Sample records for distribution circuit switches

  1. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1994-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET. 2 figs.

  2. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  3. A Taxonomy of Rerouting in Circuit-Switched Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Eric Wing-Ming

    A Taxonomy of Rerouting in Circuit-Switched Networks Eric W. M. Wong and Andy K. M. Chan, City presents a taxonomy of rerouting in circuit- switched networks showing the various ways rerouting can

  4. A distributed bioremediation problem with modal switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Seidman, Thomas I.

    8/8/'98 A distributed bioremediation problem with modal switching Thomas I. Seidman Department conversion to an innocuous form: cometabolism) -- i.e., bioremediation. For some further exposition of the nature and significance of bioremediation as a practical application we refer the reader, e.g., to [2

  5. Costs and Benefits of Flexibility in Spatial Division Circuit Switched Networks-on-Chip

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jantsch, Axel

    Costs and Benefits of Flexibility in Spatial Division Circuit Switched Networks-on-Chip Ahsen Ejaz of flexibility based on SDM, on the performance of a CS networks. A network evaluation platform has been random bandwidth (BW) requirement, a less flexible network outperforms a network with higher flexibility

  6. High Resolution PV Power Modeling for Distribution Circuit Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, B. L.; Dise, J. H.

    2013-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    NREL has contracted with Clean Power Research to provide 1-minute simulation datasets of PV systems located at three high penetration distribution feeders in the service territory of Southern California Edison (SCE): Porterville, Palmdale, and Fontana, California. The resulting PV simulations will be used to separately model the electrical circuits to determine the impacts of PV on circuit operations.

  7. Networks of coupled circuits: From a versatile toggle switch to collective coherent behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Darka Labavi?; Hildegard Meyer-Ortmanns

    2014-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the versatile performance of networks of coupled circuits. Each of these circuits is composed of a positive and a negative feedback loop in a motif that is frequently found in genetic and neural networks. When two of these circuits are coupled with mutual repression, the system can function as a toggle switch. The variety of its states can be controlled by two parameters as we demonstrate by a detailed bifurcation analysis. In the bistable regimes switches between the coexisting attractors can be induced by noise. When we couple larger sets of these units, we numerically observe collective coherent modes of individual fixed-point and limit-cycle behavior. It is there the monotonic change of a single bifurcation parameter that allows to control the onset and arrest of the synchronized oscillations. This mechanism may play a role in biological applications, in particular in connection with the segmentation clock. While tuning the bifurcation parameter, also a variety of transient patterns emerges upon approaching the stationary states, in particular a self-organized pacemaker in a completely uniformly equipped ensemble, so that the symmetry breaking happens dynamically.

  8. Switch contact device for interrupting high current, high voltage, AC and DC circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Via, Lester C.; Witherspoon, F. Douglas; Ryan, John M.

    2005-01-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A high voltage switch contact structure capable of interrupting high voltage, high current AC and DC circuits. The contact structure confines the arc created when contacts open to the thin area between two insulating surfaces in intimate contact. This forces the arc into the shape of a thin sheet which loses heat energy far more rapidly than an arc column having a circular cross-section. These high heat losses require a dramatic increase in the voltage required to maintain the arc, thus extinguishing it when the required voltage exceeds the available voltage. The arc extinguishing process with this invention is not dependent on the occurrence of a current zero crossing and, consequently, is capable of rapidly interrupting both AC and DC circuits. The contact structure achieves its high performance without the use of sulfur hexafluoride.

  9. Arcing fault in sub-distribution branch circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parise, G.; Grasseli, U.; Luozzo, V. Di (Univ. di Roma, Rome (Italy). Dept. di Ingegneria Elettrica)

    1993-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    It's well known the importance of short-circuit current evaluation for the design of any power system. Every system is subject to faults, moreover short-circuits and ground faults can be expected in any point. Even if the maximum and minimum values are generally defined with reference at a bolted-fault, bolted short-circuits are rare and the fault usually involves arcing and burning; particularly the limit value of minimum short-circuit depends really on arcing-fault. In earlier experimental investigations into the functional simulation of insulation loss, in branch circuit conductors, the authors chose to normalize the arcing-fault simulation to be used in laboratory tests. This conventional simulation allows characterization of this intrinsically random phenomenon by means of a probabilistic approach, in order to define in statistical terms the expected short circuit value. The authors examine more closely the arcing-fault in the design of sub distribution branch-circuits as weak points of the installation. In fact, what they propose are straightforward criteria, whether in the structure of the system or in the coordination of protection, which afford a more rational control on arcing-fault.

  10. Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Konstantin; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any com...

  11. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON CIRCUITS AND SYSTEMS--II: ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING, VOL. 48, NO. 2, FEBRUARY 2001 151 Analysis of 1=f Noise in Switched MOSFET Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El Gamal, Abbas

    , 1 noise in MOSFETs was of concern mainly in the design of low-frequency linear analog cir- cuits, 1 noise has become of greater concern in a wider range of circuit designs. Scaling has enabled, FEBRUARY 2001 151 Analysis of 1=f Noise in Switched MOSFET Circuits Hui Tian and Abbas El Gamal, Fellow

  12. Distributed control of reactive power flow in a radial distribution circuit with high photovoltaic penetration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sule, Petr [NEW MEXICO CONSORTIUM

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We show how distributed control of reactive power can serve to regulate voltage and minimize resistive losses in a distribution circuit that includes a significant level of photovoltaic (PV) generation. To demonstrate the technique, we consider a radial distribution circuit with a single branch consisting of sequentially-arranged residential-scale loads that consume both real and reactive power. In parallel, some loads also have PV generation capability. We postulate that the inverters associated with each PV system are also capable of limited reactive power generation or consumption, and we seek to find the optimal dispatch of each inverter's reactive power to both maintain the voltage within an acceptable range and minimize the resistive losses over the entire circuit. We assume the complex impedance of the distribution circuit links and the instantaneous load and PV generation at each load are known. We compare the results of the optimal dispatch with a suboptimal local scheme that does not require any communication. On our model distribution circuit, we illustrate the feasibility of high levels of PV penetration and a significant (20% or higher) reduction in losses.

  13. Studies of switching field and thermal energy barrier distributions in a FePt nanoparticle system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Laughlin, David E.

    Studies of switching field and thermal energy barrier distributions in a FePt nanoparticle system X dependence of the thermal stability factor, the width of the thermal energy barrier distribution- ropy energy distribution and the interaction and the thermal energy barrier distribution determined

  14. Design and testing of a sensorless switched reluctance motor drive with a custom integrated circuit controller 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yingxia

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The switched reluctance motor (SRM) has become an attractive alternative candidate to conventional ae or dc motors for adjustable speed drive applications. The SRM drive system consists of a power converter and a control section. Making the control...

  15. PS'2006 -Photonics in Switching Conference An Intelligent Network Management System with Multi-Tier Distributed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    -Tier Distributed Intelligence for Optical Packet-Agile Transport Networks Jinqiang Yang and S.J. Ben Yoo Department introduces multi-tier distributed intelligence into the network management plane in order to address-line traffic engineering over optical packet-switching networks facilitated by the multi-tier distributed

  16. 1. Batarseh, Issa. "Symbolic switch/linear circuit simulator systems and methods," US Patent 8,577,664, Nov 5, 2013.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pattanaik, Sumanta N.

    Patents 1. Batarseh, Issa. "Symbolic switch/linear circuit simulator systems and methods," US Patent 8,577,664, Nov 5, 2013. 2. Batarseh, Issa. "Method of Adapting Solar Tracking Using Variable Step Size," US Patent 8,552,286, October 8, 2013. 3. Cui, Q. and J. J. Liou, "Novel Multi-Gate pHEMT Devices

  17. Optically triggered high voltage switch network and method for switching a high voltage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A. (Renton, WA); Andexler, George (Everett, WA); Silberkleit, Lee I. (Mountlake Terrace, WA)

    1993-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

    An optically triggered solid state switch and method for switching a high voltage electrical current. A plurality of solid state switches (350) are connected in series for controlling electrical current flow between a compensation capacitor (112) and ground in a reactive power compensator (50, 50') that monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b and 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. An optical transmitter (100) controlled by the reactive power compensation system produces light pulses that are conveyed over optical fibers (102) to a switch driver (110') that includes a plurality of series connected optical triger circuits (288). Each of the optical trigger circuits controls a pair of the solid state switches and includes a plurality of series connected resistors (294, 326, 330, and 334) that equalize or balance the potential across the plurality of trigger circuits. The trigger circuits are connected to one of the distribution lines through a trigger capacitor (340). In each switch driver, the light signals activate a phototransistor (300) so that an electrical current flows from one of the energy reservoir capacitors through a pulse transformer (306) in the trigger circuit, producing gate signals that turn on the pair of serially connected solid state switches (350).

  18. Development of a High-Speed Static Switch for Distributed Energy and Microgrid Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kroposki, B.; Pink, C.; Lynch, J.; John, V.; Meor Daniel, S.; Benedict, E.; Vihinen, I.

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy resources can provide power to local loads in the electric distribution system and benefits such as improved reliability. Microgrids are intentional islands formed at a facility or in an electrical distribution system that contains at least one distributed resource and associated loads. Microgrids that operate both electrical generation and loads in a coordinated manner can offer additional benefits to the customer and local utility. The loads and energy sources can be disconnected from and reconnected to the area or local utility with minimal disruption to the local loads, thereby improving reliability. This paper details the development and testing of a highspeed static switch for distributed energy and microgrid applications.

  19. Design and Implementation of Switching Voltage Integrated Circuits Based on Sliding Mode Control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas Gonzalez, Miguel Angel

    2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

    : : : : : : 29 xv FIGURE Page 16 Sine-exponential-shaped pulse-width modulation : : : : : : : : : : : : : 30 17 Family of exponential-shaped waveforms for different values of Ne : : : : 31 18 Total harmonic distortion of class D amplifier for different..., and their present and future market distribution. Moreover, the harmonic distortion of open-loop class D amplifiers based on pulse-width modulation (PWM) is analyzed by applying the duty cycle variation technique for the most popular carrier waveforms giving an easy...

  20. Bimodal switching field distributions in all-perpendicular spin-valve nanopillars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gopman, D. B., E-mail: daniel.gopman@physics.nyu.edu; Kent, A. D. [Department of Physics, New York University, New York, New York 10003 (United States); Bedau, D.; Katine, J. A. [HGST San Jose Research Center, San Jose, California 95135 (United States); Mangin, S. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS 7198 Université de Lorraine, Nancy (France); Fullerton, E. E. [CMRR, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Switching field measurements of the free layer element of 75?nm diameter spin-valve nanopillars reveal a bimodal distribution of switching fields at low temperatures (below 100?K). This result is inconsistent with a model of thermal activation over a single perpendicular anisotropy barrier. The correlation between antiparallel to parallel and parallel to antiparallel switching fields increases to nearly 50% at low temperatures. This reflects random fluctuation of the shift of the free layer hysteresis loop between two different magnitudes, which may originate from changes in the dipole field from the polarizing layer. The magnitude of the loop shift changes by 25% and is correlated to transitions of the spin-valve into an antiparallel configuration.

  1. Switching coordination of distributed dc-dc converters for highly efficient photovoltaic power plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agamy, Mohammed; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A distributed photovoltaic (PV) power plant includes a plurality of distributed dc-dc converters. The dc-dc converters are configured to switch in coordination with one another such that at least one dc-dc converter transfers power to a common dc-bus based upon the total system power available from one or more corresponding strings of PV modules. Due to the coordinated switching of the dc-dc converters, each dc-dc converter transferring power to the common dc-bus continues to operate within its optimal efficiency range as well as to optimize the maximum power point tracking in order to increase the energy yield of the PV power plant.

  2. STRUCTURAL-DAMAGE DETECTION BY DISTRIBUTED PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS AND TUNED ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    STRUCTURAL-DAMAGE DETECTION BY DISTRIBUTED PIEZOELECTRIC TRANSDUCERS AND TUNED ELECTRIC CIRCUITS F Geotecnica, Rome, Italy A novel technique for damage detection of structures is introduced and discussed measurements, it allows for accurate results in the identification and localization of damages. Use

  3. Simulation of switching circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berk, John Isadore

    1969-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) = f1(t-tpd) +f2 (t. -tpd) -f1(t-tpd) f2 (t-tpd) fl (t) ? ? ?? f2(t) tpd ? ? f (t) pig, 12. Symbol for OR gate with props~"?;fiona' delay. 23 The equation for an EXCLUSIVE OR gate with propaga- tional delay is f (t) = fl (t tpd) +f2 (t...

  4. Formulating a simplified equivalent representation of distribution circuits for PV impact studies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reno, Matthew J.; Broderick, Robert Joseph; Grijalva, Santiago [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA

    2013-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    With an increasing number of Distributed Generation (DG) being connected on the distribution system, a method for simplifying the complexity of the distribution system to an equivalent representation of the feeder is advantageous for streamlining the interconnection study process. The general characteristics of the system can be retained while reducing the modeling effort required. This report presents a method of simplifying feeders to only specified buses-of-interest. These buses-of-interest can be potential PV interconnection locations or buses where engineers want to verify a certain power quality. The equations and methodology are presented with mathematical proofs of the equivalence of the circuit reduction method. An example 15-bus feeder is shown with the parameters and intermediate example reduction steps to simplify the circuit to 4 buses. The reduced feeder is simulated using PowerWorld Simulator to validate that those buses operate with the same characteristics as the original circuit. Validation of the method is also performed for snapshot and time-series simulations with variable load and solar energy output data to validate the equivalent performance of the reduced circuit with the interconnection of PV.

  5. Switch Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level:Energy: Grid Integration Redefining What'sis Taking Over Our InstagramStructureProposed Action Title:SustainableDepartment ofSwitch Switch

  6. Remote switch actuator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Edwin Gerard; Beauman, Ronald; Palo, Jr., Stefan

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention provides a device and method for actuating electrical switches remotely. The device is removably attached to the switch and is actuated through the transfer of a user's force. The user is able to remain physically removed from the switch site obviating need for protective equipment. The device and method allow rapid, safe actuation of high-voltage or high-current carrying electrical switches or circuit breakers.

  7. Electronic logic for enhanced switch reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, J.A.

    1984-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A logic circuit is used to enhance redundant switch reliability. Two or more switches are monitored for logical high or low output. The output for the logic circuit produces a redundant and fail-safe representation of the switch outputs. When both switch outputs are high, the output is high. Similarly, when both switch outputs are low, the logic circuit's output is low. When the output states of the two switches do not agree, the circuit resolves the conflict by memorizing the last output state which both switches were simultaneously in and produces the logical complement of this output state. Thus, the logic circuit of the present invention allows the redundant switches to be treated as if they were in parallel when the switches are open and as if they were in series when the switches are closed. A failsafe system having maximum reliability is thereby produced.

  8. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  9. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  10. AC Circuits Magnetic flux

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    , i = 0 At t=, i =/R #12;Charging and discharging RL circuit Now move switch to position b so battery, B, in its central region Inductance, L is defined as Inductance per unit length of a solenoid in a circuit A changing current in a coil generates a self-induced emf, L in the coil Process is called self-induction

  11. Low Insertion HVDC Circuit Breaker: Magnetically Pulsed Hybrid Breaker for HVDC Power Distribution Protection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    GENI Project: General Atomics is developing a direct current (DC) circuit breaker that could protect the grid from faults 100 times faster than its alternating current (AC) counterparts. Circuit breakers are critical elements in any electrical system. At the grid level, their main function is to isolate parts of the grid where a fault has occurred—such as a downed power line or a transformer explosion—from the rest of the system. DC circuit breakers must interrupt the system during a fault much faster than AC circuit breakers to prevent possible damage to cables, converters and other grid-level components. General Atomics’ high-voltage DC circuit breaker would react in less than 1/1,000th of a second to interrupt current during a fault, preventing potential hazards to people and equipment.

  12. Topic 1: Basics of Power Systems A.H. MohsenianRad (U of T) 1Networking and Distributed Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohsenian-Rad, Hamed

    ) Transmission Lines Several Hundred Miles Switching Stations Transformers Circuit Breakers #12;Power Systems Grid 7 · Power Distribution: Medium Voltage (MV) Transmission Lines ( in Smart Grid 11 Nodes: Buses Links: Transmission Lines Generator Load #12;Power Grid Graph Representation

  13. An efficient algorithm for load balancing of transformers and feeders by switch operation in large scale distribution systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aoki, K. (Hiroshima Univ., Higashihiroshima (JP)); Kuwabara, H. (Kinki Univ., Kure (JP)); Satoh, T. (Hiroshima Univ., Higashihiroshima (JP)); Kanezashi, M. (Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota (JP))

    1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents a systematic and practical algorithm for load balancing of transformers and feeders by automatic sectionalizing switch operation in large scale distribution systems of radial type. The algorithm is developed by extending an approximation algorithm for load transfer of desired two transformers. The algorithm proposed here is applicable to operations not only in normal state, but also in scheduled and failure outage states. Computational experience on a real large scale system has indicated that the algorithm is valid and effective for practical operations.

  14. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, J.S.; Peng, F.Z.; Young, R.W. Sr.; Ott, G.W. Jr.

    1998-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter. 36 figs.

  15. Delta connected resonant snubber circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Peng, Fang Zheng (Oak Ridge, TN); Young, Sr., Robert W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ott, Jr., George W. (Knoxville, TN)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A delta connected, resonant snubber-based, soft switching, inverter circuit achieves lossless switching during dc-to-ac power conversion and power conditioning with minimum component count and size. Current is supplied to the resonant snubber branches solely by the dc supply voltage through the main inverter switches and the auxiliary switches. Component count and size are reduced by use of a single semiconductor switch in the resonant snubber branches. Component count is also reduced by maximizing the use of stray capacitances of the main switches as parallel resonant capacitors. Resonance charging and discharging of the parallel capacitances allows lossless, zero voltage switching. In one embodiment, circuit component size and count are minimized while achieving lossless, zero voltage switching within a three-phase inverter.

  16. Circuit breaker lockout device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozlowski, Lawrence J. (New Kensington, PA); Shirey, Lawrence A. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved lockout assembly for locking a circuit breaker in a selected off or on position is provided. The lockout assembly includes a lock block and a lock pin. The lock block has a hollow interior which fits over the free end of a switch handle of the circuit breaker. The lock block includes at least one hole that is placed in registration with a hole in the free end of the switch handle. A lock tab on the lock block serves to align and register the respective holes on the lock block and switch handle. A lock pin is inserted through the registered holes and serves to connect the lock block to the switch handle. Once the lock block and the switch handle are connected, the position of the switch handle is prevented from being changed by the lock tab bumping up against a stationary housing portion of the circuit breaker. When the lock pin installed, an apertured-end portion of the lock pin is in registration with another hole on the lock block. Then a special scissors conforming to O.S.H.A. regulations can be installed, with one or more padlocks, on the lockout assembly to prevent removal of the lock pin from the lockout assembly, thereby preventing removal of the lockout assembly from the circuit breaker.

  17. Circuit breaker lockout device

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlowski, L.J.; Shirey, L.A.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved lockout assembly for locking a circuit breaker in a selected off or on position is provided. The lockout assembly includes a lock block and a lock pin. The lock block has a hollow interior which fits over the free end of a switch handle of the circuit breaker. The lock block includes at least one hole that is placed in registration with a hole in the free end of the switch handle. A lock tab on the lock block serves to align and register the respective holes on the lock block and switch handle. A lock pin is inserted through the registered holes and serves to connect the lock block to the switch handle. Once the lock block and the switch handle are connected, the position of the switch handle is prevented from being changed by the lock tab bumping up against a stationary housing portion of the circuit breaker. When the lock pin is installed, an apertured-end portion of the lock pin is in registration with another hole on the lock block. Then a special scissors conforming to O.S.H.A. regulations can be installed, with one or more padlocks, on the lockout assembly to prevent removal of the lock pin from the lockout assembly, thereby preventing removal of the lockout assembly from the circuit breaker.

  18. Circuit breaker lockout device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozlowski, L.J.; Shirey, L.A.

    1992-11-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved lockout assembly for locking a circuit breaker in a selected off or on position is provided. The lockout assembly includes a lock block and a lock pin. The lock block has a hollow interior which fits over the free end of a switch handle of the circuit breaker. The lock block includes at least one hole that is placed in registration with a hole in the free end of the switch handle. A lock tab on the lock block serves to align and register the respective holes on the lock block and switch handle. A lock pin is inserted through the registered holes and serves to connect the lock block to the switch handle. Once the lock block and the switch handle are connected, the position of the switch handle is prevented from being changed by the lock tab bumping up against a stationary housing portion of the circuit breaker. When the lock pin installed, an apertured-end portion of the lock pin is in registration with another hole on the lock block. Then a special scissors conforming to O.S.H.A. regulations can be installed, with one or more padlocks, on the lockout assembly to prevent removal of the lock pin from the lockout assembly, thereby preventing removal of the lockout assembly from the circuit breaker. 2 figs.

  19. Alarm toe switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganyard, Floyd P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit n a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch. The reed switch is hermetically sealed with the magnet acting through the wall so the switch assembly S is capable of reliable operation even in wet and corrosive environments.

  20. Electrical Circuit Tester

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Love, Frank (Amarillo, TX)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical circuit testing device is provided, comprising a case, a digital voltage level testing circuit with a display means, a switch to initiate measurement using the device, a non-shorting switching means for selecting pre-determined electrical wiring configurations to be tested in an outlet, a terminal block, a five-pole electrical plug mounted on the case surface and a set of adapters that can be used for various multiple-pronged electrical outlet configurations for voltages from 100 600 VAC from 50 100 Hz.

  1. Thermionic converter in load-switching mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendel'baum, M.A.; Es'kov, V.D.

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical equivalent circuit is proposed for a thermionic electrogenerating element. It is suitable for calculation of transients in load-switching mode. Formulas are given for estimating circuit parameters. A sample numerical calculation is given for the transient between no-load and short-circuit regimes. The results may be employed to identify experimental data in the frequency domain.

  2. A Simple Toy Example of a Distributed System: On the Design of a Connecting Switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Munchen 2 (Germany) Abstract In this paper the development life-cycle of a design method for distributed the behaviour of a very simple protocol. A development life-cycle commonly includes four phases: (1) requirement a family of speci cations along the development life-cycle one observes particular (pairs of) aspects

  3. All-metallic electrically gated 2H-TaSe2 thin-film switches and logic circuits J. Renteria,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    off, and the single-atom thickness of graphene leaves it susceptible to radiation damage.18 non-linear current-voltage characteristics, unusual optical response, and electrical gating at room radiation-hard all-metallic logic circuits. These results may open new application space for thin films

  4. An experimental study of some ferroresonant circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Price Duane

    1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    many helpful suggestions during the course of this work. CONTENTS Pa'ge PART I ? GENERAL Introduction Circuit Arrangements Studied Method of Approach PART II SERIES FERRORESONANT CIRCUITS Reaction to Variation of Source Voltage Effect of Non...-linear Resistance Reaction to Variation of Switch-Closing Time 13 Method Used to Close the Switch 13 Experimental Results 19 Effect of Residual Magnetism 22 PART III ? SERIES-PARALLEL FERRORESONANT CIRCUITS Reaction to Variation of Source Voltage 30 Reaction...

  5. Statistics of voltage drop in distribution circuits: a dynamic programming approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We analyze a power distribution line with high penetration of distributed generation and strong variations of power consumption and generation levels. In the presence of uncertainty the statistical description of the system is required to assess the risks of power outages. In order to find the probability of exceeding the constraints for voltage levels we introduce the probability distribution of maximal voltage drop and propose an algorithm for finding this distribution. The algorithm is based on the assumption of random but statistically independent distribution of loads on buses. Linear complexity in the number of buses is achieved through the dynamic programming technique. We illustrate the performance of the algorithm by analyzing a simple 4-bus system with high variations of load levels.

  6. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  7. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention presented relates to a high-power pulsing circuit and more particularly to a repetitive pulse inductive energy storage and transfer circuit for an electromagnetic launcher. In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  8. 6.002 Circuits and Electronics, Fall 2000

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lang, Jeffrey (Jeffrey H.)

    Fundamentals of the lumped circuit abstraction. Resistive elements and networks; independent and dependent sources; switches and MOS devices; digital abstraction; amplifiers; and energy storage elements. Dynamics of first- ...

  9. Inner surface flash-over of insulator of low-inductance high-voltage self-breakdown gas switch and its application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Hong-bo, E-mail: walkman67@163.com; Liu, Jin-liang [College of Opto-electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)] [College of Opto-electronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha, Hunan 410073 (China)

    2014-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, the inner surface flash-over of high-voltage self-breakdown switch, which is used as a main switch of pulse modulator, is analyzed in theory by employing the method of distributed element equivalent circuit. Moreover, the field distortion of the switch is simulated by using software. The results of theoretical analysis and simulation by software show that the inner surface flash-over usually starts at the junction points among the stainless steel, insulator, and insulation gas in the switch. A switch with improved structure is designed and fabricated according to the theoretical analysis and simulation results. Several methods to avoid inner surface flash-over are used to improve the structure of switch. In experiment, the inductance of the switch is no more than 100 nH, the working voltage of the switch is about 600 kV, and the output voltage and current of the accelerator is about 500 kV and 50 kA, respectively. And the zero-to-peak rise time of output voltage at matched load is less than 30 ns due to the small inductance of switch. The original switch was broken-down after dozens of experiments, and the improved switch has been worked more than 200 times stably.

  10. Structural-Damage Detection by Distributed Piezoelectric Transducers and Tuned Electric Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    F. dell'Isola; F. Vestroni; S. Vidoli

    2010-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel technique for damage detection of structures is introduced and discussed. It is based on purely electric measurements of the state variables of an electric network coupled to the main structure through a distributed set of piezoelectric patches. The constitutive parameters of this auxiliary network are optimized to increase the sensitivity of global measurements- as the frequency, response functions relative to selected electric degrees of freedom-with respect to a given class of variations in the structural-mechanical properties. Because the proposed method is based on purely electric input and output measurements, it allows for accurate results in the identification and localization of damages. Use of the electric frequency-response function to identify the mechanical damage leads to nonconvex optimization problems; therefore the proposed sensitivity-enhanced identification procedure becomes computationally efficient if an a priori knowledge about the damage is available.

  11. Counterpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, a counterpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  12. Overpulse railgun energy recovery circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In an electromagnetic launcher such as a railgun for propelling a projectile at high velocity, an overpulse energy recovery circuit is employed to transfer stored inductive energy from a source inductor to the railgun inductance to propel the projectile down the railgun. Switching circuitry and an energy transfer capacitor are used to switch the energy back to the source inductor in readiness for a repetitive projectile propelling cycle.

  13. IP SwitchingIP Switching and Label Switchingand Label Switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jain, Raj

    Raj Jain 1 IP SwitchingIP Switching and Label Switchingand Label Switching Raj Jain Professor Switching vs routing q IP Switching (Ipsilon) q Tag Switching (CISCO) q Multi-protocol label switching a tag. Exit router strips it off. H R R R H H HUntagged Packet Tagged packet #12;Raj Jain 9 Tag

  14. Compact high voltage solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.

    2003-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A compact, solid state, high voltage switch capable of high conduction current with a high rate of current risetime (high di/dt) that can be used to replace thyratrons in existing and new applications. The switch has multiple thyristors packaged in a single enclosure. Each thyristor has its own gate drive circuit that circuit obtains its energy from the energy that is being switched in the main circuit. The gate drives are triggered with a low voltage, low current pulse isolated by a small inexpensive transformer. The gate circuits can also be triggered with an optical signal, eliminating the trigger transformer altogether. This approach makes it easier to connect many thyristors in series to obtain the hold off voltages of greater than 80 kV.

  15. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and a method are disclosed for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens. 7 figs.

  16. Hybrid high direct current circuit interrupter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rockot, J.H.; Mikesell, H.E.; Jha, K.N.

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A device and a method for interrupting very high direct currents (greater than 100,000 amperes) and simultaneously blocking high voltages (greater than 600 volts). The device utilizes a mechanical switch to carry very high currents continuously with low loss and a silicon controlled rectifier (SCR) to bypass the current around the mechanical switch while its contacts are separating. A commutation circuit, connected in parallel with the SCR, turns off the SCR by utilizing a resonant circuit to divert the SCR current after the switch opens.

  17. 20Engineering Gene Circuits: Foundations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    You, Lingchong

    ................................................................. 20-363 20.2 Designing Gene Circuits............................................. 20-364 Modeling characterized as ``robustness.'' Based on extensive studies over the last several decades, much engineered switches [11­14], oscillators [15,16], logic gates [17­19], metabolic control [20], reengineered

  18. Lookout device for high voltage circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlowski, L.J.; Shirey, L.A.

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved lockout assembly is provided for a circuit breaker to lock the switch handle into a selected switch position. The lockout assembly includes two main elements, each having a respective foot for engaging a portion of the upper housing wall of the circuit breaker. The first foot is inserted into a groove in the upper housing wall, and the second foot is inserted into an adjacent aperture (e.g., a slot) in the upper housing wall. The first foot is slid under and into engagement with a first portion, and the second foot is slid under and into engagement with a second portion of the upper housing wall. At the same time the respective two feet are placed in engagement with the respective portions of the upper housing wall, two holes, one on each of the respective two main elements of the assembly, are placed in registration; and a locking device, such as a special scissors equipped with a padlock, is installed through the registered holes to secure the lockout assembly on the circuit breaker. When the lockout assembly of the invention is secured on the circuit breaker, the switch handle of the circuit breaker is locked into the selected switch position and prevented from being switched to another switch position.

  19. Lockout device for high voltage circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kozlowski, L.J.; Shirey, L.A.

    1993-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved lockout assembly is provided for a circuit breaker to lock the switch handle into a selected switch position. The lockout assembly includes two main elements, each having a respective foot for engaging a portion of the upper housing wall of the circuit breaker. The first foot is inserted into a groove in the upper housing wall, and the second foot is inserted into an adjacent aperture (e.g., a slot) in the upper housing wall. The first foot is slid under and into engagement with a first portion, and the second foot is slid under and into engagement with a second portion of the upper housing wall. At the same time the respective two feet are placed in engagement with the respective portions of the upper housing wall, two holes, one on each of the respective two main elements of the assembly, are placed in registration; and a locking device, such as a special scissors equipped with a padlock, is installed through the registered holes to secure the lockout assembly on the circuit breaker. When the lockout assembly of the invention is secured on the circuit breaker, the switch handle of the circuit breaker is locked into the selected switch position and prevented from being switched to another switch position.

  20. Lockout device for high voltage circuit breaker

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozlowski, Lawrence J. (New Kensington, PA); Shirey, Lawrence A. (North Huntingdon, PA)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved lockout assembly is provided for a circuit breaker to lock the switch handle into a selected switch position. The lockout assembly includes two main elements, each having a respective foot for engaging a portion of the upper housing wall of the circuit breaker. The first foot is inserted into a groove in the upper housing wall, and the second foot is inserted into an adjacent aperture (e.g., a slot) in the upper housing wall. The first foot is slid under and into engagement with a first portion, and the second foot is slid under and into engagement with a second portion of the upper housing wall. At the same time the repsective two feet are placed in engagement with the respective portions of the upper housing wall, two holes, one on each of the respective two main elements of the assembly, are placed in registration; and a locking device, such as a special scissors equipped with a padlock, is installed through the registered holes to secure the lockout assembly on the circuit breaker. When the lockout assembly of the invention is secured on the circuit breaker, the switch handle of the circuit breaker is locked into the selected switch position and prevented from being switched to another switch position.

  1. A single-inductor switching DC-DC converter with five outputs and ordered power-distributive control

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le, Hanh-Phuc; Chae, Chang-Seok; Lee, Kwang-Chan; Wang, Se-Won; Cho, Gyu-Ha; Cho, Gyu-Hyeong

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    apparatus for image based power control of drive circuitrynovel ordered power-distributive control (OPDC), which willOutputs and Ordered Power-Distributive Control Hanh-Phuc Le,

  2. Alarm toe switch. [Patent application

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganyard, F.P.

    1980-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An alarm toe switch inserted within a shoe for energizing an alarm circuit in a covert manner includes an insole mounting pad into which a miniature reed switch is fixedly molded. An elongated slot perpendicular to the reed switch is formed in the bottom surface of the mounting pad. A permanent cylindrical magnet positioned in the forward portion of the slot with a diameter greater than the pad thickness causes a bump above the pad. A foam rubber block is also positioned in the slot rearwardly of the magnet and holds the magnet in normal inoperative relation. A non-magnetic support plate covers the slot and holds the magnet and foam rubber in the slot. The plate minimizes bending and frictional forces to improve movement of the magnet for reliable switch activation. The bump occupies the knuckle space beneath the big toe. When the big toe is scrunched rearwardly the magnet is moved within the slot relative to the reed switch, thus magnetically activating the switch. When toe pressure is released the foam rubber block forces the magnet back into normal inoperative position to deactivate the reed switch.

  3. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod. [LMFBR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, J.H.

    1982-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic reed switch assembly is described for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electro-magnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  4. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Germer, John H. (San Jose, CA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A magnetic reed switch assembly for activating an electromagnetic grapple utilized to hold a control rod in position above a reactor core. In normal operation the magnetic field of a permanent magnet is short-circuited by a magnetic shunt, diverting the magnetic field away from the reed switch. The magnetic shunt is made of a material having a Curie-point at the desired release temperature. Above that temperature the material loses its ferromagnetic properties, and the magnetic path is diverted to the reed switch which closes and short-circuits the control circuit for the control rod electromagnetic grapple which allows the control rod to drop into the reactor core for controlling the reactivity of the core.

  5. Base drive circuit for a four-terminal power Darlington

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Fred C. (Blacksburg, VA); Carter, Roy A. (Salem, VA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power switching circuit which utilizes a four-terminal Darlington transistor block to improve switching speed, particularly in rapid turn-off. Two independent reverse drive currents are utilized during turn off in order to expel the minority carriers of the Darlington pair at their own charge sweep-out rate. The reverse drive current may be provided by a current transformer, the secondary of which is tapped to the base terminal of the power stage of the Darlington block. In one application, the switching circuit is used in each power switching element in a chopper-inverter drive of an electric vehicle propulsion system.

  6. Coordinated Variable Structure Switching Attacks for Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shan

    2013-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

    or more relays and circuit breakers of a power system to disrupt operation. Existence of this switching vulnerability is dependent on the local structure of the power grid. Variable structure systems theory is employed to effectively model the cyber...

  7. Integrated optical switching using titanium nitride micro electromechanical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Takahashi, Satoshi, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reports an integrated optical wavelength specific switching device for applications in optical integrated circuits (OICs) based on micro electromechanical systems (MEMS). The device consists of a ring resonator ...

  8. Exploration of On-Chip Switched-Capacitor DC-DC Converter for Multicore Processors Using a Distributed Power Delivery

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    %) and minimal parasitic losses. Prior work has not adequately studied the layout implications of on-chip power to the utilization points (it is for this reason that decoupling capacitors ­ which deliver power based on stored a Distributed Power Delivery Network Pingqiang Zhou, Dong Jiao, Chris H. Kim and Sachin S. Sapatnekar Department

  9. Optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reedy, R.P.

    1987-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical switching device is provided whereby light from a first glass fiber or a second glass fiber may be selectively transmitted into a third glass fiber. Each glass fiber is provided with a focusing and collimating lens system. In one mode of operation, light from the first glass fiber is reflected by a planar mirror into the third glass fiber. In another mode of operation, light from the second glass fiber passes directly into the third glass fiber. The planar mirror is attached to a rotatable table which is rotated to provide the optical switching. 3 figs.

  10. Switching it up | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Switching it up Switching it up Released: March 23, 2015 Mapping redox switches in cyanobacteria advances use as biofuel Scientist mapped more than 2,100 sites that may switch...

  11. Sequential power-up circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A sequential power-up circuit for starting several electrical load elements in series to avoid excessive current surge, comprising a voltage ramp generator and a set of voltage comparators, each comparator having a different reference voltage and interfacing with a switch that is capable of turning on one of the load elements. As the voltage rises, it passes the reference voltages one at a time and causes the switch corresponding to that voltage to turn on its load element. The ramp is turned on and off by a single switch or by a logic-level electrical signal. The ramp rate for turning on the load element is relatively slow and the rate for turning the elements off is relatively fast. Optionally, the duration of each interval of time between the turning on of the load elements is programmable. 2 figs.

  12. Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Advanced Soft Switching Inverter for Reducing Switching and Power Losses Presentation from the U.S. DOE Office of...

  13. Efficient Switches for Solar Power Conversion: Four Quadrant GaN Switch Enabled Three Phase Grid-Tied Microinverters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Solar ADEPT Project: Transphorm is developing power switches for new types of inverters that improve the efficiency and reliability of converting energy from solar panels into useable electricity for the grid. Transistors act as fast switches and control the electrical energy that flows in an electrical circuit. Turning a transistor off opens the circuit and stops the flow of electrical current; turning it on closes the circuit and allows electrical current to flow. In this way a transistor can be used to convert DC from a solar panel into AC for use in a home. Transphorm’s transistors will enable a single semiconductor device to switch electrical currents at high-voltage in both directions—making the inverter more compact and reliable. Transphorm is using Gallium Nitride (GaN) as a semiconductor material in its transistors instead of silicon, which is used in most conventional transistors, because GaN transistors have lower losses at higher voltages and switching frequencies.

  14. Simulating Threshold Circuits by Majority Circuits \\Lambda

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karpinski, Marek

    Simulating Threshold Circuits by Majority Circuits \\Lambda Mikael Goldmann y Numerical Analysis, and Kailath proved super­linear lower bounds on the number of wires in constant­depth majority circuits­size depth 2 majority circuit. In general we show that a polynomial­size, depth­ d threshold circuit can

  15. A Transformer-less Partial Power Boost Converter for PV Applications Using a Three-Level Switching Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mohammed Agamy; Maja Harfman-Todorovic; Ahmed Elasser; Somasundaram Essakiappan

    2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic architectures with distributed power electronics provide many advantages in terms of energy yield as well as system level optimization. As the power level of the solar farm increases it becomes more beneficial to increase the dc collection network voltage, which requires the use of power devices with higher voltage ratings, and thus making the design of efficient, low cost, distributed power converters more challenging. In this paper a simple partial power converter topology is proposed. The topology is implemented using a three-level switching cell, which allows the use of semiconductor devices with lower voltage rating; thus improving design and performance and reducing converter cost. This makes the converters suitable for use for medium to high power applications where dc-link voltages of 600V~1kV may be needed without the need for high voltage devices. Converter operation and experimental results are presented for two partial power circuit variants using three-level switching cells.

  16. Journal of Circuits, Systems, and Computers Vol. 15, No. 2 (2006) 197216

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Yu

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ,i are transition probability, load capacitance, leakage current, and short circuit charge of the ith gate- pation, consists of switching power, short circuit power and leakage power, can be expressed as: Ptotal, respectively. The behavior of the short circuit power dissipation remains at around 10% of the total power

  17. Abstract --This paper deals a double layer and a single layer Flux-Switching Permanent Magnet (FSPM) motors for a fault

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of normal phase currents and the output torque before and after the failure as well as the short-circuit failure, even the switch of the short-circuit phase is opened, the short-circuit current still exists are calculated, which are then applied for establishing a faulty model. A three phase short-circuit problem

  18. Radiation hard vacuum switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction.

  19. Electronically commutated serial-parallel switching for motor windings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and a circuit for controlling an ac machine comprises controlling a full bridge network of commutation switches which are connected between a multiphase voltage source and the phase windings to switch the phase windings between a parallel connection and a series connection while providing commutation discharge paths for electrical current resulting from inductance in the phase windings. This provides extra torque for starting a vehicle from lower battery current.

  20. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng (Knoxville, TN); Adams, Donald Joe (Knoxville, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  1. Latching micro optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garcia, Ernest J; Polosky, Marc A

    2013-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical switch reliably maintains its on or off state even when subjected to environments where the switch is bumped or otherwise moved. In addition, the optical switch maintains its on or off state indefinitely without requiring external power. External power is used only to transition the switch from one state to the other. The optical switch is configured with a fixed optical fiber and a movable optical fiber. The movable optical fiber is guided by various actuators in conjunction with a latching mechanism that configure the switch in one position that corresponds to the on state and in another position that corresponds to the off state.

  2. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premerlani, William J. (Scotia, NY)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components.

  3. Commutation circuit for an HVDC circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Premerlani, W.J.

    1981-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A commutation circuit for a high voltage DC circuit breaker incorporates a resistor capacitor combination and a charging circuit connected to the main breaker, such that a commutating capacitor is discharged in opposition to the load current to force the current in an arc after breaker opening to zero to facilitate arc interruption. In a particular embodiment, a normally open commutating circuit is connected across the contacts of a main DC circuit breaker to absorb the inductive system energy trapped by breaker opening and to limit recovery voltages to a level tolerable by the commutating circuit components. 13 figs.

  4. Circuit and System Level Design Optimization for Power Delivery And Management

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xu, Tong

    2014-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    that are widely utilized in modern chip designs. Various design challenges merge with these power management techniques in nanometer VLSI circuits. For example, power gating introduces unique power integrity issues and trade-offs between switching noise and rush...

  5. Apollo Ring Optical Switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maestas, J.H.

    1987-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical switch was designed, built, and installed at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, to facilitate the integration of two Apollo computer networks into a single network. This report presents an overview of the optical switch as well as its layout, switch testing procedure and test data, and installation.

  6. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, Emanuel M. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  7. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1987-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime. 10 figs.

  8. Reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Honig, E.M.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power reversing-counterpulse repetitive-pulse inductive storage and transfer circuit includes an opening switch, a main energy storage coil, a counterpulse capacitor and a small inductor. After counterpulsing the opening switch off, the counterpulse capacitor is recharged by the main energy storage coil before the load pulse is initiated. This gives the counterpulse capacitor sufficient energy for the next counterpulse operation, although the polarity of the capacitor's voltage must be reversed before that can occur. By using a current-zero switch as the counterpulse start switch, the capacitor is disconnected from the circuit (with a full charge) when the load pulse is initiated, preventing the capacitor from depleting its energy store by discharging through the load. After the load pulse is terminated by reclosing the main opening switch, the polarity of the counterpulse capacitor voltage is reversed by discharging the capacitor through a small inductor and interrupting the discharge current oscillation at zero current and peak reversed voltage. The circuit enables high-power, high-repetition-rate operation with reusable switches and features total control (pulse-to-pulse) over output pulse initiation, duration, repetition rate, and, to some extent, risetime.

  9. Low Power Photomultiplier Tube Circuit And Method Thereor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bochenski, Edwin B. (Tracy, CA); Skinner, Jack L. (Brentwood, CA); Dentinger, Paul M. (Sunol, CA); Lindblom, Scott C. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrical circuit for a photomultiplier tube (PMT) is disclosed that reduces power consumption to a point where the PMT may be powered for extended periods with a battery. More specifically, the invention concerns a PMT circuit comprising a low leakage switch and a high voltage capacitor positioned between a resistive divider and each of the PMT dynodes, and a low power control scheme for recharging the capacitors.

  10. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON MICROWAVE THEORY AND TECHNIQUES 1 A Resonant Switch for LNA Protection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuhn, William B.

    Moussessian Abstract--An integrated resonant switch designed to protect low-noise amplifier (LNA) circuits at UHF through -band frequencies. Index Terms--CMOS transceivers, low-noise amplifier (LNA), transmit integrated-circuit (IC) approach, with low-noise amplifier (LNA) and power-amplifier (PA) functions in Ga

  11. Observation of chaotic beats in a driven memristive Chua's circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ishaq Ahamed; K. Srinivasan; K. Murali; M. Lakshmanan

    2010-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a time varying resistive circuit realising the action of an active three segment piecewise linear flux controlled memristor is proposed. Using this as the nonlinearity, a driven Chua's circuit is implemented. The phenomenon of chaotic beats in this circuit is observed for a suitable choice of parameters. The memristor acts as a chaotically time varying resistor (CTVR), switching between a less conductive OFF state and a more conductive ON state. This chaotic switching is governed by the dynamics of the driven Chua's circuit of which the memristor is an integral part. The occurrence of beats is essentially due to the interaction of the memristor aided self oscillations of the circuit and the external driving sinusoidal forcing. Upon slight tuning/detuning of the frequencies of the memristor switching and that of the external force, constructive and destructive interferences occur leading to revivals and collapses in amplitudes of the circuit variables, which we refer as chaotic beats. Numerical simulations and Multisim modelling as well as statistical analyses have been carried out to observe as well as to understand and verify the mechanism leading to chaotic beats.

  12. Utilizing zero-sequence switchings for reversible converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, John S.; Su, Gui-Jia; Adams, Donald J.; Nagashima, James M.; Stancu, Constantin; Carlson, Douglas S.; Smith, Gregory S.

    2004-12-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for providing additional dc inputs or outputs (49, 59) from a dc-to-ac inverter (10) for controlling motor loads (60) comprises deriving zero-sequence components (V.sub.ao, V.sub.bo, and V.sub.co) from the inverter (10) through additional circuit branches with power switching devices (23, 44, 46), transforming the voltage between a high voltage and a low voltage using a transformer or motor (42, 50), converting the low voltage between ac and dc using a rectifier (41, 51) or an H-bridge (61), and providing at least one low voltage dc input or output (49, 59). The transformation of the ac voltage may be either single phase or three phase. Where less than a 100% duty cycle is acceptable, a two-phase modulation of the switching signals controlling the inverter (10) reduces switching losses in the inverter (10). A plurality of circuits for carrying out the invention are also disclosed.

  13. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, G.R.

    1983-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A dc switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load is provided. The regulator basic circuit is a bridge arrangement of diodes and transistors. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. A dc power supply is connected to the input of the bridge and the output is connected to the load. A servo controller is provided to control the switching rate of the transistors to maintain a desired current to the load. The regulator may be operated in three stages or modes: (1) for current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned on and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned off, and load current flywheels through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays off, allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load.

  14. DC switching regulated power supply for driving an inductive load

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dyer, George R. (Norris, TN)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A power supply for driving an inductive load current from a dc power supply hrough a regulator circuit including a bridge arrangement of diodes and switching transistors controlled by a servo controller which regulates switching in response to the load current to maintain a selected load current. First and second opposite legs of the bridge are formed by first and second parallel-connected transistor arrays, respectively, while the third and fourth legs of the bridge are formed by appropriately connected first and second parallel connected diode arrays, respectively. The regulator may be operated in three "stages" or modes: (1) For current runup in the load, both first and second transistor switch arrays are turned "on" and current is supplied to the load through both transistor arrays. (2) When load current reaches the desired level, the first switch is turned "off", and load current "flywheels" through the second switch array and the fourth leg diode array connecting the second switch array in series with the load. Current is maintained by alternating between modes 1 and 2 at a suitable duty cycle and switching rate set by the controller. (3) Rapid current rundown is accomplished by turning both switch arrays "off", allowing load current to be dumped back into the source through the third and fourth diode arrays connecting the source in series opposition with the load to recover energy from the inductive load. The three operating states are controlled automatically by the controller.

  15. A 93% efficiency reconfigurable switched-capacitor DC-DC converter using on-chip ferroelectric capacitors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Damak, Dina Reda

    Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) has become one of the standard techniques for energy efficient operation of systems by powering circuit blocks at the minimum voltage that meets the desired performance [1]. Switched Capacitor ...

  16. Transition Density, A Stochastic Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Transition Density, A Stochastic Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits Farid N. Najm.e., the rate at which its nodes are switching. We propose a new measure of activity, called the transition model of logic signals, we rigorously define the transition density and present an algorithm

  17. Transition Density, A Stochastic Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Najm, Farid N.

    Transition Density, A Stochastic Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits Farid N. Najm.e., the rate at which its nodes are switching. We propose a new measure of activity, called the transition of logic signals, we rigorously de ne the transition density and present an algorithm to propagate it from

  18. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Devender, J.P.; Emin, D.

    1983-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and metallic states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  19. Reusable fast opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van Devender, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Emin, David (Albuquerque, NM)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A reusable fast opening switch for transferring energy, in the form of a high power pulse, from an electromagnetic storage device such as an inductor into a load. The switch is efficient, compact, fast and reusable. The switch comprises a ferromagnetic semiconductor which undergoes a fast transition between conductive and insulating states at a critical temperature and which undergoes the transition without a phase change in its crystal structure. A semiconductor such as europium rich europhous oxide, which undergoes a conductor to insulator transition when it is joule heated from its conductor state, can be used to form the switch.

  20. Diagonal quantum circuits: their computational power and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoshifumi Nakata; Mio Murao

    2014-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Diagonal quantum circuits are quantum circuits comprising only diagonal gates in the computational basis. In spite of a classical feature of diagonal quantum circuits in the sense of commutativity of all gates, their computational power is highly likely to outperform classical one and they are exploited for applications in quantum informational tasks. We review computational power of diagonal quantum circuits and their applications. We focus on the computational power of instantaneous quantum polynomial-time (IQP) circuits, which are a special type of diagonal quantum circuits. We then review an approximate generation of random states as an application of diagonal quantum circuits, where random states are an ensemble of pure states uniformly distributed in a Hilbert space. We also present a thermalizing algorithm of classical Hamiltonians by using diagonal quantum circuits. These applications are feasible to be experimentally implemented by current technology due to a simple and robust structure of diagonal gates.

  1. Comparative Study of Switched Reluctance Motors Performances for Two Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    of machines as high torque ripple, high acoustic noise and vibration limit their industrial applications [1Comparative Study of Switched Reluctance Motors Performances for Two Current Distributions a 3-phase, 6-slot, and 4-pole Mutually Coupled Switched Reluctance Motor (MCSRM 6/4) with new current

  2. Multistage-Based Switching Fabrics for Scalable Routers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tzeng, Nian-Feng

    with distributed packet routing to achieve high scalability and low costs. Our fabrics are based on a multistage patterns are evaluated and discussed as well. Being scalable and of low costs, the proposed switching their arrival LCs toward their destined LCs. Switching fabrics naturally affect overall router perfor- mance

  3. Reflective HTS switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, Jon S. (Albuquerque, NM); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Hohenwarter, Gert K. G. (Madison, WI)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A HTS switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time.

  4. Reflective HTS switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Hohenwarter, G.K.G.

    1994-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A HTS (High Temperature Superconductor) switch includes a HTS conductor for providing a superconducting path for an electrical signal and an serpentine wire actuator for controllably heating a portion of the conductor sufficiently to cause that portion to have normal, and not superconducting, resistivity. Mass of the portion is reduced to decrease switching time. 6 figs.

  5. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  6. Erected mirror optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, James J.

    2005-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) optical switching apparatus is disclosed that is based on an erectable mirror which is formed on a rotatable stage using surface micromachining. An electrostatic actuator is also formed on the substrate to rotate the stage and mirror with a high angular precision. The mirror can be erected manually after fabrication of the device and used to redirect an incident light beam at an arbitrary angel and to maintain this state in the absence of any applied electrical power. A 1.times.N optical switch can be formed using a single rotatable mirror. In some embodiments of the present invention, a plurality of rotatable mirrors can be configured so that the stages and mirrors rotate in unison when driven by a single micromotor thereby forming a 2.times.2 optical switch which can be used to switch a pair of incident light beams, or as a building block to form a higher-order optical switch.

  7. Uncertainty-Enabled Design of a Rocket Sled Track Switch Drs. Jordan E. Massad and Matthew R. Brake

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Uncertainty-Enabled Design of a Rocket Sled Track Switch Drs. Jordan E. Massad and Matthew R. Brake Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico Rocket sled tracks provide a dynamically rich environment acceleration profile, the switch closes to complete a circuit for instrument activation. Preliminary tests

  8. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treu, C.A. Jr.

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes. 7 figs.

  9. Piezoelectric drive circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treu, Jr., Charles A. (Raymore, MO)

    1999-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    A piezoelectric motor drive circuit is provided which utilizes the piezoelectric elements as oscillators and a Meacham half-bridge approach to develop feedback from the motor ground circuit to produce a signal to drive amplifiers to power the motor. The circuit automatically compensates for shifts in harmonic frequency of the piezoelectric elements due to pressure and temperature changes.

  10. First order switched-capacitor building blocks for analog circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nguyen, Liem Thanh

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . The amount of charge on each capacitor at the end of this period is: q 1(n) = C1V1(n) () 0 q (n) 0 q 4(n) = C4V (n) (29) (30) (31) (32) Neglecting the current in the inverting terminal of the op amp, assume that the resulting currents from C , C2... (n-1) ? C V (n-1) (34) 4 o 4 o 1 1 2 2 3 3 Taking the z transform of equation (34) gives: C4V - C4V (z)z = ? CIV1(z) + C2V2(z)z - C3V3(z)z (35) Hence, the transfer function in z domain is: Cl zV1(z) C2 V2(z) V (z) = ? ?+ 0 C z-1 C z-1 4...

  11. Communication delay in circuit-switched interconnection networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Min, G.; Ould-Khaoua, M.

    Min,G. Ould-Khaoua,M. Sarbazi-Azad,H. Proceedings 20th IEEE Int. Performance, Computing, and Communications Conference (IEEE-IPCCC 2001), Phoenix, Arizona, April 4-6, 2001. pp 51-56 IEEE Computer Society Press

  12. HKN Induction Project Title: IR Remote Switch Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Ca!ICNl (10m I t0Uf)5!1C porn! of vie... itIld weI/- lno...n lor ::5 hlsionc.rl C(NIir6 WJth m~ny medllvll bui

  13. Low voltage amplifier architecture for high speed switched capacitor circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shankar, Asit

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    are studied in detail. It is shown how CMFF can improve the performance of pseudo-differential OTA's. An OTA based on the proposed architecture is designed in a 0.5 []m CMOS process available from MOSIS. Simulation results of the amplifier are presented. A...

  14. Chemically Induced Conductance Switching in Carbon Nanotube Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Collins, Philip G

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    PRL 97, 016601 (2006) PHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS week ending 7The American Physical Society PRL 97, 016601 (2006) PHYSICALthe chemical disruption of PRL 97, 016601 (2006) PHYSICAL

  15. Plasmonic enhanced ultrafast switch.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Subramania,Ganapathi Subramanian; Reno, John Louis; Passmore, Brandon Scott; Harris, Tom.; Shaner, Eric Arthur; Barrick, Todd A.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ultrafast electronic switches fabricated from defective material have been used for several decades in order to produce picosecond electrical transients and TeraHertz radiation. Due to the ultrashort recombination time in the photoconductor materials used, these switches are inefficient and are ultimately limited by the amount of optical power that can be applied to the switch before self-destruction. The goal of this work is to create ultrafast (sub-picosecond response) photoconductive switches on GaAs that are enhanced through plasmonic coupling structures. Here, the plasmonic coupler primarily plays the role of being a radiation condenser which will cause carriers to be generated adjacent to metallic electrodes where they can more efficiently be collected.

  16. An optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1987-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch having an electron attaching gas wherein electron attachment is brought about by indirect excitation of molecules to long live states by exposure to laser light. 3 figs.

  17. Cygnus Water Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Charles V. Mitton, George D. Corrow, Mark D. Hansen, David J. Henderson, et al.

    2008-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources - Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following x-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rad at 1 m, 50-ns Full Width Half Max. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests which are performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are: Marx generator, water-filled pulse–forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, three-cell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance is jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the diode pulse. Therefore, PFL switch jitter contributes to shot-to-shot variation in source endpoint energy and dose. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and give the correlation with diode performance. For this analysis the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition to this analysis, PFL switch performance for different switch gap settings taken recently will be examined. Lastly, implications of source jitter for radiographic diagnosis of subcritical shots will be discussed.

  18. Cygnus PFL Switch Jitter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    C. Mitton, G. Corrow, M. Hansen, D. Henderson, et al.

    2007-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The Cygnus Dual Beam Radiographic Facility consists of two identical radiographic sources: Cygnus 1 and Cygnus 2. Each source has the following X-ray output: 1-mm diameter spot size, 4 rads at 1 m, 50-ns full-widthhalf-maximum. The diode pulse has the following electrical specifications: 2.25 MV, 60 kA, 60 ns. This Radiographic Facility is located in an underground tunnel test area at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The sources were developed to produce high-resolution images on subcritical tests performed at NTS. Subcritical tests are single-shot, high-value events. For this application, it is desirable to maintain a high level of reproducibility in source output. The major components of the Cygnus machines are Marx generator, water-filled pulse forming line (PFL), water-filled coaxial transmission line, threecell inductive voltage adder, and rod-pinch diode. A primary source of fluctuation in Cygnus shot-to-shot performance may be jitter in breakdown of the main PFL switch, which is a “self-break” switch. The PFL switch breakdown time determines the peak PFL charging voltage, which ultimately affects the source X-ray spectrum and dose. Therefore, PFL switch jitter may contribute to shot-to-shot variation in these parameters, which are crucial to radiographic quality. In this paper we will present PFL switch jitter analysis for both Cygnus machines and present the correlation with dose. For this analysis, the PFL switch on each machine was maintained at a single gap setting, which has been used for the majority of shots at NTS. In addition the PFL switch performance for one larger switch gap setting will be examined.

  19. ISCAS 2000 -IEEE InternationalSymposium on Circuits and Systems, May 28-31,2000, Geneva, Switzerland A NOVEL TUNING TECHNIQUE FOR DISTRIBUTED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hajimiri, Ali

    of the drain line is then fed back to the input of the gate line. The forward wave on the gate line-cost alternative capable of integrating the microwave front-end with the digital-signal-processing back- end a distributed amplifier in the reverse gain mode, using the output from the idle drain load as the feedback

  20. Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirshfield, Jay L. [Omega-P, Inc.] [Omega-P, Inc.

    2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

  1. Magnetic switch for reactor control rod

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Germer, J.H.

    1986-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This patent describes a control rod system for a nuclear reactor utilizing an electromagnetic grapple mechanism for holding and releasing a control rod, the improvement comprising a magnetic reed switch assembly having a Curie-point magnetic shunt and responsive to reactor coolant temperature for short circuiting the electromagnetic grapple mechanism causing release of the control rod when the coolant temperature reaches the Curie-point of the magnetic shunt. The magnetic reed switch assembly includes a: a permanent magnet, a pair of magnetic pole pieces located at and in contact with opposite ends of the permanent magnet, the Curie-point magnetic shunt being positioned adjacent the permanent magnet and in contact with the pair of magnetic pole pieces, and a reed switch positioned intermediate the pole pieces and provided with a pair of ferromagnetic reeds, a nonmagnetic enclosure around the reeds, a first of the reeds being secured at one end to a first of the pair of pole pieces, a second of the reeds having one end extending into and secured to a hollow member positioned in and extending through a second of the pair of pole pieces, the one end of the second of the reeds secured to a condector adapted to be connected to the electromagnetic grapple mechanism.

  2. EC5135: Analog Electronic Circuits EC3102: Analog Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnapura, Nagendra

    #12;Course prerequisites Circuit analysis Mesh, nodal analyses RLC, linear dependent sources Laplace and Kemmerly, Engineering Circuit Analysis, McGraw Hill, 6/e. B. P. Lathi, Linear Systems and Signals, Oxford Circuits EC3102: Analog Circuits #12;Course contents Nonlinear circuits-incremental analysis Obtaining

  3. Low inductance gas switching.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chavez, Ray; Harjes, Henry Charles III; Wallace, Zachariah; Elizondo, Juan E.

    2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The laser trigger switch (LTS) is a key component in ZR-type pulsed power systems. In ZR, the pulse rise time through the LTS is > 200 ns and additional stages of pulse compression are required to achieve the desired <100 ns rise time. The inductance of the LTS ({approx}500nH) in large part determines the energy transfer time through the switch and there is much to be gained in improving system performance and reducing system costs by reducing this inductance. The current path through the cascade section of the ZR LTS is at a diameter of {approx} 6-inches which is certainly not optimal from an inductance point of view. The LTS connects components of much greater diameter (typically 4-5 feet). In this LDRD the viability of switch concepts in which the diameter of cascade section is greatly increased have been investigated. The key technical question to be answered was, will the desired multi-channel behavior be maintained in a cascade section of larger diameter. This LDRD proceeded in 2 distinct phases. The original plan for the LDRD was to develop a promising switch concept and then design, build, and test a moderate scale switch which would demonstrate the key features of the concept. In phase I, a switch concept which meet all electrical design criteria and had a calculated inductance of 150 nH was developed. A 1.5 MV test switch was designed and fabrication was initiated. The LDRD was then redirected due to budgetary concerns. The fabrication of the switch was halted and the focus of the LDRD was shifted to small scale experiments designed to answer the key technical question concerning multi-channel behavior. In phase II, the Multi-channel switch test bed (MCST) was designed and constructed. The purpose of MCST was to provide a versatile, fast turn around facility for the study the multi-channel electrical breakdown behavior of a ZR type cascade switch gap in a parameter space near that of a ZR LTS. Parameter scans on source impedance, gap tilt, gap spacing and electrode diameter were conducted.

  4. Regenerative feedback resonant circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, A. Mark; Kelly, James F.; McCloy, John S.; McMakin, Douglas L.

    2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

    A regenerative feedback resonant circuit for measuring a transient response in a loop is disclosed. The circuit includes an amplifier for generating a signal in the loop. The circuit further includes a resonator having a resonant cavity and a material located within the cavity. The signal sent into the resonator produces a resonant frequency. A variation of the resonant frequency due to perturbations in electromagnetic properties of the material is measured.

  5. Remote reset circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gritzo, Russell E. (West Melbourne, FL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A remote reset circuit acts as a stand-alone monitor and controller by clocking in each character sent by a terminal to a computer and comparing it to a given reference character. When a match occurs, the remote reset circuit activates the system's hardware reset line. The remote reset circuit is hardware based centered around monostable multivibrators and is unaffected by system crashes, partial serial transmissions, or power supply transients.

  6. Switching power pulse system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, K.

    1983-08-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source to a load using a storage capacitor charged through a rectifier, and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch and voltage comparator. A thyristor is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor and fractional turn saturable transformer having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n = n[sup 2]. The saturable reactor functions as a soaker'' while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor into the load through the coupling capacitor. The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core having two secondary windings tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network. To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core is provided around the resistive beampipe to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance until it is fully charged. 5 figs.

  7. Thermionic gas switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hatch, G.L.; Brummond, W.A.; Barrus, D.M.

    1984-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is directed to an improved temperature responsive thermionic gas switch utilizing a hollow cathode and a folded emitter surface area. The folded emitter surface area of the thermionic switch substantially increases the on/off ratio by changing the conduction surface area involved in the two modes thereof. The improved switch of this invention provides an on/off ratio of 450:1 compared to the 10:1 ratio of the prior known thermionic switch, while providing for adjusting the on current. In the improved switch of this invention the conduction area is made small in the off mode, while in the on mode the conduction area is made large. This is achieved by utilizing a folded hollow cathode configuration and utilizing a folded emitter surface area, and by making the dimensions of the folds small enough so that a space charge will develop in the convolutions of the folds and suppress unignited current, thus limiting the current carrying surface in the off mode.

  8. Reconfigurable optical switches with monolithic electrical-to-optical interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, P. [New Mexico Univ., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Center for High Technology Materials; Zolper, J.C.; Lear, K.L.; Vawter, G.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Leibenguth, R.E.; Adams, A.C. [AT and T Bell Labs., Breinigsville, PA (United States)

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Vertical cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) can be integrated with heterojunction phototransistors (HPTs) and heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) on the same wafer to form high speed optical and optoelectronic switches, respectively, that can be optically or electrically addressed. This permits the direct communication and transmission of data between distributed electronic processors through an optical switching network. The experimental demonstration of an integrated optoelectronic HBT/VCSEL switch combining a GaAs/AlGaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) with a VCSEL is described below, using the same epilayer structure upon which binary HPT/VCSEL optical switches are also built. The monolithic HBT/VCSEL switch has high current gain, low power dissipation, and a high optical to electrical conversion efficiency. Its modulation has been measured and modeled.

  9. Circuit Theory for Analysis and Design of Spintronic Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Manipatruni, Sasikanth; Young, Ian A

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a theoretical and a numerical formalism for analysis and design of spintronic integrated circuits (SPINICs). The proposed formalism encompasses a generalized circuit theory for spintronic integrated circuits based on nanomagnetic dynamics and spin transport. We derive the circuit models for vector spin conduction in non-magnetic and magnetic components. We then propose an extension to the modified nodal analysis for the analysis of spin circuits. We demonstrate the applicability of the proposed theory using an example spin logic circuit.

  10. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrett, David M. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit.

  11. Compensated gain control circuit for buck regulator command charge circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrett, D.M.

    1996-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    A buck regulator command charge circuit includes a compensated-gain control signal for compensating for changes in the component values in order to achieve optimal voltage regulation. The compensated-gain control circuit includes an automatic-gain control circuit for generating a variable-gain control signal. The automatic-gain control circuit is formed of a precision rectifier circuit, a filter network, an error amplifier, and an integrator circuit. 5 figs.

  12. Design and analysis of a zero-voltage switching scheme for a dc- to-dc converter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Arun, G.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    5S 59 VITA . 65 I. IST OF FICI;RES FIGURE Page Linear versus switch-mode power convers&on Components of a switch-mode dc-to-dc converter 3 A typical dc-to-dc converter system Basic buck converter Basic boost converter Basic buck...-boost converter 7 One leg of a, dc-to-dc converter. Turn-on and turn-off scenartos in switch-mode operation. 16 10 Switching loci in the ur ? ir plane. Circuit for. zero-voltage sw&tching. . Mode 1 17 90 Mode? Mode I Mode 5 oo 93 Typical voltage...

  13. Automated Circuit Breaker Monitoring U.S. DOE CERTS Project

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS), and funded by the Office of Electric Transmission and Distribution a portion of the power system is very critical task and circuit breakers must be very reliableAutomated Circuit Breaker Monitoring U.S. DOE CERTS Project Power Systems Engineering Research

  14. Utility-Scale Silicon Carbide Semiconductor: Monolithic Silicon Carbide Anode Switched Thyristor for Medium Voltage Power Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ADEPT Project: GeneSiC is developing an advanced silicon-carbide (SiC)-based semiconductor called an anode-switched thyristor. This low-cost, compact SiC semiconductor conducts higher levels of electrical energy with better precision than traditional silicon semiconductors. This efficiency will enable a dramatic reduction in the size, weight, and volume of the power converters and electronic devices it's used in.GeneSiC is developing its SiC-based semiconductor for utility-scale power converters. Traditional silicon semiconductors can't process the high voltages that utility-scale power distribution requires, and they must be stacked in complicated circuits that require bulky insulation and cooling hardware. GeneSiC's semiconductors are well suited for high-power applications like large-scale renewable wind and solar energy installations.

  15. Switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalka, A.M.

    1984-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is a repratable capacitor charging, switching power supply. A ferrite transformer steps up a dc input. The transformer primary is in a full bridge configuration utilizing power MOSFETs as the bridge switches. The transformer secondary is fed into a high voltage, full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The transformer is designed to provide adequate leakage inductance to limit capacitor current. The MOSFETs are switched to the variable frequency from 20 to 50 kHz to charge a capacitor from 0.6 kV. The peak current in a transformer primary and secondary is controlled by increasing the pulse width as the capacitor charges. A digital ripple counter counts pulses and after a preselected desired number is reached an up-counter is clocked.

  16. Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

  17. Liquid detection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Regan, Thomas O. (North Aurora, IL)

    1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Herein is a circuit which is capable of detecting the presence of liquids, especially cryogenic liquids, and whose sensor will not overheat in a vacuum. The circuit parameters, however, can be adjusted to work with any liquid over a wide range of temperatures.

  18. Quantum Circuits Architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Giulio Chiribella; Giacomo Mauro D'Ariano; Paolo Perinotti

    2007-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    We present a method for optimizing quantum circuits architecture. The method is based on the notion of "quantum comb", which describes a circuit board in which one can insert variable subcircuits. The method allows one to efficiently address novel kinds of quantum information processing tasks, such as storing-retrieving, and cloning of channels.

  19. Multiphase soft switched DC/DC converter and active control technique for fuel cell ripple current elimination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng (Blacksburg, VA); Liu, Changrong (Sunnyvale, CA); Ridenour, Amy (Salem, VA)

    2009-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    DC/DC converter has a transformer having primary coils connected to an input side and secondary coils connected to an output side. Each primary coil connects a full-bridge circuit comprising two switches on two legs, the primary coil being connected between the switches on each leg, each full-bridge circuit being connected in parallel wherein each leg is disposed parallel to one another, and the secondary coils connected to a rectifying circuit. An outer loop control circuit that reduces ripple in a voltage reference has a first resistor connected in series with a second resistor connected in series with a first capacitor which are connected in parallel with a second capacitor. An inner loop control circuit that reduces ripple in a current reference has a third resistor connected in series with a fourth resistor connected in series with a third capacitor which are connected in parallel with a fourth capacitor.

  20. Transparent electrode for optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1984-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention relates generally to optical switches and techniques for applying a voltage to an electro-optical crystal, and more particularly, to transparent electodes for an optical switch. System architectures for very large inertial confinement fusion (ICF) lasers require active optical elements with apertures on the order of one meter. Large aperture optical switches are needed for isolation of stages, switch-out from regenerative amplifier cavities and protection from target retroreflections.

  1. Low energy digital circuit design using sub-threshold operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Calhoun, Benton Highsmith, 1978-

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Scaling of process technologies to deep sub-micron dimensions has made power management a significant concern for circuit designers. For emerging low power applications such as distributed micro-sensor networks or medical ...

  2. Sensor readout detector circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, D.D.; Thelen, D.C. Jr.

    1998-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A sensor readout detector circuit is disclosed that is capable of detecting sensor signals down to a few nanoamperes or less in a high (microampere) background noise level. The circuit operates at a very low standby power level and is triggerable by a sensor event signal that is above a predetermined threshold level. A plurality of sensor readout detector circuits can be formed on a substrate as an integrated circuit (IC). These circuits can operate to process data from an array of sensors in parallel, with only data from active sensors being processed for digitization and analysis. This allows the IC to operate at a low power level with a high data throughput for the active sensors. The circuit may be used with many different types of sensors, including photodetectors, capacitance sensors, chemically-sensitive sensors or combinations thereof to provide a capability for recording transient events or for recording data for a predetermined period of time following an event trigger. The sensor readout detector circuit has applications for portable or satellite-based sensor systems. 6 figs.

  3. Linear Compositional Delay Model for the Timing Analysis of Sub-Powered Combinational Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Linear Compositional Delay Model for the Timing Analysis of Sub-Powered Combinational Circuits the propagation delay through nanometer CMOS circuits is highly desirable. Statistical Static Timing Analysis to accurately capture the circuit behaviour. In view of this we introduce an Inverse Gaussian Distribution (IGD

  4. Switching power pulse system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aaland, Kristian (Livermore, CA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A switching system for delivering pulses of power from a source (10) to a load (20) using a storage capacitor (C3) charged through a rectifier (D1, D2), and maintained charged to a reference voltage level by a transistor switch (Q1) and voltage comparator (12). A thyristor (22) is triggered to discharge the storage capacitor through a saturable reactor (18) and fractional turn saturable transformer (16) having a secondary to primary turn ratio N of n:l/n=n.sup.2. The saturable reactor (18) functions as a "soaker" while the thyristor reaches saturation, and then switches to a low impedance state. The saturable transformer functions as a switching transformer with high impedance while a load coupling capacitor (C4) charges, and then switches to a low impedance state to dump the charge of the storage capacitor (C3) into the load through the coupling capacitor (C4). The transformer is comprised of a multilayer core (26) having two secondary windings (28, 30) tightly wound and connected in parallel to add their output voltage and reduce output inductance, and a number of single turn windings connected in parallel at nodes (32, 34) for the primary winding, each single turn winding linking a different one of the layers of the multilayer core. The load may be comprised of a resistive beampipe (40) for a linear particle accelerator and capacitance of a pulse forming network (42). To hold off discharge of the capacitance until it is fully charged, a saturable core (44) is provided around the resistive beampipe (40) to isolate the beampipe from the capacitance (42) until it is fully charged.

  5. Nonlinear Circuit Analysis An Introduction 1. Why nonlinear circuits?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hart, Gus

    Nonlinear Circuit Analysis ­ An Introduction 1. Why nonlinear circuits? Electrical devices: the oscillator. 2. What is a nonlinear circuit? It is easy to understand the difference between a linear and a nonlinear circuit by looking at the difference between a linear and a nonlinear equation: y x ¡ 2 (1) y

  6. Circuit for reducing power consumption in battery operated microprocessor based systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, J.C.

    1980-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    In a microprocessor based system, wherein at least one microprocessor is battery powered, a power strobe circuit includes an analog switch for connecting the battery to the microprocessor only during programmed task performance. Upon completion of task performance, the microprocessor generates signals which trigger the analog switch to open, thereby deenergizing the microprocessor and to enable an external timer. After a predetermined period of time, which may be fixed in the timer or programmed, the timer causes the switch to reclose, thereby energizing the microprocessor for performance of another programmed task.

  7. Operation-Based Signal-Flow AC Analysis of Switching DCDC Converters in CCM and DCM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rincon-Mora, Gabriel A.

    Operation-Based Signal-Flow AC Analysis of Switching DC­DC Converters in CCM and DCM Dongwon Kwon (CCM and DCM) and insightful enough to derive directly from the waveforms of the circuit, not from- and discontinuous-conduction modes (CCM and DCM). To this end, for review, Sections II and III of the paper overview

  8. RESONANT TRANSITION SWITCHING WELDING POWER SUPPLY N. Frohleke, H. Mundinger, S. Beineke, P. Wallmeier, H. Grotstollen

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paderborn, Universität

    RESONANT TRANSITION SWITCHING WELDING POWER SUPPLY N. Frohleke, H. Mundinger, S. Beineke, P-bridge topology used in a welding power supply. A new driving scheme adapts the resulting power circuitry for both the droplet and the short-circuiting transfer welding modes occurring in the gas metal arc welding process

  9. OLiMPS: OpenFlow Link-layer MultiPath Switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newman, Harvey B [California Institute of Technology; Barczyk, Artur [California Institute of Technology; Bredel, Michael [California Institute of Technology

    2014-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The OLiMPS project’s goal was the development of an OpenFlow controller application allowing load balancing over multiple switched paths across a complex network topology. The second goal was to integrate the controller with Dynamic Circuit Network systems such as ESnet’s OSCARS. Both goals were achieved successfully, as laid out in this report.

  10. Low-profile high-voltage compact gas switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goerz, D.A.; Wilson, M.J.; Speer, R.D.

    1997-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper discusses the development and testing of a low-profile, high-voltage, spark-gap switch designed to be closely coupled with other components into an integrated high-energy pulsed-power source. The switch is designed to operate at 100 kV using SF6 gas pressurized to less than 0.7 MPa. The volume of the switch cavity region is less than 1.5 cm3, and the field stress along the gas-dielectric interface is as high as 130 kV/cm. The dielectric switch body has a low profile that is only I -cm tall at its greatest extent and nominally 2-mm thick over most of its area. This design achieves a very low inductance of less than 5 nH, but results in field stresses exceeding 500 kV/cm in the dielectric material. Field modeling was done to determine the appropriate shape for the highly stressed insulator and electrodes, and special manufacturing techniques were employed to mitigate the usual mechanisms that induce breakdown and failure in solid dielectrics. Static breakdown tests verified that the switch operates satisfactorily at 100 kV levels. The unit has been characterized with different shaped electrodes having nominal gap spacings of 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 mm. The relationship between self-break voltage and operating pressure agrees well with published data on gas properties, accounting for the field enhancements of the electrode shapes being used. Capacitor discharge tests in a low inductance test fixture exhibited peak currents up to 25 kA with characteristic frequencies of the ringdown circuit ranging from 10 to 20 MHz. The ringdown waveforms and scaling of measured parameters agree well with circuit modeling of the switch and test fixture. Repetitive operation has been demonstrated at moderate rep-rates up to 15 Hz, limited by the power supply being used. Preliminary tests to evaluate lifetime of the compact switch assembly have been encouraging. In one case, after more than 7,000 high-current ringdown tests with approximately 30 C of total charge transferred, the switch continued to operate satisfactorily with no apparent tracking or deterioration of the insulator.

  11. Designing criteria for building power systems supplying distributed non-linear loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grasselli, U.; Parise, G. [Univ. of Rome La Sapienza (Italy). Electrical Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    In commercial and institutional buildings, the wider use of power electronics equipment, such as computer switch-mode power supplies and compact fluorescent lights with electronic ballasts, can create many problems. These loads are generally single-phase with a 3rd harmonic current that can be equal or more than 60%. The aim of this paper is that of analyzing several specific aspects of power system design, such as: sizing of circuits; and the selection of circuits, by correlating them with this specific problem of distributed nonlinear load supply. The proposed criteria can be utilized both in a short-term action for resolution of specific problems, and in medium-term action for development of new optimization procedures of power system design.

  12. Plasma opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Savage, Mark E. (Albuquerque, NM); Mendel, Jr., Clifford W. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A command triggered plasma opening switch assembly using an amplification stage. The assembly surrounds a coaxial transmission line and has a main plasma opening switch (POS) close to the load and a trigger POS upstream from the main POS. The trigger POS establishes two different current pathways through the assembly depended on whether it has received a trigger current pulse. The initial pathway has both POS's with plasma between their anodes and cathodes to form a short across the transmission line and isolating the load. The final current pathway is formed when the trigger POS receives a trigger current pulse which energizes its fast coil to push the conductive plasma out from between its anode and cathode, allowing the main transmission line current to pass to the fast coil of the main POS, thus pushing its plasma out the way so as to establish a direct current pathway to the load.

  13. The quantum cryptographic switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srinatha Narayanaswamy; Omkar Srikrishna; R. Srikanth; Subhashish Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

    2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

    We illustrate using a quantum system the principle of a cryptographic switch, in which a third party (Charlie) can control to a continuously varying degree the amount of information the receiver (Bob) receives, after the sender (Alice) has sent her information. Suppose Charlie transmits a Bell state to Alice and Bob. Alice uses dense coding to transmit two bits to Bob. Only if the 2-bit information corresponding to choice of Bell state is made available by Charlie to Bob can the latter recover Alice's information. By varying the information he gives, Charlie can continuously vary the information recovered by Bob. The performance of the protocol subjected to the squeezed generalized amplitude damping channel is considered. We also present a number of practical situations where a cryptographic switch would be of use.

  14. SWITCH Model AND Data Description: 2050 Timeframe................................................ 2 SWITCH Model Description ........................................................................................................2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kammen, Daniel M.

    , Berkeley. SWITCH Model Description 1. Study Years, Months, Dates and Hours To simulate power system1 SWITCH Model AND Data Description: 2050 Timeframe................................................ 2 SWITCH Model Description

  15. CREE: Making the Switch

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2014-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  16. CREE: Making the Switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grider, David; Palmer, John

    2014-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    CREE, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed a Silicon Carbide (SIC) transistor which can be used to create solid state transformers capable of meeting the unique needs of the emerging smart grid. SIC transistors are different from common silicon computer chips in that they handle grid scale voltages with ease and their high frequency switching is well suited to the intermittent nature of renewable energy generation.

  17. Ultrafast gas switching experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frost, C.A.; Martin, T.H.; Patterson, P.E.; Rinehart, L.F.; Rohwein, G.J.; Roose, L.D.; Aurand, J.F.; Buttram, M.T.

    1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We describe recent experiments which studied the physics of ultrafast gas breakdown under the extreme overvoltages which occur when a high pressure gas switch is pulse charged to hundreds of kV in 1 ns or less. The highly overvolted peaking gaps produce powerful electromagnetic pulses with risetimes < 100 ps which can be used for ultrawideband radar systems, particle accelerators, laser drivers, bioelectromagnetic studies, electromagnetic effects testing, and for basic studies of gas breakdown physics. We have produced and accurately measured pulses with 50 to 100 ps risetimes to peak levels of 75 to 160 kV at pulse repetition frequencies (PRF) to I kHz. A unique gas switch was developed to hold off hundreds of kV with parasitic inductance less than I nH. An advanced diagnostic system using Fourier compensation was developed to measure single-shot risetimes below 35 ps. The complete apparatus is described and wave forms are presented. The measured data are compared with a theoretical model which predicts key features including dependence on gas species and pressure. We have applied this technology to practical systems driving ultrawideband radiating antennas and bounded wave simulators. For example, we have developed a thyristor/pulse transformer based system using a highly overvolted cable switch. This pulser driving a Sandia- designed TEM cell, provides an ultra wideband impulse with < 200 ps risetime to the test object at a PRF > 1 kHz at > 100 kV/m E field.

  18. Compound semiconductor optical waveguide switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Spahn, Olga B.; Sullivan, Charles T.; Garcia, Ernest J.

    2003-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical waveguide switch is disclosed which is formed from III-V compound semiconductors and which has a moveable optical waveguide with a cantilevered portion that can be bent laterally by an integral electrostatic actuator to route an optical signal (i.e. light) between the moveable optical waveguide and one of a plurality of fixed optical waveguides. A plurality of optical waveguide switches can be formed on a common substrate and interconnected to form an optical switching network.

  19. Hybrid switch for resonant power converters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lai, Jih-Sheng; Yu, Wensong

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A hybrid switch comprising two semiconductor switches connected in parallel but having different voltage drop characteristics as a function of current facilitates attainment of zero voltage switching and reduces conduction losses to complement reduction of switching losses achieved through zero voltage switching in power converters such as high-current inverters.

  20. Sensor Switch's Bright Manufacturing Future

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The switch helps with cost effective energy savings by turning off the lights when an occupancy sensor says the room is empty.

  1. Quantum noise in large-scale coherent nonlinear photonic circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles Santori; Jason S. Pelc; Raymond G. Beausoleil; Nikolas Tezak; Ryan Hamerly; Hideo Mabuchi

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A semiclassical simulation approach is presented for studying quantum noise in large-scale photonic circuits incorporating an ideal Kerr nonlinearity. A circuit solver is used to generate matrices defining a set of stochastic differential equations, in which the resonator field variables represent random samplings of the Wigner quasi-probability distributions. Although the semiclassical approach involves making a large-photon-number approximation, tests on one- and two-resonator circuits indicate satisfactory agreement between the semiclassical and full-quantum simulation results in the parameter regime of interest. The semiclassical model is used to simulate random errors in a large-scale circuit that contains 88 resonators and hundreds of components in total, and functions as a 4-bit ripple counter. The error rate as a function of on-state photon number is examined, and it is observed that the quantum fluctuation amplitudes do not increase as signals propagate through the circuit, an important property for scalability.

  2. A hierarchical circuit extractor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ledbetter, William Burl

    1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Hierarchical Circuit Extractor (May 1982) William Burl Ledbetter Jr. , B. S. , Texas ASM University Co-Chairmen of Advisory Committee: Dr. Phil S. Noe and Dr. Noel R. Strader This thesi s describes the development of a hierarchical circuit extraction.... ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. N. R. Strader for his help in the preparation of this thesis and for the use of his rasteri zer in LEXTRACT. I also thank Dr. P. S. Noe, Dr. P. E. Allen, and Dr. W. M. Lively for serving on my...

  3. Electro-optical switching and memory display device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Skotheim, T.A.; O'Grady, W.E.; Linkous, C.A.

    1983-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An electro-optical display device having a housing with wall means including one transparent wall and at least one other wall. Counter electrodes are positioned on the transparent wall and display electrodes are positioned on the other wall with both electrodes in electrically conductive relationship with an electrolyte. Circuits means are connected to the display and counter electrodes to apply different predetermined control potentials between them. The display electrodes are covered with a thin electrically conductive polymer film that is characterized according to the invention by having embedded in it pigment molecules as counter ions. The display device is operable to be switched to a plurality of different visual color states at an exceptionally rapid switching rate while each of the color states is characterized by possessing good color intensity and definition.

  4. Switch-reference and Omotic-Cushitic Language Contact in Southwest Ethiopia Yvonne Treis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    1 Switch-reference and Omotic-Cushitic Language Contact in Southwest Ethiopia Yvonne Treis LLACAN. This study shows that there is a confined area in the South of Ethiopia where many Omotic languages and a few (Cushitic) and gives an overview of the distribution of switch-reference systems in Ethiopia in general

  5. Robust adaptive control of switched systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    El-Rifai, Khalid, 1979-

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis, robust adaptive controllers are developed for classes of switched nonlinear systems. Switched systems are those governed by differential equations, which undergo vector field switching due to sudden changes ...

  6. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Michael L. (Knoxville, TN); Sayler, Gary S. (Blaine, TN); Paulus, Michael J. (Knoxville, TN)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are monolithic bioelectronic devices comprising a bioreporter and an OASIC. These bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit are useful in detecting substances such as pollutants, explosives, and heavy-metals residing in inhospitable areas such as groundwater, industrial process vessels, and battlefields. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for environmental pollutant detection, oil exploration, drug discovery, industrial process control, and hazardous chemical monitoring.

  7. Methods of fabricating applique circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimos, Duane B. (Albuquerque, NM); Garino, Terry J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Applique circuits suitable for advanced packaging applications are introduced. These structures are particularly suited for the simple integration of large amounts (many nanoFarads) of capacitance into conventional integrated circuit and multichip packaging technology. In operation, applique circuits are bonded to the integrated circuit or other appropriate structure at the point where the capacitance is required, thereby minimizing the effects of parasitic coupling. An immediate application is to problems of noise reduction and control in modern high-frequency circuitry.

  8. Modeling and Verification of Distributed Generation and Voltage Regulation Equipment for Unbalanced Distribution Power Systems; Annual Subcontract Report, June 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M. W.; Broadwater, R.; Hambrick, J.

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report summarizes the development of models for distributed generation and distribution circuit voltage regulation equipment for unbalanced power systems and their verification through actual field measurements.

  9. ECE 202: Circuit Theory Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schumacher, Russ

    : - Cadence - MATLAB IN OUT - Can analyze source-free RL, RC, and RLC circuits - Can calculate step response Numbers Algebra DC Circuit Analysis - Laplace transform - Bode plots - Complex response - Can calculate Filter Analysis Frequency Response and Filters AC Power Analysis AC Circuit Analysis Concepts

  10. Nanometer Resolution Imaging by SIngle Molecule Switching. |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanometer Resolution Imaging by SIngle Molecule Switching. Nanometer Resolution Imaging by SIngle Molecule Switching. Abstract: The fluorescence intensity of single molecules can...

  11. Hairpin DNA Switch for Ultrasensitive Spectrophotometric Detection...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hairpin DNA Switch for Ultrasensitive Spectrophotometric Detection of DNA Hybridization Based on Gold Nanoparticles and Enzyme Hairpin DNA Switch for Ultrasensitive...

  12. Analysis of the Ultra-fast Switching Dynamics in a Hybrid MOSFET/Driver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, T.; Burkhart, C.; /SLAC

    2011-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The turn-on dynamics of a power MOSFET during ultra-fast, {approx} ns, switching are discussed in this paper. The testing was performed using a custom hybrid MOSFET/Driver module, which was fabricated by directly assembling die-form components, power MOSFET and drivers, on a printed circuit board. By using die-form components, the hybrid approach substantially reduces parasitic inductance, which facilitates ultra-fast switching. The measured turn on time of the hybrid module with a resistive load is 1.2 ns with an applied voltage of 1000 V and drain current of 33 A. Detailed analysis of the switching waveforms reveals that switching behavior must be interpreted differently in the ultra-fast regime. For example, the gate threshold voltage to turn on the device is observed to increase as the switching time decreases. Further analysis and simulation of MOSFET switching behavior shows that the minimum turn on time scales with the product of the drain-source on resistance and drain-source capacitance, R{sub DS(on)}C{sub OSS}. This information will be useful in power MOSFET selection and gate driver design for ultra-fast switching applications.

  13. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton On Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY); Gara, Alan G. (Mount Kisco, NY); Giampapa, Mark E. (Irvington, NY); Heidelberger, Philip (Cortlandt Manor, NY); Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard D. (Mount Kisco, NY); Takken, Todd E. (Mount Kisco, NY); Vranas, Pavlos M. (Bedford Hills, NY)

    2007-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  14. ''Smart'' watchdog safety switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for monitoring a process having a periodic output so that the process equipment is not damaged in the event of a controller failure, comprising a low-pass and peak clipping filter, an event detector that generates an event pulse for each valid change in magnitude of the filtered periodic output, a timing pulse generator, a counter that increments upon receipt of any timing pulse and resets to zero on receipt of any event pulse, an alarm that alerts when the count reaches some preselected total count, and a set of relays that opens to stop power to process equipment. An interface module can be added to allow the switch to accept a variety of periodic output signals. 21 figures.

  15. Optimized scalable network switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blumrich, Matthias A. (Ridgefield, CT); Chen, Dong (Croton on Hudson, NY); Coteus, Paul W. (Yorktown Heights, NY)

    2010-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    In a massively parallel computing system having a plurality of nodes configured in m multi-dimensions, each node including a computing device, a method for routing packets towards their destination nodes is provided which includes generating at least one of a 2m plurality of compact bit vectors containing information derived from downstream nodes. A multilevel arbitration process in which downstream information stored in the compact vectors, such as link status information and fullness of downstream buffers, is used to determine a preferred direction and virtual channel for packet transmission. Preferred direction ranges are encoded and virtual channels are selected by examining the plurality of compact bit vectors. This dynamic routing method eliminates the necessity of routing tables, thus enhancing scalability of the switch.

  16. Plasmon switching: Observation of dynamic surface plasmon steering by

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Visser, Taco D.

    Plasmon switching: Observation of dynamic surface plasmon steering by selective mode excitation a plasmon steering method that enables us to dynamically control the direction of surface plasmons generated surface plasmons are launched can be controlled. Experiments confirm that it is possible to distribute

  17. Nonsmooth Bifurcations, Transient Hyperchaos and Hyperchaotic Beats in a Memristive Murali-Lakshmanan-Chua Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Ishaq Ahamed; M. Lakshmanan

    2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, a memristive Murali-Lakshmanan-Chua (MLC) circuit is built by replacing the nonlinear element of an ordinary MLC circuit, namely the Chua's diode, with a three segment piecewise linear active flux controlled memristor. The bistability nature of the memristor introduces two discontinuty boundaries or switching manifolds in the circuit topology. As a result, the circuit becomes a piecewise smooth system of second order. Grazing bifurcations, which are essentially a form of discontinuity induced non-smooth bifurcations, occur at these boundaries and govern the dynamics of the circuit. While the interaction of the memristor aided self oscillations of the circuit and the external sinusoidal forcing result in the phenomenon of beats occurring in the circuit, grazing bifurcations endow them with chaotic and hyper chaotic nature. In addition the circuit admits a codimension-5 bifurcation and transient hyper chaos. Grazing bifurcations as well as other behaviors have been analyzed numerically using time series plots, phase portraits, bifurcation diagram, power spectra and Lyapunov spectrum, as well as the recent 0-1 K test for chaos, obtained after constructing a proper Zero Time Discontinuity Map (ZDM) and Poincare Discontinuity Map (PDM) analytically. Multisim simulations using a model of piecewise linear memristor have also been used to confirm some of the behaviors.

  18. Delay modeling and glitch estimation for CMOS circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shiau, Yan-Chyuan

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    E-4 MJ=0. 5 CJSW=4. 5E-10 +MJSW=0. 33 31 REFERENCES [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [12) [14] [15] L. W. Nagel, "SPICE2: a computer program to simulate semiconductor circuits", ERL Memo. ERL-520. Electronics Research Lab. , University.... Y. H. Kim, "ELOGIC: A relaxation-based switch-level simulation technique", UCB/ERL M86/2, University of California, Berkeley, 1986. B. R. Chawala, H. K. Gummel, and P. Kozak, "MOTIS - an MOS timing simulator. " IEEE Trans. CAS-22, pp. 901-910, Dec...

  19. Identifying Lights with their Switches Jayadev Misra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Misra, Jayadev

    Identifying Lights with their Switches Jayadev Misra 09/07/2012 Problem Description Given are N switches and N lights where each switch controls exactly one light and each light is controlled by exactly of selecting some number of switches and turning them on, and, presumably, noting the lights that come

  20. Electrically operated magnetic switch designed to display reduced leakage inductance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, E.G.

    1994-05-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically operated magnetic switch is disclosed herein for use in opening and closing a circuit between two terminals depending upon the voltage across these terminals. The switch so disclosed is comprised of a ferrite core in the shape of a toroid having opposing ends and opposite inner and outer sides and an arrangement of electrically conductive components defining at least one current flow path which makes a number of turns around the core. This arrangement of components includes a first plurality of electrically conducive rigid rods parallel with and located outside the outer side of the core and a second plurality of electrically conductive rigid rods parallel with and located inside the inner side of the core. The arrangement also includes means for electrically connecting these rods together so that the define the current flow path. In one embodiment, this latter means uses rigid cross-tab means. In another, preferred embodiment, printed circuits on rigid dielectric substrates located on opposite ends of the core are utilized to interconnect the rods together. 10 figures.

  1. Electrically operated magnetic switch designed to display reduced leakage inductance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrically operated magnetic switch is disclosed herein for use in opening and closing a circuit between two terminals depending upon the voltage across these terminals. The switch so disclosed is comprised of a ferrite core in the shape of a toroid having opposing ends and opposite inner and outer sides and an arrangement of electrically conductive components defining at least one current flow path which makes a number of turns around the core. This arrangement of components includes a first plurality of electrically conducive rigid rods parallel with and located outside the outer side of the core and a second plurality of electrically conductive rigid rods parallel with and located inside the inner side of the core. The arrangement also includes means for electrically connecting these rods together so that the define the current flow path. In one embodiment, this latter means uses rigid cross-tab means. In another, preferred embodiment, printed circuits on rigid dielectric substrates located on opposite ends of the core are utilized to interconnect the rods together.

  2. Optimal Switching with Quasi-Left-Continuous Switching Costs that Can Change Sign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glendinning, Paul

    for the switching problem in terms of interconnected Snell envelopes. We also prove the existence of an optimalOptimal Switching with Quasi-Left-Continuous Switching Costs that Can Change Sign Randall Martyr of Mathematics, The University of Manchester #12;Optimal switching with quasi-left-continuous switching costs

  3. Wide Bandgap Extrinsic Photoconductive Switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, J S

    2012-01-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) have been investigated since the late 1970s. Some devices have been developed that withstand tens of kilovolts and others that switch hundreds of amperes. However, no single device has been developed that can reliably withstand both high voltage and switch high current. Yet, photoconductive switches still hold the promise of reliable high voltage and high current operation with subnanosecond risetimes. Particularly since good quality, bulk, single crystal, wide bandgap semiconductor materials have recently become available. In this chapter we will review the basic operation of PCSS devices, status of PCSS devices and properties of the wide bandgap semiconductors 4H-SiC, 6H-SiC and 2H-GaN.

  4. Variable timing circuit for motive power battery chargers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lambert, F.J.; Bosack, D.J.; Johansen, D.K.

    1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A timing circuit for charging motive power batteries. The timing control circuit provides different times of charge in accordance with the time at which a predetermined voltage/current state of the battery is achieved. Control circuit cooperates with a controller in causing termination of the charging operation immediately upon reaching of the voltage/current state if this occurs in a first time slot of an initial control time period. The timing circuit provides an automatic finish time period of charge if the battery reaches the predetermined voltage/current state at some time during the initial control time period. The control includes a switch permitting the user to cause an automatic additional amount of charging upon completion of the normal charging cycle effected by the control, such as for effecting a weekend charge. The control further includes structure for terminating the charging operation in the event the battery being charged does not reach the predetermined voltage/current state at the end of a preselected maximum time. A signal light signals such a fault condition in the charging operation.

  5. High PRF high current switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moran, Stuart L. (Fredericksburg, VA); Hutcherson, R. Kenneth (College Park, MD)

    1990-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A triggerable, high voltage, high current, spark gap switch for use in pu power systems. The device comprises a pair of electrodes in a high pressure hydrogen environment that is triggered by introducing an arc between one electrode and a trigger pin. Unusually high repetition rates may be obtained by undervolting the switch, i.e., operating the trigger at voltages much below the self-breakdown voltage of the device.

  6. Plasma flow switch experiment on Procyon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benage, J.F. Jr.; Bowers, R.; Peterson, D. [and others

    1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report presents the results obtained from a series of plasma flow switch experiments done on the Procyon explosive pulse power generator. These experiments involved switching into a fixed inductance dummy load and also into a dynamic implosion load. The results indicated that the switch did fairly well at switching current into the load, but the results for the implosion are more ambiguous. The results are compared to calculations and the implications for future plasma flow switch work are discussed.

  7. Optimal restoration of power supply in large distribution systems in developing countries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devi, V.S.; Sen Gupta, D.P. [Indian Inst. of Science, Bangalore (India). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Anandalingam, G. [Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA (United States). Dept. of Systems Engineering

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A computer aided optimal method has been developed for the restoration of electric supply to areas isolated from the network following a fault in a distribution system. A search technique is used where the search is guided by appropriate heuristics. The optimum solution entails finding the strategy which involves the operation of minimum number of switch gear for rerouting the supply within the constraint of specified loading. This is an essential requirement in countries like India where the circuit breakers are almost always manually operated and a number of transformers and feeders operate close to their rated capacity. It pays therefore to adopt different strategies at peak load and off peak conditions since the number of breaker operations is so critical. The heuristic search that is developed is applied to a large distribution system and provides very good results.

  8. Base drive circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lange, A.C.

    1995-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved base drive circuit having a level shifter for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays. The non-linear delays provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors through a corresponding pair of buffer components. The non-linear delays provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors while an associated pair of transistors shunt the non-linear delays during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor. 2 figures.

  9. Base drive circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved base drive circuit (10) having a level shifter (24) for providing bistable input signals to a pair of non-linear delays (30, 32). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide gate control to a corresponding pair of field effect transistors (100, 106) through a corresponding pair of buffer components (88, 94). The non-linear delays (30, 32) provide delayed turn-on for each of the field effect transistors (100, 106) while an associated pair of transistors (72, 80) shunt the non-linear delays (30, 32) during turn-off of the associated field effect transistor (100, 106).

  10. Threshold voltage extraction circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoon, Siew Kuok

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    to that of the saturation method. However, instead of fixing Vos ? Vos, the drain current is measured as a function of Vos while Vns is fixed at a constant low voltage of 100mV to ensure operation in the linear MOSFET region. Neglecting channel length modulation effect... transistors are layout next to the DUT of the NMOS and PMOS Vr extraction circuits respectively for extraction of Vr via graphical means. GRAPHICAL METHOD OF THE THRESHOLD-VOLTAGE MEASUREMENT Using the graphical method, the characteristics of 4n versus Vos...

  11. A Framework for Modeling Cyber-Physical Switching Attacks in Smart Grid

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Shan; Mashayekh, Salman; Kundur, Deepa; Zourntos, Takis; Butler-Purry, Karen

    2014-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

    and demonstrate how existence of the switching vulnerability is dependent on the local structure of the power grid. We identify and demonstrate how through successful cyber intrusion and local knowledge of the grid an opponent can compute and apply a coordinated... providing opponent(s) opportunities for remotely controlling physical power system components such as modern circuit breakers possibly via illicit security breaches and intrusion. Thus, our vulnerability is applicable to a smart grid system with remotely...

  12. Thvenin's Theorem Linear two-terminal circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kozick, Richard J.

    Thévenin's Theorem Linear two-terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalent circuit composed at terminals with allResistance at terminals with all independent circuit sources set to zero #12;Norton's Theorem Linear two-terminal circuit can be replaced by an equivalentbe replaced by an equivalent circuit

  13. Jitter compensation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, J.S.; Ball, D.G.

    1997-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The instantaneous V{sub co} signal on a charging capacitor is sampled and the charge voltage on capacitor C{sub o} is captured just prior to its discharge into the first stage of magnetic modulator. The captured signal is applied to an averaging circuit with a long time constant and to the positive input terminal of a differential amplifier. The averaged V{sub co} signal is split between a gain stage (G = 0.975) and a feedback stage that determines the slope of the voltage ramp applied to the high speed comparator. The 97.5% portion of the averaged V{sub co} signal is applied to the negative input of a differential amplifier gain stage (G = 10). The differential amplifier produces an error signal by subtracting 97.5% of the averaged V{sub co} signal from the instantaneous value of sampled V{sub co} signal and multiplying the difference by ten. The resulting error signal is applied to the positive input of a high speed comparator. The error signal is then compared to a voltage ramp that is proportional to the averaged V{sub co} values squared divided by the total volt-second product of the magnetic compression circuit. 11 figs.

  14. Jitter compensation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, James S. (Livermore, CA); Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The instantaneous V.sub.co signal on a charging capacitor is sampled and the charge voltage on capacitor C.sub.o is captured just prior to its discharge into the first stage of magnetic modulator. The captured signal is applied to an averaging circuit with a long time constant and to the positive input terminal of a differential amplifier. The averaged V.sub. co signal is split between a gain stage (G=0.975) and a feedback stage that determines the slope of the voltage ramp applied to the high speed comparator. The 97.5% portion of the averaged V.sub.co signal is applied to the negative input of a differential amplifier gain stage (G=10). The differential amplifier produces an error signal by subtracting 97.5% of the averaged V.sub.co signal from the instantaneous value of sampled V.sub.co signal and multiplying the difference by ten. The resulting error signal is applied to the positive input of a high speed comparator. The error signal is then compared to a voltage ramp that is proportional to the averaged V.sub.co values squared divided by the total volt-second product of the magnetic compression circuit.

  15. Analysis and design of matrix converters for adjustable speed drives and distributed power sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cha, Han Ju

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    .................................................... 98 5.4.2 ZVS turn-on operation .................................................... 99 5.4.3 Clamp circuit design consideration................................. 100 5.5 Experimental results... voltage clamp circuit for ride-through capability...................... 72 4.1 (a) proposed 3? /3? high frequency link matrix converter (b) bidirectional switch configuration...

  16. A Smart Algorithm for the Diagnosis of Short-Circuit Faults in a Photovoltaic Generator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Smart Algorithm for the Diagnosis of Short-Circuit Faults in a Photovoltaic Generator Wail Rezgui observations distributed over classes is used for simulation purposes. Keywords--Photovoltaic generator, SVM, k-NN, short-circuit fault, smart classification, linear programming. NOMENCLATURE PV = Photovoltaic; SVM

  17. Thvenin Emitter Circuit The Thvenin equivalent circuit seen looking into the emitter is useful in calculating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach Jr.,W. Marshall

    voltage ve(oc) to the short-circuit emitter current. The circuit for calculating the short-circuit currentThévenin Emitter Circuit The Thévenin equivalent circuit seen looking into the emitter is useful. With the emitter open circuited, we denote the emitter voltage by ve(oc). The voltage source in the Thévenin

  18. Kinetic simulation studies of laser-triggering in the Z gas switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Welch, D. R.; Rose, D. V.; Thoma, C.; Clark, R. E.; Miller, C.; Madrid, E. A.; Zimmerman, W. R. [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States)] [Voss Scientific, LLC, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87108 (United States); Rambo, P. K.; Schwarz, J.; Savage, M.; Atherton, B. W. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1196 (United States)

    2013-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Advanced z-pinch accelerators require precise timing of multiple mega-ampere drivers to deliver terawatt power. The triggering of these drivers is now largely initiated by laser ionization of gas switches. In this paper, we discuss detailed fully kinetic simulation of the Z laser-triggered gas switch involving detailed finite-difference time-domain particle-in-cell Monte Carlo modeling of the trigger section of the switch. Other components of the accelerator from the Marx bank through the pulse-forming line are described as circuit elements. The simulations presented here build on a recently developed model of electro-negative gas breakdown and streamer propagation that included photons produced from de-excited neutrals. New effects include multi-photon ionization of the gas in a prescribed laser field. The simulations show the sensitivity of triggering to laser parameters including focal plane within the anode-cathode gap of the trigger section of the switch, intensity at focus, and laser pulse length. Detailed electromagnetic simulations of the trigger section with circuit modeling of the upstream and downstream components are largely in agreement with Z data and demonstrate a new capability.

  19. Demultiplexer circuit for neural stimulation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wessendorf, Kurt O; Okandan, Murat; Pearson, Sean

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A demultiplexer circuit is disclosed which can be used with a conventional neural stimulator to extend the number of electrodes which can be activated. The demultiplexer circuit, which is formed on a semiconductor substrate containing a power supply that provides all the dc electrical power for operation of the circuit, includes digital latches that receive and store addressing information from the neural stimulator one bit at a time. This addressing information is used to program one or more 1:2.sup.N demultiplexers in the demultiplexer circuit which then route neural stimulation signals from the neural stimulator to an electrode array which is connected to the outputs of the 1:2.sup.N demultiplexer. The demultiplexer circuit allows the number of individual electrodes in the electrode array to be increased by a factor of 2.sup.N with N generally being in a range of 2-4.

  20. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauscher, Christen (Alexandria, VA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a variable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line.

  1. Photoconductive circuit element reflectometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauscher, C.

    1987-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A photoconductive reflectometer for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a first photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short first laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test. Second PCEs are connected along the transmission line to sample the signals on the transmission line when excited into conductance by short second laser light pulses, spaced apart in time a determinable period from the first laser light pulses. Electronic filters connected to each of the second PCEs act as low-pass filters and remove parasitic interference from the sampled signals and output the sampled signals in the form of slowed-motion images of the signals on the transmission line. 4 figs.

  2. Development studies of a solid-state d.c. circuit breaker based on the GTO

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kernaghan, William Henry

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    by the arc, will ring with the circuit inductance and can produce transient recovery voltages up to twice the a. c. system voltage level. " This voltage can somewhat be controlled by switching in some resistance across the a. c. interrupter as illustrated... of anode voltage which in turn lessens the turn ? off losses of the GTO because high voltages are delayed until IA has decreased. This implies that the maximum controllable current increases as the 16 capacitance is increased. The snubber resistor must...

  3. Differential ultrafast all-optical switching of the resonances of a micropillar cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thyrrestrup, Henri, E-mail: h.t.nielsen@utwente.nl; Yüce, Emre; Ctistis, Georgios; Vos, Willem L. [Complex Photonic Systems (COPS), MESA Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands); Claudon, Julien; Gérard, Jean-Michel, E-mail: jean-michel.gerard@cea.fr [University Grenoble Alpes, INAC-SP2M, Nanophysics and Semiconductors Lab, F-38000 Grenoble (France); CEA, INAC-SP2M, Nanophysics and Semiconductors Lab, F-38000 Grenoble (France)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We perform frequency- and time-resolved all-optical switching of a GaAs-AlAs micropillar cavity using an ultrafast pump-probe setup. The switching is achieved by two-photon excitation of free carriers. We track the cavity resonances in time with a high frequency resolution. The pillar modes exhibit simultaneous frequency shifts, albeit with markedly different maximum switching amplitudes and relaxation dynamics. These differences stem from the non-uniformity of the free carrier density in the micropillar, and are well understood by taking into account the spatial distribution of injected free carriers, their spatial diffusion and surface recombination at micropillar sidewalls.

  4. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crosette, Dario B. (DeSoto, TX)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination.

  5. Switch for serial or parallel communication networks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crosette, D.B.

    1994-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A communication switch apparatus and a method for use in a geographically extensive serial, parallel or hybrid communication network linking a multi-processor or parallel processing system has a very low software processing overhead in order to accommodate random burst of high density data. Associated with each processor is a communication switch. A data source and a data destination, a sensor suite or robot for example, may also be associated with a switch. The configuration of the switches in the network are coordinated through a master processor node and depends on the operational phase of the multi-processor network: data acquisition, data processing, and data exchange. The master processor node passes information on the state to be assumed by each switch to the processor node associated with the switch. The processor node then operates a series of multi-state switches internal to each communication switch. The communication switch does not parse and interpret communication protocol and message routing information. During a data acquisition phase, the communication switch couples sensors producing data to the processor node associated with the switch, to a downlink destination on the communications network, or to both. It also may couple an uplink data source to its processor node. During the data exchange phase, the switch couples its processor node or an uplink data source to a downlink destination (which may include a processor node or a robot), or couples an uplink source to its processor node and its processor node to a downlink destination. 9 figs.

  6. Hygroscopic Fine Mode Particle Deposition on Electronic Circuits and Resulting Degradation of Circuit Performance: An Experimental Study

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Litvak, A.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    electronic components, circuits, and spacing between adjacent conductors continues to get smaller ; degradation of circuit reliability

  7. Tunable circuit for tunable capacitor devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rivkina, Tatiana; Ginley, David S.

    2006-09-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A tunable circuit (10) for a capacitively tunable capacitor device (12) is provided. The tunable circuit (10) comprises a tunable circuit element (14) and a non-tunable dielectric element (16) coupled to the tunable circuit element (16). A tunable capacitor device (12) and a method for increasing the figure of merit in a tunable capacitor device (12) are also provided.

  8. Electronic circuit implementation of chaos synchronization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ravi Ranjan; Shivshankar Mishra; Suneel Madhekar

    2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, an electronic circuit implementation of a robustly chaotic two-dimensional map is presented. Two such electronic circuits are realized. One of the circuits is configured as the driver and the other circuit is configured as the driven system. Synchronization of chaos between the driver and the driven system is demonstrated.

  9. NPTEL Syllabus Basic Electrical Circuits -Video course

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krishnapura, Nagendra

    with an introduction to basic linear elements used in electrical circuits. Mesh and node analysis for systematic analysis of large circuits will be studied. Fundamental circuit theorems and their use in analysis steady state analysis for simple analysis of such circuits will be studied. The concepts of power

  10. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1996-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules. 5 figs.

  11. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-power power supply produces a controllable, constant high voltage put under varying and arcing loads. The power supply includes a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module, and a current sensor for sensing output current. The power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle and circuitry is provided for sensing incipient arc currents at the output of the power supply to simultaneously decouple the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. The power supply includes a plurality of discrete switching type dc--dc converter modules.

  12. Secure videoconferencing equipment switching system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, Michael E. (Livermore, CA)

    2009-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A switching system and method are provided to facilitate use of videoconference facilities over a plurality of security levels. The system includes a switch coupled to a plurality of codecs and communication networks. Audio/Visual peripheral components are connected to the switch. The switch couples control and data signals between the Audio/Visual peripheral components and one but nor both of the plurality of codecs. The switch additionally couples communication networks of the appropriate security level to each of the codecs. In this manner, a videoconferencing facility is provided for use on both secure and non-secure networks.

  13. Reverse engineering of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chisholm, Gregory H. (Shorewood, IL); Eckmann, Steven T. (Colorado Springs, CO); Lain, Christopher M. (Pittsburgh, PA); Veroff, Robert L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Software and a method therein to analyze circuits. The software comprises several tools, each of which perform particular functions in the Reverse Engineering process. The analyst, through a standard interface, directs each tool to the portion of the task to which it is most well suited, rendering previously intractable problems solvable. The tools are generally used iteratively to produce a successively more abstract picture of a circuit, about which incomplete a priori knowledge exists.

  14. Large aperture optical switching devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goldhar, J.; Henesian, M.A.

    1983-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We have developed a new approach to constructing large aperture optical switches for next generation inertial confinement fusion lasers. A transparent plasma electrode formed in low pressure ionized gas acts as a conductive coating to allow the uniform charging of the optical faces of an electro-optic material. In this manner large electric fields can be applied longitudinally to large aperture, high aspect ratio Pockels cells. We propose a four-electrode geometry to create the necessary high conductivity plasma sheets, and have demonstrated fast (less than 10 nsec) switching in a 5x5 cm aperture KD*P Pockels cell with such a design. Detaid modelling of Pockels cell performance with plasma electrodes has been carried out for 15 and 30 cm aperture designs.

  15. Switch for Good Community Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Tabitha; Amran, Martha

    2013-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

    Switch4Good is an energy-savings program that helps residents reduce consumption from behavior changes; it was co-developed by Balfour Beatty Military Housing Management (BB) and WattzOn in Phase I of this grant. The program was offered at 11 Navy bases. Three customer engagement strategies were evaluated, and it was found that Digital Nudges (a combination of monthly consumption statements with frequent messaging via text or email) was most cost-effective.

  16. Fast superconducting magnetic field switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goren, Yehuda (Mountain View, CA); Mahale, Narayan K. (The Woodlands, TX)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The superconducting magnetic switch or fast kicker magnet is employed with electron stream or a bunch of electrons to rapidly change the direction of flow of the electron stream or bunch of electrons. The apparatus employs a beam tube which is coated with a film of superconducting material. The tube is cooled to a temperature below the superconducting transition temperature and is subjected to a constant magnetic field which is produced by an external dc magnet. The magnetic field produced by the dc magnet is less than the critical field for the superconducting material, thus, creating a Meissner Effect condition. A controllable fast electromagnet is used to provide a magnetic field which supplements that of the dc magnet so that when the fast magnet is energized the combined magnetic field is now greater that the critical field and the superconducting material returns to its normal state allowing the magnetic field to penetrate the tube. This produces an internal field which effects the direction of motion and of the electron stream or electron bunch. The switch can also operate as a switching mechanism for charged particles.

  17. Ionic field effect and memristive phenomena in single-point ferroelectric domain switching

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ievlev, Anton [ORNL] [ORNL; Morozovska, A. N. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Eliseev, E. A. [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine] [National Academy of Science of Ukraine, Kiev, Ukraine; Shur, Vladimir Ya. [Ural Federal University, Russia] [Ural Federal University, Russia; Kalinin, Sergei V [ORNL] [ORNL

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Electric field induced polarization switching underpins most functional applications of ferroelectric materials in information technology, materials science, and optoelectronics. In the last 20 years, much attention has been focused on the switching of individual domains using scanning probe microscopy, both as model of ferroelectric data storage and approach to explore fundamental physics of ferroelectric switching. The classical picture of tip induced switching includes formation of cylindrical domain oriented along the tip field, with the domain size is largely determined by the tip-induced field distribution and domain wall motion kinetics. The polarization screening is recognized as a necessary precondition to the stability of ferroelectric phase; however, screening processes are generally considered to be uniformly efficient and not leading to changes in switching behavior. Here, we demonstrate that single-point tip-induced polarization switching can give rise to a surprisingly broad range of domain morphologies, including radial and angular instabilities. These behaviors are traced to the surface screening charge dynamics, which in some cases can even give rise to anomalous switching against the electric field (ionic field effect). The implications of these behaviors for ferroelectric materials and devices are discussed.

  18. Circuits & Systems Test Circuits for Characterization of Process, Device, and Interconnect Variation ................................................................................. CS.1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reif, Rafael

    Circuits & Systems Test Circuits for Characterization of Process, Device, and Interconnect................................................................................................. CS.2 45nm Direct-battery DC-DC Converter for Mobile Applications

  19. Synchronization of Networked Jahn-Teller Systems in Circuit QED

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yusuf Gul

    2014-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the nonlinear e?ects in Jahn-Teller system of two coupled resonators interacting simultaneously with ux qubit using Circuit QED. Two frequency description of Jahn Teller system that inherits the networked structure of both nonlinear Josephson Junctions and harmonic oscillators is employed to describe the synchronous structures in multifrequency scheme. Emergence of dominating mode is investigated to analyze frequency locking by eigenvalue spectrum. Rabi Supersplitting and asymmetry of side peaks in power spectrum is tuned for coupled and uncoupled synchronous con?gurations in terms of frequency entrainment switched by coupling strength between resonators. Second order coherence functions are employed to investigate self-sustained oscillations in resonator mode and qubit dephasing. Snychronous structure between correlations of priviledged mode and qubit is obtained in localization-delocalization and photon blockade regime controlled by the population imbalance.

  20. Apparatus and method for defect testing of integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Soden, J.M.

    2000-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for defect and failure-mechanism testing of integrated circuits (ICs) is disclosed. The apparatus provides an operating voltage, V(DD), to an IC under test and measures a transient voltage component, V(DDT), signal that is produced in response to switching transients that occur as test vectors are provided as inputs to the IC. The amplitude or time delay of the V(DDT) signal can be used to distinguish between defective and defect-free (i.e. known good) ICs. The V(DDT) signal is measured with a transient digitizer, a digital oscilloscope, or with an IC tester that is also used to input the test vectors to the IC. The present invention has applications for IC process development, for the testing of ICs during manufacture, and for qualifying ICs for reliability.

  1. Apparatus and method for defect testing of integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM); Soden, Jerry M. (Placitas, NM)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method for defect and failure-mechanism testing of integrated circuits (ICs) is disclosed. The apparatus provides an operating voltage, V.sub.DD, to an IC under test and measures a transient voltage component, V.sub.DDT, signal that is produced in response to switching transients that occur as test vectors are provided as inputs to the IC. The amplitude or time delay of the V.sub.DDT signal can be used to distinguish between defective and defect-free (i.e. known good) ICs. The V.sub.DDT signal is measured with a transient digitizer, a digital oscilloscope, or with an IC tester that is also used to input the test vectors to the IC. The present invention has applications for IC process development, for the testing of ICs during manufacture, and for qualifying ICs for reliability.

  2. Nuclear sensor signal processing circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kallenbach, Gene A. (Bosque Farms, NM); Noda, Frank T. (Albuquerque, NM); Mitchell, Dean J. (Tijeras, NM); Etzkin, Joshua L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-02-20T23:59:59.000Z

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for a compact and temperature-insensitive nuclear sensor that can be calibrated with a non-hazardous radioactive sample. The nuclear sensor includes a gamma ray sensor that generates tail pulses from radioactive samples. An analog conditioning circuit conditions the tail-pulse signals from the gamma ray sensor, and a tail-pulse simulator circuit generates a plurality of simulated tail-pulse signals. A computer system processes the tail pulses from the gamma ray sensor and the simulated tail pulses from the tail-pulse simulator circuit. The nuclear sensor is calibrated under the control of the computer. The offset is adjusted using the simulated tail pulses. Since the offset is set to zero or near zero, the sensor gain can be adjusted with a non-hazardous radioactive source such as, for example, naturally occurring radiation and potassium chloride.

  3. Vertically Integrated Circuits at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deptuch, Grzegorz; Demarteau, Marcel; Hoff, James; Lipton, Ronald; Shenai, Alpana; Trimpl, Marcel; Yarema, Raymond; Zimmerman, Tom; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The exploration of the vertically integrated circuits, also commonly known as 3D-IC technology, for applications in radiation detection started at Fermilab in 2006. This paper examines the opportunities that vertical integration offers by looking at various 3D designs that have been completed by Fermilab. The emphasis is on opportunities that are presented by through silicon vias (TSV), wafer and circuit thinning and finally fusion bonding techniques to replace conventional bump bonding. Early work by Fermilab has led to an international consortium for the development of 3D-IC circuits for High Energy Physics. The consortium has submitted over 25 different designs for the Fermilab organized MPW run organized for the first time.

  4. A magnetically switched kicker for proton extraction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dinkel, J.; Biggs, J.

    1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The application of magnetic current amplification and switching techniques to the generation of precise high current pulses for switching magnets is described. The square loop characteristic of Metglas tape wound cores at high excitation levels provides excellent switching characteristics for microsecond pulses. The rugged and passive nature of this type pulser makes it possible to locate the final stages of amplification at the load for maximum efficiency. 12 refs., 8 figs.

  5. Fermionic Models with Superconducting Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. Las Heras; L. García-Álvarez; A. Mezzacapo; E. Solano; L. Lamata

    2015-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method for the efficient quantum simulation of fermionic systems with superconducting circuits. It consists in the suitable use of Jordan-Wigner mapping, Trotter decomposition, and multiqubit gates, be with the use of a quantum bus or direct capacitive couplings. We apply our method to the paradigmatic cases of 1D and 2D Fermi-Hubbard models, involving couplings with nearest and next-nearest neighbours. Furthermore, we propose an optimal architecture for this model and discuss the benchmarking of the simulations in realistic circuit quantum electrodynamics setups.

  6. Fermionic Models with Superconducting Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    U. Las Heras; L. García-Álvarez; A. Mezzacapo; E. Solano; L. Lamata

    2014-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a method for the efficient quantum simulation of fermionic systems with superconducting circuits. It consists in the suitable use of Jordan-Wigner mapping, Trotter decomposition, and multiqubit gates, be with the use of a quantum bus or direct capacitive couplings. We apply our method to the paradigmatic cases of 1D and 2D Fermi-Hubbard models, involving couplings with nearest and next-nearest neighbours. Furthermore, we propose an optimal architecture for this model and discuss the benchmarking of the simulations in realistic circuit quantum electrodynamics setups.

  7. A Solid-State Nanosecond Beam Kicker Modulator Based on the DSRD Switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akre, R.; Benwell, A.; Burkhart, C.; Krasnykh, A.; Tang, T.; /SLAC; Kardo-Sysoev, A.; /Ioffe Phys. Tech. Inst.

    2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A fast solid-state beam kicker modulator is under development at the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory. The program goal is to develop a modulator that will deliver 4 ns, {+-}5 kV pulses to the ATF2 damping ring beam extraction kicker. The kicker is a 50 {Omega}, bipolar strip line, 60 cm long, fed at the downstream end and terminated at the upstream end. The bunch spacing in the ring is 5.6 ns, bunches are removed from the back end of the train, and there is a gap of 103.6 ns before the next train. The modulator design is based on an opening switch topology that uses Drift Step Recovery Diodes as the opening switches. The design and results of the modulator development are discussed. There are many applications that benefit from very fast high power switching. However, at MW power levels and nanosecond time scales, solid state options are limited. One option, the Drift Step Recovery Diode (DSRD) has been demonstrated as capable of blocking thousands of volts and switching in nanosecond to sub-nanosecond ranges. When used as an opening switch, the DSRD exhibits a very fast turn off transient. The process is described in detail by its pioneers in [5,6]. In essence, charge is pumped into and then extracted from the DSRD under pulsed conditions. The turn off transient occurs precisely when the pumped charge is equal to the extracted charge and the DSRD is switched off. At the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, a DSRD is being used as an opening switch in the development of a fast kicker modulator. The modulator is designed to create {+-}5kV pulses with <1ns rise and fall time on a 50{Omega} strip line kicker. As is common in beam optics, the absence of power in the kicker before and after the pulse is very important. The entire {+-}5kV kicker modulator is composed of two identical 5kV pulsing circuits, each with its own DSRD component. This paper describes the modulator topology and the status of tests on one of the two 5kV pulse circuits.

  8. Multi-megavolt low jitter multistage switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, D.R.; Penn, K.J. Jr.

    1985-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

    It is one object of the present invention to provide a multistage switch capable of holding off numerous megavolts, until triggered, from a particle beam accelerator of the type used for inertial confinement fusion. The invention provides a multistage switch having low timing jitter and capable of producing multiple spark channels for spreading current over a wider area to reduce electrode damage and increase switch lifetime. The switch has fairly uniform electric fields and a short spark gap for laser triggering and is engineered to prevent insulator breakdowns.

  9. High-index-contrast electromechanical optical switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryant, Reginald (Reginald Eugene), 1978-

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    System developers are looking to replace protocol-dependent, bandwidth-limited optical networks with intelligent optically-transparent integrated photonic networks. Several electromechanical optical switches are explored ...

  10. Multichannel microwave interferometer with an antenna switching system for electron density measurement in a laboratory plasma experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kawamori, Eiichirou; Lin, Yu-Hsiang [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)] [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Mase, Atsushi [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan)] [Art, Science and Technology Center for Cooperative Research, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Nishida, Yasushi; Cheng, C. Z. [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China) [Institute of Space and Plasma Sciences, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); Plasma and Space Science Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This study presents a simple and powerful technique for multichannel measurements of the density profile in laboratory plasmas by microwave interferometry. This technique uses electromechanical microwave switches to temporally switch the connection between multiple receiver antennas and one phase-detection circuit. Using this method, the phase information detected at different positions is rearranged into a time series that can be acquired from a minimum number of data acquisition channels (e.g., two channels in the case of quadrature detection). Our successfully developed multichannel microwave interferometer that uses the antenna switching method was applied to measure the radial electron density profiles in a magnetized plasma experiment. The advantage of the proposed method is its compactness and scalability to multidimensional measurement systems at low cost.

  11. Multiprocessor switch with selective pairing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gara, Alan; Gschwind, Michael K; Salapura, Valentina

    2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    System, method and computer program product for a multiprocessing system to offer selective pairing of processor cores for increased processing reliability. A selective pairing facility is provided that selectively connects, i.e., pairs, multiple microprocessor or processor cores to provide one highly reliable thread (or thread group). Each paired microprocessor or processor cores that provide one highly reliable thread for high-reliability connect with a system components such as a memory "nest" (or memory hierarchy), an optional system controller, and optional interrupt controller, optional I/O or peripheral devices, etc. The memory nest is attached to a selective pairing facility via a switch or a bus

  12. Optical switching system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ranganathan, Radha (N. Tonawanda, NY); Gal, Michael (Engadine, AU); Taylor, P. Craig (Salt Lake City, UT)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optically bistable device is disclosed. The device includes a uniformly thick layer of amorphous silicon to constitute a Fabry-Perot chamber positioned to provide a target area for a probe beam. The probe beam has a maximum energy less than the energy band gap of the amorphous semiconductor. In a preferred embodiment, a multilayer dielectric mirror is positioned on the Fabry-Perot chamber to increase the finesse of switching of the device. The index of refraction of the amorphous material is thermally altered to alter the transmission of the probe beam.

  13. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, Martin S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-repetition rate switch for delivering short duration, high-power electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  14. Laser-triggered vacuum switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brannon, Paul J. (Albuquerque, NM); Cowgill, Donald F. (Danville, CA)

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laser-triggered vacuum switch has a material such as a alkali metal halide on the cathode electrode for thermally activated field emission of electrons and ions upon interaction with a laser beam, the material being in contact with the cathode with a surface facing the discharge gap. The material is preferably a mixture of KCl and Ti powders. The laser may either shine directly on the material, preferably through a hole in the anode, or be directed to the material over a fiber optic cable.

  15. Microwave-triggered laser switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Piltch, M.S.

    1982-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A high-repetition rate switch is described for delivering short duration, high-powered electrical pulses from a pulsed-charged dc power supply. The present invention utilizes a microwave-generating device such as a magnetron that is capable of producing high-power pulses at high-pulse repetition rates and fast-pulse risetimes for long periods with high reliability. The rail-gap electrodes provide a large surface area that reduces induction effects and minimizes electrode erosion. Additionally, breakdown is initiated in a continuous geometric fashion that also increases operating lifetime of the device.

  16. Switch LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page onYou are now leaving Energy.gov You are now leaving Energy.gov YouKizildere IRaghuraji Agro Industries PvtStratosolar Jump to:Holdings Co08.0 - Warehouses 73.0 -SwiftSwissvale,Switch LLC

  17. Statistical physics of a model binary genetic switch with linear feedback

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paolo Visco; Rosalind J. Allen; Martin R. Evans

    2009-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the statistical properties of a simple genetic regulatory network that provides heterogeneity within a population of cells. This network consists of a binary genetic switch in which stochastic flipping between the two switch states is mediated by a "flipping" enzyme. Feedback between the switch state and the flipping rate is provided by a linear feedback mechanism: the flipping enzyme is only produced in the on switch state and the switching rate depends linearly on the copy number of the enzyme. This work generalises the model of [Phys. Rev. Lett., 101, 118104] to a broader class of linear feedback systems. We present a complete analytical solution for the steady-state statistics of the number of enzyme molecules in the on and off states, for the general case where the enzyme can mediate flipping in either direction. For this general case we also solve for the flip time distribution, making a connection to first passage and persistence problems in statistical physics. We show that the statistics of the model are non-Poissonian, leading to a peak in the flip time distribution. The occurrence of such a peak is analysed as a function of the parameter space. We present a new relation between the flip time distributions measured for two relevant choices of initial condition. We also introduce a new correlation measure to show that this model can exhibit long-lived temporal correlations, thus providing a primitive form of cellular memory. Motivated by DNA replication as well as by evolutionary mechanisms involving gene duplication, we study the case of two switches in the same cell. This results in correlations between the two switches; these can either positive or negative depending on the parameter regime.

  18. Droop Compensation with soft Switching for High Voltage Converter Modulator (HVCM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bland, Michael [University of Nottingham; Scheinker, Alexander [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clare, Jon [University of Nottingham; Watson, Alan [University of Nottingham; Ji, Chao [University of Nottingham; Reass, William [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    High Voltage Converter Modulators (HVCM) offer significant performance advantages over conventional modulator technologies for long pulse applications. One of the key advantages of HVCM technology is the ability to compensate for capacitor bank voltage droop. Achieving droop compensation without incurring significant additional switching loss has not been possible in existing designs. This paper presents an analysis of the 'Y-point' variant of the HVCM topology using the Combined Phase and Frequency Modulation (CPFM) technique. This, combined with the addition of a 'lossless' snubber circuit, enables droop compensation while achieving soft switching over the entire pulse duration. The rise time and overshoot of the output voltage pulse is optimized using an iterative extreme seeking algorithm. The optimization reduces the rise time from 100 {micro}s to 50 {micro}s with no overshoot. This will lead to an increase in overall accelerator efficiency.

  19. A compact plasmonic MOS-based 2x2 electro-optic switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ye, Chenran; Soref, Richard A; Sorger, Volker J

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We report on a three-waveguide electro-optic switch for compact photonic integrated circuits and data routing applications. The device features a plasmonic metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) mode for enhanced light-matter-interactions. The switching mechanism originates from a capacitor-like design where the refractive index of the active medium, Indium-Tin-Oxide, is altered via shifting the plasma frequency due to carrier accumulation inside the waveguide-based MOS structure. This light manipulation mechanism controls the transmission direction of transverse magnetic polarized light into either a CROSS or BAR waveguide port. The extinction ratio of 18 dB (7) dB for the CROSS (BAR) state, respectively, is achieved via a gating voltage bias. The ultrafast broadband fJ/bit device allows for seamless integration with Siliconon- Insulator platforms to for low-cost manufacturing.

  20. Post regulation circuit with energy storage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA); Birx, Daniel L. (Oakley, CA); Cook, Edward G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply and provides energy storage. The charge regulation circuit according to the present invention provides energy storage without unnecessary dissipation of energy through a resistor as in prior art approaches.

  1. Circuit Optimization Using Efficient Parallel Pattern Search

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasimhan, Srinath S.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Circuit optimization is extremely important in order to design today's high performance integrated circuits. As systems become more and more complex, traditional optimization techniques are no longer viable due to the complex and simulation...

  2. ECE 2100 Circuit Analysis NAME: ________________________________________________

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Damon A.

    ECE 2100 Circuit Analysis Fall 2011 Exam #1 NAME Schematics drawn using LTspice IV (linear.com). Some problems might be adapted from the course text Schematics drawn using LTspice IV (linear.com). Some problems might be adapted from the course text

  3. Analysis and design of reliable nanometer circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Chong

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    methodology is the key first step toward design of low-cost, highly robust nanometer circuit systems. Soft

  4. Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics with Electrons on Helium

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics with Electrons on Helium A Dissertation Presented to the Faculty Fragner All rights reserved. ii #12;Abstract Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics with Electrons on Helium helium. Such a system represents a solid-state, electrical circuit analog of atomic cavity QED in which

  5. Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berzins, M.

    Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits Science teaching unit #12;Disclaimer The Department-2008DVD-EN Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits #12;#12;© Crown copyright 2008 1The National Strategies | Secondary Voltage, energy and power in electric circuits 00094-2008DVD-EN Contents Voltage

  6. access circuit design: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7 Multilayer Ceramic Integrated Circuits (MCICs) Technology and Passive Circuit Design Computer Technologies and Information Sciences Websites Summary: Multilayer Ceramic...

  7. Ames Lab 101: Ultrafast Magnetic Switching

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jigang Wang

    2013-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

    Ames Laboratory physicists have found a new way to switch magnetism that is at least 1000 times faster than currently used in magnetic memory technologies. Magnetic switching is used to encode information in hard drives, magnetic random access memory and other computing devices. The discovery potentially opens the door to terahertz and faster memory speeds.

  8. PBC: A Partially Buffered Crossbar Packet Switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuzmanov, Georgi

    fabric is widely used as the interconnect of high-performance packet switches due to its low cost-performance packet switches because of its low cost and scalability. As a result, the vast majority and scalability. There are two main variants of the crossbar fabric: unbuffered and internally buffered. On one

  9. Asynchronous vs Synchronous Input-Queued Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of high-performance switches. 1 INTRODUCTION A vast technical literature exists on input-queued (IQ to performance losses in comparison with synchronous cell switching, these losses are limited, and may be smaller than the losses due to the above-mentioned segmenta- tion/reassembly overheads. In real scenarios

  10. The Generalized Switched Accounting or Conduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Generalized Switched Accounting or Conduction Isaac Zafrany1 1 Technical Support Avant modeling and simulation of PWM converters was extended to include conduction losses. The method covers losses due to the inductor's resistance and due to the voltage drops across the switch and the diode

  11. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harben, Philip E. (Oakley, CA); Rodgers, Peter W. (Santa Barbara, CA); Ewert, Daniel W. (Patterson, CA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A seismic switching device that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period.

  12. Seismic switch for strong motion measurement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harben, P.E.; Rodgers, P.W.; Ewert, D.W.

    1995-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A seismic switching device is described that has an input signal from an existing microseismic station seismometer and a signal from a strong motion measuring instrument. The seismic switch monitors the signal level of the strong motion instrument and passes the seismometer signal to the station data telemetry and recording systems. When the strong motion instrument signal level exceeds a user set threshold level, the seismometer signal is switched out and the strong motion signal is passed to the telemetry system. The amount of time the strong motion signal is passed before switching back to the seismometer signal is user controlled between 1 and 15 seconds. If the threshold level is exceeded during a switch time period, the length of time is extended from that instant by one user set time period. 11 figs.

  13. Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Poster presentation given at the 16th Directions in...

  14. Robust Diamond-Based RF Switch Yields Enhanced Communication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Robust Diamond-Based RF Switch Yields Enhanced Communication Capabilities Technology available for licesning: A radio frequency (RF) microelectromechanical system (MEMS) switch...

  15. Dynamic Switching of the Spin Circulation in Tapered Magnetic...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dynamic Switching of the Spin Circulation in Tapered Magnetic Nanodisks Dynamic Switching of the Spin Circulation in Tapered Magnetic Nanodisks Print Monday, 22 April 2013 12:09...

  16. Flipping the switch on magnetism in strontium titanate

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Flipping the switch on magnetism in strontium titanate Flipping the switch on magnetism in strontium titanate Researchers have found a way to magnetize this material using light,...

  17. Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book Switch on Clean Energy Activity Book Games and activity book about energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies for kids....

  18. Critical analysis and remedy of switching failures in straintronic logic using Bennett clocking in the presence of thermal fluctuations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roy, Kuntal, E-mail: royk@purdue.edu [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)] [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Straintronic logic is a promising platform for beyond Moore's law computing. Using Bennett clocking mechanism, information can propagate through an array of strain-mediated multiferroic nanomagnets, exploiting the dipolar coupling between the magnets without having to physically interconnect them. Here, we perform a critical analysis of switching failures, i.e., error in information propagation due to thermal fluctuations through a chain of such straintronic devices. We solved stochastic Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation considering room-temperature thermal perturbations and show that magnetization switching may fail due to inherent magnetization dynamics accompanied by thermally broadened switching delay distribution. Avenues available to circumvent such issue are proposed.

  19. 1166 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY 2005 Design Analysis and Circuit Enhancements for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Long, Stephen I.

    1166 IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 40, NO. 5, MAY 2005 Design Analysis and Circuit from the layout in an analysis, see [6]. A. Open Circuit Time Constants The method of open circuit time finds exactly the value of for a linear circuit (corre- sponding to the dominant pole in the circuit

  20. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinkraus, Jr., Robert F. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current.

  1. Ionization tube simmer current circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Steinkraus, R.F. Jr.

    1994-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A highly efficient flash lamp simmer current circuit utilizes a fifty percent duty cycle square wave pulse generator to pass a current over a current limiting inductor to a full wave rectifier. The DC output of the rectifier is then passed over a voltage smoothing capacitor through a reverse current blocking diode to a flash lamp tube to sustain ionization in the tube between discharges via a small simmer current. An alternate embodiment of the circuit combines the pulse generator and inductor in the form of an FET off line square wave generator with an impedance limited step up output transformer which is then applied to the full wave rectifier as before to yield a similar simmer current. 6 figures.

  2. Hunting Mice with Microsecond Circuit Switches Nathan Farrington, George Porter, Yeshaiahu Fainman, George Papen, Amin Vahdat

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vahdat, Amin

    . While this hybrid approach does reduce CAPEX and OPEX, it still relies on having a well of such hybrid networks is that they provide increased amounts of bisection bandwidth with lower CAPEX and OPEX

  3. Design and testing of a sensorless switched reluctance motor drive with a custom integrated circuit controller

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Yingxia

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    senseless closed-loop speed control method. The SRM phase energizing time has a unique relationship with the rotor speed. By monitoring this time, the controller is able to calculate the actual motor speed and then compare it with the reference speed...

  4. Low Cost RF MEMS Switches Fabricated on Microwave Laminate Printed Circuit Boards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    have been demonstrated with superior performance over conventional semiconductor devices [4. They are normally built on high-resistivity silicon wafers, GaAs wafers, and quartz substrates using semiconductor prior to deposition of a metal membrane bridge, which poses a major challenge to manufacturability

  5. A Switched Decoupling Capacitor Circuit for On-Chip Supply Resonance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chris H.

    by 7dB · More than 8X decap boost for resonant damping #12;12 Simulated First-droop Regulation · Both magnitude and oscillation time are reduced for first-droop noise · 6X+ decap boost compared with passiveA (3X Istatic) 33mA (61X Istatic) Regulator Area 59x20m2 190x220m2 (including 300pF) First Droop

  6. Circuit Theoretic Classification and Performance Comparison of Parallel-Connected Switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tse, Chi K. "Michael"

    and ease of expansion. One basic objective of parallel-connected converters is to share the load current and current-sharing performance, have been proposed in the past two decades [1]. In general, methods, control methods will be systematically introduced to complete the output regulation and current-sharing

  7. Communication delay analysis of fault-tolerant pipelined circuit switching in torus

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safaei, F.; Khonsari, A.; Ould-Khaoua, M.

    Safaei,F. Khonsari,A. Ould-Khaoua,M. Journal of Computer and System Sciences, to appear, 2008, ISSN: 0022-0000. Elsevier Science

  8. Pipelined Circuit Switching: Analysis for the Torus with Non-Uniform Traffic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Safaei, F.; Khonsari, A.; Fathy, M.; Ould-Khaoua, M.

    Safaei,F. Khonsari,A. Fathy,M. Ould-Khaoua,M. Journal of Systems Architecture, to appear Elsevier Science

  9. Photoconductive circuit element pulse generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rauscher, Christen (Alexandria, VA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A pulse generator for characterizing semiconductor devices at millimeter wavelength frequencies where a photoconductive circuit element (PCE) is biased by a direct current voltage source and produces short electrical pulses when excited into conductance by short laser light pulses. The electrical pulses are electronically conditioned to improve the frequency related amplitude characteristics of the pulses which thereafter propagate along a transmission line to a device under test.

  10. Monolithic readout circuits for RHIC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O`Connor, P.; Harder, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Several CMOS ASICs have been developed for a proposed RHIC experiment. This paper discusses why ASIC implementation was chosen for certain functions, circuit specifications and the design techniques used to meet them, and results of simulations and early prototypes. By working closely together from an early stage in the planning process, in-house ASIC designers and detector and data acquisition experimenters can achieve optimal use of this important technology.

  11. Online circuit breaker monitoring system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djekic, Zarko

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    of Department, Costas N. Georghiades December 2007 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Online Circuit Breaker Monitoring System. (December 2007) Zarko Djekic, B.S., University of Novi Sad, Serbia Chair of Advisory..., this work would not be possible. I would also like to thank the members of my committee, Dr. Chanan Singh, Dr. Sunil Khatri and Dr. William Lively for their advice and patience. Special thanks also go to Center Point Energy personnel Don Sevcik and John...

  12. Online circuit breaker monitoring system

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Djekic, Zarko

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    of Department, Costas N. Georghiades December 2007 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering iii ABSTRACT Online Circuit Breaker Monitoring System. (December 2007) Zarko Djekic, B.S., University of Novi Sad, Serbia Chair of Advisory..., this work would not be possible. I would also like to thank the members of my committee, Dr. Chanan Singh, Dr. Sunil Khatri and Dr. William Lively for their advice and patience. Special thanks also go to Center Point Energy personnel Don Sevcik and John...

  13. Coordination and Lock-In: Competition with Switching Costs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sadoulet, Elisabeth

    Coordination and Lock-In: Competition with Switching Costs and Network E ects Part II of IV Switching Costs Section December 2004 the latest version of this paper, and related material, will be at www Switching Costs and Competition 2.1 Introduction A consumer faces a switching cost between sellers when

  14. Theory and inference for a Markov switching GARCH model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nesterov, Yurii

    2007/55 Theory and inference for a Markov switching GARCH model Luc Bauwens, Arie Preminger and Jeroen V.K. Rombouts #12;CORE DISCUSSION PAPER 2007/55 Theory and inference for a Markov switching GARCH-switching GARCH model (MS-GARCH) wherein the conditional mean and variance switch in time from one GARCH process

  15. Optimal control of controllable switched systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rinehart, Michael David

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Many of the existing techniques for controlling switched systems either require the solution to a complex optimization problem or significant sacrifices to either stability or performance to offer practical controllers. ...

  16. Value iteration for (switched) homogeneous systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dahleh, Munther A.

    In this note, we prove that dynamic programming value iteration converges uniformly for discrete-time homogeneous systems and continuous-time switched homogeneous systems. For discrete-time homogeneous systems, rather than ...

  17. Clause chaining, switch reference and coordination

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nonato, Rafael

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis I ponder over a constellation of phenomena that revolve around switch reference and coordination, drawing mainly on their instantiation in Kisedje (Je, Brazil). I start by investigating Klsedje's case system. ...

  18. Monetary Interventions in Crowdsourcing Task Switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chen, Yiling

    intervention treatments No Bonus Switch Bonus Repetition Bonus × 15 experimental ­ Accuracy ­ Innately compete with each other · Performance-contingent bonuses ­ Receive bonus in a task if the answer is correct and the reaction time

  19. Industrial Fuel Switching - Emerging NGL Opportunities 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cascone, R.

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    INDUSTRIAL FUEL SWITCHING - EMERGING NGL OPPORTUNITIES Ron Cascone Manager Special Projects, Utilities and Environmental Nexant, Inc. White Plains, NY ABSTRACT Removing butanes and pentanes from gasoline to meet local... feedstocks, convert them to alternative fuels, or sell them as heating fuels. Industrial fuel users can switch from fuel oil, natural gas or LPG for short periods to these clean and/or more economic fuels. Current regulations will necessitate removing...

  20. Monitoring transients in low inductance circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guilford, R.P.; Rosborough, J.R.

    1985-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    The instant invention relates to methods of and apparatus for monitoring transients in low inductance circuits and to a probe utilized to practice said method and apparatus. More particularly, the instant invention relates to methods of and apparatus for monitoring low inductance circuits, wherein the low inductance circuits include a pair of flat cable transmission lines. The instant invention is further directed to a probe for use in monitoring pairs of flat cable transmission lines.

  1. Printed circuit dispersive transmission line

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; DeGrassie, J.S.

    1991-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A printed circuit dispersive transmission line structure is disclosed comprising an insulator, a ground plane formed on one surface of the insulator, a first transmission line formed on a second surface of the insulator, and a second transmission line also formed on the second surface of the insulator and of longer length than the first transmission line and periodically intersecting the first transmission line. In a preferred embodiment, the transmission line structure exhibits highly dispersive characteristics by designing the length of one of the transmission line between two adjacent periodic intersections to be longer than the other. 5 figures.

  2. Polysilicon photoconductor for integrated circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, R.B.; Bowman, D.R.

    1989-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A photoconductive element of polycrystalline silicon is provided with intrinsic response time which does not limit overall circuit response. An undoped polycrystalline silicon layer is deposited by LPCVD to a selected thickness on silicon dioxide. The deposited polycrystalline silicon is then annealed at a selected temperature and for a time effective to obtain crystal sizes effective to produce an enhanced current output. The annealed polycrystalline layer is subsequently exposed and damaged by ion implantation to a damage factor effective to obtain a fast photoconductive response. 6 figs.

  3. Circuit analysis of quantum measurement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuji Kurotani; Masahito Ueda

    2006-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a circuit theory that enables us to analyze quantum measurements on a two-level system and on a continuous-variable system on an equal footing. As a measurement scheme applicable to both systems, we discuss a swapping state measurement which exchanges quantum states between the system and the measuring apparatus before the apparatus meter is read out. This swapping state measurement has an advantage in gravitational-wave detection over contractive state measurement in that the postmeasurement state of the system can be set to a prescribed one, regardless of the outcome of the measurement.

  4. Hybrid stretchable circuits on silicone substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robinson, A., E-mail: adam.1.robinson@nokia.com; Aziz, A., E-mail: a.aziz1@lancaster.ac.uk [Nanoscience Centre, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB01FF (United Kingdom); Liu, Q.; Suo, Z. [School of Engineering and Applied Sciences and Kavli Institute for Bionano Science and Technology, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States); Lacour, S. P., E-mail: stephanie.lacour@epfl.ch [Centre for Neuroprosthetics and Laboratory for Soft Bioelectronics Interfaces, School of Engineering, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Lausanne 1015 (Switzerland)

    2014-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

    When rigid and stretchable components are integrated onto a single elastic carrier substrate, large strain heterogeneities appear in the vicinity of the deformable-non-deformable interfaces. In this paper, we report on a generic approach to manufacture hybrid stretchable circuits where commercial electronic components can be mounted on a stretchable circuit board. Similar to printed circuit board development, the components are electrically bonded on the elastic substrate and interconnected with stretchable electrical traces. The substrate—a silicone matrix carrying concentric rigid disks—ensures both the circuit elasticity and the mechanical integrity of the most fragile materials.

  5. Superior model for fault tolerance computation in designing nano-sized circuit systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singh, N. S. S., E-mail: narinderjit@petronas.com.my; Muthuvalu, M. S., E-mail: msmuthuvalu@gmail.com [Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia); Asirvadam, V. S., E-mail: vijanth-sagayan@petronas.com.my [Electrical and Electronics Engineering Department, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak (Malaysia)

    2014-10-24T23:59:59.000Z

    As CMOS technology scales nano-metrically, reliability turns out to be a decisive subject in the design methodology of nano-sized circuit systems. As a result, several computational approaches have been developed to compute and evaluate reliability of desired nano-electronic circuits. The process of computing reliability becomes very troublesome and time consuming as the computational complexity build ups with the desired circuit size. Therefore, being able to measure reliability instantly and superiorly is fast becoming necessary in designing modern logic integrated circuits. For this purpose, the paper firstly looks into the development of an automated reliability evaluation tool based on the generalization of Probabilistic Gate Model (PGM) and Boolean Difference-based Error Calculator (BDEC) models. The Matlab-based tool allows users to significantly speed-up the task of reliability analysis for very large number of nano-electronic circuits. Secondly, by using the developed automated tool, the paper explores into a comparative study involving reliability computation and evaluation by PGM and, BDEC models for different implementations of same functionality circuits. Based on the reliability analysis, BDEC gives exact and transparent reliability measures, but as the complexity of the same functionality circuits with respect to gate error increases, reliability measure by BDEC tends to be lower than the reliability measure by PGM. The lesser reliability measure by BDEC is well explained in this paper using distribution of different signal input patterns overtime for same functionality circuits. Simulation results conclude that the reliability measure by BDEC depends not only on faulty gates but it also depends on circuit topology, probability of input signals being one or zero and also probability of error on signal lines.

  6. Thermionic switched self-actuating reactor shutdown system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barrus, Donald M. (San Jose, CA); Shires, Charles D. (San Jose, CA); Brummond, William A. (Livermore, CA)

    1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A self-actuating reactor shutdown system incorporating a thermionic switched electromagnetic latch arrangement which is responsive to reactor neutron flux changes and to reactor coolant temperature changes. The system is self-actuating in that the sensing thermionic device acts directly to release (scram) the control rod (absorber) without reference or signal from the main reactor plant protective and control systems. To be responsive to both temperature and neutron flux effects, two detectors are used, one responsive to reactor coolant temperatures, and the other responsive to reactor neutron flux increase. The detectors are incorporated into a thermionic diode connected electrically with an electromagnetic mechanism which under normal reactor operating conditions holds the the control rod in its ready position (exterior of the reactor core). Upon reaching either a specified temperature or neutron flux, the thermionic diode functions to short-circuit the electromagnetic mechanism causing same to lose its holding power and release the control rod, which drops into the reactor core region under gravitational force.

  7. Step Response of an RLC Circuit ECE 2100 Circuit Analysis Laboratory

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Damon A.

    Step Response of an RLC Circuit ECE 2100 Circuit Analysis Laboratory updated 8 January 2008 Pre of a function generator. As in the RC step response lab, this voltage source will be used to apply a voltage step to the RLC circuit. 1. Find , 0, d, and vC(t) for R1=750, 2450, and 3550. Use a table to present

  8. Parallel and Distributed Multi-Algorithm Circuit Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dai, Ruicheng

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    the solution ),,( 11 ??? ??? pnnn xxx at points ),,( 11 ??? ??? pnnn ttt in numerical integration: ?? ? ?? ? ??? ??? p i ini p i inin xxx 0 1 1 11 ?? (3.15) p is the order of the integration... the differential equation. The predictor for a k th order formula is generated by interpolating the last 1?k solutions. inin P n xt ??? ?)(1? .,...,1,0 ki ? (3.18) Hence, the solution at time 1?n...

  9. Synthesis of Uniformly Ultimate Boundedness Switching Laws for Discrete-Time Uncertain Switched Linear Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sontag, Eduardo

    - cations in control of mechanical systems, process control, au- tomotive industry, power systems, aircraft variations and exterior disturbances are considered. The problem of synthesis of switching control laws that orchestrates switching between these subsystems. Properties of this type of model have been studied

  10. Video Switching in the Panopto Editor Video Switching in the Panopto Editor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Benos, Panayiotis "Takis"

    Video Switching in the Panopto Editor Video Switching in the Panopto Editor In My Pitt Video (Panopto) you can control and edit which video streams the viewer sees by editing individual streams in the My Pitt Video (Panopto) Editor. Editing the primary video source will edit on all streams, editing

  11. ENGR 201 Electrical Fundamentals I Catalog Description: Analysis of linear circuits. Circuit laws and theorems. DC response of

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ENGR 201 ­ Electrical Fundamentals I Catalog Description: Analysis of linear circuits. Circuit laws and laws · Methods of analysis (e.g., nodal, mesh) · Circuit theorems · Operational amplifiers · Capacitors, and apply these for the analysis of dc circuits (ABET outcomes: A, e, m) 4. Analyze circuits made up

  12. Entropy production by simple electrical circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    E. N. Miranda; S. Nikolskaia

    2012-08-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The entropy production by simple electrical circuits (R, RC, RL) is analyzed. It comes out that the entropy production is minimal, in agreement with a well known theorem due to Prigogine. In this way, it is wrong a recent result by Zupanovic, Juretic and Botric (Physica Review E 70, 056198) who claimed that the entropy production in simple electrical circuits is a maximum

  13. The Design of Integrated Circuits to Observe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harrison, Reid R.

    -limited application. KEYWORDS | Amplifiers; analog integrated circuits; biomedical signal processing; low must have its own dedicated low-noise amplifier. Although it is tempting to imagine using an analog revealed significant circuit design chal- lenges. Weak neural signals must be amplified and filtered using

  14. LABORATORY II ENERGY AND ELECTRIC CIRCUITS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minnesota, University of

    LABORATORY II ENERGY AND ELECTRIC CIRCUITS Lab II - 1 It is often useful to study physical. An electric circuit illustrates how energy can be transformed within a system, transferred to different parts it is the electric charge that transports the energy from one place in the system to another

  15. Lamb shift enhancement and detection in strongly driven superconducting circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vera Gramich; Simone Gasparinetti; Paolo Solinas; Joachim Ankerhold

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    It is shown that strong driving of a quantum system substantially enhances the Lamb shift induced by broadband reservoirs which are typical for solid-state devices. By varying drive parameters the impact of environmental vacuum fluctuations with continuous spectral distribution onto system observables can be tuned in a distinctive way. This provides experimentally feasible measurement schemes for the Lamb shift in superconducting circuits based on Cooper pair boxes, where it can be detected either in shifted dressed transition frequencies or in pumped charge currents.

  16. Reusable vibration resistant integrated circuit mounting socket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Evans, Craig N. (Irwin, PA)

    1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention discloses a novel form of socket for integrated circuits to be mounted on printed circuit boards. The socket uses a novel contact which is fabricated out of a bimetallic strip with a shape which makes the end of the strip move laterally as temperature changes. The end of the strip forms a barb which digs into an integrated circuit lead at normal temperatures and holds it firmly in the contact, preventing loosening and open circuits from vibration. By cooling the contact containing the bimetallic strip the barb end can be made to release so that the integrated circuit lead can be removed from the socket without damage either to the lead or to the socket components.

  17. active snubber circuit: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Circuits Engineering Websites Summary: Transition Density, A New Measure of Activity in Digital Circuits Farid N. Najm Semiconductor Process & Design Center Texas Instruments...

  18. atmospheric electric circuit: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley, California of a satisfactory circuit. The topology comprises the gross number of components in the circuit, the type of each Fernandez, Thomas 59 ENG 2MM3...

  19. atmospheric electrical circuit: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Berkeley, California of a satisfactory circuit. The topology comprises the gross number of components in the circuit, the type of each Fernandez, Thomas 59 ENG 2MM3...

  20. Buford Major Rehabilitation Study (1996) and 11th Circuit Hydropower...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Buford Major Rehabilitation Study (1996) and 11th Circuit Hydropower Report (June 2012) Comparison The rehab study is compared to the 11th Circuit Hydropower Report for capacity...

  1. An Element of Determinism in a Stochastic Flagellar Motor Switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Xie, Li; Wu, Xiao-Lun

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine bacterium Vibrio alginolyticus uses a single polar flagellum to navigate in an aqueous environment. Similar to Escherichia coli cells, the polar flagellar motor has two states; when the motor is counter-clockwise, the cell swims forward and when the motor is clockwise, the cell swims backward. V. alginolyticus also incorporates a direction randomization step at the start of the forward swimming interval by flicking its flagellum. To gain an understanding on how the polar flagellar motor switch is regulated, distributions of the forward $\\Delta_{f}$ and backward $\\Delta_{b}$ intervals are investigated herein. We found that the steady-state probability density functions, $P(\\Delta_{f})$ and $P(\\Delta_{b})$, of freely swimming bacteria are strongly peaked at a finite time, suggesting that the motor switch is not Poissonian. The short-time inhibition is sufficiently strong and long lasting, i.e., several hundred milliseconds for both intervals, which is readily observed and characterized. Treating motor re...

  2. Secure Computation of Constant-Depth Circuits with Applications to Database Search Problems ?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ishai, Yuval

    Secure Computation of Constant-Depth Circuits with Applications to Database Search Problems ? Omer. Motivated by database search problems such as partial match or nearest neighbor, we present secure distributed between k #21; poly log(s) parties who all know C, we obtain a secure protocol for evaluating C

  3. Micro electro mechanical system optical switching

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thorson, Kevin J; Stevens, Rick C; Kryzak, Charles J; Leininger, Brian S; Kornrumpf, William P; Forman, Glenn A; Iannotti, Joseph A; Spahn, Olga B; Cowan, William D; Dagel, Daryl J

    2013-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure includes apparatus, system, and method embodiments that provide micro electo mechanical system optical switching and methods of manufacturing switches. For example, one optical switch embodiment includes at least one micro electro mechanical system type pivot mirror structure disposed along a path of an optical signal, the structure having a mirror and an actuator, and the mirror having a pivot axis along a first edge and having a second edge rotatable with respect to the pivot axis, the mirror being capable of and arranged to be actuated to pivot betweeen a position parallel to a plane of an optical signal and a position substantially normal to the plane of the optical signal.

  4. Manufacturing fuel-switching capability, 1988

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Historically, about one-third of all energy consumed in the United States has been used by manufacturers. About one-quarter of manufacturing energy is used as feedstocks and raw material inputs that are converted into nonenergy products; the remainder is used for its energy content. During 1988, the most recent year for which data are available, manufacturers consumed 15.5 quadrillion British thermal units (Btu) of energy to produce heat and power and to generate electricity. The manufacturing sector also has widespread capabilities to switch from one fuel to another for either economic or emergency reasons. There are numerous ways to define fuel switching. For the purposes of the Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), fuel switching is defined as the capability to substitute one energy source for another within 30 days with no significant modifications to the fuel-consuming equipment, while keeping production constant. Fuel-switching capability allows manufacturers substantial flexibility in choosing their mix of energy sources. The consumption of a given energy source can be maximized if all possible switching into that energy source takes place. The estimates in this report are based on data collected on the 1988 Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey (MECS), Forms 846 (A through C). The EIA conducts this national sample survey of manufacturing energy consumption on a triennial basis. The MECS is the only comprehensive source of national-level data on energy-related information for the manufacturing industries. The MECS was first conducted in 1986 to collect data for 1985. This report presents information on the fuel-switching capabilities of manufacturers in 1988. This report is the second of a series based on the 1988 MECS. 8 figs., 31 tabs.

  5. Carbon nano-relays for low power switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milaninia, Kaveh Mehdi

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this thesis two unique carbon based nanoelectromechanical switches or carbon nano-relays are demonstrated as a toolkit for investigating NEMs based low power switching. The first is a vertical carbon nano-relay, consisting ...

  6. Toward tunable RNA thermo-switches for temperature dependent gene expression

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar M. J. A. Stassen; Ruud J. J. Jorna; Bastiaan A. van den Berg; Rad Haghi; Farzad Ehtemam; Steven M. Flipse; Marco J. L. de Groot; Janine A. Kiers; I. Emrah Nikerel; Domenico Bellomo

    2011-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

    RNA thermometers are mRNA strands with a temperature dependent secondary structure: depending on the spatial conformation, the mRNA strand can get translated (on-state) or can be inaccessible for ribosomes binding (off-state). These have been found in a number of microorganisms (mainly pathogens), where they are used to adaptively regulate the gene expression, in response to changes in the environmental temperature. Besides naturally occurring RNA thermometers, synthetic RNA thermometers have been recently designed by modifying their natural counterparts (Hofacker et al., 2003). The newly designed RNA thermometers are simpler, and exhibit a sharper switching between off- and on-states. However, the proposed trial-and-error design procedure has not been algorithmically formalized, and the switching temperature is rigidly determined by the natural RNA thermometer used as template for the design. We developed a general algorithmic procedure (consensus distribution) for the design of RNA thermo-switches with a tunable switching temperature that can be decided in advance by the designer. A software tool with a user friendly GUI has been written to automate the design of RNA thermo-switches with a desired threshold temperature. Starting from a natural template, a new RNA thermometer has been designed by our method for a new desired threshold temperature of 32C. The designed RNA thermo-switch has been experimentally validated by using it to control the expression of lucifarase. A 9.2 fold increase of luminescence has been observed between 30C and 37C, whereas between 20C and 30C the luminescence increase is less than 3-fold. This work represents a first step towards the design of flexible and tunable RNA thermometers that can be used for a precise control of gene expression without the need of external chemicals and possibly for temperature measurements at a nano-scale resolution.

  7. Efficient quantum circuits for arbitrary sparse unitaries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jordan, Stephen P. [Institute for Quantum Information, Caltech, Pasadena, California 91125 (United States); Wocjan, Pawel [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida 32816 (United States)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Arbitrary exponentially large unitaries cannot be implemented efficiently by quantum circuits. However, we show that quantum circuits can efficiently implement any unitary provided it has at most polynomially many nonzero entries in any row or column, and these entries are efficiently computable. One can formulate a model of computation based on the composition of sparse unitaries which includes the quantum Turing machine model, the quantum circuit model, anyonic models, permutational quantum computation, and discrete time quantum walks as special cases. Thus, we obtain a simple unified proof that these models are all contained in BQP. Furthermore, our general method for implementing sparse unitaries simplifies several existing quantum algorithms.

  8. Overload protection circuit for output driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Roger G. (Neshanic Station, NJ)

    1982-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A protection circuit for preventing excessive power dissipation in an output transistor whose conduction path is connected between a power terminal and an output terminal. The protection circuit includes means for sensing the application of a turn on signal to the output transistor and the voltage at the output terminal. When the turn on signal is maintained for a period of time greater than a given period without the voltage at the output terminal reaching a predetermined value, the protection circuit decreases the turn on signal to, and the current conduction through, the output transistor.

  9. Microelectromechanical accelerometer with resonance-cancelling control circuit including an idle state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chu, Dahlon D. (Albuquerque, NM); Thelen, Jr., Donald C. (Bozeman, MT); Campbell, David V. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A digital feedback control circuit is disclosed for use in an accelerometer (e.g. a microelectromechanical accelerometer). The digital feedback control circuit, which periodically re-centers a proof mass in response to a sensed acceleration, is based on a sigma-delta (.SIGMA..DELTA.) configuration that includes a notch filter (e.g. a digital switched-capacitor filter) for rejecting signals due to mechanical resonances of the proof mass and further includes a comparator (e.g. a three-level comparator). The comparator generates one of three possible feedback states, with two of the feedback states acting to re-center the proof mass when that is needed, and with a third feedback state being an "idle" state which does not act to move the proof mass when no re-centering is needed. Additionally, the digital feedback control system includes an auto-zero trim capability for calibration of the accelerometer for accurate sensing of acceleration. The digital feedback control circuit can be fabricated using complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) technology, bi-CMOS technology or bipolar technology and used in single- and dual-proof-mass accelerometers.

  10. Optimal switching control design for polynomial systems: an LMI approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Optimal switching control design for polynomial systems: an LMI approach Didier Henrion1 formulate the switching design problem as an optimal control problem which is then relaxed to a linear to the design of optimal switching sequences for polynomial dynamical systems with state constraints. We

  11. Energy and Switch Area Optimizations for FPGA Global Routing Architectures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    13 Energy and Switch Area Optimizations for FPGA Global Routing Architectures YI ZHU, YUANFANG HU and wire style optimization, to reduce the energy and switch area of FPGA global routing architectures achieve up to 10% to 15% energy savings and up to 20% switch area savings in average for a set of seven

  12. A Brain-Switch using Riemannian Geometry A. Barachant1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Brain-Switch using Riemannian Geometry A. Barachant1 , S. Bonnet1 , M. Congedo2 , C. Jutten2 1 the issue of asynchronous brain-switch. The detection of a specific brain pattern from the ongoing EEG-time EEG segments contain all the desired information. Such a brain-switch is valuable as it is easy to set

  13. Optimal Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: A Brief Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antsaklis, Panos

    Optimal Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: A Brief Survey Technical Report of the ISIS Group FengZhu and Panos J. Antsaklis, "Optimal Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: a Brief Survey," ISIS Technical Report ISIS-2013-007, July 2013. #12;1 Optimal Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: A Brief Survey

  14. Optimal Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: A Brief Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antsaklis, Panos

    Optimal Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: A Brief Survey Technical Report of the ISIS Group;1 Optimal Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: A Brief Survey Abstract This paper surveys recent results in the field of optimal control of hybrid and switched systems. We summarize recent results that use different

  15. Optimal Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: A Brief Survey

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Antsaklis, Panos

    Optimal Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: A Brief Survey Technical Report of the ISIS Group;1 Optimal Control of Switched Hybrid Systems: A Brief Survey Feng Zhu and Panos J. Antsaklis Department a few. The problem of determining optimal control laws for hybrid systems and in particular for switched

  16. Heritable Stochastic Switching Revealed by Single-Cell Genealogy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    van Oudenaarden, Alexander

    Heritable Stochastic Switching Revealed by Single-Cell Genealogy Benjamin B. Kaufmann1,2[ , Qiong switching revealed by single-cell genealogy. PLoS Biol 5(9): e239. doi:10.1371/ journal.pbio.0050239 measurements of phenotype stability, switching, and herit- ability are rare, both because detailed genealogical

  17. An Optical Interconnection Architecture for Large Packet Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reliability concerns due to the large number of active components in the switch fabric. Routers with optical to consider the limits imposed by electronic technology; in particular, it must take into account power not only solutions that make use of optics inside electronic switches but that also switching architectures

  18. RF-MEMS capacitive switches with high reliability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldsmith, Charles L.; Auciello, Orlando H.; Carlisle, John A.; Sampath, Suresh; Sumant, Anirudha V.; Carpick, Robert W.; Hwang, James; Mancini, Derrick C.; Gudeman, Chris

    2013-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

    A reliable long life RF-MEMS capacitive switch is provided with a dielectric layer comprising a "fast discharge diamond dielectric layer" and enabling rapid switch recovery, dielectric layer charging and discharging that is efficient and effective to enable RF-MEMS switch operation to greater than or equal to 100 billion cycles.

  19. Optically initiated silicon carbide high voltage switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Caporaso, George J. (Livermore, CA); Sampayan, Stephen E. (Manteca, CA); Sullivan, James S. (Livermore, CA); Sanders; David M. (Livermore, CA)

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved photoconductive switch having a SiC or other wide band gap substrate material, such as GaAs and field-grading liners composed of preferably SiN formed on the substrate adjacent the electrode perimeters or adjacent the substrate perimeters for grading the electric fields.

  20. Smart Grid Application of Optimal Transmission Switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ferris, Michael C.

    ;6 Introduction continued Electric Transmission Network Flow Problem Optimal Power Flow (OPF) AlternatingSmart Grid Application of Optimal Transmission Switching By, Kory W. Hedman, et al.* University (Professor, UC Berkeley) #12;2 Motivation Co-optimize transmission topology and generation dispatch

  1. All-optical discrete vortex switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desyatnikov, Anton S. [Nonlinear Physics Center, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia); Dennis, Mark R. [H. H. Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom); Ferrando, Albert [Interdisciplinary Modeling Group, InterTech and Departament d'Optica, Universitat de Valencia, E-46100 Burjassot (Spain)

    2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

    We introduce discrete vortex solitons and vortex breathers in circular arrays of nonlinear waveguides. The simplest vortex breather in a four-waveguide coupler is a nonlinear dynamic state changing its topological charge between +1 and -1 periodically during propagation. We find the stability domain for this solution and suggest an all-optical vortex switching scheme.

  2. A thermodynamic switch for chromosome colocalization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Nicodemi; B. Panning; A. Prisco

    2008-09-27T23:59:59.000Z

    A general model for the early recognition and colocalization of homologous DNA sequences is proposed. We show, on a thermodynamic ground, how the distance between two homologous DNA sequences is spontaneously regulated by the concentration and affinity of diffusible mediators binding them, which act as a switch between two phases corresponding to independence or colocalization of pairing regions.

  3. Switching dynamics in cholesteric blue phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Tiribocchi; G. Gonnella; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini

    2011-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Blue phases are networks of disclination lines, which occur in cholesteric liquid crystals near the transition to the isotropic phase. They have recently been used for the new generation of fast switching liquid crystal displays. Here we study numerically the steady states and switching hydrodynamics of blue phase I (BPI) and blue phase II (BPII) cells subjected to an electric field. When the field is on, there are three regimes: for very weak fields (and strong anchoring at the boundaries) the blue phases are almost unaffected, for intermediate fields the disclinations twist (for BPI) and unzip (for BPII), whereas for very large voltages the network dissolves in the bulk of the cell. Interestingly, we find that a BPII cell can recover its original structure when the field is switched off, whereas a BPI cell is found to be trapped more easily into metastable configurations. The kinetic pathways followed during switching on and off entails dramatic reorganisation of the disclination networks. We also discuss the effect of changing the director field anchoring at the boundary planes and of varying the direction of the applied field.

  4. Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new diffuse discharge gas switch wherein a mixture of gases is used to take advantage of desirable properties of the respective gases. There is a conducting gas, an insulating gas, and a third gas that has low ionization energy resulting in a net increase in the number of electrons available to produce a current.

  5. Asynchronous vs Synchronous Input-Queued Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    for the design of high-performance switches. I. INTRODUCTION A vast technical literature exists on input. Unfortunately the technical literature has largely neglected this situation, and concentrated the attention throughput, or to simpler scheduling. Even when the asynchronous operation leads to performance losses

  6. Interconnecting network for switching data packets and method for switching data packets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, Alan Frederic; Minkenberg, Cyriel Johan Agnes; Stunkel, Craig Brian

    2010-05-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The interconnecting network for switching data packets, having data and flow control information, comprises a local packet switch element (S1) with local input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, a remote packet switch element (S2) with remote input buffers (I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)) for buffering the incoming data packets, and data lines (L) for interconnecting the local and the remote packet switch elements (S1, S2). The interconnecting network further comprises a local and a remote arbiter (A1, A2) which are connected via control lines (CL) to the input buffers (I(1,1) . . . I(1,y), I(2,1) . . . I(2,y)), and which are formed such that they can provide that the flow control information is transmitted via the data lines (L) and the control lines (CL).

  7. Utility-Interconnected Photovoltaic Systems: Evaluating the Rationale for the Utility-Accessible External Disconnect Switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coddington, M.; Margolis, R.M.; Aabakken, J.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The utility-accessible alternating current (AC) external disconnect switch (EDS) for distributed generators, including photovoltaic (PV) systems, is a hardware feature that allows a utility?s employees to manually disconnect a customer-owned generator from the electricity grid. This paper examines the utility-accessible EDS debate in the context of utility-interactive PV systems for residential and small commercial installations. It also evaluates the rationale for EDS requirements.

  8. Design Robustness Analysis of Neuromorphic Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bashaireh, Ahmad

    2014-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    tasks such as pattern recognition. Few attempts have been made to investigate the effect of silicon failures beyond the circuit level. In this thesis, a method is proposed to evaluate the impact of process and environmental variations on the overall...

  9. Analog circuit for controlling acoustic transducer arrays

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Drumheller, Douglas S. (Cedar Crest, NM)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A simplified ananlog circuit is presented for controlling electromechanical transducer pairs in an acoustic telemetry system. The analog circuit of this invention comprises a single electrical resistor which replaces all of the digital components in a known digital circuit. In accordance with this invention, a first transducer in a transducer pair of array is driven in series with the resistor. The voltage drop across this resistor is then amplified and used to drive the second transducer. The voltage drop across the resistor is proportional and in phase with the current to the transducer. This current is approximately 90 degrees out of phase with the driving voltage to the transducer. This phase shift replaces the digital delay required by the digital control circuit of the prior art.

  10. Analysis and Design of Resilient VLSI Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Garg, Rajesh

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    (or error caused by radiation particle strikes) have become an increasingly troublesome issue for memory arrays as well as combinational logic circuits. Also, in the DSM era, process variations are increasing at an alarming rate, making it more...

  11. Generating Circuit Tests by Exploiting Designed Behavior

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shirley, Mark Harper

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes two programs for generating tests for digital circuits that exploit several kinds of expert knowledge not used by previous approaches. First, many test generation problems can be solved efficiently ...

  12. Microelectronic Devices and Circuits - 2006 Electronic Edition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fonstad, Clifton

    2006-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Combining semiconductor device physics and modeling with electronic circuit analysis and practice in a single sophomore/junior level microelectronics course, this textbook offers an integrated approach so students can truly ...

  13. Carbon nanotube synthesis for integrated circuit interconnects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nessim, Gilbert Daniel

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Based on their properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been identified as ideal replacements for copper interconnects in integrated circuits given their higher current density, inertness, and higher resistance to ...

  14. Analysis of neural circuits in vitro

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Jennifer Lynn

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis is a collection of manuscripts addressing connectivity of neural circuits in cultured hippocampal neurons. These studies begin with an investigation of dopaminergic modulation of excitatory synapses in small ...

  15. Flexible Electronics: Materials, Circuits, and Design Methodology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kim, Chris H.

    Electronics: Today Display Solar cell Battery 4 #12;Next Generation Flexible Electronics Problem: Traumatic system Proposed EEG system Electrode sheet Flexible electronics ... ... ... Next Generation FlexibleFlexible Electronics: Materials, Circuits, and Design Methodology Chris H. Kim Dept. of Electrical

  16. Differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gresham, Christopher A. (Albuquerque, NM); Denton, M. Bonner (Tucson, AZ); Sperline, Roger P. (Tucson, AZ)

    2008-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification. The amplifier circuit increase electronic signal-to-noise ratios in charge detection circuits designed for the detection of very small quantities of electrical charge and/or very weak electromagnetic waves. A differential, integrating capacitive transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit comprising capacitor feedback loops performs time-correlated subtraction of noise.

  17. Triple effect absorption chiller utilizing two refrigeration circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeVault, Robert C. (Knoxville, TN)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A triple effect absorption method and apparatus having a high coefficient of performance. Two single effect absorption circuits are combined with heat exchange occurring between a condenser and absorber of a high temperature circuit, and a generator of a low temperature circuit. The evaporators of both the high and low temperature circuits provide cooling to an external heat load.

  18. Foundations for a Circuit Complexity Theory of Sensory Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maass, Wolfgang

    bounds, in particular with linear or almost linear total wire length. 1 Introduction Circuit complexity interest in neuromorphicengineering, especially analog VLSI, and the analysis of neural circuits mathematical analysis of such circuits. The standard mathematical approach is to model such circuits

  19. Challenges for Qualitative Electrical Reasoning in Automotive Circuit Simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Snooke, Neal

    Challenges for Qualitative Electrical Reasoning in Automotive Circuit Simulation Neal Snooke it to be used for applications on realistic automotive circuits. The type of circuits for which it is most automotive circuits with more complex overall behaviour can be approximated using this type of modelling

  20. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  1. Equivalent Circuit Modeling of Hysteresis Motors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nitao, J J; Scharlemann, E T; Kirkendall, B A

    2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    We performed a literature review and found that many equivalent circuit models of hysteresis motors in use today are incorrect. The model by Miyairi and Kataoka (1965) is the correct one. We extended the model by transforming it to quadrature coordinates, amenable to circuit or digital simulation. 'Hunting' is an oscillatory phenomenon often observed in hysteresis motors. While several works have attempted to model the phenomenon with some partial success, we present a new complete model that predicts hunting from first principles.

  2. Gain-assisted superluminal microwave pulse propagation via four-wave mixing in superconducting phase quantum circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. Amini Sabegh; A. Vafafard; M. A. Maleki; M. Mahmoudi

    2015-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the propagation and amplification of a microwave field in a four-level cascade quantum system which is realized in a superconducting phase quantum circuit. It is shown that by increasing the microwave pump tones feeding the system, the normal dispersion switches to the anomalous and the gain-assisted superluminal microwave propagation is obtained in this system. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the stimulated microwave field is generated via four-wave mixing without any inversion population in the energy levels of the system (amplification without inversion) and the group velocity of the generated pulse can be controlled by the external oscillating magnetic fluxes. We also show that in some special set of parameters, the absorption-free superluminal generated microwave propagation is obtained in superconducting phase quantum circuit system.

  3. Gain-assisted superluminal microwave pulse propagation via four-wave mixing in superconducting phase quantum circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sabegh, Z Amini; Maleki, M A; Mahmoudi, M

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study the propagation and amplification of a microwave field in a four-level cascade quantum system which is realized in a superconducting phase quantum circuit. It is shown that by increasing the microwave pump tones feeding the system, the normal dispersion switches to the anomalous and the gain-assisted superluminal microwave propagation is obtained in this system. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the stimulated microwave field is generated via four-wave mixing without any inversion population in the energy levels of the system (amplification without inversion) and the group velocity of the generated pulse can be controlled by the external oscillating magnetic fluxes. We also show that in some special set of parameters, the absorption-free superluminal generated microwave propagation is obtained in superconducting phase quantum circuit system.

  4. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, Daniel W. (Danville, CA); Lange, Arnold C. (Livermore, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360.degree./n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load.

  5. E-beam high voltage switching power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shimer, D.W.; Lange, A.C.

    1997-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A high power, solid state power supply is described for producing a controllable, constant high voltage output under varying and arcing loads suitable for powering an electron beam gun or other ion source. The present power supply is most useful for outputs in a range of about 100-400 kW or more. The power supply is comprised of a plurality of discrete switching type dc-dc converter modules, each comprising a voltage regulator, an inductor, an inverter for producing a high frequency square wave current of alternating polarity, an improved inverter voltage clamping circuit, a step up transformer, and an output rectifier for producing a dc voltage at the output of each module. The inputs to the converter modules are fed from a common dc rectifier/filter and are linked together in parallel through decoupling networks to suppress high frequency input interactions. The outputs of the converter modules are linked together in series and connected to the input of the transmission line to the load through a decoupling and line matching network. The dc-dc converter modules are phase activated such that for n modules, each module is activated equally 360{degree}/n out of phase with respect to a successive module. The phased activation of the converter modules, combined with the square current waveforms out of the step up transformers, allows the power supply to operate with greatly reduced output capacitance values which minimizes the stored energy available for discharge into an electron beam gun or the like during arcing. The present power supply also provides dynamic response to varying loads by controlling the voltage regulator duty cycle using simulated voltage feedback signals and voltage feedback loops. Circuitry is also provided for sensing incipient arc currents reflected at the output of the power supply and for simultaneously decoupling the power supply circuitry from the arcing load. 7 figs.

  6. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, J.G.

    1993-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. 1 figures.

  7. Float level switch for a nuclear power plant containment vessel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Powell, James G. (Clifton Park, NY)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention is a float level switch used to sense rise or drop in water level in a containment vessel of a nuclear power plant during a loss of coolant accident. The essential components of the device are a guide tube, a reed switch inside the guide tube, a float containing a magnetic portion that activates a reed switch, and metal-sheathed, ceramic-insulated conductors connecting the reed switch to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel. Special materials and special sealing techniques prevent failure of components and allow the float level switch to be connected to a monitoring system outside the containment vessel.

  8. Norton Collector Circuit The Norton equivalent circuit seen looking into the collector can be used to solve for the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leach Jr.,W. Marshall

    Norton Collector Circuit The Norton equivalent circuit seen looking into the collector can be used with Thévenin sources connected to its base and emitter. With the collector grounded, the col- lector current is called the short-circuit output current or ic(sc). The current source in the Norton collector circuit has

  9. Distributed Power Delivery for Energy Efficient and Low Power Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Friedman, Eby G.

    Distributed Power Delivery for Energy Efficient and Low Power Systems Selc¸uk K¨ose Department throughout a power distribution system. Due to the parasitic impedances of the power distribution networks current to the load circuits [3]. The complexity of the high performance power delivery systems has

  10. High-speed, sub-pull-in voltage MEMS switching.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spahn, Olga Blum; Brewer, Steven; Olsson, Roy H.; Bogart, Gregory R.; Luck, David L.; Watts, Michael R.; Shaw, Michael J.; Nielson, Gregory N.; Resnick, Paul James; Tigges, Christopher P.; Grossetete, Grant David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have proposed and demonstrated MEMS switching devices that take advantage of the dynamic behavior of the MEMS devices to provide lower voltage actuation and higher switching speeds. We have explored the theory behind these switching techniques and have demonstrated these techniques in a range of devices including MEMS micromirror devices and in-plane parallel plate MEMS switches. In both devices we have demonstrated switching speeds under one microsecond which has essentially been a firm limit in MEMS switching. We also developed low-loss silicon waveguide technology and the ability to incorporate high-permittivity dielectric materials with MEMS. The successful development of these technologies have generated a number of new projects and have increased both the MEMS switching and optics capabilities of Sandia National Laboratories.

  11. Chapter 54. Superconducting Circuits and Quantum Computing Superconducting Circuits and Quantum Computing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chapter 54. Superconducting Circuits and Quantum Computing 54-1 Superconducting Circuits. William D. Oliver (MIT Lincoln Laboratory Senior Staff Member, RLE affiliate) Overview: Superconducting computer. Our qubit species of choice is the superconducting persistent-current (PC) qubit (also known

  12. Energy-efficiency and Security Issues in the Cisco Nexus Virtual Distributed Benjamin Peterson

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

    Energy-efficiency and Security Issues in the Cisco Nexus Virtual Distributed Switching Benjamin--Virtualization technologies have brought with them the promise of increased security and energy saving. Such was the case with the Cisco Nexus virtual switching environment. However, possible security issues of this environment have

  13. Flexoelectric switching in cholesteric blue phases

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Tiribocchi; M. E. Cates; G. Gonnella; D. Marenduzzo; E. Orlandini

    2013-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

    We present computer simulations of the response of a flexoelectric blue phase network, either in bulk or under confinement, to an applied field. We find a transition in the bulk between the blue phase I disclination network and a parallel array of disclinations along the direction of the applied field. Upon switching off the field, the system is unable to reconstruct the original blue phase but gets stuck in a metastable phase. Blue phase II is comparatively much less affected by the field. In confined samples, the anchoring at the walls and the geometry of the device lead to the stabilisation of further structures, including field-aligned disclination loops, splayed nematic patterns, and yet more metastable states. Our results are relevant to the understanding of the switching dynamics for a class of new, "superstable", blue phases which are composed of bimesogenic liquid crystals, as these materials combine anomalously large flexoelectric coefficients, and low or near-zero dielectric anisotropy.

  14. Gas mixture for diffuse-discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, L.G.; Carter, J.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1982-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Gaseous medium in a diffuse-discharge switch of a high-energy pulse generator is formed of argon combined with a compound selected from the group consisting of CF/sub 4/, C/sub 2/F/sub 6/, C/sub 3/F/sub 8/, n-C/sub 4/F/sub 10/, WF/sub 6/, (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/S and (CF/sub 3/)/sub 2/O.

  15. Dual circuit embossed sheet heat transfer panel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morgan, G.D.

    1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat transfer panel provides redundant cooling for fusion reactors or the like environment requiring low-mass construction. Redundant cooling is provided by two independent cooling circuits, each circuit consisting of a series of channels joined to inlet and outlet headers. The panel comprises a welded joinder of two full-size and two much smaller partial-size sheets. The first full-size sheet is embossed to form first portions of channels for the first and second circuits, as well as a header for the first circuit. The second full-sized sheet is then laid over and welded to the first full-size sheet. The first and second partial-size sheets are then overlaid on separate portions of the second full-sized sheet, and are welded thereto. The first and second partial-sized sheets are embossed to form inlet and outlet headers, which communicate with channels of the second circuit through apertures formed in the second full-sized sheet. 6 figs.

  16. An analysis of reversible multiplier circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

    2009-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

    Multiplier circuits play an important role in reversible computation, which is helpful in diverse areas such as low power CMOS design, optical computing, DNA computing and bioinformatics. Here we propose a new reversible multiplier circuit with optimized hardware complexity. The optimized multiplier circuit is compared with the earlier proposals. We have shown that the quantum cost of earlier proposals can be further reduced with the help of existing local optimization algorithms (e.g. template matching, moving rule and deletion rule). A systematic protocol for reduction of quantum cost has been proposed. It has also been shown that the advantage in gate count obtained in some of the earlier proposals by introduction of new reversible gates is an artifact and if it is allowed then every circuit block can be reduced to a single gate. Further, it is shown that the 4x4 reversible gates proposed for designing of a component of multiplier circuit (full adder) is neither unique nor special and many such 4x4 gates may be proposed. As example three such new gates have been presented here and it is shown that the proposed gates are universal. It is also shown that the total cost of our design is minimum.

  17. On the Synthesis of Sequential Reversible Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anindita Banerjee; Anirban Pathak

    2007-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Reversible circuits for SR flip flop, JK flip flop, D flip flop, T flip flop, Master Slave D flip flop and Master Slave JK flip flop have been provided with three different logical approaches. All the circuits have been optimized with the help of existing local optimization algorithms (e.g. template matching, moving rule and deletion rule) and the optimized sequential circuits have been compared with the earlier proposals for the same. It has been shown that the present proposals have lower gate complexities and lower number of garbage bits compared to the earlier proposals. It has also been shown that the advantage in gate count obtained in some of the earlier proposals by introduction of New gates is an \\textcolor{black}{artifact} and if it is allowed then every circuit block (unless there is a measurement) can be reduced to a single gate. Further, it is shown that a reversible flip flop can be constructed even without a feedback. In this context, some important conceptual issues related to the designing and optimization of sequential reversible circuits have also been addressed.

  18. Lithium Circuit Test Section Design and Fabrication

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Godfroy, Thomas; Garber, Anne; Martin, James [NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Nuclear Systems Engineering Analysis, Huntsville, Alabama 35812 (United States)

    2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The Early Flight Fission -- Test Facilities (EFF-TF) team has designed and built an actively pumped lithium flow circuit. Modifications were made to a circuit originally designed for NaK to enable the use of lithium that included application specific instrumentation and hardware. Component scale freeze/thaw tests were conducted to both gain experience with handling and behavior of lithium in solid and liquid form and to supply anchor data for a Generalized Fluid System Simulation Program (GFSSP) model that was modified to include the physics for freeze/thaw transitions. Void formation was investigated. The basic circuit components include: reactor segment, lithium to gas heat exchanger, electromagnetic (EM) liquid metal pump, load/drain reservoir, expansion reservoir, instrumentation, and trace heaters. This paper discusses the overall system design and build and the component testing findings.

  19. Package for integrated optic circuit and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kravitz, Stanley H. (26 Aspen Rd., Placitas, NM 87043); Hadley, G. Ronald (6012 Annapolis NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Warren, Mial E. (3825 Mary Ellen NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Carson, Richard F. (1036 Jewel Pl. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Armendariz, Marcelino G. (1023 Oro Real NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A structure and method for packaging an integrated optic circuit. The package comprises a first wall having a plurality of microlenses formed therein to establish channels of optical communication with an integrated optic circuit within the package. A first registration pattern is provided on an inside surface of one of the walls of the package for alignment and attachment of the integrated optic circuit. The package in one embodiment may further comprise a fiber holder for aligning and attaching a plurality of optical fibers to the package and extending the channels of optical communication to the fibers outside the package. In another embodiment, a fiber holder may be used to hold the fibers and align the fibers to the package. The fiber holder may be detachably connected to the package.

  20. Radiation-hardened transistor and integrated circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ma, Kwok K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A composite transistor is disclosed for use in radiation hardening a CMOS IC formed on an SOI or bulk semiconductor substrate. The composite transistor has a circuit transistor and a blocking transistor connected in series with a common gate connection. A body terminal of the blocking transistor is connected only to a source terminal thereof, and to no other connection point. The blocking transistor acts to prevent a single-event transient (SET) occurring in the circuit transistor from being coupled outside the composite transistor. Similarly, when a SET occurs in the blocking transistor, the circuit transistor prevents the SET from being coupled outside the composite transistor. N-type and P-type composite transistors can be used for each and every transistor in the CMOS IC to radiation harden the IC, and can be used to form inverters and transmission gates which are the building blocks of CMOS ICs.

  1. Electronic circuit for measuring series connected electrochemical cell voltages

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashtiani, Cyrus N. (West Bloomfield, MI); Stuart, Thomas A. (Toledo, OH)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronic circuit for measuring voltage signals in an energy storage device is disclosed. The electronic circuit includes a plurality of energy storage cells forming the energy storage device. A voltage divider circuit is connected to at least one of the energy storage cells. A current regulating circuit is provided for regulating the current through the voltage divider circuit. A voltage measurement node is associated with the voltage divider circuit for producing a voltage signal which is proportional to the voltage across the energy storage cell.

  2. Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, Z. L., E-mail: zhiliang.yuan@crl.toshiba.co.uk; Lucamarini, M.; Dynes, J. F.; Fröhlich, B.; Plews, A.; Shields, A. J. [Toshiba Research Europe Limited, Cambridge Research Laboratory, 208 Cambridge Science Park, Milton Road, Cambridge CB4 0GZ (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse-response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20?Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5?GHz, respectively, with a ±20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80?Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5?GHz.

  3. Robust random number generation using steady-state emission of gain-switched laser diodes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Z. L. Yuan; M. Lucamarini; J. F. Dynes; B. Frohlich; A. Plews; A. J. Shields

    2014-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

    We demonstrate robust, high-speed random number generation using interference of the steady-state emission of guaranteed random phases, obtained through gain-switching a semiconductor laser diode. Steady-state emission tolerates large temporal pulse misalignments and therefore significantly improves the interference quality. Using an 8-bit digitizer followed by a finite-impulse response unbiasing algorithm, we achieve random number generation rates of 8 and 20 Gb/s, for laser repetition rates of 1 and 2.5 GHz, respectively, with a +/-20% tolerance in the interferometer differential delay. We also report a generation rate of 80 Gb/s using partially phase-correlated short pulses. In relation to the field of quantum key distribution, our results confirm the gain-switched laser diode as a suitable light source, capable of providing phase-randomized coherent pulses at a clock rate of up to 2.5 GHz.

  4. Circuit breaker monitoring application using wireless communication

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ved, Nitin

    2007-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    synchronizes recorded data to a global time standard enabling system-wide applications to use the recorded data. ? Ease of installation: The circuit breaker monitoring system can be installed at a substation within minutes by one or two personnel. The system... is powered by a 130V DC source, usually a battery in the substation control house, called the supply volt- age. All elements of the circuit are connected between the positive and the negative terminals of the supply voltage.Another voltage source called...

  5. Electronic Circuit Realization of the Logistic Map

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Madhekar Suneel

    2006-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

    An electronic circuit realization of the logistic difference equation is presented using analog electronics. The behavior of the realized system is evaluated against computer simulations of the same. The circuit is found to exhibit the entire range of dynamics of the logistic equation: fixed points, periodicity, period doubling, chaos and intermittency. Quantitative measurements of the dynamics of the realized system are presented and are found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. Some possible applications of such a realization are briefly discussed.

  6. Distributed parallel messaging for multiprocessor systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Salapura, Valentina; Senger, Robert M; Steinmacher-Burrow, Burhard; Sugawara, Yutaka

    2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and apparatus for distributed parallel messaging in a parallel computing system. The apparatus includes, at each node of a multiprocessor network, multiple injection messaging engine units and reception messaging engine units, each implementing a DMA engine and each supporting both multiple packet injection into and multiple reception from a network, in parallel. The reception side of the messaging unit (MU) includes a switch interface enabling writing of data of a packet received from the network to the memory system. The transmission side of the messaging unit, includes switch interface for reading from the memory system when injecting packets into the network.

  7. A UNIVERSAL SOI-BASED HIGH TEMPERATURE GATE DRIVER INTEGRATED CIRCUIT FOR SIC POWER SWITCHES WITH ON-CHIP SHORT CIRCUIT PROTECTION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tolbert, Leon M.

    by DaimlerChrysler, Eaton Corporation, and Auburn University is reproduced in Table I [6]. For most part

  8. Switch Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon...

  9. Switch Switch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    XPP L345 BRESSLER,CHRISTIAN Femtosecond Spin State Changes - Implications for Photocatalysis David Fritz or Marco Cammarata CXI L352 ELMLUND,HANS SINGLE PARTICLE X RAY...

  10. Reducing Actuator Switchings for Motion Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ryan N.

    Reducing Actuator Switchings for Motion Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Monique Chyba and energy minimization for AUVs). A major difficulty is to provide a formal estimation that compares

  11. Multi-gap high impedance plasma opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, R.J.

    1996-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

    A high impedance plasma opening switch having an anode and a cathode and at least one additional electrode placed between the anode and cathode is disclosed. The presence of the additional electrodes leads to the creation of additional plasma gaps which are in series, increasing the net impedance of the switch. An equivalent effect can be obtained by using two or more conventional plasma switches with their plasma gaps wired in series. Higher impedance switches can provide high current and voltage to higher impedance loads such as plasma radiation sources. 12 figs.

  12. Multi-gap high impedance plasma opening switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mason, Rodney J. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high impedance plasma opening switch having an anode and a cathode and at least one additional electrode placed between the anode and cathode. The presence of the additional electrodes leads to the creation of additional plasma gaps which are in series, increasing the net impedance of the switch. An equivalent effect can be obtained by using two or more conventional plasma switches with their plasma gaps wired in series. Higher impedance switches can provide high current and voltage to higher impedance loads such as plasma radiation sources.

  13. The switching dynamics of the bacterial flagellar motor

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siebe B. van Albada; Sorin Tanase-Nicola; Pieter Rein ten Wolde

    2008-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Many swimming bacteria are propelled by flagellar motors that stochastically switch between the clockwise and counterclockwise rotation direction. While the switching dynamics are one of the most important characteristics of flagellar motors, the mechanisms that control switching are poorly understood. We present a statistical-mechanical model of the flagellar rotary motor, which consists of a number of stator proteins that drive the rotation of a ring of rotor proteins, which in turn drives the rotation of a flagellar filament. At the heart of our model is the assumption that the rotor protein complex can exist in two conformational states corresponding to the two respective rotation directions, and that switching between these states depends on interactions with the stator proteins. This naturally couples the switching dynamics to the rotation dynamics, making the switch sensitive to torque and speed. Another key element of our model is that after a switching event, it takes time for the load to build up, due to polymorphic transitions of the filament. Our model predicts that this slow relaxation dynamics of the filament, in combination with the load dependence of the switching frequency, leads to a characteristic switching time, in agreement with recent observations.

  14. Single-crystalline monolayer and multilayer graphene nano switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Peng; Cui, Tianhong, E-mail: tcui@me.umn.edu [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States); Jing, Gaoshan [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Department of Precision Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zhang, Bo; Sando, Shota [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)

    2014-03-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Growth of monolayer, bi-layer, and tri-layer single-crystalline graphene (SCG) using chemical vapor deposition method is reported. SCG's mechanical properties and single-crystalline nature were characterized and verified by atomic force microscope and Raman spectroscopy. Electro-mechanical switches based on mono- and bi-layer SCG were fabricated, and the superb properties of SCG enable the switches to operate at pull-in voltage as low as 1?V, and high switching speed about 100?ns. These devices exhibit lifetime without a breakdown of over 5000 cycles, far more durable than any other graphene nanoelectromechanical system switches reported.

  15. Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research Conference 2010 Modeling Combustion Control for High Power Diesel Mode Switching Siddhartha Banerjee, Christopher J. Rutland...

  16. Regulation of mammalian neuronal circuit development by CPG 15

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leslie, Jennifer H

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The orderly assembly of neuronal circuits is specified by developmental programs of gene expression, however, the final stage in circuit development, maturation and refinement of specific synaptic connections, is strongly ...

  17. accurate analog circuits: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The total size of each centroid circuit is 160m x 160m in a standard 1.2-m CMOS process. Paul M. Furth; Natalie Clark 1998-01-01 6 Low voltage analog circuit design...

  18. analog circuits macromodel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The total size of each centroid circuit is 160m x 160m in a standard 1.2-m CMOS process. Paul M. Furth; Natalie Clark 1998-01-01 7 Low voltage analog circuit design...

  19. analog linear circuits: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The total size of each centroid circuit is 160m x 160m in a standard 1.2-m CMOS process. Paul M. Furth; Natalie Clark 1998-01-01 10 Low voltage analog circuit design...

  20. 6.301 Solid-State Circuits, Spring 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roberge, James

    This course covers analog circuit analysis and design, focusing on the tools and methods necessary for the creative design of useful circuits using active devices. The class stresses insight and intuition, applied to the ...

  1. Cryogenic direct current superconducting quantum interference device readout circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Le Roy, Robert J.

    Cryogenic direct current superconducting quantum interference device readout circuit Michael Mück SQUID readout circuit, which can be operated at liquid helium temperatures. Although room electronics, and feedback coil as short as possible to minimize phase shifts and time delays. Cooling

  2. Protecting Circuits from Computationally Bounded and Noisy Leakage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Faust, Sebastian

    Physical computational devices leak side-channel information that may, and often does, reveal secret internal states. We present a general transformation that compiles any circuit into a circuit with the same functionality ...

  3. IMPACT OF DYNAMIC VOLTAGE SCALING (DVS) ON CIRCUIT OPTIMIZATION

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquit Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Circuit designers perform optimization procedures targeting speed and power during the design of a circuit. Gate sizing can be applied to optimize for speed, while Dual-VT and Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) can be applied to optimize for leakage...

  4. IMPACT OF DYNAMIC VOLTAGE SCALING (DVS) ON CIRCUIT OPTIMIZATION 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Esquit Hernandez, Carlos A.

    2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Circuit designers perform optimization procedures targeting speed and power during the design of a circuit. Gate sizing can be applied to optimize for speed, while Dual-VT and Dynamic Voltage Scaling (DVS) can be applied ...

  5. A multiprocessor system for real-time simulation of power electronic circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qawasmi, Nabil Hussein

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    that describes it [7]. Its applications are widely distributed among many areas of technology such as process controls, aerospace, and other engineering oriented system design and analysis problems. Real-time simulation is a much favored simulation method...A MULTIPROCESSOR SYSTEM FOR REAL-TIME SIMULATION OF POWER ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS A Thesis by NABIL HUSSEIN QAWASMI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AkM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER...

  6. Count-doubling time safety circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rusch, Gordon K. (Downers Grove, IL); Keefe, Donald J. (Lemont, IL); McDowell, William P. (Downers Grove, IL)

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is provided a nuclear reactor count-factor-increase time monitoring circuit which includes a pulse-type neutron detector, and means for counting the number of detected pulses during specific time periods. Counts are compared and the comparison is utilized to develop a reactor scram signal, if necessary.

  7. An intuitive approach to quantum circuit simulation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sensarn, Steven

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    for beginners in the field. A student may better understand an algorithm by visualizing each step and observing the state of the system over time. While there are many representations of a quantum algorithm, perhaps the most intuitive is the quantum circuit...

  8. Quantum computer of wire circuit architecture

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. A. Moiseev; F. F. Gubaidullin; S. N. Andrianov

    2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    First solid state quantum computer was built using transmons (cooper pair boxes). The operation of the computer is limited because of using a number of the rigit cooper boxes working with fixed frequency at temperatures of superconducting material. Here, we propose a novel architecture of quantum computer based on a flexible wire circuit of many coupled quantum nodes containing controlled atomic (molecular) ensembles. We demonstrate wide opportunities of the proposed computer. Firstly, we reveal a perfect storage of external photon qubits to multi-mode quantum memory node and demonstrate a reversible exchange of the qubits between any arbitrary nodes. We found optimal parameters of atoms in the circuit and self quantum modes for quantum processing. The predicted perfect storage has been observed experimentally for microwave radiation on the lithium phthalocyaninate molecule ensemble. Then also, for the first time we show a realization of the efficient basic two-qubit gate with direct coupling of two arbitrary nodes by using appropriate atomic frequency shifts in the circuit nodes. Proposed two-qubit gate runs with a speed drastically accelerated proportionally to the number of atoms in the node. The direct coupling and accelerated two-qubit gate can be realized for large number of the circuit nodes. Finally, we describe two and three-dimensional scalable architectures that pave the road to construction of universal multi-qubit quantum computer operating at room temperatures.

  9. Dendritic processing within olfactory bulb circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Betz, William J.

    Dendritic processing within olfactory bulb circuits Nathan E. Schoppa1 and Nathan N. Urban2 1 of the olfactory bulb. How- ever, the mechanisms by which this map is transformed into an odor code by the bulb circuitry remain unclear. Recent physiological studies in bulb slices have ident- ified several synaptic

  10. Bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit detection methods

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Simpson, Michael L.; Paulus, Michael J.; Sayler, Gary S.; Applegate, Bruce M.; Ripp, Steven A.

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are monolithic bioelectronic devices comprising a bioreporter and an OASIC. These bioluminescent bioreporter integrated circuit are useful in detecting substances such as pollutants, explosives, and heavy-metals residing in inhospitable areas such as groundwater, industrial process vessels, and battlefields. Also disclosed are methods and apparatus for detection of particular analytes, including ammonia and estrogen compounds.

  11. ECE 2100 Circuit Analysis Spring 2011

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Miller, Damon A.

    ECE 2100 Circuit Analysis Spring 2011 Exam #1 NAME analysis. #12;© 2011 Damon A. Miller Schematics drawn using LTspice IV (linear.com). Some problems might Schematics drawn using LTspice IV (linear.com). Some problems might be adapted from the course text

  12. Analysis of S-Circuit Uncertainty

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahmed, Taahir

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    INFORMATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 viii LIST OF FIGURES FIGURE Page 1 Explanatory figures for Donald?s s-circuit example. . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2 A representational s... Digraph representations of Donald?s beacon-compass reconfiguration and beacon-only reconfiguration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 8 The hardware implementations of the beacon emitter and receiver. . . . . 33 9 The hardware...

  13. Fuel Switching Strategies for the 1990s

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cascone, R.

    , petroleum coke, waste hydrocarbons (such as recovered from lubricants), biomass, and in the near future, methanol and other oxygenates or alcohols. Coal may also conceivably be a long-term sWitching candidate when utilized in a number of advanced open... under mos t conditions, in a manner that generates less NO x than heavier fuels such as coal, coke, and residual oil. Achieving NO x reductions with the latter is often a matter of capital investments and operating costs in either combustion...

  14. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loubriel, G.M.; Baca, A.G.; Zutavern, F.J.

    1998-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device is disclosed. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices. 5 figs.

  15. GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Loubriel, Guillermo M. (Sandia Park, NM); Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high gain, optically triggered, photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS) implemented in GaAs as a reverse-biased pin structure with a passivation layer above the intrinsic GaAs substrate in the gap between the two electrodes of the device. The reverse-biased configuration in combination with the addition of the passivation layer greatly reduces surface current leakage that has been a problem for prior PCSS devices and enables employment of the much less expensive and more reliable DC charging systems instead of the pulsed charging systems that needed to be used with prior PCSS devices.

  16. Elastomeric organic material for switching application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiju, K., E-mail: shijuvenus@gmail.com, E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com, E-mail: ppredeep@gmail.com; Praveen, T., E-mail: shijuvenus@gmail.com, E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com, E-mail: ppredeep@gmail.com; Preedep, P., E-mail: shijuvenus@gmail.com, E-mail: pravymon@gmail.com, E-mail: ppredeep@gmail.com [Laboratory for Molecular Photonics and Electronics (LAMP), Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology, Calicut, Kerala, 673601 (India)

    2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic Electronic devices like OLED, Organic Solar Cells etc are promising as, cost effective alternatives to their inorganic counterparts due to various reasons. However the organic semiconductors currently available are not attractive with respect to their high cost and intricate synthesis protocols. Here we demonstrate that Natural Rubber has the potential to become a cost effective solution to this. Here an attempt has been made to fabricate iodine doped poly isoprene based switching device. In this work Poly methyl methacrylate is used as dielectric layer and Aluminium are employed as electrodes.

  17. Investigation on properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide avalanche semiconductor switch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Long, E-mail: hulong-1226@126.com [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi'an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049 (China); Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China); Su, Jiancang; Ding, Zhenjie; Hao, Qingsong; Yuan, Xuelin [Science and Technology on High Power Microwave Laboratory, Northwest Institute of Nuclear Technology, Xi'an 710024 (China)

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Properties of ultrafast switching in a bulk gallium arsenide (GaAs) avalanche semiconductor switch based on semi-insulating wafer, triggered by an optical pulse, were analyzed using physics-based numerical simulations. It has been demonstrated that when a voltage with amplitude of 5.2?kV is applied, after an exciting optical pulse with energy of 1??J arrival, the structure with thickness of 650??m reaches a high conductivity state within 110 ps. Carriers are created due to photons absorption, and electrons and holes drift to anode and cathode terminals, respectively. Static ionizing domains appear both at anode and cathode terminals, and create impact-generated carriers which contribute to the formation of electron-hole plasma along entire channel. When the electric field in plasma region increases above the critical value (?4?kV/cm) at which the electrons drift velocity peaks, a domain comes into being. An increase in carrier concentration due to avalanche multiplication in the domains reduces the domain width and results in the formation of an additional domain as soon as the field outside the domains increases above ?4?kV/cm. The formation and evolution of multiple powerfully avalanching domains observed in the simulations are the physical reasons of ultrafast switching. The switch exhibits delayed breakdown with the characteristics affected by biased electric field, current density, and optical pulse energy. The dependence of threshold energy of the exciting optical pulse on the biased electric field is discussed.

  18. Organic solid state optical switches and method for producing organic solid state optical switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wasielewski, M.R.; Gaines, G.L.; Niemczyk, M.P.; Johnson, D.G.; Gosztola, D.J.; O`Neil, M.P.

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This invention consists of a light-intensity dependent molecular switch comprised of a compound which shuttles an electron or a plurality of electrons from a plurality of electron donors to an electron acceptor upon being stimulated with light of predetermined wavelengths, and a method for making said compound.

  19. Dual-circuit segmented rail phased induction motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM); Cowan, Jr., Maynard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved linear motor utilizes two circuits, rather that one circuit and an opposed plate, to gain efficiency. The powered circuit is a flat conductive coil. The opposed segmented rail circuit is either a plurality of similar conductive coils that are shorted, or a plurality of ladders formed of opposed conductive bars connected by a plurality of spaced conductors. In each embodiment, the conductors are preferably cables formed from a plurality of intertwined insulated wires to carry current evenly.

  20. Trust in analog : analog circuit techniques for reducing the risk of malicious circuits and software

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kuznetsov, Eugene

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Malicious circuits and software present a significant security risk, especially in control applications. This work is concerned with increasing the trustworthiness of control circuitry by reducing its complexity. The ...

  1. Circuit design for embedded memory in low-power integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Qazi, Masood

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis explores the challenges for integrating embedded static random access memory (SRAM) and non-volatile memory-based on ferroelectric capacitor technology-into lowpower integrated circuits. First considered is the ...

  2. IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 37, NO. 3, MARCH 2002 371 Fully Integrated CMOS Power Amplifier Design

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    IEEE JOURNAL OF SOLID-STATE CIRCUITS, VOL. 37, NO. 3, MARCH 2002 371 Fully Integrated CMOS Power-chip impedance matching and power- combining method, the distributed active transformer is presented. It combines output power while maintaining a 50- match. It also uses virtual ac grounds and magnetic couplings

  3. Observations of short-circuiting flow paths within a free-surface wetland in Augusta, Georgia, U.S.A.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Licciardi, Joseph M.

    constructed treatment wetland in Augusta, Georgia were used to quantify the size, distribution, velocity). In treatment wetlands, such heterogeneity nearly always results in reduced contaminant removal (WoObservations of short-circuiting flow paths within a free-surface wetland in Augusta, Georgia, U

  4. EEE 334 Circuits II (4) [F, S] Course (Catalog) description

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhang, Junshan

    : EEE334 contributes to engineering science through linear and non-linear circuit analysis, problem Prerequisites by Topic: Circuits I Course Objectives: Application of electric network theory to analysis and design of the fundamental non- linear circuits of transistor electronics. Course Outcomes: 1. Apply

  5. Foundations for a Circuit Complexity Theory of Sensory Processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maass, Wolfgang

    with linear or almost linear total wire length. 1 Introduction Circuit complexity theory is a classical area in neuromorphic engineering, especially analog VLSI, and the analysis of neural circuits in biological organisms modules'' (i.e., as gates) in our complexity analysis. #12; plexity measures in traditional circuit

  6. Timed Verification of the Generic Architecture of a Memory Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Encrenaz-Tiphène, Emmanuelle

    #cient linear constraints relating the delays of the internal gates of the circuit to the exter­ nal delays on the reachability analysis of a timed model of the circuit (with additional abstract interpretation techniques [10Timed Verification of the Generic Architecture of a Memory Circuit Using Parametric Timed Automata

  7. Verification of the Generic Architecture of a Memory Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Encrenaz-Tiphène, Emmanuelle

    -Cortadella's parametric method for verifying asynchronous circuits, we formally derive a set of linear constraints of sufficient linear constraints relating the delays of the internal gates of the circuit to the external delays on the reachability analysis of a timed model of the circuit (with additional abstract interpretation techniques [11

  8. Circuit Complexity and Multiplicative Complexity of Boolean Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    no example of an explicit function requiring super linear circuit size. Moreover, only a few proofs of linear (usually by a long case analysis) that for any circuit computing this function setting some variablesCircuit Complexity and Multiplicative Complexity of Boolean Functions Arist Kojevnikov1

  9. Detection and removal of functional redundancy in multi-level logic circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dorsey, David Michael

    2013-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    circuit. This research will focus on finding non-traditional methods for minimizing multi-level logic circuits....

  10. Advanced Non-Krylov Subspace Model Order Reduction Techniques for Interconnect Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yan, Boyuan

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Freund. Efficient linear circuit analysis by Pade approxima-for reduced order analysis of linear circuit with multiple

  11. Design, fabrication and testing of a lateral self-cleaning MEMS switch

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shi, Yong, 1965-

    2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A lateral contact MEMS switch has been developed to address the need for a long life cycle, low contact resistance RF switch. At the present time, there is no commercial MEMS switch that meets all the requirements. The ...

  12. Interactive Visibility Culling in Complex Environments using Occlusion-Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    North Carolina at Chapel Hill, University of

    Categories and Subject Descriptors: I.3.5 [Com- puter Graphics]: Computational Geometry and Object ModelingInteractive Visibility Culling in Complex Environments using Occlusion-Switches Naga K. Govindaraju culling in complex 3D environments. An occlusion- switch consists of two GPUs (graphics processing units

  13. Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Rene Carmona

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carmona, Rene

    Valuation of Energy Storage: An Optimal Switching Approach Ren´e Carmona Department of Operations://www.pstat.ucsb.edu/faculty/ludkovski We consider the valuation of energy storage facilities within the framework of stochastic control;Carmona and Ludkovski: Optimal Switching for Energy Storage 2 in the commodity financial markets. Storage

  14. Entry, Innovation, and Exit Evidence From LAN Switch Industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Entry, Innovation, and Exit Evidence From LAN Switch Industry N° 2007-02 Janvier 2007 Roberto Fontana Lionel Nesta #12;Entry, Innovation, and Exit Evidence From LAN Switch Industry Roberto Fontana of heterogeneous exit, we find that firms with high pre-entry experience and higher technical expertise are more

  15. Bandwidth Efficient All-to-All Broadcast on Switched Clusters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yuan, Xin

    Bandwidth Efficient All-to-All Broadcast on Switched Clusters Ahmad Faraj Pitch Patarasuk Xin Yuan}@cs.fsu.edu Abstract We develop an all-to-all broadcast scheme that achieves maximum bandwidth efficiency for clusters all- to-all broadcast as efficiently as a single switch connect- ing all machines when the message

  16. Task Assignment in a Server Farm with Switching Delays and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hyytiä, Esa

    Task Assignment in a Server Farm with Switching Delays and General Energy-Aware Cost Structure Esa Servers Customers Basic problem E[T] k parallel queues Tasks arrive at rate (Poisson process) Objective;Switching Delays and Energy Model for Server Farm k parallel servers Size-aware setting Dispatcher Servers

  17. SWITCH MECHANISM DIAGNOSIS USING A PATTERN RECOGNITION APPROACH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chamroukhi, Faicel

    for the diagnosis of switch mechanisms driven by an electric motor is presented in this paper. Its main advantage (see figure 1) are driven by an electric motor and equiped with a clamp locking system so called VCC ("Verrou Carter Coussinet" in french). Figure 1: Switch mechanism driven by an electrical motor

  18. Power Control for Crossbar-based Input-Queued Switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , if f is the maximum digital signal frequency, the power consumption of a CMOS device is proportional number of data simultaneously flowing across the switching fabric. Thermal power dissipation is becoming1 Power Control for Crossbar-based Input-Queued Switches Andrea Bianco, Paolo Giaccone, Guido

  19. On the Power of Nonlinear Mappings in Switching Map Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sato, Yuzuru

    On the Power of Nonlinear Mappings in Switching Map Systems Yuzuru Sato 1 # , Makoto Taiji 2 operations would be allowed. It is also expected that the computational power of switching map systems stronger computational power than classical Turing machines. On the other hand, these dynamical systems

  20. Tunnel MOS Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor for RF Switching Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rezanezhad Gatabi, Iman

    2013-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

    structure called “Tunnel MOS Heterostructure FET (TMOSHFET)” is introduced which has lower ON-state resistance and faster switching speed compared to conventional AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. In the switch ON process, the channel of this device is charged up by electron...

  1. High density printed electrical circuit board card connection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumbaugh, Alan E. (Aurora, IL)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A zero insertion/extraction force printed circuit board card connection system comprises a cam-operated locking mechanism disposed along an edge portion of the printed circuit board. The extrusions along the circuit board mate with an extrusion fixed to the card cage having a plurality of electrical connectors. The card connection system allows the connectors to be held away from the circuit board during insertion/extraction and provides a constant mating force once the circuit board is positioned. The card connection system provides a simple solution to the need for a greater number of electrical signal connections.

  2. Final Report - Dynamic Path Scheduling through Extensions to Generalized Multiprotocol Label Switching (GMPLS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Principal Investigator: Dr. Abdella Battou

    2009-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The major accomplishments of the project are the successful software implementation of the Phase I scheduling algorithms for GMPLS Label Switched Paths (LSPs) and the extension of the IETF Path Computation Element (PCE) Protocol to support scheduling extensions. In performing this work, we have demonstrated the theoretical work of Phase I, analyzed key issues, and made relevant extensions. Regarding the software implementation, we developed a proof of concept prototype as part of our Algorithm Evaluation System (AES). This implementation uses the Linux operating system to provide software portability and will be the foundation for our commercial software. To demonstrate proof of concept, we have implemented LSP scheduling algorithms to support two of the key GMPLS switching technologies (Lambda and Packet) and support both Fixed Path (FP) and Switched Path (SP) routing. We chose Lambda and Packet because we felt it was essential to include both circuit and packet switching technologies as well as to address all-optical switching in the study. As conceptualized in Phase I, the FP algorithms use a traditional approach where the LSP uses the same physical path for the entire service duration while the innovative SP algorithms allow the physical path to vary during the service duration. As part of this study, we have used the AES to conduct a performance analysis using metro size networks (up to 32 nodes) that showed that these algorithms are suitable for commercial implementation. Our results showed that the CPU time required to compute an LSP schedule was small compared to expected inter-arrival time between LSP requests. Also, when the network size increased from 7 to 15 to 32 nodes with 10, 26, and 56 TE links, the CPU processing time showed excellent scaling properties. When Fixed Path and Switched Path routing were compared, SP provided only modestly better performance with respect to LSP completion rate, service duration, path length, and start time deviation. In addition, the SP routing required somewhat more CPU time than the FP routing. However, when the allowable range for the start time is increased, the CPU time for SP increased less rapidly than FP such that the CPU processing times became comparable. Therefore, SP routing may scale better than FP routing. The Path Computation Element Working Group is a complementary working group to the GMPLS working group (CCAMP) in the IETF and is developing standards to discover, manage, and access elements that compute routes for GMPLS for LSPs. The algorithms used to compute the routes are not subject to standardization. Since the PCE supports only standard GMPLS LSPs, it does not support scheduled LSPs. Therefore, it is a natural extension of our Phase I work to introduce this enhancement into the PCE. In addition, the PCE adds another dimension to our product line because the PCE by itself may be a product with a standard interface.

  3. Electron beam magnetic switch for a plurality of free electron lasers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schlitt, Leland G. (Livermore, CA)

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Apparatus for forming and utilizing a sequence of electron beam segments, each of the same temporal length (substantially 15 nsec), with consecutive beams being separated by a constant time interval of the order of 3 nsec. The beam sequence is used for simultaneous inputs to a plurality of wiggler magnet systems that also accept the laser beams to be amplified by interaction with the co-propagating electron beams. The electron beams are arranged substantially in a circle to allow proper distribution of and simultaneous switching out of the beam segments to their respective wiggler magnets.

  4. Exploring Distributed Energy Alternatives to Electrical Distribution Grid Expansion in Souhern California Edison Service Territory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stovall, Therese K [ORNL; Kingston, Tim [Gas Technology Institute

    2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Distributed energy (DE) technologies have received much attention for the energy savings and electric power reliability assurances that may be achieved by their widespread adoption. Fueling the attention have been the desires to globally reduce greenhouse gas emissions and concern about easing power transmission and distribution system capacity limitations and congestion. However, these benefits may come at a cost to the electric utility companies in terms of lost revenue and concerns with interconnection on the distribution system. This study assesses the costs and benefits of DE to both consumers and distribution utilities and expands upon a precursory study done with Detroit Edison (DTE)1, by evaluating the combined impact of DE, energy-efficiency, photovoltaics (a use of solar energy), and demand response that will shape the grid of the future. This study was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Gas Research Institute (GRI), American Electric Power (AEP), and Gas Technology Institute's (GTI) Distributed Energy Collaborative Program (DECP). It focuses on two real Southern California Edison (SCE) circuits, a 13 MW suburban circuit fictitiously named Justice on the Lincoln substation, and an 8 MW rural circuit fictitiously named Prosper on the Washington Substation. The primary objectives of the study were threefold: (1) Evaluate the potential for using advanced energy technologies, including DE, energy-efficiency (EE), demand response, electricity storage, and photovoltaics (PV), to reshape electric load curves by reducing peak demand, for real circuits. (2) Investigate the potential impact on guiding technology deployment and managing operation in a way that benefits both utilities and their customers by: (a) Improving grid load factor for utilities; (b) Reducing energy costs for customers; and (c) Optimizing electric demand growth. (3) Demonstrate benefits by reporting on a recently installed advanced energy system at a utility customer site. This study showed that advanced energy technologies are economical for many customers on the two SCE circuits analyzed, providing certain customers with considerable energy cost savings. Using reasonable assumptions about market penetration, the study showed that adding distributed generation would reduce peak demand on the two circuits enough to defer the need to upgrade circuit capacity. If the DE is optimally targeted, the deferral could economically benefit SCE, with cost savings that outweigh the lost revenues due to lower sales of electricity. To a lesser extent, economically justifiable energy-efficiency, photovoltaic technologies, and demand response could also help defer circuit capacity upgrades by reducing demand.

  5. A Docking Casette For Printed Circuit Boards

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barringer, Dennis R. (Wallkill, NY); Seminaro, Edward J. (Milton, NY); Toffler, Harold M. (Newburgh, NY)

    2003-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A docking apparatus for printed circuit boards including a cassette housing, having a housing base, a housing cover and a housing wall, wherein the housing base and the housing wall are disposed relative to each other so as to define a housing cavity for containing a printed circuit board and wherein the housing wall includes a cable opening disposed so as to be communicated with the housing cavity, a linkage mechanism, wherein the linkage mechanism includes an engagement configuration and a disengagement configuration and wherein the linkage mechanism is disposed so as to be associated with the cassette housing and a housing bezel, wherein the housing bezel is disposed relative to the cassette housing so as to be associated with the cable opening.

  6. TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, Wallace J. (Boston Lake, NY)

    1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A power controller device which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the "reset" input of a R-S flip flop, while an "0" crossing detector controls the "set" input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the "reset" and "set" inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations.

  7. TRIAC/SCR proportional control circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hughes, W.J.

    1999-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

    A power controller device is disclosed which uses a voltage-to-frequency converter in conjunction with a zero crossing detector to linearly and proportionally control AC power being supplied to a load. The output of the voltage-to frequency converter controls the ``reset`` input of a R-S flip flop, while an ``0`` crossing detector controls the ``set`` input. The output of the flip flop triggers a monostable multivibrator controlling the SCR or TRIAC firing circuit connected to the load. Logic gates prevent the direct triggering of the multivibrator in the rare instance where the ``reset`` and ``set`` inputs of the flip flop are in coincidence. The control circuit can be supplemented with a control loop, providing compensation for line voltage variations. 9 figs.

  8. Quantum Heat Engines Using Superconducting Quantum Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. T. Quan; Y. D. Wang; Yu-xi Liu; C. P. Sun; Franco Nori

    2006-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    We propose a quantum analog of the internal combustion engine used in most cars. Specifically, we study how to implement the Otto-type quantum heat engine (QHE) with the assistance of a Maxwell's demon. Three steps are required: thermalization, quantum measurement, and quantum feedback controlled by the Maxwell demon. We derive the positive-work condition of this composite QHE. Our QHE can be constructed using superconducting quantum circuits. We explicitly demonstrate the essential role of the demon in this macroscopic QHE.

  9. Progress in radiation immune thermionic integrated circuits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lynn, D.K.; McCormick, J.B. (comps.)

    1985-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a program directed at evaluating the thermionic integrated circuit (TIC) technology for applicability to military systems. Previous programs under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, have developed an initial TIC technology base and demonstrated operation in high-temperature and high-radiation environments. The program described in this report has two parts: (1) a technical portion in which experiments and analyses were conducted to refine perceptions of near-term as well as ultimate performance levels of the TIC technology and (2) an applications portion in which the technical conclusions were to be evaluated against potential military applications. This report draws several conclusions that strongly suggest that (1) useful radiation-hard/high-temperature operable integrated circuits can be developed using the TIC technology; (2) because of their ability to survive and operate in hostile environments, a variety of potential military applications have been projected for this technology; and (3) based on the above two conclusions, an aggressive TIC development program should be initiated to provide the designers of future systems with integrated circuits and devices with the unique features of the TICs.

  10. Base drive and overlap protection circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gritter, David J. (Southfield, MI)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An inverter (34) which provides power to an A. C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A. C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A. C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a microcomputer and memory element which receive various parametric inputs and calculate optimized machine control data signals therefrom. The control data is asynchronously loaded into the inverter through an intermediate buffer (38). A base drive and overlap protection circuit is included to insure that both transistors of a complimentary pair are not conducting at the same time. In its preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack (32) and a three-phase induction motor (18).

  11. Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Pocha, Michael D. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium.

  12. Semiconductor switch geometry with electric field shaping

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, R.; Pocha, M.D.

    1994-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

    An optoelectric switch is disclosed that utilizes a cylindrically shaped and contoured GaAs medium or other optically active semiconductor medium to couple two cylindrically shaped metal conductors with flat and flared termination points each having an ovoid prominence centrally extending there from. Coupling the truncated ovoid prominence of each conductor with the cylindrically shaped optically active semiconductor causes the semiconductor to cylindrically taper to a triple junction circular line at the base of each prominence where the metal conductor conjoins with the semiconductor and a third medium such as epoxy or air. Tapering the semiconductor at the triple junction inhibits carrier formation and injection at the triple junction and thereby enables greater current carrying capacity through and greater sensitivity of the bulk area of the optically active medium. 10 figs.

  13. Permanent-magnet switched-flux machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Trzynadlowski, Andrzej M.; Qin, Ling

    2010-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A permanent-magnet switched-flux (PMSF) device has a ferromagnetic outer stator mounted to a shaft about a central axis extending axially through the PMSF device. Pluralities of top and bottom stator poles are respectively mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly in first and second transverse planes extending from first and second sections of the central axis adjacent to an inner surface of the ferromagnetic outer stator. A ferromagnetic inner rotor is coupled to the shaft and has i) a rotor core having a core axis co-axial with the central axis; and ii) first and second discs having respective outer edges with first and second pluralities of permanent magnets (PMs) mounted in first and second circles, radially outwardly from the rotor core axis in the first and second transverse planes. The first and second pluralities of PMs each include PMs of alternating polarity.

  14. Eddy-current-damped microelectromechanical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Tijeras, NM)

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed that includes a shuttle suspended for movement above a substrate. A plurality of permanent magnets in the shuttle of the MEM device interact with a metal plate which forms the substrate or a metal portion thereof to provide an eddy-current damping of the shuttle, thereby making the shuttle responsive to changes in acceleration or velocity of the MEM device. Alternately, the permanent magnets can be located in the substrate, and the metal portion can form the shuttle. An electrical switch closure in the MEM device can occur in response to a predetermined acceleration-time event. The MEM device, which can be fabricated either by micromachining or LIGA, can be used for sensing an acceleration or deceleration event (e.g. in automotive applications such as airbag deployment or seat belt retraction).

  15. Eddy-current-damped microelectromechanical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM); Polosky, Marc A. (Tijeras, NM)

    2007-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) device is disclosed that includes a shuttle suspended for movement above a substrate. A plurality of permanent magnets in the shuttle of the MEM device interact with a metal plate which forms the substrate or a metal portion thereof to provide an eddy-current damping of the shuttle, thereby making the shuttle responsive to changes in acceleration or velocity of the MEM device. Alternately, the permanent magnets can be located in the substrate, and the metal portion can form the shuttle. An electrical switch closure in the MEM device can occur in response to a predetermined acceleration-time event. The MEM device, which can be fabricated either by micromachining or LIGA, can be used for sensing an acceleration or deceleration event (e.g. in automotive applications such as airbag deployment or seat belt retraction).

  16. High voltage photo switch package module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sullivan, James S; Sanders, David M; Hawkins, Steven A; Sampayan, Stephen E

    2014-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A photo-conductive switch package module having a photo-conductive substrate or wafer with opposing electrode-interface surfaces, and at least one light-input surface. First metallic layers are formed on the electrode-interface surfaces, and one or more optical waveguides having input and output ends are bonded to the substrate so that the output end of each waveguide is bonded to a corresponding one of the light-input surfaces of the photo-conductive substrate. This forms a waveguide-substrate interface for coupling light into the photo-conductive wafer. A dielectric material such as epoxy is then used to encapsulate the photo-conductive substrate and optical waveguide so that only the metallic layers and the input end of the optical waveguide are exposed. Second metallic layers are then formed on the first metallic layers so that the waveguide-substrate interface is positioned under the second metallic layers.

  17. A New Optical Switching Fabric Architecture Incorporating Rapidly Switching All-Optical Variable Delay Buffers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kolner, Brian H.

    - optical random access memory. While the theoretical and experimental work for the optical-label switching of the output delay buffer. Electronic On-Off Logic 2^(N-1)T 2^(N-2)T T Electronic On-Off Logic 2^(N-1)T 2^(N-2)T T ? i Electronic On-Off Logic 2^(N-1)T 2^(N-2)T T Electronic On-Off Logic 2^(N-1)T 2^(N-2)T T ? i

  18. Capacitive charge generation apparatus and method for testing circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, E.I. Jr.; Peterson, K.A.; Barton, D.L.

    1998-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron beam apparatus and method for testing a circuit are disclosed. The electron beam apparatus comprises an electron beam incident on an outer surface of an insulating layer overlying one or more electrical conductors of the circuit for generating a time varying or alternating current electrical potential on the surface; and a measurement unit connected to the circuit for measuring an electrical signal capacitively coupled to the electrical conductors to identify and map a conduction state of each of the electrical conductors, with or without an electrical bias signal being applied to the circuit. The electron beam apparatus can further include a secondary electron detector for forming a secondary electron image for registration with a map of the conduction state of the electrical conductors. The apparatus and method are useful for failure analysis or qualification testing to determine the presence of any open-circuits or short-circuits, and to verify the continuity or integrity of electrical conductors buried below an insulating layer thickness of 1-100 {micro}m or more without damaging or breaking down the insulating layer. The types of electrical circuits that can be tested include integrated circuits, multi-chip modules, printed circuit boards and flexible printed circuits. 7 figs.

  19. Capacitive charge generation apparatus and method for testing circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cole, Jr., Edward I. (Albuquerque, NM); Peterson, Kenneth A. (Albuquerque, NM); Barton, Daniel L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An electron beam apparatus and method for testing a circuit. The electron beam apparatus comprises an electron beam incident on an outer surface of an insulating layer overlying one or more electrical conductors of the circuit for generating a time varying or alternating current electrical potential on the surface; and a measurement unit connected to the circuit for measuring an electrical signal capacitively coupled to the electrical conductors to identify and map a conduction state of each of the electrical conductors, with or without an electrical bias signal being applied to the circuit. The electron beam apparatus can further include a secondary electron detector for forming a secondary electron image for registration with a map of the conduction state of the electrical conductors. The apparatus and method are useful for failure analysis or qualification testing to determine the presence of any open-circuits or short-circuits, and to verify the continuity or integrity of electrical conductors buried below an insulating layer thickness of 1-100 .mu.m or more without damaging or breaking down the insulating layer. The types of electrical circuits that can be tested include integrated circuits, multi-chip modules, printed circuit boards and flexible printed circuits.

  20. Advanced Design of Broadband Distributed Amplifier using a SiGe BiCMOS Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Flaviis, Franco

    interfaces, it is essential that RF/microwave circuits be implemented in low-cost silicon technology. However.18 µm CMOS distributed amplifier with Coplanar Strip (CPS) was designed with the unity gain

  1. Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    improve the performances of piezoelectric actuation. internal resonance / equivalent circuits 1Vibration control in plates by uniformly distributed PZT actuators interconnected via electric vibrations of plates by means of a set of electrically-interconnected piezoelectric actuators is described

  2. Path delay model based on -stable distribution for the 60GHz indoor channel.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) transmitters and receivers will make possible the use of hand present the statistical results of fitting the delays to -stable distributions. In the third section

  3. Analysis and optimization of VLSI Clock Distribution Networks for skew variability reduction 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rajaram, Anand K.

    2004-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As VLSI technology moves into the Ultra-Deep Sub-Micron (UDSM) era, manufacturing variations, power supply noise and temperature variations greatly affect the performance and yield of VLSI circuits. Clock Distribution ...

  4. Theoretical study of the electrical power behavior of a cesium thermionic converter for switching resistive and reactive loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez, J.G. [ICUAP-BUAP, Puebla (Mexico). Semiconductor Devices Research Center; Estrada, C.A.; Jimenez, A.E.; Cervantes, J.G. [UNAM, Temixco (Mexico). Energy Research Center

    1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Pulsed ionized diodes have shown to be an attractive mode to develop thermionic converters. Usually the investigations have been focused to work with additive gases and constant loads at steady state. The experimental transient graphs reported suggest a dynamic behavior of the thermionic converter. Periods of the order of 300 {micro}s have been reported for the decay time of voltage and current, a condition that is similar to a capacitive discharge. A circuit model for a thermionic converter to define this condition is proposed. Using this model, an electrical analysis of the thermionic converter power with different switching loads is made. Both, resistive and reactive loads are connected. Special emphasis is dedicated to determine the resonance frequencies.

  5. A field programmable analog array for switched capacitor filters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wilcox, Robert M.

    1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    heavily constrained layout and thus is not optimum for high performance circuits. Analog arrays are a particular type of semi-custom circuit which are currently being used in industry. The objective of this work is to develop a design methodology...

  6. Uniform Distribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    randomly and equally likely a point in that interval), the uniform distribution ... Roughly speaking, this means that from any distribution we can create the uniform.

  7. Dynamical switching characteristics of a bistable injection laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, K.Y.; Harder, C.; Yariv, A.

    1982-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The switching characteristics of a bistable injection laser with very large hysteresis is examined. Switch-on delays are shown to exhibit a ''critical'' part and a ''noncritical'' part, both of which can be reduced by increasing the overdrive current. It is possible to obtain fairly fast switching time (<20 ns) with a strong overdrive. Nominal delays of 100--200 ns result under moderate overdrives. These long time scales are due to long carrier lifetimes in the carrier-depleted absorption section, a property intrinsic to these bistable injection lasers.

  8. Spintronic switches for ultra low energy global interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sharad, Mrigank, E-mail: msharad@purdue.edu; Roy, Kaushik [School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    We present ultra-low energy interconnect design using nano-scale spin-torque (ST) switches for global data-links. Emerging spin-torque phenomena can lead to ultra-low-voltage, high-speed current-mode magnetic-switches. ST-switches can simultaneously provide large trans-impedance gain by employing magnetic tunnel junctions, to convert current-mode signals into large-swing voltage levels. Such device-characteristics can be used in the design of energy-efficient current-mode global interconnects.

  9. Photo-induced micro-mechanical optical switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Datskos, Panagiotis George (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (late of Oak Ridge, TN)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An optical switch is formed by introducing light lengthwise to a microcantilever waveguide directed toward a second waveguide. The microcantilever is caused to bend by light emitted from a laser diode orthogonal to the microcantilever and at an energy above the band gap, which induces stress as a result of the generation of free carriers. The bending of the waveguide directs the carrier frequency light to a second receptor waveguide or to a non-responsive surface. The switch may be combined in an array to perform multiple switching functions rapidly and at low energy losses.

  10. Options for Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Michael

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic(PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit present several challenges and opportunities for distribution utilities. Rapidly varying irradiance conditions may cause voltage sags and swells that cannot be compensated by slowly responding utility equipment resulting in a degradation of power quality. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We discuss and compare via simulation various design options for control systems to manage the reactive power generated by these inverters. An important design de...

  11. An experimental analogue for memristor based Chua's circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. Jothimurugan; K. Thamilmaran; Ronilson Rocha

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the dynamics of a practical equivalent of a smooth memristor oscillator derived from Chua's circuit. This approach replaces the conventional Chua's diode by a flux controlled memristor with negative conductance. The central idea is to design a practical memristor based circuit using electronic analogy in order to bypass problems related to the realization of memristor equivalents. The amplitude and the frequency of the oscillations are previously defined in the circuit design. The result is a robust and flexible circuit without inductors, which is able to reproduce a rich variety of dynamical behaviors. The proposed analogue circuit is successfully designed and implemented, producing experimental time series, phase portraits, and power spectra, which are corroborated by numerical simulations. The "0-1 test" is also performed in order to verify the regular and chaotic dynamics on the proposed analogue circuit.

  12. Constant-Optimized Quantum Circuits for Modular Multiplication and Exponentiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor L. Markov; Mehdi Saeedi

    2015-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

    Reversible circuits for modular multiplication $Cx$%$M$ with $xcircuit depth rather than actual values, producing fairly large circuits not optimized for specific $C$ and $M$ values. In this work, we develop such optimizations in a bottom-up fashion, starting with most convenient $C$ values. When zero-initialized ancilla registers are available, we reduce the search for compact circuits to a shortest-path problem. Some of our modular-multiplication circuits are asymptotically smaller than previous constructions, but worst-case bounds and average sizes remain $\\Theta(n^2)$. In the context of modular exponentiation, we offer several constant-factor improvements, as well as an improvement by a constant additive term that is significant for few-qubit circuits arising in ongoing laboratory experiments with Shor's algorithm.

  13. On the Combined Input-Crosspoint Buffered Switch with Round-Robin Arbitration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rojas-Cessa, Roberto

    through. Therefore, the search for switch/router architectures with high performance and large capacity) Segmentation of incoming variable-size packets at the ingress side of a switch to perform internal switching, the performance of packet switches are con- strained by memory speed and the efficiency of the arbitration scheme

  14. A critical study of the equivalent circuits of three and four-winding transformers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Whitson, Donald Ray

    1951-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    6. 4 6. 5 Table 1 1 Westinghouse, Electrical Transmission and Distribution Reference Book, p, 99 21 Ai'PENDIX A INRUSH CURRENT At the instant a transformer is switched on the line, the tran- sient response produces a current phenomenon called... HEA, 60 cycles, voltage rating 120/120/240/240, single phase, ap? proximate impedance ~ 2. 8$, additive polarity, serial No. 559440. Voltmeter: Westinghouse, a. c. or d. c. , type PI5, style No. 701322, serial No. 1676725, frequency range d. c...

  15. MOSFETMOSFET ffTT MOSFET small-signal equivalent circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pulfrey, David L.

    --parametersparameters 1. fT is related to the short-circuit current gain 2. |id/ig|2 = |y23/y33|2 3. Extrapolated f to one using z-parameters 2. It's now easy to add in the parasitic R's 3. fT is related to the short-circuit1 MOSFETMOSFET ffTT LECTURE 17 · MOSFET small-signal equivalent circuits · 2-port parameters · y

  16. Circuit quantum electrodynamics with a nonlinear resonator

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Bertet; F. R. Ong; M. Boissonneault; A. Bolduc; F. Mallet; A. C. Doherty; A. Blais; D. Vion; D. Esteve

    2011-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

    One of the most studied model systems in quantum optics is a two-level atom strongly coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field stored in a cavity, a research field named cavity quantum electrodynamics or CQED. CQED has recently received renewed attention due to its implementation with superconducting artificial atoms and coplanar resonators in the so-called circuit quantum electrodynamics (cQED) architecture. In cQED, the couplings can be much stronger than in CQED due to the design flexibility of superconducting circuits and to the enhanced field confinement in one-dimensional cavities. This enabled the realization of fundamental quantum physics and quantum information processing experiments with a degree of control comparable to that obtained in CQED. The purpose of this chapter is to investigate the situation where the resonator to which the atom is coupled is made nonlinear with a Kerr-type nonlinearity, causing its energy levels to be nonequidistant. The system is then described by a nonlinear Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian. This considerably enriches the physics since a pumped nonlinear resonator displays bistability, parametric amplification, and squeezing. The interplay of strong coupling and these nonlinear effects constitutes a novel model system for quantum optics that can be implemented experimentally with superconducting circuits. This chapter is organized as follows. In a first section we present the system consisting of a superconducting Kerr nonlinear resonator strongly coupled to a transmon qubit. In the second section, we describe the response of the sole nonlinear resonator to an external drive. In the third section, we show how the resonator bistability can be used to perform a high-fidelity readout of the transmon qubit. In the last section, we investigate the quantum backaction exerted by the intracavity field on the qubit.

  17. Multi-line triggering and interdigitated electrode structure for photoconductive semiconductor switches

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mar, Alan (Albuquerque, NM); Zutavern, Fred J. (Albuquerque, NM); Loubriel, Guillermo (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

    An improved photoconductive semiconductor switch comprises multiple-line optical triggering of multiple, high-current parallel filaments between the switch electrodes. The switch can also have a multi-gap, interdigitated electrode for the generation of additional parallel filaments. Multi-line triggering can increase the switch lifetime at high currents by increasing the number of current filaments and reducing the current density at the contact electrodes in a controlled manner. Furthermore, the improved switch can mitigate the degradation of switching conditions with increased number of firings of the switch.

  18. COMBINATIONAL-CIRCUITCOMBINATIONAL CIRCUIT BUILDING BLOCKS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maeng, Seungryoul

    ;Three-input XOR function implemented i h 4 1 l i lwith a 4-to-1 multiplexer 14 0 0 0 w1 w2 w3 f 0 w1 w20Mux)p ( ) multiplexer demultiplexer #12;2-to-1 Mux (Selector)2 to 1 Mux (Selector) 4 f s w0 w1 0 1 0 1 fs w0 w1 f=s'w0+sw1 (a) Graphical symbol 1 (b) Truth table 1 w1 w0 w0 fs w1 w1 f s (c) Sum-of-products circuit (d

  19. Throughput-cost analysis of optical flow switching

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chan, Vincent W. S.

    In this paper, we employ a cost model embodying major sources of capital expenditure (CapEx) to compare the throughput-cost tradeoff offered by optical flow switching to that of more traditional optical network architectures.

  20. Reducing Actuator Switchings for Motion Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Ryan N.

    Reducing Actuator Switchings for Motion Control of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles Monique Chyba, such as time, energy, payload or some combination of these. Indeed, the major issue is that due to the vehicles

  1. Using Multiprotocol Label Switching in Virtual Private Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Krishnamohan

    2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis presents the design of Multiprotocol Label Switching Virtual Private Networks(MPLS VPN). MPLS VPNs are true peer models, which perform traffic separation at Layer 3, through the implementation of separate IP VPN forwarding tables. MPLS...

  2. ab switched current: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interfaces with the ac grid using a pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) inverter. In 3, a variable-speed wind turbine for a Switched Reluctance Wind Generator, Based on Current...

  3. atrial switch operation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interfaces with the ac grid using a pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) inverter. In 3, a variable-speed wind turbine for a Switched Reluctance Wind Generator, Based on Current...

  4. arterial switch operation: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    interfaces with the ac grid using a pulsewidth-modulation (PWM) inverter. In 3, a variable-speed wind turbine for a Switched Reluctance Wind Generator, Based on Current...

  5. Data Parallel SwitchLevel Simulation \\Lambda Randal E. Bryant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bryant, Randal E.

    Data Parallel Switch­Level Simulation \\Lambda Randal E. Bryant Computer Science Department Carnegie the bit­level paral­ lelism inherent in conventional machine operations. Bryant---Data Parallel Simulation

  6. Oxygen enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels ...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    enhanced switching to combustion of lower rank fuels Re-direct Destination: A furnace that combusts fuel, such as coal, of a given minimum energy content to obtain a stated minimum...

  7. Bayesian Nonparametric Methods for Learning Markov Switching Processes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fox, Emily Beth

    In this article, we explored a Bayesian nonparametric approach to learning Markov switching processes. This framework requires one to make fewer assumptions about the underlying dynamics, and thereby allows the data to ...

  8. Development and application of an advanced switched reluctance generator drive

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Asadi, Peyman

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation contains the results of research conducted on the design and control characterization of a Switched Reluctance Generator (SRG) for maximum output power. The SRG is an attractive solution to the increasing worldwide demand...

  9. All graphene electromechanical switch fabricated by chemical vapor deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Milaninia, Kaveh M.

    We demonstrate an electromechanical switch comprising two polycrystalline graphene films; each deposited using ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition. The top film is pulled into electrical contact with the bottom film ...

  10. AlGaN/GaN-based power semiconductor switches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lu, Bin, Ph. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    AlGaN/GaN-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) have great potential for their use as high efficiency and high speed power semiconductor switches, thanks to their high breakdown electric field, mobility and ...

  11. Electro-mechanical heat switch for cryogenic applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van den Berg, Marcel L. (Oakland, CA); Batteux, Jan D. (Hayward, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

    2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A heat switch includes two symmetric jaws. Each jaw is comprised of a link connected at a translatable joint to a flexible arm. Each arm rotates about a fixed pivot, and has an articulated end including a thermal contact pad connected to a heat sink. The links are joined together at a translatable main joint. To close the heat switch, a closing solenoid is actuated and forces the main joint to an over-center position. This movement rotates the arms about their pivots, respectively, forces each of them into a stressed configuration, and forces the thermal contact pads towards each other and into compressive contact with a cold finger. The closing solenoid is then deactivated. The heat switch remains closed due to a restoring force generated by the stressed configuration of each arm, until actuation of an opening solenoid returns the main joint to its starting open-switch position.

  12. Scheduling in switched queueing networks with heavy-tailed trac

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Markakis, Mihalis G

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We study scheduling problems arising in switched queueing networks, a class of stochastic systems that are often used to model data communication networks, such as uplinks and downlinks of cellular networks, networks of ...

  13. Laser Micromachining of Active and Passive Photonic Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cho, Seong-Ho

    2006-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis describes the development of advanced laser resonators and applications of laserinduced micromachining for photonic circuit fabrication. Two major advantages of laserinduced micromachining are direct patterning ...

  14. analog circuit design: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    tutorial will give an overview of the design problems at hand : the leakage power and process variability and their implications for digital circuits and memories, and the...

  15. Design for manufacturability with regular fabrics in digital integrated circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gazor, Mehdi (Seyed Mehdi)

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Integrated circuit design is limited by manufacturability. As devices scale down, sensitivity to process variation increases dramatically, making design for manufacturability a critical concern. Designers must identify the ...

  16. Safety and performance enhancement circuit for primary explosive detonators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Davis, Ronald W. (Tracy, CA)

    2006-04-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A safety and performance enhancement arrangement for primary explosive detonators. This arrangement involves a circuit containing an energy storage capacitor and preset self-trigger to protect the primary explosive detonator from electrostatic discharge (ESD). The circuit does not discharge into the detonator until a sufficient level of charge is acquired on the capacitor. The circuit parameters are designed so that normal ESD environments cannot charge the protection circuit to a level to achieve discharge. When functioned, the performance of the detonator is also improved because of the close coupling of the stored energy.

  17. amplifying circuit targeting: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    "linear generating elements. " These authors replaced a set of circuits containing a number of resistors, capacitors, inductors, transformers and gyrators... Hoyle Passano,...

  18. axial motor circuits: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Fundamentals of electromechanical energy conversion. Motors and generators, transformers, single and three- phase power circuits, three-phase induction motor including...

  19. Stochastic Modeling and Analysis of Custom Integrated Circuits

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Fang

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    3 Fast Failure Analysis of Memory Circuits in HighIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Failure Analysis ofSRAM parametric failure analysis. ” In Proc. ACM/IEEE Design

  20. active quenching circuit: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mario Stipcevic 2008-05-18 3 Splice Resistance Measurements in the LHC Main Superconducting Magnet Circuits by the New Quench Protection System CERN Preprints Summary: The...

  1. advanced microwave circuits: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    transition of photons in circuit quantum electrodynamics electrodynamics QED , superconduct- ing qubits are coupled with microwave photons in a trans- mission line and a...

  2. High speed, long distance, data transmission multiplexing circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mariotti, Razvan (Boulder, CO)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A high speed serial data transmission multiplexing circuit, which is operable to accurately transmit data over long distances (up to 3 Km), and to multiplex, select and continuously display real time analog signals in a bandwidth from DC to 100 Khz. The circuit is made fault tolerant by use of a programmable flywheel algorithm, which enables the circuit to tolerate one transmission error before losing synchronization of the transmitted frames of data. A method of encoding and framing captured and transmitted data is used which has a low overhead and prevents some particular transmitted data patterns from locking an included detector/decoder circuit.

  3. analog integrated circuits: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Academic, ON, DECREASING, and OFF Visual Signals KWABENA BOAHEN Penn Bioengineering, 3320 Smith Walk Boahen, Kwabena 15 Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, 43,...

  4. SAE2.py : a python script to automate parameter studies using SCREAMER with application to magnetic switching on Z.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orndorff-Plunkett, Franklin

    2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The SCREAMER simulation code is widely used at Sandia National Laboratories for designing and simulating pulsed power accelerator experiments on super power accelerators. A preliminary parameter study of Z with a magnetic switching retrofit illustrates the utility of the automating script for optimizing pulsed power designs. SCREAMER is a circuit based code commonly used in pulsed-power design and requires numerous iterations to find optimal configurations. System optimization using simulations like SCREAMER is by nature inefficient and incomplete when done manually. This is especially the case when the system has many interactive elements whose emergent effects may be unforeseeable and complicated. For increased completeness, efficiency and robustness, investigators should probe a suitably confined parameter space using deterministic, genetic, cultural, ant-colony algorithms or other computational intelligence methods. I have developed SAE2 - a user-friendly, deterministic script that automates the search for optima of pulsed-power designs with SCREAMER. This manual demonstrates how to make input decks for SAE2 and optimize any pulsed-power design that can be modeled using SCREAMER. Application of SAE2 to magnetic switching on model of a potential Z refurbishment illustrates the power of SAE2. With respect to the manual optimization, the automated optimization resulted in 5% greater peak current (10% greater energy) and a 25% increase in safety factor for the most highly stressed element.

  5. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Turitsyn, Konstantin [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Sulc, Petr [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Backhaus, Scott [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  6. Plasmon-induced photonic switching in a metamaterial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    H. Xu; B. S. Ham

    2009-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Using light-induced localized surface plasmon interactions in a metamaterial, we present a plasmonic control of light absorption for photonic switching. We discuss that the present surface plasmon-induced photonic switching is comparable with coherence swapping in a tripod optical system based on electromagnetically induced transparency. This outcome opens a door to active controls of the surface plasmons in a metamaterial for potential applications of nano photonics.

  7. All-optical switching in optically induced nonlinear waveguide couplers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diebel, Falko, E-mail: falko.diebel@uni-muenster.de; Boguslawski, Martin; Rose, Patrick; Denz, Cornelia [Institut für Angewandte Physik and Center for Nonlinear Science (CeNoS), Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, 48149 Münster (Germany); Leykam, Daniel; Desyatnikov, Anton S. [Nonlinear Physics Centre, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    We experimentally demonstrate all-optical vortex switching in nonlinear coupled waveguide arrays optically induced in photorefractive media. Our technique is based on multiplexing of nondiffracting Bessel beams to induce various types of waveguide configurations. Using double- and quadruple-well potentials, we demonstrate precise control over the coupling strength between waveguides, the linear and nonlinear dynamics and symmetry-breaking bifurcations of guided light, and a power-controlled optical vortex switch.

  8. RF-MEMS Switched Varactors for Medium Power Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maury, F; Crunteanu, A; Conseil, F; Blondy, P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In RF (Radio Frequency) domain, one of the limitations of using MEMS (Micro Electromechanical Systems) switching devices for medium power applications is RF power. Failure phenomena appear even for 500 mW. A design of MEMS switched capacitors with an enhanced topology is presented in this paper to prevent it. This kind of device and its promising performances will serve to fabricate a MEMS based phase shifter able to work under several watts.

  9. Design of switched-resistor monolithic filters using NMOS technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ngo, Dinh Tai

    1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    DESIGN OF SWITCHED-RESISTOR MONOLITHIC FILTERS USING NMOS TECHNOLOGY A Thesis by DINH TAI NGO Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December... 1981 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering DESIGN OF SWITCHED-RESISTOR MONOLITHIC FILTERS USING NMOS TECHNOLOGY A Thesis by DINH TAI NGO Approved as to style and content by J+ (' ll ( (C airman of Comm'it tee) (Member) (Member) ( d of De...

  10. A Current-based Method for Short Circuit Power Calculation under Noisy Input Waveforms*

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pedram, Massoud

    A Current-based Method for Short Circuit Power Calculation under Noisy Input Waveforms* Hanif circuit energy dissipation of logic cells. The short circuit current is highly dependent on the input waveforms are then used to calculate the short circuit current, and hence, short circuit energy dissipation

  11. Current rectification, switching, polarons, and defects in molecular electronic devices

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. M. Bratkovsky

    2006-11-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Devices for nano- and molecular size electronics are currently a focus of research aimed at an efficient current rectification and switching. A few generic molecular scale devices are reviewed here on the basis of first-principles and model approaches. Current rectification by (ballistic) molecular quantum dots can produce the rectification ratio ~100. Current switching due to conformational changes in the molecules is slow, on the order of a few kHz. Fast switching (~1THz) may be achieved, at least in principle, in a degenerate molecular quantum dot with strong coupling of electrons with vibrational excitations. We show that the mean-field approach fails to properly describe intrinsic molecular switching and present an exact solution to the problem. Defects in molecular films result in spurious peaks in conductance, apparent negative differential resistance, and may also lead to unusual temperature and bias dependence of current. The observed switching in many cases is_extrinsic_, caused by changes in molecule-electrode geometry, molecule reconfiguration, metallic filament formation through, and/or changing amount of disorder in a molecular film. We give experimental examples of telegraph "switching" and "hot spot" formation in the molecular films.

  12. In-situ observation of self-regulated switching behavior in WO{sub 3-x} based resistive switching devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hong, D. S.; Wang, W. X.; Chen, Y. S., E-mail: yschen@aphy.iphy.ac.cn; Sun, J. R.; Shen, B. G. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academic of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

    2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The transmittance of tungsten oxides can be adjusted by oxygen vacancy (V{sub o}) concentration due to its electrochromic property. Here, we report an in-situ observation of resistive switching phenomenon in the oxygen-deficient WO{sub 3-x} planar devices. Besides directly identifying the formation/rupture of dark-colored conductive filaments in oxide layer, the stripe-like WO{sub 3-x} device demonstrated self-regulated switching behavior during the endurance testing, resulting in highly consistent switching parameters after a stabilizing process. For very high V{sub o}s mobility was demonstrated in the WO{sub 3-x} film by the pulse experiment, we suggested that the electric-field-induced homogeneous migration of V{sub o}s was the physical origin for such unique switching characteristics.

  13. Hydraulic actuator for an electric circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Imam, I.

    1983-05-17T23:59:59.000Z

    This actuator comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit breaker opening operation. The breaker-opening space and the breaker-closing space are connected by an impeded flow passage. A pilot valve opens to allow the pressurized liquid in the breaker-closing space to flow to a back chamber of a normally closed main valve to cause the main valve to be opened during a circuit breaker opening operation to release the pressurized liquid from the breaker-closing space. An impeded passage affords communication between the back chamber and a sump located on the opposite side of the main valve from the back chamber. The pilot valve and impeded passage allow rapid opening of the main valve with pressurized liquid from the breaker closing side of the piston. 3 figs.

  14. Hydraulic actuator for an electric circuit breaker

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Imam, Imdad (Colonie, NY)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This actuator comprises a fluid motor having a piston, a breaker-opening space at one side of the piston, and a breaker-closing space at its opposite side. An accumulator freely communicates with the breaker-opening space for supplying pressurized fluid thereto during a circuit breaker opening operation. The breaker-opening space and the breaker-closing space are connected by an impeded flow passage. A pilot valve opens to allow the pressurized liquid in the breaker-closing space to flow to a back chamber of a normally closed main valve to cause the main valve to be opened during a circuit breaker opening operation to release the pressurized liquid from the breaker-closing space. An impeded passage affords communication between the back chamber and a sump located on the opposite side of the main valve from the back chamber. The pilot valve and impeded passage allow rapid opening of the main valve with pressurized liquid from the breaker closing side of the piston.

  15. Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jatko, W.B.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1988-04-12T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads is disclosed. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples. 6 figs.

  16. Interrogator system for identifying electrical circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jatko, William B. (10601 Rivermist La., Knoxville, TN 37922); McNeilly, David R. (Rte. 12, Box 538, Maryville, TN 37801)

    1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for interrogating electrical leads to correctly ascertain the identity of equipment attached to remote ends of the leads. The system includes a source of a carrier signal generated in a controller/receiver to be sent over the leads and an identifier unit at the equipment. The identifier is activated by command of the carrier and uses a portion of the carrier to produce a supply voltage. Each identifier is uniquely programmed for a specific piece of equipment, and causes the impedance of the circuit to be modified whereby the carrier signal is modulated according to that program. The modulation can be amplitude, frequency or phase modulation. A demodulator in the controller/receiver analyzes the modulated carrier signal, and if a verified signal is recognized displays and/or records the information. This information can be utilized in a computer system to prepare a wiring diagram of the electrical equipment attached to specific leads. Specific circuit values are given for amplitude modulation, and the system is particularly described for use with thermocouples.

  17. U.S. Department of Energy directions in photovoltaic power conditioner development using Smart Power/Power Integrated Circuit technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bulawka, A. [Dept. of Energy, Washington, DC (United States); Krauthamer, S. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); Das, R. [Jet Propulsion Lab., Pasadena, CA (United States); [California State Univ., Long Beach, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Photovoltaic (PV) power applications are currently concentrated in intermediate or residential size for utility-interactive, or small stand-alone modes of operation. Consequently, the development of low cost, highly efficient and reliable power conditioning subsystems (PCS) in the small to medium power range is critical for the viability of PV systems as an alternative energy source. The paper summarizes US Department of Energy programmatic directions and development efforts in photovoltaic PCS designs. It describes new opportunities arising from increased availability and capabilities of semiconductor switching components such as smart power devices and power integrated circuits (PICs). The paper describes development efforts of manufacturers of these components and evaluates the synergistic impacts that will assist in new PCS development, and will accelerate PV power applications. It is found that the use of these technologies in future PCS designs offers significant promise of improved PCS reliability, cost and performance, thereby making PV ac power more competitive with utility power.

  18. Moment Closure Approximations in a Genetic Negative Feedback Circuit

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mohammad Soltani; Cesar Vargas; Niraj Kumar; Rahul Kulkarni; Abhyudai Singh

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Auto-regulation, a process wherein a protein negatively regulates its own production, is a common motif in gene expression networks. Negative feedback in gene expression plays a critical role in buffering intracellular fluctuations in protein concentrations around optimal value. Due to the nonlinearities present in these feedbacks, moment dynamics are typically not closed, in the sense that the time derivative of the lower-order statistical moments of the protein copy number depends on high-order moments. Moment equations are closed by expressing higher-order moments as nonlinear functions of lower-order moments, a technique commonly referred to as moment closure. Here, we compare the performance of different moment closure techniques. Our results show that the commonly used closure method, which assumes a priori that the protein population counts are normally distributed, performs poorly. In contrast, conditional derivative matching, a novel closure scheme proposed here provides a good approximation to the exact moments across different parameter regimes. In summary our study provides a new moment closure method for studying stochastic dynamics of genetic negative feedback circuits, and can be extended to probe noise in more complex gene networks.

  19. Abstract-The distribution network reconfiguration is a process that consists of changing the status of the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lai, Hong-jian

    Abstract-The distribution network reconfiguration is a process that consists of changing the status of the numerous combinations of candidate switches. A multi-agent based system for distribution network Edison (SCE). Index Terms- Smart Distribution Network, Fault Reconfiguration, Graph Theory, Multi

  20. Local Control of Reactive Power by Distributed Photovoltaic Generators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Turitsyn, Konstantin S; Backhaus, Scott; Chertkov, Misha

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the re...