National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for distributed thermoelectric heating

  1. Thermoelectric heat exchange element

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Callas, James J. (Peoria, IL); Taher, Mahmoud A. (Peoria, IL)

    2007-08-14

    A thermoelectric heat exchange module includes a first substrate including a heat receptive side and a heat donative side and a series of undulatory pleats. The module may also include a thermoelectric material layer having a ZT value of 1.0 or more disposed on at least one of the heat receptive side and the heat donative side, and an electrical contact may be in electrical communication with the thermoelectric material layer.

  2. Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators Thermoelectrics have unique advantages for ...

  3. Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM Advanced Thermoelectric ...

  4. Waste Heat Recovery Opportunities for Thermoelectric Generators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thermoelectrics have unique advantages for integration into selected waste heat recovery applications.

  5. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Systems Implemented in a Hybrid Configuration Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of ...

  6. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful ...

  7. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications Electrical ...

  8. An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities in Europe An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities in Europe An overview presentation of R&D ...

  9. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive Industry On Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Skutterudites Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

  10. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Development of Cost-Competitive ...

  11. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design for cooling using a novel V-shaped ... Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program

  12. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Development of Cost-Competitive ...

  13. Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines Discusses a novel TEG which utilizes a ...

  14. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermoelectrics on a OTR truck PDF icon schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  15. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Develop thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery with a 10% fuel economy ... More Documents & Publications Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric ...

  16. NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Purdue … GM Partnership on Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews results in developing commercially viable thermoelectric generators for efficient conversion of automotive exhaust waste heat to electricity

  17. Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Recovery | Department of Energy Discusses progress of thermoelectric generator development at BSST and assessment of potential to enter commercial operation in vehicles PDF icon crane.pdf More Documents & Publications Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Development of a Scalable 10% Efficient Thermoelectric Generator

  18. Development of Marine Thermoelectric Heat Recovery Systems | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Discusses benefits of integration of thermoelectrics into the marine industry, research program milestones, and prototype TEG design and integration PDF icon wallace.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Marine Thermoelectric Heat Recovery Systems PACCAR/Hi-Z Thermoelectric Generator Project Vehicular Thermoelectric Applications Session DEER 2009

  19. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine-Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  20. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle ...

  1. Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Skutterudite TE modules were fabricated and assembled into prototype thermoelectric generators (TEGs), then installed on a standard GM production vehicle and tested for performance PDF icon meisner.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power Develop Thermoelectric

  2. Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy Overview and status of project to develop thermoelectric generator for automotive waste heat recovery and achieve at least 10% fuel economy improvement. PDF icon deer08_gundlach.pdf More Documents & Publications Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive Industry Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

  3. Development of Marine Thermoelectric Heat Recovery Systems | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Thermoelectric generator prototypes are evaluated in a dedicated hybrid vessel test platform fabricated from an encapsulated lifeboat to optimize performance and reliability for marine industry applications PDF icon wallace.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of Marine Thermoelectric Heat Recovery Systems Vehicular Thermoelectrics: The New Green Technology Bi-directional dc-dc Converter

  4. Thermoelectric Generator Development for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_meisner.pdf More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM

  5. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 11 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace050_meisner_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power

  6. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace049schock2011o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  7. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Describes TEG systems built at MSU to mitigate couple failures and a cost-benefit analysis ... More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an ...

  8. Enhancement of automotive exhaust heat recovery by thermoelectric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurements of thermoelectric voltage output and flow and surface temperatures were acquired and analyzed to investigate the power generation and heat transfer properties of the ...

  9. High Heat Flux Thermoelectric Module Using Standard Bulk Material

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presents high heat flux thermoelectric module design for cooling using a novel V-shaped shunt configuration with bulk TE elements achieving high area packing fractions

  10. Silicon-Based Thermoelectrics: Harvesting Low Quality Heat Using Economically Printed Flexible Nanostructured Stacked Thermoelectric Junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-03-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UIUC is experimenting with silicon-based materials to develop flexible thermoelectric devices—which convert heat into energy—that can be mass-produced at low cost. A thermoelectric device, which resembles a computer chip, creates electricity when a different temperature is applied to each of its sides. Existing commercial thermoelectric devices contain the element tellurium, which limits production levels because tellurium has become increasingly rare. UIUC is replacing this material with microscopic silicon wires that are considerably cheaper and could be equally effective. Improvements in thermoelectric device production could return enough wasted heat to add up to 23% to our current annual electricity production.

  11. Enhancement of automotive exhaust heat recovery by thermoelectric devices

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Enhancement of automotive exhaust heat recovery by thermoelectric devices Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Enhancement of automotive exhaust heat recovery by thermoelectric devices In an effort to improve automobile fuel economy, an experimental study is undertaken to explore practical aspects of implementing thermoelectric devices for exhaust gas energy recovery. A highly instrumented apparatus consisting of a hot (exhaust gas)

  12. Thermoelectric Conversion of Exhaust Gas Waste Heat into Usable Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy Presents successful incorporation of one of the most promising classes of the new materials, the skutterudites, into a working automotive TEG prototype and test results on its performance PDF icon deer11_meisner.pdf More Documents & Publications Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct

  13. Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Presentation given at the 16th...

  14. Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste heat recovery applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Model developed provides effective guidelines to designing thermoelectric generation systems for automotive waste heat recovery applications

  15. Amplification and reversal of Knudsen force by thermoelectric heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Neill, William J.; Wada, Mizuki; Strongrich, Andrew D.; Cofer, Anthony; Alexeenko, Alina A.

    2014-12-09

    We show that the Knudsen thermal force generated by a thermally-induced flow over a heated beam near a colder wall could be amplified significantly by thermoelectric heating. Bidirectional actuation is achieved by switching the polarity of the thermoelectric device bias voltage. The measurements of the resulting thermal forces at different rarefaction regimes, realized by changing geometry and gas pressure, are done using torsional microbalance. The repulsive or attractive forces between a thermoelectrically heated or cooled plate and a substrate are shown to be up to an order of magnitude larger than for previously studied configurations and heating methods due to favorable coupling of two thermal gradients. The amplification and reversal of the Knudsen force is confirmed by numerical solution of the Boltzmann-ESBGK kinetic model equation. Because of the favorable scaling with decreasing system size, the Knudsen force with thermoelectric heating offers a novel actuation and sensing mechanism for nano/microsystems.

  16. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    estimated to be 500 oC PDF icon deer09schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle...

  17. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. PDF icon 2006_deer_yang.pdf More Documents & Publications Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive Industry On Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Skutterudites Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

  18. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy 09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace_45_yang.pdf More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites

  19. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste Heat Recovery System for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Developing a low and high temperature dual thermoelectric generation waste heat recovery system for light-duty vehicles.

  20. Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Recovery System for Military Vehicles | Department of Energy 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentation: Hi-Z Technology, Inc. PDF icon 2004_deer_bass.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation Thermoelectric Developments for Vehicular Applications Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery

  1. Overview of Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview of progress in TE waste heat recovery from sedan gasoline-engine exhaust, TE HVAC ... Overview of Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery and Climate Control ...

  2. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficient, scalable, and low cost vehicular thermoelectric generators development will include rapid synthesis of thermoelectric materials, different device geometries, heat sink designs, and durability and long-term performance tests

  3. High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Development of high-performance thermoelectric devices for vehicle waste heat recovery will include fundamental research to use abundant promising low-cost thermoelectric materials, thermal management and interfaces design, and metrology

  4. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon emrgtech06_reedy_040213.pdf More Documents & Publications Working Fluids Low Global Warming Potential Refrigerants - 2013 Peer Review Multi-Function Fuel-Fired Heat Pump - 2013 Peer Review Buildings Performance Database - 2013 BTO Peer Review Department of Energy

    Develop thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery with a 10% fuel economy improvement

  5. NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces

  6. Vehicular Applications of Thermoelectrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overivew of DOE projects developing thermoelectric generators for engine waste heat utilization and vehiclular thermoelectric heating/cooling.

  7. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Powered Vehicle | Department of Energy Determining if a 10% fuel economy improvement is possible using thermoelectrics on a OTR truck PDF icon schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Wate

  8. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Progress in reliable high temperature segmented thermoelectric devices and potential for producing electricity from waste heat from energy intensive industrial processes and transportation vehicles exhaust are discussed

  9. High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat Recovery System for Military Vehicles Recent Progress in the Development of High ...

  10. Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Embedded Nanoparticles Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles 2011 DOE ...

  11. Feasibility of Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Recovery in Conventional Vehicles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, K.; Thornton, M.

    2009-04-01

    Thermoelectric (TE) generators convert heat directly into electricity when a temperature gradient is applied across junctions of two dissimilar metals. The devices could increase the fuel economy of conventional vehicles by recapturing part of the waste heat from engine exhaust and generating electricity to power accessory loads. A simple vehicle and engine waste heat model showed that a Class 8 truck presents the least challenging requirements for TE system efficiency, mass, and cost; these trucks have a fairly high amount of exhaust waste heat, have low mass sensitivity, and travel many miles per year. These factors help maximize fuel savings and economic benefits. A driving/duty cycle analysis shows strong sensitivity of waste heat, and thus TE system electrical output, to vehicle speed and driving cycle. With a typical alternator, a TE system could allow electrification of 8%-15% of a Class 8 truck's accessories for 2%-3% fuel savings. More research should reduce system cost and improve economics.

  12. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery in Process Industries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adam Polcyn; Moe Khaleel

    2009-01-06

    The overall objective of the project was to integrate advanced thermoelectric materials into a power generation device that could convert waste heat from an industrial process to electricity with an efficiency approaching 20%. Advanced thermoelectric materials were developed with figure-of-merit ZT of 1.5 at 275 degrees C. These materials were not successfully integrated into a power generation device. However, waste heat recovery was demonstrated from an industrial process (the combustion exhaust gas stream of an oxyfuel-fired flat glass melting furnace) using a commercially available (5% efficiency) thermoelectric generator coupled to a heat pipe. It was concluded that significant improvements both in thermoelectric material figure-of-merit and in cost-effective methods for capturing heat would be required to make thermoelectric waste heat recovery viable for widespread industrial application.

  13. Potential Thermoelectric Applications in Diesel Vehicles | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectrics: The New Green Automotive Technology Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric ...

  14. Thermoelectric energy converter for generation of electricity from low-grade heat

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jayadev, T.S.; Benson, D.K.

    1980-05-27

    A thermoelectric energy conversion device which includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements is described. A hot liquid is supplied to one side of each element and a cold liquid is supplied to the other side of each element. The thermoelectric generator may be utilized to produce power from low-grade heat sources such as ocean thermal gradients, solar ponds, and low-grade geothermal resources. (WHK)

  15. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by GenTherm at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about thermoelectric waste heat recovery...

  16. Development of High-efficiency Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Utililization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Qiang

    2009-04-30

    The goals of this . CRADA are: 1) Investigation of atomistic structure and nucleation of nanoprecipitates in (PbTe){sub I-x}(AgSbTe2){sub x} (LAST) system; and 2) Development of non-equilibrium synthesis of thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery. We have made significant accomplishment in both areas. We studied the structure of LAST materials using high resolution imaging, nanoelectron diffraction, energy dispersive spectrum, arid electron energy loss spectrum, and observed a range of nanoparticles The results, published in J. of Applied Physics, provide quantitative structure information about nanoparticles, that is essential for the understanding of the origin of the high thermoelectric performance in this class of materials. We coordinated non-equilibrium synthesis and characterization of thermoelectric materials for waste heat recovery application. Our results, published in J. of Electronic Materials, show enhanced thermoelectric figure of merit and robust mechanical properties in bulk . filled skutterudites.

  17. Thermoelectric generators incorporating phase-change materials for waste heat recovery from engine exhaust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meisner, Gregory P; Yang, Jihui

    2014-02-11

    Thermoelectric devices, intended for placement in the exhaust of a hydrocarbon fuelled combustion device and particularly suited for use in the exhaust gas stream of an internal combustion engine propelling a vehicle, are described. Exhaust gas passing through the device is in thermal communication with one side of a thermoelectric module while the other side of the thermoelectric module is in thermal communication with a lower temperature environment. The heat extracted from the exhaust gasses is converted to electrical energy by the thermoelectric module. The performance of the generator is enhanced by thermally coupling the hot and cold junctions of the thermoelectric modules to phase-change materials which transform at a temperature compatible with the preferred operating temperatures of the thermoelectric modules. In a second embodiment, a plurality of thermoelectric modules, each with a preferred operating temperature and each with a uniquely-matched phase-change material may be used to compensate for the progressive lowering of the exhaust gas temperature as it traverses the length of the exhaust pipe.

  18. QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeid Ghamaty

    2006-02-01

    New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

  19. QUANTUM WELL THERMOELECTRICS FOR CONVERTING WASTE HEAT TO ELECTRICITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saeid Ghamaty

    2006-03-31

    New thermoelectric materials using Quantum Well (QW) technology are expected to increase the energy conversion efficiency to more than 25% from the present 5%, which will allow for the low cost conversion of waste heat into electricity. Hi-Z Technology, Inc. has been developing QW technology over the past six years. It will use Caterpillar, Inc., a leader in the manufacture of large scale industrial equipment, for verification and life testing of the QW films and modules. Other members of the team are Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, who will sputter large area QW films. The Scope of Work is to develop QW materials from their present proof-of-principle technology status to a pre-production level over a proposed three year period. This work will entail fabricating the QW films through a sputtering process of 50 {micro}m thick multi layered films and depositing them on 12 inch diameter, 5 {micro}m thick Si substrates. The goal in this project is to produce the technology for fabricating a basic 10-20 watt module that can be used to build up any size generator such as: a 5-10 kW Auxiliary Power Unit (APU), a multi kW Waste Heat Recovery Generator (WHRG) for a class 8 truck or as small as a 10-20 watt unit that would fit on a daily used wood fired stove and allow some of the estimated 2-3 billion people on earth, who have no electricity, to recharge batteries (such as a cell phone) or directly power radios, TVs, computers and other low powered devices. In this quarter Hi-Z has continued fabrication of the QW films and also continued development of joining techniques for fabricating the N and P legs into a couple. The upper operating temperature limit for these films is unknown and will be determined via the isothermal aging studies that are in progress. We are reporting on these studies in this report. The properties of the QW films that are being evaluated are Seebeck, thermal conductivity and thermal-to-electricity conversion efficiency.

  20. Combustion Exhaust Gas Heat to Power Using Thermoelectric Engines |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Combining Solar and Home Performance Services, call slides and discussion summary, December 11, 2014. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Think Again! A Fresh Look at Home Performance Business Models and Service Offerings (301) Lessons Learned: Peer Exchange Calls -- No. 3 Voluntary Initiative on Incentives: Toolkit Training Webinar Department of Energy

    Discusses a novel TEG which utilizes a proprietary stack designed thermoelectric engine to

  1. Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Transport Properties, Thermal Response, and Mechanical Reliability of Thermoelectric Materials and Devices for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability

  2. NSF/DOE Thermoelectics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery NSFDOE Thermoelectics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery 2011 DOE ...

  3. EIS-0302: Transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Assembly and Test Operations From the Mound Site

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This EIS analyzes DOE's proposed transfer of the Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) operations at the Mound Site near Miamisburg, Ohio, to an alternative DOE site.

  4. Heat distribution by natural convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Natural convection can provide adequate heat distribution in many situtations that arise in buildings. This is appropriate, for example, in passive solar buildings where some rooms tend to be more strongly solar heated than others or to reduce the number of heating units required in a building. Natural airflow and heat transport through doorways and other internal building apertures is predictable and can be accounted for in the design. The nature of natural convection is described, and a design chart is presented appropriate to a simple, single-doorway situation. Natural convective loops that can occur in buildings are described and a few design guidelines are presented.

  5. Engineering Scoping Study of Thermoelectric Generator Systems for Industrial Waste Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry; Choate, William T.

    2006-11-01

    This report evaluates thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems with the intent to: 1) examine industrial processes in order to identify and quantify industrial waste heat sources that could potentially use TEGs; 2) describe the operating environment that a TEG would encounter in selected industrial processes and quantify the anticipated TEG system performance; 3) identify cost, design and/or engineering performance requirements that will be needed for TEGs to operate in the selected industrial processes; and 4) identify the research, development and deployment needed to overcome the limitations that discourage the development and use of TEGs for recovery of industrial waste heat.

  6. Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Thermoelectric Generator ...

  7. Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions ...

  8. Heat distribution by natural convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Natural convection can provide adequate heat distribution in many situations that arise in buildings. This is appropriate, for example, in passive solar buildings where some rooms tend to be more strongly solar heated than others. Natural convection can also be used to reduce the number of auxiliary heating units required in a building. Natural airflow and heat transport through doorways and other internal building apertures are predictable and can be accounted for in the design. The nature of natural convection is described, and a design chart is presented appropriate to a simple, single-doorway situation. Experimental results are summarized based on the monitoring of 15 passive solar buildings which employ a wide variety of geometrical configurations including natural convective loops.

  9. NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Purdue … GM Partnership...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces NSFDOE Thermoelectics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat ...

  10. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Home Heating Systems » Heat Distribution Systems Heat Distribution Systems Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Heat is distributed through your home in a variety of ways. Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems. That leaves

  11. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Cool » Home Heating Systems » Heat Distribution Systems Heat Distribution Systems Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Radiators are used in steam and hot water heating. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/Jot Heat is distributed through your home in a variety of ways. Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems.

  12. WASTE HEAT RECOVERY USING THERMOELECTRIC DEVICES IN THE LIGHT METALS INDUSTRY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choate, William T.; Hendricks, Terry J.; Majumdar, Rajita

    2007-05-01

    Recently discovered thermoelectric materials and associated manufacturing techniques (nanostructures, thin-film super lattice, quantum wells...) have been characterized with thermal to electric energy conversion efficiencies of 12-25+%. These advances allow the manufacture of small-area, high-energy flux (350 W/cm2 input) thermoelectric generating (TEG) devices that operate at high temperatures (~750°C). TEG technology offers the potential for large-scale conversion of waste heat from the exhaust gases of electrolytic cells (e.g., Hall-Hèroult cells) and from aluminum, magnesium, metal and glass melting furnaces. This paper provides an analysis of the potential energy recovery and of the engineering issues that are expected when integrating TEG systems into existing manufacturing processes. The TEG module must be engineered for low-cost, easy insertion and simple operation in order to be incorporated into existing manufacturing operations. Heat transfer on both the hot and cold-side of these devices will require new materials, surface treatments and design concepts for their efficient operation.

  13. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric Modules Application Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces

  14. Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses progress of thermoelectric generator development at BSST and assessment of potential to enter commercial operation in vehicles

  15. Heat Distribution Systems | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Forced-air systems use ducts that can also be used for central air conditioning and heat pump systems. Radiant heating systems also have unique heat distribution systems. That...

  16. ThermoElectric Power System Simulator (TEPSS)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    It describes the tool ThermoElectric Power System Simulator (TEPSS) which enables feasibility evaluation for thermoelectrics with various heat resources and optimizing design for specific uses.

  17. Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste ...

  18. Certification testing of the Los Alamos National Laboratory Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping container

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bronowski, D.R.; Madsen, M.M.

    1991-09-01

    The Heat Source/Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generator shipping counter is a Type B packaging currently under development by Los Alamos National Laboratory. Type B packaging for transporting radioactive material is required to maintain containment and shielding after being exposed to normal and hypothetical accident environments defined in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations Part 71. A combination of testing and analysis is used to verify the adequacy of this packaging design. This report documents the testing portion of the design verification. Six tests were conducted on a prototype package: a water spray test, a 4-foot normal conditions drop test, a 30-foot drop test, a 40-inch puncture test, a 30-minute thermal test, and an 8-hour immersion test.

  19. Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Programs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gabriel, D. M.; Miller, G. D.; Bohne, W. A.

    1995-03-16

    The purpose of this document is to serve as the Quality Assurance Plan for Heat Source/Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (HS/RTG) programs performed at EG&G Mound Applied Technologies. As such, it identifies and describes the systems and activities in place to support the requirements contained in DOE Order 5700.6C as reflected in MD-10334, Mound Quality Policy and Responsibilities and the DOE/RPSD supplement, OSA/PQAR-1, Programmatic Quality Assurance Requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. Unique program requirements, including additions, modifications, and exceptions to these quality requirements, are contained in the appendices of this plan. Additional appendices will be added as new programs and activities are added to Mound's HS/RTG mission assignment.

  20. Vehicular Thermoelectrics: A New Green Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of DOE-funded R&D on vehicular application of thermoelectric s - thermoelectric generators and thermoelectric heating and cooling, and a jointly funded TE R&D program with the NSF

  1. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests: RTG-1 and RTG-2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.; George, T.G.

    1996-07-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  2. General-purpose heat source: Research and development program, radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1996-11-01

    The general-purpose heat source provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system. The results of this test indicated that impact by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  3. Program Final Report - Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory Meisner

    2011-08-31

    We conducted a vehicle analysis to assess the feasibility of thermoelectric technology for waste heat recovery and conversion to useful electrical power and found that eliminating the 500 W of electrical power generated by the alternator corresponded to about a 7% increase in fuel economy (FE) for a small car and about 6% for a full size truck. Electric power targets of 300 W were established for city and highway driving cycles for this project. We obtained critical vehicle level information for these driving cycles that enabled a high-level design and performance analysis of radiator and exhaust gas thermoelectric subsystems for several potential vehicle platforms, and we identified the location and geometric envelopes of the radiator and exhaust gas thermoelectric subsystems. Based on this analysis, we selected the Chevrolet Suburban as the most suitable demonstration vehicle for this project. Our modeling and thermal analysis assessment of a radiator-based thermoelectric generator (TEG), however, revealed severe practical limitations. Specifically the small temperature difference of 100°C or less between the engine coolant and ambient air results in a low Carnot conversion efficiency, and thermal resistance associated with air convection would reduce this conversion efficiency even further. We therefore decided not to pursue a radiator-based waste heat recovery system and focused only on the exhaust gas. Our overall approach was to combine science and engineering: (1) existing and newly developed TE materials were carefully selected and characterized by the material researcher members of our team, and most of the material property results were validated by our research partners, and (2) system engineers worked closely with vehicle engineers to ensure that accurate vehicle-level information was used for developing subsystem models and designs, and the subsystem output was analyzed for potential fuel economy gains. We incorporated material, module, subsystem, and integration costs into the material selection criteria in order to balance various materials, module and subsystem design, and vehicle integration options. Our work on advanced TE materials development and on TEG system design, assembly, vehicle integration, and testing proceeded in parallel efforts. Results from our two preliminary prototype TEGs using only Bi-Te TE modules allowed us to solve various mechanical challenges and to finalize and fine tune aspects of the design and implementation. Our materials research effort led us to quickly abandon work on PbTe and focus on the skutterudite materials due to their superior mechanical performance and suitability at automotive exhaust gas operating temperatures. We synthesized a sufficiently large quantity of skutterudite material for module fabrication for our third and final prototype. Our TEG#3 is the first of its kind to contain state-of-the-art skutterudite-based TE modules to be installed and tested on a production vehicle. The design, which consisted of 24 skutterudite modules and 18 Bi-Te modules, attempted to optimize electrical power generation by using these two kinds of TE modules that have their peak performance temperatures matched to the actual temperature profile of the TEG during operation. The performance of TEG#3 was limited by the maximum temperature allowable for the Bi-Te TE modules located in the colder end of the TEG, resulting in the operating temperature for the skutterudite modules to be considerably below optimum. We measured the power output for (1) the complete TEG (25 Watts) and (2) an individual TE module series string (1/3 of the TEG) operated at a 60°C higher temperature (19 Watts). We estimate that under optimum operating temperature conditions, TEG#3 will generate about 235 Watts. With additional improvements in thermal and electrical interfaces, temperature homogeneity, and power conditioning, we estimate TEG#3 could deliver a power output of about 425 Watts.

  4. Heat distribution ceramic processing method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN); Kiggans, Jr., James O. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-layered heat distributor system is provided for use in a microwave process. The multi-layered heat distributors includes a first inner layer of a high thermal conductivity heat distributor material, a middle insulating layer and an optional third insulating outer layer. The multi-layered heat distributor system is placed around the ceramic composition or article to be processed and located in a microwave heating system. Sufficient microwave energy is applied to provide a high density, unflawed ceramic product.

  5. Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications ...

  6. Lighting system with heat distribution face plate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arik, Mehmet; Weaver, Stanton Earl; Stecher, Thomas Elliot; Kuenzler, Glenn Howard; Wolfe, Jr., Charles Franklin; Li, Ri

    2013-09-10

    Lighting systems having a light source and a thermal management system are provided. The thermal management system includes synthetic jet devices, a heat sink and a heat distribution face plate. The synthetic jet devices are arranged in parallel to one and other and are configured to actively cool the lighting system. The heat distribution face plate is configured to radially transfer heat from the light source into the ambient air.

  7. Advanced Soldier Thermoelectric Power System for Power Generation from Battlefield Heat Sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Hogan, Tim; Case, Eldon D.; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2010-09-01

    The U.S. military uses large amounts of fuel during deployments and battlefield operations. This project sought to develop a lightweight, small form-factor, soldier-portable advanced thermoelectric (TE) system prototype to recover and convert waste heat from various deployed military equipment (i.e., diesel generators/engines, incinerators, vehicles, and potentially mobile kitchens), with the ultimate purpose of producing power for soldier battery charging, advanced capacitor charging, and other battlefield power applications. The technical approach employed microchannel technology, a unique “power panel” approach to heat exchange/TE system integration, and newly-characterized LAST (lead-antimony-silver-telluride) and LASTT (lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride) TE materials segmented with bismuth telluride TE materials in designing a segmented-element TE power module and system. This project researched never-before-addressed system integration challenges (thermal expansion, thermal diffusion, electrical interconnection, thermal and electrical interfaces) of designing thin “power panels” consisting of alternating layers of thin, microchannel heat exchangers (hot and cold) sandwiching thin, segmented-element TE power generators. The TE properties, structurally properties, and thermal fatigue behavior of LAST and LASTT materials were developed and characterized such that the first segmented-element TE modules using LAST / LASTT materials were fabricated and tested at hot-side temperatures = 400 °C and cold-side temperatures = 40 °C. LAST / LASTT materials were successfully segmented with bismuth telluride and electrically interconnected with diffusion barrier materials and copper strapping within the module electrical circuit. A TE system design was developed to produce 1.5-1.6 kW of electrical energy using these new TE modules from the exhaust waste heat of 60-kW Tactical Quiet Generators as demonstration vehicles.

  8. NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Heat Recovery | Department of Energy Development for commercialization of automotive thermoelectric generators from high-ZT TE materials with using low-cost, widely available materials, system design and modeling to maximize temperature differential across TE modules and maximize power output PDF icon xu.pdf More Documents & Publications NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery NSF/DOE Thermoelectics Partnership: Thermoelectrics for

  9. Thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pryslak, N.E.

    1974-02-26

    A thermoelectric generator having a rigid coupling or stack'' between the heat source and the hot strap joining the thermoelements is described. The stack includes a member of an insulating material, such as ceramic, for electrically isolating the thermoelements from the heat source, and a pair of members of a ductile material, such as gold, one each on each side of the insulating member, to absorb thermal differential expansion stresses in the stack. (Official Gazette)

  10. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  11. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC Energy Efficient HVAC System ...

  12. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC Discusses results from TE ...

  13. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-31

    The thermoelectric generator shorting system provides the capability to monitor and short-out individual thermoelectric couples in the event of failure. This makes the series configured thermoelectric generator robust to individual thermoelectric couple failure. Open circuit detection of the thermoelectric couples and the associated short control is a key technique to ensure normal functionality of the TE generator under failure of individual TE couples. This report describes a five-year effort whose goal was the understanding the issues related to the development of a thermoelectric energy recovery device for a Class-8 truck. Likely materials and important issues related to the utility of this generator were identified. Several prototype generators were constructed and demonstrated. The generators developed demonstrated several new concepts including advanced insulation, couple bypass technology and the first implementation of skutterudite thermoelectric material in a generator design. Additional work will be required to bring this system to fruition. However, such generators offer the possibility of converting energy that is otherwise wasted to useful electric power. Uur studies indicate that this can be accomplished in a cost-effective manner for this application.

  14. Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive ...

  15. Tailored semiconducting carbon nanotube networks with enhanced thermoelectric properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Avery, Azure D.; Zhou, Ben H.; Lee, Jounghee; Lee, Eui -Sup; Miller, Elisa M.; Ihly, Rachelle; Wesenberg, Devin; Mistry, Kevin S.; Guillot, Sarah L.; Zink, Barry L.; et al

    2016-04-04

    Thermoelectric power generation, allowing recovery of part of the energy wasted as heat, is emerging as an important component of renewable energy and energy efficiency portfolios. Although inorganic semiconductors have traditionally been employed in thermoelectric applications, organic semiconductors garner increasing attention as versatile thermoelectric materials. Here we present a combined theoretical and experimental study suggesting that semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes with carefully controlled chirality distribution and carrier density are capable of large thermoelectric power factors, higher than 340 ΌW m-1 K-2, comparable to the best-performing conducting polymers and larger than previously observed for carbon nanotube films. Furthermore, we demonstrate thatmore » phonons are the dominant source of thermal conductivity in the networks, and that our carrier doping process significantly reduces the thermal conductivity relative to undoped networks. As a result, these findings provide the scientific underpinning for improved functional organic thermoelectric composites with carbon nanotube inclusions.« less

  16. Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric...

  17. NSF/DOE Thermoelectric Partnership: High-Performance Thermoelectric...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low ...

  18. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of ...

  19. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power -...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of Progress, A Vision for the Future ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power - A Decade of...

  20. Project Profile: Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Rohsenow-Kendall Heat Transfer Lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT), under the 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) R&D FOA, is developing concentrated solar thermoelectric generators (CSTEGs) for CSP systems. This innovative distributed solution contains no moving parts and converts heat directly into electricity. Thermal storage can be integrated into the system, creating a reliable and flexible source of electricity.

  1. Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Design and optimization of TE exhaust generator, vehicle integration, and thermal management; distributed cooling and heating with TE devices; discovery and development of highly efficient TE materials. PDF icon yang.pdf More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient

  2. Benefits of Thermoelectric Technology for the Automobile

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses improved fuel efficiency and other benefits of automotive application of thermoelectric (power generation and heating/cooling) and the need for production quantities of high-efficiency thermoelectric modules

  3. Thermoelectrics and Photovoltaics - Center for Solar and Thermal Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conversion Thermoelectrics and Photovoltaics Thermoelectrics A significant amount of heat is wasted from industrial processes, home heating and vehicle exhausts that could otherwise be converted to electricity through the use of thermoelectric devices. The interconversion between heat and electricity, through the use of thermoelectrics, is environmentally friendly and highly reliable. With improved efficiency, thermoelectrics could have a significant impact on the energy consumption

  4. GPHS-RTG system explosion test direct course experiment 5000. [General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1984-03-01

    The General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (GPHS-RTG) has been designed and is being built to provide electrical power for spacecrafts to be launched on the Space Shuttle. The objective of the RTG System Explosion Test was to expose a mock-up of the GPHS-RTG with a simulated heat source to the overpressure and impulse representative of a potential upper magnitude explosion of the Space Shuttle. The test was designed so that the heat source module would experience an overpressure at which the survival of the fuel element cladding would be expected to be marginal. Thus, the mock-up was placed where the predicted incident overpressure would be 1300 psi. The mock-up was mounted in an orientation representative of the launch configuration on the spacecraft to be used on the NASA Galileo Mission. The incident overpressure measured was in the range of 1400 to 2100 psi. The mock-up and simulated heat source were destroyed and only very small fragments were recovered. This damage is believed to have resulted from a combination of the overpressure and impact by very high velocity fragments from the ANFO sphere. Post-test analysis indicated that extreme working of the iridium clad material occurred, indicative of intensive impulsive loading on the metal.

  5. Electronic cooling using thermoelectric devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zebarjadi, M.

    2015-05-18

    Thermoelectric coolers or Peltier coolers are used to pump heat in the opposite direction of the natural heat flux. These coolers have also been proposed for electronic cooling, wherein the aim is to pump heat in the natural heat flux direction and from hot spots to the colder ambient temperature. In this manuscript, we show that for such applications, one needs to use thermoelectric materials with large thermal conductivity and large power factor, instead of the traditionally used high ZT thermoelectric materials. We further show that with the known thermoelectric materials, the active cooling cannot compete with passive cooling, and one needs to explore a new set of materials to provide a cooling solution better than a regular copper heat sink. We propose a set of materials and directions for exploring possible materials candidates suitable for electronic cooling. Finally, to achieve maximum cooling, we propose to use thermoelectric elements as fins attached to copper blocks.

  6. Solar thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toberer, Eric S.; Baranowski, Lauryn L.; Warren, Emily L.

    2016-05-03

    Solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from concentrated sunlight. A novel detailed balance model for STEGs is provided and applied to both state-of-the-art and idealized materials. STEGs can produce electricity by using sunlight to heat one side of a thermoelectric generator. While concentrated sunlight can be used to achieve extremely high temperatures (and thus improved generator efficiency), the solar absorber also emits a significant amount of black body radiation. This emitted light is the dominant loss mechanism in these generators. In this invention, we propose a solution to this problem that eliminates virtually all of the emitted black body radiation. This enables solar thermoelectric generators to operate at higher efficiency and achieve said efficient with lower levels of optical concentration. The solution is suitable for both single and dual axis solar thermoelectric generators.

  7. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling...

  8. Property:Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application" Showing 21 pages using this property. D Distributed...

  9. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2005-07-29

    Electricity generated by distributed energy resources (DER) located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumer requirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid. Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associated with transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricity delivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities to purchase energy when attractive. On-site thermal power generation is typically less efficient than central station generation, but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and utilizing combined heat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scale on-site generation to displace fuel purchases, then DER can become attractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts, the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressed using a mixed-integer linear programme, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, and information (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies, DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selecting the units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. In this paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion of the option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep an inventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lower costs even further by reducing off-peak generation and relying on storage. This and other effects of storages are demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in San Francisco, California, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacity of heat storage is calculated.

  10. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2006-06-16

    Electricity produced by distributed energy resources (DER)located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumerrequirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid.Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associatedwith transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricitydelivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities topurchase energy when attractive. On-site, single-cycle thermal powergeneration is typically less efficient than central station generation,but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and by utilizing combinedheat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scaleon-site thermal generation to displace fuel purchases, DER can becomeattractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts,the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressedusing a mixed-integer linear program, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, andinformation (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies,DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selectingthe units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. Inthis paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion ofthe option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep aninventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lowercosts even further by reducing lucrative peak-shaving generation whilerelying on storage to meet heat loads. This and other effects of storageare demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in SanFrancisco, California, USA, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacityof heat storage is calculated.

  11. White Paper for U.S. Army Rapid Equipping Force: Waste Heat Recovery with Thermoelectric and Lithium-Ion Hybrid Power System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J C

    2007-11-26

    By harvesting waste heat from engine exhaust and storing it in light-weight high-capacity modules, it is believed that the need for energy transport by convoys can be lowered significantly. By storing this power during operation, substantial electrical power can be provided during long periods of silent operation, while the engines are not operating. It is proposed to investigate the potential of installing efficient thermoelectric generators on the exhaust systems of trucks and other vehicles to generate electrical power from the waste heat contained in the exhaust and to store that power in advanced power packs comprised of polymer-gel lithium ion batteries. Efficient inexpensive methods for production of the thermoelectric generator are also proposed. The technology that exists at LLNL, as well as that which exists at industrial partners, all have high technology readiness level (TRL). Work is needed for integration and deployment.

  12. High-Efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery, STTR Phase II Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Timothy

    2011-01-07

    This is the final report of DoE STTR Phase II project, “High-efficiency, Cost-effective Thermoelectric Materials/Devices for Industrial Process Refrigeration and Waste Heat Recovery”. The objective of this STTR project is to develop a cost-effective processing approach to produce bulk high-performance thermoelectric (TE) nanocomposites, which will enable the development of high-power, high-power-density TE modulus for waste heat recovery and industrial refrigeration. The use of this nanocomposite into TE modules are expected to bring about significant technical benefits in TE systems (e.g. enhanced energy efficiency, smaller sizes and light weight). The successful development and applications of such nanocomposite and the resultant TE modules can lead to reducing energy consumption and environmental impacts, and creating new economic development opportunities.

  13. Thermoelectric powered wireless sensors for spent fuel monitoring

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carstens, T.; Corradini, M.; Blanchard, J.; Ma, Z.

    2011-07-01

    This paper describes using thermoelectric generators to power wireless sensors to monitor spent nuclear fuel during dry-cask storage. OrigenArp was used to determine the decay heat of the spent fuel at different times during the service life of the dry-cask. The Engineering Equation Solver computer program modeled the temperatures inside the spent fuel storage facility during its service life. The temperature distribution in a thermoelectric generator and heat sink was calculated using the computer program Finite Element Heat Transfer. From these temperature distributions the power produced by the thermoelectric generator was determined as a function of the service life of the dry-cask. In addition, an estimation of the path loss experienced by the wireless signal can be made based on materials and thickness of the structure. Once the path loss is known, the transmission power and thermoelectric generator power requirements can be determined. This analysis estimates that a thermoelectric generator can produce enough power for a sensor to function and transmit data from inside the dry-cask throughout its service life. (authors)

  14. Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Electric Power using Skutterudites...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Development of a Scalable 10% Efficient Thermoelectric Generator Vehicle Fuel Economy Improvement through Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Vehicular Applications of ...

  15. Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Discusses thermoelectric power generation technologies as applied to waste heat recovery, renewable thermal energy sources, and energy harvesting PDF icon kajikawa.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Progress in Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Japanese Activities in Thermoelectrics

  16. Methods of synthesizing thermoelectric materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Liu, Wei-Shu; Wang, Hengzhi; Wang, Hui; Yu, Bo; Chen, Gang

    2016-04-05

    Methods for synthesis of thermoelectric materials are disclosed. In some embodiments, a method of fabricating a thermoelectric material includes generating a plurality of nanoparticles from a starting material comprising one or more chalcogens and one or more transition metals; and consolidating the nanoparticles under elevated pressure and temperature, wherein the nanoparticles are heated and cooled at a controlled rate.

  17. Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses thermoelectric power generation technologies as applied to waste heat recovery, renewable thermal energy sources, and energy harvesting

  18. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1994-01-01

    Thermoelectricity is produced by applying a temperature differential to dissimilar electrically conducting or semiconducting materials, thereby producing a voltage that is proportional to the temperature difference. Thermoelectric generators use this effect to directly convert heat into electricity; however, presently-known generators have low efficiencies due to the production of high currents which in turn cause large resistive heating losses. Some thermoelectric generators operate at efficiencies between 4% and 7% in the 800{degrees} to 1200{degrees}C range. According to its major aspects and bradly stated, the present invention is an apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. In particular, the invention is a thermoelectric generator that juxtaposes a superconducting material and a semiconducting material - so that the superconducting and the semiconducting materials touch - to convert heat energy into electrical energy without resistive losses in the temperature range below the critical temperature of the superconducting material. Preferably, an array of superconducting material is encased in one of several possible configurations within a second material having a high thermal conductivity, preferably a semiconductor, to form a thermoelectric generator.

  19. An integrated approach towards efficient, scalable, and low cost thermoelectric waste heat recovery devices for vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses isostatic pressing for scalable TE elements, properties characterization of nanostructured ZnO materials, and heat exchanger designs to improve device efficiency

  20. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Overview of design, fabrication, integration, and test of working prototype TEG for engine waste heat recovery on Suburban test vehicle, and continuing investigation of skutterudite materials systems

  1. Thermoelectric generator for motor vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bass, John C.

    1997-04-29

    A thermoelectric generator for producing electric power for a motor vehicle from the heat of the exhaust gasses produced by the engine of the motor vehicle. The exhaust gasses pass through a finned heat transfer support structure which has seat positions on its outside surface for the positioning of thermoelectric modules. A good contact cylinder provides a framework from which a spring force can be applied to the thermoelectric modules to hold them in good contact on their seats on the surface of the heat transfer support structure.

  2. Development of a Thermoelectric Device for an Automotive Zonal HVAC System

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    | Department of Energy Presents development of a thermoelectric device using liquid working fluid on the wasteŽ side and air as working fluid on the mainŽ side to enable zonal or distributed heating/cooling systems within a vehicle PDF icon barnhart.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric HVAC for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Improving the Efficiency of Light-Duty Vehicle HVAC Systems using Zonal Thermoelectric Devices and Comfort Modeling Improving efficiency of a

  3. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program...

  4. Thermoelectric Opportunities in Light-Duty Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of thermoelectric (TE) vehicle exhaust heat recovery, TE HVAC systems, and OEM role in establishing guidelines for cost, power density, systems integration, and durability.

  5. Engineering and Materials for Automotive Thermoelectric Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon yang.pdf More Documents & Publications Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient ...

  6. The Effective Thermoelectric Properties of Composite Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Rigorous mathematical analysis of electric conduction and heat transfer in heterogeneous thermoelectric composites, showing higher conversion efficiency than all its constituents is possible

  7. Overview of Fords Thermoelectric Programs: Waste Heat Recovery and Climate Control

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of progress in TE waste heat recovery from sedan gasoline-engine exhaust, TE HVAC system in hybrid sedan, and establishing targets for cost, power density, packaging, durability, and systems integration

  8. Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Information about the Department of Energy’s Industrial Technologies Program and its Combined Heat and Power program.

  9. Thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kortier, William E.; Mueller, John J.; Eggers, Philip E.

    1980-07-08

    A thermoelectric module containing lead telluride as the thermoelectric mrial is encapsulated as tightly as possible in a stainless steel canister to provide minimum void volume in the canister. The lead telluride thermoelectric elements are pressure-contacted to a tungsten hot strap and metallurgically bonded at the cold junction to iron shoes with a barrier layer of tin telluride between the iron shoe and the p-type lead telluride element.

  10. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power: Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power: Effective Energy Solutions for a Sustainable Future Report describing the four key areas where CHP has proven its ...

  11. Thermoelectrics | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermoelectrics One of the central themes of S3TEC is to develop more efficient thermoelectric materials to directly convert heat into electricity via the Seebeck effect, or provide cooling via the Peltier effect. Their ability to harvest waste heat and deliver cooling power through solid-state devices without moving parts makes them important candidates of sustainable energy technologies in the future. Despite the benefits, the current bottleneck of thermoelectric technology is its relatively

  12. Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat Recovery Nanostructured High-Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Automotive Waste Heat Recovery ...

  13. Low and high Temperature Dual Thermoelectric Generation Waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Developing a low and high temperature dual thermoelectric generation waste heat recovery ... for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power Skutterudite ...

  14. Multi-physics modeling of thermoelectric generators for waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    heat recovery applications PDF icon deer12zhang2.pdf More Documents & Publications Nanostructured High Temperature Bulk Thermoelectric Energy Conversion for Efficient Waste Heat ...

  15. Design of Bulk Nanocomposites as High Efficiency Thermoelectric...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    that more efficiently convert heat to electricity. Research Details Thermoelectric materials directly generate electrical power from heat, but suffer from low efficiency, ...

  16. Thermoelectric system for an engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mcgilvray, Andrew N.; Vachon, John T.; Moser, William E.

    2010-06-22

    An internal combustion engine that includes a block, a cylinder head having an intake valve port and exhaust valve port formed therein, a piston, and a combustion chamber defined by the block, the piston, and the head. At least one thermoelectric device is positioned within either or both the intake valve port and the exhaust valve port. Each of the valves is configured to move within a respective intake and exhaust valve port thereby causing said valves to engage the thermoelectric devices resulting in heat transfer from the valves to the thermoelectric devices. The intake valve port and exhaust valve port are configured to fluidly direct intake air and exhaust gas, respectively, into the combustion chamber and the thermoelectric device is positioned within the intake valve port, and exhaust valve port, such that the thermoelectric device is in contact with the intake air and exhaust gas.

  17. Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Thermoelectric Generator Using Thermal Spray

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents progress in cost-effective thermoelectric generator fabrication by thermal spraying of thermoelectric materials and other functional layers directly onto automotive exhaust pipes with enhanced performance, durability, and heat transfer

  18. Thermoelectric system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiners, Eric A.; Taher, Mahmoud A.; Fei, Dong; McGilvray, Andrew N.

    2007-10-30

    In one particular embodiment, an internal combustion engine is provided. The engine comprises a block, a head, a piston, a combustion chamber defined by the block, the piston, and the head, and at least one thermoelectric device positioned between the combustion chamber and the head. In this particular embodiment, the thermoelectric device is in direct contact with the combustion chamber. In another particular embodiment, a cylinder head configured to sit atop a cylinder bank of an internal combustion engine is provided. The cylinder head comprises a cooling channel configured to receive cooling fluid, valve seats configured for receiving intake and exhaust valves, and thermoelectric devices positioned around the valve seats.

  19. Improved Thermoelectric Devices: Advanced Semiconductor Materials for Thermoelectric Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2009-12-11

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: Phononic Devices is working to recapture waste heat and convert it into usable electric power. To do this, the company is using thermoelectric devices, which are made from advanced semiconductor materials that convert heat into electricity or actively remove heat for refrigeration and cooling purposes. Thermoelectric devices resemble computer chips, and they manage heat by manipulating the direction of electrons at the nanoscale. These devices aren’t new, but they are currently too inefficient and expensive for widespread use. Phononic Devices is using a high-performance, cost-effective thermoelectric design that will improve the device’s efficiency and enable electronics manufacturers to more easily integrate them into their products.

  20. Novel Nanostructured Thermoelectrics | Center for Energy Efficient

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Materials Novel Nanostructured Thermoelectrics While the ultimate CEEM goal is the development of materials with improved thermoelectric power generation capabilities, the path to that goal involves discovering and using the important physics of the electrical transport, thermoelectric potentials and heat transport in the new structures that we prepare. This involves importantly understanding and engineering the inclusion, transport and scattering of mobile charge carriers and the

  1. Thermoelectric generator cooling system and method of control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prior, Gregory P; Meisner, Gregory P; Glassford, Daniel B

    2012-10-16

    An apparatus is provided that includes a thermoelectric generator and an exhaust gas system operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to heat a portion of the thermoelectric generator with exhaust gas flow through the thermoelectric generator. A coolant system is operatively connected to the thermoelectric generator to cool another portion of the thermoelectric generator with coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator. At least one valve is controllable to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in a direction that opposes a direction of the exhaust gas flow under a first set of operating conditions and to cause the coolant flow through the thermoelectric generator in the direction of exhaust gas flow under a second set of operating conditions.

  2. Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat Recovery System for Military Vehicles Development of an Underamor 1-kW Thermoelectric Generator Waste Heat Recovery System for ...

  3. Review of Interests and Activities in Thermoelectric Materials and Devices at the Army Research Laboratory

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Army interests in thermoelectrics include integrated TE-hand-held burners for battery-replacement, waste-heat recovery on vehicles, heat-powered mobile units, and for thermoelectric cooling of high-performance infrared systems for surveillance

  4. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1998-05-05

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat is disclosed. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device. 4 figs.

  5. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, J.D.; El-Genk, M.S.

    1996-01-01

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  6. Superconducting thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metzger, John D.; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    1998-01-01

    An apparatus and method for producing electricity from heat. The present invention is a thermoelectric generator that uses materials with substantially no electrical resistance, often called superconductors, to efficiently convert heat into electrical energy without resistive losses. Preferably, an array of superconducting elements is encased within a second material with a high thermal conductivity. The second material is preferably a semiconductor. Alternatively, the superconducting material can be doped on a base semiconducting material, or the superconducting material and the semiconducting material can exist as alternating, interleaved layers of waferlike materials. A temperature gradient imposed across the boundary of the two materials establishes an electrical potential related to the magnitude of the temperature gradient. The superconducting material carries the resulting electrical current at zero resistivity, thereby eliminating resistive losses. The elimination of resistive losses significantly increases the conversion efficiency of the thermoelectric device.

  7. Miniature heat pumps for portable and distributed space conditioning applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drost, M.K.; Friedrich, M.

    1997-12-31

    The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing a miniature absorption heat pump for a range of microclimate control applications, including manportable cooling and distributed space conditioning. The miniature absorption heat pump will be sized to provide 350 W cooling, will have dimensions of 9 cm x 9 cm x 6 cm, and will weigh approximately 0.65 kg. Compared to a macroscale absorption heat pump, this represents reduction in volume by a factor of 60. A complete manportable cooling system including the heat pump, an air-cooled heat exchanger, batteries, and fuel is estimated to weight between 4 and 5 kg, compared to the 10 kg weight of alternative systems. Size and weight reductions are obtained by developing a device that can simultaneously take advantage of the high heat and mass transfer rates attainable in microscale structures while being large enough to allow electric powered pumping.

  8. High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    and Technologies | Department of Energy Key technologies and system approaches to excellent record of thermoelectric power sources in deep space missions and development of higher performance TE materials for the next generation systems PDF icon fleurial.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Thermoelectrics: From Space Power Systems to Terrestrial Waste Heat Recovery Applications Waste Heat Recovery

  9. Development of Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power | Department of Energy ace081_meisner_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Cost-Competitive Advanced Thermoelectric Generators for Direct Conversion of Vehicle Waste Heat into Useful Electrical Power Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For

  10. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2013-05-21

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  11. Thermoelectric power generator with intermediate loop

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bel,; Lon E.; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2009-10-27

    A thermoelectric power generator is disclosed for use to generate electrical power from heat, typically waste heat. An intermediate heat transfer loop forms a part of the system to permit added control and adjustability in the system. This allows the thermoelectric power generator to more effectively and efficiently generate power in the face of dynamically varying temperatures and heat flux conditions, such as where the heat source is the exhaust of an automobile, or any other heat source with dynamic temperature and heat flux conditions.

  12. Effective thermal conductivity in thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranowski, LL; Snyder, GJ; Toberer, ES

    2013-05-28

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid state heat engines that generate electricity from a temperature gradient. Optimizing these devices for maximum power production can be difficult due to the many heat transport mechanisms occurring simultaneously within the TEG. In this paper, we develop a model for heat transport in thermoelectric materials in which an "effective thermal conductivity" (kappa(eff)) encompasses both the one dimensional steady-state Fourier conduction and the heat generation/consumption due to secondary thermoelectric effects. This model is especially powerful in that the value of kappa(eff) does not depend upon the operating conditions of the TEG but rather on the transport properties of the TE materials themselves. We analyze a variety of thermoelectric materials and generator designs using this concept and demonstrate that kappa(eff) predicts the heat fluxes within these devices to 5% of the exact value. (C) 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.

  13. High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    vehicle waste heat recovery will include fundamental research to use abundant promising low-cost thermoelectric materials, thermal management and interfaces design, and metrology

  14. Thermoelectric Generator Development at Renault Trucks-Volvo Group

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews project to study the potential of thermoelectricity for diesel engines of trucks and passenger cars, where relatively low exhaust temperature is challenging for waste heat recovery systems

  15. Sandia Energy - The Quest for Efficiency in Thermoelectric Nanowires

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency in Thermoelectric Nanowires Sandia researchers say better materials and manufacturing techniques for nanowires could allow car makers to harvest power from the heat...

  16. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New p-type and n-type multiple-rattler skutterudite thermoelectric materials design, synthesis, fabrication, and characterization for power generation using vehicle exhaust waste heat.

  17. Sandia Researchers Are First to Measure Thermoelectric Behavior...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... materials, but we think we can improve that with better electrical conductivity." ... A thermoelectric device near a car engine or exhaust system could capture that wasted heat ...

  18. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating with Thermoelectric Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Energy Efficient HVAC System for Distributed Cooling/Heating with Thermoelectric Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Recent Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thermoelectrics...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Waste Heat Power Generation Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery Scale Up of SiSi0.8GE0.2 and B4CB9C Superlattices for Harvesting of Waste Heat in Diesel Engines

  1. High temperature thermoelectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moczygemba, Joshua E.; Biershcenk, James L.; Sharp, Jeffrey W.

    2014-09-23

    In accordance with one embodiment of the present disclosure, a thermoelectric device includes a plurality of thermoelectric elements that each include a diffusion barrier. The diffusion barrier includes a refractory metal. The thermoelectric device also includes a plurality of conductors coupled to the plurality of thermoelectric elements. The plurality of conductors include aluminum. In addition, the thermoelectric device includes at least one plate coupled to the plurality of thermoelectric elements using a braze. The braze includes aluminum.

  2. Bulk dimensional nanocomposites for thermoelectric applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nolas, George S

    2014-06-24

    Thermoelectric elements may be used for heat sensors, heat pumps, and thermoelectric generators. A quantum-dot or nano-scale grain size polycrystalline material the effects of size-quantization are present inside the nanocrystals. A thermoelectric element composed of densified Groups IV-VI material, such as calcogenide-based materials are doped with metal or chalcogenide to form interference barriers form along grains. The dopant used is either silver or sodium. These chalcogenide materials form nanoparticles of highly crystal grains, and may specifically be between 1- and 100 nm. The compound is densified by spark plasma sintering.

  3. Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Test results for low and high temperature thermoelectric generators (TEG) those for a 530-watt BiTe TEG; design and construction of a 100-watt high temperature TEG currently in fabrication. PDF icon deer08_lagrandeur.pdf More Documents & Publications Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Development of a Scalable 10% Efficient

  4. HEATING DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE TARGET OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    HEATING DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE TARGET OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE F. C. Difilippo and L. A. Charlton Oak Ridge National Laboratory* P.O. Box 2008, MS-6363 Oak Ridge, Tennessee 3783 l-6363 Full paper submitted for publication and oral presentation, AccApp '99, Long Beach, CA, November 14-18.1999. *Research sponsored by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation for the U.S. Department of Energy under contract No. DE-AC05960R22464. HEATING

  5. High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery | Department of Energy Development of high-performance thermoelectric devices for vehicle waste heat recovery will include fundamental research to use abundant promising low-cost thermoelectric materials, thermal management and interfaces design, and metrology

  6. 2009 Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2009 Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop September 29 - October 1, 2009 San Diego, CA Tuesday, September 29, 2009 Opening Plenary Session Wednesday, September 30, 2009 Overview of Worldwide Activities in Thermoelectrics Thermoelectric Applications I Thermoelectric Materials I Thermoelectric Manufacturing Thursday, October 1, 2009 Thermoelectric Materials II Thermoelectric Applications II Thermoelectric Materials III Thermoelectric Applications III Tuesday,

  7. Development of a Thermoelectric Device for an Automotive Zonal...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presents development of a thermoelectric device using liquid working fluid on the waste side and air as working fluid on the main side to enable zonal or distributed ...

  8. Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion Efficiencies of different types of solar thermoelectric generators were predicted using theoretical ...

  9. Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    0wereszczak.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability Thermoelectric Mechanical Reliability Thermoelectrics Theory and Structure

  10. Molecular and Hybrid Solution Processable Thermoelectrics | MIT-Harvard

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Center for Excitonics and Hybrid Solution Processable Thermoelectrics February 15, 2011 at 3pm/36-428 Rachel Segalman University of California, Berkeley segalman_001 abstract: Thermoelectric materials for energy generation have several advantages over conventional power cycles including lack of moving parts, silent operation, miniaturizability, and CO2 free conversion of heat to electricity. Excellent thermoelectric efficiency requires a combination of high thermopower (S, V/K), high

  11. Concentrated Thermoelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This fact sheet describes a concentrated solar hydroelectric power project awarded under the DOE's 2012 SunShot Concentrating Solar Power R&D award program. The team, led by MIT, is working to demonstrate concentrating solar thermoelectric generators with >10% solar-to-electrical energy conversion efficiency while limiting optical concentration to less than a factor of 10 and potentially less than 4. When combined with thermal storage, CSTEGs have the potential to provide electricity day and night using no moving parts at both the utility and distributed scale.

  12. Engineering development testing of the GPHS-RTG converter. [General Purpose Heat Source-Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cockfield, R.D.

    1981-01-01

    The GPHS-RTG will provide electrical power for the Galileo orbiter and for the two spacecraft of the International Solar Polar Mission. The GPHS-RTG consists of two primary assemblies: the General Purpose Heat Source, and the converter. This paper deals only with the converter, and highlights engineering tests that provide support for its design development.

  13. Thermoelectric generator having a resiliently mounted removable thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Purdy, David L.; Shapiro, Zalman M.; Hursen, Thomas F.; Maurer, Gerould W.

    1976-11-02

    An electrical generator having an Isotopic Heat Capsule including radioactive fuel rod 21 as a primary heat source and Thermoelectric Modules 41 and 43 as converters. The Biological Shield for the Capsule is suspended from Spiders at each end each consisting of pretensioned rods 237 and 239 defining planes at right angles to each other. The Modules are mounted in cups 171 of transition members 173 of a heat rejection Fin Assembly whose fins 195 and 197 extend from both sides of the transition member 173 for effective cooling.

  14. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cargill, P. J., E-mail: p.cargill@imperial.ac.uk [Space and Atmospheric Physics, The Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2BW, UKAND (United Kingdom); School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Scotland KY16 9SS (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ? T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  15. Recent Progress in the Development of High Efficiency Thermoelectrics |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy PDF icon 2003_deer_bass.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery Scale Up of Si/Si0.8GE0.2 and B4C/B9C Superlattices for Harvesting of Waste Heat in Diesel Engines

  16. Micro- & Nano-Technologies Enabling More Compact, Lightweight Thermoelectric Power Generation & Cooling Systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced thermoelectric energy recovery and cooling system weight and volume improvements with low-cost microtechnology heat and mass transfer devices are presented

  17. Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This project discusses preliminary experimental results to find how thermoelectrics can be applied ot future hybrid vehicles and the optimum design of such equipment using heat pipes

  18. Thermoelectric materials having porosity

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heremans, Joseph P.; Jaworski, Christopher M.; Jovovic, Vladimir; Harris, Fred

    2014-08-05

    A thermoelectric material and a method of making a thermoelectric material are provided. In certain embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises at least 10 volume percent porosity. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material has a zT greater than about 1.2 at a temperature of about 375 K. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a topological thermoelectric material. In some embodiments, the thermoelectric material comprises a general composition of (Bi.sub.1-xSb.sub.x).sub.u(Te.sub.1-ySe.sub.y).sub.w, wherein 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1, 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, 1.8.ltoreq.u.ltoreq.2.2, 2.8.ltoreq.w.ltoreq.3.2. In further embodiments, the thermoelectric material includes a compound having at least one group IV element and at least one group VI element. In certain embodiments, the method includes providing a powder comprising a thermoelectric composition, pressing the powder, and sintering the powder to form the thermoelectric material.

  19. LIQUID-FLUIDIZED-BED HEAT' EXCHANGER FLOW DISTRIBUTION MODELS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... J. Shakiri, "Heat Transfer for Immersed Surfaces in Liquid-Fluidized-Beds", Chemical Engi- neering Science, Vol. 31, 1976, pp. 619-624. 5. W. Hamilton, " A Correlation of Heat ...

  20. In-line thermoelectric module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    2000-01-01

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions may be perpendicular to the direction of current flow through the module.

  1. In-Line Thermoelectric Module

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pento, Robert; Marks, James E.; Staffanson, Clifford D.

    1998-07-28

    A thermoelectric module with a plurality of electricity generating units each having a first end and a second end, the units being arranged first end to second end along an-in-line axis. Each unit includes first and second elements each made of a thermoelectric material, an electrically conductive hot member arranged to heat one side of the first element, and an electrically conductive cold member arranged to cool another side of the first element and to cool one side of the second element. The hot member, the first element, the cold member and the second element are supported in a fixture, are electrically connected respectively to provide an electricity generating unit, and are arranged respectively in positions along the in-line axis. The individual components of each generating unit and the respective generating units are clamped in their in-line positions by a loading bolt at one end of the fixture and a stop wall at the other end of the fixture. The hot members may have a T-shape and the cold members an hourglass shape to facilitate heat transfer. The direction of heat transfer through the hot members may be perpendicular to the direction of heat transfer through the cold members, and both of these heat transfer directions maybe perpendicular to the direction-of current flow through the module.

  2. High Temperature Integrated Thermoelectric Ststem and Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mike S. H. Chu

    2011-06-06

    The final goal of this project is to produce, by the end of Phase II, an all ceramic high temperature thermoelectric module. Such a module design integrates oxide ceramic n-type, oxide ceramic p-type materials as thermoelectric legs and oxide ceramic conductive material as metalizing connection between n-type and p-type legs. The benefits of this all ceramic module are that it can function at higher temperatures (> 700 C), it is mechanically and functionally more reliable and it can be scaled up to production at lower cost. With this all ceramic module, millions of dollars in savings or in new opportunities recovering waste heat from high temperature processes could be made available. A very attractive application will be to convert exhaust heat from a vehicle to reusable electric energy by a thermoelectric generator (TEG). Phase I activities were focused on evaluating potential n-type and p-type oxide compositions as the thermoelectric legs. More than 40 oxide ceramic powder compositions were made and studied in the laboratory. The compositions were divided into 6 groups representing different material systems. Basic ceramic properties and thermoelectric properties of discs sintered from these powders were measured. Powders with different particles sizes were made to evaluate the effects of particle size reduction on thermoelectric properties. Several powders were submitted to a leading thermoelectric company for complete thermoelectric evaluation. Initial evaluation showed that when samples were sintered by conventional method, they had reasonable values of Seebeck coefficient but very low values of electrical conductivity. Therefore, their power factors (PF) and figure of merits (ZT) were too low to be useful for high temperature thermoelectric applications. An unconventional sintering method, Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) was determined to produce better thermoelectric properties. Particle size reduction of powders also was found to have some positive benefits. Two composition systems, specifically 1.0 SrO - 0.8 x 1.03 TiO2 - 0.2 x 1.03 NbO2.5 and 0.97 TiO2 - 0.03 NbO2.5, have been identified as good base line compositions for n-type thermoelectric compositions in future module design. Tests of these materials at an outside company were promising using that company's processing and material expertise. There was no unique p-type thermoelectric compositions identified in phase I work other than several current cobaltite materials. Ca3Co4O9 will be the primary p-type material for the future module design until alternative materials are developed. BaTiO3 and rare earth titanate based dielectric compositions show both p-type and n-type behavior even though their electrical conductivities were very low. Further research and development of these materials for thermoelectric applications is planned in the future. A preliminary modeling and optimization of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that uses the n-type 1.0 SrO - 1.03 x 0.8 TiO2 - 1.03 x 0.2 NbO2.5 was performed. Future work will combine development of ceramic powders and manufacturing expertise at TAM, development of SPS at TAM or a partner organization, and thermoelectric material/module testing, modeling, optimization, production at several partner organizations.

  3. Determination of Thermoelectric Module Efficiency A Survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; McCarty, Robin; Salvador, James R.; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Konig, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The development of thermoelectrics (TE) for energy conversion is in the transition phase from laboratory research to device development. There is an increasing demand to accurately determine the module efficiency, especially for the power generation mode. For many thermoelectrics, the figure of merit, ZT, of the material sometimes cannot be fully realized at the device level. Reliable efficiency testing of thermoelectric modules is important to assess the device ZT and provide the end-users with realistic values on how much power can be generated under specific conditions. We conducted a general survey of efficiency testing devices and their performance. The results indicated the lack of industry standards and test procedures. This study included a commercial test system and several laboratory systems. Most systems are based on the heat flow meter method and some are based on the Harman method. They are usually reproducible in evaluating thermoelectric modules. However, cross-checking among different systems often showed large errors that are likely caused by unaccounted heat loss and thermal resistance. Efficiency testing is an important area for the thermoelectric community to focus on. A follow-up international standardization effort is planned.

  4. Solar Thermoelectric Energy Conversion

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Efficiencies of different types of solar thermoelectric generators were predicted using theoretical modeling and validated with measurements using constructed prototypes under different solar intensities

  5. Thermoelectric Ambient Energy Harvester - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Energy Storage Energy Storage Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Building Energy Efficiency Building Energy Efficiency Find More Like This Return to Search Thermoelectric Ambient Energy Harvester Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Contact PNNL About This Technology Environments where natural temperature differences exist (above/below ground and either side of ductwork that delivers heating, ventilation and air conditioning in

  6. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat and Power: Effective...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Richard Brent - Past Chair of USCHPA, Solar Turbines, Inc. ... New York State Energy Research and Development Authority ... United States Clean Heat and Power Association (USCHPA) ...

  7. Significant enhancement in thermoelectric properties of polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO{sub 3??} ceramics originating from nonuniform distribution of Pr dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehkordi, Arash Mehdizadeh; Bhattacharya, Sriparna; He, Jian; Alshareef, Husam N.; Tritt, Terry M.

    2014-05-12

    Recently, we have reported a significant enhancement (>70% at 500?°C) in the thermoelectric power factor (PF) of bulk polycrystalline Pr-doped SrTiO{sub 3} ceramics employing a novel synthesis strategy which led to the highest ever reported values of PF among doped polycrystalline SrTiO{sub 3}. It was found that the formation of Pr-rich grain boundary regions gives rise to an enhancement in carrier mobility. In this Letter, we investigate the electronic and thermal transport in Sr{sub 1?x}Pr{sub x}TiO{sub 3} ceramics in order to determine the optimum doping concentration and to evaluate the overall thermoelectric performance. Simultaneous enhancement in the thermoelectric power factor and reduction in thermal conductivity in these samples resulted in more than 30% improvement in the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) for the whole temperature range over all previously reported maximum values. Maximum ZT value of 0.35 was obtained at 500?°C.

  8. Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Generator Using Thermal Spray Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Thermoelectric Generator Using Thermal Spray Presents progress in cost-effective thermoelectric ...

  9. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Materials Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Bottom-Up Approach forThermoelectric Nanocomposites, plus NSFDOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics Inorganic-Organic Hybrid ...

  10. 2nd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2011 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    nd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2011 2nd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2011 January 3-6, 2011 Hotel Del Coronado San Diego, CA Monday, January 3, 2011 Opening Plenary Session Tuesday, January 4, 2011 Overview of Worldwide Activities in Thermoelectrics Thermoelectric Applications I Thermoelectric Materials I NSF/DOE Thermoelectrics Partnership Wednesday, January 5, 2012 Thermoelectric Materials II Thermoelectric Applications II Thermoelectric Materials III Thermoelectric

  11. 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 3rd Thermoelectrics Applications Workshop 2012 March 19-22, 2012 Marriott Inner Harbor at Camden Yards Baltimore, MD Tuesday, March 20, 2012 Opening Plenary Session Thermoelectric Applications I Thermoelectric Applications II Thermoelectric Technologies Wednesday, March 21, 2012 Thermoelectric Applications II Thermoelectric Applications III Thermoelectric Materials III Thermoelectric Applications IV Thursday, March 22, 2012 Thermoelectric

  12. Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Provides overview of DOE-supported projects in automotive thermoelectric generators and heaters/air conditioners

  13. Sodium heat engine electrical feedthrough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, Neill (Dearborn, MI)

    1985-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a hermetically sealed feedthrough structure.

  14. Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-05-01

    Passive solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed. Design guidelines are given.

  15. High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program | Department of Energy lmp_06_wang.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Characterization for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery: Success Stories from the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program Selection of a Wear-Resistant Tractor Drivetrain Material: Success stories at the High Temperature Materials Laboratory (HTML) User Program

  16. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling[ Thermoelectric (TE) HVAC ] | Department of Energy results from TE HVAC project to add detail to a human thermal comfort model and further allow load reduction in the climate control energy through a distributed TE network PDF icon deer11_bozeman.pdf More Documents & Publications Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling Energy Efficient HVAC System for

  17. Heat storage and distribution inside passive-solar buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Passive-solar buildings are investigated from the viewpoint of the storage of solar heat in materials of the building: walls, floors, ceilings, and furniture. The effects of the location, material, thickness, and orientation of each internal building surface are investigated. The concept of diurnal heat capacity is introduced and a method of using this parameter to estimate clear-day temperature swings is developed. Convective coupling to remote rooms within a building is discussed, including both convection through single doorways and convective loops that may exist involving a sunspace. Design guidelines are given.

  18. Complex oxides useful for thermoelectric energy conversion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Majumdar, Arunava; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy; Yu, Choongho; Scullin, Matthew L.; Huijben, Mark

    2012-07-17

    The invention provides for a thermoelectric system comprising a substrate comprising a first complex oxide, wherein the substrate is optionally embedded with a second complex oxide. The thermoelectric system can be used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  19. Geek-Up[6.10.2011]: Thermoelectrics' Great Power, Key Ingredient in Bone's Nanostructure

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Advanced thermoelectric materials could be used to develop vehicle exhaust systems that convert exhaust heat into electricity, concentrate solar energy for power generation and recover waste heat from industrial processes.

  20. LIQUID-FLUIDIZED-BED HEAT' EXCHANGER FLOW DISTRIBUTION MODELS

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... T h i s paper reports r e s u l t s from f u l l scale instrumented plexiglass " u n i t c e l l " shell-and-tube heat exchanger models. These models allowed visual observation of ...

  1. Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Critical aspects of technology ...

  2. Novel Nanostructured Interface Solution for Automotive Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces Thermoelectrics Partnership: Automotive Thermoelectric Modules with Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces Automotive ...

  3. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power ...

  4. The Industrialization of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presents module and system requirements for high volume power generation with thermoelectrics such desirable thermoelectric properties, low material toxicity, interface ...

  5. Development of a Scalable 10% Efficient Thermoelectric Generator |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT). PDF icon deer07_crane.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Status of

  6. CsBi4Te6: A High-Performance Thermoelectric Material for Low-Temperature

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Applications | Energy Frontier Research Centers CsBi4Te6: A High-Performance Thermoelectric Material for Low-Temperature Applications Home Author: D.Y. Chung, T. Hogan, P. Brazis, M. Rocci-Lane, C. Kannawurf, M. Bastea, C. Uher, M. Kanatzidis Year: 2000 Abstract: Thermoelectric (Peltier) heat pumps are capable of refrigerating solid or fluid objects, and unlike conventional vapor compressor systems, they can be miniaturized without loss of efficiency. More efficient thermoelectric materials

  7. DOE Orders AeroSys to Halt Distribution of Inefficient Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Models

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Today, the Department of Energy announced that it is requiring AeroSys, Inc. to stop distributing two product models - one air conditioner and one heat pump - that DOE testing found to consume more...

  8. Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2007 | Department of Energy Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 The models surveyed in this study vary in design, scope, and detail, but they all seek to capture the functions of an energy economy and use knowledge of economic interactions to simulate the effects of economic and policy changes. In this 2007 document, Integrated Planning Model (IPM), Average Displaced

  9. Drift apex temperature distributions due to cylindrical heat sources

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Culbreth, W.G.; Ventresca, J.J.

    1996-12-01

    Experiments were conducted to determine the rate of convective heat transfer from cylindrical waste packages in a model of a drift. Thermocouples were used to measure the temperatures on the waste package surface and on the drift wall as a function of the Rayleigh number, Ra{sub f}, for the buoyancy-induced flow. The results, presented in terms of dimensionless temperatures, showed variations in drift wall apex temperature. Curvefits of apex temperatures as a function of the drift centerline axial position were computed.

  10. Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters 2015 Building Technologies ... Bottom Mount 4-Engine Thermoelectric Heat Pump; 5142014 2. Development of High Cooling ...

  11. Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat Pump Water Heater Using Solid-State Energy Converters 2016 Building Technologies ... Bottom Mount 4-Engine Thermoelectric Heat Pump; 5142014 2. Development of High Cooling ...

  12. Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy A low temperature TEG has been built and tested providing over 500 watts electric power at a ∆T of 2000C PDF icon deer09_lagrandeur.pdf More Documents & Publications Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program

  13. Electronic, phononic, and thermoelectric properties of graphyne sheets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sevinçli, Hâldun; Sevik, Cem

    2014-12-01

    Electron, phonon, and thermoelectric transport properties of ?-, ?-, ?-, and 6,6,12-graphyne sheets are compared and contrasted with those of graphene. ?-, ?-, and 6,6,12-graphynes, with direction dependent Dirac dispersions, have higher electronic transmittance than graphene. ?-graphyne also attains better electrical conduction than graphene except at its band gap. Vibrationally, graphene conducts heat much more efficiently than graphynes, a behavior beyond an atomic density differences explanation. Seebeck coefficients of the considered Dirac materials are similar but thermoelectric power factors decrease with increasing effective speeds of light. ?-graphyne yields the highest thermoelectric efficiency with a thermoelectric figure of merit as high as ZT?=?0.45, almost an order of magnitude higher than that of graphene.

  14. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Mark M.

    1995-01-01

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu.sub.238 or Sr.sub.90 thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

  15. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, M.M.

    1995-04-18

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communications, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of materials resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications. 2 figs.

  16. Fiber optic signal amplifier using thermoelectric power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, M.M.

    1993-01-01

    A remote fiber optic signal amplifier for use as a repeater/amplifier, such as in transoceanic communication, powered by a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator. The amplifier comprises a unit with connections on the receiving and sending sides of the communications system, and an erbium-doped fiber amplifier connecting each sending fiber to each receiving fiber. The thermoelectric generator, preferably a Pu{sub 238} or Sr{sub 90} thermoelectric generator delivers power to the amplifiers through a regulator. The heat exchange surfaces of the thermoelectric generator are made of material resistant to corrosion and biological growth and are directly exposed to the outside, such as the ocean water in transoceanic communications.

  17. Measurement and simulation of thermoelectric efficiency for single leg

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Xiaokai; Yamamoto, Atsushi Ohta, Michihiro; Nishiate, Hirotaka

    2015-04-15

    Thermoelectric efficiency measurements were carried out on n-type bismuth telluride legs with the hot-side temperature at 100 and 150°C. The electric power and heat flow were measured individually. Water coolant was utilized to maintain the cold-side temperature and to measure heat flow out of the cold side. Leg length and vacuum pressure were studied in terms of temperature difference across the leg, open-circuit voltage, internal resistance, and heat flow. Finite-element simulation on thermoelectric generation was performed in COMSOL Multiphysics, by inputting two-side temperatures and thermoelectric material properties. The open-circuit voltage and resistance were in good agreement between the measurement and simulation. Much larger heat flows were found in measurements, since they were comprised of conductive, convective, and radiative contributions. Parasitic heat flow was measured in the absence of bismuth telluride leg, and the conductive heat flow was then available. Finally, the maximum thermoelectric efficiency was derived in accordance with the electric power and the conductive heat flow.

  18. Thermionic nuclear reactor with internal heat distribution and multiple duct cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisher, C.R.; Perry, L.W. Jr.

    1975-11-01

    A Thermionic Nuclear Reactor is described having multiple ribbon-like coolant ducts passing through the core, intertwined among the thermionic fuel elements to provide independent cooling paths. Heat pipes are disposed in the core between and adjacent to the thermionic fuel elements and the ribbon ducting, for the purpose of more uniformly distributing the heat of fission among the thermionic fuel elements and the ducts.

  19. Thermoelectrically cooled water trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Micheels, Ronald H.

    2006-02-21

    A water trap system based on a thermoelectric cooling device is employed to remove a major fraction of the water from air samples, prior to analysis of these samples for chemical composition, by a variety of analytical techniques where water vapor interferes with the measurement process. These analytical techniques include infrared spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, ion mobility spectrometry and gas chromatography. The thermoelectric system for trapping water present in air samples can substantially improve detection sensitivity in these analytical techniques when it is necessary to measure trace analytes with concentrations in the ppm (parts per million) or ppb (parts per billion) partial pressure range. The thermoelectric trap design is compact and amenable to use in a portable gas monitoring instrumentation.

  20. Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Kady, Ihab F; Olsson, Roy H; Hopkins, Patrick; Reinke, Charles; Kim, Bongsang

    2013-08-13

    Synthetic thermoelectric materials comprising phononic crystals can simultaneously have a large Seebeck coefficient, high electrical conductivity, and low thermal conductivity. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials can enable improved thermoelectric devices, such as thermoelectric generators and coolers, with improved performance. Such synthetic thermoelectric materials and devices can be fabricated using techniques that are compatible with standard microelectronics.

  1. Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High-Power High-efficiency Waste Heat Recovery for Electricity Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-dimension, high-ZT BiTe and Pb-based nanocomposites produced with a low-cost scalable process were used for development and testing of TE module prototypes, and demonstration of a waste heat recovery system

  2. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator reliability and safety

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, R.; Klein, J.

    1989-01-01

    There are numerous occasions when a planetary mission requires energy in remote areas of the solar system. Anytime power is required much beyond Mars or the Asteroid Belts, solar power is not an option. The radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) was developed for such a mission requirement. It is a relatively small and lightweight power source that can produce power under adverse conditions. Just this type of source has become the backbone of the power system for far outer plant exploration. Voyagers I and II are utilizing RTGs, which will soon power the Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter and the Ulysses spacecraft to study the solar poles. The paper discusses RTG operation including thermoelectric design, converter design, general-purpose heat source; RTG reliability including design, testing, experience, and launch approval; and RTG safety issues and methods of ensuring safety.

  3. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Waste Heat at GM | Department of Energy Overview of design, fabrication, integration, and test of working prototype TEG for engine waste heat recovery on Suburban test vehicle, and continuing investigation of skutterudite materials systems PDF icon meisner.pdf More Documents & Publications Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for Automotive Waste Heat at GM Electrical and Thermal Transport Optimization of High Efficient n-type Skutterudites Electrical and Thermal

  4. Investigations of Interfacial Structure in Thermoelectric Tellurides...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Investigations of Interfacial Structure in Thermoelectric Tellurides Discusses examples of work on the investigation of atomic structure of interfaces in thermoelectric tellurides ...

  5. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Documents & Publications Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Thermoelectric Couple Demonstration of (In, Ce)-based Skutterudite ...

  6. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI Reviews work in engineered thin-film nanoscale thermoelectric materials and nano-bulk materials with ...

  7. Vehicular Thermoelectrics: A New Green Technology | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A New Green Technology Vehicular Thermoelectrics: A New Green Technology An overview of the DOE activities in vehicular application of thermoelectrics PDF icon fairbanks.pdf More ...

  8. Vehicular Thermoelectric Applications Session DEER 2009 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon deer09fairbanks.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectrics: The New Green Automotive Technology Vehicular Thermoelectrics: The New Green Technology Vehicular ...

  9. Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co Ltd...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Heilongjiang Mudanjiang Nongken Xinneng Thermoelectric Co., Ltd. Place: Mishan,...

  10. Simple method for highlighting the temperature distribution into a liquid sample heated by microwave power field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Surducan, V.; Surducan, E.; Dadarlat, D.

    2013-11-13

    Microwave induced heating is widely used in medical treatments, scientific and industrial applications. The temperature field inside a microwave heated sample is often inhomogenous, therefore multiple temperature sensors are required for an accurate result. Nowadays, non-contact (Infra Red thermography or microwave radiometry) or direct contact temperature measurement methods (expensive and sophisticated fiber optic temperature sensors transparent to microwave radiation) are mainly used. IR thermography gives only the surface temperature and can not be used for measuring temperature distributions in cross sections of a sample. In this paper we present a very simple experimental method for temperature distribution highlighting inside a cross section of a liquid sample, heated by a microwave radiation through a coaxial applicator. The method proposed is able to offer qualitative information about the heating distribution, using a temperature sensitive liquid crystal sheet. Inhomogeneities as smaller as 1°-2°C produced by the symmetry irregularities of the microwave applicator can be easily detected by visual inspection or by computer assisted color to temperature conversion. Therefore, the microwave applicator is tuned and verified with described method until the temperature inhomogeneities are solved.

  11. Automotive Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) Controls

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Addresses functions to be controlled that make the difference between a barely functional and an efficient, cost-effective thermoelectric generator(TEG)

  12. Microscreen radiation shield for thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Thomas K.; Novak, Robert F.; McBride, James R.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention provides a microscreen radiation shield which reduces radiative heat losses in thermoelectric generators such as sodium heat engines without reducing the efficiency of operation of such devices. The radiation shield is adapted to be interposed between a reaction zone and a means for condensing an alkali metal vapor in a thermoelectric generator for converting heat energy directly to electrical energy. The radiation shield acts to reflect infrared radiation emanating from the reaction zone back toward the reaction zone while permitting the passage of the alkali metal vapor to the condensing means. The radiation shield includes a woven wire mesh screen or a metal foil having a plurality of orifices formed therein. The orifices in the foil and the spacing between the wires in the mesh is such that radiant heat is reflected back toward the reaction zone in the interior of the generator, while the much smaller diameter alkali metal atoms such as sodium pass directly through the orifices or along the metal surfaces of the shield and through the orifices with little or no impedance.

  13. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  14. NSF/DOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics NSFDOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle ...

  15. Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Test results for low and high temperature thermoelectric ...

  16. IMPACTS OF REFRIGERANTLINE LENGTH ON SYSTEM EFFICIENCY IN RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND COOLING SYSTEMS USING REFRIGERANT DISTRIBUTION.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ANDREWS, J.W.

    2001-04-01

    The effects on system efficiency of excess refrigerant line length are calculated for an idealized residential heating and cooling system. By excess line length is meant refrigerant tubing in excess of the 25 R provided for in standard equipment efficiency test methods. The purpose of the calculation is to provide input for a proposed method for evaluating refrigerant distribution system efficiency. A refrigerant distribution system uses refrigerant (instead of ducts or pipes) to carry heat and/or cooling effect from the equipment to the spaces in the building in which it is used. Such systems would include so-called mini-splits as well as more conventional split systems that for one reason or another have the indoor and outdoor coils separated by more than 25 ft. This report performs first-order calculations of the effects on system efficiency, in both the heating and cooling modes, of pressure drops within the refrigerant lines and of heat transfer between the refrigerant lines and the space surrounding them.

  17. Investigations of Interfacial Structure in Thermoelectric Tellurides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses examples of work on the investigation of atomic structure of interfaces in thermoelectric tellurides

  18. Composite Thermoelectric Devices | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Composite thermoelectric devices incorporating common conductors laminated between P- and N-type thermoelectric plates demonstrate internal ohmic loss reduction and enhanced performance PDF icon chyu.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Developments for Vehicular Applications Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation Materials strategies for improving the overall device ZT

  19. High performance thermoelectric nanocomposite device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Jihui; Snyder, Dexter D.

    2011-10-25

    A thermoelectric device includes a nanocomposite material with nanowires of at least one thermoelectric material having a predetermined figure of merit, the nanowires being formed in a porous substrate having a low thermal conductivity and having an average pore diameter ranging from about 4 nm to about 300 nm.

  20. Distributed energy resources customer adoption modeling with combined heat and power applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Firestone, Ryan M.; Ghosh, Srijay; Stadler, Michael; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-07-01

    In this report, an economic model of customer adoption of distributed energy resources (DER) is developed. It covers progress on the DER project for the California Energy Commission (CEC) at Berkeley Lab during the period July 2001 through Dec 2002 in the Consortium for Electric Reliability Technology Solutions (CERTS) Distributed Energy Resources Integration (DERI) project. CERTS has developed a specific paradigm of distributed energy deployment, the CERTS Microgrid (as described in Lasseter et al. 2002). The primary goal of CERTS distributed generation research is to solve the technical problems required to make the CERTS Microgrid a viable technology, and Berkeley Lab's contribution is to direct the technical research proceeding at CERTS partner sites towards the most productive engineering problems. The work reported herein is somewhat more widely applicable, so it will be described within the context of a generic microgrid (mGrid). Current work focuses on the implementation of combined heat and power (CHP) capability. A mGrid as generically defined for this work is a semiautonomous grouping of generating sources and end-use electrical loads and heat sinks that share heat and power. Equipment is clustered and operated for the benefit of its owners. Although it can function independently of the traditional power system, or macrogrid, the mGrid is usually interconnected and exchanges energy and possibly ancillary services with the macrogrid. In contrast to the traditional centralized paradigm, the design, implementation, operation, and expansion of the mGrid is meant to optimize the overall energy system requirements of participating customers rather than the objectives and requirements of the macrogrid.

  1. Sodium heat engine electrical feedthrough

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weber, N.

    1985-03-19

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy is disclosed. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a hermetically sealed feedthrough structure. 4 figs.

  2. Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Thermal Strategies for High Efficiency Thermoelectric Power Generation Developing integrated TE system configurations ...

  3. Manufacture of thermoelectric generator structures by fiber drawing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Timothy J; Simpson, John T; West, David L

    2014-11-18

    Methods of manufacturing a thermoelectric generator via fiber drawing and corresponding or associated thermoelectric generator devices are provided.

  4. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-12-31

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the convertor housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  5. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1998-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel. {copyright} {ital 1998 American Institute of Physics.}

  6. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator/thin fragment impact test

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M. A. H.; Hinckley, J. E.

    1998-01-15

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). Because the potential for a launch abort or return from orbit exists for any space mission, the heat source response to credible accident scenarios is being evaluated. This test was designed to provide information on the response of a loaded RTG to impact by a fragment similar to the type of fragment produced by breakup of the spacecraft propulsion module system (PMS). The results of this test indicated that impact of the RTG by a thin aluminum fragment traveling at 306 m/s may result in significant damage to the converter housing, failure of one fueled clad, and release of a small quantity of fuel.

  7. Method for distributing chemicals through a fibrous material using low-headspace dielectric heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Banerjee, Sujit; Malcolm, Earl

    2002-01-01

    System and method for diffusing chemicals rapidly and evenly into and through fibrous material, such as wood. Chemicals are introduced into the fibrous material by applying the chemicals to the fibrous material. After treating the fibrous material with the chemicals, the fibrous material is maintained under low-headspace conditions. Thermal energy or dielectric heating, such as microwave or radio frequency energy, is applied to the fibrous material. As a result, the chemicals are able to distribute evenly and quickly throughout the fibrous material.

  8. Thermoelectric Materials for Automotive Applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses the background information on what makes a good thermoelectric material, then the findings of three recent ORNL field report studies focused at PbSe, Bi2Se3, CrSi2, respectively

  9. Measurement of fast minority /sub 3/He/sup + +/ energy distribution during ICRF heating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, D.E. Jr.; Grisham, L.R.; Medley, S.S.

    A method and means for measuring the fast /sub 3/He/sup + +/ distribution during /sub 3/He/sup + +/ minority Ion Cyclotron Resonance Frequency (ICRF) heating is disclosed. The present invention involves the use of 10 to 100 keV beams of neutral helium atoms to neutralize the fast /sub 3/He/sup + +/ ions in a heated plasma by double charge exchange (/sub 3/He/sup + +/ + /sub 4/He/sup 0/ ..-->.. /sub 3/He/sup 0/ + /sub 4/He/sup + +/). The neutralized fast /sub 3/He/sup 0/ atoms then escape from the hot plasma confined by a magnetic field and are detected by conventional neutral particle analyzing means. This technique permits the effectiveness of the coupling of the ion cyclotron waves to the /sub 3/He/sup + +/ minority ions to be accurately measured. The present invention is particularly adapted for use in evaluating the effectiveness of the intermediate coupling between the RF heating and the /sub 3/He/sup + +/ in an energetic toroidal plasma.

  10. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Theiss, Timothy J; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  11. Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  12. Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).

  13. The Industrialization of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents module and system requirements for high volume power generation with thermoelectrics such desirable thermoelectric properties, low material toxicity, interface compatibility, cost scalability, raw material availability and module reliability

  14. Thermoelectric Applications to Truck Essential Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John C. Bass; Norbert B. Elsner

    2001-12-12

    The subjects covered in this report are: thermoelectrics, 1-kW generator for diesel engine; self-powered heater; power for wireless data transmission; and quantum-well thermoelectrics.

  15. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Hhinckley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of [sup 238]Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure.

  16. An apparatus for concurrent measurement of thermoelectric material parameters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kallaher, R. L.; Latham, C. A.; Sharifi, F.

    2013-01-15

    We describe an apparatus which concurrently and independently measures the parameters determining thermoelectric material conversion efficiency: the Seebeck coefficient, thermal conductivity, and electrical resistivity. The apparatus is designed to characterize thermoelectric materials which are technologically relevant for waste heat energy conversion, and may operate from room temperature to 400 Degree-Sign C. It is configured so the heat flux is axially confined along two boron nitride rods of known thermal conductance. The Seebeck coefficient and thermal conductivity are obtained in steady-state using a differential technique, while the electrical resistivity is obtained using a four-point lock-in amplification method. Measurements on the newly developed NIST Seebeck standard reference material are presented in the temperature range from 50 Degree-Sign C to 250 Degree-Sign C.

  17. End-on radioisotope thermoelectric generator impact tests

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reimus, M.A.; Hinckley, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    The General-Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) provides power for space missions by transmitting the heat of {sup 238}Pu decay to an array of thermoelectric elements in a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The modular GPHS design was developed to address both survivability during launch abort and return from orbit. The first two RTG Impact Tests were designed to provide information on the response of a fully loaded RTG to end-on impact against a concrete target. The results of these tests indicated that at impact velocities up to 57 m/s the converter shell and internal components protect the GPHS capsules from excessive deformation. At higher velocities, some of the internal components of the RTG interact with the GPHS capsules to cause excessive localized deformation and failure. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Thermoelectric Generator Performance for Passenger Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents bench, dynamometer, in-vehicle tests of thermoelectric generators in BMW X6 and Lincoln MKT

  19. Reliability of Transport Properties for Bulk Thermoelectrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presents international round-robin study to ensure quality of transport data and figure of merit of thermoelectric materials

  20. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders Describes technique of explosively consolidating nanopowders to yield fully dense, consolidated, ...

  1. Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) Fuel Displacement Potential using

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Engine-in-the-Loop and Simulation | Department of Energy Assessment of fuel savings with thermoelectric generators (TEGs) using detailed model of GM-developed TEG as part of the engine connected to a dynamometer that emulates the rest of the vehicle PDF icon vijayagopal.pdf More Documents & Publications Establishing Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG) Design Targets for Hybrid Vehicles Thermoelectric Generator Performance for Passenger Vehicles Skutterudite Thermoelectric Generator For

  2. Enhancing efficiency and power of quantum-dots resonant tunneling thermoelectrics in three-terminal geometry by cooperative effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang, Jian-Hua

    2014-11-21

    We propose a scheme of multilayer thermoelectric engine where one electric current is coupled to two temperature gradients in three-terminal geometry. This is realized by resonant tunneling through quantum dots embedded in two thermal and electrical resisting polymer matrix layers between highly conducting semiconductor layers. There are two thermoelectric effects, one of which is pertaining to inelastic transport processes (if energies of quantum dots in the two layers are different), while the other exists also for elastic transport processes. These two correspond to the transverse and longitudinal thermoelectric effects, respectively, and are associated with different temperature gradients. We show that cooperation between the two thermoelectric effects leads to markedly improved figure of merit and power factor, which is confirmed by numerical calculation using material parameters. Such enhancement is robust against phonon heat conduction and energy level broadening. Therefore, we demonstrated cooperative effect as an additional way to effectively improve performance of thermoelectrics in three-terminal geometry.

  3. Thermoelectrici Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Engine-Powered Vehicle | Department of Energy 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_schock.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an IC Engine Powered Vehicle

  4. Automotive Fuel Efficiency Improvement via Exhaust Gas Waste Heat Conversion to Electricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Working to expand the usage of thermoelectric technology beyond seat heating and cooling and in doing so reduce CO2 emissions and conserve energy.

  5. Temperature distribution in a flowing fluid heated in a microwave resonant cavity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, J.R. Jr. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States); Nelson, E.M.; Kares, R.J.; Stringfield, R.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1996-04-01

    This paper presents results of an analytical study of microwave heating of a fluid flowing through a tube situated along the axis of a cylindrical microwave applicator. The interaction of the microwave field pattern and the fluid velocity profiles is illustrated for both laminar and turbulent flow. Resulting temperature profiles are compared with those generated by conventional heating through a surface heat flux. It is found that microwave heating offers several advantages over conventional heating.

  6. Nanostructured Thermoelectrics. The New Paradigm | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Highlights advances and future strategies for enhancing the thermoelectric figure of merit of bulk nanostructured thermoelectric and materials using low cost earth abundant elements PDF icon kanatzidis.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE/NSF Thermoelectric Partnership Project SEEBECK Saving Energy Effectively By Engaging in Collaborative Research and Sharing Knowledge Thermoelectric Materials for Automotive Applications Recent Theoretical Results for Advanced Thermoelectric Materials

  7. Thermoelectric refrigerator having improved temperature stabilization means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Falco, Charles M.

    1982-01-01

    A control system for thermoelectric refrigerators is disclosed. The thermoelectric refrigerator includes at least one thermoelectric element that undergoes a first order change at a predetermined critical temperature. The element functions as a thermoelectric refrigerator element above the critical temperature, but discontinuously ceases to function as a thermoelectric refrigerator element below the critical temperature. One example of such an arrangement includes thermoelectric refrigerator elements which are superconductors. The transition temperature of one of the superconductor elements is selected as the temperature control point of the refrigerator. When the refrigerator attempts to cool below the point, the metals become superconductors losing their ability to perform as a thermoelectric refrigerator. An extremely accurate, first-order control is realized.

  8. Semimetal/Semiconductor Nanocomposites for Thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Hong; Burke, Peter G.; Gossard, Arthur C.; Zeng, Gehong; Ramu, Ashok T.; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Bowers, John E.

    2011-04-15

    In this work, we present research on semimetal-semiconductor nanocomposites grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) for thermoelectric applications. We study several different III-V semiconductors embedded with semimetallic rare earth-group V (RE-V) compounds, but focus is given here to ErSb:InxGa1-xSb as a promising p-type thermoelectric material. Nano­structures of RE-V compounds are formed and embedded within the III-V semiconductor matrix. By codoping the nanocomposites with the appropriate dopants, both n-type and p-type materials have been made for thermoelectric applications. The thermoelectric properties have been engineered for enhanced thermoelectric device performance. Segmented thermoelectric power generator modules using 50 ?m thick Er-containing nanocomposites have been fabricated and measured. Research on different rare earth elements for thermoelectrics is discussed.

  9. Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ace_47_lagrandeur.pdf More Documents & Publications Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Automotive Waste Heat Conversion to Power Program Development of a 100-Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator

  10. Heat flow and subsurface temperature distributions in central and western New York. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodge, D.S.; Fromm, K.

    1984-01-01

    Initiation of a geothermal energy program in western and central New York requires knowledge of subsurface temperatures for targeting areas of potential resources. The temperature distribution in possible geothermal reservoirs, calculated from heat flow measurements and modeling techniques, shows that a large area of New York can be considered for exploitation of geothermal resources. Though the temperatures at currently accessible depths show the availability of only a low-temperature (less than 100/sup 0/C), direct-use resource, this can be considered as an alternative for the future energy needs of New York State. From analysis of bottom-hole-temperature data and direct heat flow measurements, estimates of temperatures in the Cambrian Sandstones provide the basis of the economic evaluation of the reservoir. This reservoir contains the extractable fluids needed for targeting a potential geothermal well site in the low-temperature geothermal target zone. In the northern section of the Appalachian basin, reservoir temperatures in the Cambrian are below 50/sup 0/C but may be over 80/sup 0/C in the deeper parts of the basin in southern New York State. Using a minimum of 50/sup 0/C as a useful reservoir temperature, temperatures in excess of this value are encountered in the Theresa Formation at depths in excess of 1300 meters. Considering a maximum depth for economical drilling to be 2500 meters with present technology, the 2500 meters to the Theresa (sea level datum) forms the lower limit of the geothermal resource. Temperatures in the range of 70/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C are predicted for the southern portion of New York State.

  11. Thermal Conductivity Measurements of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials (Prop. 2004-067)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Sharp, J

    2006-01-01

    Thermal conductivity is an important material property of the bulk thermoelectrics. To improve ZT a reduced thermal conductivity is always desired. However, there is no standard material for thermoelectrics and the test results, even on the same material, often show significant scatter. The scatter in thermal conductivity made reported ZT values uncertain and sometime unrepeatable. One of the reasons for the uncertainty is due to the microstructure differences resulting from sintering, heat treatment and other processing parameters. They selected commonly used bulk thermoelectric materials and conducted thermal conductivity measurements using the laser flash diffusivity and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) systems. Thermal conductivity was measured as a function of temperature of temperature from room temperature to 500 K and back to room temperature. The effect of thermal cycling on the bulk thermoelectric was studied. Comnbined with measurements on electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient, they show the use of a ZT map in selecting thermoelectrics. The commercial bulk material showed very good consistency and reliability compared to other bulk materials. The goal is to develop a thermal transport properties database for the bulk thermoelectrics and make the information available to the research community and industry.

  12. Procurement of a fully licensed radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adkins, H.E.; Bearden, T.E.

    1990-10-01

    A fully licensed transportation system for Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators and Light-Weight Radioisotope Heater Units is currently being designed and built. The system will comply with all applicable US Department of Transportation regulations without the use of a DOE Alternative.'' The US Department of Transportation has special double containment'' requirements for plutonium. The system packaging uses a doubly contained bell jar'' concept. A refrigerated trailer is used for cooling the high-heat payloads. The same packaging is used for both high- and low-heat payloads. The system is scheduled to be available for use by mid-1992. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Gang; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-07-09

    The goal of this project is to demonstrate in the lab that solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs) can exceed 10% solar-to-electricity efficiency, and STEGs can be integrated with phase-change materials (PCM) for thermal storage, providing operation beyond daylight hours. This project achieved significant progress in many tasks necessary to achieving the overall project goals. An accurate Themoelectric Generator (TEG) model was developed, which included realistic treatment of contact materials, contact resistances and radiative losses. In terms of fabricating physical TEGs, high performance contact materials for skutterudite TE segments were developed, along with brazing and soldering methods to assemble segmented TEGs. Accurate measurement systems for determining device performance (in addition to just TE material performance) were built for this project and used to characterize our TEGs. From the optical components’ side, a spectrally selective cermet surface was developed with high solar absorptance and low thermal emittance, with thermal stability at high temperature. A measurement technique was also developed to determine absorptance and total hemispherical emittance at high temperature, and was used to characterize the fabricated spectrally selective surfaces. In addition, a novel reflective cavity was designed to reduce radiative absorber losses and achieve high receiver efficiency at low concentration ratios. A prototype cavity demonstrated that large reductions in radiative losses were possible through this technique. For the overall concentrating STEG system, a number of devices were fabricated and tested in a custom built test platform to characterize their efficiency performance. Additionally, testing was performed with integration of PCM thermal storage, and the storage time of the lab scale system was evaluated. Our latest testing results showed a STEG efficiency of 9.6%, indicating promising potential for high performance concentrated STEGs.

  14. AMO Industrial Distributed Energy: Combine Heat and Power: A Clean Energy Solution, August 2012

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean Energy Solution Combined Heat and Power August 2012 Combined Heat and Power: A Clean Energy Solution 1 Contents Executive Summary .................................................................................................... 3 Introduction ................................................................................................................ 5 Combined Heat and Power as A Clean Energy Solution ......................................... 7 The Current Status of CHP and Its

  15. High Performance Bulk Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ren, Zhifeng

    2013-03-31

    Over 13 plus years, we have carried out research on electron pairing symmetry of superconductors, growth and their field emission property studies on carbon nanotubes and semiconducting nanowires, high performance thermoelectric materials and other interesting materials. As a result of the research, we have published 104 papers, have educated six undergraduate students, twenty graduate students, nine postdocs, nine visitors, and one technician.

  16. High-Efficiency Solid State Cooling Technologies: Non-Equilibrium Asymmetic Thermoelectrics (NEAT) Devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    BEETIT Project: Sheetak is developing a thermoelectric-based solid state cooling system to replace typical air conditioners that use vapor compression to cool air. With noisy mechanical components, vapor compression systems use a liquid refrigerant to circulate within the air conditioner, absorb heat, and pump the heat out into the external environment. With no noisy moving parts or polluting refrigerants, thermoelectric systems rely on an electrical current being passed through the junction of the two different conducting materials to change temperature. Using advanced semiconductor technology, Sheetak is improving solid state cooling systems by using proprietary thermoelectric materials along with other innovations to achieve significant energy efficiency. Sheetak’s new design displaces compressor-based technology; improves reliability; and decreases energy usage. Sheetak’s use of semiconductor manufacturing methods leads to less material use—facilitating cheaper production.

  17. Advanced Thin Film Thermoelectric Systems forEfficient Air-Conditioners |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy Presents recent advances in thermoelectric device fabrication and the design of novel cooling/heating engines exploiting thermal storage for efficient air-conditioners in automobiles PDF icon ghoshal.pdf More Documents & Publications Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its low cost heat pump water heater. These solid state heat pumping elements can be implemented in low cost manner which have the potential to dramatically change the way in which

  18. Full-wave Simulations of ICRF Heating in Toroidal Plasma with Non-Maxwellian Distribution Functions in the FLR Limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.J. Valeo, C.K. Phillips, H. Okuda, J.C. Wright, P.T. Bonoli, L.A. Berry, and the RF SciDAC Team

    2007-07-18

    At the power levels required for signicant heating and current drive in magnetically-con ned toroidal plasma, modi cation of the particle distribution function from a Maxwellian shape is likely [T.H. Stix, Nucl. Fusion, 15:737 1975], with consequent changes in wave propagation and in the location and amount of absorption. In order to study these e ects computationally, the nite-Larmor-radius, full-wave, hot-plasma toroidal simulation code, TORIC [M. Brambilla. Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion, 41:1, 1999], has been extended to allow the prescription of arbitrary velocity distributions of the form ƒ (?||, ??, ?, ?). For H minority heating of a D-H plasma with anisotropic Maxwellian H distributions, the fractional H absorption varies signi cantly with changes in parallel temperature but is essentially independent of perpendicular temperature.

  19. Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC System for Automotive Applications Progress toward Development of a High-Efficiency Zonal Thermoelectric HVAC...

  20. Status of the Application of Thermoelectric Technology in Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    the Application of Thermoelectric Technology in Vehicles Status of the Application of Thermoelectric Technology in Vehicles 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference...

  1. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials Discusses strategies to design ...

  2. Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications Multilayer Thin-Film Thermoelectric Materials for Vehicle Applications 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction ...

  3. Overview of Research on Thermoelectric Materials and Devices...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research on Thermoelectric Materials and Devices in China Overview of Research on Thermoelectric Materials and Devices in China An overview presentation of R&D projects on ...

  4. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics Large-scale synthesis of inorganic and organic nanomaterials (single-crystalline nanowires and ...

  5. Nanostructures boost the thermoelectric performance of PbS (Journal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Nanostructures boost the thermoelectric performance of PbS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Nanostructures boost the thermoelectric performance of PbS In situ ...

  6. Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator Development of a 500 Watt High Temperature Thermoelectric Generator A low temperature TEG has been built and tested providing ...

  7. Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel ThermoelectricMaterials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric Materials;Phonon Blocking & ...

  8. Review of Interests and Activities in Thermoelectric Materials...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    thermoelectric cooling of high-performance infrared systems for surveillance PDF icon taylor.pdf More Documents & Publications Review of Interests and Activities in Thermoelectric ...

  9. Probing strong Kondo disorder with measurements of thermoelectric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Probing strong Kondo disorder with measurements of thermoelectric power Title: Probing strong Kondo disorder with measurements of thermoelectric power Authors: White, B. D. ; ...

  10. A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol-Gel Process Employing Heterometallic Alkoxides A Solution Route to Thermoelectric Oxide Nanoparticles - A Sol-Gel ...

  11. BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype April 18, 2016 - ...

  12. Overview of Progress in Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Japanese Activities in ...

  13. Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Progress in Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Japanese Activities in ...

  14. Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle Applications Potential of Thermoelectrics forOccupant Comfort and Fuel Efficiency Gains in Vehicle ...

  15. On the Design of High Efficiency Thermoelectric Type I Clathrates through Transition Metal Doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shi, Xun; Yang, Jiong; Yang, Jihui; Salvador, James R.; Bai, Shengqiang; Zhang, Weiqing; Chen, Lidong; Wong-Ng, W.; Wang, Hsin

    2010-01-01

    The lack of high efficiency thermoelectric materials hinders their deployment into wide ranging applications such as power generation from waste heat and solid state heating and cooling, which could lead to significant energy savings. Type I clathrates have recently been identified as prospective thermoelectric materials for power generation purposes due to their very low lattice thermal conductivity values. The maximum thermoelectric figure of merit of almost all type I clathrates is, however, less than 1; and occurs at, or above, 1000 K making them unfavorable especially for intermediate temperature applications. In this report, we demonstrate that transition metal doping introduces charge distortion and lattice defects into these materials which increases the ionized impurity scattering of carriers and point defect scattering of lattice phonons, respectively; leading to an enhanced power factor, reduced lattice thermal conductivity, and therefore improved thermoelectric figure of merit. Most importantly, the band gap of these materials can be tuned between 0.1 eV and 0.5 eV by adjusting the transition metal content, making it possible to design type I clathrates with excellent thermoelectric properties between 500 K and 1000 K.

  16. Probabilistic Mechanical Reliability Prediction of Thermoelectric Legs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jadaan, Osama M.; Wereszczak, Andrew A

    2009-05-01

    The probability of failure, Pf, for various square-arrayed thermoelectric device designs using bismuth telluride, lead telluride, or skutterudite thermoelectric materials were estimated. Only volume- or bulk-based Pf analysis was considered in this study. The effects of the choice of the thermoelectric material, the size of the leg array, the height of the thermoelectric legs, and the boundary conditions on the Pf of thermoelectric devices were investigated. Yielding of the solder contacts and mounting layer was taken into account. The modeling results showed that the use of longer legs, using skutterudites, allowing the thermoelectric device to freely deform while under a thermal gradient, and using smaller arrays promoted higher probabilities of survival.

  17. Band structure engineering and thermoelectric properties of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    charge-compensated filled skutterudites (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Band structure engineering and thermoelectric properties of charge-compensated filled skutterudites Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Band structure engineering and thermoelectric properties of charge-compensated filled skutterudites Thermoelectric properties of semiconductors are intimately related to their electronic band structure, which can be engineered via chemical doping. Dopant Ga in the

  18. Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency Hybrid Vehicles Thermoelectric Power Generation System with Loop Thermosyphon in Future High Efficiency ...

  19. Connecting Thermoelectric Performance and Topological-Insulator...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Publisher's Accepted Manuscript: Connecting Thermoelectric Performance and Topological-Insulator Behavior: BiTe and BiTeSe from First Principles Prev Next Title: ...

  20. Thermoelectric Materials by Design, Computational Theory and...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    by Design, Computational Theory and Structure Thermoelectric Materials by Design, Computational Theory and Structure 2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program...

  1. Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) Fuel Displacement Potential using...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    model of GM-developed TEG as part of the engine connected to a dynamometer that emulates ... Establishing Thermo-Electric Generator (TEG) Design Targets for Hybrid Vehicles ...

  2. Thermoelectric Activities of European Community within Framework...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and additional activities in Germany Thermoelectric Activities of European Community within Framework Programme 7 and additional activities in Germany Provides survey of basic and ...

  3. Thermoelectric Opportunities for Light-Duty Vehicles

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Overview of thermoelectrics for automotive applications and role of automakers in setting guidelines and technology attributes needed for the global product, regulatory, and market environment

  4. Proactive Strategies for Designing Thermoelectric Materials for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    New p-type and n-type multiple-rattler skutterudite thermoelectric materials design, synthesis, fabrication, and characterization for power generation using vehicle exhaust waste ...

  5. thermo-electric power conversion technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    thermo-electric power conversion technology - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home ... Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar ...

  6. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Abstract: For thermoelectric applications, the best materials have high electrical conductivity and thermopower and, simultaneously, low thermal conductivity. Such a combination...

  7. Nanocrystalline silicon: Lattice dynamics and enhanced thermoelectric properties

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudio, Tania; Stein, Niklas; Stroppa, Daniel G.; Klobes, Benedikt; Koza, Michael Marek; Kudejova, Petra; Petermann, Nils; Wiggers, Hartmut; Schierning, Gabi; Hermann, Raphaël P.

    2014-12-21

    In this study, silicon has several advantages when compared to other thermoelectric materials, but until recently it was not used for thermoelectric applications due to its high thermal conductivity, 156 W K-1 m-1 at room temperature. Nanostructuration as means to decrease thermal transport through enhanced phonon scattering has been a subject of many studies. In this work we have evaluated the effects of nanostructuration on the lattice dynamics of bulk nanocrystalline doped silicon. The samples were prepared by gas phase synthesis, followed by current and pressure assisted sintering. The heat capacity, density of phonons states, and elastic constants were measured, which all reveal a significant, ≈25%, reduction in the speed of sound. The samples present a significantly decreased lattice thermal conductivity, ≈25 W K-1 m-1, which, combined with a very high carrier mobility, results in a dimensionless figure of merit with a competitive value that peaks at ZT ≈ 0.57 at 973 °C. Due to its easily scalable and extremely low-cost production process, nanocrystalline Si prepared by gas phase synthesis followed by sintering could become the material of choice for high temperature thermoelectric generators.

  8. Close-packed-array (CPA) thermoelectric module development status

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brittain, W.M. )

    1991-01-05

    Prior effort on the U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored Special Applications Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Technology Program and Two-Watt RTG Program has focused on terrestrial applications where the RTG will be exposed to relatively low temperature thermal environments (subsea). Thus, effort has been oriented towards design optimization at cold junction temperatures in the 10 to 93 {degree}C (50 to 200 {degree}F) range. However, for other more severe design environments (such as space applications where a high heat rejection radiator temperature in the 177 to 204 {degree}C (350 to 400 {degree}F) range is required to minimize RTG size and weight, and high g shock/vibration capability is necessary) a modified thermoelectric module design is dictated. In order to minimize the RTG system size and weight, and to increase the mechanical strength of the thermoelectric module to withstand increased dynamic loads, a close-packed-array (CPA) module configuration is desirable. The monolithic nature of such a module generally results in greater shear and compression load capability than free-standing individual couples. A CPA module is especially attractive for terrestrial and space applications where severe structural loads will be imposed such as airborne deployment or planetary landers and penetrators.

  9. Nanocrystalline silicon: Lattice dynamics and enhanced thermoelectric properties

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Claudio, Tania; Stein, Niklas; Stroppa, Daniel G.; Klobes, Benedikt; Koza, Michael Marek; Kudejova, Petra; Petermann, Nils; Wiggers, Hartmut; Schierning, Gabi; Hermann, Raphaël P.

    2014-12-21

    In this study, silicon has several advantages when compared to other thermoelectric materials, but until recently it was not used for thermoelectric applications due to its high thermal conductivity, 156 W K-1 m-1 at room temperature. Nanostructuration as means to decrease thermal transport through enhanced phonon scattering has been a subject of many studies. In this work we have evaluated the effects of nanostructuration on the lattice dynamics of bulk nanocrystalline doped silicon. The samples were prepared by gas phase synthesis, followed by current and pressure assisted sintering. The heat capacity, density of phonons states, and elastic constants were measured,more » which all reveal a significant, ≈25%, reduction in the speed of sound. The samples present a significantly decreased lattice thermal conductivity, ≈25 W K-1 m-1, which, combined with a very high carrier mobility, results in a dimensionless figure of merit with a competitive value that peaks at ZT ≈ 0.57 at 973 °C. Due to its easily scalable and extremely low-cost production process, nanocrystalline Si prepared by gas phase synthesis followed by sintering could become the material of choice for high temperature thermoelectric generators.« less

  10. Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keville, Robert F.

    1997-01-01

    A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a .DELTA.T=100.degree. C. characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5.times.10.sup.-4 Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1.times.10.sup.-7 to 3.times.10.sup.-9 Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2.times.10.sup.-7 Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5.degree., and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof.

  11. Miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keville, R.F.

    1997-11-18

    A miniature thermo-electric cooled cryogenic pump is described for removing residual water molecules from an inlet sample prior to sample analysis in a mass spectroscopy system, such as ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) mass spectroscopy. The cryogenic pump is a battery operated, low power (<1.6 watts) pump with a {Delta}T=100 C characteristic. The pump operates under vacuum pressures of 5{times}10{sup {minus}4} Torr to ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions in the range of 1{times}10{sup {minus}7} to 3{times}10{sup {minus}9} Torr and will typically remove partial pressure, 2{times}10{sup {minus}7} Torr, residual water vapor. The cryogenic pump basically consists of an inlet flange piece, a copper heat sink with a square internal bore, four two tier Peltier (TEC) chips, a copper low temperature square cross sectional tubulation, an electronic receptacle, and an exit flange piece, with the low temperature tubulation being retained in the heat sink at a bias angle of 5{degree}, and with the TECs being positioned in parallel to each other with a positive potential being applied to the top tier thereof. 2 figs.

  12. Lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline silicon-germanium alloys

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claudio, Tania; Stein, Niklas; Peterman, Nils; Stroppa, Daniel; Koza, Michael M.; Wiggers, Hartmut; Klobes, B.; Schierning, Gabi; Hermann, Raphael P.

    2015-10-26

    The lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of sintered phosphorus-doped nanostructured silicon- germanium alloys obtained by gas-phase synthesis were studied. Measurements of the density of phonon states by inelastic neutron scattering were combined with measurements of the elastic constants and the low- temperature heat capacity. A strong influence of nanostructuring and alloying on the lattice dynamics was observed. The thermoelectric transport properties of samples with different doping as well as samples sintered at different temperature were characterized between room temperature and 1000C. A peak figure of merit zT = 0:88 at 900C is observed and comparatively insensitive to the aforementioned param- eter variations.

  13. Mechanical Response of Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wereszczak, Andrew A.; Case, Eldon D.

    2015-05-01

    A sufficient mechanical response of thermoelectric materials (TEMats) to structural loadings is a prerequisite to the exploitation of any candidate TEMat's thermoelectric efficiency. If a TEMat is mechanically damaged or cracks from service-induced stresses, then its thermal and electrical functions can be compromised or even cease. Semiconductor TEMats tend to be quite brittle and have a high coefficient of thermal expansion; therefore, they can be quite susceptible to mechanical failure when subjected to operational thermal gradients. Because of this, sufficient mechanical response (vis-a-vis, mechanical properties) of any candidate TEMat must be achieved and sustained in the context of the service-induced stress state to which it is subjected. This report provides an overview of the mechanical responses of state-of-the-art TEMats; discusses the relevant properties that are associated with those responses and their measurement; and describes important, nonequilibrium phenomena that further complicate their use in thermoelectric devices. For reference purposes, the report also includes several appendixes that list published data on elastic properties and strengths of a variety of TEMats.

  14. Modeling Energy Recovery Using Thermoelectric Conversion Integrated with an Organic Rankine Bottoming Cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Erik W.; Hendricks, Terry J.; Peterson, Richard B.

    2009-07-01

    Hot engine exhaust represents a resource that is often rejected to the environment without further utilization. This resource is most prevalent in the transportation sector, but stationary engine-generator systems also typically do not utilize this resource. Engine exhaust is a source of high grade thermal energy that can potentially be utilized by various approaches to produce electricity or to drive heating and cooling systems. This paper describes a model system that employs thermoelectric conversion as a topping cycle integrated with an organic Rankine bottoming cycle for waste heat utilization. This approach is being developed to fully utilize the thermal energy contained in hot exhaust streams. The model is composed of a high temperature heat exchanger which extracts thermal energy for driving the thermoelectric conversion elements. However, substantial sensible heat remains in the exhaust stream after emerging from the heat exchanger. The model incorporates a closely integrated bottoming cycle to utilize this remaining thermal energy in the exhaust stream. The model has many interacting parameters that define combined system quantities such as overall output power, efficiency, and total energy utilization factors. In addition, the model identifies a maximum power operating point for the system. That is, the model can identify the optimal amount of heat to remove from the exhaust flow to run through the thermoelectric elements. Removing too much or too little heat from the exhaust stream in this stage will reduce overall cycle performance. The model has been developed such that heat exchanger UAh values, thermal resistances, ZT values, and multiple thermoelectric elements can be investigated in the context of system operation. The model also has the ability to simultaneously determine the effect of each cycle design parameter on the performance of the overall system, thus giving the ability to utilize as much waste heat as possible. Key analysis results are presented showing the impact of critical design parameters on power output, system performance and inter-relationships between design parameters in governing performance.

  15. Thermoelectric Bulk Materials from the Explosive Consolidation of Nanopowders

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Describes technique of explosively consolidating nanopowders to yield fully dense, consolidated, nanostructured thermoelectric material

  16. Innovative Nano-structuring Routes for Novel Thermoelectric

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Materials;Phonon Blocking & DOS Engineering | Department of Energy Presents new concepts for high performance nanostructured bulk thermoelectric materials PDF icon lee.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric Materials for Automotive Applications The Bottom-Up Approach forThermoelectric Nanocomposites, plusƒ Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials

  17. Overview of Progress in Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Japan | Department of Energy Presents progress in government- and private-funded thermoelectric power generation R&D in Japan PDF icon kajikawa.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Thermoelectric Power Generation Technologies in Japan Overview of Japanese Activities in Thermoelectrics

  18. Challenges and Opportunities in Thermoelectric Materials Research for

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Automotive Applications | Department of Energy tritt.pdf More Documents & Publications The Bottom-Up Approach forThermoelectric Nanocomposites, plusƒ NSF/DOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics

  19. Thermoelectric Development at Hi-Z Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kushch, Aleksandr S.; Bass, John C.; Ghamaty, Saeid; Elsner, Norbert B.; Bergstrand, Richard A.; Furrow, David; Melvin, Mike

    2002-08-25

    An improved Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) for the Heavy Duty Class Eight Diesel Trucks is under development at Hi-Z Technology. The current TEG is equipped with the improved HZ-14 Thermoelectric module, which features better mechanical properties as well as higher electric power output. Also, the modules are held in place more securely.

  20. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I.; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2015-12-22

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  1. Nanostructures having high performance thermoelectric properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong; Majumdar, Arunava; Hochbaum, Allon I; Chen, Renkun; Delgado, Raul Diaz

    2014-05-20

    The invention provides for a nanostructure, or an array of such nanostructures, each comprising a rough surface, and a doped or undoped semiconductor. The nanostructure is an one-dimensional (1-D) nanostructure, such a nanowire, or a two-dimensional (2-D) nanostructure. The nanostructure can be placed between two electrodes and used for thermoelectric power generation or thermoelectric cooling.

  2. Atomic-level cotrol of the thermoelectric properties in polytypoid nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andrews, Sean C.; Fardy, Melissa A.; Moore, Michael C.; Aloni, Shaoul; Zhang, Minjuan; Radmilovic, Velimir; Yang, Peidong

    2010-10-23

    Thermoelectric materials have generated interest as a means of increasing the efficiency of power generation through the scavenging of waste heat. Materials containing nanometer-sized structural and compositional features can exhibit enhanced thermoelectric performance due to the decoupling of certain electrical and thermal properties, but the extent to which these features can be controlled is often limited. Here we report a simple synthesis of M{sub 2}O{sub 3}(ZnO){sub n} (M = In, Ga, Fe) nanowires with controllable polytypoid structures, where the nanostructured features are tuned by adjusting the amount of metal precursor. After the introduction of nanometer-scale features (individual atomic layers and alloying), thermal and electrical measurements on single In{sub 2-x}Ga{sub x}O3(ZnO){sub n} nanowires reveal a simultaneous improvement in all contributing factors to the thermoelectric figure of merit, indicating successful modification of the nanowire transport properties.

  3. Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Develop distributed HVAC components to supplement the central HVAC system to reduce the energy required by current compressed gas air conditioners by at least one-third.

  4. Internal-integral sodium return line for sodium heat engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunt, Thomas K.

    1985-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator device which converts heat energy to electrical energy. An alkali metal is used with a solid electrolyte and a portion of the return line for the alkali metal is located within the generator vacuum space.

  5. Using Thermally-Degrading, Partitioning, and Nonreactive Tracers to Determine Temperature Distribution and Fracture/Heat Transfer Surface Area in Geothermal Reservoirs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE Geothermal Peer Review 2010 - Project Summary. The goal of this project is to provide integrated tracer and tracer interpretation tools to facilitate quantitative characterization of temperature distributions and surface area available for heat transfer in EGS.

  6. An overview of the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transporation System Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McCoy, J.C.

    1995-10-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert the heat generated by radioactive decay to electricity using thermocouples. RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance once assembled and tested. These factors make RTGs particularly attractive for use in spacecraft However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71. The US Department of Energy assigned the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) Program to Westinghouse Hanford Company in 1988 to develop a system meeting the regulatory requirements. The program objective was to develop a transportation system that would fully comply with 10 CFR 71 while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock and heat). The RTGTS is scheduled for completion in December 1996 and will be available to support the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations Cassini mission to Saturn in October 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS and discusses the hardware being produced. Additionally, various program management innovations mandated by recent ma or changes in the US Department of Energy structure and resources will be outlined.

  7. New Perspectives in Thermoelectric Energy Recovery System Design Optimization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hendricks, Terry J.; Karri, Naveen K.; Hogan, Tim; Cauchy, Charles J.

    2013-02-12

    Abstract: Large amounts of waste heat are generated worldwide in industrial processes, automotive transportation, diesel engine exhaust, military generators, and incinerators because 60-70% of the fuel energy is typically lost in these processes. There is a strong need to develop technologies that recover this waste heat to increase fuel efficiency and minimize fuel requirements in these industrial processes, automotive and heavy vehicle engines, diesel generators, and incinerators. There are additional requirements to reduce CO2 production and environmental footprints in many of these applications. Recent work with the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program office has investigated new thermoelectric (TE) materials and systems that can operate at higher performance levels and show a viable pathway to lightweight, small form-factor, advanced thermoelectric generator (TEG) systems to recover waste heat in many of these applications. New TE materials include nano-composite materials such as lead-antimony-silver-telluride (LAST) and lead-antimony-silver-tin-telluride (LASTT) compounds. These new materials have created opportunities for high-performance, segmented-element TE devices. New higher-performance TE devices segmenting LAST/LASTT materials with bismuth telluride have been designed and fabricated. Sectioned TEG systems using these new TE devices and materials have been designed. Integrated heat exchanger/TE device system analyses of sectioned TE system designs have been performed creating unique efficiency-power maps that provide better understandings and comparisons of design tradeoffs and nominal and off-nominal system performance conditions. New design perspectives in optimization of sectioned TE design approaches are discussed that provide insight on how to optimize such sectioned TE systems. System performance analyses using ANSYSź TE modeling capabilities have integrated heat exchanger performance models with ANSYSź TE models to extend its analysis capabilities beyond simple constant hot-side and cold-side temperature conditions . Analysis results portray external resistance effects, matched load conditions, maximum power vs. maximum efficiency points simultaneously.

  8. NREL Reveals Potential for Capturing Waste Heat via Nanotubes - News

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Releases | NREL Reveals Potential for Capturing Waste Heat via Nanotubes April 4, 2016 A finely tuned carbon nanotube thin film has the potential to act as a thermoelectric power generator that captures and uses waste heat, according to researchers at the Energy Department's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). The research could help guide the manufacture of thermoelectric devices based on either single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films or composites containing these nanotubes.

  9. Distribution of Heating from Untrapped HOM Radiation in the LCLS-II Cryomodules

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bane, Karl; Nantista, Christopher; Adolphsen, Chris; Raubenheimer, Tor; Saini, Arun; Solyak, Nikolay; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav

    2015-01-01

    The superconducting cavities in the CW linacs of LCLS-II will operate at 2 K, where cooling is very expensive. One source of heat is presented by the higher order mode (HOM) power deposited by the beam. Due to the very short bunch length, especially in the L3 region, the LCLS-II beam spectrum extends into the terahertz range. Ceramic absorbers, at 70 K between cryomodules, are meant to absorb much of this power. In this report we perform two kinds of calculations to estimate the effectiveness of the absorbers and the fractional power that remains to be removed at 2 K.

  10. Distribution of Heating from Untrapped HOM Radiation in the LCLS-II Cryomodules

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bane, Karl; Nantista, Christopher; Adolphsen, Chris; Raubenheimer, Tor; Saini, Arun; Solyak, Nikolay; Yakovlev, Vyacheslav

    2015-02-17

    The superconducting cavities in the CW linacs of LCLS-II will operate at 2 K, where cooling is very expensive. One source of heat is presented by the higher order mode (HOM) power deposited by the beam. Due to the very short bunch length, especially in the L3 region, the LCLS-II beam spectrum extends into the terahertz range. Ceramic absorbers, at 70 K between cryomodules, are meant to absorb much of this power. In this report we perform two kinds of calculations to estimate the effectiveness of the absorbers and the fractional power that remains to be removed at 2 K

  11. Phase Stability, Crystal Structure, and Thermoelectric Properties...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase Stability, Crystal Structure, and Thermoelectric Properties of Cu12Sb4S13xSex Solid Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase Stability, Crystal Structure, ...

  12. Thermoelectric Nanocarbon Ensembles | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2_gruen.pdf More Documents & Publications Diamond Based TE Materials DOE Vehicle Technologies Program 2009 Merit Review Report - Propulsion Materials Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Thermoelectric Generator Using Thermal Spray

  13. A facility to remotely assemble radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engstrom, J.W.; Goldmann, L.H.; Truitt, R.W.

    1992-07-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are electrical power sources that use heat from decaying radioisotopes to directly generate electrical power. The RTG assembly process is performed in an inert atmosphere inside a large glovebox, which is surrounded by radiation shielding to reduce exposure to neutron and gamma radiation from the radioisotope heat source. In the past, allowable dose rate limits have allowed direct, manual assembly methods; however, current dose rate limits require a thicker radiation shielding that makes direct, manual assembly infeasible. To minimize RTG assembly process modifications, telerobotic systems are being investigated to perform remote assembly tasks. Telerobotic systems duplicate human arm motion and incorporate force feedback sensitivity to handle objects and tools in a human-like manner. A telerobotic system with two arms and a three-dimensional (3-D) vision system can be used to perform remote RTG assembly tasks inside gloveboxes and cells using unmodified, normal hand tools.

  14. A facility to remotely assemble radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Engstrom, J.W.; Goldmann, L.H.; Truitt, R.W. )

    1993-01-15

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) are electrical power sources that use heat from decaying radioisotopes to directly generate electrical power. The RTG assembly process is performed in an inert atmosphere inside a large glovebox, which is surrounded by radiation shielding to reduce exposure to neutron and gamma radiation from the radioisotope heat source. In the past, allowable dose rate limits have allowed direct, manual assembly methods; however, current dose rate limits require a thicker radiation shielding that makes direct, manual assembly infeasible. To minimize RTG assembly process modifications, telerobotic systems are being investigated to perform remote assembly tasks. Telerobotic systems duplicate human arm motion and incorporate force feedback sensitivity to handle objects and tools in a human-like manner. A telerobotic system with two arms and a three-dimensional (3-D) vision system can be used to perform remote RTG assembly tasks inside gloveboxes and cells using unmodified, normal hand tools.

  15. Thermoelectric materials and methods for synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng; Zhang, Qinyong; Zhang, Qian; Chen, Gang

    2015-08-04

    Materials having improved thermoelectric properties are disclosed. In some embodiments, lead telluride/selenide based materials with improved figure of merit and mechanical properties are disclosed. In some embodiments, the lead telluride/selenide based materials of the present disclosure are p-type thermoelectric materials formed by adding sodium (Na), silicon (Si) or both to thallium doped lead telluride materials. In some embodiments, the lead telluride/selenide based materials are formed by doping lead telluride/selenides with potassium.

  16. Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Generation Modules | Energy Frontier Research Centers Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials and High Efficiency Power Generation Modules Home Author: T. Hogan, A. Downey, J. Short, S. D. Mahanti, H. Schock, E. Case Year: 2007 Abstract: For thermoelectric applications, the best materials have high electrical conductivity and thermopower and, simultaneously, low thermal conductivity. Such a combination of properties is usually found in heavily doped semiconductors. Renewed interest in this

  17. Concentrated Solar Thermoelectric Power | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. PDF icon csp_review_meeting_042313_chen.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Temperature Solar Thermoelectric Generators (STEG) Concentrated Thermoelectric Power Progress from DOE EF RC: Solid-State Solar-Thermal Energy Conversion Center (S3TEC )

  18. Progress towards an Optimization Methodology for Combustion-Driven Portable Thermoelectric Power Generation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, Shankar; Karri, Naveen K.; Gogna, Pawan K.; Chase, Jordan R.; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Hendricks, Terry J.

    2012-03-13

    Enormous military and commercial interests exist in developing quiet, lightweight, and compact thermoelectric (TE) power generation systems. This paper investigates design integration and analysis of an advanced TE power generation system implementing JP-8 fueled combustion and thermal recuperation. Design and development of a portable TE power system using a JP-8 combustor as a high temperature heat source and optimal process flows depend on efficient heat generation, transfer, and recovery within the system are explored. Design optimization of the system required considering the combustion system efficiency and TE conversion efficiency simultaneously. The combustor performance and TE sub-system performance were coupled directly through exhaust temperatures, fuel and air mass flow rates, heat exchanger performance, subsequent hot-side temperatures, and cold-side cooling techniques and temperatures. Systematic investigation of this system relied on accurate thermodynamic modeling of complex, high-temperature combustion processes concomitantly with detailed thermoelectric converter thermal/mechanical modeling. To this end, this work reports on design integration of systemlevel process flow simulations using commercial software CHEMCADTM with in-house thermoelectric converter and module optimization, and heat exchanger analyses using COMSOLTM software. High-performance, high-temperature TE materials and segmented TE element designs are incorporated in coupled design analyses to achieve predicted TE subsystem level conversion efficiencies exceeding 10%. These TE advances are integrated with a high performance microtechnology combustion reactor based on recent advances at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Predictions from this coupled simulation established a basis for optimal selection of fuel and air flow rates, thermoelectric module design and operating conditions, and microtechnology heat-exchanger design criteria. This paper will discuss this simulation process that leads directly to system efficiency power maps defining potentially available optimal system operating conditions and regimes. This coupled simulation approach enables pathways for integrated use of high-performance combustor components, high performance TE devices, and microtechnologies to produce a compact, lightweight, combustion driven TE power system prototype that operates on common fuels.

  19. Heat engine and electric motor torque distribution strategy for a hybrid electric vehicle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boberg, Evan S.; Gebby, Brian P.

    1999-09-28

    A method is provided for controlling a power train system for a hybrid electric vehicle. The method includes a torque distribution strategy for controlling the engine and the electric motor. The engine and motor commands are determined based upon the accelerator position, the battery state of charge and the amount of engine and motor torque available. The amount of torque requested for the engine is restricted by a limited rate of rise in order to reduce the emissions from the engine. The limited engine torque is supplemented by motor torque in order to meet a torque request determined based upon the accelerator position.

  20. BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Prototype | Department of Energy Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype BTO Partners Develop Novel, Energy-efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Prototype April 18, 2016 - 1:29pm Addthis A new thermoelectric clothes dryer being developed by Oak Ridge National Lab and Sheetak, Inc. could yield a 38% reduction in energy use compared to current dryers, which could save 356 TBtu of energy per year. A new thermoelectric clothes dryer being developed by

  1. Novel Energy-Efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy-Efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer Novel Energy-Efficient Thermoelectric Clothes Dryer A new thermoelectric clothes dryer being developed by Oak Ridge National Lab and Sheetak, Inc. could yield a 38% reduction in energy use compared to current dryers, which could save 356 TBtu of energy per year. Credit: Oak Ridge National Laboratory. A new thermoelectric clothes dryer being developed by Oak Ridge National Lab and Sheetak, Inc. could yield a 38% reduction in energy use compared to

  2. Compositional ordering and stability in nanostructured, bulk thermoelectric alloys.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hekmaty, Michelle A.; Faleev, S.; Medlin, Douglas L.; Leonard, F.; Lensch-Falk, J.; Sharma, Peter Anand; Sugar, J. D.

    2009-09-01

    Thermoelectric materials have many applications in the conversion of thermal energy to electrical power and in solid-state cooling. One route to improving thermoelectric energy conversion efficiency in bulk material is to embed nanoscale inclusions. This report summarize key results from a recently completed LDRD project exploring the science underpinning the formation and stability of nanostructures in bulk thermoelectric and the quantitative relationships between such structures and thermoelectric properties.

  3. On the role of electron energy distribution function in double frequency heating of electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schachter, L. Dobrescu, S.; Stiebing, K. E.

    2014-02-15

    Double frequency heating (DFH) is a tool to improve the output of highly charged ions particularly from modern electron cyclotron resonance ion source installations with very high RF-frequencies. In order to gain information on the DFH-mechanism and on the role of the lower injected frequency we have carried out a series of dedicated experiments where we have put emphasis on the creation of a discrete resonance surface also for this lower frequency. Our well-established method of inserting an emissive MD (metal-dielectric) liner into the plasma chamber of the source is used in these experiments as a tool of investigation. In this way, the electron temperature and density for both ECR zones is increased in a controlled manner, allowing conclusions on the role of the change of the electron-energy-distribution function with and without DFH.

  4. Influence of germanium nano-inclusions on the thermoelectric power factor of bulk bismuth telluride alloy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Satyala, Nikhil; Zamanipour, Zahra; Norouzzadeh, Payam; Krasinski, Jerzy S.; Vashaee, Daryoosh; Tahmasbi Rad, Armin; Tayebi, Lobat

    2014-05-28

    Nanocomposite thermoelectric compound of bismuth telluride (Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3}) with 5 at. % germanium nano-inclusions was prepared via mechanically alloying and sintering techniques. The influence of Ge nano-inclusions and long duration annealing on the thermoelectric properties of nanostructured Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were investigated. It was found that annealing has significant effect on the carrier concentration, Seebeck coefficient, and the power factor of the thermoelectric compound. The systematic heat treatment also reduced the density of donor type defects thereby decreasing the electron concentration. While the as-pressed nanocomposite materials showed n-type properties, it was observed that with the increase of annealing time, the nanocomposite gradually transformed to an abundantly hole-dominated (p-type) sample. The long duration annealing (∌500 h) resulted in a significantly enhanced electrical conductivity pertaining to the augmentation in the density and the structural properties of the sample. Therefore, a simultaneous enhancement in both electrical and Seebeck coefficient characteristics resulted in a remarkable increase in the thermoelectric power factor.

  5. Infrared and thermoelectric power generation in thin atomic layer deposited Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mann, Harkirat S.; Lang, Brian N.; Schwab, Yosyp; Scarel, Giovanna; NiemelÀ, Janne-Petteri; Karppinen, Maarit

    2015-01-15

    Infrared radiation is used to radiatively transfer heat to a nanometric power generator (NPG) device with a thermoelectric Nb-doped TiO{sub 2} film deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) as the active element, onto a borosilicate glass substrate. The linear rise of the produced voltage with respect to the temperature difference between the “hot” and “cold” junctions, typical of the Seebeck effect, is missing. The discovery of the violation of the Seebeck effect in NPG devices combined with the ability of ALD to tune thermoelectric thin film properties could be exploited to increase the efficiency of these devices for energy harvesting purposes.

  6. Overview of Research on Thermoelectric Materials and Devices in China |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Department of Energy An overview presentation of R&D projects on thermoelectric power generation technology in China. PDF icon zhang.pdf More Documents & Publications Recent Progress in the Development of N-type Skutterudites Vehicular Thermoelectric Applications Session DEER 2009 The Bottom-Up Approach forThermoelectric Nanocomposites, plusƒ

  7. Thermoelectrics Interests and Research: ARL and TARDEC | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Discusses US Army Applications of Thermoelectrics, including accurate measurements of TE coefficients, device parasitic and field emissions and ARL role. PDF icon taylor.pdf More Documents & Publications Review of Interests and Activities in Thermoelectric Materials and Devices at the Army Research Laboratory Review of Interests and Activities in Thermoelectric Materials and Devices at the Army Research Laboratory

  8. Thermoelectrics: The New Green Automotive Technology | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace00e_fairbanks_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and HVAC Vehicular Thermoelectrics: A New Green Technology Thermoelectrics: The New Green Automotive

  9. Thermoelectrics: The New Green Automotive Technology | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace00e_fairbanks_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Vehicular Thermoelectrics: A New Green Technology Vehicular Thermoelectrics: A New Green Technology Vehicular Thermoelectrics: The New Green

  10. High Efficiency Integrated Space Conditioning, Water Heating and Air Distribution System for HUD-Code Manufactured Housing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henry DeLima; Joe Akin; Joseph Pietsch

    2008-09-14

    Recognizing the need for new space conditioning and water heating systems for manufactured housing, DeLima Associates assembled a team to develop a space conditioning system that would enhance comfort conditions while also reducing energy usage at the systems level. The product, ComboflairÂź was defined as a result of a needs analysis of project sponsors and industry stakeholders. An integrated system would be developed that would combine a packaged airconditioning system with a small-duct, high-velocity air distribution system. In its basic configuration, the source for space heating would be a gas water heater. The complete system would be installed at the manufactured home factory and would require no site installation work at the homesite as is now required with conventional split-system air conditioners. Several prototypes were fabricated and tested before a field test unit was completed in October 2005. The ComboflairÂź system, complete with ductwork, was installed in a 1,984 square feet, double-wide manufactured home built by Palm Harbor Homes in Austin, TX. After the home was transported and installed at a Palm Harbor dealer lot in Austin, TX, a data acquisition system was installed for remote data collection. Over 60 parameters were continuously monitored and measurements were transmitted to a remote site every 15 minutes for performance analysis. The ComboflairÂź system was field tested from February 2006 until April 2007. The cooling system performed in accordance with the design specifications. The heating system initially could not provide the needed capacity at peak heating conditions until the water heater was replaced with a higher capacity standard water heater. All system comfort goals were then met. As a result of field testing, we have identified improvements to be made to specific components for incorporation into production models. The ComboflairÂź system will be manufactured by Unico, Inc. at their new production facility in St. Louis, MO. The product will be initially launched in the hot-humid climates of the southern U.S.

  11. Thermoelectric-enhanced, liquid-based cooling of a multi-component electronic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2015-05-12

    Apparatus and method are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The apparatus includes a liquid-cooled structure, a thermal conduction path coupling the electronic component and the liquid-cooled structure, a coolant loop in fluid communication with a coolant-carrying channel of the liquid-cooled structure, and an outdoor-air-cooled heat exchange unit coupled to facilitate heat transfer from the liquid-cooled structure via, at least in part, the coolant loop. The thermoelectric array facilitates transfer of heat from the electronic component to the liquid-cooled structure, and the heat exchange unit cools coolant passing through the coolant loop by dissipating heat from the coolant to outdoor ambient air. In one implementation, temperature of coolant entering the liquid-cooled structure is greater than temperature of the outdoor ambient air to which heat is dissipated.

  12. Thermoelectric-enhanced, liquid-based cooling of a multi-component electronic system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Steinke, Mark E

    2015-11-10

    Methods are provided for facilitating cooling of an electronic component. The methods include providing: a liquid-cooled structure, a thermal conduction path coupling the electronic component and the liquid-cooled structure, a coolant loop in fluid communication with a coolant-carrying channel of the liquid-cooled structure, and an outdoor-air-cooled heat exchange unit coupled to facilitate heat transfer from the liquid-cooled structure via, at least in part, the coolant loop. The thermoelectric array facilitates transfer of heat from the electronic component to the liquid-cooled structure, and the heat exchange unit cools coolant passing through the coolant loop by dissipating heat from the coolant to outdoor ambient air. In one implementation, temperature of coolant entering the liquid-cooled structure is greater than temperature of the outdoor ambient air to which heat is dissipated.

  13. Method of operating a thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-11-05

    A method for operating a thermoelectric generator supplying a variable-load component includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a first output and determining a first load current and a first load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded first output. The method also includes commanding the variable-load component to operate at a second output and determining a second load current and a second load voltage to the variable-load component while operating at the commanded second output. The method includes calculating a maximum power output of the thermoelectric generator from the determined first load current and voltage and the determined second load current and voltage, and commanding the variable-load component to operate at a third output. The commanded third output is configured to draw the calculated maximum power output from the thermoelectric generator.

  14. Analytical thermal model validation for Cassini radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, E.I.

    1997-12-31

    The Saturn-bound Cassini spacecraft is designed to rely, without precedent, on the waste heat from its three radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) to warm the propulsion module subsystem, and the RTG end dome temperature is a key determining factor of the amount of waste heat delivered. A previously validated SINDA thermal model of the RTG was the sole guide to understanding its complex thermal behavior, but displayed large discrepancies against some initial thermal development test data. A careful revalidation effort led to significant modifications and adjustments of the model, which result in a doubling of the radiative heat transfer from the heat source support assemblies to the end domes and bring up the end dome and flange temperature predictions to within 2 C of the pertinent test data. The increased inboard end dome temperature has a considerable impact on thermal control of the spacecraft central body. The validation process offers an example of physically-driven analytical model calibration with test data from not only an electrical simulator but also a nuclear-fueled flight unit, and has established the end dome temperatures of a flight RTG where no in-flight or ground-test data existed before.

  15. Clean Diesel Engine Component Improvement Program Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elsner, N. B.; Bass, J. C.; Ghamaty, S.; Krommenhoek, D.; Kushch, A.; Snowden, D.; Marchetti, S.

    2005-03-16

    Hi-Z Technology, Inc. (Hi-Z) is currently developing four different auxiliary generator designs that are used to convert a portion (5 to 20%) of the waste heat from vehicle engines exhaust directly to electricity. The four designs range from 200 Watts to 10 kW. The furthest along is the 1 kW Diesel Truck Thermoelectric Generator (DTTEG) for heavy duty Class 8 Diesel trucks, which, under this program, has been subjected to 543,000 equivalent miles of bouncing and jarring on PACCAR's test track. Test experience on an earlier version of the DTTEG on the same track showed the need for design modifications incorporated in DTTEG Mod 2, such as a heavy duty shock mounting system and reinforcement of the electrical leads mounting system, the thermocouple mounting system and the thermoelectric module restraints. The conclusion of the 543,000 mile test also pointed the way for an upgrading to heavy duty hose or flex connections for the internal coolant connections for the TEG, and consideration of a separate lower temperature cooling loop with its own radiator. Fuel savings of up to $750 per year and a three to five year payback are believed to be possible with the 5 % efficiency modules. The economics are expected to improve considerably to approach a two year payback when the 5 kW to 10 kW generators make it to the market in a few years with a higher efficiency (20%) thermoelectric module system called Quantum Wells, which are currently under development by Hi-Z. Ultimately, as automation takes over to reduce material and labor costs in the high volume production of QW modules, a one year payback for the 5 kW to10 kW generator appears possible. This was one of the stated goals at the beginning of the project. At some future point in time, with the DTTEG becoming standard equipment on all trucks and automobiles, fuel savings from the 25% conversion of exhaust heat to useable electricity nationwide equates to a 10% reduction in the 12 to 15 million barrels per day of imported oil, that much less air pollution, and an equivalent reduction in the trade deficit, which is expected to lower the inflation rate.

  16. Holey Silicon as an Efficient Thermoelectric Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tang, Jinyao; Wang, Hung-Ta; Hyun Lee, Dong; Fardy, Melissa; Huo, Ziyang; Russell, Thomas P.; Yang, Peidong

    2010-09-30

    This work investigated the thermoelectric properties of thin silicon membranes that have been decorated with high density of nanoscopic holes. These ?holey silicon? (HS) structures were fabricated by either nanosphere or block-copolymer lithography, both of which are scalable for practical device application. By reducing the pitch of the hexagonal holey pattern down to 55 nm with 35percent porosity, the thermal conductivity of HS is consistently reduced by 2 orders of magnitude and approaches the amorphous limit. With a ZT value of 0.4 at room temperature, the thermoelectric performance of HS is comparable with the best value recorded in silicon nanowire system.

  17. Alkaline earth filled nickel skutterudite antimonide thermoelectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, David Joseph

    2013-07-16

    A thermoelectric material including a body centered cubic filled skutterudite having the formula A.sub.xFe.sub.yNi.sub.zSb.sub.12, where A is an alkaline earth element, x is no more than approximately 1.0, and the sum of y and z is approximately equal to 4.0. The alkaline earth element includes guest atoms selected from the group consisting of Be, Mb, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra and combinations thereof. The filled skutterudite is shown to have properties suitable for a wide variety of thermoelectric applications.

  18. ITP Industrial Distributed Energy: Combined Heat & Power Multifamily Performance Program-- Sea Park East 150 kW CHP System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Overview of Sea Park East 150 kilowatt (kW) Combined Heat and Power (CHP) System in Brooklyn, New York

  19. Nonequilibrium Thermoelectrics: Low-Cost, High-Performance Materials for Cooling and Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Q.

    2011-05-18

    Thermoelectric materials can be made into coolers (TECs) that use electricity to develop a temperature difference, cooling something, or generators (TEGs) that convert heat directly to electricity. One application of TEGs is to place them in a waste heat stream to recuperate some of the power being lost and putting it to use more profitably. To be effective thermoelectrics, however, materials must have both high electrical conductivity and low thermal conductivity, a combination rarely found in nature. Materials selection and processing has led to the development of several systems with a figure of merit, ZT, of nearly unity. By using non-equilibrium techniques, we have fabricated higher efficiency thermoelectric materials. The process involves creating an amorphous material through melt spinning and then sintering it with either spark plasma or a hot press for as little as two minutes. This results in a 100% dense material with an extremely fine grain structure. The grain boundaries appear to retard phonons resulting in a reduced thermal conductivity while the electrons move through the material relatively unchecked. The techniques used are low-cost and scaleable to support industrial manufacturing.

  20. Lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of nanocrystalline silicon-germanium alloys

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Claudio, Tania; Stein, Niklas; Peterman, Nils; Stroppa, Daniel; Koza, Michael M.; Wiggers, Hartmut; Klobes, B.; Schierning, Gabi; Hermann, Raphael P.

    2015-10-26

    The lattice dynamics and thermoelectric properties of sintered phosphorus-doped nanostructured silicon- germanium alloys obtained by gas-phase synthesis were studied. Measurements of the density of phonon states by inelastic neutron scattering were combined with measurements of the elastic constants and the low- temperature heat capacity. A strong influence of nanostructuring and alloying on the lattice dynamics was observed. The thermoelectric transport properties of samples with different doping as well as samples sintered at different temperature were characterized between room temperature and 1000C. A peak figure of merit zT = 0:88 at 900C is observed and comparatively insensitive to the aforementioned param-more » eter variations.« less

  1. Titanium nitride electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novak, Robert F.; Schmatz, Duane J.; Hunt, Thomas K.

    1987-12-22

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film of titanium nitride as an electrode deposited onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  2. High ZT bismuth-doped perovskite thermoelectrics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown-Shaklee, Harlan James

    2016-02-23

    A bismuth-doped perovskite thermoelectric, comprising (Bi.sub.x, La.sub.0.1-x)SrTiO.sub.3, wherein x is between 0.01 and 0.1, can have a high figure-of-merit, ZT.

  3. Molybdenum oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI)

    1989-01-01

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a thin film comprising molybdenum oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques onto solid electrolyte. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  4. Thermoelectric devices and applications for the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeSteese, John G [Kennewick, WA; Olsen, Larry C [Richland, WA; Martin, Peter M [Kennewick, WA

    2010-12-14

    High performance thin film thermoelectric couples and methods of making the same are disclosed. Such couples allow fabrication of at least microwatt to watt-level power supply devices operating at voltages greater than one volt even when activated by only small temperature differences.

  5. Method of controlling temperature of a thermoelectric generator in an exhaust system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prior, Gregory P; Reynolds, Michael G; Cowgill, Joshua D

    2013-05-21

    A method of controlling the temperature of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) in an exhaust system of an engine is provided. The method includes determining the temperature of the heated side of the TEG, determining exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG, and determining the exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. A rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG is predicted based on the determined temperature, the determined exhaust gas flow rate, and the determined exhaust gas temperature through the TEG. Using the predicted rate of change of temperature of the heated side, exhaust gas flow rate through the TEG is calculated that will result in a maximum temperature of the heated side of the TEG less than a predetermined critical temperature given the predicted rate of change in temperature of the heated side of the TEG. A corresponding apparatus is provided.

  6. The Effects of an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator of a GM Sierra...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator of a GM Sierra Pickup Truck The Effects of an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator of a GM Sierra Pickup Truck 2004 Diesel Engine Emissions ...

  7. Performance, Market and Manufacturing Constraints relevant to the Industrialization of Thermoelectric Devices

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Market pricing of thermoelectric raw materials and processing, cost of manufacture of devices and systems constraints on the viability of a mass market thermoelectric product are discussed

  8. Two-dimensional model of the air flow and temperature distribution in a cavity-type heat receiver of a solar stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

    1999-11-01

    A theoretical study on the air flow and temperature in the heat receiver, affected by free convection, of a Stirling Engine for a Dish/Stirling Engine Power System is presented. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model for the fluid flow has been used and the boundary conditions employed were obtained using a second level mathematical model of the Stirling Engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation from the Concentrator on the bottom and side walls of the cavity-type heat receiver have been taken into account. The numerical results show that most of the heat losses in the receiver are due to re-radiation from the cavity and conduction through the walls of the cavity. It is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is a sensible reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the free convection of the air. Further, the numerical results show that convective heat losses increase with decreasing tilt angle.

  9. Heat-source specification 500 watt(e) RTG

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    This specification establishes the requirements for a /sup 90/SrF/sub 2/ heat source and its fuel capsule for application in a 500 W(e) thermoelectric generator. The specification covers: fuel composition and quantity; the Hastelloy S fuel capsule material and fabrication; and the quality assurance requirements for the assembled heat source. (LCL)

  10. Automotive Thermoelectric Moduleswith Scalable Thermo- andElectro...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Moduleswith Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces Automotive Thermoelectric Moduleswith Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces Interface materials based on ...

  11. Thermoelectric Couple Demonstration of (In, Ce)-based Skutterudite...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of (In, Ce)-based Skutterudite Materials for Automotive Energy Recovery Thermoelectric Couple Demonstration of (In, Ce)-based Skutterudite Materials for Automotive...

  12. Feasibility of OnBoard Thermoelectric Generation for Improved...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Feasibility of OnBoard Thermoelectric Generation for Improved Vehicle Fuel Economy Poster presentation at the 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER ...

  13. Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Zintl principle in chemistry, complex electronic band structures, and incorporation of nanometer sized particles were used to explore, optimize and improve bulk thermoelectric materials

  14. Thermoelectric Generator Development at Renault Trucks-Volvo...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    systems PDF icon aixala.pdf More Documents & Publications RENOTER Project RENOTER Project Integrated Design and Manufacturing of Thermoelectric Generator Using Thermal Spray

  15. Thermoelectric FabricsŽ based on carbon nanotube composites

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Composite films of multi-walled carbon nanotubes/polyvinylidene fluoride layered into multiple element modules, results in thermoelectric fabrics with increased power output

  16. Progress in Thermoelectrical Energy Recovery from a Light Truck...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery from a Light Truck Exhaust Progress in Thermoelectrical Energy Recovery from a Light Truck Exhaust Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. ...

  17. Thermoelectric Properties of Rare-Earth-Ruthenium-Germanium Compounds...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Cobalt substitution for ruthenium enhances the semiconductor character but does not improve the thermoelectric properties. URL: Link to article - Journal of Applied Physics...

  18. Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 2 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 2 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RTI International PDF icon 2002deervenkatasubramanian2.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-...

  19. Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nano-structures Thermoelectric Materals - Part 1 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: RTI International PDF icon 2002deervenkatasubramanian1.pdf More Documents & Publications Nano-...

  20. Recent Device Developments with Advanced Bulk Thermoelectric Materials at RTI

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Reviews work in engineered thin-film nanoscale thermoelectric materials and nano-bulk materials with high ZT undertaken by RTI in collaboration with its research partners

  1. Glass-like thermal conductivity in high efficiency thermoelectric materials

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses strategies to design thermoelectric materials with extremely low lattice thermal conductivity through modifications of the phonon band structure and phonon relaxation time.

  2. Commercialization of Bulk Thermoelectric Materials for Power Generation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Critical aspects of technology commercialization of preproduction high performance thermoelectric materials available for device developers, data analysis, and future plans are discussed

  3. A miniaturized mW thermoelectric generator for nw objectives...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    reliable power for decades. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A miniaturized mW thermoelectric generator for nw objectives: continuous, autonomous, reliable power for ...

  4. The potential impact of ZT=4 thermoelectric materials on solar...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    engines taking into account specific mass, volume and cost as well as system reliability. ... CONVERSION; INDUCTION; PERFORMANCE; RELIABILITY; STIRLING ENGINES; THERMOELECTRIC ...

  5. High Reliability, High TemperatureThermoelectric Power Generation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Key technologies and system approaches to excellent record of thermoelectric power sources in deep space missions and development of higher performance TE materials for the next ...

  6. PACCAR/Hi-Z Thermoelectric Generator Project | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PDF icon 2002deerbergstrand.pdf More Documents & Publications Self-powered Hydrogen + Oxygen Injection System The Effects of an Exhaust Thermoelectric Generator of a GM Sierra ...

  7. Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Discusses progress of thermoelectric generator development at BSST and assessment of potential to enter commercial operation in vehicles PDF icon crane.pdf More Documents & ...

  8. Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel ...

  9. DOE/NSF Thermoelectric Partnership Project SEEBECK Saving Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    research and sharing Knowledge DOENSF Thermoelectric Partnership Project SEEBECK Saving Energy Effectively By Engaging in Collaborative research and sharing Knowledge 2011 DOE ...

  10. DOE/NSF Thermoelectric Partnership Project SEEBECK Saving Energy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research and Sharing Knowledge DOENSF Thermoelectric Partnership Project SEEBECK Saving Energy Effectively By Engaging in Collaborative Research and Sharing Knowledge 2012 DOE ...

  11. Characterization of thermoelectric elements and devices by impedance...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    describes a new measurement technique that utilizes impedance spectroscopy for the characterization of thermoelectric materials and devices. Two circuit models were...

  12. State of the Art Prototype Vehicle with a Thermoelectric Generator.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Highlights BMW and partners buildup and testing of state-of-the-art prototype vehicle with the thermoelectric generator that produced over 600W under highway driving conditions

  13. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    10 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace049schock2010o...

  14. Thermoelectric Conversion of Waste Heat to Electricity in an...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    09 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace46schock...

  15. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  16. A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-20kim.pdf More Documents & ...

  17. Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon p-01stephenson.pdf More ...

  18. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2013 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  19. Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Program for Passenger Vehicles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting

  20. Develop Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    0 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ace050meisner2010o.pdf More...

  1. An Overview of Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery Activities in Europe |

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Contaminants | Department of Energy Download presentation slides from the DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office webinar "NREL's Fuel Cell Contaminant Database" held on May 27, 2014. PDF icon NREL's Fuel Cell Contaminant Database Webinar Slides More Documents & Publications Balance of Plant (BoP) Components Validation for Fuel Cells Effect of System and Air Contaminants on PEMFC Performance and Durability Low Temperature Fuel Cell and Electrolyzer Balance-of-Plant Manufacturing

  2. Enhancing Heat Recovery for Thermoelectric Devices | Department of Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Presentation given at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. PDF icon deer10_szybist2.pdf More Documents & Publications Materials Issues Associated with EGR Systems Microstructural Evolution of EGR Cooler Deposits Hydrocarbon and Deposit Morphology Effects on EGR Cooler Deposit Stability and Removal

  3. An Information Dependant Computer Program for Engine Exhaust Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for Heating | Department of Energy A computer program was developed to help engineers at rural Alaskan village power plants to quickly evaluate how to use exhaust waste heat from individual diesel power plants. PDF icon deer09_avadhanula.pdf More Documents & Publications Modular Low Cost High Energy Exhaust Heat Thermoelectric Generator with Closed-Loop Exhaust By-Pass System Exhaust Heat Recovery for Rural Alaskan Diesel Generators Exhaust Energy Recovery

  4. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study of the Use of Saline Formations for Combined Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon Sequestration at a Regional Scale: Phase II Report June 2010 Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness

  5. multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    multi-mission radioisotope thermoelectric generator - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste

  6. Thermoelectric Materials, Devices and Systems:

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Conversion » Thermochemical Conversion Related Links Thermochemical Conversion Related Links Further reading about current Bioenergy Technologies Office R&D in the Thermochemical Platform can be found in this website's Information Resources section. Some key publications are: Using Heat and Chemistry to Make Fuel and Power: Thermochemical Conversion (January 2011) Thermochemical Conversion 2009 Peer Review Design Case Summary: Production of Gasoline and Diesel from Biomass via Fast

  7. Design and development of thermoelectric generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prem Kumar, D. S. Mahajan, Ishan Vardhan Anbalagan, R. Mallik, Ramesh Chandra

    2014-04-24

    In this paper we discuss the fabrication, working and characteristics of a thermoelectric generator made up of p and n type semiconductor materials. The device consists of Fe{sub 0.2}Co{sub 3.8}Sb{sub 11.5}Te{sub 0.5} (zT = 1.04 at 818 K) as the n-type and Zn4Sb3 (zT=0.8 at 550 K) as the p-type material synthesized by vacuum hot press method. Carbon paste has been used to join the semiconductor legs to metal (Molybdenum) electrodes to reduce the contact resistance. The multi-couple (4 legs) generator results a maximum output power of 1.083 mW at a temperature difference of 240 K between the hot and cold sides. In this investigation, an I-V characteristic, maximum output power of the thermoelectric module is presented. The efficiency of thermoelectric module is obtained as ? = 0.273 %.

  8. New Composite Thermoelectric Materials for Macro-size Applications

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred [MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States

    2010-01-08

    A review will be given of several important recent advances in both thermoelectrics research and industrial thermoelectric applications, which have attracted much attention, increasing incentives for developing advanced materials appropriate for large-scale applications of thermoelectric devices. One promising strategy is the development of materials with a dense packing of random nanostructures as a route for the sacle-up of thermoelectrics applications. The concepts involved in designing composite materials containing nanostructures for thermoelectric applications will be discussed in general terms. Specific application is made to the Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} nanocomposite system for use in power generation. Also emphasized are the scientific advantages of the nanocomposite approach for the simultaneous increase in the power factor and decrease of the thermal conductivity, along with the practical advantages of having bulk samples for property measurements and device applications. A straightforward path is identified for the scale-up of thermoelectric materials synthesis containing nanostructured constituents for use in thermoelectric applications. We end with some vision of where the field of thermoelectrics is now heading.

  9. Specification for strontium-90 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammel, T.; Himes, J.; Lieberman, A.; McGrew, J.; Owings, D.; Schumann, F.

    1983-04-01

    A conceptual design for a demonstration 500-watt(e) radioisotopic thermoelectric generator has been created for the Department of Energy. The design effort was divided into two tasks, viz., create a design specification for a capsule strength member that utilizes a standard Strontium-90 fluoride-filled WESF inner liner, and create a conceptual design for a 500-watt(e) RTG. Both tasks have been accomplished. The strength-member specification was designed to survive an external pressure of 24,500 psi and meet the requirements of special-form radioisotope heat sources. Therefore the capsule can, if desired, be licensed for domestic and international transport. The design for the RTG features a radioisotopic heat source, an array of nine capsules in a tungsten biological shield, four current-technology series-connected thermoelectric-conversion modules, low-conductivity thermal insulation, and a passive finned-housing radiator for waste-heat dissipation. The preliminary RTG specification formulated previous to contract award has been met or exceeded. The power source will generate the required power for the required service period at 28 volts dc with a conversion efficiency of 8%, provided the existing in-pool capsules at WESF meet the assumed thermal-inventory requirements.

  10. High Energy Density Thermal Batteries: Thermoelectric Reactors for Efficient Automotive Thermal Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-11-15

    HEATS Project: Sheetak is developing a new HVAC system to store the energy required for heating and cooling in EVs. This system will replace the traditional refrigerant-based vapor compressors and inefficient heaters used in today’s EVs with efficient, light, and rechargeable hot-and-cold thermal batteries. The high energy density thermal battery—which does not use any hazardous substances—can be recharged by an integrated solid-state thermoelectric energy converter while the vehicle is parked and its electrical battery is being charged. Sheetak’s converters can also run on the electric battery if needed and provide the required cooling and heating to the passengers—eliminating the space constraint and reducing the weight of EVs that use more traditional compressors and heaters.

  11. Comparison of heating and cooling energy consumption by HVAC system with mixing and displacement air distribution for a restaurant dining area in different climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhivov, A.M.; Rymkevich, A.A.

    1998-12-31

    Different ventilation strategies to improve indoor air quality and to reduce HVAC system operating costs in a restaurant with nonsmoking and smoking areas and a bar are discussed in this paper. A generic sitting-type restaurant is used for the analysis. Prototype designs for the restaurant chain with more than 200 restaurants in different US climates were analyzed to collect the information on building envelope, dining area size, heat and contaminant sources and loads, occupancy rates, and current design practices. Four constant air volume HVAC systems wit h a constant and variable (demand-based) outdoor airflow rate, with a mixing and displacement air distribution, were compared in five representative US climates: cold (Minneapolis, MN); Maritime (Seattle, WA); moderate (Albuquerque, NM); hot-dry (Phoenix, AZ); and hot-humid (Miami, FL). For all four compared cases and climatic conditions, heating and cooling consumption by the HVAC system throughout the year-round operation was calculated and operation costs were compared. The analysis shows: Displacement air distribution allows for better indoor air quality in the breathing zone at the same outdoor air supply airflow rate due to contaminant stratification along the room height. The increase in outdoor air supply during the peak hours in Miami and Albuquerque results in an increase of both heating and cooling energy consumption. In other climates, the increase in outdoor air supply results in reduced cooling energy consumption. For the Phoenix, Minneapolis, and Seattle locations, the HVAC system operation with a variable outdoor air supply allows for a decrease in cooling consumption up to 50% and, in some cases, eliminates the use of refrigeration machines. The effect of temperature stratification on HVAC system parameters is the same for all locations; displacement ventilation systems result in decreased cooling energy consumption but increased heating consumption.

  12. Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhiyu

    2010-04-13

    A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, a semiconducting collector and an electron emitter. The electron emitter comprises a metal nanoparticle layer or plurality of metal nanocatalyst particles disposed on one side of said separator layer. A first electrically conductive lead is electrically coupled to the electron emitter. The collector layer is disposed on the other side of the separator layer, wherein the thickness of the separator layer is less than 1 .mu.m. A second conductive lead is electrically coupled to the collector layer.

  13. Energy harvesting using a thermoelectric material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nersessian, Nersesse; Carman, Gregory P.; Radousky, Harry B.

    2008-07-08

    A novel energy harvesting system and method utilizing a thermoelectric having a material exhibiting a large thermally induced strain (TIS) due to a phase transformation and a material exhibiting a stress induced electric field is introduced. A material that exhibits such a phase transformation exhibits a large increase in the coefficient of thermal expansion over an incremental temperature range (typically several degrees Kelvin). When such a material is arranged in a geometric configuration, such as, for a example, a laminate with a material that exhibits a stress induced electric field (e.g. a piezoelectric material) the thermally induced strain is converted to an electric field.

  14. Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Study of the Use of Saline Formations for Combined Thermoelectric Power Plant Water Needs and Carbon Sequestration at a Regional Scale: Phase III Report August 2010 DOE/NETL-09-014470 SAND2011-5776P Disclaimer This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the

  15. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transport trailer system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ard, K.E.; King, D.A.; Leigh, H.; Satoh, J.A.

    1995-01-20

    The Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System, designated as System 100, comprises four major systems. The four major systems are designated as the Packaging System (System 120), Trailer System (System 140), Operations and Ancillary Equipment System (System 160), and Shipping and Receiving Facility Transport System (System 180). Packaging System (System 120), including the RTG packaging is licensed (regulatory) hardware; it is certified by the U.S. Department of Energy to be in accordance with Title 10, {ital Code} {ital of} {ital Federal} {ital Regulations}, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). System 140, System 160, and System 180 are nonlicensed (nonregulatory) hardware. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}

  16. International Round-Robin Testing of Bulk Thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Hsin; Porter, Wallace D; Bottner, Harold; Konig, Jan; Chen, Lidong; Bai, Shengqiang; Tritt, Terry M.; Mayolett, Alex; Smith, Charlene; Harris, Fred; Sharp, Jeff; Lo, Jason; Keinke, Holger; Kiss, Laszlo I.

    2011-11-01

    Two international round-robin studies were conducted on transport properties measurements of bulk thermoelectric materials. The study discovered current measurement problems. In order to get ZT of a material four separate transport measurements must be taken. The round-robin study showed that among the four properties Seebeck coefficient is the one can be measured consistently. Electrical resistivity has +4-9% scatter. Thermal diffusivity has similar +5-10% scatter. The reliability of the above three properties can be improved by standardizing test procedures and enforcing system calibrations. The worst problem was found in specific heat measurements using DSC. The probability of making measurement error is great due to the fact three separate runs must be taken to determine Cp and the baseline shift is always an issue for commercial DSC. It is suggest the Dulong Petit limit be always used as a guide line for Cp. Procedures have been developed to eliminate operator and system errors. The IEA-AMT annex is developing standard procedures for transport properties testing.

  17. Thermal vacuum life test facility for radioisotope thermoelectric generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deaton, R.L.; Goebel, C.J.; Amos, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    In the late 1970's, the Department of Energy (DOE) assigned Monsanto Research Corporation, Mound Facility, now operated by EG G Mound Applied Technologies, the responsibility for assembling and testing General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs). Assembled and tested were five RTGs, which included four flight units and one non-flight qualification unit. Figure 1 shows the RTG, which was designed by General Electric AstroSpace Division (GE/ASD) to produce 285 W of electrical power. A detailed description of the processes for RTG assembly and testing is presented by Amos and Goebel (1989). The RTG performance data are described by Bennett, et al. (1986). The flight units will provide electrical power for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Galileo mission to Jupiter (two RTGs) and the joint NASA/European Space Agency (ESA) Ulysses mission to study the polar regions of the sun (one RTG). The remaining flight unit will serve as the spare for both missions, and a non-flight qualification unit was assembled and tested to ensure that performance criteria were adequately met. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Fuel Cell Power Model Version 2: Startup Guide, System Designs, and Case Studies. Modeling Electricity, Heat, and Hydrogen Generation from Fuel Cell-Based Distributed Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steward, D.; Penev, M.; Saur, G.; Becker, W.; Zuboy, J.

    2013-06-01

    This guide helps users get started with the U.S. Department of Energy/National Renewable Energy Laboratory Fuel Cell Power (FCPower) Model Version 2, which is a Microsoft Excel workbook that analyzes the technical and economic aspects of high-temperature fuel cell-based distributed energy systems with the aim of providing consistent, transparent, comparable results. This type of energy system would provide onsite-generated heat and electricity to large end users such as hospitals and office complexes. The hydrogen produced could be used for fueling vehicles or stored for later conversion to electricity.

  19. Aerogel Derived Nanostructured Thermoelectric Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wendell E Rhine, PI; Dong, Wenting; Greg Caggiano, PM

    2010-10-08

    America’s dependence on foreign sources for fuel represents a economic and security threat for the country. These non renewable resources are depleting, and the effects of pollutants from fuels such as oil are reaching a problematic that affects the global community. Solar concentration power (SCP) production systems offer the opportunity to harness one of the United States’ most under utilized natural resources; sunlight. While commercialization of this technology is increasing, in order to become a significant source of electricity production in the United States the costs of deploying and operating SCP plants must be further reduced. Parabolic Trough SCP technologies are close to meeting energy production cost levels that would raise interest in the technology and help accelerate its adoption as a method to produce a significant portion of the Country’s electric power needs. During this program, Aspen Aerogels will develop a transparent aerogel insulation that can replace the costly vacuum insulation systems that are currently used in parabolic trough designs. During the Phase I program, Aspen Aerogels will optimize the optical and thermal properties of aerogel to meet the needs of this application. These properties will be tested, and the results will be used to model the performance of a parabolic trough HCE system which uses this novel material in place of vacuum. During the Phase II program, Aspen Aerogels will scale up this technology. Together with industry partners, Aspen Aerogels will build and test a prototype Heat Collection Element that is insulated with the novel transparent aerogel material. This new device will find use in parabolic trough SCP applications.

  20. Impact of parasitic thermal effects on thermoelectric property measurements by Harman method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Beomjin Baek, Seung-Hyub; Keun Kim, Seong; Kim, Jin-Sang

    2014-04-15

    Harman method is a rapid and simple technique to measure thermoelectric properties. However, its validity has been often questioned due to the over-simplified assumptions that this method relies on. Here, we quantitatively investigate the influence of the previously ignored parasitic thermal effects on the Harman method and develop a method to determine an intrinsic ZT. We expand the original Harman relation with three extra terms: heat losses via both the lead wires and radiation, and Joule heating within the sample. Based on the expanded Harman relation, we use differential measurement of the sample geometry to measure the intrinsic ZT. To separately evaluate the parasitic terms, the measured ZTs with systematically varied sample geometries and the lead wire types are fitted to the expanded relation. A huge discrepancy (∌28%) of the measured ZTs depending on the measurement configuration is observed. We are able to separately evaluate those parasitic terms. This work will help to evaluate the intrinsic thermoelectric property with Harman method by eliminating ambiguities coming from extrinsic effects.

  1. Electrocaloric devices based on thini-film heat switches

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Richard I; Malloy, Kevin J

    2009-01-01

    We describe a new approach to refrigeration and electrical generation that exploits the attractive properties of thin films of electrocaloric materials. Layers of electrocaloric material coupled with thin-film heat switches can work as either refrigerators or electrical generators, depending on the phasing of the applied voltages and heat switching. With heat switches based on thin layers of liquid crystals, the efficiency of these thin-film heat engines can be at least as high as that of current thermoelectric devices. Advanced heat switches would enable thin-film heat engines to outperform conventional vaporcompression devices.

  2. Convergence of Distributed Optimal Controls on the Internal Energy in Mixed Elliptic Problems when the Heat Transfer Coefficient Goes to Infinity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gariboldi, C.; E-mail: cgariboldi@exa.unrc.edu.ar; Tarzia, D.

    2003-05-21

    We consider a steady-state heat conduction problem P{sub {alpha}} with mixed boundary conditions for the Poisson equation depending on a positive parameter {alpha} , which represents the heat transfer coefficient on a portion {gamma} {sub 1} of the boundary of a given bounded domain in R{sup n} . We formulate distributed optimal control problems over the internal energy g for each {alpha}. We prove that the optimal control g{sub o}p{sub {alpha}} and its corresponding system u{sub go}p{sub {alpha}}{sub {alpha}} and adjoint p{sub go}p{sub {alpha}}{sub {alpha}} states for each {alpha} are strongly convergent to g{sub op},u{sub gop} and p{sub gop} , respectively, in adequate functional spaces. We also prove that these limit functions are respectively the optimal control, and the system and adjoint states corresponding to another distributed optimal control problem for the same Poisson equation with a different boundary condition on the portion {gamma}{sub 1} . We use the fixed point and elliptic variational inequality theories.

  3. Development of Thermoelectric Technology for Automotive Waste...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    generator for automotive waste heat recovery and achieve at least 10% fuel ... Opportunities and Challenges of Thermoelectrlic Waste Heat Recovery in the Automotive ...

  4. combined heat power | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Combined Heat & Power and Distributed Energy Combined Heat and Power (CHP) is a key component of distributed energy within the DOE Advanced Manufacturing Office. CHP - sometimes ...

  5. System level modeling of thermoelectric generators for automotive...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Uses a model to predict and analyze the system-level performance of a thermoelectric generator in terms of the power output and the power density at the element, module and ...

  6. Automotive Thermoelectric Moduleswith Scalable Thermo- and Electro-Mechanical Interfaces

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Interface materials based on carbon nanotubes and metallic alloys, scalable p- and n-type thermoelectrics, materials compatibility for improved reliability, and performance targets for automotive applications are discussed

  7. High temperature thermoelectric properties of the solid-solution...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: High temperature thermoelectric properties of the solid-solution zintl phase EuCd6-xZnxSb Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High temperature ...

  8. Thermoelectric skutterudite compositions and methods for producing the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng; Yang, Jian; Yan, Xiao; He, Qinyu; Chen, Gang; Hao, Qing

    2014-11-11

    Compositions related to skutterudite-based thermoelectric materials are disclosed. Such compositions can result in materials that have enhanced ZT values relative to one or more bulk materials from which the compositions are derived. Thermoelectric materials such as n-type and p-type skutterudites with high thermoelectric figures-of-merit can include materials with filler atoms and/or materials formed by compacting particles (e.g., nanoparticles) into a material with a plurality of grains each having a portion having a skutterudite-based structure. Methods of forming thermoelectric skutterudites, which can include the use of hot press processes to consolidate particles, are also disclosed. The particles to be consolidated can be derived from (e.g., grinded from), skutterudite-based bulk materials, elemental materials, other non-Skutterudite-based materials, or combinations of such materials.

  9. High-Temperature High-Efficiency Solar Thermoelectric Generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baranowski, LL; Warren, EL; Toberer, ES

    2014-03-01

    Inspired by recent high-efficiency thermoelectric modules, we consider thermoelectrics for terrestrial applications in concentrated solar thermoelectric generators (STEGs). The STEG is modeled as two subsystems: a TEG, and a solar absorber that efficiently captures the concentrated sunlight and limits radiative losses from the system. The TEG subsystem is modeled using thermoelectric compatibility theory; this model does not constrain the material properties to be constant with temperature. Considering a three-stage TEG based on current record modules, this model suggests that 18% efficiency could be experimentally expected with a temperature gradient of 1000A degrees C to 100A degrees C. Achieving 15% overall STEG efficiency thus requires an absorber efficiency above 85%, and we consider two methods to achieve this: solar-selective absorbers and thermally insulating cavities. When the TEG and absorber subsystem models are combined, we expect that the STEG modeled here could achieve 15% efficiency with optical concentration between 250 and 300 suns.

  10. Large-dimension, high-ZT Thermoelectric Nanocomposites for High...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    BiTe and Pb-based nanocomposites produced with a low-cost scalable process were used for development and testing of ... research and sharing Knowledge DOENSF Thermoelectric ...

  11. Thermoelectric generator and method for the fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1987-01-01

    A thermoelectric generator using semiconductor elements for responding to a temperature gradient to produce electrical energy with all of the semiconductor elements being of the same type is disclosed. A continuous process for forming substrates on which the semiconductor elements and superstrates are deposited and a process for forming the semiconductor elements on the substrates are also disclosed. The substrates with the semiconductor elements thereon are combined with superstrates to form modules for use thermoelectric generators.

  12. Modeling and Optimization of Hybrid Solar Thermoelectric Systems with

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermosyphons (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: Modeling and Optimization of Hybrid Solar Thermoelectric Systems with Thermosyphons Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Modeling and Optimization of Hybrid Solar Thermoelectric Systems with Thermosyphons Authors: Miljkovic, N ; Wang, E Publication Date: 2011-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1066915 DOE Contract Number: SC0001299; FG02-09ER46577 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Solar Energy; Journal

  13. Water Based Process for Fabricating Thermoelectric Materials - Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovation Portal Solar Thermal Solar Thermal Find More Like This Return to Search Water Based Process for Fabricating Thermoelectric Materials Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication LBNL Commercial Analysis Report (1,391 KB) Technology Marketing Summary Berkeley Lab scientists Rachel Segalman, Jeffrey Urban and Kevin See have invented a water based process to make thermoelectric films. The resulting composite film

  14. Thermoelectric generator and method for the fabrication thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1984-08-01

    A thermoelectric generator using semiconductor elements for responding to a temperature gradient to produce electrical energy with all of the semiconductor elements being of the same type is disclosed. A continuous process for forming substrates on which the semiconductor elements and superstrates are deposited and a process for forming the semiconductor elements on the substrates are also disclosed. The substrates with the semiconductor elements thereon are combined with superstrates to form modules for use as thermoelectric generators.

  15. Characterization of thermoelectric elements and devices by impedance

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    spectroscopy | Energy Frontier Research Centers Characterization of thermoelectric elements and devices by impedance spectroscopy Home Author: A. D. Downey, T. P. Hogan, B. Cook Year: 2007 Abstract: This article describes a new measurement technique that utilizes impedance spectroscopy for the characterization of thermoelectric materials and devices. Two circuit models were developed and used to help explain the impedance spectroscopy data using transmission line theory and a coupled

  16. Thermoelectric Activities of European Community within Framework Programme

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    7 and additional activities in Germany | Department of Energy Provides survey of basic and applied thermoelectric activities in Germany within the European Community Programme and in Fraunhofer IPM PDF icon bottner.pdf More Documents & Publications Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development Overview of Fraunhofer IPM Activities in High Temperature Bulk Materials and Device Development Automotive Thermoelectric Generators and H

  17. Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Performance Materials for Energy Conversion | Department of Energy Rapid solidified precursor converted into crystalline bulks under pressure produced thermoelectric materials of nano-sized grains with strongly coupled grain boundaries, achieving reduced lattice thermal conductivity and increased power factor PDF icon li.pdf More Documents & Publications Correlation Between Structure and Thermoelectric Properties of Bulk High Performance Materials for Energy Conversion Integrated Design

  18. Quantum interference in thermoelectric molecular junctions: A toy model perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nozaki, Daijiro E-mail: research@nano.tu-dresden.de; Avdoshenko, Stas M.; Sevinçli, Hùldun; Cuniberti, Gianaurelio

    2014-08-21

    Quantum interference (QI) phenomena between electronic states in molecular circuits offer a new opportunity to design new types of molecular devices such as molecular sensors, interferometers, and thermoelectric devices. Controlling the QI effect is a key challenge for such applications. For the development of single molecular devices employing QI effects, a systematic study of the relationship between electronic structure and the quantum interference is needed. In order to uncover the essential topological requirements for the appearance of QI effects and the relationship between the QI-affected line shape of the transmission spectra and the electronic structures, we consider a homogeneous toy model where all on-site energies are identical and model four types of molecular junctions due to their topological connectivities. We systematically analyze their transmission spectra, density of states, and thermoelectric properties. Even without the degree of freedom for on-site energies an asymmetric Fano peak could be realized in the homogeneous systems with the cyclic configuration. We also calculate the thermoelectric properties of the model systems with and without fluctuation of on-site energies. Even under the fluctuation of the on-site energies, the finite thermoelectrics are preserved for the Fano resonance, thus cyclic configuration is promising for thermoelectric applications. This result also suggests the possibility to detect the cyclic configuration in the homogeneous systems and the presence of the QI features from thermoelectric measurements.

  19. Feasibility of preparing patterned molybdenum coatings on bismuth telluride thermoelectric modules.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sarobol, Pylin; Hall, Aaron Christopher; Miller, Stephen Samuel; Knight, Marlene E.; LePage, William S.; Sobczak, Catherine Elizabeth.; Wesolowski, Daniel Edward

    2013-09-01

    Molybdenum electrical interconnects for thermoelectric modules were produced by air plasma spraying a 30%CE%BCm size molybdenum powder through a laser-cut Kapton tape mask. Initial feasibility demonstrations showed that the molybdenum coating exhibited excellent feature and spacing retention (~170%CE%BCm), adhered to bismuth-telluride, and exhibited electrical conductivity appropriate for use as a thermoelectric module interconnect. A design of experiments approach was used to optimize air plasma spray process conditions to produce a molybdenum coating with low electrical resistivity. Finally, a molybdenum coating was successfully produced on a fullscale thermoelectric module. After the addition of a final titanium/gold layer deposited on top of the molybdenum coating, the full scale module exhibited an electrical resistivity of 128%CE%A9, approaching the theoretical resistivity value for the 6mm module leg of 112%CE%A9. Importantly, air plasma sprayed molybdenum did not show significant chemical reaction with bismuth-telluride substrate at the coating/substrate interface. The molybdenum coating microstructure consisted of lamellar splats containing columnar grains. Air plasma sprayed molybdenum embedded deeply (several microns) into the bismuth-telluride substrate, leading to good adhesion between the coating and the substrate. Clusters of round pores (and cracks radiating from the pores) were found immediately beneath the molybdenum coating. These pores are believed to result from tellurium vaporization during the spray process where the molten molybdenum droplets (2623%C2%B0C) transferred their heat of solidification to the substrate at the moment of impact. Substrate cooling during the molybdenum deposition process was recommended to mitigate tellurium vaporization in future studies.

  20. THE IMPORTANCE OF PHYSICAL MODELS FOR DERIVING DUST MASSES AND GRAIN SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN SUPERNOVA EJECTA. I. RADIATIVELY HEATED DUST IN THE CRAB NEBULA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli, E-mail: tea.temim@nasa.gov [Observational Cosmology Lab, Code 665, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Recent far-infrared (IR) observations of supernova remnants (SNRs) have revealed significantly large amounts of newly condensed dust in their ejecta, comparable to the total mass of available refractory elements. The dust masses derived from these observations assume that all the grains of a given species radiate at the same temperature, regardless of the dust heating mechanism or grain radius. In this paper, we derive the dust mass in the ejecta of the Crab Nebula, using a physical model for the heating and radiation from the dust. We adopt a power-law distribution of grain sizes and two different dust compositions (silicates and amorphous carbon), and calculate the heating rate of each dust grain by the radiation from the pulsar wind nebula. We find that the grains attain a continuous range of temperatures, depending on their size and composition. The total mass derived from the best-fit models to the observed IR spectrum is 0.019-0.13 M{sub Sun }, depending on the assumed grain composition. We find that the power-law size distribution of dust grains is characterized by a power-law index of 3.5-4.0 and a maximum grain size larger than 0.1 {mu}m. The grain sizes and composition are consistent with what is expected for dust grains formed in a Type IIP supernova (SN). Our derived dust mass is at least a factor of two less than the mass reported in previous studies of the Crab Nebula that assumed more simplified two-temperature models. These models also require a larger mass of refractory elements to be locked up in dust than was likely available in the ejecta. The results of this study show that a physical model resulting in a realistic distribution of dust temperatures can constrain the dust properties and affect the derived dust masses. Our study may also have important implications for deriving grain properties and mass estimates in other SNRs and for the ultimate question of whether SNe are major sources of dust in the Galactic interstellar medium and in external galaxies.

  1. About Industrial Distributed Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Advanced Manufacturing Office's (AMO's) Industrial Distributed Energy activities build on the success of predecessor DOE programs on distributed energy and combined heat and power (CHP) while...

  2. Resonant Level Enhancement of the Thermoelectric Power of Bi2Te3...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Resonant Level Enhancement of the Thermoelectric Power of Bi2Te3 with Tin Resonant Level Enhancement of the Thermoelectric Power of Bi2Te3 with Tin Application to practical p-type...

  3. High-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Yb-filled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    High-Temperature Thermoelectric Properties of p-Type Yb-filled Skutterudites with FeSb2 Nanoinclusions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Temperature Thermoelectric ...

  4. Closed-Form Solution for the Effect of Fuel Decay and Thermoelectric Degradation on Output of SiGe RTGs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1991-08-01

    Presented at the 26th IECEC in Boston, MA August 4-9, 1991. The paper derives a closed-form solution for the long-term effect of fuel decay and thermoelectric degradation on the performance of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators employing silicon-germanium converter elements. RTGs of this type were used to power the recent Galileo and Ulysses space exploration missions, and are slated for use on the upcoming CRAF and Cassini missions. The method described applies not only to uniform-temperature RTGs, but also to RTGs with significant axial and circumferential variations in the couples' cold-junction temperatures and voltages (due to unsymmetrically obstructed heat rejection paths). This is important for the mutually blocking RTGs on the CRAF and Cassini spacecraft, and even more so for the reflector-blocked Solar Probe RTGs. The method for predicting RTG degradation that is dervied in this paper is based on both analytical and experimental data. It accounts for the effect of diminishing hot-junction temperatures on thermoelectric degradation rates. The method leads to an integral equation, for which the author was able to derive a closed-form solution. The solution was successfully validated by comparison with long-term test data. It enables the RTG designer to predict the power output profile throughout the mission, to ensure that it satisfies the mission's power demand profile. There are four copies in the file.

  5. Effect of sintering in ball-milled K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} thermoelectric nano-composites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatzikraniotis, E.; Ioannou, M.; Chrissafis, K.; Chung, D.Y.; Paraskevopoulos, K.M.; Kyratsi, Th.

    2012-09-15

    K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13} has many attractive features for thermoelectric applications. Recently, K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposite materials, consisting of nano-crystalline, micro-crystalline and amorphous phases, have been fabricated based on powder technology techniques. The Seebeck coefficient has been enhanced while the thermal conductivity has been decreased presenting, thus, interesting behavior. The behavior of the materials under heat treatment conditions is now of interest, as the application of sintering process is necessary for the development of thermoelectric modules. In this work, the crystallization of the K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nano-composites is studied using Differential Scanning Calorimetry. The results show that crystallization follows a multiple-step process with different activation energies. The thermoelectric properties are also discussed in the range that crystallization occurs. - Graphical Abstract: {beta}-K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based nanocomposites follow a multiple-step crystallization process. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer K{sub 2}Bi{sub 8}Se{sub 13}-based composites consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sintering results multiple-step crystallization with variable activation energies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Thermoelectric properties follow a step-like behavior during sintering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Properties are attributed to the strain relaxation, nucleation and grain growth.

  6. Geothermal District Heating Economics

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1995-07-12

    GEOCITY is a large-scale simulation model which combines both engineering and economic submodels to systematically calculate the cost of geothermal district heating systems for space heating, hot-water heating, and process heating based upon hydrothermal geothermal resources. The GEOCITY program simulates the entire production, distribution, and waste disposal process for geothermal district heating systems, but does not include the cost of radiators, convectors, or other in-house heating systems. GEOCITY calculates the cost of district heating basedmore » on the climate, population, and heat demand of the district; characteristics of the geothermal resource and distance from the distribution center; well-drilling costs; design of the distribution system; tax rates; and financial conditions.« less

  7. Thermoelectric power generator module of 16x16 Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 0.6%ErAs:(InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} segmented elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng Gehong; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Bowers, John E.; Lu Hong; Gossard, Arthur C.; Singer, Suzanne L.; Majumdar, Arun; Bian, Zhixi; Zebarjadi, Mona; Shakouri, Ali

    2009-08-24

    We report the fabrication and characterization of thermoelectric power generator modules of 16x16 segmented elements consisting of 0.8 mm thick Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 50 {mu}m thick ErAs:(InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} with 0.6% ErAs by volume. An output power up to 6.3 W was measured when the heat source temperature was at 610 K. The thermoelectric properties of (InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} were characterized from 300 up to 830 K. The finite element modeling shows that the performance of the generator modules can further be enhanced by improving the thermoelectric properties of the element materials, and reducing the electrical and thermal parasitic losses.

  8. A Thermoelectric Generator with an Intermediate Heat Exchanger for Automotive Waste Heat Recovery System

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

  9. Thermoelectric Properties of Indium-Filled Skutterudites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Tao; Chen, Jiazhong; Rosenfeld, H. David; Subramanian, M.A.

    2008-09-18

    Structural, electrical, and thermal transport properties of CoSb{sub 3} partially filled with indium are reported. Polycrystalline samples of In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} (0 {le} x {le} 0.3) were prepared by solid-state reaction under a gas mixture of 5% H{sub 2} and 95% Ar. The solubility limit of the indium filling voids in CoSb{sub 3} was found to be close to 0.22. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction refinement of the x = 0.2 sample showed that the indium is located in the classic rattler site and has a substantially larger thermal factor than those of Co and Sb. The electrical resistivity, Seebeck coefficients, and thermal conductivity of the In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} samples were measured in the temperature range of 300-600 K. All samples showed metal-like behavior, and the large negative Seebeck coefficients indicated n-type conduction. The thermal conductivity decreased with increasing temperature for all samples. A thermoelectric figure-of-merit (ZT) {ge} 1 (n-type) has been achieved when x {ge} 0.2 in In{sub x}Co{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} at 575 K.

  10. Spin-on-doping for output power improvement of silicon nanowire array based thermoelectric power generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, B. Fobelets, K.

    2014-06-07

    The output power of a silicon nanowire array (NWA)-bulk thermoelectric power generator (TEG) with Cu contacts is improved by spin-on-doping (SOD). The Si NWAs used in this work are fabricated via metal assisted chemical etching (MACE) of 0.01–0.02 ? cm resistivity n- and p-type bulk, converting ~4% of the bulk thickness into NWs. The MACE process is adapted to ensure crystalline NWs. Current-voltage and Seebeck voltage-temperature measurements show that while SOD mainly influences the contact resistance in bulk, it influences both contact resistance and power factor in NWA-bulk based TEGs. According to our experiments, using Si NWAs in combination with SOD increases the output power by an order of 3 under the same heating power due to an increased power factor, decreased thermal conductivity of the NWA and reduced Si-Cu contact resistance.

  11. A compendium of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system and recent programmatic changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.; McCoy, J.C.

    1996-03-01

    Because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, usually plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with 10 CFR 71 (1994). To meet these regulatory requirements, US DOE commissioned Westinghouse Hanford Co. in 1988 to develop a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS) that would fully comply while protecting RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal transport conditions (eg, mainly shock and heat). RTGTS is scheduled for completion Dec. 1996 and will be available to support NASA`s Cassini mission to Saturn in Oct. 1997. This paper provides an overview of the RTGTS project, discusses the hardware being produced, and summarizes various programmatic and management innovations required by recent changes at DOE.

  12. Advanced Thermoelectric Materials and Generator Technology for...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Overview of design, fabrication, integration, and test of working prototype TEG for engine waste heat recovery on Suburban test vehicle, and continuing investigation of ...

  13. Quantum Well Thermoelectric Truck Air Conditioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Discusses advantages of quantum-well TE cooler, including no moving parts, no gases, performance on par with conventional, and easy switching to heat pump mode

  14. Microscopic theory of thermoelectric properties of silicon nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vo, T; Williamson, A; Lordi, V; Galli, G

    2007-06-14

    We present predictions of the thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of Si nanowires, as obtained using Boltzman transport equation and ab-initio electronic structure calculations. We find that ZT is strongly dependent on the nanowire growth direction and surface reconstruction and we discuss general rules to select silicon based nanostructures with combined n-type and p-type optimal ZT. In particular, our calculations indicate that 1 nm wires grown in the [001] and [011] directions can attain ZT values which are about twice as high as those of ordinary thermoelectric materials.

  15. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Distributed Energy Distributed Energy Distributed energy consists of a range of smaller-scale and modular devices designed to provide electricity, and sometimes also thermal energy, in locations close to consumers. They include fossil and renewable energy technologies (e.g., photovoltaic arrays, wind turbines, microturbines, reciprocating engines, fuel cells, combustion turbines, and steam turbines); energy storage devices (e.g., batteries and flywheels); and combined heat and power systems.

  16. Heat distribution by natural convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1983-01-01

    Natural convection between spaces in a building can play a major role in energy transfer. Two situations are investigated: convection through a single doorway into a remote room, and a convective loop in a two-story house with a south sunspace where a north stairway serves as the return path. A doorway-sizing equation is given for the single-door case. Detailed data are given from the monitoring of airflow in one two-story house and summary data are given for five others. Observations on the nature of the airflow and design guidelines are presented.

  17. Collaborative National Program for the Development and Performance Testing of Distributed Power Technologies with Emphasis on Combined Heat and Power Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Soinski, Arthur; Hanson, Mark

    2006-06-28

    A current barrier to public acceptance of distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) technologies is the lack of credible and uniform information regarding system performance. Under a cooperative agreement, the Association of State Energy Research and Technology Transfer Institutions (ASERTTI) and the U.S. Department of Energy have developed four performance testing protocols to provide a uniform basis for comparison of systems. The protocols are for laboratory testing, field testing, long-term monitoring and case studies. They have been reviewed by a Stakeholder Advisory Committee made up of industry, public interest, end-user, and research community representatives. The types of systems covered include small turbines, reciprocating engines (including Stirling Cycle), and microturbines. The protocols are available for public use and the resulting data is publicly available in an online national database and two linked databases with further data from New York State. The protocols are interim pending comments and other feedback from users. Final protocols will be available in 2007. The interim protocols and the national database of operating systems can be accessed at www.dgdata.org. The project has entered Phase 2 in which protocols for fuel cell applications will be developed and the national and New York databases will continue to be maintained and populated.

  18. Heat pipe array heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reimann, Robert C.

    1987-08-25

    A heat pipe arrangement for exchanging heat between two different temperature fluids. The heat pipe arrangement is in a ounterflow relationship to increase the efficiency of the coupling of the heat from a heat source to a heat sink.

  19. High Thermoelectric Performance in Copper Telluride

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Ying; Zhang, Tiansong; Shi, Xun; Wei, Su-Huai; Chen, Lidong

    2015-06-21

    Recently, Cu 2-ÎŽ S and Cu 2-ÎŽ Se were reported to have an ultralow thermal conductivity and high thermoelectric figure of merit zT. Thus, as a member of the copper chalcogenide group, Cu 2-ÎŽ Te is expected to possess superior zTs because Te is less ionic and heavy. However, the zT value is low in the Cu2Te sintered using spark plasma sintering, which is typically used to fabricate high-density bulk samples. In addition, the extra sintering processes may change the samples’ compositions as well as their physical properties, especially for Cu2Te, which has many stable and meta-stable phasesmore » as well as weaker ionic bonding between Cu and Te as compared with Cu2S and Cu2Se. In this study, high-density Cu2Te samples were obtained using direct annealing without a sintering process. In the absence of sintering processes, the samples’ compositions could be well controlled, leading to substantially reduced carrier concentrations that are close to the optimal value. The electrical transports were optimized, and the thermal conductivity was considerably reduced. The zT values were significantly improved—to 1.1 at 1000 K—which is nearly 100% improvement. Furthermore, this method saves substantial time and cost during the sample’s growth. The study demonstrates that Cu 2-ÎŽ X (X=S, Se and Te) is the only existing system to show high zTs in the series of compounds composed of three sequential primary group elements.« less

  20. Transverse thermoelectric effect in La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3}|SrRuO{sub 3} superlattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shiomi, Y.; Handa, Y.; Kikkawa, T.; Saitoh, E.

    2015-06-08

    Transverse thermoelectric effects in response to an out-of-plane heat current have been studied in an external magnetic field for ferromagnetic superlattices consisting of La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} and SrRuO{sub 3} layers. The superlattices were fabricated on SrTiO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. We found that the sign of the transverse thermoelectric voltage for the superlattices is opposite to that for La{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} and SrRuO{sub 3} single layers at 200?K, implying an important role of spin Seebeck effects inside the superlattices. At 10?K, the magnetothermoelectric curves shift from the zero field due to an antiferromagnetic coupling between layers in the superlattices.

  1. Thermoelectrics Partnership: High Performance Thermoelectric Waste Heat Recovery System Based on Zintl Phase Materials with Embedded Nanoparticles

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  2. NSF/DOE Thermoelectric Partnership: High-Performance Thermoelectric Devices Based on Abundant Silicide Materials for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation

  3. New approaches to thermoelectric cooling effects in magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Migliori, A.; Darling, T.W.; Freibert, F.; Trugman, S.A.; Moshopoulou, E.; Sarrao, J.L.

    1997-08-01

    The authors review thermoelectric effects in a magnetic field at a phenomenological level. Discussions of the limiting performance and problems with its computation for both Peltier and Ettingshausen coolers are presented. New principles are discussed to guide the materials scientist in the search for better Ettingshausen materials, and a brief review of the subtle measurement problems is presented.

  4. Molybdenum-platinum-oxide electrodes for thermoelectric generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmatz, Duane J. (Dearborn Heights, MI)

    1990-01-01

    The invention is directed to a composite article suitable for use in thermoelectric generators. The article comprises a solid electrolyte carrying a thin film comprising molybdenum-platinum-oxide as an electrode deposited by physical deposition techniques. The invention is also directed to the method of making same.

  5. Thermoelectric Materials Development for Low Temperature Geothermal Power Generation

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Tim Hansen

    2016-01-29

    Data includes characterization results for novel thermoelectric materials developed specifically for power generation from low temperature geothermal brines. Materials characterization data includes material density, thickness, resistance, Seebeck coefficient. This research was carried out by Novus Energy Partners in Cooperation with Southern Research Institute for a Department of Energy Sponsored Project.

  6. System level modeling of thermoelectric generators for automotive applications

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Uses a model to predict and analyze the system-level performance of a thermoelectric generator in terms of the power output and the power density … at the element, module and system-level and for a wide range of operating conditions.

  7. Thermo-electric modular structure and method of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Freedman, N.S.; Horsting, C.W.; Lawrence, W.F.; Carrona, J.J.

    1974-01-29

    A method is presented for making a thermoelectric module wtth the aid of an insulating wafer having opposite metallized surfaces, a pair of similar equalizing sheets of metal, a hot-junction strap of metal, a thermoelectric element having hot- and cold-junction surfaces, and a radiator sheet of metal. The method comprises the following steps: brazing said equalizer sheets to said opposite metallized surfaces, respectively, of said insulating wafer with pure copper in a non-oxidizing ambient; brazing one surface of said hot-junction strap to one of the surfaces of said equalizing sheet with a nickel-gold alloy in a non- oxidizing ambient; and diffusion bonding said hot-junction surface of said thermoelectric element to the other surface of said hot-junction strap and said radiator sheet to said cold-junction surface of said thermoelectric element, said diffusion bonding being carried out in a non-oxidizing ambient, under compressive loading, at a temperature of about 550 deg C., and for about one-half hour. (Official Gazette)

  8. DOE/NSF Thermoelectric Partnership Project SEEBECK Saving Energy

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Effectively By Engaging in Collaborative research and sharing Knowledge | Department of Energy 1 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon ace068_heremans_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE/NSF Thermoelectric Partnership Project SEEBECK Saving Energy Effectively By Engaging in Collaborative Research and Sharing

  9. Encapsulation of High Temperature Thermoelectric Modules | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Presents concept for hermetic encapsulation of TE modules addressing key failure mechanism, TE material oxidation, which severely impacts long term performance PDF icon deer12_whalen.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-013743: Categorical Exclusion Determination CX-013467: Categorical Exclusion Determination Materials, Modules, and Systems: An Atoms to Autos Approach to Automotive Thermoelectric Systems Development

  10. Interpretation of thermoelectric properties of Cu substituted LaCoO{sub 3} ceramics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhary, K. K.; Kaurav, N.; Sharma, U.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2014-04-24

    The thermoelectric properties of LaCo{sub 1?x}Cu{sub x}O{sub 3??} is theoretically analyzed, it is observed that thermoelectric figure of merit ZT (=S{sup 2}?T/?) is maximized by Cu substitution in LaCoO{sub 3} Ceramics at x=0.15. The lattice thermal conductivity and thermoelectric power were estimated by the scattering of phonons with defects, grain boundaries, electrons and phonons to evaluate the thermoelectric properties. We found that Cu substitution increase the phonon scattering with grain boundaries and defects which significantly increase the thermoelectric power and decrease the thermal conductivity. The present numerical analysis will help in designing more efficient thermoelectric materials.

  11. General Motors LLC Final Project Report: Improving Energy Efficiency by Developing Components for Distributed Cooling and Heating Based on Thermal Comfort Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bozeman, Jeffrey; Chen, Kuo-Huey

    2014-12-09

    On November 3, 2009, General Motors (GM) accepted U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement award number DE-EE0000014 from the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL). GM was selected to execute a three-year cost shared research and development project on Solid State Energy Conversion for Vehicular Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning (HVAC) and for Waste Heat Recovery.

  12. Thermoelectric study of crossroads material MnTe via sulfur doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xie, Wenjie Populoh, Sascha; Sagarna, Leyre; Trottmann, Matthias; Ga??zka, Krzysztof; Xiao, Xingxing; Liu, Yufei; He, Jian; Weidenkaff, Anke

    2014-03-14

    Here, we report thermoelectric study of crossroads material MnTe via iso-electronic doping S on the Te-site. MnTe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} samples with nominal S content of x?=?0.00, 0.05, and 0.10 were prepared using a melt-quench method followed by pulverization and spark plasma sintering. The X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and ZAF-corrected compositional analysis confirmed that S uniformly substitutes Te up to slightly over 2%. A higher content of S in the starting materials led to the formation of secondary phases. The thermoelectric properties of MnTe{sub 1-x}S{sub x} samples were characterized by means of Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, and thermal conductivity measurements from 300?K to 773?K. Furthermore, Hall coefficient measurements and a single parabolic band model were used to help gain insights on the effects of S-doping on the scattering mechanism and the carrier effective mass. As expected, S doping not only introduced hole charge carriers but also created short-range defects that effectively scatter heat-carrying phonons at elevated temperatures. On the other hand, we found that S doping degraded the effective mass. As a result, the ZT of MnTe{sub 0.9}S{sub 0.1} was substantially enhanced over the pristine sample near 400?K, while the improvement of ZT became marginal at elevated temperatures. A ZT???0.65 at 773?K was obtained in all three samples.

  13. A miniaturized mW thermoelectric generator for nw objectives: continuous,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    autonomous, reliable power for decades. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: A miniaturized mW thermoelectric generator for nw objectives: continuous, autonomous, reliable power for decades. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A miniaturized mW thermoelectric generator for nw objectives: continuous, autonomous, reliable power for decades. We have built and tested a miniaturized, thermoelectric power source that can provide in excess of 450 {micro}W of power in a

  14. Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Mechanically Robust PbTe-Si

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Eutectic Composites | Energy Frontier Research Centers Microstructure and Thermoelectric Properties of Mechanically Robust PbTe-Si Eutectic Composites Home Author: J. R. Sootsman, J. He, V. P. Dravid, S. Ballikaya, D. Vermeulen, C. Uher, M. G. Kanatzidis Year: 2010 Abstract: The microstructure and thermoelectric properties of the PbTe-Si eutectic system are presented in detail. When rapidly quenched from the melt this system yields materials with thermoelectric properties similar to PbTe

  15. Advanced Thin Film Thermoelectric Systems forEfficient Air-Conditioner...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Presents recent advances in thermoelectric device fabrication and the design of novel coolingheating engines exploiting thermal storage for efficient air-conditioners in ...

  16. Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for High Thermoelectric zT in Bulk Materials Zintl principle in chemistry, complex electronic band structures, and incorporation of nanometer sized particles were used ...

  17. Tuning thermoelectricity in a Bi2Se3 topological insulator via varied film thickness

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Minghua; Wang, Zhenyu; Xu, Yong; Huang, Huaqing; Zang, Yunyi; Liu, Chang; Duan, Wenhui; Gan, Zhongxue; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; He, Ke; et al

    2016-01-12

    We report thermoelectric transport studies on Bi2Se3 topological insulator thin films with varied thickness grown by molecular beam epitaxy. We find that the Seebeck coefficient and thermoelectric power factor decrease systematically with the reduction of film thickness. These experimental observations can be explained quantitatively by theoretical calculations based on realistic electronic band structure of the Bi2Se3 thin films. Lastly, this work illustrates the crucial role played by the topological surface states on the thermoelectric transport of topological insulators, and sheds new light on further improvement of their thermoelectric performance.

  18. Standardization of Transport Properties Measurements: Internal Energy Agency (IEA-AMT) Annex on Thermoelectric

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Thermoelectric materials transport properties measurements improvement and standardization is undertaken by new IEA annex under the Advanced Materials for Transportation implementing agreement

  19. Rare Earth Atoms Make the Best Thermoelectrics Better | U.S....

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Rare Earth Atoms Make the Best Thermoelectrics Better Basic Energy Sciences (BES) BES Home About ... Funding Basic Research: DOE Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy ...

  20. Status of not-in-kind refrigeration technologies for household space conditioning, water heating and food refrigeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bansal, Pradeep; Vineyard, Edward Allan; Abdelaziz, Omar

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the next generation not-in-kind technologies to replace conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology for household applications. Such technologies are sought to provide energy savings or other environmental benefits for space conditioning, water heating and refrigeration for domestic use. These alternative technologies include: thermoacoustic refrigeration, thermoelectric refrigeration, thermotunneling, magnetic refrigeration, Stirling cycle refrigeration, pulse tube refrigeration, Malone cycle refrigeration, absorption refrigeration, adsorption refrigeration, and compressor driven metal hydride heat pumps. Furthermore, heat pump water heating and integrated heat pump systems are also discussed due to their significant energy saving potential for water heating and space conditioning in households. The paper provides a snapshot of the future R&D needs for each of the technologies along with the associated barriers. Both thermoelectric and magnetic technologies look relatively attractive due to recent developments in the materials and prototypes being manufactured.

  1. Thermoelectric, electronic, optical and chemical bonding properties of Ba{sub 2}PrRuO{sub 6}: At temperature 7 K and 150 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reshak, A.H.; Khan, Wilayat

    2015-01-15

    Highlights: • DFT-FPLAPW method used for calculating the electronic structure. • The Fermi surface of BPRO (7 K and 150 K) is also calculated. • The complex dielectric function has been calculated. • Thermoelectric properties were also calculated using BoltzTraP code. • Power factor shows that both compounds are good thermoelectric materials at 600 K. - Abstract: We present first principles calculations of the band structure, density of states, electronic charge density, Fermi surface and optical properties of Ba{sub 2}PrRuO{sub 6} single crystals at two different temperatures. The atomic positions were optimized by minimizing the forces acting on the atoms. We have employed the full potential linear augmented plane wave method within local density approximation, generalized gradient approximation and Engel–Vosko generalized gradient approximation to treat the exchange correlation potential. The calculation shows that the compound is superconductor with strong hybridization near the Fermi energy level. Fermi surface is composed of two sheets. The calculated electronic specific heat capacities indicate, very close agreement with the experimental one. The bonding features of the compounds are analyzed using the electronic charge density in the (1 0 0) and (0–10) crystallographic planes. The dispersion of the optical constants was calculated and discussed. The thermoelectric properties are also calculated using the BoltzTrap code.

  2. Thermoelectric Properties of P-type Skutterudites YbxFe3.5Ni0.5Sb12 (0.8 x 1)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, Jung Y; Ye, Zuxin; Tessema, M.; Waldo, R.A.; Salvador, James R.; Yang, Jihui; Cai, Wei; Wang, Hsin

    2012-01-01

    P-type skutterudites, with nominal compositions YbxFe3.5Ni0.5Sb12 (0.8 x 1), have been synthesized by induction melting with subsequent annealing, and their thermoelectric properties evaluated from 3.5 K to 745 K to assess their suitability for thermoelectric based waste heat recovery applications. We report results for the synthesis and measurements of Seebeck coefficient (S), electrical resistivity ( ), thermal conductivity ( ), Hall coefficient (RH), and effective mass (m*/m0) of YbxFe3.5Ni0.5Sb12 (0.8 x 1). Powder x-ray diffraction and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) show that this system has a narrow filling fraction range of x ~ 0.84 to 0.86 for Yb in the crystallographic voids. All samples show positive RH for the entire temperature range studied with carrier concentrations ranging from 9.6 1020 to 2.8 1021 cm-3 at room temperature. Relatively high values of S result in high power factors up to 17 Wcm-1K-2 at room temperature. However, large values of and a sharp reduction in the S at high temperature due to bipolar conduction prevent the attainment of high thermoelectric figure of merit.

  3. Special Applications RTG Technology Program: Thermoelectric module development summary report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brittain, W.M.

    1988-09-01

    The primary objective of the Special Applications thermoelectric module development program is to design, develop and demonstrate the performance of a module which provides a significant thermoelectric conversion efficiency improvement over available technology for low power, relatively high voltage RTGS intended for terrestrial applications. ``Low power`` can be construed as an RTG power output of 10 watts or less, and ``high voltage`` can be considered as a load voltage of 5 volts or greater. In particular, the effort is to improve the system efficiency characteristic of the state-of-the-art bismuth telluride-based RTG system (e.g., Five-Watt RTG and Half-Watt RTG), typically 3 to 4%, to the range of 6% or better. This increase in efficiency will also permit reductions in the weight and size of RTGs in the low power range.

  4. Over-the-road shock and vibration testing of the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Becker, D.L.

    1997-05-01

    Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTG) convert heat generated by radioactive decay into electricity through the use of thermocouples. The RTGs have a long operating life, are reasonably lightweight, and require little or no maintenance, which make them particularly attractive for use in spacecraft. However, because RTGs contain significant quantities of radioactive materials, normally plutonium-238 and its decay products, they must be transported in packages built in accordance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, Part 71 (10 CFR 71). To meet these regulations, a RTG Transportation System (RTGTS) that fully complies with 10 CFR 71 has been developed, which protects RTGs from adverse environmental conditions during normal conditions of transport (e.g., shock, vibration, and heat). To ensure the protection of RTGs from shock and vibration loadings during transport, extensive over-the-road testing was conducted on the RTG`S to obtain real-time recordings of accelerations of the air-ride suspension system trailer floor, packaging, and support structure. This paper provides an overview of the RTG`S, a discussion of the shock and vibration testing, and a comparison of the test results to the specified shock response spectra and power spectral density acceleration criteria.

  5. Sandia Researchers Are First to Measure Thermoelectric Behavior of a

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nanoporous Metal-Organic Framework Are First to Measure Thermoelectric Behavior of a Nanoporous Metal-Organic Framework - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power &

  6. Misfit layer compounds and ferecrystals: Model systems for thermoelectric nanocomposites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Merrill, Devin R.; Moore, Daniel B.; Bauers, Sage R.; Falmbigl, Matthias; Johnson, David C.

    2015-04-22

    A basic summary of thermoelectric principles is presented in a historical context, following the evolution of the field from initial discovery to modern day high-zT materials. A specific focus is placed on nanocomposite materials as a means to solve the challenges presented by the contradictory material requirements necessary for efficient thermal energy harvest. Misfit layer compounds are highlighted as an example of a highly ordered anisotropic nanocomposite system. Their layered structure provides the opportunity to use multiple constituents for improved thermoelectric performance, through both enhanced phonon scattering at interfaces and through electronic interactions between the constituents. Recently, a class ofmore » metastable, turbostratically-disordered misfit layer compounds has been synthesized using a kinetically controlled approach with low reaction temperatures. The kinetically stabilized structures can be prepared with a variety of constituent ratios and layering schemes, providing an avenue to systematically understand structure-function relationships not possible in the thermodynamic compounds. We summarize the work that has been done to date on these materials. The observed turbostratic disorder has been shown to result in extremely low cross plane thermal conductivity and in plane thermal conductivities that are also very small, suggesting the structural motif could be attractive as thermoelectric materials if the power factor could be improved. The first 10 compounds in the [(PbSe)1+ÎŽ]m(TiSe₂)n family (m, n ≀ 3) are reported as a case study. As n increases, the magnitude of the Seebeck coefficient is significantly increased without a simultaneous decrease in the in-plane electrical conductivity, resulting in an improved thermoelectric power factor.« less

  7. Role of Thermoelectrics in Vehicle Efficiency Increase | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy PDF icon polymer_composite_membranes.pdf More Documents & Publications Process Intensification with Integrated Water-Gas-Shift Membrane Reactor U.S. DOE Webinar Series - 2011-2012 Hydrogen Student Design Contest Gasification Systems 2013 Project Selections Energy

    5 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference Presentations and Posters PDF icon 2005_deer_bell.pdf More Documents & Publications Status of the Application of Thermoelectric Technology in Vehicles

  8. Radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system subsystem 143 software development plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, D.A.

    1994-11-10

    This plan describes the activities to be performed and the controls to be applied to the process of specifying, developing, and qualifying the data acquisition software for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) Transportation System Subsystem 143 Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS). This plan will serve as a software quality assurance plan, a verification and validation (V and V) plan, and a configuration management plan.

  9. Exhaust gas bypass valve control for thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reynolds, Michael G; Yang, Jihui; Meisner, Greogry P.; Stabler, Francis R.; De Bock, Hendrik Pieter Jacobus; Anderson, Todd Alan

    2012-09-04

    A method of controlling engine exhaust flow through at least one of an exhaust bypass and a thermoelectric device via a bypass valve is provided. The method includes: determining a mass flow of exhaust exiting an engine; determining a desired exhaust pressure based on the mass flow of exhaust; comparing the desired exhaust pressure to a determined exhaust pressure; and determining a bypass valve control value based on the comparing, wherein the bypass valve control value is used to control the bypass valve.

  10. Assessing How Renewables Affect Water Used for Thermoelectric Cooling |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    U.S. DOE Office of Science (SC) Assessing How Renewables Affect Water Used for Thermoelectric Cooling Biological and Environmental Research (BER) BER Home About Research Facilities Science Highlights Searchable Archive of BER Highlights External link Benefits of BER Funding Opportunities Biological & Environmental Research Advisory Committee (BERAC) Community Resources Contact Information Biological and Environmental Research U.S. Department of Energy SC-23/Germantown Building 1000

  11. Rare earth chalcogenides for use as high temperature thermoelectric materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michiels, J.

    1996-01-02

    In the first part of the thesis, the electric resistivity, Seebeck coefficient, and Hall effect were measured in X{sub y}(Y{sub 2}S{sub 3}){sub 1-y} (X = Cu, B, or Al), for y = 0.05 (Cu, B) or 0.025-0.075 for Al, in order to determine their potential as high- temperature (HT)(300-1000 C) thermoelectrics. Results indicate that Cu, B, Al- doped Y{sub 2}S{sub 3} are not useful as HT thermoelectrics. In the second part, phase stability of {gamma}-cubic LaSe{sub 1.47-1.48} and NdSe{sub 1.47} was measured periodically during annealing at 800 or 1000 C for the same purpose. In the Nd selenide, {beta} phase increased with time, while the Nd selenide showed no sign of this second phase. It is concluded that the La selenide is not promising for use as HT thermoelectric due to the {gamma}-to-{beta} transformation, whereas the Nd selenide is promising.

  12. Electrochemically deposited BiTe-based nanowires for thermoelectric applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ng, Inn-Khuan; Kok, Kuan-Ying; Rahman, Che Zuraini Che Ab; Saidin, Nur Ubaidah; Ilias, Suhaila Hani; Choo, Thye-Foo

    2014-02-12

    Nanostructured materials systems such as thin-films and nanowires (NWs) are promising for thermoelectric power generation and refrigeration compared to traditional counterparts in bulk, due to their enhanced thermoelectric figures-of-merit. BiTe and its derivative compounds, in particular, are well-known for their near-room temperature thermoelectric performance. In this work, both the binary and ternary BiTe-based nanowires namely, BiTe and BiSbTe, were synthesized using template-assisted electrodeposition. Diameters of the nanowires were controlled by the pore sizes of the anodised alumina (AAO) templates used. Systematic study on the compositional change as a function of applied potential was carried out via Linear Sweep Voltanmetry (LSV). Chemical compositions of the nanowires were studied using Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDXS) and their microstructures evaluated using diffraction and imaging techniques. Results from chemical analysis on the nanowires indicated that while the Sb content in BiSbTe nanowires increased with more negative deposition potentials, the formation of Te{sup 0} and Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} were favorable at more positive potentials.

  13. Economic analysis of municipal wastewater utilization for thermoelectric power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safari, I.; Walker, M.; Abbasian, J.; Arastoopour, H.; Hsieh, M-K.; Theregowda, R.; Dzombak, D.; Miller, D.

    2011-01-01

    The thermoelectric power industry in the U.S. uses a large amount of freshwater. The large water demand is increasingly a problem, especially for new power plant development, as availability of freshwater for new uses diminishes in the United States. Reusing non-traditional water sources, such as treated municipal wastewater, provides one option to mitigate freshwater usage in the thermoelectric power industry. The amount of freshwater withdrawal that can be displaced with non-traditional water sources at a particular location requires evaluation of the water management and treatment requirements, considering the quality and abundance of the non-traditional water sources. This paper presents the development of an integrated costing model to assess the impact of degraded water treatment, as well as the implications of increased tube scaling in the main condenser. The model developed herein is used to perform case studies of various treatment, condenser cleaning and condenser configurations to provide insight into the ramifications of degraded water use in the cooling loops of thermoelectric power plants. Further, this paper lays the groundwork for the integration of relationships between degraded water quality, scaling characteristics and volatile emission within a recirculating cooling loop model.

  14. Thermoelectric materials ternary penta telluride and selenide compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, Jeffrey W.

    2001-01-01

    Ternary tellurium compounds and ternary selenium compounds may be used in fabricating thermoelectric devices with a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.5 or greater. Examples of such compounds include Tl.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5, Tl.sub.2 GeTe.sub.5, K.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5 and Rb.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5. These compounds have similar types of crystal lattice structures which include a first substructure with a (Sn, Ge) Te.sub.5 composition and a second substructure with chains of selected cation atoms. The second substructure includes selected cation atoms which interact with selected anion atoms to maintain a desired separation between the chains of the first substructure. The cation atoms which maintain the desired separation between the chains occupy relatively large electropositive sites in the resulting crystal lattice structure which results in a relatively low value for the lattice component of thermal conductivity (.kappa..sub.g). The first substructure of anion chains indicates significant anisotropy in the thermoelectric characteristics of the resulting semiconductor materials.

  15. Thermoelectric materials: ternary penta telluride and selenide compounds

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sharp, Jeffrey W.

    2002-06-04

    Ternary tellurium compounds and ternary selenium compounds may be used in fabricating thermoelectric devices with a thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of 1.5 or greater. Examples of such compounds include Tl.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5, Tl.sub.2 GeTe.sub.5, K.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5 and Rb.sub.2 SnTe.sub.5. These compounds have similar types of crystal lattice structures which include a first substructure with a (Sn, Ge) Te.sub.5 composition and a second substructure with chains of selected cation atoms. The second substructure includes selected cation atoms which interact with selected anion atoms to maintain a desired separation between the chains of the first substructure. The cation atoms which maintain the desired separation between the chains occupy relatively large electropositive sites in the resulting crystal lattice structure which results in a relatively low value for the lattice component of thermal conductivity (.kappa..sub.g). The first substructure of anion chains indicates significant anisotropy in the thermoelectric characteristics of the resulting semiconductor materials.

  16. Real-time monitoring during transportation of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) using the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system (RTGTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, B.K.

    1997-01-01

    The Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) that will be used to support the Cassini mission will be transported in the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS). To ensure that the RTGs will not be affected during transportation, all parameters that could adversely affect RTG{close_quote}s performance must be monitored. The Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS) for the RTGTS displays, monitors, and records all critical packaging and trailer system parameters. The IDAS also monitors the package temperature control system, RTG package shock and vibration data, and diesel fuel levels for the diesel fuel tanks. The IDAS alarms if any of these parameters reach an out-of-limit condition. This paper discusses the real-time monitoring during transportation of the Cassini RTGs using the RTGTS IDAS. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  17. Real-time monitoring during transportation of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) using the radioisotope thermoelectric generator transportation system (RTGTS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pugh, Barry K.

    1997-01-10

    The Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) that will be used to support the Cassini mission will be transported in the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Transportation System (RTGTS). To ensure that the RTGs will not be affected during transportation, all parameters that could adversely affect RTG's performance must be monitored. The Instrumentation and Data Acquisition System (IDAS) for the RTGTS displays, monitors, and records all critical packaging and trailer system parameters. The IDAS also monitors the package temperature control system, RTG package shock and vibration data, and diesel fuel levels for the diesel fuel tanks. The IDAS alarms if any of these parameters reach an out-of-limit condition. This paper discusses the real-time monitoring during transportation of the Cassini RTGs using the RTGTS IDAS.

  18. Photo-controllable thermoelectric properties with reversibility and photo-thermoelectric effects of tungsten trioxide accompanied by its photochromic phenomenon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Azuma, Chiori; Kawano, Takuto; Kakemoto, Hirofumi; Irie, Hiroshi

    2014-11-07

    The addition of photo-controllable properties to tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) is of interest for developing practical applications of WO{sub 3} as well as for interpreting such phenomena from scientific viewpoints. Here, a sputtered crystalline WO{sub 3} thin film generated thermoelectric power due to ultraviolet (UV) light-induced band-gap excitation and was accompanied by a photochromic reaction resulting from generating W{sup 5+} ions. The thermoelectric properties (electrical conductivity (?) and Seebeck coefficient (S)) and coloration of WO{sub 3} could be reversibly switched by alternating the external stimulus between UV light irradiation and dark storage. After irradiating the film with UV light, ? increased, whereas the absolute value of S decreased, and the photochromic (coloration) reaction was detected. Notably, the opposite behavior was exhibited by WO{sub 3} after dark storage, and this reversible cycle could be repeated at least three times. Moreover, photo-thermoelectric effects (photo-conductive effect (photo-conductivity, ?{sub photo}) and photo-Seebeck effect (photo-Seebeck coefficient, S{sub photo})) were also detected in response to visible-light irradiation of the colored WO{sub 3} thin films. Under visible-light irradiation, ?{sub photo} and the absolute value of S{sub photo} increased and decreased, respectively. These effects are likely attributable to the excitation of electrons from the mid-gap visible light absorption band (W{sup 5+} state) to the conduction band of WO{sub 3}. Our findings demonstrate that the simultaneous, reversible switching of multiple properties of WO{sub 3} thin film is achieved by the application of an external stimulus and that this material exhibits photo-thermoelectric effects when irradiated with visible-light.

  19. System and method to improve the power output and longetivity of a radioisotope thermoelectric generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mowery, Jr., Alfred L. (Potomac, MD)

    1993-01-01

    By using the helium generated by the alpha emissions of a thermoelectric generator during space travel for cooling, the thermal degradation of the thermoelectric generator can be slowed. Slowing degradation allows missions to be longer with little additional expense or payload.

  20. Thermoelectric HVAC and Thermal Comfort Enablers for Light-Duty Vehicle

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Applications | Department of Energy 2 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon ace047_maranville_2012_o.pdf More Documents & Publications Thermoelectric HVAC for Light-Duty Vehicle Applications Improving efficiency of a vehicle HVAC system with comfort modeling, zonal design, and thermoelectric devices