distribution of shrimp was considered essential to the design of an effective shrimp trawl since the vertical. Subsequently a multipurpose shrimp sampler was designed to facilitate investigation of shrimp distributions

  1. Physical Design for Reduced Delay Uncertainty in High Performance Clock Distribution Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    531 Physical Design for Reduced Delay Uncertainty in High Performance Clock Distribution Networks, the design of a clock distribution network represents one of the most challenging tasks in the integrated in the design of a high performance clock distribution network [1]. The uncertainty of the clock signal delay

  2. The Quasi-Distributed Gap Technique for Planar Inductors-Design Guidelines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Quasi-Distributed Gap Technique for Planar Inductors-Design Guidelines Jiankun Hu C. R The Quasi-Distributed Gap Technique for Planar Inductors: Design Guidelines Jiankun Hu Charles R. Sullivan of low-permeability magnetic material to form a uniformly distributed gap can facilitate the design

  3. Analysis and Design of Silicon Bipolar Distributed Oscillators Ali Hajimiri and Hui Wu

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajimiri, Ali

    Analysis and Design of Silicon Bipolar Distributed Oscillators Ali Hajimiri and Hui Wu Abstract, the design and modeling of the coplanar transmission lines for a 12 GHz distributed oscillator results for the 12 GHz distrib- uted VCO and a 17 GHz distributed oscillator will be given. Design of DVCO

  4. Adjoint-based method for supersonic aircraft design using equivalent area distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Adjoint-based method for supersonic aircraft design using equivalent area distributions Francisco for the design of supersonic aircraft that must match a target equivalent area distribution at constant lift of an adjoint solver for the equivalent area distribution, and the shape design process of a trijet supersonic

  5. A reliability assessment methodology for distribution systems with distributed generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Duttagupta, Suchismita Sujaya

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Reliability assessment is of primary importance in designing and planning distribution systems that operate in an economic manner with minimal interruption of customer loads. With the advances in renewable energy sources, Distributed Generation (DG...

  6. Community Energy: Analysis of Hydrogen Distributed Energy Systems with Photovoltaics for Load Leveling and Vehicle Refueling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Zuboy, J.

    2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy storage could complement PV electricity generation at the community level. Because PV generation is intermittent, strategies must be implemented to integrate it into the electricity system. Hydrogen and fuel cell technologies offer possible PV integration strategies, including the community-level approaches analyzed in this report: (1) using hydrogen production, storage, and reconversion to electricity to level PV generation and grid loads (reconversion scenario); (2) using hydrogen production and storage to capture peak PV generation and refuel hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) (hydrogen fueling scenario); and (3) a comparison scenario using a battery system to store electricity for EV nighttime charging (electric charging scenario).

  7. Daylighting Design Tools in Atria for Minimum Cooling Loads in Atrium Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atif, M. R.; Boyer, L. L.; Degelman, L. O.; Claridge, D. E.

    The daylighting and sunlighting value of an atrium are considered the main reasons for including the atrium use in the built environment. However, most atria today are either overlit, which causes tremendous cooling loads, or underlit, requiring...

  8. Gain-scheduled controller design for load-following in static space nuclear power systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Onbasioglu, Fetiye Ozlem

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of variations in the fuel temperature reactivity feedback coeficient on the load-following capabilities of the SNPS. Robustness analysis results of the gain-scheduled compensator demonstrate that the proposed control concept exhibits a significant degree...

  9. Biomimetic design for an under-actuated leg exoskeleton for load-carrying augmentation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walsh, Conor James

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Metabolic studies have shown that there is a metabolic cost associated with carrying a load (Griffin et al, 2003). Further studies have shown that by applying forward propulsive forces a person can walk with a reduced ...

  10. The design, fabrication and maintenance of semi-trailers employed in the highway transport of weight-concentrated radioactive loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huffman, D.S. [Allied-Signal Inc., Metropolis, IL (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Transportation of weight-concentrated radioactive loads by truck is an essential part of a safe and economical nuclear industry. This proposed standard presents guidance and performance criteria for the safe transport of these weight-concentrated radioactive loads. ANSI N14.30 will detail specific requirements for the design, fabrication, testing, in-service inspections, maintenance and certification of the semi-trailers to be employed in said service. Furthermore, guidelines for a quality assurance program are also enumerated. This standard would apply to any semi-trailer that may or may not be specifically designed to carry weight-concentrated loads. Equipment not suitable per the criteria established in the standard would be removed from service. The nature of the nuclear industry and the need for a positive public perception of the various processes and players, mandates that the highway transportation of weight-concentrated radioactive loads be standardized and made inherently safe. This proposed standard takes a giant step in that direction.

  11. Reliability Design and Case Study of a Refrigerator Compressor Subjected to Repetitive Loads, International Journal of Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woo, S.; O'Neal, D.L.; Pecht, M.

    A newly designed crankshaft of a compressor for a side-by-side (SBS) refrigerator was studied. Using mass and energy conservation balances, a variety of compressor loads typically found in a refrigeration cycle were analyzed. The laboratory failure... vis-a´-vis de la fiabilite´ et e´tude de casArticle history: Received 18 March 2008 Received in revised form 6 May 2008 Accepted 21 July 2008 Published online 31 July 2008 Keywords: Refrigeration system Compression system Reciprocating compressor...

  12. Voltage Oscillations in Power Distribution Networks in the Presence of DFIGs and Induction Motor Loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    energy sources, wind power has proven to be one of the most successful sources offering relatively high-speed operation of wind tur- bines with frequency converters offers certain advantages [2]: mechanical stress penetration of wind power in traditional passive distribution networks requires detailed analysis to ensure

  13. Residual stresses and retained austenite distribution and evolution in SAE 52100 steel under rolling contact loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dommarco, R.C. [Univ. Nac Mar del Plata (Argentina); Kozaczek, K.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Hahn, G.T. [Vanderbilt Univ., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Residual stresses are introduced and modified during manufacturing and also by normal use. In this paper the changes in magnitude and distribution of residual stresses, attending the strain induced transformation of retained austenite are examined. Tests were conducted on SAE 52100 bearing steel with different amounts of retained austenite in a 5-ball-rod rolling contact fatigue machine. The tests were accelerated by applying well-controlled micro- indentations on the wear track and using rough balls. The magnitude and distribution of residual stresses and retained austenite were measured using x-ray diffraction techniques. The contribution of the residual stresses and amount of retained austenite to the rolling contact fatigue life is analyzed.

  14. Comparison of Design Loads for Turbines in Wake Torben J. Larsen, Helge Aa. Madsen, Gunner Larsen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DWM model Wind turbine wake velocity deficit wake meandering aeroelastic simulations wake added #12;Influence from wind direction: Driving torque #12;Influence from wind direction: Tower bottom tilt the turbine never experiences free flow direction at 3D spacing. · Tower loads increase with increased row

  15. The design of a distributed image processing and dissemination system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rafferty, P.; Hower, L.

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design and implementation of a distributed image processing and dissemination system was undertaken and accomplished as part of a prototype communication and intelligence (CI) system, the contingency support system (CSS), which is intended to support contingency operations of the Tactical Air Command. The system consists of six (6) Sun 3/180C workstations with integrated ITEX image processors and three (3) 3/50 diskless workstations located at four (4) system nodes (INEL, base, and mobiles). All 3/180C workstations are capable of image system server functions where as the 3/50s are image system clients only. Distribution is accomplished via both local and wide area networks using standard Defense Data Network (DDN) protocols (i.e., TCP/IP, et al.) and Defense Satellite Communication Systems (DSCS) compatible SHF Transportable Satellite Earth Terminals (TSET). Image applications utilize Sun's Remote Procedure Call (RPC) to facilitate the image system client and server relationships. The system provides functions to acquire, display, annotate, process, transfer, and manage images via an icon, panel, and menu oriented Sunview{trademark} based user interface. Image spatial resolution is 512 {times} 480 with 8-bits/pixel black and white and 12/24 bits/pixel color depending on system configuration. Compression is used during various image display and transmission functions to reduce the dynamic range of image data of 12/6/3/2 bits/pixel depending on the application. Image acquisition is accomplished in real-time or near-real-time by special purpose Itex image hardware. As a result all image displays are highly interactive with attention given to subsecond response time. 3 refs., 7 figs.

  16. A Design Model for Open Distributed Processing Systems Marten van Sinderen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Sinderen, Marten

    A Design Model for Open Distributed Processing Systems Marten van Sinderen1 , LuĂ­s Ferreira Pires1 these standards and consequently may decrease their price. The design and implementation of a distributed system, pires, vissers, katoen}@cs.utwente.nl Abstract This paper proposes design concepts that allow

  17. A Design Model for Open Distributed Processing Systems Marten van Sinderen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pires, LuĂ­s Ferreira

    A Design Model for Open Distributed Processing Systems Marten van Sinderen1 , LuĂ­s Ferreira Pires1 and consequently may decrease their price. The design and implementation of a distributed system is a complex, pires, vissers, katoen}@cs.utwente.nl Abstract This paper proposes design concepts that allow

  18. PHYSICAL DESIGN TRADEOFFS IN POWER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS FOR 3-D ICs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    PHYSICAL DESIGN TRADEOFFS IN POWER DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS FOR 3-D ICs Ioannis Tsioutsios, Vasilis F the tradeoffs among the different interconnects resources in the design process of 3- D power distribution.tsioutsios, vasileios.pavlidis, giovanni.demicheli}@epfl.ch Abstract--A physical model for the design of the power

  19. Design and Modeling of Centralized Distribution Network for the DC House Project.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bassi, Harpreet S.

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ?? This thesis focuses on the design, modeling, simulation, and performance evaluation of Centralized Distribution Network for the DC House Project. Power System Computer Aided… (more)

  20. Design and performance relationships for cable distribution in multi-story office buildings.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Richard Cecil

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??Weaknesses associated with cable distribution systems suggest a lack of design consideration in the planning stage of a building. The primary question to be addressed… (more)

  1. A neutronic feasibility study of the AP1000 design loaded with fully ceramic micro-encapsulated fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liang, C.; Ji, W. [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace, and Nuclear Engineering Rensselaer, Polytechnic Institute, 110 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A neutronic feasibility study is performed to evaluate the utilization of fully ceramic microencapsulated (FCM) fuel in the AP1000 reactor design. The widely used Monte Carlo code MCNP is employed to perform the full core analysis at the beginning of cycle (BOC). Both the original AP1000 design and the modified design with the replacement of uranium dioxide fuel pellets with FCM fuel compacts are modeled and simulated for comparison. To retain the original excess reactivity, ranges of fuel particle packing fraction and fuel enrichment in the FCM fuel design are first determined. Within the determined ranges, the reactor control mechanism employed by the original design is directly used in the modified design and the utilization feasibility is evaluated. The worth of control of each type of fuel burnable absorber (discrete/integral fuel burnable absorbers and soluble boron in primary coolant) is calculated for each design and significant differences between the two designs are observed. Those differences are interpreted by the fundamental difference of the fuel form used in each design. Due to the usage of silicon carbide as the matrix material and the fuel particles fuel form in FCM fuel design, neutron slowing down capability is increased in the new design, leading to a much higher thermal spectrum than the original design. This results in different reactivity and fission power density distributions in each design. We conclude that a direct replacement of fuel pellets by the FCM fuel in the AP1000 cannot retain the original optimum reactor core performance. Necessary modifications of the core design should be done and the original control mechanism needs to be re-designed. (authors)

  2. Design and performance relationships for cable distribution in multi-story office buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ryan, Richard Cecil

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Weaknesses associated with cable distribution systems suggest a lack of design consideration in the planning stage of a building. The primary question to be addressed in this study is do relationships between design considerations and building...

  3. Assessment and Improvements of the CBE Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Cooling Load Design Tool

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Bin

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    diffusers and underfloor fan coil units. .. 53 Figure 33 Thediffusers and underfloor fan coil units. Table 14 shows the

  4. Simplified calculation method for design cooling loads in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Lee, Kwang Ho; Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the outlet side of fan coil units (FCU) served by variableunit (AHU) including a return air economizer, chilled water cooling coil, hot water heating coil and supply fan.

  5. Optimisation of distribution network design using a hybrid genetic algorithm.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Akararungruangkul, Raknoi

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??This thesis presents an integrated methodology developed for the modelling and optimisation of distribution networks based on a Hybrid Genetic Algorithm. This work focuses on… (more)

  6. Using Simulation Models for District Chilled Water Distribution Systems Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Q.; Xu, C.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the design. The focus of this paper is to demonstrate how the using of the computerized simulation model can give the engineer the ability to explore many more alternative design scenarios and to identify more cost-effective and robust designs. The University...

  7. EDR: An Energy-Aware Runtime Load Distribution System for Data-Intensive Applications in the Cloud

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bo; Song, Shuaiwen; Bezakova, Ivona; Cameron, Kirk

    2013-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Data centers account for a growing percentage of US power consumption. Energy e_ciency is now a first-class design constraint for the data centers that support cloud services. Service providers must distribute their data e_ciently across multiple data centers. This includes creation of data replicas that provide multiple copies of data for e_cient access. However, selecting replicas to maximize performance while minimizing energy waste is an open problem. State of the art replica selection approaches either do not address energy, lack scalability and/or are vulnerable to crashes due to use of a centralized coordinator. Therefore, we propose, develop and evaluate a simple cost-oriented decentralized replica selection system named EDR, implemented with two distributed optimization algorithms

  8. Interfacing computer-assisted drafting and design with the building loads analysis and system thermodynamics (BLAST) program. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morton, J.D.; Pyo, C.; Choi, B.

    1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Energy efficient building design requires in-depth thermal analysis. Existing Computer Aided Design and Drafting (CADD) software packages already enhance the productivity and quality of design. Thermal analysis tools use much the same information as that contained in CADD drawings to determine the most energy efficient design configuration during the design process. To use these analysis tools, data already contained in the CADD system must be re-keyed into the analysis packages. This project created an interface to automate the migration of data from CADD to the Building Loads Analysis System and Thermodynamics (BLAST) analysis program, which is an Army-standard system for evaluating building energy performance. Two interfaces were developed, one batch-oriented (IN2BLAS7) and one interactive (the Drawing Navigator). Lessons learned from the development of IN2BLAST were carried into the development of the Drawing Navigator, and the Drawing Navigator was field tested. Feedback indicated that useful automation of the data migration is possible, and that proper application of such automation can increase productivity.... Blast, CADD, Interface, IN2BLAST, Drawing navigator.

  9. Development of load and resistance factor design for FRP strengthening of reinforced concrete structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Atadero, Rebecca Anne

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Design for FRP Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete. In 7 thFRP) Reinforcement for Concrete Structure; Shield, C.K. ,G.C. Fatigue Performance of Concrete Beams Strengthened with

  10. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System Combined Heat and Power System by Zachary Mills Norwood Doctor of Philosophy in the Energy and Resources of analysis of Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power (DCS-CHP) systems is a design

  11. Introduction to Focus Issue: Design and Control of Self-Organization in Distributed Active Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Showalter, Kenneth

    Introduction to Focus Issue: Design and Control of Self-Organization in Distributed Active Systems; published online 27 June 2008 Spatiotemporal self-organization is found in a wide range of distributed describe biological and chemical systems designed to exhibit spatiotemporal dynamics and the control

  12. Resilient Workflows for Cooperative Design Application of Distributed High-Performance Scientific Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Resilient Workflows for Cooperative Design Application of Distributed High-Performance Scientific-Antoine.Desideri@sophia.inria.fr Abstract--This paper describes an approach to extend process modeling for engineering design applications the traditional fault-tolerance management features provided by the existing hardware and distributed systems

  13. The Design of a New Freight Distribution System in Venice1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daganzo, Carlos F.

    1 The Design of a New Freight Distribution System in Venice1 Flavio Baita, Carlos Daganzo, Walter the transshipment operations from trucks to boats, and the organization of the boat distribution. Currently. Introduction The role of distribution logistics, as a strategic factor for competitive advantage in many

  14. Distributed embedded computing systems are special-purpose computer systems designed for particular applications and set up in a networked or distributed manner. A

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Shuvra S.

    ABSTRACT Distributed embedded computing systems are special-purpose computer systems designed). Therefore, this thesis presents a design methodology for distributing DSP applica- tions across wireless-power, application-specific sensor node platform for distributed WSN sys- tems is designed and demonstrated

  15. Scalable, probabilistic simulation in a distributed design environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mao, Wei, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated simulations have been used to predict and analyze the integrated behavior of large, complex product and technology systems throughout their design cycles. During the process of integration, uncertainties arise ...

  16. Miniaturized Multi-Band Antenna Design via Element Collocation and Inductive Feed Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, R. P.

    2012-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

    In a FY09 SDRD project, four separate antennas were designed to receive signals of interest covering a broad range of frequencies. While the elements exceeded specifications, the array footprint is substantial. Research performed by the CU Microwave Active Antenna Group in collaboration with RSL, showed promise in realizing a reduced structure. This work will expand upon this previous research. This project will result in a prototype quad-band antenna.

  17. Design and Verification of Distributed Multi-media D.H.Akehurst, J.Derrick, A.G.Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    Design and Verification of Distributed Multi-media Systems D.H.Akehurst, J.Derrick, A of a distributed system. This paper presents a method for designing distributed multimedia systems, including This paper demonstrates a specific approach to the design of distributed systems. The approach enables

  18. Brief Announcement: Distributed Algorithmic Mechanism Design for Scheduling

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosu, Daniel

    Work called Distributed MinWork (DMW). DMW does not em- ploy a central authority, but instead, the agents/owner. PODC'05, July 17­20, 2005, Las Vegas, Nevada, USA. ACM 1-59593-994-2/05/0007. DMW concurrently executes

  19. Building Responsive and Reliable Distributed Services: Models and Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Newcastle upon Tyne, University of

    consequences of these failures. For example, in a reactor safety system, the primary functionality concerns and management of safety critical distributed systems. NATS monitors and decides the flight paths of civilian aircrafts in the British air space. Its operations are conducted centrally from West Drayton, and its

  20. Design requirements for the diagnosability of distributed discrete event systems Pauline Ribot, Yannick Pencole and Michel Combacau

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pencolé, Yannick

    Design requirements for the diagnosability of distributed discrete event systems Pauline Ribot of a distributed system is that it is usually conceived by different designers which are in charge of only a part- lies on both the design of the distributed system itself (design and integration of components

  1. A Momentum-Zonal Model for Predicting Zone Airflow and Temperature Distributions to Enhance Building Load and Energy Simulations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

    and to err on the side of complete mixing. The model has been coupled to the heat balance model and tested/kg·K ] air specific heat at constant pressure g [m/s2 ] gravity force vector hc [W/m2 ·K] surface convection on load calculations. Results for cooling and heating loads are compared to the traditional complete

  2. Design of Distributed Applications based on the OSI Model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McBrien, Peter

    Science, King's College London Strand, London WC2R 2LS mailto:pjm@dcs.kcl.ac.uk http://www.dcs.kcl.ac.uk/sta#11;/pjm Abstract. This paper demonstrates how the fundamental concepts of a layered design found

  3. Assessment of the impact of degraded shear wall stiffnesses on seismic plant risk and seismic design loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klamerus, E.W.; Bohn, M.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J.J.; Asfura, A.P.; Doyle, D.J. [EQE Engineering, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Test results sponsored by the USNRC have shown that reinforced shear wall (Seismic Category I) structures exhibit stiffnesses and natural frequencies which are smaller than those calculated in the design process. The USNRC has sponsored Sandia National Labs to perform an evaluation of the effects of the reduced frequencies on several existing seismic PRAs in order to determine the seismic risk implications inherent in these test results. This report presents the results for the re-evaluation of the seismic risk for three nuclear power plants: the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, the Zion Nuclear Power Plant, and Arkansas Nuclear One -- Unit 1 (ANO-1). Increases in core damage frequencies for seismic initiated events at Peach Bottom were 25 to 30 percent (depending on whether LLNL or EPRI hazard curves were used). At the ANO-1 site, the corresponding increases in plant risk were 10 percent (for each set of hazard curves). Finally, at Zion, there was essentially no change in the computed core damage frequency when the reduction in shear wall stiffness was included. In addition, an evaluation of deterministic ``design-like`` structural dynamic calculations with and without the shear stiffness reductions was made. Deterministic loads calculated for these two cases typically increased on the order of 10 to 20 percent for the affected structures.

  4. Advanced Design of Broadband Distributed Amplifier using a SiGe BiCMOS Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    interfaces, it is essential that RF/microwave circuits be implemented in low-cost silicon technology. However.18 µm CMOS distributed amplifier with Coplanar Strip (CPS) was designed with the unity gain

  5. DESIGNING AN ECOLOGY OF DISTRIBUTED AGENTS EXTENDED ABSTRACT FOR MASTER'S THESIS PROPOSAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DESIGNING AN ECOLOGY OF DISTRIBUTED AGENTS EXTENDED ABSTRACT FOR MASTER'S THESIS PROPOSAL December will explore possibilities for Internet applications by creating an ecology of distributed agents, a new will build a system that represents peoples' pres­ ence by creating an ecology of agents. The applica­ tion

  6. The Preliminary Design of Papyrus: A System for High Performance, Distributed Data Mining

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossman, Robert

    The Preliminary Design of Papyrus: A System for High Performance, Distributed Data Mining over. Ramu, B. Malhi and A. Turinsky, The Preliminary Design of Papyrus: A Sys- tem for High Performance the storage and data management services for the data sets being mined. Compute-clusters provide the compute

  7. Evaluation of high strength concrete prestressed bridge girder design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cuadros Olave, Gladys

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    3.4.2 Live Load Model ..........................................................................35 3.4.3 Live Load Distribution Factor ......................................................37 3....4.4 Design Live Load Moments..........................................................38 3.4.5 Limit States ...................................................................................40 3.5 TxDOT DESIGN GUIDELINES...

  8. Abstract--This work develops a three-phase unbalanced load flow tool tailored for radial distribution networks based

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Teodorescu, Remus

    ) generators where most of the systems are single phase. New ancillary service such as static reactive power, thermal limits of grid components and power losses in radial MV-LV networks with photovoltaic (PV support by PV inverters can be also merged together with the load flow solution tool and thus, the impact

  9. Attack Detection and Identification in Cyber-Physical Systems -- Part II: Centralized and Distributed Monitor Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pasqualetti, Fabio; Bullo, Francesco

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyber-physical systems integrate computation, communication, and physical capabilities to interact with the physical world and humans. Besides failures of components, cyber-physical systems are prone to malicious attacks so that specific analysis tools and monitoring mechanisms need to be developed to enforce system security and reliability. This paper builds upon the results presented in our companion paper [1] and proposes centralized and distributed monitors for attack detection and identification. First, we design optimal centralized attack detection and identification monitors. Optimality refers to the ability of detecting (respectively identifying) every detectable (respectively identifiable) attack. Second, we design an optimal distributed attack detection filter based upon a waveform relaxation technique. Third, we show that the attack identification problem is computationally hard, and we design a sub-optimal distributed attack identification procedure with performance guarantees. Finally, we illustr...

  10. An object oriented design for high performance linear algebra on distributed memory architectures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dongarra, J.J. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)]|[Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science; Walker, D.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Pozo, R. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Computer Science

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe the design of ScaLAPACK++, an object oriented C++ library for implementing linear algebra computations on distributed memory multicomputers. This package, when complete, will support distributed dense, banded, sparse matrix operations for symmetric, positive-definite, and non-symmetric cases. In ScaLAPACK++ we have employed object oriented design methods to enchance scalability, portability, flexibility, and ease-of-use. We illustrate some of these points by describing the implementation of a right-looking LU factorization for dense systems in ScaLAPACK++.

  11. Power law and exponential ejecta size distributions from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded Cu and Sn metals under melt conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Durand, O.; Soulard, L. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France)

    2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    Large scale molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are performed to study and to model the ejecta production from the dynamic fragmentation of shock-loaded metals under melt conditions. A generic 3D crystal in contact with vacuum containing about 10{sup 8} atoms and with a sinusoidal free surface roughness is shock loaded so as to undergo a solid-liquid phase change on shock. The reflection of the shock wave at the interface metal/vacuum gives rise to the ejection of 2D jets/sheets of atoms (Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities in the continuum limit), which develop and break up, forming ejecta (fragments) of different volumes (or mass). The fragmentation process is investigated by analyzing the evolution of the resulting volume distribution of the ejecta as a function of time. Two metals are studied (Cu and Sn) and the amplitude of the roughness is varied. The simulations show that the associated distributions exhibit a generic behavior with the sum of two distinct terms of varying weight, following the expansion rate of the jets: in the small size limit, the distribution obeys a power law dependence with an exponent equal to 1.15?±?0.08; and in the large size limit, it obeys an exponential form. These two components are interpreted, with the help of additional simple simulations, as the signature of two different basic mechanisms of fragmentation. The power law dependence results from the fragmentation of a 2D network of ligaments arranged following a fractal (scale free) geometry and generated when the sheets of liquid metal expand and tear. The exponential distribution results from a 1D Poisson fragmentation process of the largest ligaments previously generated. Unlike the power law distribution, it is governed by a characteristic length scale, which may be provided by energy balance principle.

  12. Load forecasting for active distribution networks Simone Paoletti, Member, IEEE, Marco Casini, Member, IEEE, Antonio Giannitrapani, Member, IEEE,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannitrapani, Antonello

    opportunity for solving network constraints and supporting the development of renewable energy sources through- creased accessibility of renewable energy resources to end users have triggered new concepts Distribution network with full integration of Demand and distributed energy RESourceS and its target

  13. Abstract--Multimedia groupware systems provide rich support for distributed team work. Yet effective design of these systems is

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, Saul

    evolve design ideas. The problem is that multimedia groupware is hard to prototype because distributed that inform the design of universally accepted toolkits for building distributed multimedia systems: we1 Abstract--Multimedia groupware systems provide rich support for distributed team work. Yet

  14. A Simple Toy Example of a Distributed System: On the Design of a Connecting Switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munchen 2 (Germany) Abstract In this paper the development life-cycle of a design method for distributed the behaviour of a very simple protocol. A development life-cycle commonly includes four phases: (1) requirement a family of speci cations along the development life-cycle one observes particular (pairs of) aspects

  15. Design and Evaluation of a Virtual Experimental Environment for Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design and Evaluation of a Virtual Experimental Environment for Distributed Systems Luc Sarzyniec described using a realistic topology model. Distem relies on LXC (Linux Containers), a low-overhead of virtual nodes. Distem provides a set of user interfaces to accomodate different needs (command- line

  16. Distributed Power Network Co-Design with On-Chip Power Supplies and Decoupling Capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Distributed Power Network Co-Design with On-Chip Power Supplies and Decoupling Capacitors Selc¸uk K, New York 14627 {kose,friedman}@ece.rochester.edu Abstract-- With each technology generation, the power computationally complex. The rising number of on-chip power supplies and intentional decoupling capacitors

  17. Evaluation of Design Choices for Gang Scheduling using Distributed Hierarchical Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Feitelson, Dror

    Evaluation of Design Choices for Gang Scheduling using Distributed Hierarchical Control Dror G to control the adverse e ect of badly-matched gangs. Consequently the on-line mapping and scheduling, Israel Abstract Gang scheduling | the scheduling of a number of related threads to execute simultaneously

  18. Control system design for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture in IGCC power plants while loading-following

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Turton, R.; Zitney, S.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load-following requirements for future integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants with precombustion CO{sub 2} capture are expected to be far more challenging as electricity produced by renewable energy is connected to the grid and strict environmental limits become mandatory requirements. In this work, loadfollowing studies are performed using a comprehensive dynamic model of an IGCC plant with pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture developed in Aspen Engineering Suite (AES). Considering multiple single-loop controllers for power demand load following, the preferred IGCC control strategy from the perspective of a power producer is gas turbine (GT) lead with gasifier follow. In this strategy, the GT controls the load by manipulating its firing rate while the slurry feed flow to the gasifier is manipulated to control the syngas pressure at the GT inlet. The syngas pressure control is an integrating process with significant time delay mainly because of the large piping and equipment volumes between the gasifier and the GT inlet. A modified proportional–integral–derivative (PID) control is considered for IGCC syngas pressure control. The desired CO{sub 2} capture rate must be maintained while the IGCC plant follows the load. For maintaining the desired CO{sub 2} capture rate, the control performance of PID control is compared with linear model predictive control (LMPC). The results show that the LMPC outperforms PID control for maintaining CO{sub 2} capture rates in an IGCC power plant while load following.

  19. Characterization of Brain Distribution of Sunitinib in a Murine Serial Sacrifice Design Using A Population-Based Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas, David D.

    Characterization of Brain Distribution of Sunitinib in a Murine Serial Sacrifice Design Using A Population-Based Approach Rajneet Oberoi Department sample per subject, resulting in a study design wherein a small group

  20. Investigations on Repository Near-Field Thermal Modeling - Repository Science/Thermal Load Management & Design Concepts (M41UF033302)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, M; Blink, J A; Fratoni, M; Greenberg, H R; Ross, A D

    2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The various layers of material from the waste package (such as components of the engineered barrier system and the host rock surface) to a given distance within the rock wall at a given distance can be described as concentric circles with varying thermal properties (see Figure 5.1-1). The selected model approach examines the contributions of the waste package, axial waste package neighbors and lateral neighboring emplacement drifts (see Section 5.2.1 and Appendix H, Section 2). In clay and deep borehole media, the peak temperature is driven by the central waste package whereas, in granite and salt, the contribution to the temperature rise by adjacent (lateral) waste packages in drift or emplacement borehole lines is dominant at the time of the peak temperature. Mathematical models generated using Mathcad software provide insight into the effects of changing waste package spacing for six waste forms, namely UOX, MOX, co-extraction, new extraction, E-Chem ceramic and E-Chem metal in four different geologic media (granite, clay, salt and deep borehole). Each scenario includes thermal conductivity and diffusivity for each layer between the waste package and the host rock, dimensions of representative repository designs (such as waste package spacing, drift or emplacement borehole spacing, waste package dimensions and layer thickness), and decay heat curves generated from knowledge of the contents of a given waste form after 10, 50, 100 and 200 years of surface storage. Key results generated for each scenario include rock temperature at a given time calculated at a given radius from the central waste package (Section 5.2.1 and Appendix H, Section 3), the corresponding temperature at the interface of the waste package and EBS material, and at each EBS layer in between (Section 5.2.2 and Appendix H, Section 4). This information is vital to understand the implications of repository design (waste package capacity, surface storage time, waste package spacing, and emplacement drift or borehole spacing) by comparing the peak temperature to the thermal limits of the concentric layers surrounding the waste package; specifically 100 C for the bentonite buffer in granite and clay repositories, 100 C for rock wall in a clay repository and 200 C at the rock wall for a salt repository. These thermal limits are both preliminary and approximate, and serve as a means to evaluate design options rather than determining compliance for licensing situations. The thermal behavior of a salt repository is more difficult to model because it is not a concentric geometry and because the crushed salt backfill initially has a much higher thermal resistance than intact salt. Three models were investigated, namely a waste package in complete contact with crushed salt, secondly a waste package in contact with intact salt, and thirdly a waste package in contact with 75% intact and 25% crushed salt. The latter model best depicts emplacement of a waste package in the corner of an intact salt alcove and subsequently covered with crushed salt backfill to the angle of repose. The most conservative model (crushed salt) had temperatures much higher than the other models and although bounding, is too conservative to use. The most realistic model (75/25) had only a small temperature difference from the simplest (non-conservative, intact salt) model, and is the one chosen in this report (see Section 5.2.3). A trade-study investigating three key variables (surface storage time, waste package capacity and waste package spacing) is important to understand and design a repository. Waste package heat can be reduced by storing for longer periods prior to emplacement, or by reducing the number of assemblies or canisters within that waste package. Waste package spacing can be altered to optimize the thermal load without exceeding the thermal limits of the host rock or EBS components. By examining each of these variables, repository footprint (and therefore cost) can be optimized. For this report, the layout was fixed for each geologic medium based on prior published designs in

  1. D-STATCOM Control in Distribution Networks with Composite Loads to Ensure Grid Code Compatible Performance of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    Recently, distributed generation (DG) based on renewable energy sources such as solar, wind etc of New South Wales Canberra, ACT 2600, Australia E-mail: n.roy@student.unsw.edu.au, h.pota@adfa.edu.au M, Australia E-mail: mdapel.mahmud@nicta.com.au M. J. Hossain Griffith School of Engineering Griffith

  2. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, Venkatarao [JLAB; Dixon, Kelly D. [JLAB; Laverdure, Nathaniel A. [JLAB; Knudsen, Peter N. [JLAB; Arenius, Dana M. [JLAB; Barrios, Matthew N. [Michigan State; Jones, S. [Michigan State; Johnson, M. [Michigan State; Casagrande, Fabio [Michigan State

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  3. FRIB cryogenic distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganni, V.; Dixon, K.; Laverdure, N.; Knudsen, P.; Arenius, D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab), Newport News, VA 23606 (United States); Barrios, M.; Jones, S.; Johnson, M.; Casagrande, F. [Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB), Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The Michigan State University Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (MSU-FRIB) helium distribution system has been revised to include bayonet/warm valve type disconnects between each cryomodule and the transfer line distribution system, similar to the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (JLab) and the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) cryogenic distribution systems. The heat loads at various temperature levels and some of the features in the design of the distribution system are outlined. The present status, the plans for fabrication, and the procurement approach for the helium distribution system are also included.

  4. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darghouth, Naim; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Net metering has become a widespread policy in the U.S. for supporting distributed photovoltaics (PV) adoption. Though specific design details vary, net metering allows customers with PV to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption - in effect, compensating the PV generation at retail electricity rates (Rose et al. 2009). While net metering has played an important role in jump-starting the residential PV market in the U.S., challenges to net metering policies have emerged in a number of states and contexts, and alternative compensation methods are under consideration. Moreover, one inherent feature of net metering is that the value of the utility bill savings it provides to customers with PV depends heavily on the structure of the underlying retail electricity rate, as well as on the characteristics of the customer and PV system. Consequently, the value of net metering - and the impact of moving to alternative compensation mechanisms - can vary substantially from one customer to the next. For these reasons, it is important for policymakers and others that seek to support the development of distributed PV to understand both how the bill savings varies under net metering, and how the bill savings under net metering compares to other possible compensation mechanisms. To advance this understanding, we analyze the bill savings from PV for residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities, Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) and Southern California Edison (SCE). The analysis is based on hourly load data from a sample of 215 residential customers located in the service territories of the two utilities, matched with simulated hourly PV production for the same time period based on data from the nearest of 73 weather stations in the state.

  5. New MV cable design for wet environments in underground distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Teixeira, M.D.R. Jr. (Ficap Fios e Cabos Plasticos do Brasil SA, Rio De Janeiro (BR))

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the development of new wet design MV power cables, up to 35 kV, using EPDM compound as insulation and longitudinal water tightness. The combination of the cable design and the type of insulation compound allow for reduction of the insulation thickness in such a way, as to have an electrical stress at the conductor of 4 kV/mm which is significantly greater than used in MV distribution cables. Following a methodology established, at the author's company, the reliability of this design, cable and EPDM's formulation, in wet location, without metallic water barriers, was well demonstrated. Mini-installation of model cables in service-like conditions, to estimate the ageing rate, are presented and discussed.

  6. Design of the Trigger Interface and Distribution Board for CEBAF 12 GeV Upgrade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gu, Jianhui; Dong, Hai; Cuevas, R; Gyurjyan, Vardan; Heyes, William; Jastrzembski, Edward; Kaneta, Scott; Nganga, Nicholas; Moffit, Bryan; Raydo, Benjamin; Timmer, Carl

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The design of the Trigger Interface and Distribution (TID) board for the 12 GeV Upgrade at the Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at TJNAL is described. The TID board distributes a low jitter system clock, synchronized trigger, and synchronized multi-purpose SYNC signal. The TID also initiates data acquisition for the crate. With the TID boards, a multi-crate system can be setup for experiment test and commissioning. The TID board can be selectively populated as a Trigger Interface (TI) board, or a Trigger Distribution (TD) board for the 12 GeV upgrade experiments. When the TID is populated as a TI, it can be located in the VXS crate and distribute the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC through the VXS P0 connector; it can also be located in the standard VME64 crate, and distribute the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC through the VME P2 connector or front panel. It initiates the data acquisition for the front crate where the TI is positioned in. When the TID is populated as a TD, it fans out the CLOCK/TRIGGER/SYNC from trigger supervisor to the front end crates through optical fibres. The TD monitors the trigger processing on the TIs, and gives feedback to the TS for trigger flow control. Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGA) is utilised on TID board to provide programmability. The TID boards were intensively tested on the bench, and various setups.

  7. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The August 2003 blackout of the northeastern U.S. and CANADA caused great economic losses and inconvenience to New York City and other affected areas. The blackout was a warning to the rest of the world that the ability of conventional power systems to meet growing electricity demand is questionable. Failure of large power systems can lead to serious emergencies. Introduction of on-site generation, renewable energy such as solar and wind power and the effective utilization of exhaust heat is needed, to meet the growing energy demands of the residential and commercial sectors. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems. This work demonstrates a method for choosing and designing economically optimal DER systems. An additional purpose of this research is to establish a database of energy tariffs, DER technology cost and performance characteristics, and building energy consumption for Japan. This research builds on prior DER studies at the Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) and with their associates in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) and operation, including the development of the microgrid concept, and the DER selection optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM is a tool designed to find the optimal combination of installed equipment and an idealized operating schedule to minimize a site's energy bills, given performance and cost data on available DER technologies, utility tariffs, and site electrical and thermal loads over a test period, usually an historic year. Since hourly electric and thermal energy data are rarely available, they are typically developed by building simulation for each of six end use loads used to model the building: electric-only loads, space heating, space cooling, refrigeration, water heating, and natural-gas-only loads. DER-CAM provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the necessary useful energy loads can be provided for at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, cooling, and efficiency improvements. This study examines five prototype commercial buildings and uses DER-CAM to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Each building type was considered for both 5,000 and 10,000 square meter floor sizes. The energy consumption of these building types is based on building energy simulation and published literature. Based on the optimization results, energy conservation and the emissions reduction were also evaluated. Furthermore, a comparison study between Japan and the U.S. has been conducted covering the policy, technology and the utility tariffs effects on DER systems installations. This study begins with an examination of existing DER research. Building energy loads were then generated through simulation (DOE-2) and scaled to match available load data in the literature. Energy tariffs in Japan and the U.S. were then compared: electricity prices did not differ significantly, while commercial gas prices in Japan are much higher than in the U.S. For smaller DER systems, the installation costs in Japan are more than twice those in the U.S., but this difference becomes smaller with larger systems. In Japan, DER systems are eligible for a 1/3 rebate of installation costs, while subsidies in the U.S. vary significantly by region and application. For 10,000 m{sup 2} buildings, significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the economically optimal results. This was most noticeable in the sports facility, followed the hospital and hotel. This research demonstrates that office buildings can benefit from CHP, in contrast to popular opinion. For hospitals and sports facilities, the use of waste heat is particularly effective for water and space heating. For the other building types, waste heat is most effectively use

  8. Developing DisCo: A distributed co-design, on-line tool SUBMITTED TO THE COLLEGE OF INFORMATION STUDIES DOCTORAL

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Golbeck, Jennifer

    Developing DisCo: A distributed co-design, on-line tool SUBMITTED TO THE COLLEGE OF INFORMATION-based design tool that facilitates distributed co-design through Layered Elaboration. Layered Elaboration-based system allows co-designers to work asynchronously while being geographically distributed. DisCo contains

  9. Preliminary Evaluation of Load Management for Electricity End Users

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collier, S. E.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The planning, design and implementation of load management is complex and expensive. The results of a load management program are subject to numerous uncertainties related to load characteristics, power cost savings, load management costs...

  10. Design Support for Distributed Systems: DSE4DS D.H.Akehurst, B.Bordbar, J.Derrick, A.G.Waters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kent, University of

    Design Support for Distributed Systems: DSE4DS D.H.Akehurst, B.Bordbar, J.Derrick, A towards the provision of successful distributed system designs. The purpose of the DSE4DS project facilities for the design of multimedia distributed systems, to ensure that they can effectively meet

  11. The effects of compressor speed and electronic expansion valve opening on the optimum design of inverter heat pump at various heating loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Y.; Kim, Y.; Park, J.; Kim, C.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The experiments to design the optimum operation point of an inverter heat pump were performed by varying compressor speed and expansion valve opening for various heating loads. At the indoor temperatures of {minus}5 {approximately} 15C and outdoor temperatures of {minus}10 {approximately} 25 C, the compressor driving frequencies were varied 10 {approximately} 120 Hz and 80 {approximately} 200 pulse for the expansion valve opening while the speed of the indoor and outdoor fans were fixed. From the results of this study, the optimum combination of compressor driving frequency and expansion valve opening were found to exist if indoor and outdoor temperatures are settled though the operation point is changed by the preferable factor among capacity, comfort and power saving.

  12. Pressure loadings of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) reactor release mitigation structures from large-break LOCAs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sienicki, J.J.; Horak, W.C. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA); Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (USA))

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Analyses have been carried out of the pressurization of the accident release mitigation structures of Soviet-designed VVER (Water-Cooled, Water-Moderated Energy Reactor) pressurized water reactors following large-break loss-of-coolant accidents. Specific VVER systems for which calculations were performed are the VVER-440 model V230, VVER-440 model V213, and VVER-1000 model V320. Descriptions of the designs of these and other VVER models are contained in the report DOE/NE-0084. The principal objective of the current analyses is to calculate the time dependent pressure loadings inside the accident localization or containment structures immediately following the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary coolant pipe. In addition, the pressures are compared with the results of calculations of the response of the structures to overpressure. Primary coolant system thermal hydraulic conditions and the fluid conditions at the break location were calculated with the RETRAN-02 Mod2 computer code (Agee, 1984). Pressures and temperatures inside the building accident release mitigation structures were obtained from the PACER (Pressurization Accompanying Coolant Escape from Ruptures) multicompartment containment analysis code developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The analyses were carried out using best estimate models and conditions rather than conservative, bounding-type assumptions. In particular, condensation upon structure and equipment was calculated using correlations based upon analyses of the HDR, Marviken, and Battelle Frankfurt containment loading experiments. The intercompartment flow rates incorporate an effective discharge coefficient and liquid droplet carryover fraction given by expressions of Schwan determined from analyses of the Battelle Frankfurt and Marviken tests. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Enhancing Composition Window of Bicontinuous Structures by Designed Polydispersity Distribution of ABA Triblock Copolymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yue Li; Hu-Jun Qian; Zhong-Yuan Lu; An-Chang Shi

    2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The phase behavior of polydisperse ABA triblock copolymers is studied using dissipative particle dynamics simulations, focusing on the emergence and property of bicontinuous structures. Bicontinuous structures are characterized by two separate, intermeshed nanoscopic domains extending throughout the material. The connectivity of polymeric bicontinuous structures makes them highly desirable for many applications. For conventional monodisperse diblock and triblock copolymers, regular bicontinuous structures (i.e., gyroid and Fddd) can be formed over a narrow composition window of ~3%. We demonstrate that the composition window for the formation of bicontinuous structures can be regulated by designed polydispersity distributions of ABA triblock copolymers. In particular, introducing polydispersity in both A and B blocks can lead to a significant enhancement of the composition window of bicontinuous structures with both continuous A and B domains. The mechanism of the bicontinuous structure enhancement is elucidated from the distribution of the long and short blocks. Furthermore, it is shown that the polymeric bicontinuous structures from polydisperse ABA triblock copolymers possess good continuity throughout the sample, making them ideal candidates for advanced applications.

  14. Cooperative innovation in the commons : rethinking distributed collaboration and intellectual property for sustainable design innovation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sawhney, Nitin, 1971-

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Addressing global design challenges in the environment and underserved communities requires a cooperative approach towards sustainable design innovation, one that embraces multidisciplinary expertise, participatory design ...

  15. Distributed Solar Incentive Programs: Recent Experience and Best Practices for Design and Implementation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bird, L.; Reger, A.; Heeter, J.

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on lessons from recent program experience, this report explores best practices for designing and implementing incentives for small and mid-sized residential and commercial distributed solar energy projects. The findings of this paper are relevant to both new incentive programs as well as those undergoing modifications. The report covers factors to consider in setting and modifying incentive levels over time, differentiating incentives to encourage various market segments, administrative issues such as providing equitable access to incentives and customer protection. It also explores how incentive programs can be designed to respond to changing market conditions while attempting to provide a longer-term and stable environment for the solar industry. The findings are based on interviews with program administrators, regulators, and industry representatives as well as data from numerous incentive programs nationally, particularly the largest and longest-running programs. These best practices consider the perspectives of various stakeholders and the broad objectives of reducing solar costs, encouraging long-term market viability, minimizing ratepayer costs, and protecting consumers.

  16. A majorization-minimization approach to design of power distribution networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jason K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider optimization approaches to design cost-effective electrical networks for power distribution. This involves a trade-off between minimizing the power loss due to resistive heating of the lines and minimizing the construction cost (modeled by a linear cost in the number of lines plus a linear cost on the conductance of each line). We begin with a convex optimization method based on the paper 'Minimizing Effective Resistance of a Graph' [Ghosh, Boyd & Saberi]. However, this does not address the Alternating Current (AC) realm and the combinatorial aspect of adding/removing lines of the network. Hence, we consider a non-convex continuation method that imposes a concave cost of the conductance of each line thereby favoring sparser solutions. By varying a parameter of this penalty we extrapolate from the convex problem (with non-sparse solutions) to the combinatorial problem (with sparse solutions). This is used as a heuristic to find good solutions (local minima) of the non-convex problem. To perform the necessary non-convex optimization steps, we use the majorization-minimization algorithm that performs a sequence of convex optimizations obtained by iteratively linearizing the concave part of the objective. A number of examples are presented which suggest that the overall method is a good heuristic for network design. We also consider how to obtain sparse networks that are still robust against failures of lines and/or generators.

  17. Main Injector power distribution system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cezary Jach and Daniel Wolff

    2002-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The paper describes a new power distribution system for Fermilab's Main Injector. The system provides 13.8 kV power to Main Injector accelerator (accelerator and conventional loads) and is capable of providing power to the rest of the laboratory (backfeed system). Design criteria, and features including simulation results are given.

  18. The design and implementation of a distributed hierarchy for overcurrent protection and monitoring of a power distribution system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zeigler, John Charles

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    which provides coordinated control of each of the Overcurrent Relays within a substation. The third level consists of an Engineering Computer Facility which provides engineering support and coordinated control of all the Remote Terminal Units... be made locally. Since most distribution substations are unmanned, this requires a special service trip by a meter reading crew. Thus, this information is not immediately available to system operators who must constantly determine the most efficient...

  19. Cooling load estimation methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarland, R.D.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described. Correlations are described that permit auxiliary cooling estimates from monthly average insolation and weather data. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy required of a given building.

  20. Distributed & conceptual CAD (DC-CAD) : a new software solution for product design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Egan, Mark D. (Mark Douglas), 1985-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many computer aided design (CAD) software packages focus on detailed design and not on early stage, conceptual design. The ability to conceptualize and sketch early versions of a product solution is currently limited to ...

  1. The design and implementation of a distributed photo sharing Android application over ad-hoc wireless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, HaoQi, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a distributed photo-sharing Android application, CameraDP, that primarily relies on ad-hoc Wifi. The app runs on top of the novel DIstributed Programming Layer Over Mobile Agents (DIPLOMA) programming abstraction. ...

  2. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemfor Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Powerof solar combined heat and power systems . . . . . . .

  3. Wiring design based on Global Energy Requirement criteria: a first step towards optimization of DC distribution voltage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    optimization methodology based on the primary energy environmental impact 2.1. The Global Energy RequirementWiring design based on Global Energy Requirement criteria: a first step towards optimization of DC. Introduction Nowadays, the global energy context leads to a need for the development of distributed Renewable

  4. Plug Load

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - September 2006Photovoltaic Theory andVelocityPlatinum-LoadingPlug-Load Sign In

  5. Decentralized customerlevel under frequency load shedding in...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    project focuses on a smart demand side management of household consumers. Modern communication technology enables the management of large groups of distributed loads under a...

  6. preprint; to appear in IEEE Systems Journal special issue on Complex Systems Estimating propagation and distribution of load shed in simulations of cascading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dobson, Ian

    , and maintaining high reliability is especially important as the electric power infrastructure is being transformed mechanisms in power systems by which components tripping or failures cause further compo- nents tripping [1 of electric power systems. The average propagation of the simulated load shed data is estimated

  7. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    12] Kalogirou, S. A. (2004). Solar thermal collectors andD. (2004). Advances in solar thermal electricity technology.December). Distributed solar-thermal/electric generation.

  8. A Better Steam Engine: Designing a Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Norwood, Zachary Mills

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Power Systemfor Distributed Concentrating Solar Combined Heat and Powerin parabolic trough solar power technology. Journal of Solar

  9. Load Management for Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Konsevick, W. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In the electric utility industry, load management provides the opportunity to control customer loads to beneficially alter a utility's load curve Load management alternatives are covered. Load management methods can be broadly classified into four...

  10. Distributed Algorithmic Mechanism Design for Scheduling on Unrelated Thomas E. Carroll

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grosu, Daniel

    on unrelated machines. This mechanism, called Distributed MinWork (DMW) is a distributed implementation of the MinWork mechanism proposed by Nisan and Ronen [12]. DMW is resilient to agents deviating from the protocol since the cheaters are detected and eliminated from further participation. We show that DMW

  11. Impact of load type on microgrid stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Monnin, Jared P

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Microgrids show great promise as a means of integrating distributed generation sources into the public grid distribution system. In order to provide uninterrupted,high quality power to local loads, microgrids must have the ...

  12. Distributed DBMS Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yangjun

    Distributed DBMS Outline Introduction What is a distributed DBMS Problems Current state-of-affairs Background Distributed DBMS Architecture Distributed Database Design Semantic Data Control Distributed Query Processing Distributed Transaction Management Parallel Database Systems Distributed Object DBMS

  13. In the last decades, much effort has been spent on the design and provision of sophisti-cated communication infrastructures. The development of end-user oriented distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Sinderen, Marten

    of distributed applications. · some design concepts are not clearly defined, thus prohibiting their effectivePreface v Preface In the last decades, much effort has been spent on the design and provision of sophisti- cated communication infrastructures. The development of end-user oriented distributed system

  14. Design and development of digital smart meter network for distribution system.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rahman, Md. M

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ??"The main objective of this study is to design and develop smart meter network to investigate the requirements of an efficient and reliable smart meter… (more)

  15. Methodology for the optimal design of PEV charging systems with multiple chargers and distributed resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gunter, Samantha Joellyn

    Increased penetration of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) will necessitate deployment of numerous PEV chargers. Pairing these chargers with renewable distributed generation (DG) and storage can potentially alleviate negative ...

  16. Mechanism design for distributed task and resource allocation among self-interested agents in virtual organizations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    He, Linli

    2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

    to run this organization efficiently. This dissertation studies the problems of distributed task and resource allocation among self-interested agents in virtual organizations. The developed solutions are not allocation mechanisms that can be imposed by a...

  17. Optimal Design of Grid-Connected PEV Charging Systems With Integrated Distributed Resources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perreault, David J.

    The penetration of plug-in electric vehicles and renewable distributed generation is expected to increase over the next few decades. Large scale unregulated deployment of either technology can have a detrimental impact on ...

  18. A hardware-based approach to adaptive load-sharing on a local area network

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddy, Harikrishna M

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load-distribution is used to enhance the performance of distributed systems. Two types of load-distribution techniques have been studied and used: load-sharing schemes, in which the total load on the system is distributed in such a way...

  19. Optimal design of pump-and-treat systems under uncertain hydraulic conductivity and plume distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bau, Domenico A.

    Optimal design of pump-and-treat systems under uncertain hydraulic conductivity and plume of the cleanup by pump-and-treat of polluted shallow aquifers. In the problem being investigated, hydraulic accordingly the design of the pump-and-treat system for the remainder of the remedial process. The study

  20. Design, prototyping and preliminary testing of an elastic-powered climbing exoskeleton

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Briner, Hazel (Hazel Linn)

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Human powered elastic mechanisms can be used to reduce work requirements of muscles, by storing and releasing energy to more evenly distribute work load. An exoskeleton was designed to delay human fatigue during rock ...

  1. Properly Evaluating load-following products

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavicchi, Joseph; Lemon, Andrew

    2009-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The authors briefly survey the jurisdictions where load-following products have been successfully used, examine the characteristics of the load-following products, and explain the shortcomings and inaccurate conclusions of previous analyses. A more thorough analysis reveals that the load-following products fulfill the public policy objectives for which they have been designed and do not adversely impact wholesale electricity markets.

  2. High-Power Rf Load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tantawi, Sami G. (San Mateo, CA); Vlieks, Arnold E. (Livermore, CA)

    1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact high-power RF load comprises a series of very low Q resonators, or chokes [16], in a circular waveguide [10]. The sequence of chokes absorb the RF power gradually in a short distance while keeping the bandwidth relatively wide. A polarizer [12] at the input end of the load is provided to convert incoming TE.sub.10 mode signals to circularly polarized TE.sub.11 mode signals. Because the load operates in the circularly polarized mode, the energy is uniformly and efficiently absorbed and the load is more compact than a rectangular load. Using these techniques, a load having a bandwidth of 500 MHz can be produced with an average power dissipation level of 1.5 kW at X-band, and a peak power dissipation of 100 MW. The load can be made from common lossy materials, such as stainless steel, and is less than 15 cm in length. These techniques can also produce loads for use as an alternative to ordinary waveguide loads in small and medium RF accelerators, in radar systems, and in other microwave applications. The design is easily scalable to other RF frequencies and adaptable to the use of other lossy materials.

  3. Implications of an open, extensible, and distributed hypermedia information system architecture for interprocess communication subsystem design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuernberg, Peter John

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in an information system as openness and extensibility. Secondly, it was shown that the design and implementation of an interprocess communication subsystem has critical implications for the supersystem into which it is integrated. Namely, if the interprocess...

  4. A Simulation Framework for Design of Mixed Time/Event-Triggered Distributed Control Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koutsoukos, Xenofon D.

    not fit into the strict periodic framework [13]. These CPS control systems often consist of both TT and ET- grate, and simulate all parts together is essential for design space exploration during early

  5. Optimum design for BB84 quantum key distribution in tree-type passive optical networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jose Capmany; Carlos R. Fernandez-Pousa

    2011-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    We show that there is a tradeoff between the useful key distribution bit rate and the total length of deployed fiber in tree-type passive optical networks for BB84 quantum key distribution applications. A two stage splitting architecture where one splitting is carried in the central office and a second in the outside plant and figure of merit to account for the tradeoff are proposed. We find that there is an optimum solution for the splitting ratios of both stages in the case of Photon Number Splitting (PNS) attacks and Decoy State transmission. We then analyze the effects of the different relevant physical parameters of the PON on the optimum solution.

  6. An effective loading method of americium targets in fast reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohki, Shigeo; Sato, Isamu; Mizuno, Tomoyasu; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Tanaka, Kenya [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4002, Narita-cho, O-arai-machi, Higashi-Ibaraki-gun, Ibaraki 311-1393 (Japan)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, the development of target fuel with high americium (Am) content has been launched for the reduction of the overall fuel fabrication cost of the minor actinide (MA) recycling. In the framework of the development, this study proposes an effective loading method of Am targets in fast reactors. As a result of parametric survey calculations, we have found the ring-shaped target loading pattern between inner and outer core regions. This loading method is satisfactory both in core characteristics and in MA transmutation property. It should be noted that the Am targets can contribute to the suppression of the core power distribution change due to burnup. The major drawback of Am target is the production of helium gas. A target design modification by increasing the cladding thickness is found to be the most feasible measure to cope with the helium production. (authors)

  7. Methodology for designing the fuzzy resolver for a radial distribution system fault locator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jun

    2006-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The Power System Automation Lab at Texas A&M University developed a fault location scheme that can be used for radial distribution systems. When a fault occurs, the scheme executes three stages. In the first stage, all data measurements and system...

  8. A design approach to a risk review for fuel cell-based distributed cogeneration systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luthringer, Kristin Lyn

    2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A risk review of a fuel cell-based distributed co-generation (FC-Based DCG) system was conducted to identify and quantify the major technological system risks in a worst-case scenario. A risk review entails both a risk assessment and a risk...

  9. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID 1 Optimal, Nonlinear, and Distributed Designs of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qu, Zhihua

    and utilizing alternative energy sources. Of special interest are renewable energy sources such as solar- neering for Accelerated Renewable Energy Deployment program), and by US Department of Energy's Solar of optimal voltage and power regulation is formulated for distributed generators (DGs) in DC microgrids

  10. Interactive design of sustainable cities with a distributed local search solver

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Christie, Marc

    of urban shapes (residential, commercial, or industrial units, together with infrastructures, schools stages of the design process. The benefits of our approach are highlighted by examples and feedbacks from by a collection of rules related to social, economic, energy, mobility and sustainability issues. #12

  11. Evaluating eXtreme Scenario-based Design in a Distributed Agile Team

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Virginia Tech Blacksburg VA 24061-0106 mccricks@cs.vt.edu #12;Introduction Agile software development exploring ways to integrate usability into agile software development methodologies. However, they do with Meridium, Inc. to look at how eXtreme Scenario-based Design (XSBD), an agile usability approach developed

  12. Design and analysis of distributed primitives for mobile ad hoc networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yu

    2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    by the network, which poses a serious challenge for the design and analysis of reliable protocols. In this work, three different approaches are used to handle mobility. The first part of the dissertation employs the simple technique of ignoring the mobility...

  13. Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berlin,Technische Universität

    Reconstruction of a wind turbine's endured load spectrum using a short-time load measurement Abstract Wind turbines (WT) are normally designed for a service life (SL) of 20 years. In Germany, over safety. 1 Introduction A wind turbine (WT) is normally designed, tested and certified for a design life

  14. Static load testing of a heliostat drive

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grossman, J.W.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The drive designed and built by the Solar Power Engineering Company (SPECO) for its large area heliostat failed under high wind loads during a winter storm. This report details the testing and analysis done to verify the load capabilities of the rebuilt heliostat drive. Changes in design and improvements in fabrication resulted in a usable drive. 12 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Randomized Load Balancing by Joining and Splitting Bins James Aspnes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aspnes, James

    Consider the following load balancing scenario: a certain amount of work load is distributed among a setRandomized Load Balancing by Joining and Splitting Bins James Aspnes Yitong Yin § 1 Introduction, one of the existing machines gives some of its load to the new machine; and upon a departure

  16. Distribution Behavior of U(VI), Pu(IV), Am(III), and Zr(IV) with N,N-Dihexyl Octanamide Under Uranium-Loading Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manchanda, V.K.; Ruikar, P.B.; Sriram, S.; Nagar, M.S.; Pathak, P.N.; Gupta, K.K.; Singh, R.K.; Chitnis, R.R.; Dhami, P.S.; Ramanujam, A. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (India)

    2001-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    While the tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP)-based PUREX process has been the workhorse of the nuclear fuel reprocessing industry for the last four and a half decades, a few drawbacks associated with the use of TBP have caused concern to the separation scientists and technologists. These shortcomings may pose a serious challenge particularly during the reprocessing of (a) short cooled thermal reactor fuels, (b) fast reactor fuels with the larger Pu content and significantly higher burn up, and (c) while treating various waste streams for their disposal to the environment. The N,N-dialkyl aliphatic amides have received particular attention as alternate potential extractants for the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels in view of (a) the innocuous nature of their degradation products, namely, carboxylic acids/amines and (b) the possibility to incinerate the used solvent leading to reduced volume of secondary waste. The physical and chemical properties of these amides are influenced strongly by the nature of alkyl groups. The extractant N,N-dihexyl octanamide (DHOA) was found to be a promising candidate among a large number of extractants studied. Laboratory batch studies as well as mixer settler studies were performed under process conditions with DHOA and compared with those of TBP. DHOA was found to extract Pu(IV) more efficiently than TBP, both at trace-level concentration as well as under uranium loading conditions. In addition, the extraction behavior of Am(III) and Zr(IV) was studied at varying nitric acid concentrations (1 to 6 M). Extraction behavior of uranium at macroconcentrations (9.9 to 157.7 g/l) was carried out at different temperatures, and it was observed that D{sub U} decreased with the increase in U loading as well as with the increase of temperature (in the range 25 to 45 deg. C) and that the two-phase reaction was exothermic in nature. Mixer settler studies on U(VI) revealed that DHOA is similar to TBP during the extraction cycle but better than TBP during the stripping cycle.

  17. affects lysosomal distribution: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Key factors affecting voltage oscillations of distribution networks with distributed generation and induction motor loads Engineering Websites Summary: and induction motor loads...

  18. Passive damping of beam vibrations through distributed electric networks and piezoelectric transducers: prototype design and experimental validation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. dell'Isola; C. Maurini; M. Porfiri

    2010-07-12T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this work is two-fold: to design devices for passive electric damping of structural vibrations by distributed piezoelectric transducers and electric networks, and to experimentally validate the effectiveness of such a damping concept. Two different electric networks are employed, namely a purely resistive network and an inductive-resistive one. The presented devices can be considered as distributed versions of the well-known resistive and resonant shunt of a single piezoelectric transducer. The technicalfeasibility and damping effectiveness of the proposed novel devices are assessed through the construction of an experimental prototype. Experimental results are shown to be in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. It is proved that the presented technique allows for a substantial reduction in the inductances used when compared with those required by the single resonant shunted transducer. In particular, it is shown that the required inductance decreases when the number of piezoelectric elements is increased. The electric networks are optimized in order to reduce forced vibrations close to the first resonance frequency. Nevertheless, the damping effectiveness for higher modes is experimentally proved. As well as specific results, fundamental theoretical and experimental considerations for passive distributed vibration control are provided.

  19. Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pawlowski, Wojtek

    Steam Load Reduction Guidance Emergency Management Program v October 2014 Steam_Load_Reduction_Guidance_DSRDSR 1.0 PurposeandScope Utilities provides steam to the campus community for space heating, hot water in the steam distribution system or the Central Energy Plant, the preservation of building infrastructure

  20. Seismic considerations in the evaluation of temporary loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adams, T.M. [Stevenson and Associates, Cleveland, OH (United States); Stevenson, J.D.

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Temporary loads in nuclear power facilities can result from a number of activities including special one time operating conditions, repair and upgrade conditions, and ALARA requirements for operation, inspection and maintenance. Many times evaluation of these loadings includes their consideration in conjunction with other design basis loadings such as normal loads and extreme event loads including earthquake loadings. At times this combination with design basis extreme loads, such as earthquake, results in predicted structural demands which exceed the design basis capacity. Many times a major contributor to this demand prediction is the earthquake loadings. Discussed in this paper are analytical methods, probabilistic considerations, and earthquake experienced based evaluations which can be applied to reduce the earthquake demand for short term temporary loadings.

  1. Influence of loading rate on axially loaded piles in clay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garland Ponce, Enrique Eduardo

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . Coyle (Member) ave u ofs (Member) . Hsrsc (Head of Department) May 1984 ABSTRACT Influence of Loading Rate on Axially Loaded Piles in Clay. (May 1984) Enrique Eduardo Garland Ponce, B. S. , Texas A8M University Chairman of Committee: Dr. Jean... and support during all phases of this study. The author also wishes to acknowledge Drs. Harry M. Coyle and David Dubofski who served as members of the advisory committee. Special notes of gratitude to Dr . Wayne A. Dunlap for his aid in the design...

  2. Assessment of Distributed Energy Adoption in Commercial Buildings: Part 1: An Analysis of Policy, Building Loads, Tariff Design, and Technology Development

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan; Nishida, Masaru; Gao, Weijun; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CHP utilization energy supply equipment Content Interest rate 1.65% Subsidy 50% of investment Subsidy: no more than 1/3 of cost,

  3. Energy performance of underfloor air distribution systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom; Linden, Paul; Buhl, Fred

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide.  Atlanta: distribution, UFAD, EnergyPlus, EnergyPlus/UFAD, energy  modeling, design design calculations must account for the distribution of 

  4. advanced load alleviation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    paradox of the pulsar wind nebula. Maxim Lyutikov 2002-02-19 89 A Technique to Utilize Smart Meter Load Information for Adapting Overcurrent Protection for Radial Distribution...

  5. Electromagnetic Analysis For The Design Of ITER Diagnostic Port Plugs During Plasma Disruptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhai, Y

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    ITER diagnostic port plugs perform many functions including structural support of diagnostic systems under high electromagnetic loads while allowing for diagnostic access to plasma. The design of diagnotic equatorial port plugs (EPP) are largely driven by electromagnetic loads and associate response of EPP structure during plasma disruptions and VDEs. This paper summarizes results of transient electromagnetic analysis using Opera 3d in support of the design activities for ITER diagnostic EPP. A complete distribution of disruption loads on the Diagnostic First Walls (DFWs). Diagnostic Shield Modules (DSMs) and the EPP structure, as well as impact on the system design integration due to electrical contact among various EPP structural components are discussed.

  6. Load-follow operation with the MSHIM control system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morita, T.; Carlsen, B.W.; Kutz, J.P.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As part of Westinghouse Electric Corporation's ongoing efforts to improve plant daily load-follow capability, a system has been developed that promises a significant enhancement of current load-maneuvering capabilities, while simultaneously reducing the burden on operators and plant systems. This concept, the mechanical shim (MSHIM), control system utilizes two independently operable groups of control banks for essentially simultaneous control of reactivity and axial power distribution. This system has been developed with the goal of supporting either of two operational modes. One mode is designed to maximize spinning reserve (MAXSR) capacity (return to full-power capability). The other mode minimizes boric (MINB) acid changes, hence effluent production, during the power maneuver. The features of the two control modes are summarized.

  7. Conceptual design selection and development of a latent-heat thermal-energy-storage subsystem for a saturated-steam solar receiver and load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The following latent heat storage concepts are described and evaluated in comparison with each other and with an oil/rock sensible heat storage system: (1) passive tube intensive (shell-and-tube heat exchanger) with and without heat transfer enhanced by fins; (2) phase change material cans (or chubbs) with a biphenyl intermediate heat transfer fluid; (3) phase change material macroencapsulation in a containment tank full of tubes; (4) microencapsulation in a porous carrier; (5) direct contact heat exchange; and (6) systems using mechanical scrapers for removing solidified phase change material from container surfaces. A tube intensive system with heat transfer enhancement was selected, and the conceptual design and cost/performance estimates are given for it. A commercial scale unit is assessed, and design changes and corresponding costs are presented that would be required to make the system meet changed requirements. (LEW)

  8. Strategy Guideline: Compact Air Distribution Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This Strategy Guideline discusses the benefits and challenges of using a compact air distribution system to handle the reduced loads and reduced air volume needed to condition the space within an energy efficient home. Traditional systems sized by 'rule of thumb' (i.e., 1 ton of cooling per 400 ft2 of floor space) that 'wash' the exterior walls with conditioned air from floor registers cannot provide appropriate air mixing and moisture removal in low-load homes. A compact air distribution system locates the HVAC equipment centrally with shorter ducts run to interior walls, and ceiling supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls along the ceiling plane; alternatively, high sidewall supply outlets throw the air toward the exterior walls. Potential drawbacks include resistance from installing contractors or code officials who are unfamiliar with compact air distribution systems, as well as a lack of availability of low-cost high sidewall or ceiling supply outlets to meet the low air volumes with good throw characteristics. The decision criteria for a compact air distribution system must be determined early in the whole-house design process, considering both supply and return air design. However, careful installation of a compact air distribution system can result in lower material costs from smaller equipment, shorter duct runs, and fewer outlets; increased installation efficiencies, including ease of fitting the system into conditioned space; lower loads on a better balanced HVAC system, and overall improved energy efficiency of the home.

  9. Automatic load follow control system for PWR plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakakura, H.; Ishiguro, A.

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In Japan, load follow operation (daily load follow, automatic frequency control (AFC) operation, and governor free (GF) operation) of nuclear plants will be required in the near future to control grid frequency, as the ratio of nuclear plant electrical production to total grid production will increase. The AFC operation regulated power by demand from the central load dispatcher to control mainly the fringe component of the grid frequency fluctuation, and GF operation regulates power by turbine revolution or grid frequency to control mainly the cyclic component of grid frequency fluctuation. This paper deals with the automatic power distribution control system, which is important to load follow operation and possibly will be applied to pressurized water reactor (PWR) nuclear plants. The reactor control systems noted below are conventional design with some improvements for AFC/GF operation, so that the reactor operates the turbine as before: (1) rod control system (reactor power control); (2) pressurizer pressure control system; (3) pressurizer level control system; and (4) steam generator level control system.

  10. Networked Loads in the Distribution Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhifang; Li, Xiao; Muthukumar, Vishak; Scaglione, Anna; Peisert, Sean; McParland, Chuck

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    unknown) @2 Enphase Energy Solar Panel web access TESTower PLC BACnet Solar Panel @ Thompson UC Foundation15 (unknown) @13 Solar Panel @ Miller TES Train BCU CCS/BMS

  11. Neurocontrol of Pressurized Water Reactors in Load-Follow Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin Chaung; Shen Chihming

    2000-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The neurocontrol technique was applied to control a pressurized water reactor (PWR) in load-follow operations. Generalized learning or direct inverse control architecture was adopted in which the neural network was trained off-line to learn the inverse model of the PWR. Two neural network controllers were designed: One provided control rod position, which controlled the axial power distribution, and the other provided the change in boron concentration, which adjusted core total power. An additional feedback controller was designed so that power tracking capability was improved. The time duration between control actions was 15 min; thus, the xenon effect is limited and can be neglected. Therefore, the xenon concentration was not considered as a controller input variable, which simplified controller design. Center target strategy and minimum boron strategy were used to operate the reactor, and the simulation results demonstrated the effectiveness and performance of the proposed controller.

  12. The Impact of Rate Design and Net Metering on the Bill Savings from Distributed PV for Residential Customers in California

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Energy and Resources Group, University of California, Berkeley; Darghouth, Naim R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Net metering has become a widespread mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), but has faced challenges as PV installations grow to a larger share of generation in a number of states. This paper examines the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. We find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies by more than a factor of four across the customers in the sample, which is largely attributable to the inclining block structure of the utilities' residential retail rates. We also compare the bill savings under net metering to that received under three potential alternative compensation mechanisms, based on California's Market Price Referent (MPR). We find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than a full MPR-based feed-in tariff, but only modestly greater savings than alternative mechanisms under which hourly or monthly net excess generation is compensated at the MPR rate.

  13. Econophysical Dynamics of Market-Based Electric Power Distribution Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nicolas Ho; David P. Chassin

    2006-02-09T23:59:59.000Z

    As energy markets begin clearing at sub-hourly rates, their interaction with load control systems becomes a potentially important consideration. A simple model for the control of thermal systems using market-based power distribution strategies is proposed, with particular attention to the behavior and dynamics of electric building loads and distribution-level power markets. Observations of dynamic behavior of simple numerical model are compared to that of an aggregate continuous model. The analytic solution of the continuous model suggests important deficiencies in each. The continuous model provides very valuable insights into how one might design such load control system and design the power markets they interact with. We also highlight important shortcomings of the continuous model which we believe must be addressed using discrete models.

  14. TOWARDS A POWER EFFICIENT PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR AD HOC In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a distributed operating system for ad hoc net-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sirer, Emin Gun

    1 TOWARDS A POWER EFFICIENT PROGRAMMING MODEL FOR AD HOC NETWORKS Abstract In this paper, we describe the design and implementation of a distributed operating system for ad hoc net- works. The goal of our system is to extend total system lifetime for ad hoc networking applications through power

  15. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, Carl W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Nodine, Robert N. (Knoxville, TN); Wallace, Steven Allen (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast

  16. PEV-based P-Q Control in Line Distribution Networks with High Requirement for Reactive Power Compensation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    impact of distribution level wind turbines. Our design is based on a nonlinear power flow analysis of wind turbines to support their induction load to avoid generator voltage excursion. Note that, although-sized wind turbines in large wind farms [1], the smaller wind turbines that are used at the distribution

  17. Loading margin Stable operating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linear approximation at p1 Actual loading margin Loadingmargin Parameter p p1 p2 p3 IEEE Transactions collapse. Linear and quadratic estimates to the variation of the loading margin with respect to any sys power support, wheeling, load model param- eters, line susceptance, and generator dispatch. The accuracy

  18. Retrofitting unreinforced concrete masonry to resist tornado loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorshorst, Evan G. (Evan Gregory)

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Advances in structural design and building materials have significantly increased the performance of many structures under the extreme loading conditions associated with natural disasters such as earthquakes. However, ...

  19. Development of Fast-Running Simulation Methodology Using Neural Networks for Load Follow Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seong, Seung-Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Park, Heui-Youn [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Hoon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Suh, Yong-Suk [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Hur, Seop [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Koo, In-Soo [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Un-Chul [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Jin-Wook [Seoul National University (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Yong-Chul [Yonsei University (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new fast-running analytic model has been developed for analyzing the load follow operation. The new model was based on the neural network theory, which has the capability of modeling the input/output relationships of a nonlinear system. The new model is made up of two error back-propagation neural networks and procedures to calculate core parameters, such as the distributions and density of xenon in a quasi-steady-state core like load follow operation. One neural network is designed to retrieve the axial offset of power distribution, and the other is for reactivity corresponding to a given core condition. The training data sets for learning the neural networks in the new model are generated with a three-dimensional nodal code and, also, the measured data of the first-day test of load follow operation. Using the new model, the simulation results of the 5-day load follow test in a pressurized water reactor show a good agreement between the simulation data and the actual measured data. Required computing time for simulating a load follow operation is comparable to that of a fast-running lumped model. Moreover, the new model does not require additional engineering factors to compensate for the difference between the actual measurements and analysis results because the neural network has the inherent learning capability of neural networks to new situations.

  20. aware distributed applications: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    CiteSeer Summary: Abstract This paper describes three software applications for distribution network load forecasting in a Smart Grid environment: (i) short-term feeder load...

  1. Cooling airflow design tool for displacement ventilation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schiavon, Stefano; Bauman, Fred

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Overhead Air Distribution (Mixed)  Design  Temperature  Tto “Design Temperature,” the “Overhead Air Distribution”T d   Design Control  Strategy  Zone Air  Distribution 

  2. Modeling and control of thermostatically controlled loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sinitsyn, Nikolai [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kundu, S. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN; Hiskens, I. [UNIV OF MICHIGAN

    2011-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    As the penetration of intermittent energy sources grows substantially, loads will be required to play an increasingly important role in compensating the fast time-scale fluctuations in generated power. Recent numerical modeling of thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analytical models that satisfactorily quantify the aggregate power consumption of a group of TCLs are desired to enable controller design. We develop such a model for the aggregate power response of a homogeneous population of TCLs to uniform variation of all TCL setpoints. A linearized model of the response is derived, and a linear quadratic regulator (LQR) has been designed. Using the TCL setpoint as the control input, the LQR enables aggregate power to track reference signals that exhibit step, ramp and sinusoidal variations. Although much of the work assumes a homogeneous population of TCLs with deterministic dynamics, we also propose a method for probing the dynamics of systems where load characteristics are not well known.

  3. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, L.M.; Strum, M.J.

    1998-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils is disclosed. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components. 1 fig.

  4. Load regulating expansion fixture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wagner, Lawrence M. (San Jose, CA); Strum, Michael J. (San Jose, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A free standing self contained device for bonding ultra thin metallic films, such as 0.001 inch beryllium foils. The device will regulate to a predetermined load for solid state bonding when heated to a bonding temperature. The device includes a load regulating feature, whereby the expansion stresses generated for bonding are regulated and self adjusting. The load regulator comprises a pair of friction isolators with a plurality of annealed copper members located therebetween. The device, with the load regulator, will adjust to and maintain a stress level needed to successfully and economically complete a leak tight bond without damaging thin foils or other delicate components.

  5. Load sensing system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sohns, C.W.; Nodine, R.N.; Wallace, S.A.

    1999-05-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A load sensing system inexpensively monitors the weight and temperature of stored nuclear material for long periods of time in widely variable environments. The system can include an electrostatic load cell that encodes weight and temperature into a digital signal which is sent to a remote monitor via a coaxial cable. The same cable is used to supply the load cell with power. When multiple load cells are used, vast inventories of stored nuclear material can be continuously monitored and inventoried of minimal cost. 4 figs.

  6. Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) Description and Loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This document describes simulated turbine load cases in accordance to the IEC 61400-1 Ed.3 standard, which is representative of the typical wind turbine design process. The information presented herein is intended to provide a broad understanding of the gearbox reliability collaborative 750kW drivetrain and turbine configuration. In addition, fatigue and ultimate strength drivetrain loads resulting from simulations are presented. This information provides the bases for the analytical work of the gearbox reliability collaborative effort.

  7. Integrated Transmission and Distribution Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Tuffner, Francis K.; Lian, Jianming; Zhang, Wei; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Fisher, Andrew R.; Chassin, Forrest S.; Hauer, Matthew L.

    2013-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed, generation, demand response, distributed storage, smart appliances, electric vehicles and renewable energy resources are expected to play a key part in the transformation of the American power system. Control, coordination and compensation of these smart grid assets are inherently interlinked. Advanced control strategies to warrant large-scale penetration of distributed smart grid assets do not currently exist. While many of the smart grid technologies proposed involve assets being deployed at the distribution level, most of the significant benefits accrue at the transmission level. The development of advanced smart grid simulation tools, such as GridLAB-D, has led to a dramatic improvement in the models of smart grid assets available for design and evaluation of smart grid technology. However, one of the main challenges to quantifying the benefits of smart grid assets at the transmission level is the lack of tools and framework for integrating transmission and distribution technologies into a single simulation environment. Furthermore, given the size and complexity of the distribution system, it is crucial to be able to represent the behavior of distributed smart grid assets using reduced-order controllable models and to analyze their impacts on the bulk power system in terms of stability and reliability. The objectives of the project were to: • Develop a simulation environment for integrating transmission and distribution control, • Construct reduced-order controllable models for smart grid assets at the distribution level, • Design and validate closed-loop control strategies for distributed smart grid assets, and • Demonstrate impact of integrating thousands of smart grid assets under closed-loop control demand response strategies on the transmission system. More specifically, GridLAB-D, a distribution system tool, and PowerWorld, a transmission planning tool, are integrated into a single simulation environment. The integrated environment allows the load flow interactions between the bulk power system and end-use loads to be explicitly modeled. Power system interactions are modeled down to time intervals as short as 1-second. Another practical issue is that the size and complexity of typical distribution systems makes direct integration with transmission models computationally intractable. Hence, the focus of the next main task is to develop reduced-order controllable models for some of the smart grid assets. In particular, HVAC units, which are a type of Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs), are considered. The reduced-order modeling approach can be extended to other smart grid assets, like water heaters, PVs and PHEVs. Closed-loop control strategies are designed for a population of HVAC units under realistic conditions. The proposed load controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing the end-use performance. Finally, using the T&D simulation platform, the benefits to the bulk power system are demonstrated by controlling smart grid assets under different demand response closed-loop control strategies.

  8. 16 Load Data Cleansing and Bus Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Ke

    -to-day operations, system analysis in smart grids, system visualization, system performance reliability, energy..............................................................................................................397 #12;376 Smart Grids The load forecast generally provides annual peak values for the whole system saving, and accuracy in system planning [1­4]. * This work is partly supported by a collaborative

  9. Cooling load design tool for UFAD systems.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Schiavon, Stefano; Webster, Tom; Lee, Kwang Ho

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ratio of time between Fan Coil Units Perimeter Zone Linearand underfloor fan coil units. cooling contribution of

  10. Energy-Aware Load Balancing in Content Delivery Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mathew, Vimal; Shenoy, Prashant

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Internet-scale distributed systems such as content delivery networks (CDNs) operate hundreds of thousands of servers deployed in thousands of data center locations around the globe. Since the energy costs of operating such a large IT infrastructure are a significant fraction of the total operating costs, we argue for redesigning CDNs to incorporate energy optimizations as a first-order principle. We propose techniques to turn off CDN servers during periods of low load while seeking to balance three key design goals: maximize energy reduction, minimize the impact on client-perceived service availability (SLAs), and limit the frequency of on-off server transitions to reduce wear-and-tear and its impact on hardware reliability. We propose an optimal offline algorithm and an online algorithm to extract energy savings both at the level of local load balancing within a data center and global load balancing across data centers. We evaluate our algorithms using real production workload traces from a large commercial ...

  11. Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    room cooling load, room air setpoint, and supply air temper-distribution of room cooling load into the supply plenum orof room cooling load between the underfloor supply plenum

  12. contingency Nominal loading margin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is estimated. First a nose curve is computed by continuation to obtain a nominal loading margin. Then linear and the very fast computation of the linear estimates. Keywords: Power system security, contingency analy- sis formulas derived in [4]. The computations are summarized: 1 A pattern of load increase, generator dispatch

  13. Comfort-constrained distributed heat pump management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parkinson, Simon; Crawford, Curran; Djilali, Ned

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper introduces the design of a demand response network control strategy aimed at thermostatically controlled electric heating and cooling systems in buildings. The method relies on the use of programmable communicating thermostats, which are able to provide important component-level state variables to a system-level central controller. This information can be used to build power density distribution functions for the aggregate heat pump load. These functions lay out the fundamental basis for the methodology by allowing for consideration of customer-level constraints within the system-level decision making process. The proposed strategy is then implemented in a computational model to simulate a distribution of buildings, where the aggregate heat pump load is managed to provide the regulation services needed to successfully integrate wind power generators. Increased exploitation of wind resources will place similarly themed ancillary services in high-demand, traditionally provided by dispatchable energy ...

  14. Design Enablement and Design-Centric Assessment of Future Semiconductor Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abou Ghaida, Rani

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    utilization. Feature Distribution and Design-Rule Violationserror distribution), and benchmark designs (specified asGiven the distribution of features, design-rule violations

  15. Design and Quasi-Equilibrium Analysis of a Distributed Frequency-Restoration Controller for Inverter-Based Microgrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ainsworth, Nathan G [ORNL] [ORNL; Grijalva, Prof. Santiago [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta] [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses a proposed frequency restoration controller which operates as an outer loop to frequency droop for voltage-source inverters. By quasi-equilibrium analysis, we show that the proposed controller is able to provide arbitrarily small steady-state frequency error while maintaing power sharing between inverters without need for communication or centralized control. We derive rate of convergence, discuss design considerations (including a fundamental trade-off that must be made in design), present a design procedure to meet a maximum frequency error requirement, and show simulation results verifying our analysis and design method. The proposed controller will allow flexible plug-and-play inverter-based networks to meet a specified maximum frequency error requirement.

  16. LO Generation and Distribution for 60GHz Phased Array Transceivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcu, Cristian

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    goal of the LO distribution network design was minimizing7. Given a distribution impedance, Z o , design an input5. LO DISTRIBUTION Mixer LO Buffer Design Methodology The

  17. ANALYSIS AND APPLICATION OF INDUCTANCE IN CLOCK DISTRIBUTION NETWORKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Xuchu

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distribution Network Background 2.1 Clock Network DesignClock distribution techniques for low-EMI design. Springerclock distribution in high-performance designs due to their

  18. Evaluating shortfalls in mixed-integer programming approaches for the optimal design and dispatch of distributed generation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    associated with volatile utility pricing and potentially high system capital costs. Energy technology and boilers), and/or thermal energy storage (e.g., hot water). For some markets, volatile utility pricing heat and power Fuel cells Building energy a b s t r a c t The distributed generation (DG) of combined

  19. Structural Design of a Horizontal-Axis Tidal Current Turbine Composite Blade

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bir, G. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Li, Y.

    2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes the structural design of a tidal composite blade. The structural design is preceded by two steps: hydrodynamic design and determination of extreme loads. The hydrodynamic design provides the chord and twist distributions along the blade length that result in optimal performance of the tidal turbine over its lifetime. The extreme loads, i.e. the extreme flap and edgewise loads that the blade would likely encounter over its lifetime, are associated with extreme tidal flow conditions and are obtained using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. Given the blade external shape and the extreme loads, we use a laminate-theory-based structural design to determine the optimal layout of composite laminas such that the ultimate-strength and buckling-resistance criteria are satisfied at all points in the blade. The structural design approach allows for arbitrary specification of the chord, twist, and airfoil geometry along the blade and an arbitrary number of shear webs. In addition, certain fabrication criteria are imposed, for example, each composite laminate must be an integral multiple of its constituent ply thickness. In the present effort, the structural design uses only static extreme loads; dynamic-loads-based fatigue design will be addressed in the future. Following the blade design, we compute the distributed structural properties, i.e. flap stiffness, edgewise stiffness, torsion stiffness, mass, moments of inertia, elastic-axis offset, and center-of-mass offset along the blade. Such properties are required by hydro-elastic codes to model the tidal current turbine and to perform modal, stability, loads, and response analyses.

  20. Control Challenges of Fuel Cell-Driven Distributed Valery Knyazkin, Lennart Soder Claudio Canizares

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cańizares, Claudio A.

    1 Control Challenges of Fuel Cell-Driven Distributed Generation Valery Knyazkin, Lennart S-- This paper discusses the load following capability of fuel cell-driven power plants. A linear model of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power plant is obtained and utilized for the design of robust controllers which

  1. Power distribution engineering: Fundamentals and applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burke, J.J.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Covering virtually all areas of distribution engineering, this thoroughly up-to-date reference examines the unique behavior of utilities and provides the practical knowledge necessary to solve real-world distribution problems. Simplifying seemingly difficult concepts and calculations, Power Distribution Engineering addresses topics typically associated with power quality such as sags, swells, harmonics, electromagnetic fields, and stray voltage; describes different types of system designs and grounding as well as values for voltage, line lengths, and load and fault levels; details the loading, construction, and rating of various transformers; presents methods to maximize the effectiveness of capacitor placement; explains overcurrent and overvoltage protection of distribution systems; evaluates utilities using economic techniques that incorporate ideas such as present worth, carrying charge, cost of losses, operating costs, and customer satisfaction. Furnishing over 425 helpful equations, tables, drawings, and photographs, Power Distribution Engineering is an invaluable resource for electrical and electronics, utility distribution, power systems, control, protection, and relaying engineers, as well as graduate students in these disciplines.

  2. Load research manual. Volume 3. Load research for advanced technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This three-volume manual presents technical guidelines for electric utility load research. Special attention is given to issues raised by the load data reporting requirements of the Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978 and to problems faced by smaller utilities that are initiating load research programs. The manual includes guides to load research literature and glossaries of load research and statistical terms. In Volume 3, special load research procedures are presented for solar, wind, and cogeneration technologies.

  3. RELIABILITY BASED DESIGN OF FIXED FOUNDATION WIND TURBINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nichols, R.

    2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Recent analysis of offshore wind turbine foundations using both applicable API and IEC standards show that the total load demand from wind and waves is greatest in wave driven storms. Further, analysis of overturning moment loads (OTM) reveal that impact forces exerted by breaking waves are the largest contributor to OTM in big storms at wind speeds above the operating range of 25 m/s. Currently, no codes or standards for offshore wind power generators have been adopted by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Regulation and Enforcement (BOEMRE) for use on the Outer Continental Shelf (OCS). Current design methods based on allowable stress design (ASD) incorporate the uncertainty in the variation of loads transferred to the foundation and geotechnical capacity of the soil and rock to support the loads is incorporated into a factor of safety. Sources of uncertainty include spatial and temporal variation of engineering properties, reliability of property measurements applicability and sufficiency of sampling and testing methods, modeling errors, and variability of estimated load predictions. In ASD these sources of variability are generally given qualitative rather than quantitative consideration. The IEC 61400‐3 design standard for offshore wind turbines is based on ASD methods. Load and resistance factor design (LRFD) methods are being increasingly used in the design of structures. Uncertainties such as those listed above can be included quantitatively into the LRFD process. In LRFD load factors and resistance factors are statistically based. This type of analysis recognizes that there is always some probability of failure and enables the probability of failure to be quantified. This paper presents an integrated approach consisting of field observations and numerical simulation to establish the distribution of loads from breaking waves to support the LRFD of fixed offshore foundations.

  4. Distributed Smart Grid Asset Control Strategies for Providing Ancillary Services

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Moya, Christian; Dagle, Jeffery E.

    2013-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    With large-scale plans to integrate renewable generation driven mainly by state-level renewable portfolio requirements, more resources will be needed to compensate for the uncertainty and variability associated with intermittent generation resources. Distributed assets can be used to mitigate the concerns associated with renewable energy resources and to keep costs down. Under such conditions, performing primary frequency control using only supply-side resources becomes not only prohibitively expensive but also technically difficult. It is therefore important to explore how a sufficient proportion of the loads could assume a routine role in primary frequency control to maintain the stability of the system at an acceptable cost. The main objective of this project is to develop a novel hierarchical distributed framework for frequency based load control. The framework involves two decision layers. The top decision layer determines the optimal gain for aggregated loads for each load bus. The gains are computed using decentralized robust control methods, and will be broadcast to the corresponding participating loads every control period. The second layer consists of a large number of heterogeneous devices, which switch probabilistically during contingencies so that aggregated power change matches the desired amount according to the most recently received gains. The simulation results show great potential to enable systematic design of demand-side primary frequency control with stability guarantees on the overall power system. The proposed design systematically accounts for the interactions between the total load response and bulk power system frequency dynamics. It also guarantees frequency stability under a wide range of time varying operating conditions. The local device-level load response rules fully respect the device constraints (such as temperature setpoint, compressor time delays of HVACs, or arrival and departure of the deferrable loads), which are crucial for implementing real load control programs. The promise of autonomous, Grid Friendly™ response by smart appliances in the form of under-frequency load shedding was demonstrated in the GridWise Olympic Peninsula Demonstration in 2006. Each controller monitored the power grid voltage signal and requested that electrical load be shed by its appliance whenever electric power-grid frequency fell below 59.95 Hz. The controllers and their appliances responded reliably to each shallow under-frequency event, which was an average of one event per day and shed their loads for the durations of these events. Another objective of this project was to perform extensive simulation studies to investigate the impact of a population of Grid Friendly™ Appliances (GFAs) on the bulk power system frequency stability. The GFAs considered in this report are represented as demonstration units with water heaters individually modeled.

  5. Load Monitoring CEC/LMTF Load Research Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhenyu; Lesieutre, B.; Yang, Steve; Ellis, A.; Meklin, A.; Wong, B.; Gaikwad, A.; Brooks, D.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Phillips, John; Kosterev, Dmitry; Hoffman, M.; Ciniglio, O.; Hartwell, R.; Pourbeik, P.; Maitra, A.; Lu, Ning

    2007-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This white paper addresses the needs, options, current practices of load monitoring. Recommendations on load monitoring applications and future directions are also presented.

  6. Aggregate Model for Heterogeneous Thermostatically Controlled Loads with Demand Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Wei; Kalsi, Karanjit; Fuller, Jason C.; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Chassin, David P.

    2012-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Due to the potentially large number of Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) – demand response, distributed generation, distributed storage - that are expected to be deployed, it is impractical to use detailed models of these resources when integrated with the transmission system. Being able to accurately estimate the fast transients caused by demand response is especially important to analyze the stability of the system under different demand response strategies. On the other hand, a less complex model is more amenable to design feedback control strategies for the population of devices to provide ancillary services. The main contribution of this paper is to develop aggregated models for a heterogeneous population of Thermostatic Controlled Loads (TCLs) to accurately capture their collective behavior under demand response and other time varying effects of the system. The aggregated model efficiently includes statistical information of the population and accounts for a second order effect necessary to accurately capture the collective dynamic behavior. The developed aggregated models are validated against simulations of thousands of detailed building models using GridLAB-D (an open source distribution simulation software) under both steady state and severe dynamic conditions caused due to temperature set point changes.

  7. Water management studies in PEM fuel cells, Part I: Fuel cell design and in situ water distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kandlikar, Satish

    schematically in Fig. 1, a fuel cell supplies two reactant streams, consisting of a fuel (hydrogen, H2Water management studies in PEM fuel cells, Part I: Fuel cell design and in situ water. Trabolda, * a General Motors Fuel Cell Laboratory, 10 Carriage Street, Honeoye Falls, New York, USA b

  8. Composite Load Model Evaluation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Qiao, Hong (Amy)

    2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The WECC load modeling task force has dedicated its effort in the past few years to develop a composite load model that can represent behaviors of different end-user components. The modeling structure of the composite load model is recommended by the WECC load modeling task force. GE Energy has implemented this composite load model with a new function CMPLDW in its power system simulation software package, PSLF. For the last several years, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has taken the lead and collaborated with GE Energy to develop the new composite load model. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and BPA joint force and conducted the evaluation of the CMPLDW and test its parameter settings to make sure that: • the model initializes properly, • all the parameter settings are functioning, and • the simulation results are as expected. The PNNL effort focused on testing the CMPLDW in a 4-bus system. An exhaustive testing on each parameter setting has been performed to guarantee each setting works. This report is a summary of the PNNL testing results and conclusions.

  9. Project W-320 acceptance test report for AY-farm electrical distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bevins, R.R.

    1998-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This Acceptance Test Procedure (ATP) has been prepared to demonstrate that the AY-Farm Electrical Distribution System functions as required by the design criteria. This test is divided into three parts to support the planned construction schedule; Section 8 tests Mini-Power Pane AY102-PPI and the EES; Section 9 tests the SSS support systems; Section 10 tests the SSS and the Multi-Pak Group Control Panel. This test does not include the operation of end-use components (loads) supplied from the distribution system. Tests of the end-use components (loads) will be performed by other W-320 ATPs.

  10. Ris-R-1111(EN) Ultimate Loading of Wind Turbines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risø-R-1111(EN) Ultimate Loading of Wind Turbines Gunner Chr. Larsen, Knut Ronold, Hans E analysis as well as a wind turbine reliability study. In the wind climate analysis, the distribution to analyse wind turbine components with respect to failure in ultimate loading, and in addition to establish

  11. Cooperative Fault Tolerant Distributed Computing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fagg, Graham E.

    2006-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HARNESS was proposed as a system that combined the best of emerging technologies found in current distributed computing research and commercial products into a very flexible, dynamically adaptable framework that could be used by applications to allow them to evolve and better handle their execution environment. The HARNESS system was designed using the considerable experience from previous projects such as PVM, MPI, IceT and Cumulvs. As such, the system was designed to avoid any of the common problems found with using these current systems, such as no single point of failure, ability to survive machine, node and software failures. Additional features included improved inter-component connectivity, with full support for dynamic down loading of addition components at run-time thus reducing the stress on application developers to build in all the libraries they need in advance.

  12. Shipboard applications of non-intrusive load monitoring

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramsey, Jack S

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Non-Intrusive Load Monitor (NILM) provides a method of measuring component performance and source power quality through a single point of entry in the power distribution system. A study was performed utilizing the NILM ...

  13. Strategy Guideline: Accurate Heating and Cooling Load Calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burdick, A.

    2011-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide presents the key criteria required to create accurate heating and cooling load calculations and offers examples of the implications when inaccurate adjustments are applied to the HVAC design process. The guide shows, through realistic examples, how various defaults and arbitrary safety factors can lead to significant increases in the load estimate. Emphasis is placed on the risks incurred from inaccurate adjustments or ignoring critical inputs of the load calculation.

  14. Stochastic Analysis of Waterhammer and Applications in Reliability-Based Structural Design for Hydro Turbine Penstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Qin Fen [ORNL] [ORNL; Karney, Professor Byran W. [University of Toronto, Canada] [University of Toronto, Canada; Suo, Prof. Lisheng [Hohai University, China] [Hohai University, China; Colombo, Dr. Andrew [University of Toronto, Canada] [University of Toronto, Canada

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract: The randomness of transient events, and the variability in factors which influence the magnitudes of resultant pressure fluctuations, ensures that waterhammer and surges in a pressurized pipe system are inherently stochastic. To bolster and improve reliability-based structural design, a stochastic model of transient pressures is developed for water conveyance systems in hydropower plants. The statistical characteristics and probability distributions of key factors in boundary conditions, initial states and hydraulic system parameters are analyzed based on a large record of observed data from hydro plants in China; and then the statistical characteristics and probability distributions of annual maximum waterhammer pressures are simulated using Monte Carlo method and verified by the analytical probabilistic model for a simplified pipe system. In addition, the characteristics (annual occurrence, sustaining period and probability distribution) of hydraulic loads for both steady and transient states are discussed. Illustrating with an example of penstock structural design, it is shown that the total waterhammer pressure should be split into two individual random variable loads: the steady/static pressure and the waterhammer pressure rise during transients; and that different partial load factors should be applied to each individual load to reflect its unique physical and stochastic features. Particularly, the normative load (usually the unfavorable value at 95-percentage point) for steady/static hydraulic pressure should be taken from the probability distribution of its maximum values during the pipe's design life, while for waterhammer pressure rise, as the second variable load, the probability distribution of its annual maximum values is used to determine its normative load.

  15. Integrated Thermal Analysis of the FRIB Cryomodule Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Y. Xu, M. Barrios, F. Casagrande, M.J. Johnson, M. Leitner, D. Arenius, V. Ganni, W.J. Schneider, M. Wiseman

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thermal analysis of the FRIB cryomodule design is performed to determine the heat load to the cryogenic plant, to minimize the cryogenic plant load, to simulate thermal shield cool down as well as to determine the pressure relief sizes for failure conditions. Static and dynamic heat loads of the cryomodules are calculated and the optimal shield temperature is determined to minimize the cryogenic plant load. Integrated structural and thermal simulations of the 1100-O aluminium thermal shield are performed to determine the desired cool down rate to control the temperature profile on the thermal shield and to minimize thermal expansion displacements during the cool down. Pressure relief sizing calculations for the SRF helium containers, solenoids, helium distribution piping, and vacuum vessels are also described.

  16. Low reflectance radio frequency load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ives, R. Lawrence; Mizuhara, Yosuke M

    2014-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A load for traveling microwave energy has an absorptive volume defined by cylindrical body enclosed by a first end cap and a second end cap. The first end cap has an aperture for the passage of an input waveguide with a rotating part that is coupled to a reflective mirror. The inner surfaces of the absorptive volume consist of a resistive material or are coated with a coating which absorbs a fraction of incident RF energy, and the remainder of the RF energy reflects. The angle of the reflector and end caps is selected such that reflected RF energy dissipates an increasing percentage of the remaining RF energy at each reflection, and the reflected RF energy which returns to the rotating mirror is directed to the back surface of the rotating reflector, and is not coupled to the input waveguide. Additionally, the reflector may have a surface which generates a more uniform power distribution function axially and laterally, to increase the power handling capability of the RF load. The input waveguide may be corrugated for HE11 mode input energy.

  17. Measuring Cognitive Load in Multimedia Instruction: A Comparison of Two Instruments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    is that cognitive load which is not necessary for learning, and is under the control of the designer. Factors determining extraneous load include presentation format and use of graphics or animations (Paas et al., 2003

  18. Load Component Database of Household Appliances and Small Office Equipment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Xie, YuLong; Huang, Zhenyu; Puyleart, Francis; Yang, Steve

    2008-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the development of a load component database for household appliances and office equipment. To develop more accurate load models at both transmission and distribution level, a better understanding on the individual behaviors of home appliances and office equipment under power system voltage and frequency variations becomes more and more critical. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has begun a series of voltage and frequency tests against home appliances and office equipments since 2005. Since 2006, Researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has collaborated with BPA personnel and developed a load component database based on these appliance testing results to facilitate the load model validation work for the Western Electricity Coordinating Council (WECC). In this paper, the testing procedure and testing results are first presented. The load model parameters are then derived and grouped. Recommendations are given for aggregating the individual appliance models to feeder level, the models of which are used for distribution and transmission level studies.

  19. Load Management Made Simple

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schneider, K.

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Company have moved to a demand side or load management mode which seeks to influence customers to change electric usage patterns to more efficiently use available generating capacity. Since 1970, the TUEC system peak demand has more than doubled from about...

  20. Bulk Modulus Capacitor Load Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dickey, C.E.

    1990-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Measurement of forces present at various locations within the SSC Model Dipole collared coil assembly is of great practical interest to development engineers. Of particular interest are the forces between coils at the parting plane and forces that exist between coils and pole pieces. It is also desired to observe these forces under the various conditions that a magnet will experience such as: during the collaring process, post-collaring, under the influence of cryogens, and during field excitation. A twenty eight thousandths of an inch thick capacitor load cell which utilizes the hydrostatic condition of a stressed plastic dielectric has been designed. These cells are currently being installed on SSC Model Dipoles. The theory, development, and application of these cells will be discussed.

  1. Cementitious Stabilization of Mixed Wastes with High Salt Loadings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spence, R.D.; Burgess, M.W.; Fedorov, V.V.; Downing, D.J.

    1999-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Salt loadings approaching 50 wt % were tolerated in cementitious waste forms that still met leach and strength criteria, addressing a Technology Deficiency of low salt loadings previously identified by the Mixed Waste Focus Area. A statistical design quantified the effect of different stabilizing ingredients and salt loading on performance at lower loadings, allowing selection of the more effective ingredients for studying the higher salt loadings. In general, the final waste form needed to consist of 25 wt % of the dry stabilizing ingredients to meet the criteria used and 25 wt % water to form a workable paste, leaving 50 wt % for waste solids. The salt loading depends on the salt content of the waste solids but could be as high as 50 wt % if all the waste solids are salt.

  2. Report of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Piping Review Committee. Volume 4. Evaluation of other loads and load combinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Six topical areas were covered by the Task Group on Other Dynamic Loads and Load Combinations as described below: Event Combinations - dealing with the potential simultaneous occurrence of earthquakes, pipe ruptures, and water hammer events in the piping design basis; Response Combinations - dealing with multiply supported piping with independent inputs, the sequence of combinations between spacial and modal components of response, and the treatment of high frequency modes in combination with low frequency modal responses; Stress Limits/Dynamic Allowables - dealing with inelastic allowables for piping and strain rate effects; Water Hammer Loadings - dealing with code and design specifications for these loadings and procedures for identifying potential water hammer that could affect safety; Relief Valve Opening and Closing Loads - dealing with the adequacy of analytical tools for predicting the effects of these events and, in addition, with estimating effective cycles for fatigue evaluations; and Piping Vibration Loads - dealing with evaluation procedures for estimating other than seismic vibratory loads, the need to consider reciprocating and rotary equipment vibratory loads, and high frequency vibratory loads. NRC staff recommendations or regulatory changes and additional study appear in this report.

  3. Load Management: Opportunity or Calamity?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Males, R.; Hassig, N.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    larger now than prior to 1973. Utilities are examining two options which can be termed load management. One option is to control discretionary loads during peak periods. Cycling of residential water heaters or shutting off industrial electric furnaces...

  4. Variational Approach for Predicting the Load Deformation Response of a Double Stretched Membrane Reflector Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L. M.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents an analytical model useful for design and sizing purposes to describe the load deformation response of a stretched membrane reflector module structural system.

  5. Analysis of microelectronic power distribution networks and exploration of 3D ICs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Xiang

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Regulator Based Power Distribution Design Under WorstTanmoy Roy. Power Distribution System Design Methodology andChen, “3D Power Distribution Network Co-design for Nanoscale

  6. Evaluation of Equivalent Static Wind Loads on Buildings Xinzhong Chen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kareem, Ahsan

    effects. This load representation allows designers to follow a relatively simple static analysis procedureEvaluation of Equivalent Static Wind Loads on Buildings Xinzhong Chen1 and Ahsan Kareem2 1 Professor of Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Indiana, USA, kareem@nd.edu ABSTRACT Wind loads

  7. A Comparison of Wind Turbine Load Statistics for Inflow Turbulence Fields based on Conventional

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manuel, Lance

    A Comparison of Wind Turbine Load Statistics for Inflow Turbulence Fields based on Conventional turbine load statistics for design. There are not many published studies that have addressed the issue of such optimal space-time resolution. This study in- vestigates turbine extreme and fatigue load statistics

  8. Assessment of existing studies of wind loading on solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L. M.

    1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In developing solar collectors, wind loading is the major structural design consideration. Wind loading investigations have focused on establishing safe bounds for steady state loading and verifying rational but initial and conservative design approaches for the various solar collector concepts. As such, the effort has been very successful, and has contributed greatly to both the recognition and qualitative understanding of many of the physical phenomena involved. Loading coefficients corresponding to mean wind velocities have been derived in these prior studies to measure the expected structural loading on the various solar collectors. Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three or possibly more seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

  9. 1 Control Challenges of Fuel Cell-Driven Distributed Generation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Valery Knyazkin; Lennart Söder; Claudio Canizares

    Abstract — This paper discusses the load following capability of fuel cell-driven power plants. A linear model of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power plant is obtained and utilized for the design of robust controllers which enhance tracking response of the plant and reject disturbances originating from the distribution grid. Two robust controllers are synthesized applying the H? mixed-sensitivity optimization and their performance is validated by means of nonlinear time-domain simulations. The obtained results indicate that the disturbances can be successfully attenuated; however, the tracking response cannot be significantly improved without a modification of the design of the fuel cell power plant. The paper is concluded by a brief discussion on the physical limitations on the fuel cell output power ramp and possible solutions are outlined. Index Terms — Distributed generation, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells, robust control, H ? controller design, disturbance rejection.

  10. RANGE DESIGN CRITERIA

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    firing lanes. If possible, do not construct columns within the range. Design columns or beams to withstand local wind and seismic loads, and provide protective steel plate on the...

  11. Examination of the damage and failure response of tantalum and copper under varied shock loading conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis - Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray Ill, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Neil [AWE-ALDERMASTON

    2010-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A number of plate impact experiments have been conducted on high purity polycrystalline tantalum and copper samples using graded flyer plate configurations to alter the loading profile. These experiments are designed in a way so that a broad range of damage regimes are probed. The results show that the nucleation of damage primarily occurs at the grain boundaries of the materials. This affords us the opportunity to propose a porosity damage nucleation criterion which begins to account for the length scales of the microstructure (grain size distribution) and the mechanical response of the grain boundary regions (failure stress distribution). This is done in the context of a G-T-N type model for the ductile damage and failure response of both the materials examined. The role of micro-inertial effects on the porosity growth process is also considered.

  12. Load responsive multilayer insulation performance testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dye, S.; Kopelove, A. [Quest Thermal Group, 6452 Fig Street Suite A, Arvada, CO 80004 (United States); Mills, G. L. [Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp, 1600 Commerce Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2014-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Cryogenic insulation designed to operate at various pressures from one atmosphere to vacuum, with high thermal performance and light weight, is needed for cryogenically fueled space launch vehicles and aircraft. Multilayer insulation (MLI) performs well in a high vacuum, but the required vacuum shell for use in the atmosphere is heavy. Spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) is often used in these systems because of its light weight, but can have a higher heat flux than desired. We report on the continued development of Load Responsive Multilayer Insulation (LRMLI), an advanced thermal insulation system that uses dynamic beam discrete spacers that provide high thermal performance both in atmosphere and vacuum. LRMLI consists of layers of thermal radiation barriers separated and supported by micromolded polymer spacers. The spacers have low thermal conductance, and self-support a thin, lightweight vacuum shell that provides internal high vacuum in the insulation. The dynamic load responsive spacers compress to support the external load of a vacuum shell in one atmosphere, and decompress under reduced atmospheric pressure for lower heat leak. Structural load testing was performed on the spacers with various configurations. LRMLI was installed on a 400 liter tank and boil off testing with liquid nitrogen performed at various chamber pressures from one atmosphere to high vacuum. Testing was also performed with an MLI blanket on the outside of the LRMLI.

  13. Generalized solar load ratio correlation for direct gain buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wray, W.O.; Best, E.D.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A generalized solar load ratio correlation has been developed for direct gain buildings by generating relationships between the correlation parameters and two fundamental design parameters. The first design parameter is the steady state conductance of the solar aperture, U/sub c/. The second is the effective heat capacity of the solar zone, EHC.

  14. Analysis and design of reliable nanometer circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Chong

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    71 Figure 3-11 R c Distribution in DesignFigure 3-11 R c Distribution in Design EX Conclusion In thisoverall vulnerability distribution in a design and discovers

  15. Distributed Energy Resources at Naval Base Ventura County Building 1512: A Sensitivity Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bailey, Owen C.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cost estimates) Figure 4: Capital and O&M Costs Sensitivity – Separate Refrigeration Load Distributed Energy Resourcescost estimates) Figure 8: Capital and O&M Costs Sensitivity Analysis – Integrated Refrigeration Load Distributed Energy Resources

  16. Online Load Balancing for Related Machines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karpinski, Marek

    of entire schedule s as follows: load(s; i) = 1 v i X s(j)=i p j ; Load(s) = max i load(s; i) It is easyOn­line Load Balancing for Related Machines Piotr Berman \\Lambda Moses Charikar y Marek Karpinski z­line load balancing was studied extensively over the years (cf., e.g., [7], [3], [4], and [2

  17. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    components such as power sources, loads,  transformers and components such as power sources, loads,  transformers and 

  18. Thermal loading considerations for synchrotron radiation mirrors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdener, F.R.; Berglin, E.J.; Fuchs, B.A.; Humpal, H.H.; Karpenko, V.P.; Martin, R.W.; Tirsell, K.G.

    1986-03-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Grazing incidence mirrors used to focus synchrotron radiation beams through small distant apertures have severe optical requirements. The surface distortion due to heat loading of the first mirror in a bending magnet beam line is of particular concern when a large fraction of the incident beam is absorbed. In this paper we discuss mirror design considerations involved in minimizing the thermal/mechanical loading on vertically deflecting first surface mirrors required for SPEAR synchrotron radiation beam lines. Topics include selection of mirror material and cooling method, the choice of SiC for the substrate, optimization of the thickness, and the design of the mirror holder and cooling mechanism. Results obtained using two-dimensional, finite-element thermal/mechanical distortion analysis are presented for the case of a 6/sup 0/ grazing incidence SiC mirror absorbing up to 260 W at Beam Line VIII on the SPEAR ring. Test descriptions and results are given for the material used to thermally couple this SiC mirror to a water-cooled block. The interface material is limited to applications for which the equivalent normal heat load is less than 20 W/cm/sup 2/.

  19. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, Stephen R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated.

  20. Demand Response: Load Management Programs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Simon, J.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CenterPoint Load Management Programs CATEE Conference October, 2012 Agenda Outline I. General Demand Response Definition II. General Demand Response Program Rules III. CenterPoint Commercial Program IV. CenterPoint Residential Programs... V. Residential Discussion Points Demand Response Definition of load management per energy efficiency rule 25.181: ? Load control activities that result in a reduction in peak demand, or a shifting of energy usage from a peak to an off...

  1. Dynamic load balancing of applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheat, S.R.

    1997-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    An application-level method for dynamically maintaining global load balance on a parallel computer, particularly on massively parallel MIMD computers is disclosed. Global load balancing is achieved by overlapping neighborhoods of processors, where each neighborhood performs local load balancing. The method supports a large class of finite element and finite difference based applications and provides an automatic element management system to which applications are easily integrated. 13 figs.

  2. Wind loading on solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, S.; Murphy, L.M.

    1985-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The present design methodology for the determination of wind loading on the various solar collectors has been reviewed and assessed. The total force coefficients of flat plates of aspect ratios 1.0 and 3.0, respectively, at various angles of attack obtained by using the guidelines of the ANSI A58.1-1982, have been compared with those obtained by using the methodology of the ASCE Task Committee, 1961, and the experimental results of the full-scale test of heliostats by Peglow. The turbulent energy spectra, currently employed in the building code, are compared with those of Kaimal et al., Lumley, and Ponofsky for wind velocities of 20.0 m/s and 40.24 m/s at an elevation of 9.15 m. The longitudinal spectra of the building code overestimates the Kaimal spectra in the frequency range of 0.007 Hz to 0.08 Hz and underestimates beyond the frequency of 0.08 Hz. The peak angles of attack, on the heliostat, stowed in horizontal position, due to turbulent vertical and lateral components of wind velocity, have been estimated by using Daniel's methodology for three wind velocities and compared with the value suggested by the code. The experimental results of a simple test in the laboratory indicate the feasibility of decreasing the drag forces of the flat plate by reducing the solidity ratio.

  3. SLUDGE TREATMENT PROJECT COST COMPARISON BETWEEN HYDRAULIC LOADING AND SMALL CANISTER LOADING CONCEPTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    GEUTHER J; CONRAD EA; RHOADARMER D

    2009-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

    The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) is considering two different concepts for the retrieval, loading, transport and interim storage of the K Basin sludge. The two design concepts under consideration are: (1) Hydraulic Loading Concept - In the hydraulic loading concept, the sludge is retrieved from the Engineered Containers directly into the Sludge Transport and Storage Container (STSC) while located in the STS cask in the modified KW Basin Annex. The sludge is loaded via a series of transfer, settle, decant, and filtration return steps until the STSC sludge transportation limits are met. The STSC is then transported to T Plant and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. (2) Small Canister Concept - In the small canister concept, the sludge is transferred from the Engineered Containers (ECs) into a settling vessel. After settling and decanting, the sludge is loaded underwater into small canisters. The small canisters are then transferred to the existing Fuel Transport System (FTS) where they are loaded underwater into the FTS Shielded Transfer Cask (STC). The STC is raised from the basin and placed into the Cask Transfer Overpack (CTO), loaded onto the trailer in the KW Basin Annex for transport to T Plant. At T Plant, the CTO is removed from the transport trailer and placed on the canyon deck. The CTO and STC are opened and the small canisters are removed using the canyon crane and placed into an STSC. The STSC is closed, and placed in storage arrays in the T Plant canyon cells for interim storage. The purpose of the cost estimate is to provide a comparison of the two concepts described.

  4. Commercial application of aluminum honeycomb and foam in load bearing tubular structures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bartolucci, Stefano, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small dimension engineering tubular structures subjected to a complex load system are designed like hollow circular shells. For minimum weight design, the ratio between the shell radius and the thickness has to be as large ...

  5. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heffner, Grayson; Goldman, Charles; Kintner-Meyer, Michael

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for and experiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in five electricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordic market, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objective in undertaking this review of international experience was to identify specific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads to effectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hope that this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S. and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments are needed to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in all wholesale electricity markets.

  6. Fuel loading of PeBR for a long operation life on the lunar surface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schriener, T. M. [Inst. for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); El-Genk, M. S. [Inst. for Space and Nuclear Power Studies, Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mechanical Engineering Dept., Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Pellet Bed Reactor (PeBR) power system could provide 99.3 kW e to a lunar outpost for 66 full power years and is designed for no single point failures. The core of this fast energy spectrum reactor consists of three sectors that are neutronically and thermally coupled, but hydraulically independent. Each sector has a separate Closed Brayton Cycle (CBC) loop for energy conversion and separate water heat-pipes radiator panels for heat rejection. He-Xe (40 g/mole) binary gas mixture serves as the reactor coolant and CBC working fluid. On the lunar surface, the emplaced PeBR below grade is loaded with spherical fuel pellets (1-cm in dia.). It is launched unfueled and the pellets are launched in separate subcritical canisters, one for each core sector. This paper numerically simulates the transient loading of a core sector with fuel pellets on the Moon. The simulation accounts for the dynamic interaction of the pellets during loading and calculates the axial and radial distributions of the volume porosity in the sector. The pellets pack randomly with a volume porosity of 0.39 - 0.41 throughout most of the sector, except near the walls the local porosity is higher. (authors)

  7. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groll, Todd A. (Idaho Falls, ID); White, James P. (Pocatelo, ID)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece.

  8. Spring loaded locator pin assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Groll, T.A.; White, J.P.

    1998-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention deals with spring loaded locator pins. Locator pins are sometimes referred to as captured pins. This is a mechanism which locks two items together with the pin that is spring loaded so that it drops into a locator hole on the work piece. 5 figs.

  9. Load Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    energy system. Observed refrigeration load and local ambient temperature from a Danish su- permarket renewable energy, is increasing, therefore a flexible energy system is needed. In the present ThesisLoad Forecasting of Supermarket Refrigeration Lisa Buth Rasmussen Kongens Lyngby 2013 M.Sc.-2013

  10. Reasoning about Probabilistic Phenomena: Lessons Learned and Applied in Software Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lee, Hollylynne S; Lee, J. Todd

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    sand into bins to design a distribution to represent theirg empirical distribution In the ne design, if the Distr n.design an experiment involve an equiprobable distribution (

  11. A direct displacement-based design of low-rise seismic resistant steel moment frames

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, John L.

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lateral Force Distribution for Seismic Design StructuralLateral Force Distribution for Seismic Design . 169stiffness distribution are additional design choices that

  12. Advanced Design and Commissioning Tools for Energy-Efficient Building Technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Ed

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:Underfloor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. Atlanta:minimized by good distribution system design whether using

  13. Wind load reduction for heliostats

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterka, J.A.; Hosoya, N.; Bienkiewicz, B.; Cermak, J.E.

    1986-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results of wind-tunnel tests supported through the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) by the Office of Solar Thermal Technology of the US Department of Energy as part of the SERI research effort on innovative concentrators. As gravity loads on drive mechanisms are reduced through stretched-membrane technology, the wind-load contribution of the required drive capacity increases in percentage. Reduction of wind loads can provide economy in support structure and heliostat drive. Wind-tunnel tests have been directed at finding methods to reduce wind loads on heliostats. The tests investigated primarily the mean forces, moments, and the possibility of measuring fluctuating forces in anticipation of reducing those forces. A significant increase in ability to predict heliostat wind loads and their reduction within a heliostat field was achieved.

  14. Wind loading on solar concentrators: some general considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roschke, E. J.

    1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A survey has been completed to examine the problems and complications arising from wind loading on solar concentrators. Wind loading is site specific and has an important bearing on the design, cost, performance, operation and maintenance, safety, survival, and replacement of solar collecting systems. Emphasis herein is on paraboloidal, two-axis tracking systems. Thermal receiver problems also are discussed. Wind characteristics are discussed from a general point of view; current methods for determining design wind speed are reviewed. Aerodynamic coefficients are defined and illustrative examples are presented. Wind tunnel testing is discussed, and environmental wind tunnels are reviewed; recent results on heliostat arrays are reviewed as well. Aeroelasticity in relation to structural design is discussed briefly. Wind loads, i.e., forces and moments, are proportional to the square of the mean wind velocity. Forces are proportional to the square of concentrator diameter, and moments are proportional to the cube of diameter. Thus, wind loads have an important bearing on size selection from both cost and performance standpoints. It is concluded that sufficient information exists so that reasonably accurate predictions of wind loading are possible for a given paraboloidal concentrator configuration, provided that reliable and relevant wind conditions are specified. Such predictions will be useful to the design engineer and to the systems engineer as well. Information is lacking, however, on wind effects in field arrays of paraboloidal concentrators. Wind tunnel tests have been performed on model heliostat arrays, but there are important aerodynamic differences between heliostats and paraboloidal dishes.

  15. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 4, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2013 2347 Load Curve Data Cleansing and Imputation Via

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giannakis, Georgios

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON SMART GRID, VOL. 4, NO. 4, DECEMBER 2013 2347 Load Curve Data Cleansing load curve data corroborate the convergence and effectiveness of the novel D-PCP algorithm. Index Terms--Advanced metering infrastructure, distributed al- gorithms, load curve cleansing and imputation, principal compo

  16. Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1988. Cold Air Distribution Design Guide. EPRI Report EM-match the cold air distribution design, the floor-to-floorinclude cold air distribution in their designs. The projects

  17. 2014 Design Report Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rimon, Elon

    standard performance test procedures, laying a base line for next year's improvements. 2. Important design accuracy. 3. Decision making: Material and design: High strength Magnesium alloy was chosen for most parts in multiple load scenarios ­ turn, brake, acceleration and combined action. The final masses of the uprights

  18. UTILITY-SCALE SOLAR LOAD CONTROL Richard Perez, ASRC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    UPEX-02 UTILITY-SCALE SOLAR LOAD CONTROL Richard Perez, ASRC Christy Herig, NREL Ruth Mac Dougall output signals. Utility-scale SLC: when considering an entire utility or a distribution system be impractical to implement. There exists, however, an effective utility- scale SLC implementation via direct

  19. An adaptive neural network approach to one-week ahead load forecasting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peng, T.M. (Pacific Gas and Electric Co., San Francisco, CA (United States)); Hubele, N.F.; Karady, G.G. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States))

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new neural network approach is applied to one-week ahead load forecasting. This approach uses a linear adaptive neuron or adaptive linear combiner called Adaline.'' An energy spectrum is used to analyze the periodic components in a load sequence. The load sequence mainly consists of three components: base load component, and low and high frequency load components. Each load component has a unique frequency range. Load decomposition is made for the load sequence using digital filters with different passband frequencies. After load decomposition, each load component can be forecasted by an Adaline. Each Adaline has an input sequence, an output sequence, and a desired response-signal sequence. It also has a set of adjustable parameters called the weight vector. In load forecasting, the weight vector is designed to make the output sequence, the forecasted load, follow the actual load sequence; it also has a minimized Least Mean Square error. This approach is useful in forecasting unit scheduling commitments. Mean absolute percentage errors of less than 3.4 percent are derived from five months of utility data, thus demonstrating the high degree of accuracy that can be obtained without dependence on weather forecasts.

  20. Electrical and Production Load Factors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sen, T.; Heffington, W. M.

    , Texas Abstract Load factors and operating hours of small and medium-sized industrial plants are analyzed to classify shift-work patterns and develop energy conservation diagnostic tools. This paper discusses two types of electric load factors... for each shift classification within major industry groups. The load factor based on billing hours (ELF) increases with operating hours from about 0.4 for a nominal one shift operation, to about 0.7 for around-the-clock operation. On the other hand...

  1. Seismic Loading for FAST: May 2011 - August 2011

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asareh, M. A.; Prowell, I.

    2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As more wind farms are constructed in seismically active regions, earthquake loading increases in prominence for design and analysis of wind turbines. Early investigation of seismic load tended to simplify the rotor and nacelle as a lumped mass on top of the turbine tower. This simplification allowed the use of techniques developed for conventional civil structures, such as buildings, to be easily applied to wind turbines. However, interest is shifting to more detailed models that consider loads for turbine components other than the tower. These improved models offer three key capabilities in consideration of base shaking for turbines: 1) The inclusion of aerodynamics and turbine control; 2) The ability to consider component loads other than just tower loads; and 3) An improved representation of turbine response in higher modes by reducing modeling simplifications. Both experimental and numerical investigations have shown that, especially for large modern turbines, it is important to consider interaction between earthquake input, aerodynamics, and operational loads. These investigations further show that consideration of higher mode activity may be necessary in the analysis of the seismic response of turbines. Since the FAST code is already capable of considering these factors, modifications were developed that allow simulation of base shaking. This approach allows consideration of this additional load source within a framework, the FAST code that is already familiar to many researchers and practitioners.

  2. Development of a High-Speed Static Switch for Distributed Energy and Microgrid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Pink, C.; Lynch, J.; John, V.; Meor Daniel, S.; Benedict, E.; Vihinen, I.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources can provide power to local loads in the electric distribution system and benefits such as improved reliability. Microgrids are intentional islands formed at a facility or in an electrical distribution system that contains at least one distributed resource and associated loads. Microgrids that operate both electrical generation and loads in a coordinated manner can offer additional benefits to the customer and local utility. The loads and energy sources can be disconnected from and reconnected to the area or local utility with minimal disruption to the local loads, thereby improving reliability. This paper details the development and testing of a highspeed static switch for distributed energy and microgrid applications.

  3. Completion report harmonic analysis of electrical distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tolbert, L.M.

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Harmonic currents have increased dramatically in electrical distribution systems in the last few years due to the growth in non-linear loads found in most electronic devices. Because electrical systems have been designed for linear voltage and current waveforms; (i.e. nearly sinusoidal), non-linear loads can cause serious problems such as overheating conductors or transformers, capacitor failures, inadvertent circuit breaker tripping, or malfunction of electronic equipment. The U.S. Army Center for Public Works has proposed a study to determine what devices are best for reducing or eliminating the effects of harmonics on power systems typical of those existing in their Command, Control, Communication and Intelligence (C3I) sites.

  4. Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Peerenboom, J.P.

    1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes how an electric utility system is modeled by using load flow techniques to establish a validated power flow case suitable for simulating and evaluating alternative system scenarios. Details of the load flow model are supported by additional technical and descriptive information intended to correlate modeled electrical system parameters with the corresponding physical equipment that makes up the system. Pictures and technical specifications of system equipment from the utility, public, or vendor are provided to support this association for many system components. The report summarizes the load flow model construction, simulation, and validation and describes the general capabilities of an information query system designed to access load flow parameters and other electrical system information.

  5. Optimizing the Design of Biomass Hydrogen Supply Chains Using Real-World Spatial Distributions: A Case Study Using California Rice Straw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan C

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic Analyis of Hydrogen Production by Gasification ofOptimal Design of Hydrogen Production from AgricuturalJ. D. (1998). "Hydrogen Production from Wastes." Energy, 23(

  6. Optimizing the Design of Biomass Hydrogen Supply ChainsUsing Real-World Spatial Distributions: A Case Study Using California Rice Straw

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Parker, Nathan

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Economic Analyis of Hydrogen Production by Gasification ofOptimal Design of Hydrogen Production from AgricuturalJ. D. (1998). "Hydrogen Production from Wastes." Energy, 23(

  7. Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The Sandia Wind Turbine Loads Database is divided into six files, each corresponding to approximately 16 years of simulation. The files are text files with data in columnar format. The 424MB zipped file containing six data files can be downloaded by the public. The files simulate 10-minute maximum loads for the NREL 5MW wind turbine. The details of the loads simulations can be found in the paper: “Decades of Wind Turbine Loads Simulations”, M. Barone, J. Paquette, B. Resor, and L. Manuel, AIAA2012-1288 (3.69MB PDF). Note that the site-average wind speed is 10 m/s (class I-B), not the 8.5 m/s reported in the paper.

  8. Building load control and optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xing, Hai-Yun Helen, 1976-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Researchers and practitioners have proposed a variety of solutions to reduce electricity consumption and curtail peak demand. This research focuses on load control by improving the operations in existing building HVAC ...

  9. The evaluation of a turbulent loads characterization system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, N.D.; McKenna, H.E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper we discuss an on-line turbulent load characterization system that has been designed to acquire loading spectra from turbines of the same design operating in several different environments and from different turbine designs operating in the same environment. This System simultaneously measures the rainflow-counted alternating and mean loading spectra and the hub-height turbulent mean shearing stress and atmospheric stability associated with the turbulent inflow. We discuss the theory behind the measurement configuration and the results of proof-of-concept testing recently performed at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) using a Bergey EXCEL-S 10-kW wind turbine. The on-line approach to characterizing the load spectra and the inflow turbulent scaling parameter produces results that are consistent with other measurements. The on-line approximation of the turbulent shear stress or friction velocity u* also is considered adequate. The system can be used to characterize turbulence loads during turbine deployment in a wide variety of environments. Using the WISPER protocol, we found that a wide-range, variable-speed turbine will accumulate a larger number of stress cycles in the low-cycle, high-amplitude (LCHA) region when compared with a constant speed rotor under similar inflow conditions.

  10. 13-040528-CLN-01 TO: DISTRIBUTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    are shown in the following figure. #12;Pressure Distribution Under No-Load, Nominal, and Lift-Off Conditions 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 Height (in) Pressure(psi) No Load Fit to No Load heating at the insert is shown in the following figure (4.5kG/1s, 1.5" liftoff length). #12;Additional

  11. OPTIMAL DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION UNDER NETWORK LOAD CONSTRAINTS,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Frank, Jason

    -producers. Decentralized Power Generation (DPG) refers to an electric power source such as solar, wind or combined heat (the approach used in the traditional electric power paradigm), DPG systems employ numerous, but small¨EL BLOEMHOF, JOOST BOSMAN§, DAAN CROMMELIN¶, JASON FRANK , AND GUANGYUAN YANG Abstract. In electrical power

  12. Exploiting Process Lifetime Distributions for Dynamic Load Balancing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harchol-Balter, Mor

    grant number CCR­9201092. Allen Downey partially supported by NSF (DARA) grant DMW­8919074. An earlier

  13. Exploiting Process Lifetime Distributions for Dynamic Load Balancing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Papadopouli, Maria

    supported by NSF (DARA) grant DMW-8919074. An earlier version of this article appeared in the Proceedings

  14. Optimal distributed power generation under network load constraints

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    wind turbines and heat pumps). This gives rise to the question how many units of each type (solar panel, mainly because of the development of novel components for decentral power generation (solar panels, small (DPG) refers to an electric power source such as solar, wind or combined heat power (CHP) connected

  15. Local Soot Loading Distribution in Cordierite Diesel Particulate Filters by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-UpHeatMulti-Dimensionalthe10IO1OP001 LetterLight-Duty11.2.1310 DOEFundsEnergyBadges

  16. UPDATE: EFFECTIVE LOAD CARRYING CAPABILITY OF PHOTOVOLTAICS IN THE UNITED STATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Perez, Richard R.

    Carrying Capability (ELLC) by analyzing recent load data from 39 US utilities and time-coincident output Electric Indianapolis Power & Light City of Chattanooga Florida Power and Light First Energy Consolidated003m@mail.rochester.edu ABSTRACT We provide an update on the US distribution of PV's Effective Load

  17. Energy-Agile Laptops: Demand Response of Mobile Plug Loads Using Sensor/Actuator Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Culler, David E.

    Energy-Agile Laptops: Demand Response of Mobile Plug Loads Using Sensor/Actuator Networks Nathan@me.berkeley.edu Abstract--This paper explores demand response techniques for managing mobile, distributed loads with on observed. Our first simulation study explores a classic demand response scenario in which a large number

  18. Thermal loading study for FY 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    1996-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This report provides the results of sensitivity analyses designed to assist the test planners in focusing their in-situ measurements on parameters that appear to be important to waste isolation. Additionally, the study provides a preliminary assessment of the feasibility of certain thermal management options. A decision on thermal loading is a critical part of the scientific and engineering basis for evaluating regulatory compliance of the potential repository for waste isolation. To show, with reasonable assurance, that the natural and engineered barriers will perform adequately under expected repository conditions (thermally perturbed) will require an integrated approach based on thermal testing (laboratory, and in-situ), natural analog observations, and analytic modeling. The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management needed input to assist in the planning of the thermal testing program. Additionally, designers required information on the viability of various thermal management concepts. An approximately 18-month Thermal Loading Study was conducted from March, 1994 until September 30, 1995 to address these issues. This report documents the findings of that study. 89 refs., 71 figs., 33 tabs.

  19. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, Michael B. (Idaho Falls, ID); Epstein, Jonathan S. (Idaho Falls, ID); Lloyd, W. Randolph (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed crosshead, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame.

  20. Self-aligning biaxial load frame

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ward, M.B.; Epstein, J.S.; Lloyd, W.R.

    1994-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus for use in testing the strength of specimens while maintaining a constant specimen centroid during the loading operation. The self-aligning biaxial loading apparatus consists of a load frame and two load assemblies for imparting two independent perpendicular forces upon a test specimen. The constant test specimen centroid is maintained by providing elements for linear motion of the load frame relative to a fixed cross head, and by alignment and linear motion elements of one load assembly relative to the load frame. 3 figures.

  1. Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bauman, F.S.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Field Evaluation of Cold Air Distribution Systems. EPRIand J.S. Elleson. 1988. Cold Air Distribution Design Guide.Field Evaluation of a Cold Air Distribution System. EPRI

  2. 2006 Haulage & Loading Conference: big equipment, big crowd

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NONE

    2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The theme of this year's Haulage and Loading Conference was 'Is better still better?' Most of the presenters either considered the effectiveness of bigger equipment or examined other strategies from various perspectives, based on their experiences. Papers were presented on trucks, shovels, loaders, excavators, haul road design and maintenance, and incorporating IT equipment. 5 photos.

  3. Monitoring of Electrical End-Use Loads in Commercial Buildings

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martinez, M.; Alereza, T.; Mort, D.

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Southern California Edison is currently conducting a program to collect end-use metered data from commercial buildings in its service area. The data will provide actual measurements of end-use loads and will be used in research and in designing...

  4. Nitrogen Loading and Attenuation in the West Falmouth Harbor Watershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    in nitrogen loading due to the opening of the wastewater treatment plant and increased septic inputs Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and septic tanks arrive in the form of plumes of higher nitrogen. The treatment plant provides secondary treatment to the incoming wastewater but is not designed to provide

  5. Finite element analysis of the distortion of a crystal monochromator from synchrotron radiation thermal loading

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edwards, W.R.; Hoyer, E.H.; Thompson, A.C.

    1985-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The first crystal of the Brown-Hower x-ray monochromator of the LBL-EXXON 54 pole wiggler beamline at Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) is subjected to intense synchrotron radiation. To provide an accurate thermal/structural analysis of the existing monochromator design, a finite element analysis (FEA) was performed. A very high and extremely localized heat flux is incident on the Si (220) crystal. The crystal, which possesses pronouncedly temperature-dependent orthotropic properties, in combination with the localized heat load, make the analysis ideally suited for finite element techniques. Characterization of the incident synchrotron radiation is discussed, followed by a review of the techniques employed in modeling the monochromator and its thermal/structural boundary conditions. The results of the finite element analysis, three-dimensional temperature distributions, surface displacements and slopes, and stresses, in the area of interest, are presented. Lastly, the effects these results have on monochromator output flux and resolution are examined.

  6. The potential for distributed generation in Japanese prototype buildings: A DER-CAM analysis of policy, tariff design, building energy use, and technology development (English Version)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida, Masaru

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CAM Analysis of Policy, Tariff Design, Building Energy Use,14 3.3 Comparison of Utility Tariffs in Japan and the14 Table 4: Electricity Tariffs at Several Facilities in the

  7. {Control of Residential Load Management Networks Using Real Time Pricing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Burke, William Jerome

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    loads to deliver load following and regulation, withproducts like load following and spinning reserve.following of constant power references. Chapter 7 Implications of Load

  8. Advanced Design Studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steiner, Don [Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY (United States)

    2012-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The ARIES-CS project was a multi-year multi-institutional project to assess the feasibility of a compact stellarator as a fusion power plant. The work herein describes efforts to help design one aspect of the device, the divertor, which is responsible for the removal of particle and heat flux from the system, acting as the first point of contact between the magnetically confined hot plasma and the outside world. Specifically, its location and topology are explored, extending previous work on the sub ject. An optimized design is determined for the thermal particle flux using a suite of 3D stellarator design codes which trace magnetic field lines from just inside the confined plasma edge to their strike points on divertor plates. These divertor plates are specified with a newly developed plate design code. It is found that a satisfactory thermal design exists which maintains the plate temperature and heat load distribution below tolerable engineering limits. The design is unique, including a toroidal taper on the outboard plates which was found to be important to our results. The maximum thermal heat flux for the final design was 3.61 M W/m2 and the maximum peaking factor was 10.3, below prescribed limits of 10 M W/m2 and 15.6, respectively. The median length of field lines reaching the plates is about 250 m and their average angle of inclination to the surface is 2 deg. Finally, an analysis of the fast alphas, resulting from fusion in the core, which escape the plasma was performed. A method is developed for obtaining the mapping from magnetic coordinates to real-space coordinates for the ARIES-CS. This allows the alpha exit locations to be identified in real space for the first time. These were then traced using the field line algorithm as well as a guiding center routine accounting for their mass, charge, and specific direction and energy. Results show that the current design is inadequate for accommodating the alpha heat flux, capturing at most 1/3 of lost alphas. However the distribution of the alphas on the device first wall indicates that a viable solution likely exists. It is noted that future designs must be sought which specifically address the fusion alphas through an integrated approach involving physics and engineering teams.

  9. Non-transposed, three phase transmission lines: a study of their effect on load voltages.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chenoweth, Robert Dean

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    TRANSMISSION LINES A S'PJDY OF THEIR EFFECT ON LOAD VOLTAGES A Thesis By Robert Dean Chenoweth August 1951 NON-TRANSPOSED~ THREE PHASE TRANSMISSION LINES A STUDY OF THEIR EFFECT ON LOAD VOLTAGES A Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural... all large blocks of alternating current power are transmitted from the generating station to the load by means of three phase transmission lines. With present day equipment this method is economical and when ~ properly designed gives very...

  10. Development of Zinc/Bromine Batteries for Load-Leveling Applications: Phase 1 Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eidler, Phillip

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Zinc/Bromine Load-Leveling Battery Development contract (No. 40-8965) was partitioned at the outset into two phases of equal length. Phase 1 started in September 1990 and continued through December 1991. In Phase 1, zinc/bromine battery technology was to be advanced to the point that it would be clear that the technology was viable and would be an appropriate choice for electric utilities wishing to establish stationary energy-storage facilities. Criteria were established that addressed most of the concerns that had been observed in the previous development efforts. The performances of 8-cell and 100-cell laboratory batteries demonstrated that the criteria were met or exceeded. In Phase 2, 100-kWh batteries will be built and demonstrated, and a conceptual design for a load-leveling plant will be presented. At the same time, work will continue to identify improved assembly techniques and operating conditions. This report details the results of the efforts carried out in Phase 1. The highlights are: (1) Four 1-kWh stacks achieved over 100 cycles, One l-kWh stack achieved over 200 cycles, One 1-kWh stack achieved over 300 cycles; (2) Less than 10% degradation in performance occurred in the four stacks that achieved over 100 cycles; (3) The battery used for the zinc loading investigation exhibited virtually no loss in performance for loadings up to 130 mAh/cm{sup 2}; (4) Charge-current densities of 50 ma/cm{sup 2} have been achieved in minicells; (5) Fourteen consecutive no-strip cycles have been conducted on the stack with 300+ cycles; (6) A mass and energy balance spreadsheet that describes battery operation was completed; (7) Materials research has continued to provide improvements in the electrode, activation layer, and separator; and (8) A battery made of two 50-cell stacks (15 kWh) was produced and delivered to Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) for testing. The most critical development was the ability to assemble a battery stack that remained leak free. The task of sealing the battery stack using vibration welding has undergone significant improvement resulting in a viable production process. Through several design iterations, a solid technology base for larger battery stack designs was established. Internal stack stresses can now be modeled, in addition to fluid velocity and fluid pressure distribution, through the use of a finite element analysis computer program. Additionally, the Johnson Controls Battery Group, Inc. (JCBGI) proprietary FORTRAN model has been improved significantly, enabling accurate performance predictions. This modeling was used to improve the integrity and performance of the battery stacks, and should be instrumental in reducing the turnaround time from concept to assembly.

  11. Attached sunspace design analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; McFarland, R.D.

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An introduction to new design analysis information for attached sunspaces is presented. The 28 sunspace reference designs are described. Note is taken of those designs (the semi-enclosed geometries) analyzed more recently than the previously published reports. The role of sensitivity studies is discussed, and some sample plots of sunspace performance sensitivity to key design parameters are presented. The monthly solar load ratio (SLR) correlations are reviewed with emphasis on the modified SLR used in the sunspace analysis. The application of the sunspace SLR correlations to monthly design analysis is outlined.

  12. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  13. Modeling of highly loaded fluorescent lamps

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lister, G.G.; Lawler, J.E.; Curry, J.J.

    1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Numerical modeling of the positive column of fluorescent lamps under conditions of high current density are of current interest, particularly in view of recent developments in electrodeless lamps. Current models tend to overestimate radiation output, and consequently the maintenance electric field in these discharges. Under highly loaded conditions, mercury-rare gas fluorescent lamps exhibit strong mercury depletion on axis (cataphoresis), and an understanding of resonance radiation transport under these conditions is therefore vital to the development of models with a predictive capability. The authors have explored the effect of radial cataphoresis on resonance radiation trapping for situations in which the radiation transport is dominated by foreign gas broadening, Doppler broadening, or resonance collisional broadening of the spectral line. Several different production rates per unit volume of resonance (excited) atoms have also been studied. It is advantageous in many cases to parameterize the trapped decay rate in terms of the total number of ground state atoms in the positive column independent of their radial distribution. The results of this work have been included in a numerical model of the positive column and the predicted influence on discharge parameters will be presented for cases of interest to highly loaded lamps.

  14. MODELING AND CONTROL OF THERMOSTATICALLY CONTROLLED LOADS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hiskens, Ian A.

    controlled loads (TCLs) has demonstrated that such load following is feasible, but analyt- ical models) is well matched to the role of load following. Re- search into the behavior of TCLs began with the work was then employed in a minimum variance control law to demonstrate the load following capability of a population

  15. Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    #12;Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve #12;1. Develop Flow Duration Curve 2. Estimate load given flow and concentration data--select appropriate conversion factors 3. Develop Load Duration Curve 4. Plot observed data with Load Duration Curve #12;What are they? How do you make one? #12;Describes

  16. Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flow Duration Curve Load Duration Curve 1. Develop Flow Duration Curve 2. Estimate load given flow and concentration data--select appropriate conversion factors 3. Develop Load Duration Curve 4. Plot observed data with Load Duration Curve What are they? How do you make one? Describes the percent of time a flow rate

  17. Distributed leadership and social networks in the school- based development of the International Baccalaureate's Middle Years Program in a Venezuelan K-12

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bolivar, Jose M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this section the social distribution of design tasks will beof the social distribution of curriculum design and teacherThe social distribution of MYP design tasks (reorganization

  18. Evaluation criteria and procedure for nuclear power plant temporary loads/temporary conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, H.T. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Minichiello, J.C. [Commonwealth Edison Co., Downers Grove, IL (United States); Olson, D.E. [Sargent and Lundy, Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operating nuclear power plants frequently encounter temporary loads/temporary conditions in plant normal operation and maintenance (O and M). The most obvious examples are installation of temporary shielding and scaffolding, or removal of certain supports, to facilitate plant refueling and maintenance outage activities. Short-term operability calls such as those due to snubber failures or unanticipated transients also create temporary loads/temporary conditions. These temporary situations often generate loads that are outside the original plant design basis. Consequently, separate evaluations are needed to ensure that plant structures, systems and components (SSCs) maintain their integrity and functionality while these temporary loads are active. Also, the temporary structures and components need to be evaluated to ensure their integrity during the temporary duration of use. Three types of approaches are normally adopted either individually or in combination to perform needed evaluations: relax the design allowables, use a more refined analysis model but retain the design basis acceptance criteria, or offset temporary loads by eliminating or reducing part of the design basis loads based on short duration considerations. This paper reviews temporary loading/temporary condition issues and the current industry criteria and procedures proposed in dealing with these issues. Where appropriate, regulatory positions on temporary loads/temporary conditions are discussed.

  19. Development and test evaluation of advanced lead-acid batteries for load-leveling applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yao, N.P.; Miller, J.F.

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Exide load-leveling modules have operated reliably to date in all testing at the NBTL, with stable performance exceeding design goals. Much important information on operation and maintenance requirements has been accumulated in over 3 1/2 years of testing to date. It is concluded that these batteries can perform load-leveling applications for electric utilities or utility customers.

  20. An All Metal High Power Circularly Polarized 100 MW RF Load

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fowkes, W.R.; Jongewaard, E.N.; Loewen, R.J.; Tantawi, S.G.; Vlieks, A.E.; /SLAC

    2011-08-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact RF load has been designed using a cascaded array of lossy radial RF chokes to dissipate 100 MW peak and 8 kW average power uniformly along the length of the load. Operation in the circularly polarized Te{_}11 mode assures uniform dissipation azimuthally as well.

  1. American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics An Experimental Investigation on Dynamic Wind Loads Acting on a

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hu, Hui

    of the wind turbine blades = air density I. Introduction he mechanical design of a wind turbine structure Loads Acting on a Wind Turbine Model in Atomspheric Boundary Layer Winds Wei Tian1 , Ahmet Ozbay2 An experimental study was conducted to investigate the dynamic wind loads acting on a wind turbine model sited

  2. Model for Aggregated Water Heater Load Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlachopoulou, Maria; Chin, George; Fuller, Jason C.; Lu, Shuai; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2012-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The transition to the new generation power grid, or “smart grid”, requires novel ways of using and analyzing data collected from the grid infrastructure. Fundamental functionalities like demand response (DR), that the smart grid needs, rely heavily on the ability of the energy providers and distributors to forecast the load behavior of appliances under different DR strategies. This paper presents a new model of aggregated water heater load, based on dynamic Bayesian networks (DBNs). The model has been validated against simulated data from an open source distribution simulation software (GridLAB-D). The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the DBN model accurately tracks the load profile curves of aggregated water heaters under different testing scenarios.

  3. Inductrack III configuration--a maglev system for high loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, Richard F

    2013-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Inductrack III configurations are suited for use in transporting heavy freight loads. Inductrack III addresses a problem associated with the cantilevered track of the Inductrack II configuration. The use of a cantilevered track could present mechanical design problems in attempting to achieve a strong enough track system such that it would be capable of supporting very heavy loads. In Inductrack III, the levitating portion of the track can be supported uniformly from below, as the levitating Halbach array used on the moving vehicle is a single-sided one, thus does not require the cantilevered track as employed in Inductrack II.

  4. Plug and Process Loads Capacity and Power Requirements Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report addresses gaps in actionable knowledge that would help reduce the plug load capacities designed into buildings. Prospective building occupants and real estate brokers lack accurate references for plug and process load (PPL) capacity requirements, so they often request 5-10 W/ft2 in their lease agreements. Limited initial data, however, suggest that actual PPL densities in leased buildings are substantially lower. Overestimating PPL capacity leads designers to oversize electrical infrastructure and cooling systems. Better guidance will enable improved sizing and design of these systems, decrease upfront capital costs, and allow systems to operate more energy efficiently. The main focus of this report is to provide industry with reliable, objective third-party guidance to address the information gap in typical PPL densities for commercial building tenants. This could drive changes in negotiations about PPL energy demands.

  5. aircraft conceptual design: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... Ausrotas, Raymond A. 1974-01-01 469 Optimal Load Management System for Aircraft Electric Power Distribution University of California eScholarship Repository Summary: to the...

  6. Reducing Plug and Process Loads for a Large Scale, Low Energy Office Building: NREL's Research Support Facility; Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lobato, C.; Pless, S.; Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.

    2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper documents the design and operational plug and process load energy efficiency measures needed to allow a large scale office building to reach ultra high efficiency building goals. The appendices of this document contain a wealth of documentation pertaining to plug and process load design in the RSF, including a list of equipment was selected for use.

  7. THE MECHANICAL DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF A CONVECTIVELY COOLED ION ACCELERATOR FOR CONTINUOUSLY OPERATING NEUTRAL BEAM SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paterson, J.A.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    100 kV 1. 5 sec Table 1. Grid heat loads as %beam power. Towith a central separation. Grid heat loading is the dominantsystem. To investigate grid heat loads on our grid designs

  8. Commercial equipment loads: End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pratt, R.G.; Williamson, M.A.; Richman, E.E.; Miller, N.E.

    1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Office of Energy Resources of the Bonneville Power Administration is generally responsible for the agency's power and conservation resource planning. As associated responsibility which supports a variety of office functions is the analysis of historical trends in and determinants of energy consumption. The Office of Energy Resources' End-Use Research Section operates a comprehensive data collection program to provide pertinent information to support demand-side planning, load forecasting, and demand-side program development and delivery. Part of this on-going program is known as the End-Use Load and Consumer Assessment Program (ELCAP), an effort designed to collect electricity usage data through direct monitoring of end-use loads in buildings. This program is conducted for Bonneville by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory. This report provides detailed information on electricity consumption of miscellaneous equipment from the commercial portion of ELCAP. Miscellaneous equipment includes all commercial end-uses except heating, ventilating, air conditioning, and central lighting systems. Some examples of end-uses covered in this report are office equipment, computers, task lighting, refrigeration, and food preparation. Electricity consumption estimates, in kilowatt-hours per square food per year, are provided for each end-use by building type. The following types of buildings are covered: office, retail, restaurant, grocery, warehouse, school, university, and hotel/motel. 6 refs., 35 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. Assessment of Distributed Generation Potential in JapaneseBuildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida,Masaru

    2005-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    To meet growing energy demands, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and on-site generation coupled with effective utilization of exhaust heat will all be required. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems (or microgrids). This research investigates a method of choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at the Berkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds the optimal combination of installed equipment from available DER technologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical and thermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads can be served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, and cooling. Five prototype Japanese commercial buildings are examined and DER-CAM applied to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Based on the optimization results, energy and emission reductions are evaluated. Furthermore, a Japan-U.S. comparison study of policy, technology, and utility tariffs relevant to DER installation is presented. Significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the DER-CAM results. Savings were most noticeable in the sports facility (a very favourable CHP site), followed by the hospital, hotel, and office building.

  10. Automated distribution scheme speeds service restoration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atwell, E. [Lakeland Electric and Water, FL (United States)] [Lakeland Electric and Water, FL (United States); Gamvrelis, T. [Harris Canada, Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Control Div.] [Harris Canada, Inc., Calgary, Alberta (Canada). Control Div.; Kearns, D. [S and C Electric Co., Chicago, IL (United States)] [S and C Electric Co., Chicago, IL (United States); Landman, R. [H and L Instruments, North Hampton, NH (United States)] [H and L Instruments, North Hampton, NH (United States)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This article describes an automated distribution scheme that met Lakeland Electric requirements for an automated scheme that would restore power to a major customer in less than 60 seconds. In January 1993, Lakeland Electric and Water (LEW) took on the design and construction of a new 12.47-kV automated distribution system for the Publix Supermarket Industrial complex. The industrial complex in Lakeland, Florida, totals 2 million square feet and houses a dairy processing plant, bakery, produce plant, deli plant, data processing facility for Publix`s entire retail network, purchasing department, as well as several maintenance facilities. The retail chain is LEW`s largest customer with a peak demand of 15.5 MW and a load factor of 81%. Publix`s rapid expansion plan has placed a great deal of pressure on this facility to perform at peak level with no interruptions of product flow. The task at hand was to provide Publix with a state-of-the-art, automated, distribution system built to withstand the inherent weather-related situations in central Florida, lightning and hurricanes.

  11. Reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode load using Markov Chain Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nikabdullah, N. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); Singh, S. S. K.; Alebrahim, R.; Azizi, M. A. [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); K, Elwaleed A. [Institute of Space Science (ANGKASA), Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia); Noorani, M. S. M. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The aim of this paper is to present the reliability analysis and prediction of mixed mode loading by using a simple two state Markov Chain Model for an automotive crankshaft. The reliability analysis and prediction for any automotive component or structure is important for analyzing and measuring the failure to increase the design life, eliminate or reduce the likelihood of failures and safety risk. The mechanical failures of the crankshaft are due of high bending and torsion stress concentration from high cycle and low rotating bending and torsional stress. The Markov Chain was used to model the two states based on the probability of failure due to bending and torsion stress. In most investigations it revealed that bending stress is much serve than torsional stress, therefore the probability criteria for the bending state would be higher compared to the torsion state. A statistical comparison between the developed Markov Chain Model and field data was done to observe the percentage of error. The reliability analysis and prediction was derived and illustrated from the Markov Chain Model were shown in the Weibull probability and cumulative distribution function, hazard rate and reliability curve and the bathtub curve. It can be concluded that Markov Chain Model has the ability to generate near similar data with minimal percentage of error and for a practical application; the proposed model provides a good accuracy in determining the reliability for the crankshaft under mixed mode loading.

  12. E-Print Network 3.0 - ankle joint loading Sample Search Results

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Information Sciences 54 Biomimetic Design of an Under-Actuated Leg Exoskeleton For Load-Carrying Augmentation Summary: Figure 2.6 Gait data showing the trajectory of the hip,...

  13. Load Schedule Coordination for a Large Linear Accelerator: An Operation Powerplay Concept

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, W. H.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Operation Powerplay is a viable electric load management program developed and tested with Department of Energy funding and support. It is a concept designed to provide financial benefits to a utility and one or more of its customers through...

  14. Autonomous exoskeleton reduces metabolic cost of human walking during load carriage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mooney, Luke M.

    Background: Many soldiers are expected to carry heavy loads over extended distances, often resulting in physical and mental fatigue. In this study, the design and testing of an autonomous leg exoskeleton is presented. The ...

  15. Online Load Balancing for Related Machines 1 Piotr Berman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charikar, Moses

    ), the load of a machine i in schedule s and Load(s), the load of entire schedule s as follows: load(s; i) = 1On­line Load Balancing for Related Machines 1 Piotr Berman The Pennsylvania State University of randomized algorithms for this problem. Key Words: on­line algorithm, load balancing, related machines

  16. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  17. Network Design Formulations, Modeling, and Solution Algorithms for Goods Movement Strategic Planning

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Apivatanagul, Pruttipong

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1974. "Multicommodity distribution system design by BendersBenefit distribution and equity in road network designnetwork design problem with combined trip distribution and

  18. Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed Energy Resources, February 2004 Model for Sustainable Urban Design With Expanded Sections on Distributed Energy Resources, February...

  19. Independent review of estimated load reductions for PJM's small customer load response pilot project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, G.; Moezzi, M.; Goldman, C.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of Estimated Load Reductions for PJM’s Small Customer Loadof Estimated Load Reductions for PJM’s Small Customer LoadResponse Pilot Project Prepared for PJM Interconnection, LLC

  20. Evaluation of the megawatt demand setter for load-follow operation of C-E's SYSTEM 80+

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choi, J.I.; Scarola, K.

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Megawatt Demand Setter (MDS) is a digital supervisory control system that automatically assures that the turbine load is consistent with plant operating limits for critical parameters. The MDS is designed to avert plant trips by limiting the load demand during load transients and by reducing the turbine load if plant operating limits are approached or violated. The MDS, devised and patented by Combustion Engineering, Inc., in the 1970s for automatic load dispatching, has been installed at two plants. Those plants have since been operated in a base-load capacity, however, and have not needed to implement the load-follow capabilities of the MDS. As the percentage of electricity generated by nuclear units increases, the need to implement such load-follow capabilities will also increase. Combustion Engineering intends to incorporate improved load-follow capability in its SYSTEM 80+ nuclear steam supply system (NSSS) design. One aspect of this will be incorporation of the MDS in the design of the NUPLEX 80+ advanced control complex for system 80+. This paper presents an evaluation of two major design features of the MDS for load-follow operation based on simulation of SYSTEM 80+ plant responses.

  1. Aggregated Modeling of Thermostatic Loads in Demand Response: A Systems and Control Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalsi, Karanjit; Chassin, Forrest S.; Chassin, David P.

    2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid research and technologies being examined in recently undertaken demonstration projects. The behavior of load as it is affected by various load control strategies is important to understanding the degree to which different classes of end-use load can contribute to demand response programs at various times. This paper focuses on developing aggregated models for a homogeneous population of thermostatically controlled loads. The different types of loads considered in this paper include, but are not limited to, water heaters and HVAC units. The effects of demand response and user over-ride on the load population dynamics are investigated. The controllability of the developed lumped models is validated which forms the basis for designing different control strategies.

  2. Spinning Reserve From Responsive Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kirby, B.J.

    2003-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Responsive load is the most underutilized reliability resource available to the power system today. It is currently not used at all to provide spinning reserve. Historically there were good reasons for this, but recent technological advances in communications and controls have provided new capabilities and eliminated many of the old obstacles. North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC), Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC), Northeast Power Coordinating Council (NPCC), New York State Reliability Council (NYSRC), and New York Independent System Operator (NYISO) rules are beginning to recognize these changes and are starting to encourage responsive load provision of reliability services. The Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostats provide an example of these technological advances. This is a technology aimed at reducing summer peak demand through central control of residential and small commercial air-conditioning loads. It is being utilized by Long Island Power Authority (LIPA), Consolidated Edison (ConEd), Southern California Edison (SCE), and San Diego Gas and Electric (SDG&E). The technology is capable of delivering even greater response in the faster spinning reserve time frame (while still providing peak reduction). Analysis of demand reduction testing results from LIPA during the summer of 2002 provides evidence to back up this claim. It also demonstrates that loads are different from generators and that the conventional wisdom, which advocates for starting with large loads as better ancillary service providers, is flawed. The tempting approach of incrementally adapting ancillary service requirements, which were established when generators were the only available resources, will not work. While it is easier for most generators to provide replacement power and non-spinning reserve (the slower response services) than it is to supply spinning reserve (the fastest service), the opposite is true for many loads. Also, there is more financial reward for supplying spinning reserve than for supplying the other reserve services as a result of the higher spinning reserve prices. The LIPAedge program (LIPA's demand reduction program using Carrier ComfortChoice thermostats) provides an opportunity to test the use of responsive load for spinning reserve. With potentially 75 MW of spinning reserve capability already installed, this test program can also make an important contribution to the capacity needs of Long Island during the summer of 2003. Testing could also be done at ConEd ({approx}30 MW), SCE ({approx}15 MW), and/or SDG&E ({approx}15 MW). This paper is divided into six chapters. Chapter 2 discusses the contingency reserve ancillary services, their functions in supporting power system reliability, and their technical requirements. It also discusses the policy and tariff requirements and attempts to distinguish between ones that are genuinely necessary and ones that are artifacts of the technologies that were historically used to provide the services. Chapter 3 discusses how responsive load could provide contingency reserves (especially spinning reserve) for the power system. Chapter 4 specifically discusses the Carrier ComfortChoice responsive thermostat technology, the LIPAedge experience with that technology, and how the technology could be used to supply spinning reserve. Chapter 5 discusses a number of unresolved issues and suggests areas for further research. Chapter 6 offers conclusions and recommendations.

  3. Design of a low-cost worm-gear system as teaching tool for controller design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Donghang

    2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    connected with a potentiometer and a set of removable loads. Four controllers, the PID controller, LQR controller, H[] controller and fuzzy logic controller are designed, simulated and implemented. These controllers are designed in the continuous time domain...

  4. PASSIVE DETECTION OF VEHICLE LOADING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrett, A.

    2012-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    The Digital Imaging and Remote Sensing Laboratory (DIRS) at the Rochester Institute of Technology, along with the Savannah River National Laboratory is investigating passive methods to quantify vehicle loading. The research described in this paper investigates multiple vehicle indicators including brake temperature, tire temperature, engine temperature, acceleration and deceleration rates, engine acoustics, suspension response, tire deformation and vibrational response. Our investigation into these variables includes building and implementing a sensing system for data collection as well as multiple full-scale vehicle tests. The sensing system includes; infrared video cameras, triaxial accelerometers, microphones, video cameras and thermocouples. The full scale testing includes both a medium size dump truck and a tractor-trailer truck on closed courses with loads spanning the full range of the vehicle's capacity. Statistical analysis of the collected data is used to determine the effectiveness of each of the indicators for characterizing the weight of a vehicle. The final sensing system will monitor multiple load indicators and combine the results to achieve a more accurate measurement than any of the indicators could provide alone.

  5. Finding Computed Diamonds in a Virtual Rough: Screening and Evaluation of Conformations and Energetics from Drug Discovery to Computational Enzyme Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnson, Scott Arne

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    a) the EDGEScore distribution for design 1; b) the EDGEScorec) the EDGEScore distribution for design 2; d) the EDGEScorea) the EDGEScore distribution for design 1; b) the EDGEScore

  6. Distributed DBMS Page 5. 1 I Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yangjun

    Distributed DBMS Page 5. 1 Outline I Introduction I Background I Distributed DBMS Architecture Distributed Transaction Management Parallel Database Systems Distributed Object DBMS Database Interoperability Current Issues #12;Distributed DBMS Page 5. 2 Design Problem I In the general setting : Making

  7. Residential Load Management Program and Pilot

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haverlah, D.; Riordon, K.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In 1986 LCRA embarked on residential load management to control peak summer loads. At that time, LCRA was considered a summer peaking utility, and residential air conditioning and water heating systems were selected for control. The program...

  8. Helicase Loading at Chromosomal Origins of Replication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, Stephen P.

    Loading of the replicative DNA helicase at origins of replication is of central importance in DNA replication. As the first of the replication fork proteins assemble at chromosomal origins of replication, the loaded helicase ...

  9. Communication Load Reduction for Neural Network Implementations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Behnke, Sven

    the total amount of communication load, followed by a placement of partitions onto proces- sors 3]. We

  10. Plug Load Behavioral Change Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Metzger, I.; Kandt, A.; VanGeet, O.

    2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report documents the methods and results of a plug load study of the Environmental Protection Agency's Region 8 Headquarters in Denver, Colorado, conducted by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory. The study quantified the effect of mechanical and behavioral change approaches on plug load energy reduction and identified effective ways to reduce plug load energy. Load reduction approaches included automated energy management systems and behavioral change strategies.

  11. Analysis Methodology for Industrial Load Profiles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reddoch, T. W.

    ANALYSIS METHODOLOGY FOR INDUSTRIAL LOAD PROFILES Thomas W. Reddoch Executive Vice President Eleclrolek Concepts, Inc. Knoxvillc, Tennessee ABSTRACT A methodology is provided for evaluating the impact of various demand-side management... (OSM) options on industrial customers. The basic approach uses customer metered load profile data as a basis for the customer load shape. OSM technologies are represented as load shapes and are used as a basis for altering the customers existing...

  12. A Novel Approach to Determining Motor Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brown, M.

    A NOVEL APPROACH TO DETERMINING MOTOR LOAD by Michael Brown Georgia Tech Research Institute Atlanta, Georgia ABSTRACf Properly sized electric motors are essential if industrial plant efficiency is to be optimized and energy costs... minimized. Because of the difficully in making power measurements on three phase motors, loading is rarely, if ever, checked. A simple indication of motor load can be achieved by measuring operating speed because speed and load are almost linearly...

  13. Investigation of sands subjected to dynamic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reeves, Gary Neil

    1967-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    become apparent that dynamic, or sud- denly applied loads, present a different type of problem to the engineer. Wind loads on tall structures, pile driving, nuclear blasts, and many other familiar loading conditions cannot be de- scribed or handled... an earthquake or nuclear blast. Also under this category of loading is the pulse which would be purposely induced to fail the soil structure for the purpose of excavation or pile driving. As part of a broader research project concerned with pile dri- ving...

  14. System and method employing a minimum distance and a load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A

    2014-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types, each of the different electric load types including a first load feature vector having at least four different load features; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the different electric loads; determining a second load feature vector comprising at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the different electric loads; and identifying by a processor one of the different electric load types by determining a minimum distance of the second load feature vector to the first load feature vector of the different electric load types of the load feature database.

  15. Neutronics and thermal design analyses of US solid breeder blanket for ITER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gohar, Y.; Billone, M.; Attaya, H. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Sawan, M. (Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (USA))

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The US Solid Breeder Blanket is designed to produce the necessary tritium required for the ITER operation and to operate at power reactor conditions as much as possible. Safety, low tritium inventory, reliability, flexibility cost, and minimum R D requirements are the other design criteria. To satisfy these criteria, the produced tritium is recovered continuously during operation and the blanket coolant operates at low pressure. Beryllium multiplier material is used to control the solid-breeder temperature. Neutronics and thermal design analyses were performed in an integrated manner to define the blanket configuration. The reference parameters of ITER including the operating scenarios, the neutron wall loading distribution and the copper stabilizer are included in the design analyses. Several analyses were performed to study the impact of the reactor parameters, blanket dimensions, material characteristics, and heat transfer coefficient at the material interfaces on the blanket performance. The design analyses and the results from the different studies are summarized. 6 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Gearbox Modeling and Load Simulation of a Baseline 750-kW Wind Turbine Using State-of-the-Art Simulation Codes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oyague, F.

    2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report discusses the causes for premature wind turbine gearbox failure and determining a method for revealing the missing loading conditions relevant to the gearbox design process.

  17. Geometric nonlinear analysis of microbeam under electrostatic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Murgude, Nikhil C.

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    mature, and a variety of new engineering products are being introduced into the market, there arises a need for sophisticated computer-aided engineering (CAE) tools or computer-aided design systems (CAD). Computational prototyping or simulations, when...- static field analysis [12]. Omar et al. [13] present a finite element method (FEM) for modeling electric and fluid fields in micrometers. Mullen et al. [14] used the finite element method to predict the load and buckling behavior of micro...

  18. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  19. High loading uranium fuel plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiencek, Thomas C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Domagala, Robert F. (Indian Head Park, IL); Thresh, Henry R. (Palos Heights, IL)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Two embodiments of a high uranium fuel plate are disclosed which contain a meat comprising structured uranium compound confined between a pair of diffusion bonded ductile metal cladding plates uniformly covering the meat, the meat having a uniform high fuel loading comprising a content of uranium compound greater than about 45 Vol. % at a porosity not greater than about 10 Vol. %. In a first embodiment, the meat is a plurality of parallel wires of uranium compound. In a second embodiment, the meat is a dispersion compact containing uranium compound. The fuel plates are fabricated by a hot isostatic pressing process.

  20. Automated fuel pin loading system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Brown, William F. (West Richland, WA); Steffen, Jim M. (Richland, WA)

    1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An automated loading system for nuclear reactor fuel elements utilizes a gravity feed conveyor which permits individual fuel pins to roll along a constrained path perpendicular to their respective lengths. The individual lengths of fuel cladding are directed onto movable transports, where they are aligned coaxially with the axes of associated handling equipment at appropriate production stations. Each fuel pin can be reciprocated axially and/or rotated about its axis as required during handling steps. The fuel pins are inserted as a batch prior to welding of end caps by one of two disclosed welding systems.

  1. Dynamic Load Balancing of Virtualized Database Services Using Hints and Load

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kemper, Alfons

    server during runtime. Figure 1 shows the load curve of a typical interactive service. In the morningDynamic Load Balancing of Virtualized Database Services Using Hints and Load Forecasting Daniel-organizing infrastructures to react proactively. For this pur- pose we present two techniques: Short-term load forecasting

  2. High payload six-axis load sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jansen, John F. (Knoxville, TN); Lind, Randall F. (Knoxville, TN)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A repairable high-payload six-axis load sensor includes a table, a base, and at least three shear-pin load transducers removably mounted between the table and the base. Removable mounting permits easy replacement of damaged shear pins. Preferably, the shear-pin load transducers are responsive to shear forces imparted along the two axes perpendicular to an axis of minimum sensitivity characteristic of the transducer. Responsive to an applied shear force, each shear-pin load transducer can produce an electrical signal proportional to the reaction force. The load sensor can further include a structure for receiving the proportional electrical signals and computing the applied load corresponding to the proportional electrical signals. The computed load can be expressed in terms of a three-dimensional XYZ Cartesian coordinate system.

  3. Plastic instabilities in statically and dynamically loaded spherical vessels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duffey, Thomas A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rodriguez, Edward A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Significant changes were made in design limits for pressurized vessels in the 2007 version of the ASME Code (Section VIII, Div. 3) and 2008 and 2009 Addenda. There is now a local damage-mechanics based strain-exhaustion limit as well as the well-known global plastic collapse limit. Moreover, Code Case 2564 (Section VIII, Div. 3) has recently been approved to address impulsively loaded vessels. It is the purpose of this paper to investigate the plastic collapse limit as it applies to dynamically loaded spherical vessels. Plastic instabilities that could potentially develop in spherical shells under symmetric loading conditions are examined for a variety of plastic constitutive relations. First, a literature survey of both static and dynamic instabilities associated with spherical shells is presented. Then, a general plastic instability condition for spherical shells subjected to displacement controlled and impulsive loading is given. This instability condition is evaluated for six plastic and visco-plastic constitutive relations. The role of strain-rate sensitivity on the instability point is investigated. Calculations for statically and dynamically loaded spherical shells are presented, illustrating the formation of instabilities as well as the role of imperfections. Conclusions of this work are that there are two fundamental types of instabilities associated with failure of spherical shells. In the case of impulsively loaded vessels, where the pulse duration is short compared to the fundamental period of the structure, one instability type is found not to occur in the absence of static internal pressure. Moreover, it is found that the specific role of strain-rate sensitivity on the instability strain depends on the form of the constitutive relation assumed.

  4. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed pre-processing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David J. Muth, Jr.; Matthew H. Langholtz; Eric C. D. Tan; Jacob J. Jacobson; Amy Schwab; May M. Wu; Andrew Argo; Craig C. Brandt; Kara G. Cafferty; Yi-Wen Chiu; Abhijit Dutta; Laurence M. Eaton; Erin M. Searcy

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the conversion facility.

  5. Performance of the OVP/UVP and OFP/UFP method with voltage and frequency dependent loads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kirtley, James L., Jr.

    In previous literature, constant RLC loads were assumed to impose, on the islanding detection method, the hardest detectable case. For this reason, distributed-generation (DG) islanding studies are usually analyzed and ...

  6. Emergency reconfiguration and distribution system planning under the Single-Contingency Policy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, J.

    Emergency reconfiguration can improve distribution systems' reliability by enabling load transfer among substations. Previous studies, although present its operation strategies, seldom explore emergency reconfiguration's ...

  7. Dynamic load Variation and Stability Analysis in Distribution Networks with Distributed Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    energy sources (small hydro, modern biomass, wind, solar, geothermal, and bio fuels). The annual growth

  8. Anabranching As A Novel Restoration Design To Reduce Aquatic Pollution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    aquatic nutrients and increase residence time At Hydraulic Loads (cm) between 30-50% Total N and 20.H. and S.D. Wallace. 2009. Treatment Wetlands, 2nd ed. CRC Press, Boca Raton, FL. Walter, R.C., Merritts, D Hydraulic Load = 50 cm Design Wetland Area = Runoff / Hydraulic Load Wetland Area ~ 1.07 ha #12;

  9. Water Network Design by MINLP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a solution method for a water-network optimization problem using a ... The optimal design of a WDN (Water Distribution Network) consists, in its ...

  10. Water Network Design by MINLP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2008-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Feb 13, 2008 ... We propose a solution method for a water-network optimization problem ... The optimal design of a WDN (Water Distribution Network) consists, ...

  11. Analysis of Plug Load Capacities and Power Requirements in Commercial Buildings: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppy, M.; Torcellini, P.; Gentile-Polese, L.

    2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Plug and process load power requirements are frequently overestimated because designers often use estimates based on 'nameplate' data, or design assumptions are high because information is not available. This generally results in oversized heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning systems; increased initial construction costs; and increased energy use caused by inefficiencies at low, part-load operation. Rightsizing of chillers in two buildings reduced whole-building energy use by 3%-4%. If an integrated design approach could enable 3% whole-building energy savings in all U.S. office buildings stock, it could save 34 TBtu of site energy per year.

  12. Electrical distribution studies for the 200 Area tank farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fisler, J.B.

    1994-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

    This is an engineering study providing reliability numbers for various design configurations as well as computer analyses (Captor/Dapper) of the existing distribution system to the 480V side of the unit substations. The objective of the study was to assure the adequacy of the existing electrical system components from the connection at the high voltage supply point through the transformation and distribution equipment to the point where it is reduced to its useful voltage level. It also was to evaluate the reasonableness of proposed solutions of identified deficiencies and recommendations of possible alternate solutions. The electrical utilities are normally considered the most vital of the utility systems on a site because all other utility systems depend on electrical power. The system accepts electric power from the external sources, reduces it to a lower voltage, and distributes it to end-use points throughout the site. By classic definition, all utility systems extend to a point 5 feet from the facility perimeter. An exception is made to this definition for the electric utilities at this site. The electrical Utility System ends at the low voltage section of the unit substation, which reduces the voltage from 13.8 kV to 2,400, 480, 277/480 or 120/208 volts. These transformers are located at various distances from existing facilities. The adequacy of the distribution system which transports the power from the main substation to the individual area substations and other load centers is evaluated and factored into the impact of the future load forecast.

  13. High voltage load resistor array

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lehmann, Monty Ray (Smithfield, VA)

    2005-01-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  14. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In PJM for example, loads and generators that can follow theto generators and loads, who can follow operator’s second bya reflection of the load’s inability to follow minute-by-

  15. Model Fidelity Study of Dynamic Transient Loads in a Wind Turbine Gearbox: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Y.; Keller, J.; Moan, T.; Xing, Y.

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Transient events cause high loads in the drivetrain components so measuring and calculating these loads can improve confidence in drivetrain design. This paper studies the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative 750kW wind turbine gearbox response during transient events using a combined experimental and modeling approach. The transient events include emergency shut-downs and start-ups measured during a field testing period in 2009. The drivetrain model is established in the multibody simulation tool Simpack. A detailed study of modeling fidelity required for accurate load prediction is performed and results are compared against measured loads. A high fidelity model that includes shaft and housing flexibility and accurate bearing stiffnesses is important for the higher-speed stage bearing loads. Each of the transient events has different modeling requirements.

  16. Building diagnosable distributed systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maniatis, Petros

    Building diagnosable distributed systems Petros Maniatis Intel Research Berkeley ICSI ­ Security] Project response@R (R, K, SI) lookup response Specification #12;2/8/2006 Petros Maniatis9 Strawman Design Join lookup.NI == node.NI Join lookup.NI == succ.NI Select K in (N, S] Project response@R (R, K, SI

  17. Engineered setpoints for autonomous distributed sensors and actuators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Edmunds, Thomas A

    2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Loads on an electric power system are configured with under-frequency relays in which the frequency setpoints and delay times for reclosure are uniformly distributed. If demand exceeds supply in the system, frequency will decrease. The decrease in frequency will actuate relays and reduce load to the point where demand will meet the available supply. After its engineered delay time, each relay will attempt to close contact and reestablish the load.

  18. STRUCTURAL RESPONSE OF THE DIII-D TOROIDAL FIELD COIL TO INCREASED LATERAL LOADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    REIS,E.E; CHIN,E

    2003-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OAK-B135 Recent calibration shots in which full toroidal field (TF) coil current interacted with the maximum poloidal field coils have produced increased lateral loads on the outer sections of the TF-coil. The increased lateral loads have resulted in deflections that have been sufficient to cause the TF-coil to contact adjacent equipment and produce a transient short to ground within the coil. The six outer turns of each TF-coil bundle are clamped together by insulated preloaded studs to provide increased bending stiffness. These sections of the outer bundles depend on friction to react the lateral loads as a bundle rather than six individual turns. A major concern is that the increased loads will produce slip between turns resulting in excessive lateral deflections and possible damage to the insulating sleeve on the preloaded studs. A finite element structural model of the TF-coil was developed for the calculation of deflections and the shear load distribution throughout the coil for the applied lateral loads from a full current calibration shot. The purpose of the updated structural model is to correlate the applied lateral loads to the total shear force between the unbonded sections of the outer turns. An allowable integrated lateral load applied to the outer turns is established based on the maximum shear force that can be reacted by friction. A program that calculates the magnetic fields and integrated lateral load along the outer turns can be incorporated into the plasma control system. The integrated load can then be compared to the calculated allowable value prior to execution of calibration shots. Calibration shots with a calculated total lateral load greater than the allowable value will be prevented.

  19. Online Load Balancing for Related Machines 1 (Revised Piotr Berman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karpinski, Marek

    s as follows: load(s; i) = 1 v i X s(j)=i p j ; Load(s) = max i load(s; i) It is easy to observe that findingOn­line Load Balancing for Related Machines 1 (Revised Version) Piotr Berman The Pennsylvania State of randomized algorithms for this problem. Key Words: on­line algorithm, load balancing, related machines

  20. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load Following)Imbalance Management (Load Following) Energy Imbalanceload participation in ancillary service markets, we offer the following

  1. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of International Experience

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Heffner, Grayson

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    for generators. A partial list of load attributes andpartial list includes: • Minimum run times • Minimum off times • Minimum load

  2. Wind/Wave Misalignment in the Loads Analysis of a Floating Offshore Wind Turbine: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barj, L.; Stewart, S.; Stewart, G.; Lackner, M.; Jonkman, J.; Robertson, A.

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Wind resources far from the shore and in deeper seas have encouraged the offshore wind industry to look into floating platforms. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) is developing a new technical specification for the design of floating offshore wind turbines that extends existing design standards for land-based and fixed-bottom offshore wind turbines. The work summarized in this paper supports the development of best practices and simulation requirements in the loads analysis of floating offshore wind turbines by examining the impact of wind/wave misalignment on the system loads under normal operation. Simulations of the OC3-Hywind floating offshore wind turbine system under a wide range of wind speeds, significant wave heights, peak-spectral periods and wind/wave misalignments have been carried out with the aero-servo-hydro-elastic tool FAST [4]. The extreme and fatigue loads have been calculated for all the simulations. The extreme and fatigue loading as a function of wind/wave misalignment have been represented as load roses and a directional binning sensitivity study has been carried out. This study focused on identifying the number and type of wind/wave misalignment simulations needed to accurately capture the extreme and fatigue loads of the system in all possible metocean conditions considered, and for a down-selected set identified as the generic US East Coast site. For this axisymmetric platform, perpendicular wind and waves play an important role in the support structure and including these cases in the design loads analysis can improve the estimation of extreme and fatigue loads. However, most structural locations see their highest extreme and fatigue loads with aligned wind and waves. These results are specific to the spar type platform, but it is expected that the results presented here will be similar to other floating platforms.

  3. Lithium Loaded Glass Fiber Neutron Detector Tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ely, James H.; Erikson, Luke E.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Lintereur, Azaree T.; Stromswold, David C.

    2009-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Radiation portal monitors used for interdiction of illicit materials at borders include highly sensitive neutron detection systems. The main reason for having neutron detection capability is to detect fission neutrons from plutonium. The currently deployed radiation portal monitors (RPMs) from Ludlum and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) use neutron detectors based upon 3He-filled gas proportional counters, which are the most common large neutron detector. There is a declining supply of 3He in the world and, thus, methods to reduce the use of this gas in RPMs with minimal changes to the current system designs and sensitivity to cargo-borne neutrons are being investigated. Four technologies have been identified as being currently commercially available, potential alternative neutron detectors to replace the use of 3He in RPMs. Reported here are the results of tests of the lithium-loaded glass fibers option. This testing measured the neutron detection efficiency and gamma ray rejection capabilities of a small system manufactured by Nucsafe (Oak Ridge, TN).

  4. THE EVALUATION OF THE HEAT LOADING FROM STEADY, TRANSIENT AND OFF-NORMAL CONDITIONS IN ARIES POWER PLANTS*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at San Diego, University of

    THE EVALUATION OF THE HEAT LOADING FROM STEADY, TRANSIENT AND OFF-NORMAL CONDITIONS IN ARIES POWER. The characterization of heat loads developed for ITER1 can be applied to power plants to better develop the operating, and heating type for the divertor and first wall (FW). A particular power plant design is used, referred

  5. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Air Conditioner Testing in WECC,” IEEE Power  Engineering Air Conditioner Modeling, WECC Load Modeling Task  Force in power system studies: WECC progress update,? Power and 

  6. FINAL PROJECT REPORT LOAD MODELING TRANSMISSION RESEARCH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesieutre, Bernard

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lights HVAC Figure 15 Demand Response and Market AnalysisHVAC Load % of Total Hour of Day Figure 16 Demand Response and Market

  7. System and method employing a self-organizing map load feature database to identify electric load types of different electric loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Bin; Harley, Ronald G.; Du, Liang; Yang, Yi; Sharma, Santosh K.; Zambare, Prachi; Madane, Mayura A.

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method identifies electric load types of a plurality of different electric loads. The method includes providing a self-organizing map load feature database of a plurality of different electric load types and a plurality of neurons, each of the load types corresponding to a number of the neurons; employing a weight vector for each of the neurons; sensing a voltage signal and a current signal for each of the loads; determining a load feature vector including at least four different load features from the sensed voltage signal and the sensed current signal for a corresponding one of the loads; and identifying by a processor one of the load types by relating the load feature vector to the neurons of the database by identifying the weight vector of one of the neurons corresponding to the one of the load types that is a minimal distance to the load feature vector.

  8. Relationships among probability distributions of stream discharges in floods, climate,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mojzsis, Stephen J.

    Relationships among probability distributions of stream discharges in floods, climate, bed load of both follow power laws. The number N(Q) of days on which the discharge exceeds Q, or the number of the United States. To examine the effect of climate change on bed load transport and river incision, we

  9. Distributed Large-Scale Information Filtering Christos Tryfonopoulos1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koubarakis, Manolis

    }@uop.gr 2 Harvard University, Massachusetts, USA stratos@seas.harvard.edu 3 National and Kapodistrian-life corpora. We also study three impor- tant facets of the load-balancing problem in such a scenario and present a novel algorithm that manages to distribute the load evenly among the nodes. Our results show

  10. New approaches to interfacing thermoelectric generators to the load bus in a nuclear space vehicle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brohlin, Paul LeRoy

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    reactor and the thermoelectrics. This type oi' system wastes the excess power generated as heat. Heat dissipation in space is very difficult. In the reference design TCAs (thermoelectric converter assembly) and shunt regulators connect directly... ballast load. The variable ballast compensa, tes 1' or the variation of the load. This type of control philosophy is very inefficient. Of the power generated, some is wasted in the variable ballast by heat dissipation. New architectures of controlling...

  11. Computer subroutine for estimating aerodynamic blade loads on Darrieus vertical axis wind turbines. [FORCE code

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, W. N.; Leonard, T. M.

    1980-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An important aspect of structural design of the Darrieus rotor is the determination of aerodynamic blade loads. This report describes a load generator which has been used at Sandia for quasi-static and dynamic rotor analyses. The generator is based on the single streamtube aerodynamic flow model and is constructed as a FORTRAN IV subroutine to facilitate its use in finite element structural models. Input and output characteristics of the subroutine are described and a complete listing is attached as an appendix.

  12. Beamstrahlung Photon Load on the TESLA Extraction Septum Blade(LCC-0104)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seryi, A

    2003-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    This note describes work performed in the framework of the International Linear Collider Technical Review Committee [1] to estimate the power load on the TESLA extraction septum blade due to beamstrahlung photons. It is shown, that under realistic conditions the photon load can be several orders of magnitude higher than what was estimated in the TESLA TDR [2] for the ideal Gaussian beams, potentially representing a serious limitation of the current design.

  13. Cooling-load implications for residential passive-solar-heating systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jones, R.W.; McFarland, R.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ongoing research on quantifying the cooling loads in residential buildings, particularly buildings with passive solar heating systems, is described, along with the computer simulation model used for calculating cooling loads. A sample of interim results is also presented. The objective of the research is to develop a simple analysis method, useful early in design, to estimate the annual cooling energy requirement of a given building.

  14. Loads Providing Ancillary Services: Review of InternationalExperience-- Technical Appendix: Market Descriptions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grayson Heffner, Charles Goldman, Kintner-Meyer, M; Kirby, Brendan

    2007-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this study, we examine the arrangements for andexperiences of end-use loads providing ancillary services (AS) in fiveelectricity markets: Australia, the United Kingdom (UK), the Nordicmarket, and the ERCOT and PJM markets in the United States. Our objectivein undertaking this review of international experience was to identifyspecific approaches or market designs that have enabled customer loads toeffectively deliver various ancillary services (AS) products. We hopethat this report will contribute to the ongoing discussion in the U.S.and elsewhere regarding what institutional and technical developments areneeded to ensure that customer loads can meaningfully participate in allwholesale electricity markets.

  15. Onsite Wastewater Treatment Systems: Spray Distribution System

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lesikar, Bruce J.

    2008-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Spray distribution systems for wastewater are much like lawn sprinkler systems, in that they spray treated wastewater over the surface of a yard. This publication explains how spray distribution systems work, what their design requirements are...

  16. Design of a biomechanically synergistic exotendon suit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Graves, Carmen Marten-Ellis

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this thesis is on the design, development, and evaluation of a lightweight, exotendon suit for load carriage. The suit is intended to be worn underneath the wearer's own clothes for use in a military setting, ...

  17. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain...

  18. Simulations of Alpha Wall Load in ITER. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsson, Johan

    2010-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The partially DOE funded International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will produce massive amounts of energetic charged alpha particles, which are imperfectly confined by a strong magnetic field. The wall of the experiment is designed to withstand an estimated wall load from these fusion alpha particles, but the accuracy of this estimate needs to be improved to avoid potentially catastrophic surprises when the experiment becomes operational. We have added a more accurate, gyro-dynamic model of particle motion to the existing drift-dynamic model in the DELTA5D simulation software used for the project. We have also added the ability to load a detailed engineering model of the wall and use it in the simulations.

  19. Wind loading on tracking and field-mounted solar collectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, L.M.

    1980-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Current design and testing procedures for wind loading are discussed. The test results corresponding to numerous wind tests on heliostats, parabolic troughs, parabolic dishes, and field mounted photovoltaic arrays are discussed and the applicability of the findings across the various technologies is assessed. One of the most significant consistencies in the data from all of the technologies is the apparent benefit provided by fences and field shielding. Taken in toto, these data show that load reductions of three, or possibly more, seem feasible, though a more thorough understanding of the phenomena involved must be attained before this benefit can be realized. It is recommended that the required understanding be developed to take advantage of this benefit and that field tests be conducted to correlate with both analyses and tests.

  20. Design of a Spacer Grid Using Axiomatic Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Song, K.N.; Yoon, K.H. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150, Dukjin-Dong, Yusong-Gu, Taejon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, B.S.; Park, G.J. [Hanyang University, 249-1, Kyomoon-dong, Kuri-si, Kyounggi-do 471-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, S.K. [Korea Rolling Stock Corporation, Kyunggi-Do, 437-040 (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Recently, much attention has been focused on the design of the fuel assemblies in the Pressurized Light Water Reactor (PLWR). The spacer grid is one of the main structural components in a fuel assembly. It supports fuel rods, guides cooling water, and maintains geometry from the external impact loads. In this research, a new shape of the spacer grid is designed by the axiomatic approach. The Independence Axiom is utilized for the design. For the conceptual design, functional requirements (FRs) are defined and corresponding design parameters (DPs) are found to satisfy FRs in sequence. Overall configuration and shapes are determined in this process. Detailed design is carried out based on the result of the axiomatic design. For the detailed design, the system performances are evaluated by using linear and nonlinear finite element analysis. The dimensions are determined by optimization. Some commercial codes are utilized for the analysis and design. (authors)

  1. Soil load above Hanford waste storage tanks (2 volumes)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pianka, E.W. [Advent Engineering Services, Inc., San Ramon, CA (United States)

    1995-01-25T23:59:59.000Z

    This document is a compilation of work performed as part of the Dome Load Control Project in 1994. Section 2 contains the calculations of the weight of the soil over the tank dome for each of the 75-feet-diameter waste-storage tanks located at the Hanford Site. The chosen soil specific weight and soil depth measured at the apex of the dome crown are the same as those used in the primary analysis that qualified the design. Section 3 provides reference dimensions for each of the tank farm sites. The reference dimensions spatially orient the tanks and provide an outer diameter for each tank. Section 4 summarizes the available soil surface elevation data. It also provides examples of the calculations performed to establish the present soil elevation estimates. The survey data and other data sources from which the elevation data has been obtained are printed separately in Volume 2 of this Supporting Document. Section 5 contains tables that provide an overall summary of the present status of dome loads. Tables summarizing the load state corresponding to the soil depth and soil specific weight for the original qualification analysis, the gravity load requalification for soil depth and soil specific weight greater than the expected actual values, and a best estimate condition of soil depth and specific weight are presented for the Double-Shell Tanks. For the Single-Shell Tanks, only the original qualification analysis is available; thus, the tabulated results are for this case only. Section 6 provides a brief overview of past analysis and testing results that given an indication of the load capacity of the waste storage tanks that corresponds to a condition approaching ultimate failure of the tank. 31 refs.

  2. Price-Responsive Load (PRL) Program - Framing Paper No.1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldman, Charles A.

    2002-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    By definition, effective and efficient competitive markets need a supply side and a demand side. One criticism of electric restructuring efforts in many states is that most of the attention has been focused on the supply side, in a market focused on the short term. In general, the demand side of the market has been under-addressed. The objective of the New England Demand Response Initiative (NEDRI) is to develop a comprehensive, coordinated set of demand response programs for the New England regional power markets. NEDRI aims to maximize the capability of demand response to compete in the wholesale market and to improve the economic efficiency and environmental profile of the electric sector. To those ends, NEDRI is focusing its efforts in four interrelated areas: (1) ISO-level reliability programs, (2) Market-based price-responsive load programs, (3) Demand response at retail through pricing, rate design, and advanced metering, and (4) End-use energy efficiency resources as demand response. The fourth area, energy efficiency, is the subject of this framing paper. Energy efficiency reduces the energy used by specific end-use devices and systems, typically without affecting the level of service and without loss of amenity. Energy savings and peak load reductions are achieved by substituting technically more advanced equipment, processes, or operational strategies to produce the same or an improved level of end-use service with less electricity. In contrast, load management programs lower peak demand during specific, limited time periods by either (1) influencing the timing of energy use by shifting load to another time period, or (2) reducing the level of energy use by curtailing or interrupting the load, typically with some loss of service or amenity.

  3. Fuzzy modelling of power system optimal load flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miranda, V.; Saraiva, J.T. (FEUP, DEEC, Faculdade de Engenharia da Univ. do Porto, INESC, Inst. de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores, Lg de Mompilher 4000 Porto (PT))

    1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a fuzzy model for power system operation is presented. Uncertainties in loads and generations are modeled as fuzzy numbers. System behavior under known (while uncertain) injections is dealt with by a DC fuzzy power flow model. System optimal (while uncertain) operation is calculated with linear programming procedures where the problem nature and structure allows some efficient techniques such as Dantzig Wolfe decomposition and dual simplex to be used. Among the results, one obtains a fuzzy cost value for system operation and possibility distributions for branch power flows and power generations. Some risk analysis is possible, as system robustness and exposure indices can be derived and hedging policies can be investigated.

  4. Evaluation methodology for structures subjected to seismic loading

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    O'Boyle, Margaret

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    } and rearranging Eq. (2. 5): 15 The load distribution applied during the pushover analysis is: au where R i(i) = i-th story shear resistance at the previous computation step, V?= total base shear at the current computation step, and n = current computation... to: $?mv(t) = $?m$, Y, + $?m$z Yz+. . . +P?m)?Y? (2. 14) where $? is the transpose of the n-th mode shape vector. Because of the orthogonality property with respect to mass in which $?m$ = 0 for all n c m, all the terms on the right side of Eq. (2...

  5. Heat Load Experiments at CAMD and CLS D. Yemane

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-SeriesFlickr FlickrGuidedCH2M HILL SecretaryHazmat work opens upDistributionLoad

  6. Importance of Design Conditions for Sizing Air-Conditioning Plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaban, N.; Maheshwari, G. P.; Suri, R. K.

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The proposed design conditions specific to the location and the application are drastically different than currently used single design conditions for all application and locations. Cooling load estimates fro two building located in Kuwait have been analyzed...

  7. Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D [ORNL; Kirby, Brendan J [ORNL

    2008-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial testing showed that the units respond very quickly. Problems with local power quality generated false low frequency signals which required testing to be stopped. This should not be a problem in actual operation since the frequency trip points will be staggered to generate a droop curve which mimics generator governor response. The actual trip frequencies will also be low enough to avoid power quality problems. The actual trip frequencies are too low to generate test events with sufficient regularity to complete testing in a reasonable amount of time. Frequency response testing will resume once the local power quality problem is fully understood and reasonable test frequency settings can be determined. Overall the preliminary testing was extremely successful. The hotel response capability matches the power system reliability need, being faster than generation response and inherently available when the power system is under the most stress (times of high system and hotel load). Periodic testing is scheduled throughout the winter and spring to characterize hotel response capability under a full range of conditions. More extensive testing will resume when summer outdoor temperatures are again high enough to fully test hotel response.

  8. Load Management - A Better Way

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Easley, J. F.

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ohio Edison Company serves about 800,000 customers in Ohio and Pennsylvania, making it one of the 20 largest electric utilities in the nation. The 'cost of service' concept has been basic to rate design throughout the history of the company...

  9. Fault-tolerant distributed transactions for partitioned OLTP databases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Evan P. C. (Evan Philip Charles), 1981-

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents Dtxn, a fault-tolerant distributed transaction system designed specifically for building online transaction processing (OLTP) databases. Databases have traditionally been designed as general purpose ...

  10. Cogeneration and Distributed Generation1 This appendix describes cogeneration and distributed generating resources. Also provided is an

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reinforcement, remote loads more economically served by small-scale generation than by distribution system. · Reliability upgrade for systems susceptible to outages. · Alternative to the expansion of transmission

  11. Effects of dynamic conditions and sheave efficiency on hook load, derrick load, and line tension

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luke, Gregory Robert

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1991 Major Subject: Petroleum Engineering EFFECTS OF DYNAMIC CONDITIONS AND SHEAVE EFFICIENCY ON HOOK LOAD, DERRICK LOAD, AND LINE TENSION A Thesis by GREGORY ROBERT LUKE Approved as to style and content by: Hans...

  12. Calculated CIM Power Distributions for Coil Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hardy, B.J.

    1999-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Excessive bed expansion and material expulsion have occurred during experiments with the 3-inch diameter Cylindrical Induction Melter (CIM). Both events were attributed in part to the high power density in the bottom of the melter and the correspondingly high temperatures there. It is believed that the high temperatures resulted in the generation of gasses at the bottom of the bed which could not escape. The gasses released during heating and the response of the bed to gas evolution depend upon the composition of the bed.

  13. REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gross, George

    REACTIVE LOAD MODELINGIMPACTS ONNODAL PRICESINPOOL MODELELECTRICITYMARKETS EttoreBompard, Enrico of the nodal prices in competitive electricity markets based on the Pool paradigm. Such prices focus of the paper is on the explicit evaluation of the impactsof the reactive load onthenodal real

  14. 1997 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The 1997 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. Data detailing Pacific Northwest non-utility generating (NUG) resources is also available upon request. This analysis updates the 1996 pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study, published in December 1996. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a medium forecast of electricity consumption. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system which includes loads and resources in addition to the Federal system. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for the medium load forecast. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1998--99 through 2007--08.

  15. Load Management DSM: Past, Present & Future

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gardner, E.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Load Management has grown in acceptance over the past several decades as a reliable means to provide a demand-side resource of demand capacity. This paper first reviews the significant break-throughs of load management technology then sets the stage...

  16. Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Genève, Université de

    Electricity consumption is constantly evolving due to changes in people habits, technological innovations1 Nonparametric models for electricity load forecasting JANUARY 23, 2015 Yannig Goude, Vincent at University Paris-Sud 11 Orsay. His research interests are electricity load forecasting, more generally time

  17. Apparatus for loading a band saw blade

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reeves, S.R.

    1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A band saw blade is loaded between pairs of guide wheels upon tensioning the blade by guiding the blade between pairs of spaced guide plates which define converging slots that converge toward the guide wheels. The approach is particularly useful in loading blades on underwater band saw machines used to cut radioactive materials. 2 figs.

  18. Thermionic converter in load-switching mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendel'baum, M.A.; Es'kov, V.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical equivalent circuit is proposed for a thermionic electrogenerating element. It is suitable for calculation of transients in load-switching mode. Formulas are given for estimating circuit parameters. A sample numerical calculation is given for the transient between no-load and short-circuit regimes. The results may be employed to identify experimental data in the frequency domain.

  19. Load Forecast For use in Resource Adequacy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    -term Electricity Demand Forecasting System 1) Obtain Daily Regional Temperatures 6) Estimate Daily WeatherLoad Forecast 2019 For use in Resource Adequacy Massoud Jourabchi #12;In today's presentation d l­ Load forecast methodology ­ Drivers of the forecast f i­ Treatment of conservation

  20. Using Utility Load Data to Estimate Demand for Space Cooling and Potential for Shiftable Loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Denholm, P.; Ong, S.; Booten, C.

    2012-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper describes a simple method to estimate hourly cooling demand from historical utility load data. It compares total hourly demand to demand on cool days and compares these estimates of total cooling demand to previous regional and national estimates. Load profiles generated from this method may be used to estimate the potential for aggregated demand response or load shifting via cold storage.