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  1. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, ...

  2. Distributed Generation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Untapped Value of Backup Generation While new guidelines and regulations such as IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) 1547 have come a long way in addressing interconnection standards for distributed generation, utilities have largely overlooked the untapped potential of these resources. Under certain conditions, these units (primarily backup generators) represent a significant source of power that can deliver utility services at lower costs than traditional centralized

  3. The Case for Natural Gas Fueled Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Power Systems for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chick, Lawrence A.; Weimar, Mark R.; Whyatt, Greg A.; Powell, Michael R.

    2015-02-01

    Natural-gas-fueled solid oxide fuel cell (NGSOFC) power systems yield electrical conversion efficiencies exceeding 60% and may become a viable alternative for distributed generation (DG) if stack life and manufacturing economies of scale can be realized. Currently, stacks last approximately 2 years and few systems are produced each year because of the relatively high cost of electricity from the systems. If mass manufacturing (10,000 units per year) and a stack life of 15 years can be reached, the cost of electricity from an NGSOFC system is estimated to be about 7.7 ¢/kWh, well within the price of commercial and residential retail prices at the national level (9.9-10¢/kWh and 11-12 ¢/kWh, respectively). With an additional 5 ¢/kWh in estimated additional benefits from DG, NGSOFC could be well positioned to replace the forecasted 59-77 gigawatts of capacity loss resulting from coal plant closures due to stricter emissions regulations and low natural gas prices.

  4. Distributed generation systems model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barklund, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    A slide presentation is given on a distributed generation systems model developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, and its application to a situation within the Idaho Power Company`s service territory. The objectives of the work were to develop a screening model for distributed generation alternatives, to develop a better understanding of distributed generation as a utility resource, and to further INEL`s understanding of utility concerns in implementing technological change.

  5. Distributed generation hits market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-10-01

    The pace at which vendors are developing and marketing gas turbines and reciprocating engines for small-scale applications may signal the widespread growth of distributed generation. Loosely defined to refer to applications in which power generation equipment is located close to end users who have near-term power capacity needs, distributed generation encompasses a broad range of technologies and load requirements. Disagreement is inevitable, but many industry observers associate distributed generation with applications anywhere from 25 kW to 25 MW. Ten years ago, distributed generation users only represented about 2% of the world market. Today, that figure has increased to about 4 or 5%, and probably could settle in the 20% range within a 3-to-5-year period, according to Michael Jones, San Diego, Calif.-based Solar Turbines Inc. power generation marketing manager. The US Energy Information Administration predicts about 175 GW of generation capacity will be added domestically by 2010. If 20% comes from smaller plants, distributed generation could account for about 35 GW. Even with more competition, it`s highly unlikely distributed generation will totally replace current market structures and central stations. Distributed generation may be best suited for making market inroads when and where central systems need upgrading, and should prove its worth when the system can`t handle peak demands. Typical applications include small reciprocating engine generators at remote customer sites or larger gas turbines to boost the grid. Additional market opportunities include standby capacity, peak shaving, power quality, cogeneration and capacity rental for immediate demand requirements. Integration of distributed generation systems--using gas-fueled engines, gas-fired combustion engines and fuel cells--can upgrade power quality for customers and reduce operating costs for electric utilities.

  6. GASIFICATION FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ronald C. Timpe; Michael D. Mann; Darren D. Schmidt

    2000-05-01

    A recent emphasis in gasification technology development has been directed toward reduced-scale gasifier systems for distributed generation at remote sites. The domestic distributed power generation market over the next decade is expected to be 5-6 gigawatts per year. The global increase is expected at 20 gigawatts over the next decade. The economics of gasification for distributed power generation are significantly improved when fuel transport is minimized. Until recently, gasification technology has been synonymous with coal conversion. Presently, however, interest centers on providing clean-burning fuel to remote sites that are not necessarily near coal supplies but have sufficient alternative carbonaceous material to feed a small gasifier. Gasifiers up to 50 MW are of current interest, with emphasis on those of 5-MW generating capacity. Internal combustion engines offer a more robust system for utilizing the fuel gas, while fuel cells and microturbines offer higher electric conversion efficiencies. The initial focus of this multiyear effort was on internal combustion engines and microturbines as more realistic near-term options for distributed generation. In this project, we studied emerging gasification technologies that can provide gas from regionally available feedstock as fuel to power generators under 30 MW in a distributed generation setting. Larger-scale gasification, primarily coal-fed, has been used commercially for more than 50 years to produce clean synthesis gas for the refining, chemical, and power industries. Commercial-scale gasification activities are under way at 113 sites in 22 countries in North and South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and Australia, according to the Gasification Technologies Council. Gasification studies were carried out on alfalfa, black liquor (a high-sodium waste from the pulp industry), cow manure, and willow on the laboratory scale and on alfalfa, black liquor, and willow on the bench scale. Initial parametric tests

  7. Distributed generation implementation guidelines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guzy, L.; O`Sullivan, J.B.; Jacobs, K.; Major, W.

    1999-11-01

    The overall economics of a distributed generation project is based on cost elements which include: Equipment and financing, fuel, displaced electricity cost, operation and maintenance. Of critical importance is how the facility is managed, including adequate provision for a comprehensive operator training program. Proper equipment maintenance and fuel procurement policy will also lead to greater system availability and optimal system economics. Various utility tariffs are available which may be economically attractive, with an added benefit to the utility of providing a peak shaving resource during peak periods. Changing modes of operation of the distributed generation system may affect staff readiness, require retraining and could affect maintenance costs. The degree of control and oversight that is provided during a project`s implementation and construction phases will impact subsequent maintenance and operating costs. The long term effect of siting impacts, such as building facades that restrict turbine inlet airflow will affect subsequent operations and require supplemental maintenance action. It is possible to site a variety of distributed generation technologies in settings which vary from urban to remote unattended locations with successful results from both an economic and operational perspective.

  8. Heat distribution by natural convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Natural convection can provide adequate heat distribution in many situtations that arise in buildings. This is appropriate, for example, in passive solar buildings where some rooms tend to be more strongly solar heated than others or to reduce the number of heating units required in a building. Natural airflow and heat transport through doorways and other internal building apertures is predictable and can be accounted for in the design. The nature of natural convection is described, and a design chart is presented appropriate to a simple, single-doorway situation. Natural convective loops that can occur in buildings are described and a few design guidelines are presented.

  9. Economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the natural gas-fired fuel cell. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The final report provides a summary of results of the Cost of Ownership Model and the circumstances under which a distributed fuel cell is economically viable. The analysis is based on a series of micro computer models estimate the capital and operations cost of a fuel cell central utility plant configuration. Using a survey of thermal and electrical demand profiles, the study defines a series of energy user classes. The energy user class demand requirements are entered into the central utility plant model to define the required size the fuel cell capacity and all supporting equipment. The central plant model includes provisions that enables the analyst to select optional plant features that are most appropriate to a fuel cell application, and that are cost effective. The model permits the choice of system features that would be suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. Other applications are also practical; however, such applications have a higher relative demand for thermal energy, a characteristic that is well-suited to a fuel cell application with its free source of hot water or steam. The analysis combines the capital and operation from the preceding models into a Cost of Ownership Model to compute the plant capital and operating costs as a function of capacity and principal features and compares these estimates to the estimated operating cost of the same central plant configuration without a fuel cell.

  10. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    Natural Gas Distribution to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution on Facebook Tweet about Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution on Twitter Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution on Google Bookmark Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution on Delicious Rank Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas Distribution on Digg Find More places to share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Natural Gas

  11. Heat distribution by natural convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    Natural convection can provide adequate heat distribution in many situations that arise in buildings. This is appropriate, for example, in passive solar buildings where some rooms tend to be more strongly solar heated than others. Natural convection can also be used to reduce the number of auxiliary heating units required in a building. Natural airflow and heat transport through doorways and other internal building apertures are predictable and can be accounted for in the design. The nature of natural convection is described, and a design chart is presented appropriate to a simple, single-doorway situation. Experimental results are summarized based on the monitoring of 15 passive solar buildings which employ a wide variety of geometrical configurations including natural convective loops.

  12. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, ...

  13. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar May 23, 2012 Document covers the Regulatory ...

  14. Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies for the Duck Valley Reservation Feasibility Study of Sustainable Distributed Generation Technologies for the Duck Valley ...

  15. Other Distributed Generation Technologies | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Other Distributed Generation Technologies Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Other Distributed Generation Technologies Incentives Retrieved from "http:...

  16. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Generation Reliability and Availability Database," sponsored by Oak Ridge National ... Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, ...

  17. Fuel cells in distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    O'Sullivan, J.B.

    1999-07-01

    In the past the vertically integrated electric utility industry has not utilized Distributed Generation (DG) because it was viewed as competition to central station power production. Gas utilities have been heavily and aggressively involved in the promotion of gas fired DG because for them it is additional load that may also balance the winter load. With deregulation and restructuring of the electricity industry DG is now viewed in a different light. For those utilities that have sold their generation assets DG can be a new retail service to provide to their customers. For those who are still vertically integrated, DG can be an asset management tool at the distribution level. DG can be utilized to defer capital investments involving line and substation upgrades. Coupled to this new interest in DG technologies and their performance characteristics are the associated interests in implementation issues. These range from the codes and standards requirements and hardware for interfacing to the grid as well as C{sup 3}-I (command, control, communication--intelligence) issues. The latter involves dispatching on-grid or customer sited resources, monitoring their performance and tracking the economic transactions. Another important aspect is the impact of DG resources (size, number and location) on service area dynamic behavior (power quality, reliability, stability, etc.). EPRI has ongoing programs addressing all these aspects of DG and the distribution grid. Since fuel cells can be viewed as electrochemical engines, and as with thermomechanical engines, there doesn't have to be a best fuel cell. Each engine can serve many markets and some will be better suited than others in a specific market segment (e.g. spark ignition in cars and turbines in planes). This paper will address the status of developing fuel cell technologies and their application to various market areas within the context of Distributed Generation.

  18. Distributed Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas: Independent...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Production from Natural Gas: IndependentReview Panel Report Distributed Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas: Independent Review Panel Report Independent review report on the ...

  19. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary Report,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    January 2004 | Department of Energy Reliability, Executive Summary Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability, Executive Summary Report, January 2004 This report summarizes the results of the project, "Distributed Generation Market Transformation Tools: Distributed Generation Reliability and Availability Database," sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Energy Solutions Center (ESC), New York State Energy Research and Development Authority

  20. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Webinar | Department of Energy Distributed Generation Projects Webinar Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects Webinar Presentation slides for the Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation Projects webinar, which was held on May 23, 2012. Download the webinar slides. (1.84 MB) More Documents & Publications Regulatory Considerations for Developing Generation Projects on Federal Lands STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF PRIVATE WIRE LAWS ON

  1. NREL: Technology Deployment - Distributed Generation Interconnection

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Collaborative Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative Become a Member DGIC members are included in quarterly informational meetings and discussions related to distributed PV interconnection practices, research, and innovation. For more information, contact Kristen Ardani. Subscribe to DGIC Updates Learn about upcoming webinars and other DGIC announcements. NREL facilitates the Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative (DGIC) with support from the Smart Electric Power

  2. EIA - Distributed Generation in Buildings

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    turbines Natural gas-fired microturbines Diesel reciprocating engines Coal* * Due to limited data ... installations (i.e., where plant capacity is greater than or ...

  3. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report, January 2004 | Department of Energy Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 This final report documents the results of an 18-month project entitled, "Distributed Generation Market Transformation Tools: Distributed Generation Reliability and Availability Database," sponsored by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Energy Solutions Center

  4. Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 Distributed Generation Operational Reliability and Availability Database, Final Report, January 2004 This final ...

  5. List of Other Distributed Generation Technologies Incentives...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solar Thermal Process Heat Photovoltaics Wind Biomass Fuel Cells Ground Source Heat Pumps Hydrogen Biodiesel Fuel Cells using Renewable Fuels Other Distributed Generation...

  6. Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    various aspects of demand response, distributed generation, smart grid and energy storage. Annex 9 is a list of pilot programs and case studies, with links to those...

  7. Heat distribution by natural convection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balcomb, J.D.; Yamaguchi, K.

    1983-01-01

    Natural convection between spaces in a building can play a major role in energy transfer. Two situations are investigated: convection through a single doorway into a remote room, and a convective loop in a two-story house with a south sunspace where a north stairway serves as the return path. A doorway-sizing equation is given for the single-door case. Detailed data are given from the monitoring of airflow in one two-story house and summary data are given for five others. Observations on the nature of the airflow and design guidelines are presented.

  8. Distributed generation - the fuel processing example

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Victor, R.A.; Farris, P.J.; Maston, V.

    1996-12-31

    The increased costs of transportation and distribution are leading many commercial and industrial firms to consider the on-site generation for energy and other commodities used in their facilities. This trend has been accelerated by the development of compact, efficient processes for converting basic raw materials into finished services at the distributed sites. Distributed generation with the PC25{trademark} fuel cell power plant is providing a new cost effective technology to meet building electric and thermal needs. Small compact on-site separator systems are providing nitrogen and oxygen to many industrial users of these gases. The adaptation of the fuel processing section of the PC25 power plant for on-site hydrogen generation at industrial sites extends distributed generation benefits to the users of industrial hydrogen.

  9. Distributed generation: Early markets for emerging technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lenssen, N.; Cler, G.

    1999-11-01

    How will developers of emerging distributed generation technologies successfully commercialize their products. This paper presents one approach for these developers, borrowing from the experience of other developers of innovative technologies and services. E Source`s analysis suggests, however, that there is already more of a market for distributed generation than is generally recognized. US and Canadian firms already buy about 3,400 megawatts of small generators each year, mostly for backup power but some as the primary power source for selected loads and facilities. This demand is expected to double in 10 years. The global market for small generators is already more than 10 times this size, at some 40,000 megawatts per year, and it is expected to continue growing rapidly, especially in developing nations. Just how the emerging distributed generation technologies, such as microturbines, fuel cells, and Stirling engines compete-or surpass-the conventional technologies will have a huge impact on their eventual commercial success.

  10. TurboGenerator Power Systems{trademark} for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weinstein, C.H.

    1998-12-31

    The AlliedSignal TurboGenerator is a cost effective, environmentally benign, low cost, highly reliable and simple to maintain generation source. Market Surveys indicate that the significant worldwide market exists, for example, the United States Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) which is the uniform research facility for domestic electric utilities, predicts that up to 40% of all new generation could be distributed generation by the year 2006. In many parts of the world, the lack of electric infrastructure (transmission and distribution lines) will greatly expedite the commercialization of distributed generation technologies since central plants not only cost more per kW, but also must have expensive infrastructure installed to deliver the product to the consumer. Small, multi-fuel, modular distributed generation units, such as the TurboGenerator, can help alleviate current afternoon brownouts and blackouts prevalent in many parts of the world. Its simple, one moving part concept allows for low technical skill maintenance and its low overall cost allows for wide spread purchase in those parts of the world where capital is sparse. In addition, given the United States emphasis on electric deregulation and the world trend in this direction, consumers of electricity will now have not only the right to choose the correct method of electric service but also a new cost effective choice from which to choose.

  11. New Jersey Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) New Jersey Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use New Jersey Natural Gas ...

  12. New Jersey Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New Jersey Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution ... Price for Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use New Jersey Natural Gas Prices Price ...

  13. New York Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use New York Natural Gas Consumption ...

  14. New Mexico Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    (Million Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use New Mexico Natural Gas ...

  15. New Mexico Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New Mexico Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution ... Price for Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use New Mexico Natural Gas Prices Price ...

  16. North Dakota Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution ... Price for Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use North Dakota Natural Gas Prices Price ...

  17. North Carolina Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) North Carolina Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use North Carolina Natural Gas ...

  18. North Dakota Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) North Dakota Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million ... Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use North Dakota Natural Gas ...

  19. Minnesota Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (Million Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic ... Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use Minnesota Natural Gas Consumption by End Use ...

  20. Minnesota Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Minnesota Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution ... Price for Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Minnesota Natural Gas Prices Price for ...

  1. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2008-08-11

    This paper examines a California-based microgrid?s decision to invest in a distributed generation (DG) unit fuelled by natural gas. While the long-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity at a fixed retail rate from its utility. Using the real options approach, we find a natural gas generation cost threshold that triggers DG investment. Furthermore, the consideration of operational flexibility by the microgrid increases DG investment, while the option to disconnect from the utility is not attractive. By allowing the electricity price to be stochastic, we next determine an investment threshold boundary and find that high electricity price volatility relative to that of natural gas generation cost delays investment while simultaneously increasing the value of the investment. We conclude by using this result to find the implicit option value of the DG unit when two sources of uncertainty exist.

  2. Distributed Generation Investment by a Microgrid UnderUncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris

    2006-06-16

    This paper examines a California-based microgrid s decision to invest in a distributed generation (DG) unit that operates on natural gas. While the long-term natural gas generation cost is stochastic, we initially assume that the microgrid may purchase electricity at a fixed retail rate from its utility. Using the real options approach, we find natural gas generating cost thresholds that trigger DG investment. Furthermore, the consideration of operational flexibility by the microgrid accelerates DG investment, while the option to disconnect entirely from the utility is not attractive. By allowing the electricity price to be stochastic, we next determine an investment threshold boundary and find that high electricity price volatility relative to that of natural gas generating cost delays investment while simultaneously increasing the value of the investment. We conclude by using this result to find the implicit option value of the DG unit.

  3. Property:Distributed Generation System Power Application | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Based Load + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Based Load + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Based Load + Distributed...

  4. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Module

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    www.eia.gov Joe Benneche July 31, 2012, Washington, DC Major assumption changes for AEO2013 Oil and Gas Working Group Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Module DRAFT WORKING GROUP PRESENTATION DO NOT QUOTE OR CITE Overview 2 Joe Benneche, Washington, DC, July 31, 2012 * Replace regional natural gas wellhead price projections with regional spot price projections * Pricing of natural gas vehicles fuels (CNG and LNG) * Methodology for modeling exports of LNG * Assumptions on charges related

  5. Electrical power systems for distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Robertson, T.A.; Huval, S.J.

    1996-12-31

    {open_quotes}Distributed Generation{close_quotes} has become the {open_quotes}buzz{close_quotes} word of an electric utility industry facing deregulation. Many industrial facilities utilize equipment in distributed installations to serve the needs of a thermal host through the capture of exhaust energy in a heat recovery steam generator. The electrical power generated is then sold as a {open_quotes}side benefit{close_quotes} to the cost-effective supply of high quality thermal energy. Distributed generation is desirable for many different reasons, each with unique characteristics of the product. Many years of experience in the distributed generation market has helped Stewart & Stevenson to define a range of product features that are crucial to most any application. The following paper will highlight a few of these applications. The paper will also examine the range of products currently available and in development. Finally, we will survey the additional services offered by Stewart & Stevenson to meet the needs of a rapidly changing power generation industry.

  6. An economic feasibility analysis of distributed electric power generation based upon the Natural Gas-Fired Fuel Cell: a model of the operations cost.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-06-30

    This model description establishes the revenues, expenses incentives and avoided costs of Operation of a Natural Gas-Fired Fuel Cell-Based. Fuel is the major element of the cost of operation of a natural gas-fired fuel cell. Forecasts of the change in the price of this commodity a re an important consideration in the ownership of an energy conversion system. Differences between forecasts, the interests of the forecaster or geographical areas can all have significant effects on imputed fuel costs. There is less effect on judgments made on the feasibility of an energy conversion system since changes in fuel price can affect the cost of operation of the alternatives to the fuel cell in a similar fashion. The forecasts used in this model are only intended to provide the potential owner or operator with the means to examine alternate future scenarios. The operations model computes operating costs of a system suitable for a large condominium complex or a residential institution such as a hotel, boarding school or prison. The user may also select large office buildings that are characterized by 12 to 16 hours per day of operation or industrial users with a steady demand for thermal and electrical energy around the clock.

  7. Capturing the benefits of distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coles, L.R.

    1999-11-01

    Existing and future distributed generation (DG) can provide significant benefits to customers, utilities and other service providers. For the customer, these benefits could include improved reliability, better power quality and lower costs. For the utility distribution company, these benefits could include deferral of costly distribution upgrades and local voltage support. For the region`s generation and transmission suppliers, DG can provide dependable capacity supply, relief from transmission constraints, and ancillary transmission services such as reactive supply and supplemental reserves. The promise of DG technologies is strong. The technical hurdles to capturing these benefits are being met with improved generators and with enhanced command, control, and communications technologies. However, institutional and regulatory hurdles to capturing these distributed generation benefits appear to be significant. Restructuring for retail access and the delamination of utilities into wires companies and generation companies may make it difficult to capture many of the multiple benefits of DG. Policy-makers should be aware of these factors and strive to craft policies and rules that give DG a fair change to deliver these strong benefits.

  8. Property:Distributed Generation System Enclosure | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    + Outdoor + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Dedicated Shelter + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Outdoor +...

  9. Property:Distributed Generation Prime Mover | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    G3508 + Distributed Generation StudyPatterson Farms CHP System Using Renewable Biogas + Caterpillar G379 + Distributed Generation StudySUNY Buffalo + Capstone C60 +...

  10. Advanced Distributed Generation LLC ADG | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distributed Generation LLC ADG Jump to: navigation, search Name: Advanced Distributed Generation LLC (ADG) Place: Toledo, Ohio Zip: OH 43607 Product: ADG is a general contracting...

  11. North Carolina Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) North Carolina Natural Gas Pipeline and ... Price for Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use North Carolina Natural Gas Prices ...

  12. Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    StationaryDistributed Generation Projects Stationary power is the most mature application for fuel ... co-generation (in which excess thermal energy from electricity generation ...

  13. CleanDistributedGeneration.pdf | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    CleanDistributedGeneration.pdf CleanDistributedGeneration.pdf CleanDistributedGeneration.pdf CleanDistributedGeneration.pdf (381 KB) More Documents & Publications Output-Based Regulations: A Handbook for Air Regulators (U.S. EPA), August 2004 CHP Assessment, California Energy Commission, October 2009 Flexible CHP System with Low NOx, CO and VOC Emissions - Fact Sheet, 2014

  14. SMALL TURBOGENERATOR TECHNOLOGY FOR DISTRIBUTED GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ali, Sy; Moritz, Bob

    2001-09-01

    in grid support. The machine is consistent with 21st century power generation objectives. It will be more efficient than a microturbine and also more cost effective because it does not require an expensive recuperator. It will produce ultra-low emissions because it has a low combustor delivery temperature. It will also avoid producing hazardous waste because it requires no lube system. These qualities are obtained by combining, and in some instances extending, the best of available technologies rather than breaking wholly new ground. Limited ''barrier technology'' rig tests of bearing systems and alternator configuration are proposed to support the extension of technology. Low combustion temperature also has merit in handling alternative fuels with minimum emissions and minimum materials degradation. Program continuation is proposed that will simultaneously provide technology support to a SECA fuel cell hybrid system and a distributed generation turbogenerator. This technology program will be led by a Rolls-Royce team based in Indianapolis with access to extensive small turbogenerator experience gathered in DOE (and other) programs by Allison Mobile Power Systems. It is intended that subsequent production will be in the U.S., but the products may have substantial export potential.

  15. New York Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New York Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use ... Price for Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use New York Natural Gas Prices Price for ...

  16. Renewable Energy: Distributed Generation Policies and Programs | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Distributed Generation Policies and Programs Renewable Energy: Distributed Generation Policies and Programs Distributed generation is the term used when electricity is generated from sources, often renewable energy sources, near the point of use instead of centralized generation sources from power plants. State and local governments can implement policies and programs regarding distributed generation and its use to help overcome market and regulatory barriers to implementation.

  17. Distributed Generation: Challenges and Opportunities, 7. edition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-10-15

    The report is a comprehensive study of the Distributed Generation (DG) industry. The report takes a wide-ranging look at the current and future state of DG and both individually and collectively addresses the technologies of Microturbines, Reciprocating Engines, Stirling Engines, Fuel Cells, Photovoltaics, Concentrating Solar, Wind, and Microgrids. Topics covered include: the key technologies being used or planned for DG; the uses of DG from utility, energy service provider, and customer viewpoints; the economics of DG; the benefits of DG from multiple perspectives; the barriers that exist to implementing DG; the government programs supporting the DG industry; and, an analysis of DG interconnection and net metering rules.

  18. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2005-07-29

    Electricity generated by distributed energy resources (DER) located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumer requirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid. Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associated with transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricity delivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities to purchase energy when attractive. On-site thermal power generation is typically less efficient than central station generation, but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and utilizing combined heat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scale on-site generation to displace fuel purchases, then DER can become attractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts, the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressed using a mixed-integer linear programme, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, and information (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies, DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selecting the units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. In this paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion of the option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep an inventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lower costs even further by reducing off-peak generation and relying on storage. This and other effects of storages are demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in San Francisco, California, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacity of heat storage is calculated.

  19. Integrated, Automated Distributed Generation Technologies Demonstration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jensen, Kevin

    2014-09-30

    The purpose of the NETL Project was to develop a diverse combination of distributed renewable generation technologies and controls and demonstrate how the renewable generation could help manage substation peak demand at the ATK Promontory plant site. The Promontory plant site is located in the northwestern Utah desert approximately 25 miles west of Brigham City, Utah. The plant encompasses 20,000 acres and has over 500 buildings. The ATK Promontory plant primarily manufactures solid propellant rocket motors for both commercial and government launch systems. The original project objectives focused on distributed generation; a 100 kW (kilowatt) wind turbine, a 100 kW new technology waste heat generation unit, a 500 kW energy storage system, and an intelligent system-wide automation system to monitor and control the renewable energy devices then release the stored energy during the peak demand time. The original goal was to reduce peak demand from the electrical utility company, Rocky Mountain Power (RMP), by 3.4%. For a period of time we also sought to integrate our energy storage requirements with a flywheel storage system (500 kW) proposed for the Promontory/RMP Substation. Ultimately the flywheel storage system could not meet our project timetable, so the storage requirement was switched to a battery storage system (300 kW.) A secondary objective was to design/install a bi-directional customer/utility gateway application for real-time visibility and communications between RMP, and ATK. This objective was not achieved because of technical issues with RMP, ATK Information Technology Department’s stringent requirements based on being a rocket motor manufacturing facility, and budget constraints. Of the original objectives, the following were achieved: • Installation of a 100 kW wind turbine. • Installation of a 300 kW battery storage system. • Integrated control system installed to offset electrical demand by releasing stored energy from renewable sources

  20. Property:Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    This is a property of type Page. Pages using the property "Distributed Generation System Heating-Cooling Application" Showing 21 pages using this property. D Distributed...

  1. Property:Distributed Generation Function | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Function Jump to: navigation, search Property Name Distributed Generation Function Property Type Page Description A description of the function(s) for which the Distributed...

  2. Connecting to the Grid: A Guide to Distributed Generation Interconnect...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    guide addresses new and lingering issues relevant to all distributed generation technologies, including net excess generation, third-party ownership, energy storage and networks. ...

  3. Distributed Generation with Heat Recovery and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan M.; Zhou, Nan

    2006-06-16

    Electricity produced by distributed energy resources (DER)located close to end-use loads has the potential to meet consumerrequirements more efficiently than the existing centralized grid.Installation of DER allows consumers to circumvent the costs associatedwith transmission congestion and other non-energy costs of electricitydelivery and potentially to take advantage of market opportunities topurchase energy when attractive. On-site, single-cycle thermal powergeneration is typically less efficient than central station generation,but by avoiding non-fuel costs of grid power and by utilizing combinedheat and power (CHP) applications, i.e., recovering heat from small-scaleon-site thermal generation to displace fuel purchases, DER can becomeattractive to a strictly cost-minimizing consumer. In previous efforts,the decisions facing typical commercial consumers have been addressedusing a mixed-integer linear program, the DER Customer Adoption Model(DER-CAM). Given the site s energy loads, utility tariff structure, andinformation (both technical and financial) on candidate DER technologies,DER-CAM minimizes the overall energy cost for a test year by selectingthe units to install and determining their hourly operating schedules. Inthis paper, the capabilities of DER-CAM are enhanced by the inclusion ofthe option to store recovered low-grade heat. By being able to keep aninventory of heat for use in subsequent periods, sites are able to lowercosts even further by reducing lucrative peak-shaving generation whilerelying on storage to meet heat loads. This and other effects of storageare demonstrated by analysis of five typical commercial buildings in SanFrancisco, California, USA, and an estimate of the cost per unit capacityof heat storage is calculated.

  4. Regulatory Considerations for Developing Distributed Generation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    rapidly Careful selection of business model can maximize value for all participants ... attributes? Where is the generation sited? How is the generator ...

  5. Fuel cycle comparison of distributed power generation technologies.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elgowainy, A.; Wang, M. Q.; Energy Systems

    2008-12-08

    The fuel-cycle energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the application of fuel cells to distributed power generation were evaluated and compared with the combustion technologies of microturbines and internal combustion engines, as well as the various technologies associated with grid-electricity generation in the United States and California. The results were primarily impacted by the net electrical efficiency of the power generation technologies and the type of employed fuels. The energy use and GHG emissions associated with the electric power generation represented the majority of the total energy use of the fuel cycle and emissions for all generation pathways. Fuel cell technologies exhibited lower GHG emissions than those associated with the U.S. grid electricity and other combustion technologies. The higher-efficiency fuel cells, such as the solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) and molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC), exhibited lower energy requirements than those for combustion generators. The dependence of all natural-gas-based technologies on petroleum oil was lower than that of internal combustion engines using petroleum fuels. Most fuel cell technologies approaching or exceeding the DOE target efficiency of 40% offered significant reduction in energy use and GHG emissions.

  6. Emissions Benefits of Distributed Generation in the Texas Market

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2005-06-16

    One potential benefit of distributed generation (DG) is a net reduction in air emissions. While DG will produce emissions, most notably carbon dioxide and nitrogen oxides, the power it displaces might have produced more. This study used a system dispatch model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to simulate the 2012 Texas power market with and without DG. This study compares the reduction in system emissions to the emissions from the DG to determine the net savings. Some of the major findings are that 85% of the electricity displaced by DG during peak hours will be simple cycle natural gas, either steam or combustion turbine. Even with DG running as baseload, 57% of electricity displaced will be simple cycle natural gas. Despite the retirement of some gas-fired steam units and the construction of many new gas turbine and combined cycle units, the marginal emissions from the system remain quite high (1.4 lb NO{sub x}/MWh on peak and 1.1 lb NO{sub x}/MWh baseload) compared to projected DG emissions. Consequently, additions of DG capacity will reduce emissions in Texas from power generation in 2012. Using the DG exhaust heat for combined heat and power provides an even greater benefit, since it eliminates further boiler emissions while adding none over what would be produced while generating electricity. Further studies are warranted concerning the robustness of the result with changes in fuel prices, demands, and mixes of power generating technology.

  7. Investment and Upgrade in Distributed Generation under Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal; Maribu, Karl

    2008-08-18

    The ongoing deregulation of electricity industries worldwide is providing incentives for microgrids to use small-scale distributed generation (DG) and combined heat and power (CHP) applications via heat exchangers (HXs) to meet local energy loads. Although the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that of central-station production, relatively high tariff rates and the potential for CHP applications increase the attraction of on-site generation. Nevertheless, a microgrid contemplatingthe installation of gas-fired DG has to be aware of the uncertainty in the natural gas price. Treatment of uncertainty via real options increases the value of the investment opportunity, which then delays the adoption decision as the opportunity cost of exercising the investment option increases as well. In this paper, we take the perspective of a microgrid that can proceed in a sequential manner with DG capacity and HX investment in order to reduce its exposure to risk from natural gas price volatility. In particular, with the availability of the HX, the microgrid faces a tradeoff between reducing its exposure to the natural gas price and maximising its cost savings. By varying the volatility parameter, we find that the microgrid prefers a direct investment strategy for low levels of volatility and a sequential one for higher levels of volatility.

  8. Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Permitting Energy Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library PermittingRegulatory Guidance - GuideHandbook: Vermont Agency of Natural Resources Permitting Energy Generation...

  9. Integration of Demand Side Management, Distributed Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    the value of the resources and alleviate problems arising from their intermittent nature. This report describes how information was collected, analysed and synthesized and...

  10. Modeling distributed generation in the buildings sectors

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    turbines * Natural gas-fired microturbines * Diesel reciprocating engines * Coal* * Due to limited data ... installations (i.e., where plant capacity is greater than or ...

  11. Advanced Distributed Generation LLC | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Ohio Zip: 43607 Sector: Solar Product: Agriculture; Consulting; Installation; Maintenance and repair; Retail product sales and distribution Phone Number: 419-725-3401...

  12. NREL: Energy Analysis - Distributed Generation Energy Technology...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The red horizontal lines represent the first standard deviation of the mean. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) sponsored the distributed ...

  13. Natural gas beats coal in power generation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    is expected to exceed the output from coal-fired power plants this year and in 2017. In ... have made coal a less competitive generating fuel for many U.S. power plant operators.

  14. Distributed Generation Systems Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Colorado Zip: 80228 Region: Rockies Area Sector: Wind energy Product: Developer of electricity generation wind power facilities Website: www.disgenonline.com Coordinates:...

  15. Materials Innovation for Next Generation Transmission and Distribution Grid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Components Workshop | Department of Energy Materials Innovation for Next Generation Transmission and Distribution Grid Components Workshop Materials Innovation for Next Generation Transmission and Distribution Grid Components Workshop Applied R&D in advanced materials has the potential to improve the fundamental properties and capabilities of hardware for grid applications. The Materials Innovation for Next-Generation Transmission and Distribution Grid Components Workshop, held August

  16. Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Module - NEMS Documentation

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2014-01-01

    Documents the archived version of the Natural Gas Transmission and Distribution Model that was used to produce the natural gas forecasts used in support of the Annual Energy Outlook 2014.

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Deangelis; Rich Depuy; Debashis Dey; Georgia Karvountzi; Nguyen Minh; Max Peter; Faress Rahman; Pavel Sokolov; Deliang Yang

    2004-09-30

    This report summarizes the work performed by Hybrid Power Generation Systems, LLC (HPGS) during the April to October 2004 reporting period in Task 2.3 (SOFC Scaleup for Hybrid and Fuel Cell Systems) under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL), entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems for central power generation application based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by natural gas. The main objective of this task is to develop credible scale up strategies for large solid oxide fuel cell-gas turbine systems. System concepts that integrate a SOFC with a gas turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 20 MW. A 25 MW plant configuration was selected with projected system efficiency of over 65% and a factory cost of under $400/kW. The plant design is modular and can be scaled to both higher and lower plant power ratings. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  18. The Value of Distributed Generation (DG) under Different Tariff...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    URI: cleanenergysolutions.orgcontentvalue-distributed-generation-dg-under Language: English Policies: "Regulations,Financial Incentives" is not in the list of possible...

  19. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    requirement, the island of Oahu constructed, calibrated, and validated a high penetration renewable generator distribution feeder circuit on its electricity grid to understand the ...

  20. Poland - Economic and Financial Benefits of Distributed Generation...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Name Poland - Economic and Financial Benefits of Distributed Generation Small-Scale, Gas-Fired CHP AgencyCompany Organization Argonne National Laboratory Sector Energy...

  1. April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power ... (1998) 64 Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar ...

  2. March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution ASPEN Plus Simulation ... (1982) 18 Molten Salt-Carbon Nanotube Thermal Energy Storage for Concentrating Solar ...

  3. Distributed Generation Systems Inc DISGEN | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Systems Inc DISGEN Jump to: navigation, search Name: Distributed Generation Systems Inc (DISGEN) Place: Lakewood, Colorado Zip: 80228 Sector: Wind energy Product: Developer of...

  4. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits ...

  5. ,"Rhode Island Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ies","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Rhode Island Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2005 ,"Release Date:","9...

  6. ,"New Jersey Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    eries","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Jersey Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2005 ,"Release Date:","9...

  7. ,"North Carolina Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    s","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Carolina Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2005 ,"Release Date:","9...

  8. ,"North Dakota Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ies","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2005 ,"Release Date:","9...

  9. ,"New Hampshire Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    es","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Hampshire Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2005 ,"Release Date:","9...

  10. ,"New Mexico Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    eries","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2005 ,"Release Date:","9...

  11. ,"New York Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2005 ,"Release Date:","9...

  12. Overview of the Distributed Generation Interconnection Collaborative

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    December 17, 2013 Overview presentation for group call, 1:00-2:30EST 2 October 21,2013 NREL and EPRI facilitated workshop of electric utilities, PV developers, PUCs, and other stakeholders to discuss the formulation of a collaborative effort focused on distributed PV interconnection: - Data and informational gaps/needs - Persistent challenges - Replicable innovation - Informed decision making and planning for anticipated rise in distributed PV interconnection Based on stakeholder input and

  13. Experimental comparison of PV-smoothing controllers using distributed generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Jay Dean; Ellis, Abraham; Denda, Atsushi; Morino, Kimio; Hawkins, John N.; Arellano, Brian; Shinji, Takao; Ogata, Takao; Tadokoro, Masayuki

    2014-02-01

    The power output variability of photovoltaic systems can affect local electrical grids in locations with high renewable energy penetrations or weak distribution or transmission systems. In those rare cases, quick controllable generators (e.g., energy storage systems) or loads can counteract the destabilizing effects by compensating for the power fluctuations. Previously, control algorithms for coordinated and uncoordinated operation of a small natural gas engine-generator (genset) and a battery for smoothing PV plant output were optimized using MATLAB/Simulink simulations. The simulations demonstrated that a traditional generation resource such as a natural gas genset in combination with a battery would smooth the photovoltaic output while using a smaller battery state of charge (SOC) range and extending the life of the battery. This paper reports on the experimental implementation of the coordinated and uncoordinated controllers to verify the simulations and determine the differences in the controllers. The experiments were performed with the PNM PV and energy storage Prosperity site and a gas engine-generator located at the Aperture Center at Mesa Del Sol in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Two field demonstrations were performed to compare the different PV smoothing control algorithms: (1) implementing the coordinated and uncoordinated controls while switching off a subsection of the PV array at precise times on successive clear days, and (2) comparing the results of the battery and genset outputs for the coordinated control on a high variability day with simulations of the coordinated and uncoordinated controls. It was found that for certain PV power profiles the SOC range of the battery may be larger with the coordinated control, but the total amp-hours through the battery-which approximates battery wear-will always be smaller with the coordinated control.

  14. Method and apparatus for generating a natural crack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, Fred J.; Honodel, Charles A.; Holman, William R.; Weingart, Richard C.

    1984-01-01

    A method and apparatus for generating a measurable natural crack includes forming a primary notch in the surface of a solid material. A non-sustained single pressure pulse is then generated in the vicinity of the primary notch, resulting in the formation of a shock wave which travels through the material. The shock wave creates a measurable natural crack within the material which extends from the primary notch. The natural crack formed possesses predictable geometry, location and orientation.

  15. Method and apparatus for generating a natural crack

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fulton, F.J.; Honodel, C.A.; Holman, W.R.; Weingart, R.C.

    1982-05-06

    A method and apparatus for generating a measurable natural crack includes forming a primary notch in the surface of a solid material. A nonsustained single pressure pulse is then generated in the vicinity of the primary notch, reuslting in the formation of a shock wave which travels through the material. The shock wave creates a measurable natural crack within the material which extends from the primary notch. The natural crack formed possesses predictable geometry, location and orientation.

  16. Operation of Distributed Generation Under Stochastic Prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siddiqui, Afzal S.; Marnay, Chris

    2005-11-30

    We model the operating decisions of a commercial enterprisethatneeds to satisfy its periodic electricity demand with either on-sitedistributed generation (DG) or purchases from the wholesale market. Whilethe former option involves electricity generation at relatively high andpossibly stochastic costs from a set of capacity-constrained DGtechnologies, the latter implies unlimited open-market transactions atstochastic prices. A stochastic dynamic programme (SDP) is used to solvethe resulting optimisation problem. By solving the SDP with and withoutthe availability of DG units, the implied option values of the DG unitsare obtained.

  17. Distributed Generation in Buildings (released in AEO2005)

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2008-01-01

    Currently, distributed generation provides a very small share of residential and commercial electricity requirements in the United States. The Annual Energy Outlook 2005 reference case projects a significant increase in electricity generation in the buildings sector, but distributed generation is expected to remain a small contributor to the sectors energy needs. Although the advent of higher energy prices or more rapid improvement in technology could increase the use of distributed generation relative to the reference case projection, the vast majority of electricity used in buildings is projected to continue to be purchased from the grid.

  18. High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu High Penetration Solar Distributed Generation Study on Oahu The rooftop solar PV on Hawai'i's Mauna Lani Bay Hotel generates 75 kW of electricity. <em>Photo from SunPower, NREL 06430</em> The rooftop solar PV on Hawai'i's Mauna Lani Bay Hotel generates 75 kW of electricity. Photo from SunPower, NREL 06430 To complement energy efficiency targets in Hawai'i, the state developed requirements for generating 40% of its

  19. Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Activity: Natural Gas Engine and Vehicle Research & Development (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2003-09-01

    This fact sheet describes the status of the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) activity, including goals, R&D progress, NGV implementation, and the transition to hydrogen.

  20. Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) Program Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walkowicz, K.

    2002-05-01

    Fact sheet describing U. S. DOE and NREL's development of next generation natural gas vehicles (NGVs) as a key element in its strategy to reduce oil import and vehicle pollutants.

  1. Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants? |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants? Natural Oils - The Next Generation of Diesel Engine Lubricants? 2002 DEER Conference Presentation: The Pennsylvania State University 2002_deer_perez.pdf (315.66 KB) More Documents & Publications Reducing Lubricant Ash Impact on Exhaust Aftertreatment with a Oil Conditioning Filter Effect of Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on Diesel Engine Oil - Impact on Wear Future Engine Fluids Technologies: Durable,

  2. Hawaii Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Hawaii Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 2 2 2 3 2 2 2010's 2 2 3 1 1 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use Hawaii Natural Gas

  3. Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) Program Brochure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elling, J.

    2000-10-26

    The Department of Energy's Office of Transportation Technologies is initiating the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle (NGNGV) Program to develop commercially viable medium- and heavy-duty natural gas vehicles. These new vehicles will incorporate advanced alternative fuel vehicle technologies that were developed by DOE and others.

  4. Stationary/Distributed Generation Projects- Non-DOE Projects

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    In addition to the stationary/distributed generation technology validation projects sponsored by DOE, universities, along with state and local government entities across the U.S., are partnering...

  5. Distributed generation technology in a newly competitive electric power industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pfeifenberger, J.P.; Ammann, P.R.; Taylor, G.A.

    1996-10-01

    The electric utility industry is in the midst of enormous changes in market structure. While the generation sector faces increasing competition, the utilities` transmission and distribution function is undergoing a transition to more unbundled services and prices. This article discusses the extent to which these changes will affect the relative advantage of distributed generation technology. Although the ultimate market potential for distributed generation may be significant, the authors find that the market will be very heterogeneous with many small and only a few medium-sized market segments narrowly defined by operating requirements. The largest market segment is likely to develop for distributed generation technology with operational and economical characteristics suitable for peak-shaving. Unbundling of utility costs and prices will make base- and intermediate-load equipment, such as fuel cells, significantly less attractive in main market segments unless capital costs fall significantly below $1,000/kW.

  6. New Hampshire Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    (Million Cubic Feet) New Hampshire Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

  7. New Hampshire Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) New Hampshire Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 ...

  8. Dispatchable Distributed Generation: Manufacturing's Role in Support of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Grid Modernization, FEBRUARY 10-11 | Department of Energy Workshops » Dispatchable Distributed Generation: Manufacturing's Role in Support of Grid Modernization, FEBRUARY 10-11 Dispatchable Distributed Generation: Manufacturing's Role in Support of Grid Modernization, FEBRUARY 10-11 The Advanced Manufacturing Office (AMO) held a workshop in Austin, Texas at the Embassy Suites Hotels on February 10-11, 2016. The topic of this 2 day workshop was the Role of the Manufacturing Sector in Grid

  9. Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector August 2013 Independent Statistics & Analysis www.eia.gov U.S. Department of Energy Washington, DC 20585 U.S. Energy Information Administration | Distributed Generation System Characteristics and Costs in the Buildings Sector i This report was prepared by the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. By law, EIA's data, analyses, and

  10. Local control of reactive power by distributed photovoltaic generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chertkov, Michael; Turitsyn, Konstantin; Sulc, Petr; Backhaus, Scott

    2010-01-01

    High penetration levels of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation on an electrical distribution circuit may severely degrade power quality due to voltage sags and swells caused by rapidly varying PV generation during cloud transients coupled with the slow response of existing utility compensation and regulation equipment. Although not permitted under current standards for interconnection of distributed generation, fast-reacting, VAR-capable PV inverters may provide the necessary reactive power injection or consumption to maintain voltage regulation under difficult transient conditions. As side benefit, the control of reactive power injection at each PV inverter provides an opportunity and a new tool for distribution utilities to optimize the performance of distribution circuits, e.g. by minimizing thermal losses. We suggest a local control scheme that dispatches reactive power from each PV inverter based on local instantaneous measurements of the real and reactive components of the consumed power and the real power generated by the PVs. Using one adjustable parameter per circuit, we balance the requirements on power quality and desire to minimize thermal losses. Numerical analysis of two exemplary systems, with comparable total PV generation albeit a different spatial distribution, show how to adjust the optimization parameter depending on the goal. Overall, this local scheme shows excellent performance; it's capable of guaranteeing acceptable power quality and achieving significant saving in thermal losses in various situations even when the renewable generation in excess of the circuit own load, i.e. feeding power back to the higher-level system.

  11. Elimination of direct current distribution systems from new generating stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jancauskas, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    This paper advances the concept that it may be both possible and advantageous to eliminate the traditional direct current distribution system from a new generating station. The latest developments in uninterruptible power supply (UPS) technology are what have made this option technically feasible. A traditional dc distribution system will be compared to an ac distribution system supplied by a UPS to investigate the merits of the proposed approach.

  12. Vermont Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Vermont Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 9 8 8 2000's 15 14 14 14 14 14 15 16 15 17 2010's 16 53 114 89 124 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use Vermont Natural

  13. Proposed methodologies for evaluating grid benefits of distributed generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skowronski, M.J.

    1999-11-01

    As new Distributed Generation technologies are brought to the market, new hurdles to successful commercialization of these promising forms of on-site generation are becoming apparent. The impetus to commercialize these technologies has, up to now, been the value and benefits that the end user derives from the installation of Distributed Generation. These benefits are primarily economic as Distributed Generation is normally installed to reduce the customer utility bill. There are, however, other benefits of Distributed Generation other than the reduction in the cost of electric service, and these benefits normally accrue to the system or system operator. The purpose of this paper is to evaluate and suggest methodologies to quantify these ancillary benefits that the grid and/or connecting utility derive from customer on-site generation. Specifically, the following are discussed: reliability in service; transmission loss reduction; spinning and non-spinning reserve margin; peak shaving and interruptible loads; transmission and distribution deferral; VAR support/power quality; cogeneration capability; improvement in utility load factor fuel diversity; emission reductions; and qualitative factors -- reduced energy congestion, less societal disruption, faster response time, black start capability, system operation benefits.

  14. Distributed electrical generation technologies and methods for their economic assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreider, J.F.; Curtiss, P.S.

    2000-07-01

    A confluence of events in the electrical generation and transmission industry has produced a new paradigm for distributed electrical generation and distribution in the US Electrical deregulation, reluctance of traditional utilities to commit capital to large central plants and transmission lines, and a suite of new, efficient generation hardware have all combined to bring this about. Persistent environmental concerns have further stimulated several new approaches. In this paper the authors describe the near term distributed generation technologies and their differentiating characteristics along with their readiness for the US market. In order to decide which approaches are well suited to a specific project, an assessment methodology is needed. A technically sound approach is therefore described and example results are given.

  15. Transition metal catalysis in the generation of natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mango, F.D.

    1995-12-31

    The view that natural gas is thermolytic, coming from decomposing organic debris, has remained almost unchallenged for nearly half a century. Disturbing contradictions exist, however: Oil is found at great depth, at temperatures where only gas should exist and oil and gas deposits show no evidence of the thermolytic debris indicative of oil decomposing to gas. Moreover, laboratory attempts to duplicate the composition of natural gas, which is typically between 60 and 95+ wt% methane in C{sub 1}-C{sub 4}, have produced insufficient amounts of methane (10 to 60%). It has been suggested that natural gas may be generated catalytically, promoted by the transition metals in carbonaceous sedimentary rocks. This talk will discuss experimental results that support this hypothesis. Various transition metals, as pure compounds and in source rocks, will be shown to generate a catalytic gas that is identical to natural gas. Kinetic results suggest robust catalytic activity under moderate catagenetic conditions.

  16. Technology for distributed generation in a global marketplace

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leeper, J.D.; Barich, J.T.

    1998-12-31

    During the last 20 years, great strides have been made in the development and demonstration of distributed generation technologies. Wind, phosphoric acid fuel cells, and photovoltaic systems are now competitive in selected niche markets. Other technologies such as MTG, higher temperature fuel cells, and fuel cell hybrids are expected to become competitive in selected applications in the next few years. As the electric utility industry moves toward restructuring and increasing demand in emerging countries, one can expect even greater demand for environmentally friendly distributed generation technologies.

  17. Maine Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Maine Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 0 0 0 2000's 808 1,164 877 859 658 585 494 753 943 837 2010's 1,753 2,399 762 844 1,300 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use

  18. Delaware Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Delaware Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 13 15 45 2000's 62 23 49 34 39 40 18 16 18 22 2010's 140 464 1,045 970 1,040 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline & Distribution Use

  19. SULFUR REMOVAL FROM PIPE LINE NATURAL GAS FUEL: APPLICATION TO FUEL CELL POWER GENERATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, David L.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2003-11-21

    Pipeline natural gas is being considered as the fuel of choice for utilization in fuel cell-based distributed generation systems because of its abundant supply and the existing supply infrastructure (1). For effective utilization in fuel cells, pipeline gas requires efficient removal of sulfur impurities (naturally occurring sulfur compounds or sulfur bearing odorants) to prevent the electrical performance degradation of the fuel cell system. Sulfur odorants such as thiols and sulfides are added to pipeline natural gas and to LPG to ensure safe handling during transportation and utilization. The odorants allow the detection of minute gas line leaks, thereby minimizing the potential for explosions or fires.

  20. Modeling Distributed Electricity Generation in the NEMS Buildings Models

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the modeling methodology, projected market penetration, and impact of distributed generation with respect to offsetting future electricity needs and carbon dioxide emissions in the residential and commercial buildings sector in the Annual Energy Outlook 2000 (AEO2000) reference case.

  1. Energy Storage and Distributed Energy Generation Project, Final Project Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwank, Johannes; Mader, Jerry; Chen, Xiaoyin; Mi, Chris; Linic, Suljo; Sastry, Ann Marie; Stefanopoulou, Anna; Thompson, Levi; Varde, Keshav

    2008-03-31

    This report serves as a Final Report under the “Energy Storage and Distribution Energy Generation Project” carried out by the Transportation Energy Center (TEC) at the University of Michigan (UM). An interdisciplinary research team has been working on fundamental and applied research on: -distributed power generation and microgrids, -power electronics, and -advanced energy storage. The long-term objective of the project was to provide a framework for identifying fundamental research solutions to technology challenges of transmission and distribution, with special emphasis on distributed power generation, energy storage, control methodologies, and power electronics for microgrids, and to develop enabling technologies for novel energy storage and harvesting concepts that can be simulated, tested, and scaled up to provide relief for both underserved and overstressed portions of the Nation’s grid. TEC’s research is closely associated with Sections 5.0 and 6.0 of the DOE "Five-year Program Plan for FY2008 to FY2012 for Electric Transmission and Distribution Programs, August 2006.”

  2. Montana Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Montana Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 3,436 3,746 5,968 2000's ...

  3. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown – Dataset

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Excel file with dataset for Fact #844: Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown

  4. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  5. ANALYSIS OF DISTRIBUTION FEEDER LOSSES DUE TO ADDITION OF DISTRIBUTED PHOTOVOLTAIC GENERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Singh, Ruchi

    2011-08-09

    Distributed generators (DG) are small scale power supplying sources owned by customers or utilities and scattered throughout the power system distribution network. Distributed generation can be both renewable and non-renewable. Addition of distributed generation is primarily to increase feeder capacity and to provide peak load reduction. However, this addition comes with several impacts on the distribution feeder. Several studies have shown that addition of DG leads to reduction of feeder loss. However, most of these studies have considered lumped load and distributed load models to analyze the effects on system losses, where the dynamic variation of load due to seasonal changes is ignored. It is very important for utilities to minimize the losses under all scenarios to decrease revenue losses, promote efficient asset utilization, and therefore, increase feeder capacity. This paper will investigate an IEEE 13-node feeder populated with photovoltaic generators on detailed residential houses with water heater, Heating Ventilation and Air conditioning (HVAC) units, lights, and other plug and convenience loads. An analysis of losses for different power system components, such as transformers, underground and overhead lines, and triplex lines, will be performed. The analysis will utilize different seasons and different solar penetration levels (15%, 30%).

  6. Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen): Documentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen): Documentation Benjamin Sigrin, Michael Gleason, Robert Preus, Ian Baring-Gould, and Robert Margolis National Renewable Energy Laboratory Technical Report NREL/TP-6A20-65231 February 2016 NREL is a national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy Operated by the Alliance for Sustainable Energy, LLC This report is available at no cost from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) at

  7. NREL: dGen: Distributed Generation Market Demand Model - Documentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Documentation The Distributed Generation Market Demand (dGen) model documentation summarizes the default data inputs and assumptions for the model. Input data for the model are regularly updated and include recent EIA Annual Energy Outlook projections, state-level net metering and incentive policies, and utility-level retail electricity rates. Note that the dGen model builds on, extends, and provides significant advances over NREL's deprecated SolarDS model. Documentation Outline Introduction

  8. NREL: dGen: Distributed Generation Market Demand Model - Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Publications The following are publications-including technical reports, journal articles, conference papers, and posters-focusing on the Distributed Generation Market Demand Model (dGen) and its predecessor, the Solar Deployment System (SolarDS) model. Barbose, Galen, John Miller, Ben Sigrin, Emerson Reiter, Karlynn Cory, Joyce McLaren, Joachim Seel, Andrew Mills, Naïm Darghouth, and Andrew Satchwell. 2016. On the Path to SunShot: Utility Regulatory and Business Model Reforms for Addressing

  9. January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information January 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Lessons from Large-Scale Renewable Energy Integration Studies: Preprint Bird, L.; Milligan, M. Small punch creep test: A promising methodology for high temperature plant components life evaluation Tettamanti, S. [CISE SpA, Milan (Italy)]; Crudeli, R. [ENEL SpA, Milan (Italy)] Failure analyses and weld repair of boiler feed water pumps Vulpen, R. van

  10. Most Viewed Documents - Power Generation and Distribution | OSTI, US Dept

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information - Power Generation and Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; et al. (1994) ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) Systems and economic analysis of microalgae ponds for conversion of CO{sub 2} to biomass. Quarterly technical progress report, September 1993--December 1993

  11. A Bio-Based Fuel Cell for Distributed Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anthony Terrinoni; Sean Gifford

    2008-06-30

    The technology we propose consists primarily of an improved design for increasing the energy density of a certain class of bio-fuel cell (BFC). The BFCs we consider are those which harvest electrons produced by microorganisms during their metabolism of organic substrates (e.g. glucose, acetate). We estimate that our technology will significantly enhance power production (per unit volume) of these BFCs, to the point where they could be employed as stand-alone systems for distributed energy generation.

  12. Optimal Solar PV Arrays Integration for Distributed Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Li, Xueping

    2012-01-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems hold great potential for distributed energy generation by installing PV panels on rooftops of residential and commercial buildings. Yet challenges arise along with the variability and non-dispatchability of the PV systems that affect the stability of the grid and the economics of the PV system. This paper investigates the integration of PV arrays for distributed generation applications by identifying a combination of buildings that will maximize solar energy output and minimize system variability. Particularly, we propose mean-variance optimization models to choose suitable rooftops for PV integration based on Markowitz mean-variance portfolio selection model. We further introduce quantity and cardinality constraints to result in a mixed integer quadratic programming problem. Case studies based on real data are presented. An efficient frontier is obtained for sample data that allows decision makers to choose a desired solar energy generation level with a comfortable variability tolerance level. Sensitivity analysis is conducted to show the tradeoffs between solar PV energy generation potential and variability.

  13. Restructuring local distribution services in a competitive natural gas industry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duann, D.J.; Costello, K.W.

    1995-12-31

    The restructuring of local distribution services is now the focus of the natural gas industry. It is viewed by some as the last major step in the {open_quotes}reconstitution{close_quotes} of the natural gas industry and a critical element in realizing the full benefits of regulatory and market reforms that have already taken place in the wellhead and interstate markets. It could also be the most important regulatory initiative for most end-use customers since they are affected directly by the costs and reliability of distribution services. Several factors contributed to the current emphasis on distribution service restructuring. They include the unbundling and restructuring of upstream markets, a realization of the limitations of supply-side options (such as gas procurement oversight), and the increased diversity and volatility of gas demand facing local distribution companies (LDCs). Overall, restructuring requires the LDC to transform itself from a franchised monopoly providing a uniform bundled service into a {open_quotes}competitive{close_quotes} enterprise delivering distinct unbundled services.

  14. Parametric numerical investigaion of natural convection in a heat-generating fluid with phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aksenova, A.E.; Chudanov, V.V.; Strizhov, V.F.; Vabishchevich, P.N.

    1995-09-01

    Unsteady natural convection of a heat-generating fluid with phase transitions in the enclosures of a square section with isothermal rigid walls is investigated numerically for a wide range of dimensionless parameters. The quasisteady state solutions of conjugate heat and mass transfer problem are compared with available experimental results. Correlation relations for heat flux distributions at the domain boundaries depending on Rayleigh and Ostrogradskii numbers are obtained. It is shown that generally heat transfer is governed both by natural circulation and crust formation phenomena. Results of this paper may be used for analysis of experiments with prototypic core materials.

  15. Assessment of Distributed Generation Potential in JapaneseBuildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Firestone, Ryan; Gao, Weijun; Nishida,Masaru

    2005-05-25

    To meet growing energy demands, energy efficiency, renewable energy, and on-site generation coupled with effective utilization of exhaust heat will all be required. Additional benefit can be achieved by integrating these distributed technologies into distributed energy resource (DER) systems (or microgrids). This research investigates a method of choosing economically optimal DER, expanding on prior studies at the Berkeley Lab using the DER design optimization program, the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM). DER-CAM finds the optimal combination of installed equipment from available DER technologies, given prevailing utility tariffs, site electrical and thermal loads, and a menu of available equipment. It provides a global optimization, albeit idealized, that shows how the site energy loads can be served at minimum cost by selection and operation of on-site generation, heat recovery, and cooling. Five prototype Japanese commercial buildings are examined and DER-CAM applied to select the economically optimal DER system for each. The five building types are office, hospital, hotel, retail, and sports facility. Based on the optimization results, energy and emission reductions are evaluated. Furthermore, a Japan-U.S. comparison study of policy, technology, and utility tariffs relevant to DER installation is presented. Significant decreases in fuel consumption, carbon emissions, and energy costs were seen in the DER-CAM results. Savings were most noticeable in the sports facility (a very favourable CHP site), followed by the hospital, hotel, and office building.

  16. Caterpillar`s advanced reciprocating engine for distributed generation markets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gerber, G.; Brandes, D.; Reinhart, M.; Nagel, G.; Wong, E.

    1999-11-01

    Competition in energy markets and federal and state policy advocating clean, advanced technologies as means to achieve environmental and global climate change goals are clear drivers to original equipment manufacturers of prime movers. Underpinning competition are the principle of consumer choice to facilitate retail competition, and the desire to improve system and grid reliability. Caterpillar`s Gas Engine Division is responding to the market`s demand for a more efficient, lower lifecycle cost engine with reduced emissions. Cat`s first generation TARGET engine will be positioned to effectively serve distributed generation and combined heat and power (CHP) applications. TARGET (The Advanced Reciprocating Gas Engine Technology) will embody Cat`s product attributes: durability, reliability, and competitively priced life cycle cost products. Further, Caterpillar`s nationwide, fully established dealer sales and service ensure continued product support subsequent to the sale and installation of the product.

  17. Fuel Cell Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Fuel Cycle Comparison of Distributed Power Generation Technologies Energy Systems Division About Argonne National Laboratory Argonne is a U.S. Department of Energy laboratory managed by UChicago Argonne, LLC under contract DE-AC02-06CH11357. The Laboratory's main facility is outside Chicago, at 9700 South Cass Avenue, Argonne, Illinois 60439. For information about Argonne, see www.anl.gov. Availability of This Report This report is available, at no cost, at http://www.osti.gov/bridge. It is

  18. September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information September 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 200 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 103 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 76 Feed-pump

  19. September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information September 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 700 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 190 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results Portante, E.C.; Kavicky,

  20. April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information April 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 719 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 628 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 343 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and

  1. December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information December 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 740 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams, and results Portante, E.C.; Kavicky, J.A.; VanKuiken, J.C.; Peerenboom, J.P. (1997) 224 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb

  2. July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information July 2013 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 535 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 165 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 154 Load flow

  3. June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information June 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 118 Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 89 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 85 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and

  4. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 504 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 240 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 160 Load flow

  5. March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information March 2014 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 112 Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 83 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 68 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data, diagrams,

  6. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information 5 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 317 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 254 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 234 Load flow analysis: Base

  7. Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation and Distribution: December 2014

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation and Distribution: December 2014 Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 133 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook NETL (2004) 96 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 84 Load flow analysis: Base cases, data,

  8. Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation and Distribution: September 2014

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    | OSTI, US Dept of Energy Office of Scientific and Technical Information for Power Generation and Distribution: September 2014 Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and magnetic field levels Stoffel, J.B.; Pentecost, E.D.; Roman, R.D.; Traczyk, P.A. (1994) 96 ASPEN Plus Simulation of CO2 Recovery Process Charles W. White III (2003) 73 Wet cooling towers: rule-of-thumb design and simulation Leeper, S.A. (1981) 70 Seventh Edition Fuel Cell Handbook

  9. Nevada Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Nevada Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 656 782 801 2000's 876 863 851 1,689 2,256 2,224 2,737 2,976 3,013 2,921 2010's 2,992 4,161 6,256 4,954 4,912 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas Pipeline

  10. Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4,938 5,564 7,250 2000's 7,365 5,070 4,363 4,064 3,798 2,617 2,825 2,115 2,047 2,318 2010's 3,284 3,409 3,974 544 309 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural Gas

  11. Idaho Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Idaho Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5,186 5,496 4,512 2000's 5,939 6,556 5,970 4,538 5,763 5,339 6,507 7,542 6,869 7,031 2010's 7,679 5,201 5,730 5,940 3,867 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages: Natural

  12. District of Columbia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Cubic Feet) (Million Cubic Feet) District of Columbia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 246 256 244 2000's 243 236 242 470 466 487 464 238 203 177 2010's 213 1,703 1,068 1,434 1,305 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  13. Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broderick, Robert Joseph; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.; Smith, Jeff; Dugan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) projects must go through an interconnection study process before connecting to the distribution grid. These studies are intended to identify the likely impacts and mitigation alternatives. In the majority of the cases, system impacts can be ruled out or mitigation can be identified without an involved study, through a screening process or a simple supplemental review study. For some proposed projects, expensive and time-consuming interconnection studies are required. The challenges to performing the studies are twofold. First, every study scenario is potentially unique, as the studies are often highly specific to the amount of PV generation capacity that varies greatly from feeder to feeder and is often unevenly distributed along the same feeder. This can cause location-specific impacts and mitigations. The second challenge is the inherent variability in PV power output which can interact with feeder operation in complex ways, by affecting the operation of voltage regulation and protection devices. The typical simulation tools and methods in use today for distribution system planning are often not adequate to accurately assess these potential impacts. This report demonstrates how quasi-static time series (QSTS) simulation and high time-resolution data can be used to assess the potential impacts in a more comprehensive manner. The QSTS simulations are applied to a set of sample feeders with high PV deployment to illustrate the usefulness of the approach. The report describes methods that can help determine how PV affects distribution system operations. The simulation results are focused on enhancing the understanding of the underlying technical issues. The examples also highlight the steps needed to perform QSTS simulation and describe the data needed to drive the simulations. The goal of this report is to make the methodology of time series power flow analysis readily accessible to utilities and others responsible for evaluating

  14. Department of Energy power generation programs for natural gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bajura, R.A.

    1995-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is sponsoring two major programs to develop high efficiency, natural gas fueled power generation technologies. These programs are the Advanced Turbine Systems (ATS) Program and the Fuel Cell Program. While natural gas is gaining acceptance in the electric power sector, the improved technology from these programs will make gas an even more attractive fuel, particularly in urban areas where environmental concerns are greatest. Under the auspices of DOE`s Office of Fossil Energy (DOE/FE) and Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE/EE), the 8-year ATS Program is developing and will demonstrate advanced gas turbine power systems for both large central power systems and smaller industrial-scale systems. The large-scale systems will have efficiencies significantly greater than 60 percent, while the industrial-scale systems will have efficiencies with at least an equivalent 15 percent increase over the best 1992-vintage technology. The goal is to have the system ready for commercial offering by the year 2000.

  15. Fact #844: October 27, 2014 Electricity Generated from Coal has Declined while Generation from Natural Gas has Grown

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    From 2002 to 2012, most states have reduced their reliance on coal for electricity generation. The figure below shows the percent change in electricity generated by coal and natural gas for each...

  16. The Effect of Distributed Energy Resource Competition with Central Generation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadley, SW

    2003-12-10

    Distributed Energy Resource (DER) has been touted as a clean and efficient way to generate electricity at end-use sites, potentially allowing the exhaust heat to be put to good use as well. However, despite its environmental acceptability compared to many other types of generation, it has faced some disapproval because it may displace other, cleaner generation technologies. The end result could be more pollution than if the DER were not deployed. On the other hand, the DER may be competing against older power plants. If the DER is built then these other plants may be retired sooner, reducing their emissions. Or it may be that DER does not directly compete against either new or old plant capacity at the decision-maker level, and increased DER simply reduces the amount of time various plants operate. The key factor is what gets displaced if DER is added. For every kWh made by DER a kWh (or more with losses) of other production is not made. If enough DER is created, some power plants will get retired or not get built so not only their production but their capacity is displaced. Various characteristics of the power system in a region will influence how DER impacts the operation of the grid. The growth in demand in the region may influence whether new plants are postponed or old plants retired. The generation mix, including the fuel types, efficiencies, and emission characteristics of the plants in the region will factor into the overall competition. And public policies such as ease of new construction, emissions regulations, and fuel availability will also come into consideration.

  17. SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL HYBRID SYSTEM FOR DISTRIBUTED POWER GENERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurt Montgomery; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    This report summarizes the work performed by Honeywell during the October 2001 to December 2001 reporting period under Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-01NT40779 for the U. S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) entitled ''Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Hybrid System for Distributed Power Generation''. The main objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a highly efficient hybrid system integrating a planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) and a turbogenerator. The conceptual and demonstration system designs were proposed and analyzed, and these systems have been modeled in Aspen Plus. Work has also started on the assembly of dynamic component models and the development of the top-level controls requirements for the system. SOFC stacks have been fabricated and performance mapping initiated.

  18. Distributed generation capabilities of the national energy modeling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Marnay, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This report describes Berkeley Lab's exploration of how the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) models distributed generation (DG) and presents possible approaches for improving how DG is modeled. The on-site electric generation capability has been available since the AEO2000 version of NEMS. Berkeley Lab has previously completed research on distributed energy resources (DER) adoption at individual sites and has developed a DER Customer Adoption Model called DER-CAM. Given interest in this area, Berkeley Lab set out to understand how NEMS models small-scale on-site generation to assess how adequately DG is treated in NEMS, and to propose improvements or alternatives. The goal is to determine how well NEMS models the factors influencing DG adoption and to consider alternatives to the current approach. Most small-scale DG adoption takes place in the residential and commercial modules of NEMS. Investment in DG ultimately offsets purchases of electricity, which also eliminates the losses associated with transmission and distribution (T&D). If the DG technology that is chosen is photovoltaics (PV), NEMS assumes renewable energy consumption replaces the energy input to electric generators. If the DG technology is fuel consuming, consumption of fuel in the electric utility sector is replaced by residential or commercial fuel consumption. The waste heat generated from thermal technologies can be used to offset the water heating and space heating energy uses, but there is no thermally activated cooling capability. This study consists of a review of model documentation and a paper by EIA staff, a series of sensitivity runs performed by Berkeley Lab that exercise selected DG parameters in the AEO2002 version of NEMS, and a scoping effort of possible enhancements and alternatives to NEMS current DG capabilities. In general, the treatment of DG in NEMS is rudimentary. The penetration of DG is determined by an economic cash-flow analysis that determines adoption based on the

  19. A Model of U.S. Commercial Distributed Generation Adoption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaCommare, Kristina Hamachi; Ryan Firestone; Zhou, Nan; Maribu,Karl; Marnay, Chris

    2006-01-10

    Small-scale (100 kW-5 MW) on-site distributed generation (DG) economically driven by combined heat and power (CHP) applications and, in some cases, reliability concerns will likely emerge as a common feature of commercial building energy systems over the next two decades. Forecasts of DG adoption published by the Energy Information Administration (EIA) in the Annual Energy Outlook (AEO) are made using the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS), which has a forecasting module that predicts the penetration of several possible commercial building DG technologies over the period 2005-2025. NEMS is also used for estimating the future benefits of Department of Energy research and development used in support of budget requests and management decisionmaking. The NEMS approach to modeling DG has some limitations, including constraints on the amount of DG allowed for retrofits to existing buildings and a small number of possible sizes for each DG technology. An alternative approach called Commercial Sector Model (ComSeM) is developed to improve the way in which DG adoption is modeled. The approach incorporates load shapes for specific end uses in specific building types in specific regions, e.g., cooling in hospitals in Atlanta or space heating in Chicago offices. The Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM) uses these load profiles together with input cost and performance DG technology assumptions to model the potential DG adoption for four selected cities and two sizes of five building types in selected forecast years to 2022. The Distributed Energy Resources Market Diffusion Model (DER-MaDiM) is then used to then tailor the DER-CAM results to adoption projections for the entire U.S. commercial sector for all forecast years from 2007-2025. This process is conducted such that the structure of results are consistent with the structure of NEMS, and can be re-injected into NEMS that can then be used to integrate adoption results into a full forecast.

  20. Utah Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Utah Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2,935 2,788 2,561 2000's 2,674 4,161 5,984 7,347 8,278 8,859 11,156 11,970 11,532 10,239 2010's 10,347 11,374 12,902 13,441 14,061 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  1. Vermont Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Vermont Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 5.25 4.00 4.17 4.00 2.80 2.64 1990's 2.85 2.86 2.96 2.89 2.89 1.05 1.09 1.09 1.40 1.86 2000's 4.39 5.09 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  2. Virginia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7,387 6,856 8,005 2000's 7,975 7,542 7,851 6,854 5,452 4,954 5,412 6,905 8,461 8,829 2010's 10,091 13,957 9,443 8,475 7,424 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  3. Washington Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 8,836 9,087 7,645 2000's 6,036 9,053 6,356 6,527 8,822 8,174 6,554 7,402 6,605 7,497 2010's 7,587 6,644 9,184 10,144 8,933 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  4. West Virginia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) (Million Cubic Feet) West Virginia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 32,318 30,868 29,829 2000's 32,572 30,254 33,731 18,177 18,742 19,690 18,923 20,864 18,289 22,131 2010's 21,589 21,447 31,913 29,578 29,160 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date:

  5. Wisconsin Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Wisconsin Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4,544 4,284 4,151 2000's 4,058 2,869 3,812 3,526 3,302 3,700 3,109 2,851 2,654 1,648 2010's 2,973 2,606 1,780 2,803 3,629 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  6. Indiana Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10,773 7,327 7,274 2000's 5,617 6,979 5,229 6,647 6,842 6,599 6,313 7,039 7,060 6,597 2010's 8,679 10,259 7,206 7,428 7,025 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  7. Kansas Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 39,109 32,902 31,753 2000's 29,330 25,606 36,127 33,343 28,608 28,752 25,050 24,773 23,589 26,479 2010's 24,305 23,225 19,842 22,586 22,588 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  8. Kentucky Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 22,854 15,750 16,632 2000's 13,826 14,912 11,993 14,279 10,143 8,254 6,510 11,885 12,957 12,558 2010's 13,708 12,451 8,604 7,157 8,426 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  9. Louisiana Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 71,523 60,400 48,214 2000's 50,647 48,257 50,711 47,019 44,963 41,812 47,979 52,244 53,412 49,937 2010's 46,892 51,897 49,235 36,737 45,762 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  10. Michigan Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 23,776 20,733 22,355 2000's 26,359 22,036 26,685 27,129 27,198 27,742 25,532 25,961 23,518 23,468 2010's 24,904 23,537 20,496 18,713 19,347 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  11. Mississippi Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 44,979 36,329 31,594 2000's 30,895 30,267 26,997 26,003 21,869 21,496 22,131 27,316 28,677 28,951 2010's 28,117 28,828 48,497 23,667 19,787 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  12. Missouri Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7,456 5,495 6,744 2000's 7,558 1,918 2,555 3,003 3,237 2,556 2,407 2,711 7,211 3,892 2010's 5,820 7,049 4,973 5,626 6,184 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  13. Wyoming Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 10,461 11,535 13,736 2000's 14,092 13,161 13,103 14,312 12,545 14,143 13,847 14,633 17,090 19,446 2010's 20,807 17,898 16,660 15,283 14,990 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  14. Nebraska Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 4,084 2,853 2,922 2000's 3,140 3,021 2,611 5,316 3,983 4,432 4,507 5,373 9,924 6,954 2010's 7,329 9,270 7,602 6,949 7,066 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  15. Nevada Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Nevada Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.46 1980's 3.26 3.73 4.32 4.53 4.35 3.88 3.20 2.16 2.14 2.14 1990's 1.70 1.74 1.77 1.79 1.87 1.79 1.35 2.09 1.98 2.22 2000's 3.65 3.66 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  16. Ohio Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Ohio Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 19,453 17,641 17,441 2000's 18,490 15,502 16,215 14,872 12,757 13,356 12,233 13,740 11,219 16,575 2010's 15,816 14,258 9,559 10,035 12,661 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  17. Oklahoma Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 26,130 24,242 23,833 2000's 21,001 23,537 23,340 30,396 30,370 31,444 31,333 28,463 27,581 28,876 2010's 30,611 30,948 32,838 41,813 45,391 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  18. Oregon Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12,481 13,345 10,242 2000's 11,775 10,990 9,117 7,098 9,707 7,264 8,238 9,532 7,354 8,073 2010's 6,394 5,044 4,554 4,098 3,686 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  19. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 39,173 32,532 36,597 2000's 38,486 33,013 37,143 33,556 28,989 30,669 27,406 34,849 37,223 41,417 2010's 47,470 51,220 37,176 37,825 36,323 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  20. Alabama Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 20,689 19,948 22,109 2000's 22,626 19,978 21,760 18,917 15,911 14,982 14,879 15,690 16,413 18,849 2010's 22,124 23,091 25,349 22,166 18,688 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  1. Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Alaska Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 0.26 0.27 0.28 0.28 0.30 0.35 0.57 0.58 0.50 0.14 1980's 0.73 1.13 0.60 0.86 0.61 0.63 0.61 0.65 1.01 1.13 1990's 1.08 1.32 1.12 1.11 1.11 1.24 1.17 1.34 1.23 0.82 2000's 1.34 1.84 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W =

  2. Arizona Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 18,597 19,585 18,570 2000's 20,657 22,158 20,183 18,183 15,850 17,558 20,617 20,397 22,207 20,846 2010's 15,447 13,158 12,372 12,619 13,484 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  3. Arkansas Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 11,591 10,192 8,979 2000's 8,749 8,676 7,854 8,369 7,791 8,943 10,630 10,235 9,927 9,125 2010's 9,544 11,286 10,606 11,437 11,580 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  4. California Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 22,493 8,587 9,341 2000's 9,698 10,913 9,610 8,670 12,969 10,775 7,023 8,994 7,744 6,386 2010's 9,741 10,276 12,906 10,471 22,897 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  5. Colorado Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 12,371 9,240 8,380 2000's 9,282 10,187 10,912 9,647 10,213 13,305 12,945 13,850 15,906 17,065 2010's 14,095 13,952 10,797 9,107 8,451 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  6. Connecticut Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2,492 833 2,943 2000's 3,020 2,948 2,515 3,382 3,383 3,327 3,178 4,361 4,225 5,831 2010's 6,739 6,302 4,747 4,381 4,698 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  7. Delaware Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Delaware Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2.00 1.33 1980's 3.67 3.68 3.91 3.80 4.00 3.75 2.71 2.95 3.10 1990's 3.10 2.88 3.01 3.19 3.02 3.02 3.51 2.98 2.40 2.22 2000's 4.29 3.58 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  8. District of Columbia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) District of Columbia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3.94 4.73 4.37 4.16 3.61 3.02 2.94 3.03 1990's 2.99 2.78 2.95 2.58 2.13 1.97 3.02 2.97 2.52 2.39 2000's 4.63 5.36 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual

  9. Florida Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5,644 3,830 6,822 2000's 7,087 6,531 11,096 9,562 10,572 9,370 11,942 10,092 9,547 10,374 2010's 22,798 13,546 16,359 12,494 3,468 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  10. Georgia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Georgia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 7,973 7,606 8,846 2000's 5,636 7,411 7,979 7,268 6,235 5,708 6,092 5,188 5,986 6,717 2010's 8,473 10,432 10,509 7,973 6,977 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring Pages:

  11. South Carolina Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Feet) (Million Cubic Feet) South Carolina Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 2,940 3,163 3,589 2000's 3,461 2,919 3,156 2,807 2,503 2,427 2,292 2,609 2,604 2,847 2010's 3,452 3,408 3,416 2,529 2,409 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  12. Tennessee Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 22,559 16,440 15,208 2000's 13,808 13,757 11,480 12,785 10,486 9,182 8,696 9,988 10,238 11,720 2010's 10,081 11,655 9,880 6,660 5,913 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016 Referring

  13. Texas Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    (Million Cubic Feet) Texas Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 82,115 65,800 70,397 2000's 62,014 69,598 88,973 56,197 55,587 81,263 85,262 89,666 109,488 117,219 2010's 79,817 85,549 138,429 294,316 274,451 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 8/31/2016 Next Release Date: 9/30/2016

  14. Illinois Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Illinois Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.21 0.20 0.20 1970's 0.21 0.22 0.23 0.27 0.29 0.54 0.58 0.83 0.98 1.11 1980's 1.78 2.12 2.56 3.07 2.88 2.97 2.73 2.68 2.53 2.17 1990's 2.06 2.29 2.44 1.97 1.88 1.66 2.63 2.68 2.27 2.48 2000's 3.12 3.94 NA -- -- -- - = No Data

  15. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Issues That May Impede Its Expansion | Department of Energy The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation and the Rate-Related Issues That May Impede Its Expansion. Report Pursuant to Section 1817 of the Energy Policy Act of 2005. The Potential Benefits of Distributed Generation

  16. NREL: Energy Analysis - Natural Gas-Fired Generation Results - Life Cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Assessment Harmonization Natural Gas-Fired Generation Results - Life Cycle Assessment Harmonization Over the last 30 years, researchers have conducted hundreds of life cycle assessments of environmental impacts associated with natural gas-fired electricity generation technologies. These life cycle assessments have shown wide-ranging results. To better understand the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from utility-scale, natural gas-fired electricity generation systems (based on natural gas-fired

  17. Fuel cell power plants in a distributed generator application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, M.J.

    1996-12-31

    ONSI`s (a subsidiary of International Fuel Cells Corporation) world wide fleet of 200-kW PC25{trademark} phosphoric acid fuel cell power plants which began operation early in 1992 has shown excellent performance and reliability in over 1 million hours of operation. This experience has verified the clean, quiet, reliable operation of the PC25 and confirmed its application as a distributed generator. Continuing product development efforts have resulted in a one third reduction of weight and volume as well as improved installation and operating characteristics for the PC25 C model. Delivery of this unit began in 1995. International Fuel Cells (IFC) continues its efforts to improve product design and manufacturing processes. This progress has been sustained at a compounded rate of 10 percent per year since the late 1980`s. These improvements will permit further reductions in the initial cost of the power plant and place increased emphasis on market development as the pacing item in achieving business benefits from the PC25 fuel cell. Derivative product opportunities are evolving with maturation of the technologies in a commercial environment. The recent announcement of Praxair, Inc., and IFC introducing a non-cryogenic hydrogen supply system utilizing IFC`s steam reformer is an example. 11 figs.

  18. GREENHOUSE GAS REDUCTION POTENTIAL WITH COMBINED HEAT AND POWER WITH DISTRIBUTED GENERATION PRIME MOVERS - ASME 2012

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curran, Scott; Theiss, Timothy J; Bunce, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Pending or recently enacted greenhouse gas regulations and mandates are leading to the need for current and feasible GHG reduction solutions including combined heat and power (CHP). Distributed generation using advanced reciprocating engines, gas turbines, microturbines and fuel cells has been shown to reduce greenhouse gases (GHG) compared to the U.S. electrical generation mix due to the use of natural gas and high electrical generation efficiencies of these prime movers. Many of these prime movers are also well suited for use in CHP systems which recover heat generated during combustion or energy conversion. CHP increases the total efficiency of the prime mover by recovering waste heat for generating electricity, replacing process steam, hot water for buildings or even cooling via absorption chilling. The increased efficiency of CHP systems further reduces GHG emissions compared to systems which do not recover waste thermal energy. Current GHG mandates within the U.S Federal sector and looming GHG legislation for states puts an emphasis on understanding the GHG reduction potential of such systems. This study compares the GHG savings from various state-of-the- art prime movers. GHG reductions from commercially available prime movers in the 1-5 MW class including, various industrial fuel cells, large and small gas turbines, micro turbines and reciprocating gas engines with and without CHP are compared to centralized electricity generation including the U.S. mix and the best available technology with natural gas combined cycle power plants. The findings show significant GHG saving potential with the use of CHP. Also provided is an exploration of the accounting methodology for GHG reductions with CHP and the sensitivity of such analyses to electrical generation efficiency, emissions factors and most importantly recoverable heat and thermal recovery efficiency from the CHP system.

  19. Virginia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Virginia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.20 0.20 0.20 1970's 0.20 0.22 0.27 0.28 0.31 0.38 0.53 0.81 1.49 1.40 1980's 2.09 2.81 3.33 3.59 3.49 3.35 3.37 2.68 2.59 2.63 1990's 2.05 1.86 1.93 2.27 2.14 1.83 2.60 3.22 2.59 2.20 2000's 2.66 5.05 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  20. Washington Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Washington Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.22 0.21 0.22 1970's 0.22 0.24 0.28 0.33 0.44 0.65 0.78 1.67 1.92 2.38 1980's 3.92 4.34 4.72 3.98 3.72 3.12 2.52 2.11 1.99 2.06 1990's 2.04 1.98 1.89 1.37 1.84 1.78 1.77 1.89 1.76 2.03 2000's 3.07 2.82 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  1. Wisconsin Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Wisconsin Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.26 0.23 0.23 1970's 0.25 0.25 0.26 0.27 0.30 0.44 0.54 1.74 2.09 1.61 1980's 4.50 2.83 3.53 3.52 3.52 3.30 2.79 2.29 2.12 2.04 1990's 2.14 1.31 1.26 0.96 1.36 0.36 1.20 1.16 0.95 2.56 2000's 3.32 3.67 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  2. Indiana Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Indiana Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.20 0.21 0.21 1970's 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.27 0.28 0.38 0.45 0.81 0.86 1.21 1980's 1.73 2.18 2.91 3.21 3.02 3.11 2.78 2.52 2.69 2.17 1990's 2.17 2.46 2.51 1.38 1.03 1.05 2.47 2.58 2.27 2.16 2000's 3.69 4.18 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  3. Kansas Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Kansas Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.16 0.17 0.17 1970's 0.18 0.19 0.23 0.24 0.27 0.33 0.41 0.51 0.61 1.14 1980's 1.57 1.95 2.45 2.76 2.71 2.55 2.29 2.05 2.14 1.80 1990's 1.59 1.69 5.24 1.56 1.20 1.15 1.83 1.81 1.39 1.65 2000's 2.57 3.01 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  4. Kentucky Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Kentucky Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.33 0.27 0.23 1970's 0.20 0.22 0.24 0.25 0.29 0.37 0.48 0.60 0.57 1.26 1980's 1.67 2.18 2.85 3.05 2.93 2.89 2.44 1.97 1.77 2.00 1990's 2.12 2.35 2.51 2.67 1.95 1.83 2.63 2.51 2.45 2.11 2000's 3.27 3.96 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  5. Louisiana Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Louisiana Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.19 0.19 0.05 1970's 0.20 0.21 0.23 0.24 0.28 0.39 0.50 0.81 0.96 1.30 1980's 1.81 2.36 2.91 3.13 3.00 2.90 2.48 1.97 1.96 2.07 1990's 1.98 2.25 2.25 2.40 1.44 1.61 2.58 2.59 2.22 1.98 2000's 3.10 3.76 NA -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  6. Maryland Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Maryland Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.20 0.19 0.19 1970's 0.19 0.22 0.24 0.25 0.27 0.38 0.50 0.69 0.84 1.25 1980's 2.41 2.74 3.08 3.28 3.29 3.17 3.19 2.37 2.27 2.72 1990's 2.15 1.94 1.94 2.08 2.01 1.81 2.48 2.98 2.41 2.30 2000's 3.30 4.75 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  7. Massachusetts Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Massachusetts Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.23 0.26 0.25 1970's 0.32 0.36 0.37 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.62 0.68 0.94 1.24 1980's 1.65 2.30 4.29 4.11 3.36 3.60 3.22 2.14 2.46 2.71 1990's 2.67 2.79 2.91 2.71 2.13 2.00 2.74 2.67 2.27 1.86 2000's 2.14 3.06 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  8. Michigan Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Michigan Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.27 0.27 0.27 1970's 0.27 0.28 0.29 0.35 0.46 0.56 0.71 0.98 1.67 1.60 1980's 2.98 3.73 3.63 3.86 3.95 3.54 2.95 2.64 2.39 2.03 1990's 1.86 0.50 0.57 0.26 0.20 0.54 1.04 0.95 0.69 0.78 2000's 1.32 1.76 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  9. Mississippi Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Mississippi Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.19 0.20 0.19 1970's 0.20 0.21 0.23 0.24 0.28 0.36 0.46 0.73 0.88 1.28 1980's 1.75 2.34 2.91 3.06 2.94 2.92 2.44 1.99 1.87 2.09 1990's 2.11 2.33 2.34 2.37 1.98 1.82 2.63 2.62 2.33 2.19 2000's 3.37 4.28 NA -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  10. Missouri Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Missouri Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.20 0.20 0.20 1970's 0.21 0.23 0.25 0.26 0.29 0.39 0.48 0.80 0.87 1.20 1980's 1.71 2.12 2.81 3.04 2.92 2.86 2.61 2.41 2.78 1.94 1990's 1.77 2.05 2.31 2.01 0.91 1.19 2.34 2.43 2.02 2.14 2000's 2.48 4.86 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  11. Montana Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Montana Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.12 0.11 0.11 1970's 0.11 0.12 0.17 0.21 0.23 0.42 0.46 0.73 0.83 1.16 1980's 1.29 1.90 2.87 3.00 3.04 2.51 2.28 1.86 1.65 1.57 1990's 1.75 1.76 1.63 2.15 1.53 1.16 1.44 1.77 1.72 2.12 2000's 2.96 2.48 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  12. Wyoming Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Wyoming Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.14 0.16 0.16 1970's 0.17 0.17 0.18 0.24 0.24 0.51 0.65 0.69 1.36 1.59 1980's 2.05 2.51 2.91 3.05 2.99 2.76 2.56 2.36 2.06 1.88 1990's 1.95 1.85 2.48 1.92 1.52 1.31 1.54 1.84 1.86 1.87 2000's 3.21 3.04 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  13. Nebraska Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Nebraska Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.14 0.15 0.15 1970's 0.16 0.16 0.18 0.19 0.24 0.32 0.42 0.57 0.73 1.10 1980's 1.36 1.81 2.35 2.56 2.55 2.51 2.40 2.20 1.77 1.86 1990's 1.70 1.43 1.54 1.79 1.34 1.33 2.10 2.54 2.01 1.96 2000's 2.81 3.56 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  14. Oklahoma Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.15 0.15 1.65 1970's 0.18 0.18 0.19 0.22 0.26 0.27 0.36 0.58 0.66 0.99 1980's 1.45 1.83 2.53 2.75 2.71 2.48 2.30 2.06 2.10 1.83 1990's 1.85 1.62 1.79 1.72 1.64 1.36 2.12 2.34 1.90 2.04 2000's 3.49 3.21 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  15. Oregon Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Oregon Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.22 0.21 0.22 1970's 0.22 0.32 0.28 0.35 0.47 0.61 0.82 1.77 1.98 2.53 1980's 4.41 4.75 4.90 4.19 3.90 3.13 2.35 2.00 1.90 2.09 1990's 2.16 2.32 2.16 1.71 1.86 1.77 1.77 1.80 1.84 1.98 2000's 2.74 2.91 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  16. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.25 0.24 0.24 1970's 0.25 0.29 0.31 0.32 0.40 0.54 0.60 0.92 0.94 1.42 1980's 1.89 2.34 3.02 3.20 3.09 3.06 2.63 2.38 2.36 2.35 1990's 2.57 2.41 2.41 2.83 2.47 2.00 2.71 2.72 2.08 1.97 2000's 3.59 4.76 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  17. Alabama Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Alabama Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.19 0.20 0.20 1970's 0.20 0.22 0.23 0.26 0.29 0.32 0.47 0.72 1.10 1.32 1980's 1.84 2.59 3.00 3.10 3.15 3.12 3.11 2.37 2.30 2.60 1990's 2.17 3.02 2.24 2.34 2.13 1.93 2.63 2.95 2.55 2.21 2000's 3.13 4.90 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  18. Arizona Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Arizona Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.15 0.15 0.15 1970's 0.17 0.17 0.19 0.22 0.28 0.36 0.44 0.64 0.75 1.29 1980's 1.62 2.22 2.86 3.16 2.83 2.79 2.22 1.49 1.79 1.50 1990's 1.65 1.26 1.25 1.68 1.28 1.19 1.80 2.20 1.90 2.08 2000's 3.61 3.96 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  19. Arkansas Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Arkansas Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.18 0.18 0.18 1970's 0.19 0.22 0.24 0.26 0.30 0.43 0.52 0.71 0.86 1.12 1980's 1.78 2.12 2.63 2.94 2.97 2.78 2.46 2.64 2.07 2.30 1990's 2.17 2.06 1.78 1.64 1.61 1.45 2.41 2.42 1.58 1.38 2000's 2.41 4.09 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  20. California Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) California Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.25 0.24 0.30 1970's 0.29 0.35 0.35 0.39 0.45 0.47 0.69 0.73 0.85 1.75 1980's 2.16 2.90 3.30 4.14 4.13 3.70 3.56 3.02 2.55 2.39 1990's 2.40 2.19 1.40 0.53 0.33 1.01 1.63 1.47 1.93 2.08 2000's 3.62 4.70 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  1. Colorado Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Colorado Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.17 0.17 0.17 1970's 0.18 0.19 0.21 0.22 0.27 0.49 0.72 1.00 1.31 1.53 1980's 2.17 2.58 2.78 2.78 2.81 2.62 2.71 2.57 2.24 1.75 1990's 1.75 1.79 1.89 1.86 1.78 1.45 1.97 2.44 1.98 1.66 2000's 3.89 3.86 NA -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  2. Connecticut Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Connecticut Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.35 0.68 0.30 1970's 0.32 0.32 0.35 0.40 0.50 0.58 0.59 1.50 2.60 2.53 1980's 2.76 2.94 3.53 3.30 3.18 3.71 2.53 2.52 2.13 2.97 1990's 3.68 3.08 2.95 3.53 2.62 2.20 3.50 1.54 3.00 0.59 2000's 4.82 4.93 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  3. Florida Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Florida Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.19 0.18 0.20 1970's 1.98 0.21 0.24 0.30 0.34 0.36 0.49 0.72 0.85 1.35 1980's 1.77 2.38 2.58 2.65 2.90 2.80 1.79 2.11 1.85 2.00 1990's 2.17 2.11 2.06 2.85 1.50 1.55 2.37 2.38 2.38 2.33 2000's 3.81 3.45 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  4. Georgia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Georgia Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.19 0.19 0.19 1970's 0.20 0.22 0.23 0.25 0.28 0.32 0.36 0.67 0.90 1.35 1980's 2.10 2.78 3.11 3.22 3.26 3.23 3.32 2.50 2.41 2.69 1990's 2.19 2.08 2.08 2.24 2.14 1.93 2.62 3.09 2.48 2.18 2000's 3.30 4.57 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA

  5. Tennessee Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Thousand Cubic Feet) Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Tennessee Natural Gas Pipeline and Distribution Use Price (Dollars per Thousand Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1960's 0.20 0.20 0.20 1970's 0.20 0.22 0.23 0.24 0.28 0.36 0.49 0.73 0.89 1.26 1980's 1.73 2.25 2.96 3.19 2.94 3.01 2.29 1.85 1.78 1.97 1990's 1.94 2.61 2.44 2.23 1.88 1.59 2.57 2.52 2.17 2.04 2000's 3.44 4.13 NA -- -- -- - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable;

  6. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy

    2009-08-15

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBL) is working with the California Energy Commission (CEC) to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions. The impact of DG on large industrial sites is well known, and mostly, the potentials are already harvested. In contrast, little is known about the impact of DG on commercial buildings with peak electric loads ranging from 100 kW to 5 MW. We examine how DG with combined heat and power (CHP) may be implemented within the context of a cost minimizing microgrid that is able to adopt and operate various smart energy technologies, such as thermal and photovoltaic (PV) on-site generation, heat exchangers, solar thermal collectors, absorption chillers, and storage systems. We use a mixed-integer linear program (MILP) that has the minimization of a site's annual energy costs as objective. Using 138 representative commercial sites in California (CA) with existing tariff rates and technology data, we find the greenhouse gas reduction potential for California's commercial sector. This paper shows results from the ongoing research project and finished work from a two year U.S. Department of Energy research project. To show the impact of the different technologies on CO2 emissions, several sensitivity runs for different climate zones within CA with different technology performance expectations for 2020 were performed. The considered sites can contribute between 1 Mt/a and 1.8 Mt/a to the California Air Resources Board (CARB) goal of 6.7Mt/a CO2 abatement potential in 2020. Also, with lower PV and storage costs as well as consideration of a CO2 pricing scheme, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption can compete rather than supplement each other when the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply have been taken into consideration. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries will be charged also by CHP systems during off-peak and mid-peak hours and

  7. Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program Phase I: Clean Air...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AIR PARTNERS; EXHAUST GAS RECIRCULATION; EGR; NOX; NGNGV; ACCOLD; PACCOLD; NATURAL GAS; LNG; DUAL-FUEL; Transportation Word Cloud More Like This Full Text preview image File size ...

  8. ARPA-E Announces $30 Million for Distributed Generation Technologies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    REBELS Program Aims to Develop Innovative Intermediate-Temperature Fuel Cells for Low-Cost Stationary Power Generation

  9. Method and apparatus for anti-islanding protection of distributed generations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ye, Zhihong; John, Vinod; Wang, Changyong; Garces, Luis Jose; Zhou, Rui; Li, Lei; Walling, Reigh Allen; Premerlani, William James; Sanza, Peter Claudius; Liu, Yan; Dame, Mark Edward

    2006-03-21

    An apparatus for anti-islanding protection of a distributed generation with respect to a feeder connected to an electrical grid is disclosed. The apparatus includes a sensor adapted to generate a voltage signal representative of an output voltage and/or a current signal representative of an output current at the distributed generation, and a controller responsive to the signals from the sensor. The controller is productive of a control signal directed to the distributed generation to drive an operating characteristic of the distributed generation out of a nominal range in response to the electrical grid being disconnected from the feeder.

  10. Next Generation * Natural Gas (NG)2 Information Requirements--Executive Summary

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    The Energy Information Administration (EIA) has initiated the Next Generation * Natural Gas (NG)2 project to design and implement a new and comprehensive information program for natural gas to meet customer requirements in the post-2000 time frame.

  11. Distributed Generation Study/Floyd Bennett | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Microturbine Prime Mover Capstone C60 Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Montreal Construction System Enclosure Outdoor System...

  12. Distributed Generation Study/Dakota Station (Minnegasco) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Study Technology Microturbine Prime Mover Capstone C30 Heat Recovery Systems Unifin Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Capstone Turbine Corp System Enclosure Outdoor System...

  13. Distributed Generation Study/Harbec Plastics | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Microturbine Prime Mover Capstone C30 Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Northern Development System Enclosure Indoor System...

  14. Distributed Generation Study/Elgin Community College | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prime Mover Waukesha VHP5108GL Heat Recovery Systems Beaird Maxim Model TRP-12 Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Morse Electric Company System Enclosure Indoor System...

  15. Distributed Generation Study/SUNY Buffalo | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Microturbine Prime Mover Capstone C60 Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Gerster Trane System Enclosure Outdoor System Application...

  16. Distributed Generation Study/Sea Rise 2 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Engine Prime Mover Coast Intelligen CI60 Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Grenadier Realty System Enclosure Indoor System Application...

  17. Distributed Generation Study/Hudson Valley Community College...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    G3516, Caterpillar DM5498, Caterpillar DM7915 Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Siemens Building Technologies System Enclosure Dedicated Shelter...

  18. Distributed Generation Study/Tudor Gardens | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Combustion Engine Prime Mover Tecogen CM-75 Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Aegis Energy System Enclosure Indoor System Application Combined...

  19. Distributed Generation Study/Sea Rise 1 | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Engine Prime Mover Coast Intelligen CI60 Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Grenadier Realty System Enclosure Indoor System Application...

  20. Distributed Generation Study/Wyoming County Community Hospital...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Combustion Engine Prime Mover Waukesha VGF L36GSID Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Gerster Trane System Enclosure Indoor System Application...

  1. Distributed Generation Study/Waldbaums Supermarket | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Microturbine Prime Mover Capstone C60 Heat Recovery Systems Unifin HX Fuel Natural Gas System Installer CDH Energy Corp. System Enclosure Outdoor System Application...

  2. Distributed Generation Study/Arrow Linen | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Prime Mover Coast Intelligen 150-IC with ECS Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Energy Concepts System Enclosure Outdoor System Application...

  3. Distributed Generation Study/Oakwood Health Care Center | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Combustion Engine Prime Mover Waukesha VGF 18GLD Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Gerster Trane System Enclosure Indoor System Application...

  4. Distributed Generation Study/VIP Country Club | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Technology Microturbine Prime Mover Capstone C60 Heat Recovery Systems Built-in Fuel Natural Gas System Installer Advanced Power Systems System Enclosure Indoor System...

  5. June 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and ... B.J. (2003) 77 Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: ...

  6. Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation and Distribution:...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and ... S.A. (1981) 60 Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: ...

  7. March 2015 Most Viewed Documents for Power Generation And Distribution...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric power high-voltage transmission lines: Design options, cost, and electric and ... D.R. (1997) 67 Load Modeling and State Estimation Methods for Power Distribution Systems: ...

  8. Future of Distributed Generation and IEEE 1547 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Preus, R.

    2014-06-01

    This presentation discusses the background on IEEE 1547, including its purpose, changes, new boundary issues and requirements, islanding issues, and how it impacts distributed wind.

  9. Distributed Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas: Independent Review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fletcher, J.; Callaghan, V.

    2006-10-01

    Independent review report on the available information concerning the technologies needed for forecourts producing 150 kg/day of hydrogen from natural gas.

  10. Distributed Hydrogen Production from Natural Gas: Independent Review Panel Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Independent review report on the available information concerning the technologies needed for forecourts producing 150 kg/day of hydrogen from natural gas.