National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for distorted metal oxides

  1. Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print Wednesday, 28 February 2007 00:00 "Ferroelectricity," by analogy to ferromagnetism, is defined as the presence of spontaneous electrical polarization in a material, often arising from distortions in the material's crystal structure. In oxides of the metals lead and bismuth, such distortions were for many years attributed to the existence of

  2. Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print "Ferroelectricity," by analogy to ferromagnetism, is defined as the presence of spontaneous electrical polarization in a material, often arising from distortions in the material's crystal structure. In oxides of the metals lead and bismuth, such distortions were for many years attributed to the existence of "lone pair" electrons: pairs of chemically inert, nonbonding valence electrons in hybrid orbitals

  3. Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides Print "Ferroelectricity," by analogy to ferromagnetism, is defined as the presence of spontaneous electrical polarization in a material, often arising from distortions in the material's crystal structure. In oxides of the metals lead and bismuth, such distortions were for many years attributed to the existence of "lone pair" electrons: pairs of chemically inert, nonbonding valence electrons in hybrid orbitals

  4. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Xin D. (Los Alamos, NM); Tiwari, Prabhat (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  5. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

  6. Metal atom oxidation laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides.

  7. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Smart, Neil G.; Phelps, Cindy

    1997-01-01

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of .beta.-diketones, halogenated .beta.-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  8. Extracting metals directly from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, C.M.; Smart, N.G.; Phelps, C.

    1997-02-25

    A method of extracting metals directly from metal oxides by exposing the oxide to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. Preferably, the metal is an actinide or a lanthanide. More preferably, the metal is uranium, thorium or plutonium. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid, thereby allowing direct removal of the metal from the metal oxide. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is selected from the group consisting of {beta}-diketones, halogenated {beta}-diketones, phosphinic acids, halogenated phosphinic acids, carboxylic acids, halogenated carboxylic acids, and mixtures thereof. In especially preferred embodiments, at least one of the chelating agents is fluorinated. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing metals from metal oxides without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the metal recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process. 4 figs.

  9. Method of producing homogeneous mixed metal oxides and metal-metal oxide mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Quinby, Thomas C.

    1978-01-01

    Metal powders, metal oxide powders, and mixtures thereof of controlled particle size are provided by reacting an aqueous solution containing dissolved metal values with excess urea. Upon heating, urea reacts with water from the solution leaving a molten urea solution containing the metal values. The molten urea solution is heated to above about 180.degree. C. whereupon metal values precipitate homogeneously as a powder. The powder is reduced to metal or calcined to form oxide particles. One or more metal oxides in a mixture can be selectively reduced to produce metal particles or a mixture of metal and metal oxide particles.

  10. Thin film hydrous metal oxide catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Stephens, Howard P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    Thin film (<100 nm) hydrous metal oxide catalysts are prepared by 1) synthesis of a hydrous metal oxide, 2) deposition of the hydrous metal oxide upon an inert support surface, 3) ion exchange with catalytically active metals, and 4) activating the hydrous metal oxide catalysts.

  11. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dillon, A. C.; Riley, L. A.; Lee, S.-H.; Kim, Y.-H.; Ban, C.; Gillaspie, D. T.; Pesaran, A.

    2009-05-01

    This summarizes NREL's FY09 battery materials research activity in developing metal oxide nanostructured anodes to enable high-energy, durable and affordable li-ion batteries for HEVs and PHEVs.

  12. METAL OXIDE NANOPARTICLES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    FERNANDEZ-GARCIA,M.; RODGRIGUEZ, J.A.

    2007-10-01

    This chapter covers the fundamental science, synthesis, characterization, physicochemical properties and applications of oxide nanomaterials. Explains fundamental aspects that determine the growth and behavior of these systems, briefly examines synthetic procedures using bottom-up and top-down fabrication technologies, discusses the sophisticated experimental techniques and state of the art theory results used to characterize the physico-chemical properties of oxide solids and describe the current knowledge concerning key oxide materials with important technological applications.

  13. Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lao, Jing Yu; Banerjee, Debasish

    2007-11-13

    The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

  14. Lithium metal reduction of plutonium oxide to produce plutonium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coops, Melvin S.

    1992-01-01

    A method is described for the chemical reduction of plutonium oxides to plutonium metal by the use of pure lithium metal. Lithium metal is used to reduce plutonium oxide to alpha plutonium metal (alpha-Pu). The lithium oxide by-product is reclaimed by sublimation and converted to the chloride salt, and after electrolysis, is removed as lithium metal. Zinc may be used as a solvent metal to improve thermodynamics of the reduction reaction at lower temperatures. Lithium metal reduction enables plutonium oxide reduction without the production of huge quantities of CaO--CaCl.sub.2 residues normally produced in conventional direct oxide reduction processes.

  15. Synthesis of Metal-Metal Oxide Catalysts and Electrocatalysts...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Synthesis of Metal-Metal Oxide Catalysts and Electrocatalysts Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication...

  16. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L. (Centerville, OH); Martin, Frank S. (Farmersville, OH)

    1994-08-23

    A method of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate.

  17. Method for plating with metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-08-23

    A method is disclosed of plating hydrous metal oxides on at least one substrate, which method is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrate, and comprises reacting metallic ions in aqueous solution with an appropriate oxidizing agent such as sodium hypochlorite or calcium sulfite with oxygen under suitable conditions of pH and concentration such that oxidation and precipitation of metal oxide are sufficiently slow to allow satisfactory plating of metal oxide on the substrate. 1 fig.

  18. Preparation of uniform nanoparticles of ultra-high purity metal oxides, mixed metal oxides, metals, and metal alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Woodfield, Brian F.; Liu, Shengfeng; Boerio-Goates, Juliana; Liu, Qingyuan; Smith, Stacey Janel

    2012-07-03

    In preferred embodiments, metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal (alloy) nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal oxide nanoparticles are provided. According to embodiments, the nanoparticles may possess narrow size distributions and high purities. In certain preferred embodiments, methods of preparing metal nanoparticles, mixed-metal nanoparticles, metal oxide nanoparticles and mixed-metal nanoparticles are provided. These methods may provide tight control of particle size, size distribution, and oxidation state. Other preferred embodiments relate to a precursor material that may be used to form nanoparticles. In addition, products prepared from such nanoparticles are disclosed.

  19. Nanostructured transition metal oxides useful for water oxidation catalysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Frei, Heinz M; Jiao, Feng

    2013-12-24

    The present invention provides for a composition comprising a nanostructured transition metal oxide capable of oxidizing two H.sub.2O molecules to obtain four protons. In some embodiments of the invention, the composition further comprises a porous matrix wherein the nanocluster of the transition metal oxide is embedded on and/or in the porous matrix.

  20. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-12-13

    A method is described for depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates. 1 figure.

  1. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Silver, Gary L.; Martin, Frank S.

    1994-12-13

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  2. Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Mendoza, Daniel; Chen, Chun-Ku

    2008-04-15

    Method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone into metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and into the cooler plasma afterglow where it oxidizes, cools and condenses to form solid metal oxide nanoparticles.

  3. Metal oxide composite dosimeter method and material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Steven D.

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a method of measuring a radiation dose wherein a radiation responsive material consisting essentially of metal oxide is first exposed to ionizing radiation. The metal oxide is then stimulating with light thereby causing the radiation responsive material to photoluminesce. Photons emitted from the metal oxide as a result of photoluminescence may be counted to provide a measure of the ionizing radiation.

  4. Reduction of Metal Oxide to Metal using Ionic Liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Ramana Reddy

    2012-04-12

    A novel pathway for the high efficiency production of metal from metal oxide means of electrolysis in ionic liquids at low temperature was investigated. The main emphasis was to eliminate the use of carbon and high temperature application in the reduction of metal oxides to metals. The emphasis of this research was to produce metals such as Zn, and Pb that are normally produced by the application of very high temperatures. The reduction of zinc oxide to zinc and lead oxide to lead were investigated. This study involved three steps in accomplishing the final goal of reduction of metal oxide to metal using ionic liquids: 1) Dissolution of metal oxide in an ionic liquid, 2) Determination of reduction potential using cyclic voltammetry (CV) and 3) Reduction of the dissolved metal oxide. Ionic liquids provide additional advantage by offering a wide potential range for the deposition. In each and every step of the process, more than one process variable has been examined. Experimental results for electrochemical extraction of Zn from ZnO and Pb from PbO using eutectic mixtures of Urea ((NH2)2CO) and Choline chloride (HOC2H4N(CH3)3+Cl-) or (ChCl) in a molar ratio 2:1, varying voltage and temperatures were carried out. Fourier Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) spectroscopy studies of ionic liquids with and without metal oxide additions were conducted. FTIR and induction coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICPS) was used in the characterization of the metal oxide dissolved ionic liquid. Electrochemical experiments were conducted using EG&G potentiostat/galvanostat with three electrode cell systems. Cyclic voltammetry was used in the determination of reduction potentials for the deposition of metals. Chronoamperometric experiments were carried out in the potential range of -0.6V to -1.9V for lead and -1.4V to -1.9V for zinc. The deposits were characterized using XRD and SEM-EDS for phase, morphological and elemental analysis. The results showed that pure metal was deposited on the cathode. Successful extraction of metal from metal oxide dissolved in Urea/ChCl (2:1) was accomplished. The current efficiencies were relatively high in both the metal deposition processes with current efficiency greater than 86% for lead and 95% for zinc. This technology will advance the metal oxide reduction process by increasing the process efficiency and also eliminate the production of CO2 which makes this an environmentally benign technology for metal extraction.

  5. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-06-30

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  6. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-15

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10 C.

  7. Nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Choi, Daiwon; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2012-09-04

    Nanocomposite materials comprising a metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene material. The nanocomposite materials exhibit a specific capacity of at least twice that of the metal oxide material without the graphene at a charge/discharge rate greater than about 10C.

  8. Method of producing adherent metal oxide coatings on metallic surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lane, Michael H. (Clifton Park, NY); Varrin, Jr., Robert D. (McLean, VA)

    2001-01-01

    Provided is a process of producing an adherent synthetic corrosion product (sludge) coating on metallic surfaces. The method involves a chemical reaction between a dry solid powder mixture of at least one reactive metal oxide with orthophosphoric acid to produce a coating in which the particles are bound together and the matrix is adherent to the metallic surface.

  9. Surface protected lithium-metal-oxide electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2016-04-05

    A lithium-metal-oxide positive electrode having a layered or spinel structure for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell and battery is disclosed comprising electrode particles that are protected at the surface from undesirable effects, such as electrolyte oxidation, oxygen loss or dissolution by one or more lithium-metal-polyanionic compounds, such as a lithium-metal-phosphate or a lithium-metal-silicate material that can act as a solid electrolyte at or above the operating potential of the lithium-metal-oxide electrode. The surface protection significantly enhances the surface stability, rate capability and cycling stability of the lithium-metal-oxide electrodes, particularly when charged to high potentials.

  10. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, M.W.; Coronado, P.R.; Hair, L.M.

    1995-03-07

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels. 6 figs.

  11. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Droege, Michael W. (Livermore, CA); Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Hair, Lucy M. (Livermore, CA)

    1995-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The present invention is especially advantageous for making metal oxides other than silica that are prone to forming opaque, cracked aerogels.

  12. Three-Electrode Metal Oxide Reduction Cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W.; Ackerman, John P.

    2005-06-28

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  13. Three-electrode metal oxide reduction cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dees, Dennis W.; Ackerman, John P.

    2008-08-12

    A method of electrochemically reducing a metal oxide to the metal in an electrochemical cell is disclosed along with the cell. Each of the anode and cathode operate at their respective maximum reaction rates. An electrolyte and an anode at which oxygen can be evolved, and a cathode including a metal oxide to be reduced are included as is a third electrode with independent power supplies connecting the anode and the third electrode and the cathode and the third electrode.

  14. Direct electrochemical reduction of metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo I.; Gourishankar, Karthick

    2003-01-01

    A method of controlling the direct electrolytic reduction of a metal oxide or mixtures of metal oxides to the corresponding metal or metals. A non-consumable anode and a cathode and a salt electrolyte with a first reference electrode near the non-consumable anode and a second reference electrode near the cathode are used. Oxygen gas is produced and removed from the cell. The anode potential is compared to the first reference electrode to prevent anode dissolution and gas evolution other than oxygen, and the cathode potential is compared to the second reference electrode to prevent production of reductant metal from ions in the electrolyte.

  15. Methods of producing adsorption media including a metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mann, Nicholas R; Tranter, Troy J

    2014-03-04

    Methods of producing a metal oxide are disclosed. The method comprises dissolving a metal salt in a reaction solvent to form a metal salt/reaction solvent solution. The metal salt is converted to a metal oxide and a caustic solution is added to the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to adjust the pH of the metal oxide/reaction solvent solution to less than approximately 7.0. The metal oxide is precipitated and recovered. A method of producing adsorption media including the metal oxide is also disclosed, as is a precursor of an active component including particles of a metal oxide.

  16. Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts Presents ...

  17. Catalytic production of metal carbonyls from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, Richard S.; Slegeir, William A.; Foran, Michael T.

    1984-01-01

    This invention relates to the formation of metal carbonyls from metal oxides and specially the formation of molybdenum carbonyl and iron carbonyl from their respective oxides. Copper is used here in admixed form or used in chemically combined form as copper molybdate. The copper/metal oxide combination or combined copper is utilized with a solvent, such as toluene and subjected to carbon monoxide pressure of 25 atmospheres or greater at about 150.degree.-260.degree. C. The reducing metal copper is employed in catalytic concentrations or combined concentrations as CuMoO.sub.4 and both hydrogen and water present serve as promoters. It has been found that the yields by this process have been salutary and that additionally the catalytic metal may be reused in the process to good effect.

  18. Catalytic production of metal carbonyls from metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sapienza, R.S.; Slegeir, W.A.; Foran, M.T.

    1984-01-06

    This invention relates to the formation of metal carbonyls from metal oxides and specially the formation of molybdenum carbonyl and iron carbonyl from their respective oxides. Copper is used here in admixed form or used in chemically combined form as copper molybdate. The copper/metal oxide combination or combined copper is utilized with a solvent, such as toluene and subjected to carbon monoxide pressure of 25 atmospheres or greater at about 150 to 260/sup 0/C. The reducing metal copper is employed in catalytic concentrations or combined concentrations as CuMoO/sub 4/ and both hydrogen and water present serve as promoters. It has been found that the yields by this process have been salutary and that additionally the catalytic metal may be reused in the process to good effect. 3 tables.

  19. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Kim, Jeom-Soo; Johnson, Christopher S.

    2008-01-01

    An uncycled electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula Li.sub.(2+2x)/(2+x)M'.sub.2x/(2+x)M.sub.(2-2x)/(2+x)O.sub.2-.delta., in which 0.ltoreq.x<1 and .delta. is less than 0.2, and in which M is a non-lithium metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. Methods of preconditioning the electrodes are disclosed as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  20. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, C.I.H.; Ginley, D.S.

    1994-10-18

    An etching process is described using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstrom range may be achieved by this method. 1 fig.

  1. Process for etching mixed metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Carol I. H.; Ginley, David S.

    1994-01-01

    An etching process using dicarboxylic and tricarboxylic acids as chelating etchants for mixed metal oxide films such as high temperature superconductors and ferroelectric materials. Undesirable differential etching rates between different metal oxides are avoided by selection of the proper acid or combination of acids. Feature sizes below one micron, excellent quality vertical edges, and film thicknesses in the 100 Angstom range may be achieved by this method.

  2. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D; Cervanted, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E; Baumann, Theodore F; Satcher, Jr., Joe H

    2014-03-04

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  3. High surface area, electrically conductive nanocarbon-supported metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Han, Thomas Yong-Jin; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cervantes, Octavio; Gash, Alexander E.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2015-07-14

    A metal oxide-carbon composite includes a carbon aerogel with an oxide overcoat. The metal oxide-carbon composite is made by providing a carbon aerogel, immersing the carbon aerogel in a metal oxide sol under a vacuum, raising the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to atmospheric pressure, curing the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol at room temperature, and drying the carbon aerogel with the metal oxide sol to produce the metal oxide-carbon composite. The step of providing a carbon aerogel can provide an activated carbon aerogel or provide a carbon aerogel with carbon nanotubes that make the carbon aerogel mechanically robust.

  4. Method for making monolithic metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    Transparent, monolithic metal oxide aerogels of varying densities are produced using a method in which a metal alkoxide solution and a catalyst solution are prepared separately and reacted. The resulting hydrolyzed-condensed colloidal solution is gelled, and the wet gel is contained within a sealed, but gas permeable, containment vessel during supercritical extraction of the solvent. The containment vessel is enclosed within an aqueous atmosphere that is above the supercritical temperature and pressure of the solvent of the metal alkoxide solution.

  5. PLUTONIUM METAL: OXIDATION CONSIDERATIONS AND APPROACH

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Estochen, E.

    2013-03-20

    Plutonium is arguably the most unique of all metals when considered in the combined context of metallurgical, chemical, and nuclear behavior. Much of the research in understanding behavior and characteristics of plutonium materials has its genesis in work associated with nuclear weapons systems. However, with the advent of applications in fuel materials, the focus in plutonium science has been more towards nuclear fuel applications, as well as long term storage and disposition. The focus of discussion included herein is related to preparing plutonium materials to meet goals consistent with non-proliferation. More specifically, the emphasis is on the treatment of legacy plutonium, in primarily metallic form, and safe handling, packaging, and transport to meet non-proliferation goals of safe/secure storage. Elevated temperature oxidation of plutonium metal is the treatment of choice, due to extensive experiential data related to the method, as the oxide form of plutonium is one of only a few compounds that is relatively simple to produce, and stable over a large temperature range. Despite the simplicity of the steps required to oxidize plutonium metal, it is important to understand the behavior of plutonium to ensure that oxidation is conducted in a safe and effective manner. It is important to understand the effect of changes in environmental variables on the oxidation characteristics of plutonium. The primary purpose of this report is to present a brief summary of information related to plutonium metal attributes, behavior, methods for conversion to oxide, and the ancillary considerations related to processing and facility safety. The information provided is based on data available in the public domain and from experience in oxidation of such materials at various facilities in the United States. The report is provided as a general reference for implementation of a simple and safe plutonium metal oxidation technique.

  6. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films (Patent...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films Title: Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal ...

  7. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kang, Sun-Ho

    2010-06-08

    An uncycled preconditioned electrode for a non-aqueous lithium electrochemical cell including a lithium metal oxide having the formula xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.yO.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 in which 0metal ion with an average trivalent oxidation state selected from two or more of the first row transition metals or lighter metal elements in the periodic table, and M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state selected from the first and second row transition metal elements and Sn. The xLi.sub.2-yH.sub.y.xM'O.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.1-zH.sub.zMO.sub.2 material is prepared by preconditioning a precursor lithium metal oxide (i.e., xLi.sub.2M'O.sub.3.(1-x)LiMO.sub.2) with a proton-containing medium with a pH<7.0 containing an inorganic acid. Methods of preparing the electrodes are disclosed, as are electrochemical cells and batteries containing the electrodes.

  8. Regeneration of sulfated metal oxides and carbonates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hubble, Bill R.; Siegel, Stanley; Cunningham, Paul T.

    1978-03-28

    Alkali metal or alkaline earth metal carbonates such as calcium carbonate and magnesium carbonate found in dolomite or limestone are employed for removal of sulfur dioxide from combustion exhaust gases. The sulfated carbonates are regenerated to oxides through use of a solid-solid reaction, particularly calcium sulfide with calcium sulfate to form calcium oxide and sulfur dioxide gas. The regeneration is performed by contacting the sulfated material with a reductant gas such as hydrogen within an inert diluent to produce calcium sulfide in mixture with the sulfate under process conditions selected to permit the sulfide-sulfate, solid-state reaction to occur.

  9. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, Brian S.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    2001-01-01

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream.

  10. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, B.S.; Gupta, R.P.

    1999-06-22

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing gas. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream. 1 fig.

  11. Metal sulfide initiators for metal oxide sorbent regeneration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turk, Brian S.; Gupta, Raghubir P.

    1999-01-01

    A process of regenerating a sulfided sorbent is provided. According to the process of the invention, a substantial portion of the energy necessary to initiate the regeneration reaction is provided by the combustion of a particulate metal sulfide additive. In using the particulate metal sulfide additive, the oxygen-containing gas used to regenerate the sulfided sorbent can be fed to the regeneration zone without heating or at a lower temperature than used in conventional processes wherein the regeneration reaction is initiated only by heating the oxygen-containing. The particulate metal sulfide additive is preferably an inexpensive mineral ore such as iron pyrite which does not adversely affect the regeneration or corresponding desulfurization reactions. The invention further includes a sorbent composition comprising the particulate metal sulfide additive in admixture with an active metal oxide sorbent capable of removing one or more sulfur compounds from a sulfur-containing gas stream.

  12. Reduction of metal oxides through mechanochemical processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Froes, Francis H. (Moscow, ID); Eranezhuth, Baburaj G. (Moscow, ID); Senkov, Oleg N. (Moscow, ID)

    2000-01-01

    The low temperature reduction of a metal oxide using mechanochemical processing techniques. The reduction reactions are induced mechanically by milling the reactants. In one embodiment of the invention, titanium oxide TiO.sub.2 is milled with CaH.sub.2 to produce TiH.sub.2. Low temperature heat treating, in the range of 400.degree. C. to 700.degree. C., can be used to remove the hydrogen in the titanium hydride.

  13. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOEPatents Data Explorer Search Results Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation Title: Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation The invention is directed to a method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles, the method comprising: (i) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbial-mediated formation of metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprise: metal-reducing

  14. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    DOEPatents Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation Title: Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation The invention is directed to a method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles, the method comprising: (i) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbial-mediated formation of metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprise: metal-reducing microbes, a culture medium suitable

  15. Superconductors and Complex Transition Metal Oxides for Tunable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Superconductors and Complex Transition Metal Oxides for Tunable THz Plasmonic Metamaterials The outline of this presentation are: (1) Motivation - Non-tunability of metal ...

  16. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rondinone, Adam J.; Moon, Ji Won; Love, Lonnie J.; Yeary, Lucas W.; Phelps, Tommy J.

    2015-09-08

    The invention is directed to a method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles, the method comprising: (i) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbial-mediated formation of metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprise: metal-reducing microbes, a culture medium suitable for sustaining said metal-reducing microbes, an effective concentration of one or more surfactants, a reducible metal oxide component containing one or more reducible metal species, and one or more electron donors that provide donatable electrons to said metal-reducing microbes during consumption of the electron donor by said metal-reducing microbes; and (ii) isolating said metal oxide nanoparticles, which contain a reduced form of said reducible metal oxide component. The invention is also directed to metal oxide nanoparticle compositions produced by the inventive method.

  17. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.

    1994-05-03

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques. 2 figures.

  18. Reactor process using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.

    1994-01-01

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane. Also disclosed is a method regenerating a porous metal oxide ceramic membrane used in a photoelectrochemical catalytic process by periodically removing the reactants and regenerating the membrane using a variety of chemical, thermal, and electrical techniques.

  19. Method for producing nanostructured metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Simpson, Randall L.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Gash, Alexander

    2006-01-17

    A synthetic route for producing nanostructure metal-oxide-based materials using sol-gel processing. This procedure employs the use of stable and inexpensive hydrated-metal inorganic salts and environmentally friendly solvents such as water and ethanol. The synthesis involves the dissolution of the metal salt in a solvent followed by the addition of a proton scavenger, which induces gel formation in a timely manner. Both critical point (supercritical extraction) and atmospheric (low temperature evaporation) drying may be employed to produce monolithic aerogels and xerogels, respectively. Using this method synthesis of metal-oxide nanostructured materials have been carried out using inorganic salts, such as of Fe.sup.3+, Cr.sup.3+, Al.sup.3+, Ga.sup.3+, In.sup.3+, Hf.sup.4+, Sn.sup.4+, Zr.sup.4+, Nb.sup.5+, W.sup.6+, Pr.sup.3+, Er.sup.3+, Nd.sup.3+, Ce.sup.3+, U.sup.3+ and Y.sup.3+. The process is general and nanostructured metal-oxides from the following elements of the periodic table can be made: Groups 2 through 13, part of Group 14 (germanium, tin, lead), part of Group 15 (antimony, bismuth), part of Group 16 (polonium), and the lanthanides and actinides. The sol-gel processing allows for the addition of insoluble materials (e.g., metals or polymers) to the viscous sol, just before gelation, to produce a uniformly distributed nanocomposites upon gelation. As an example, energetic nanocomposites of Fe.sub.xO.sub.y gel with distributed Al metal are readily made. The compositions are stable, safe, and can be readily ignited to thermitic reaction.

  20. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in ...

  1. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation (Patent) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation The invention is directed to a method for producing metal oxide nanoparticles, the method comprising: (i) subjecting a combination of reaction components to conditions conducive to microbial-mediated formation of metal oxide nanoparticles, wherein said combination of reaction components comprise:

  2. Reactor vessel using metal oxide ceramic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Zeltner, Walter A. (Oregon, WI)

    1992-08-11

    A reaction vessel for use in photoelectrochemical reactions includes as its reactive surface a metal oxide porous ceramic membrane of a catalytic metal such as titanium. The reaction vessel includes a light source and a counter electrode. A provision for applying an electrical bias between the membrane and the counter electrode permits the Fermi levels of potential reaction to be favored so that certain reactions may be favored in the vessel. The electrical biasing is also useful for the cleaning of the catalytic membrane.

  3. Synthesis of metal silicide at metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    excitation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Synthesis of metal silicide at metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis of metal silicide at metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation The synthesis of metal silicide at the metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. A platinum silicide, α-Pt{sub 2}Si, was successfully formed at the

  4. Metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S.; Mao, Yuanbing

    2009-08-18

    The present invention includes pure single-crystalline metal oxide and metal fluoride nanostructures, and methods of making same. These nanostructures include nanorods and nanoarrays.

  5. Thermal barrier and overlay coating systems comprising composite metal/metal oxide bond coating layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goedjen, John G.; Sabol, Stephen M.; Sloan, Kelly M.; Vance, Steven J.

    2001-01-01

    The present invention generally describes multilayer coating systems comprising a composite metal/metal oxide bond coat layer. The coating systems may be used in gas turbines.

  6. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1995-04-25

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm{sup 3} and greater than 0.27g/cm{sup 3}. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods. 8 figs.

  7. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Thomas, Ian M.

    1995-01-01

    A two-step hydrolysis-condensation method was developed to form metal oxide aerogels of any density, including densities of less than 0.003g/cm.sup.3 and greater than 0.27g/cm.sup.3. High purity metal alkoxide is reacted with water, alcohol solvent, and an additive to form a partially condensed metal intermediate. All solvent and reaction-generated alcohol is removed, and the intermediate is diluted with a nonalcoholic solvent. The intermediate can be stored for future use to make aerogels of any density. The aerogels are formed by reacting the intermediate with water, nonalcoholic solvent, and a catalyst, and extracting the nonalcoholic solvent directly. The resulting monolithic aerogels are hydrophobic and stable under atmospheric conditions, and exhibit good optical transparency, high clarity, and homogeneity. The aerogels have high thermal insulation capacity, high porosity, mechanical strength and stability, and require shorter gelation times than aerogels formed by conventional methods.

  8. Method for inhibiting oxidation of metal sulfide-containing material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Elsetinow, Alicia; Borda, Michael J.; Schoonen, Martin A.; Strongin, Daniel R.

    2006-12-26

    The present invention provides means for inhibiting the oxidation of a metal sulfide-containing material, such as ore mine waste rock or metal sulfide taiulings, by coating the metal sulfide-containing material with an oxidation-inhibiting two-tail lipid coating (12) thereon, thereby inhibiting oxidation of the metal sulfide-containing material in acid mine drainage conditions. The lipids may be selected from phospholipids, sphingolipids, glycolipids and combinations thereof.

  9. Bacterial Production of Mixed Metal Oxide Nanoparticles - Energy Innovation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Portal Industrial Technologies Industrial Technologies Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Bacterial Production of Mixed Metal Oxide Nanoparticles Oak Ridge National Laboratory Contact ORNL About This Technology Technology Marketing SummaryResearchers at ORNL have developed a method for producing mixed metal oxide nanoparticles using anaerobic bacteria with an electron donor to reduce a metal oxide composition from a higher to a lower oxidation

  10. Direct observation of charge mediated lattice distortions in complex oxide solid solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sang, Xiahan; Grimley, Everett D.; Niu, Changning; Irving, Douglas L.; LeBeau, James M.

    2015-02-09

    Using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with advanced imaging methods, we directly observe atom column specific, picometer-scale displacements induced by local chemistry in a complex oxide solid solution. Displacements predicted from density functional theory were found to correlate with the observed experimental trends. Further analysis of bonding and charge distribution was used to clarify the mechanisms responsible for the detected structural behavior. By extending the experimental electron microscopy measurements to previously inaccessible length scales, we identified correlated atomic displacements linked to bond differences within the complex oxide structure.

  11. Thermally stable crystalline mesoporous metal oxides with substantially uniform pores

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiesner, Ulrich; Orilall, Mahendra Christopher; Lee, Jinwoo; DiSalvo, Jr., Francis J

    2015-01-27

    Highly crystalline metal oxide-carbon composites, as precursors to thermally stable mesoporous metal oxides, are coated with a layer of amorphous carbon. Using a `one-pot` method, highly crystalline metal oxide-carbon composites are converted to thermally stable mesoporous metal oxides, having highly crystalline mesopore walls, without causing the concomitant collapse of the mesostructure. The `one-pot` method uses block copolymers with an sp or sp 2 hybridized carbon containing hydrophobic block as structure directing agents which converts to a sturdy, amorphous carbon material under appropriate heating conditions, providing an in-situ rigid support which maintains the pores of the oxides intact while crystallizing at temperatures as high as 1000 deg C. A highly crystalline metal oxide-carbon composite can be heated to produce a thermally stable mesoporous metal oxide consisting of a single polymorph.

  12. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, DeQuan; Jia, Quanxi

    2003-07-08

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  13. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W.; Poeppel, Roger B.

    1991-01-01

    A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0

  14. Metal oxide membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, M.A.; Webster, E.T.; Xu, Q.

    1994-08-30

    A method for formation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation. 4 figs.

  15. Metal oxide membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Webster, Elizabeth T.; Xu, Qunyin

    1994-01-01

    A method for permformation of a microporous ceramic membrane onto a porous support includes placing a colloidal suspension of metal oxide particles on one side of the porous support and exposing the other side of the porous support to a drying stream of gas or a reactive gas stream so that the particles are deposited on the drying side of the support as a gel. The gel so deposited can be sintered to form a supported ceramic membrane having mean pore sizes less than 30 Angstroms and useful for ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis, or gas separation.

  16. Method of making controlled morphology metal-oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ozcan, Soydan; Lu, Yuan

    2016-05-17

    A method of making metal oxides having a preselected morphology includes preparing a suspension that includes a solvent, polymeric nanostructures having multiplicities of hydroxyl surface groups and/or carboxyl surface groups, and a metal oxide precursor. The suspension has a preselected ratio of the polymeric nanostructures to the metal oxide precursor of at least 1:3, the preselected ratio corresponding to a preselected morphology. Subsequent steps include depositing the suspension onto a substrate, removing the solvent to form a film, removing the film from the substrate, and annealing the film to volatilize the polymeric nanostructures and convert the metal oxide precursor to metal oxide nanoparticles having the preselected morphology or to a metal oxide nanosheet including conjoined nanoparticles having the preselected morphology.

  17. Thin films of metal oxides on metal single crystals: Structure and growth by scanning tunneling microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Galloway, H.C.

    1995-12-01

    Detailed studies of the growth and structure of thin films of metal oxides grown on metal single crystal surfaces using Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) are presented. The oxide overlayer systems studied are iron oxide and titanium oxide on the Pt(III) surface. The complexity of the metal oxides and large lattice mismatches often lead to surface structures with large unit cells. These are particularly suited to a local real space technique such as scanning tunneling microscopy. In particular, the symmetry that is directly observed with the STM elucidates the relationship of the oxide overlayers to the substrate as well as distinguishing, the structures of different oxides.

  18. Thermochemical cycle of a mixed metal oxide for augmentation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Thermochemical cycle of a mixed metal oxide for augmentation of thermal energy storage in solid particles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermochemical cycle of a ...

  19. Superconductors and Complex Transition Metal Oxides for Tunable...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in superconductor metamaterials; (4) Controlling the conductivity with infrared pump beam; (5) Complex metal oxides as active substrates - Strontium Titanate; and (6) Conclusion. ...

  20. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The invention is also directed to metal oxide nanoparticle compositions produced by the inventive method. Authors: Rondinone, Adam J. ; Moon, Ji Won ; Love, Lonnie J. ; Yeary, ...

  1. Microbial-mediated method for metal oxide nanoparticle formation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The invention is also directed to metal oxide nanoparticle compositions produced by the inventive method. Inventors: Rondinone, Adam J. ; Moon, Ji Won ; Love, Lonnie J. ; Yeary, ...

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Ultra-efficient, Robust and Well-defined Nano-Array based Monolithic Catalysts Monolithic Metal Oxide based Composite Nanowire Lean NOx Emission Control Catalysts ...

  3. Method of producing solution-derived metal oxide thin films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Ingersoll, David

    2000-01-01

    A method of preparing metal oxide thin films by a solution method. A .beta.-metal .beta.-diketonate or carboxylate compound, where the metal is selected from groups 8, 9, 10, 11, and 12 of the Periodic Table, is solubilized in a strong Lewis base to form a homogeneous solution. This precursor solution forms within minutes and can be deposited on a substrate in a single layer or a multiple layers to form a metal oxide thin film. The substrate with the deposited thin film is heated to change the film from an amorphous phase to a ceramic metal oxide and cooled.

  4. Defect Chemistry and Plasmon Physics of Colloidal Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lounis, SD; Runnerstrorm, EL; Llordes, A; Milliron, DJ

    2014-05-01

    Plasmonic nanocrystals of highly doped metal oxides have seen rapid development in the past decade and represent a class of materials with unique optoelectronic properties. In this Perspective, we discuss doping mechanisms in metal oxides and the accompanying physics of free carrier scattering, both of which have implications in determining the properties of localized surface plasmon resonances (LSPRs) in these nanocrystals. The balance between activation and compensation of dopants limits the free carrier concentration of the most common metal oxides, placing a ceiling on the LSPR frequency. Furthermore, because of ionized impurity scattering of the oscillating plasma by dopant ions, scattering must be treated in a fundamentally different way in semiconductor metal oxide materials when compared with conventional metals. Though these effects are well-understood in bulk metal oxides, further study is needed to understand their manifestation in nanocrystals and corresponding impact on plasmonic properties, and to develop materials that surpass current limitations in free carrier concentration.

  5. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1992-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  6. Metal oxide porous ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A.; Xu, Qunyin

    1991-01-01

    A method is disclosed for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  7. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1992-09-15

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel is disclosed. The composition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than approximately 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300 C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  8. Solder for oxide layer-building metals and alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W.

    1992-01-01

    A low temperature solder and method for soldering an oxide layer-building metal such as aluminum, titanium, tantalum or stainless steel. The comosition comprises tin and zinc; germanium as a wetting agent; preferably small amounts of copper and antimony; and a grit, such as silicon carbide. The grit abrades any oxide layer formed on the surface of the metal as the germanium penetrates beneath and loosens the oxide layer to provide good metal-to-metal contact. The germanium comprises less than aproximatley 10% by weight of the solder composition so that it provides sufficient wetting action but does not result in a melting temperature above approximately 300.degree. C. The method comprises the steps rubbing the solder against the metal surface so the grit in the solder abrades the surface while heating the surface until the solder begins to melt and the germanium penetrates the oxide layer, then brushing aside any oxide layer loosened by the solder.

  9. Superconductors and Complex Transition Metal Oxides for Tunable THz

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plasmonic Metamaterials (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Superconductors and Complex Transition Metal Oxides for Tunable THz Plasmonic Metamaterials Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Superconductors and Complex Transition Metal Oxides for Tunable THz Plasmonic Metamaterials The outline of this presentation are: (1) Motivation - Non-tunability of metal metamaterials; (2) Superconductors for temperature tunable metamaterials; (3) Ultrafast optical switching in superconductor

  10. Oxidized film structure and method of making epitaxial metal oxide structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gan, Shupan [Richland, WA; Liang, Yong [Richland, WA

    2003-02-25

    A stable oxidized structure and an improved method of making such a structure, including an improved method of making an interfacial template for growing a crystalline metal oxide structure, are disclosed. The improved method comprises the steps of providing a substrate with a clean surface and depositing a metal on the surface at a high temperature under a vacuum to form a metal-substrate compound layer on the surface with a thickness of less than one monolayer. The compound layer is then oxidized by exposing the compound layer to essentially oxygen at a low partial pressure and low temperature. The method may further comprise the step of annealing the surface while under a vacuum to further stabilize the oxidized film structure. A crystalline metal oxide structure may be subsequently epitaxially grown by using the oxidized film structure as an interfacial template and depositing on the interfacial template at least one layer of a crystalline metal oxide.

  11. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchangers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, R.G.; Stephens, H.P.; Stohl, F.V.

    1983-07-21

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  12. Catalysis using hydrous metal oxide ion exchanges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dosch, Robert G.; Stephens, Howard P.; Stohl, Frances V.

    1985-01-01

    In a process which is catalyzed by a catalyst comprising an active metal on a carrier, said metal being active as a catalyst for the process, an improvement is provided wherein the catalyst is a hydrous, alkali metal or alkaline earth metal titanate, zirconate, niobate or tantalate wherein alkali or alkaline earth metal cations have been exchanged with a catalytically effective amount of cations of said metal.

  13. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, J.A.

    1997-12-02

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  14. Reduction of spalling in mixed metal oxide desulfurization sorbents by addition of a large promoter metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Poston, James A. (Star City, WV)

    1997-01-01

    Mixed metal oxide pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from fuel gas mixes derived from coal are stabilized for operation over repeated cycles of desulfurization and regeneration reactions by addition of a large promoter metal oxide such as lanthanum trioxide. The pellets, which may be principally made up of a mixed metal oxide such as zinc titanate, exhibit physical stability and lack of spalling or decrepitation over repeated cycles without loss of reactivity. The lanthanum oxide is mixed with pellet-forming components in an amount of 1 to 10 weight percent.

  15. Method for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duerksen, Walter K.

    1988-01-01

    A process is described for converting scrap and waste uranium oxide to uranium metal. The uranium oxide is sequentially reduced with a suitable reducing agent to a mixture of uranium metal and oxide products. The uranium metal is then converted to uranium hydride and the uranium hydride-containing mixture is then cooled to a temperature less than -100.degree. C. in an inert liquid which renders the uranium hydride ferromagnetic. The uranium hydride is then magnetically separated from the cooled mixture. The separated uranium hydride is readily converted to uranium metal by heating in an inert atmosphere. This process is environmentally acceptable and eliminates the use of hydrogen fluoride as well as the explosive conditions encountered in the previously employed bomb-reduction processes utilized for converting uranium oxides to uranium metal.

  16. CO oxidation on gold-supported iron oxides: New insights into strong oxidemetal interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Liang; Liu, Yun; Yang, Fan; Evans, Jaime; Rodriguez, Jos A.; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-14

    Very active FeOxAu catalysts for CO oxidation are obtained after depositing nanoparticles of FeO, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 on a Au(111) substrate. Neither FeO nor Fe2O3 is stable under the reaction conditions. Under an environment of CO/O2, they undergo oxidation (FeO) or reduction (Fe2O3) to yield nanoparticles of Fe3O4 that are not formed in a bulk phase. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we show a strong oxidemetal interaction (SOMI) between Fe3O4 nanostructures and Au(111), which gives the oxide special properties, allows the formation of an active phase, and provides a unique interface to facilitate a catalytic reaction. This work highlights the important role that the SOMI can play in enhancing the catalytic performance of the oxide component in metaloxide catalysts.

  17. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1992-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  18. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T. (Knoxville, TN); Scott, Timothy C. (Knoxville, TN); Byers, Charles H. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1993-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed.

  19. Method and apparatus for the production of metal oxide powder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, M.T.; Scott, T.C.; Byers, C.H.

    1992-06-16

    The present invention provides a method for preparing metal oxide powder. A first solution, which is substantially organic, is prepared. A second solution, which is an aqueous solution substantially immiscible in the first solution, is prepared and delivered as drops to the first solution. The drops of the second solution are atomized by a pulsed electric field forming micro-drops of the second solution. Reagents in the first solution diffuse into and react with reactants in the micro-drops of the second solution forming metal hydroxide or oxalate particles. The metal hydroxide or metal oxalate particles are then recovered and dried to produce the metal oxide powder. An apparatus for preparing a metal oxide powder is also disclosed. 2 figs.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Analysis on the Distortion of Parts Made of 20MnCr5 by Hot Metal Forming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rentsch, Ruediger; Brinksmeier, Ekkard [Stiftung Institut fuer Werkstofftechnik, Badgasteiner Strasse 3, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2011-05-04

    For high performance applications, shafts and gears made of 20MnCr5 (AISI 5120) are manufactured in large numbers every year. Inhomogeneities in the material properties, process perturbations and asymmetries in shape and operation setups provide a potential for the distortion of parts, often released by heat treatment. In this contribution experimental results on the distortion of shafts and the dishing of disk-like gear wheel blanks are presented. The numerical analysis of the hot-rolling process allowed to trace a peculiar segregation distribution at the cross-section of the bars back to the casting process, and to identify an asymmetric strain distribution which may be the main cause for shaft distortion. For the dishing of the disks a correlation to the resulting distribution of the material flow was found and, a process perturbation parameter identified which is assumed to be responsible for the observed material flow variation.

  1. NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by Metal Oxide Photoabsorber (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2014-01-01

    New development demonstrates that inexpensive and robust metal oxide photoabsorbers hold great promise as photoanodes for water oxidation.

  2. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.; Dawless, Robert K.; Hosler, Robert B.

    2000-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  3. Inert electrode containing metal oxides, copper and noble metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.; Dawless, Robert K.; Hosler, Robert B.

    2001-01-01

    A cermet composite material is made by treating at an elevated temperature a mixture comprising a compound of iron and a compound of at least one other metal, together with an alloy or mixture of copper and a noble metal. The alloy or mixture preferably comprises particles having an interior portion containing more copper than noble metal and an exterior portion containing more noble metal than copper. The noble metal is preferably silver. The cermet composite material preferably includes alloy phase portions and a ceramic phase portion. At least part of the ceramic phase portion preferably has a spinel structure.

  4. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ott, Kevin C.; Kodas, Toivo T.

    1994-01-01

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of film coating deposition techniques, and more particularly to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films by aerosol chemical vapor deposition. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  5. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Norton, David P.

    2001-01-01

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  6. Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    America's Transition to a Clean Energy Future | Department of Energy Solyndra: How the Energy Department's Loans are Accelerating America's Transition to a Clean Energy Future Beyond Solyndra: How the Energy Department's Loans are Accelerating America's Transition to a Clean Energy Future June 21, 2012 - 11:00am Addthis 1 of 14 2 of 14 3 of 14 4 of 14 5 of 14 6 of 14 7 of 14 8 of 14 9 of 14 10 of 14 11 of 14 12 of 14 13 of 14 14 of 14 Dan Leistikow Dan Leistikow Former Director, Office of

  7. Beyond the Lone-Pair Model for Structurally Distorted Metal Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The results have important implications for the tantalizing possibility of spintronic or superconducting devices combining ferroelectric and ferromagnetic properties. Flawed but ...

  8. Displacement method and apparatus for reducing passivated metal powders and metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrell; Jonathan S. , Ripley; Edward B.

    2009-05-05

    A method of reducing target metal oxides and passivated metals to their metallic state. A reduction reaction is used, often combined with a flux agent to enhance separation of the reaction products. Thermal energy in the form of conventional furnace, infrared, or microwave heating may be applied in combination with the reduction reaction.

  9. Plutonium metal and oxide container weld development and qualification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fernandez, R.; Horrell, D.R.; Hoth, C.W.; Pierce, S.W.; Rink, N.A.; Rivera, Y.M.; Sandoval, V.D.

    1996-01-01

    Welds were qualified for a container system to be used for long-term storage of plutonium metal and oxide. Inner and outer containers are formed of standard tubing with stamped end pieces gas-tungsten-arc (GTA) welded onto both ends. The weld qualification identified GTA parameters to produce a robust weld that meets the requirements of the Department of Energy standard DOE-STD-3013-94, ``Criteria for the Safe Storage of Plutonium Metals and Oxides.``

  10. Plasmonic metal oxide nanocrystals | MIT-Harvard Center for Excitonics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    metal oxide nanocrystals April 5, 2016 at 4:30pm/34-401A Delia Milliron Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin Delia-Milliron.01 Degenerately doped metal oxide semiconductors, like ITO, exhibit plasmonic resonance at near and mid-infrared wavelengths tunable by varying their composition. Nanocrystals of many such materials have now been synthesized and applications are emerging that leverage the responsiveness of their localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) to

  11. Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New Medical

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovations | Argonne National Laboratory Metal Oxide Semiconductor Nanoparticles Open the Door to New Medical Innovations Technology available for licensing: novel nanometer-sized metal oxide semiconductors that allow targeting, initiating and control of in vitro and in vivo chemical reactions in biological molecules, such as DNA, proteins, and antibodies. Allows for targeting, initiation and control of in vitro and in vivo chemical reactions in biological molecules Commercial applications

  12. Metal-oxide-based energetic materials and synthesis thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M. , Simpson; Randall L.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.

    2006-01-17

    A method of preparing energetic metal-oxide-based energetic materials using sol-gel chemistry has been invented. The wet chemical sol-gel processing provides an improvement in both safety and performance. Essentially, a metal-oxide oxidizer skeletal structure is prepared from hydrolyzable metals (metal salts or metal alkoxides) with fuel added to the sol prior to gelation or synthesized within the porosity metal-oxide gel matrix. With metal salt precursors a proton scavenger is used to destabilize the sol and induce gelation. With metal alkoxide precursors standard well-known sol-gel hydrolysis and condensation reactions are used. Drying is done by standard sol-gel practices, either by a slow evaporation of the liquid residing within the pores to produce a high density solid nanocomposite, or by supercritical extraction to produce a lower density, high porous nanocomposite. Other ingredients may be added to this basic nanostructure to change physical and chemical properties, which include organic constituents for binders or gas generators during reactions, burn rate modifiers, or spectral emitters.

  13. Interactions of Hydrogen Isotopes and Oxides with Metal Tubes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glen R. Longhurst

    2008-08-01

    Understanding and accounting for interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their oxides with metal surfaces is important for persons working with tritium systems. Reported data from several investigators have shown that the processes of oxidation, adsorption, absorption, and permeation are all coupled and interactive. A computer model has been developed for predicting the interaction of hydrogen isotopes and their corresponding oxides in a flowing carrier gas stream with the walls of a metallic tube, particularly at low hydrogen concentrations. An experiment has been constructed to validate the predictive model. Predictions from modeling lead to unexpected experiment results.

  14. Ethanol oxidation on metal oxide-supported platinum catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    L. M. Petkovic 090468; Sergey N. Rashkeev; D. M. Ginosar

    2009-09-01

    Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on Ethanol is a renewable fuel that can be used as an additive to gasoline (or its substitute) with the advantage of octane enhancement and reduced carbon monoxide exhaust emissions. However, on the standard three-way catalysts, the conversion of unburned ethanol is low because both ethanol and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of stoves that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the final products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.and some of its partially oxidized derivatives are highly resistant to oxidation. A combination of first-principles density-functional theory (DFT) based calculations and in-situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) analysis was applied to uncover some of the fundamental phenomena associated with ethanol oxidation on Pt containing catalysts. In particular, the objective was to analyze the role of the oxide (i.e., ?-Al2O3 or SiO2) substrate on the ethanol oxidation activity. The results showed that Pt nanoparticles trap and accumulate oxygen at their surface and perimeter sites and play the role of stoves that burn ethanol molecules and their partially oxidized derivatives to the final products. The ?-Al2O3 surfaces provided higher mobility of the fragments of ethanol molecules than the SiO2 surface and hence increased the supply rate of these objects to the Pt particles. This will in turn produce a higher conversion rate of unburned ethanol.

  15. Internal zone growth method for producing metal oxide metal eutectic composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clark, Grady W.; Holder, John D.; Pasto, Arvid E.

    1980-01-01

    An improved method for preparing a cermet comprises preparing a compact having about 85 to 95 percent theoretical density from a mixture of metal and metal oxide powders from a system containing a eutectic composition, and inductively heating the compact in a radiofrequency field to cause the formation of an internal molten zone. The metal oxide particles in the powder mixture are effectively sized relative to the metal particles to permit direct inductive heating of the compact by radiofrequency from room temperature. Surface melting is prevented by external cooling or by effectively sizing the particles in the powder mixture.

  16. Methods of making metal oxide nanostructures and methods of controlling morphology of same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wong, Stanislaus S; Hongjun, Zhou

    2012-11-27

    The present invention includes a method of producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure. The method comprises providing a metal salt solution and providing a basic solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal salt solution and the basic solution, wherein metal cations of the metal salt solution and hydroxide ions of the basic solution react, thereby producing a crystalline metal oxide nanostructure.

  17. Metal current collect protected by oxide film

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    2004-05-25

    Provided are low-cost, mechanically strong, highly electronically conductive current collects and associated structures for solid-state electrochemical devices, techniques for forming these structures, and devices incorporating the structures. The invention provides solid state electrochemical devices having as current interconnects a ferritic steel felt or screen coated with a protective oxide film.

  18. Method for continuous synthesis of metal oxide powders

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berry, David A.; Haynes, Daniel J.; Shekhawat, Dushyant; Smith, Mark W.

    2015-09-08

    A method for the rapid and continuous production of crystalline mixed-metal oxides from a precursor solution comprised of a polymerizing agent, chelated metal ions, and a solvent. The method discharges solution droplets of less than 500 .mu.m diameter using an atomizing or spray-type process into a reactor having multiple temperature zones. Rapid evaporation occurs in a first zone, followed by mixed-metal organic foam formation in a second zone, followed by amorphous and partially crystalline oxide precursor formation in a third zone, followed by formation of the substantially crystalline mixed-metal oxide in a fourth zone. The method operates in a continuous rather than batch manner and the use of small droplets as the starting material for the temperature-based process allows relatively high temperature processing. In a particular embodiment, the first zone operates at 100-300.degree. C., the second zone operates at 300-700.degree. C., and the third operates at 700-1000.degree. C., and fourth zone operates at at least 700.degree. C. The resulting crystalline mixed-metal oxides display a high degree of crystallinity and sphericity with typical diameters on the order of 50 .mu.m or less.

  19. All-alkoxide synthesis of strontium-containing metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boyle, Timothy J.

    2001-01-01

    A method for making strontium-containing metal-oxide ceramic thin films from a precursor liquid by mixing a strontium neo-pentoxide dissolved in an amine solvent and at least one metal alkoxide dissolved in a solvent, said at least one metal alkoxide selected from the group consisting of alkoxides of calcium, barium, bismuth, cadmium, lead, titanium, tantalum, hafnium, tungsten, niobium, zirconium, yttrium, lanthanum, antimony, chromium and thallium, depositing a thin film of the precursor liquid on a substrate, and heating the thin film in the presence of oxygen at between 550 and 700.degree. C.

  20. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2006-11-14

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Ni, and where M' is one or more ions with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  1. Sodiation kinetics of metal oxide conversion electrodes: A comparative study with lithiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Kai; Lin, Feng; Zhu, Yizhou; Yu, Xiqian; Li, Jing; Lin, Ruoqian; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu Chien; Richards, Ryan M.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Doeff, Marca M.; Stach, Eric A.; Mo, Yifei; Xin, Huolin L.; Su, Dong

    2015-08-19

    The development of sodium ion batteries (NIBs) can provide an alternative to lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for sustainable, low-cost energy storage. However, due to the larger size and higher m/e ratio of the sodium ion compared to lithium, sodiation reactions of candidate electrodes are expected to differ in significant ways from the corresponding lithium ones. In this work, we investigated the sodiation mechanism of a typical transition metal-oxide, NiO, through a set of correlated techniques, including electrochemical and synchrotron studies, real-time electron microscopy observation, and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We found that a crystalline Na₂O reaction layer that was formed at the beginning of sodiation plays an important role in blocking the further transport of sodium ions. In addition, sodiation in NiO exhibits a “shrinking-core” mode that results from a layer-by-layer reaction, as identified by ab initio MD simulations. For lithiation, however, the formation of Li anti-site defects significantly distorts the local NiO lattice that facilitates Li insertion, thus enhancing the overall reaction rate. These observations delineate the mechanistic difference between sodiation and lithiation in metal-oxide conversion materials. More importantly, our findings identify the importance of understanding the role of reaction layers on the functioning of electrodes and thus provide critical insights into further optimizing NIB materials through surface engineering.

  2. Sodiation kinetics of metal oxide conversion electrodes: A comparative study with lithiation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Kai; Lin, Feng; Zhu, Yizhou; Yu, Xiqian; Li, Jing; Lin, Ruoqian; Nordlund, Dennis; Weng, Tsu Chien; Richards, Ryan M.; Yang, Xiao -Qing; et al

    2015-08-19

    The development of sodium ion batteries (NIBs) can provide an alternative to lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for sustainable, low-cost energy storage. However, due to the larger size and higher m/e ratio of the sodium ion compared to lithium, sodiation reactions of candidate electrodes are expected to differ in significant ways from the corresponding lithium ones. In this work, we investigated the sodiation mechanism of a typical transition metal-oxide, NiO, through a set of correlated techniques, including electrochemical and synchrotron studies, real-time electron microscopy observation, and ab initio molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We found that a crystalline Na₂O reaction layer thatmore » was formed at the beginning of sodiation plays an important role in blocking the further transport of sodium ions. In addition, sodiation in NiO exhibits a “shrinking-core” mode that results from a layer-by-layer reaction, as identified by ab initio MD simulations. For lithiation, however, the formation of Li anti-site defects significantly distorts the local NiO lattice that facilitates Li insertion, thus enhancing the overall reaction rate. These observations delineate the mechanistic difference between sodiation and lithiation in metal-oxide conversion materials. More importantly, our findings identify the importance of understanding the role of reaction layers on the functioning of electrodes and thus provide critical insights into further optimizing NIB materials through surface engineering.« less

  3. Amorphous semiconducting and conducting transparent metal oxide thin films and production thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perkins, John; Van Hest, Marinus Franciscus Antonius Maria; Ginley, David; Taylor, Matthew; Neuman, George A.; Luten, Henry A.; Forgette, Jeffrey A.; Anderson, John S.

    2010-07-13

    Metal oxide thin films and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a metal oxide thin film may comprise introducing at least two metallic elements and oxygen into a process chamber to form a metal oxide. The method may also comprise depositing the metal oxide on a substrate in the process chamber. The method may also comprise simultaneously controlling a ratio of the at least two metallic elements and a stoichiometry of the oxygen during deposition. Exemplary amorphous metal oxide thin films produced according to the methods herein may exhibit highly transparent properties, highly conductive properties, and/or other opto-electronic properties.

  4. Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, James E.; Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Wagner, Richard W.

    1996-01-01

    Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

  5. Metal complexes of substituted Gable porphyrins as oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Wagner, R.W.

    1996-01-02

    Transition metal complexes of Gable porphyrins are disclosed having two porphyrin rings connected through a linking group, and having on the porphyrin rings electron-withdrawing groups, such as halogen, nitro or cyano. These complexes are useful as catalysts for the oxidation of organic compounds, e.g. alkanes.

  6. Oxidation resistant filler metals for direct brazing of structural ceramics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moorhead, Arthur J.

    1986-01-01

    A method of joining ceramics and metals to themselves and to one another is described using essentially pure trinickel aluminide and trinickel aluminide containing small amounts of carbon. This method produces strong joints that can withstand high service temperatures and oxidizing environments.

  7. Control of cerium oxidation state through metal complex secondary structures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Levin, Jessica R.; Dorfner, Walter L.; Carroll, Patrick J.; Schelter, Eric J.

    2015-08-11

    A series of alkali metal cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes, Mx(py)y[Ce(PhNNPh)4], M = Li, Na, and K, x = 4 (Li and Na) or 5 (K), and y = 4 (Li), 8 (Na), or 7 (K), were synthesized to probe how a secondary coordination sphere would modulate electronic structures at a cerium cation. The resulting electronic structures of the heterobimetallic cerium diphenylhydrazido complexes were found to be strongly dependent on the identity of the alkali metal cations. When M = Li+ or Na+, the cerium(III) starting material was oxidized with concomitant reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine to aniline. Reduction of 1,2-diphenylhydrazine was not observedmore » when M = K+, and the complex remained in the cerium(III) oxidation state. Oxidation of the cerium(III) diphenylhydrazido complex to the Ce(IV) diphenylhydrazido one was achieved through a simple cation exchange reaction of the alkali metals. As a result, UV-Vis spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, electrochemistry, magnetic susceptibility, and DFT studies were used to probe the oxidation state and the electronic changes that occurred at the metal centre.« less

  8. Volatile organometallic complexes suitable for use in chemical vapor depositions on metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Giolando, Dean M.

    2003-09-30

    Novel ligated compounds of tin, titanium, and zinc are useful as metal oxide CVD precursor compounds without the detriments of extreme reactivity yet maintaining the ability to produce high quality metal oxide coating by contact with heated substrates.

  9. Influence of uranium hydride oxidation on uranium metal behaviour

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patel, N.; Hambley, D.; Clarke, S.A.; Simpson, K.

    2013-07-01

    This work addresses concerns that the rapid, exothermic oxidation of active uranium hydride in air could stimulate an exothermic reaction (burning) involving any adjacent uranium metal, so as to increase the potential hazard arising from a hydride reaction. The effect of the thermal reaction of active uranium hydride, especially in contact with uranium metal, does not increase in proportion with hydride mass, particularly when considering large quantities of hydride. Whether uranium metal continues to burn in the long term is a function of the uranium metal and its surroundings. The source of the initial heat input to the uranium, if sufficient to cause ignition, is not important. Sustained burning of uranium requires the rate of heat generation to be sufficient to offset the total rate of heat loss so as to maintain an elevated temperature. For dense uranium, this is very difficult to achieve in naturally occurring circumstances. Areas of the uranium surface can lose heat but not generate heat. Heat can be lost by conduction, through contact with other materials, and by convection and radiation, e.g. from areas where the uranium surface is covered with a layer of oxidised material, such as burned-out hydride or from fuel cladding. These rates of heat loss are highly significant in relation to the rate of heat generation by sustained oxidation of uranium in air. Finite volume modelling has been used to examine the behaviour of a magnesium-clad uranium metal fuel element within a bottle surrounded by other un-bottled fuel elements. In the event that the bottle is breached, suddenly, in air, it can be concluded that the bulk uranium metal oxidation reaction will not reach a self-sustaining level and the mass of uranium oxidised will likely to be small in relation to mass of uranium hydride oxidised. (authors)

  10. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H; Schutte, Erick J; Rolfe, Sara L

    2013-05-07

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, and/or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01metal oxides.

  11. Transition Metal Oxide Alloys as Potential Solar Energy Conversion Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toroker, Maytal; Carter, Emily A.

    2013-02-21

    First-row transition metal oxides (TMOs) are inexpensive potentia alternative materials for solar energy conversion devices. However, some TMOs, such as manganese(II) oxide, have band gaps that are too large for efficiently absorbing solar energy. Other TMOs, such as iron(II) oxide, have conduction and valence band edges with the same orbital character that may lead to unfavorably high electronhole recombination rates. Another limitation of iron(II) oxide is that the calculated valence band edge is not positioned well for oxidizing water. We predict that key properties, including band gaps, band edge positions, and possibly electronhole recombination rates, may be improved by alloying TMOs that have different band alignments. A new metric, the band gap center offset, is introduced for simple screening of potential parent materials. The concept is illustrated by calculating the electronic structure of binary oxide alloys that contain manganese, nickel, iron, zinc, and/or magnesium, within density functional theory (DFT)+U and hybrid DFT theories. We conclude that alloys of iron(II) oxide are worth evaluating further as solar energy conversion materials.

  12. Lack of a Jahn-Teller Distortion in La1-xSrxCoO3 Determined by EXAFS and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Neutron PDF Studies Lack of a Jahn-Teller Distortion in La1-xSrxCoO3 Determined by EXAFS and Neutron PDF Studies The transition metal oxides exhibit a wide range of interesting properties, of which superconductivity in the copper oxides and colossal magnetoresistance in the manganese oxides are perhaps the best known. However, the strange magnetic behavior of several cobalt oxides is another example of these unusual properties, although not yet as intensively studied. The cobaltite system

  13. For cermet inert anode containing oxide and metal phases useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Douglas A.

    2002-01-01

    A cermet inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode comprises a ceramic phase including an oxide of Ni, Fe and M, where M is at least one metal selected from Zn, Co, Al, Li, Cu, Ti, V, Cr, Zr, Nb, Ta, W, Mo, Hf and rare earths, preferably Zn and/or Co. Preferred ceramic compositions comprise Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3, NiO and ZnO or CoO. The cermet inert anode also comprises a metal phase such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. A preferred metal phase comprises Cu and Ag. The cermet inert anodes may be used in electrolytic reduction cells for the production of commercial purity aluminum as well as other metals.

  14. A metallic fuel cycle concept from spent oxide fuel to metallic fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fujita, Reiko; Kawashima, Masatoshi; Yamaoka, Mitsuaki; Arie, Kazuo; Koyama, Tadafumi

    2007-07-01

    A Metallic fuel cycle concept for Self-Consistent Nuclear Energy System (SCNES) has been proposed in a companion papers. The ultimate goal of the SCNES is to realize sustainable energy supply without endangering the environment and humans. For future transition period from LWR era to SCNES era, a new metallic fuel recycle concept from LWR spent fuel has been proposed in this paper. Combining the technology for electro-reduction of oxide fuels and zirconium recovery by electrorefining in molten salts in the nuclear recycling schemes, the amount of radioactive waste reduced in a proposed metallic fuel cycle concept. If the recovery ratio of zirconium metal from the spent zirconium waste is 95%, the cost estimation in zirconium recycle to the metallic fuel materials has been estimated to be less than 1/25. (authors)

  15. Synthesis of metal-metal oxide catalysts and electrocatalysts using a metal cation adsorption/reduction and adatom replacement by more noble ones

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Vukmirovic, Miomir; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2010-04-27

    The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as electrocatalysts in oxygen-reducing cathodes and fuel cells. The invention particularly relates to methods for preventing the oxidation of the platinum electrocatalyst in the cathodes of fuel cells by use of these platinum-metal oxide composite particles. The invention additionally relates to methods for producing electrical energy by supplying such a fuel cell with an oxidant, such as oxygen, and a fuel source, such as hydrogen. The invention also relates to methods of making the metal-metal oxide composites.

  16. Pseudopotentials for quantum Monte Carlo studies of transition metal oxides

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Krogel, Jaron T.; Santana Palacio, Juan A.; Reboredo, Fernando A.

    2016-02-22

    Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) calculations of transition metal oxides are partially limited by the availability of high-quality pseudopotentials that are both accurate in QMC and compatible with major plane-wave electronic structure codes. We have generated a set of neon-core pseudopotentials with small cutoff radii for the early transition metal elements Sc to Zn within the local density approximation of density functional theory. The pseudopotentials have been directly tested for accuracy within QMC by calculating the first through fourth ionization potentials of the isolated transition metal (M) atoms and the binding curve of each M-O dimer. We find the ionization potentialsmore » to be accurate to 0.16(1) eV, on average, relative to experiment. The equilibrium bond lengths of the dimers are within 0.5(1)% of experimental values, on average, and the binding energies are also typically accurate to 0.18(3) eV. The level of accuracy we find for atoms and dimers is comparable to what has recently been observed for bulk metals and oxides using the same pseudopotentials. Our QMC pseudopotential results compare well with the findings of previous QMC studies and benchmark quantum chemical calculations.« less

  17. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, J.E.; Kelly, T.F.

    1999-06-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains. 20 figs.

  18. Strengthening of metallic alloys with nanometer-size oxide dispersions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flinn, John E. (Idaho Falls, ID); Kelly, Thomas F. (Madison, WI)

    1999-01-01

    Austenitic stainless steels and nickel-base alloys containing, by wt. %, 0.1 to 3.0% V, 0.01 to 0.08% C, 0.01 to 0.5% N, 0.05% max. each of Al and Ti, and 0.005 to 0.10% O, are strengthened and ductility retained by atomization of a metal melt under cover of an inert gas with added oxygen to form approximately 8 nanometer-size hollow oxides within the alloy grains and, when the alloy is aged, strengthened by precipitation of carbides and nitrides nucleated by the hollow oxides. Added strengthening is achieved by nitrogen solid solution strengthening and by the effect of solid oxides precipitated along and pinning grain boundaries to provide temperature-stabilization and refinement of the alloy grains.

  19. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil

    2008-12-23

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  20. Lithium Metal Oxide Electrodes For Lithium Cells And Batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-20

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0oxidation state and with at least one ion being Mn or Ni, and where M' is one or more ion with an average tetravalent oxidation state. Complete cells or batteries are disclosed with anode, cathode and electrolyte as are batteries of several cells connected in parallel or series or both.

  1. Hydrocracking and hydroisomerization of long-chain alkanes and polyolefins over metal-promoted anion-modified transition metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Venkatesh, Koppampatti R.; Hu, Jianli; Tierney, John W.; Wender, Irving

    2001-01-01

    A method of cracking a feedstock by contacting the feedstock with a metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst in the presence of hydrogen gas. The metal oxide of the catalyst is one or more of ZrO.sub.2, HfO.sub.2, TiO.sub.2 and SnO.sub.2, and the feedstock is principally chains of at least 20 carbon atoms. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of Pt, Ni, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru, (Mn & Fe) or mixtures of them present between about 0.2% to about 15% by weight of the catalyst. The metal-promoted anion-modified metal oxide catalyst contains one or more of SO.sub.4, WO.sub.3, or mixtures of them present between about 0.5% to about 20% by weight of the catalyst.

  2. Metal/metal oxide doped oxide catalysts having high deNOx selectivity for lean NOx exhaust aftertreatment systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Paul W.

    2004-03-16

    A lean NOx catalyst and method of preparing the same is disclosed. The lean NOx catalyst includes a ceramic substrate, an oxide support material, preferably .gamma.-alumina, deposited on the substrate and a metal promoter or dopant introduced into the oxide support material. The metal promoters or dopants are selected from the group consisting of indium, gallium, tin, silver, germanium, gold, nickel, cobalt, copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, chromium, cerium, vanadium, oxides thereof, and combinations thereof. The .gamma.-alumina preferably has a pore volume of from about 0.5 to about 2.0 cc/g; a surface area of between about 80 to 350 m.sup.2 /g; an average pore size diameter of between about 3 to 30 nm; and an impurity level of less than or equal to 0.2 weight percent. In a preferred embodiment the .gamma.-alumina is prepared by a sol-gel method, with the metal doping of the .gamma.-alumina preferably accomplished using an incipient wetness impregnation technique.

  3. Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.; Dunlap, B.D.; Veal, B.W.

    1990-07-17

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]X] (where 0 < X < 0.5) exhibits superconducting properties and is capable of conducting very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu-O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the conduction of high current densities. The highly anisotropic diamagnetic susceptibility of the polycrystalline metal oxide material permits the use of an applied magnetic field to orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state. 4 figs.

  4. Magnetic preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W.; Dunlap, Bobby D.; Veal, Boyd W.

    1990-01-01

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0metal oxide material permits the use of an applied magnetic field to orient the individual crystals when in the superconducting state to substantially increase current transport between adjacent grains. In another embodiment, the anisotropic paramagnetic susceptibility of rare-earth ions substituted into the oxide material is made use of as an applied magnetic field orients the particles in a preferential direction. This latter operation can be performed with the material in the normal (non-superconducting) state.

  5. Non-equilibrium oxidation states of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ma, Wen; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Herbert, F. William; Yildiz, Bilge

    2015-03-11

    The chemical state of Zr during the initial, self-limiting stage of oxidation on single crystal zirconium (0001), with oxide thickness on the order of 1 nm, was probed by synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the Zr 3d spectrum by the spectrum reconstruction method demonstrated the formation of Zr1+, Zr2+, and Zr3+ as non-equilibrium oxidation states, in addition to Zr4+ in the stoichiometric ZrO2. This finding resolves the long-debated question of whether it is possible to form any valence states between Zr0 and Zr4+ at the metal-oxide interface. As a result, the presence of local strong electric fields andmore » the minimization of interfacial energy are assessed and demonstrated as mechanisms that can drive the formation of these non-equilibrium valence states of Zr.« less

  6. Synthesis of metal silicide at metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, J.-G.; Nagase, T.; Yasuda, H.; Mori, H.

    2015-05-21

    The synthesis of metal silicide at the metal/silicon oxide interface by electronic excitation was investigated using transmission electron microscopy. A platinum silicide, ?-Pt{sub 2}Si, was successfully formed at the platinum/silicon oxide interface under 25200?keV electron irradiation. This is of interest since any platinum silicide was not formed at the platinum/silicon oxide interface by simple thermal annealing under no-electron-irradiation conditions. From the electron energy dependence of the cross section for the initiation of the silicide formation, it is clarified that the silicide formation under electron irradiation was not due to a knock-on atom-displacement process, but a process induced by electronic excitation. It is suggested that a mechanism related to the Knotek and Feibelman mechanism may play an important role in silicide formation within the solid. Similar silicide formation was also observed at the palladium/silicon oxide and nickel/silicon oxide interfaces, indicating a wide generality of the silicide formation by electronic excitation.

  7. Electrostatic Cooperativity of Hydroxyl Groups at Metal Oxide Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boily, Jean F.; Lins, Roberto D.

    2009-09-24

    The O-H bond distribution of hydroxyl groups at the {110} goethite (R-FeOOH) surface was investigated by molecular dynamics. This distribution was strongly affected by electrostatic interactions with neighboring oxo and hydroxo groups. The effects of proton surface loading, simulated by emplacing two protons at different distances of separation, were diverse and generated several sets of O-H bond distributions. DFT calculations of a representative molecular cluster were also carried out to demonstrate the impact of these effects on the orientation of oxygen lone pairs in neighboring oxo groups. These effects should have strong repercussions on O-H stretching vibrations of metal oxide surfaces.h

  8. Lithium metal oxide electrodes for lithium cells and batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thackeray, Michael M.; Johnson, Christopher S.; Amine, Khalil; Kim, Jaekook

    2004-01-13

    A lithium metal oxide positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell is disclosed. The cell is prepared in its initial discharged state and has a general formula xLiMO.sub.2.(1-x)Li.sub.2 M'O.sub.3 in which 0

  9. Cyclic catalytic upgrading of chemical species using metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James H.; Schutte, Erick J.; Rolfe, Sara L.

    2010-11-02

    Processes are disclosure which comprise alternately contacting an oxygen-carrying catalyst with a reducing substance, or a lower partial pressure of an oxidizing gas, and then with the oxidizing gas or a higher partial pressure of the oxidizing gas, whereby the catalyst is alternately reduced and then regenerated to an oxygenated state. In certain embodiments, the oxygen-carrying catalyst comprises at least one metal oxide-containing material containing a composition having one of the following formulas: (a) Ce.sub.xB.sub.yB'.sub.zB''O.sub..delta., wherein B=Ba, Sr, Ca, or Zr; B'=Mn, Co, or Fe; B''=Cu; 0.01

  10. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials by mechanical means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, D.W.

    1990-11-27

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]X] (where 0 < X < 0.5) is capable of accommodating very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu-O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the metal oxide material to accommodate high current densities. The orthorhombic crystalline particles have a tendency to lie down on one of the longer sides, i.e., on the a- or b-direction. Aligning the crystals in this orientation is accomplished by mechanical working of the material such as by extrusion, tape casting or slip casting, provided a single crystal powder is used as a starting material, to provide a highly oriented, e.g., approximately 90% of the crystal particles have a common orientation, superconducting matrix capable of supporting large current densities. 3 figs.

  11. Acoustic plane wave preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tolt, Thomas L. (North Olmsted, OH); Poeppel, Roger B. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

    1991-01-01

    A polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0metal oxide in the form of a ceramic slip which has not yet set, orientation of the crystal basal planes parallel with the direction of desired current flow is accomplished by an applied acoustic plane wave in the acoustic or ultrasonic frequency range (either progressive or standing) in applying a torque to each crystal particle. The ceramic slip is then set and fired by conventional methods to produce a conductor with preferentially oriented grains and substantially enhanced current carrying capacity.

  12. Preferential orientation of metal oxide superconducting materials by mechanical means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Capone, Donald W. (Bolingbrook, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A superconductor comprised of a polycrystalline metal oxide such as YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-X (where 0<.times.<0.5) is capable of accommodating very large current densities. By aligning the two-dimensional Cu--O layers which carry the current in the superconducting state in the a- and b-directions, i.e., within the basal plane, a high degree of crystalline axes alignment is provided between adjacent grains permitting the metal oxide material to accommodate high current densities. The orthorhombic crystalline particles have a tendency to lie down on one of the longer sides, i.e., on the a- or b-direction. Aligning the crystals in this orientation is accomplished by mechanical working of the material such as by extrusion, tape casting or slip casting, provided a single crystal powder is used as a starting material, to provide a highly oriented, e.g., approximately 90% of the crystal particles have a common orientation, superconducting matrix capable of supporting large current densities.

  13. Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, A.O.

    1987-03-10

    Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection. 1 fig.

  14. Bipolar plating of metal contacts onto oxide interconnection for solid oxide electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1987-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of forming an adherent metal deposit on a conducting layer of a tube sealed at one end. The tube is immersed with the sealed end down into an aqueous solution containing ions of the metal to be deposited. An ionically conducting aqueous fluid is placed inside the tube and a direct current is passed from a cathode inside the tube to an anode outside the tube. Also disclosed is a multi-layered solid oxide fuel cell tube which consists of an inner porous ceramic support tube, a porous air electrode covering the support tube, a non-porous electrolyte covering a portion of the air electrode, a non-porous conducting interconnection covering the remaining portion of the electrode, and a metal deposit on the interconnection.

  15. Method of adhesion between an oxide layer and a metal layer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jennison, Dwight R.; Bogicevic, Alexander; Kelber, Jeffry A.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2004-09-14

    A method of controlling the wetting characteristics and increasing the adhesion between a metal and an oxide layer. By introducing a negatively-charged species to the surface of an oxide layer, layer-by-layer growth of metal deposited onto the oxide surface is promoted, increasing the adhesion strength of the metal-oxide interface. The negatively-charged species can either be deposited onto the oxide surface or a compound can be deposited that dissociates on, or reacts with, the surface to form the negatively-charged species. The deposited metal adatoms can thereby bond laterally to the negatively-charged species as well as vertically to the oxide surface as well as react with the negatively charged species, be oxidized, and incorporated on or into the surface of the oxide.

  16. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS VIA BUILDING BLOCK SYNTHESES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Craig E. Barnes

    2013-03-05

    A broadly applicable methodology has been developed to prepare new single site catalysts on silica supports. This methodology requires of three critical components: a rigid building block that will be the main structural and compositional component of the support matrix; a family of linking reagents that will be used to insert active metals into the matrix as well as cross link building blocks into a three dimensional matrix; and a clean coupling reaction that will connect building blocks and linking agents together in a controlled fashion. The final piece of conceptual strategy at the center of this methodology involves dosing the building block with known amounts of linking agents so that the targeted connectivity of a linking center to surrounding building blocks is obtained. Achieving targeted connectivities around catalytically active metals in these building block matrices is a critical element of the strategy by which single site catalysts are obtained. This methodology has been demonstrated with a model system involving only silicon and then with two metal-containing systems (titanium and vanadium). The effect that connectivity has on the reactivity of atomically dispersed titanium sites in silica building block matrices has been investigated in the selective oxidation of phenols to benezoquinones. 2-connected titanium sites are found to be five times as active (i.e. initial turnover frequencies) than 4-connected titanium sites (i.e. framework titanium sites).

  17. Project Profile: Thermochemical Heat Storage for CSP Based on Multivalent Metal Oxides

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    General Atomics (GA), under the Thermal Storage FOA, is developing a high-density thermochemical heat storage system based on solid metal oxides.

  18. Non percolative nature of the metal-insulator transition and persistence of local Jahn-Teller distortions in the rhombohedral regime of La1-xCaxMnO3

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Shatnawi, Mouath; Bozin, Emil S.; Mitchell, J. F.; Billinge, Simon J. L.

    2016-04-25

    Evolution of the average and local crystal structure of Ca-doped LaMnO3 has been studied across the metal to insulator (MI) and the orthorhombic to rhombohedral (OR) structural phase transitions over a broad temperature range for two Ca concentrations (x = 0.18,0.22). Combined Rietveld and high real space resolution atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of neutron total scattering data was carried out with aims of exploring the possibility of nanoscale phase separation (PS) in relation to MI transition, and charting the evolution of local Jahn-Teller (JT) distortion of MnO6 octahedra across the OR transition at TS~720 K. The study utilizedmore » explicit two-phase PDF structural modeling, revealing that away from TMI there is no evidence for nanoscale phase coexistence. The local JT distortions disappear abruptly upon crossing into the metallic regime both with doping and temperature, with only a small temperature-independent signature of quenched disorder being observable at low temperature as compared to CaMnO3. The results hence do not support the percolative scenario for the MI transition in La1–xCaxMnO3 based on PS, and question its ubiquity in the manganites. In contrast to LaMnO3 that exhibits long-range orbital correlations and sizable octahedral distortions at low temperature, the doped samples with compositions straddling the MI boundary exhibit correlations (in the insulating regime) limited to only ~1 nm with observably smaller distortions. In the x = 0.22 sample local JT distortions are found to persist across the OR transition and deep into the R phase (up to ~1050 K), where they are crystallographically prohibited. As a result, their magnitude and subnanometer spatial extent remain unchanged.« less

  19. Synthesis of transition-metal phosphides from oxidic precursors by reduction in hydrogen plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guan Jie [Department of Catalytic Chemistry and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Wang Yao [Liaoning Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Technology and Equipments, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Qin Minglei; Yang Ying [Department of Catalytic Chemistry and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Li Xiang [Department of Catalytic Chemistry and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Liaoning Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Technology and Equipments, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Wang Anjie, E-mail: ajwang@dlut.edu.c [Department of Catalytic Chemistry and Engineering, State Key Laboratory of Fine Chemicals, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China); Liaoning Key Laboratory of Petrochemical Technology and Equipments, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116012 (China)

    2009-06-15

    A series of transition metal phosphides, including MoP, WP, CoP, Co{sub 2}P, and Ni{sub 2}P, were synthesized from their oxidic precursors by means of hydrogen plasma reduction under mild conditions. The effects of reduction conditions, such as metal to phosphorus molar ratio, power input, and reduction time, on the synthesis of metal phosphides were investigated. The products were identified by means of XRD characterization. It is indicated that metal phosphides were readily synthesized stoichiometrically from their oxides in hydrogen plasma under mild conditions. - Graphical abstract: Metal phosphides were obtained stoichiometrically from their oxidic precursors by hydrogen plasma reaction under mild conditions.

  20. CO oxidation on gold-supported iron oxides: New insights into strong oxide–metal interactions

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Liang; Liu, Yun; Yang, Fan; Evans, Jaime; Rodriguez, José A.; Liu, Ping

    2015-07-14

    Very active FeOx–Au catalysts for CO oxidation are obtained after depositing nanoparticles of FeO, Fe3O4, and Fe2O3 on a Au(111) substrate. Neither FeO nor Fe2O3 is stable under the reaction conditions. Under an environment of CO/O2, they undergo oxidation (FeO) or reduction (Fe2O3) to yield nanoparticles of Fe3O4 that are not formed in a bulk phase. Using a combined experimental and theoretical approach, we show a strong oxide–metal interaction (SOMI) between Fe3O4 nanostructures and Au(111), which gives the oxide special properties, allows the formation of an active phase, and provides a unique interface to facilitate a catalytic reaction. This workmore » highlights the important role that the SOMI can play in enhancing the catalytic performance of the oxide component in metal–oxide catalysts.« less

  1. Oxidation catalysts comprising metal exchanged hexaaluminate wherein the metal is Sr, Pd, La, and/or Mn

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wickham, David; Cook, Ronald

    2008-10-28

    The present invention provides metal-exchanged hexaaluminate catalysts that exhibit good catalytic activity and/or stability at high temperatures for extended periods with retention of activity as combustion catalysts, and more generally as oxidation catalysts, that make them eminently suitable for use in methane combustion, particularly for use in natural gas fired gas turbines. The hexaaluminate catalysts of this invention are of particular interest for methane combustion processes for minimization of the generation of undesired levels (less than about 10 ppm) of NOx species. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are also useful for oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOC), particularly hydrocarbons. Metal exchanged hexaaluminate oxidation catalysts are further useful for partial oxidation, particularly at high temperatures, of reduced species, particularly hydrocarbons (alkanes and alkenes).

  2. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Metal Oxide Nano-Array Catalysts for Low Temperature Diesel Oxidation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by U. Conn at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about metal oxide nano-array catalysts for...

  3. The atomic level journey from aqueous polyoxometalate to metal oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hou, Yu; Fast, Dylan B.; Ruther, Rose E.; Amador, Jenn M.; Fullmer, Lauren B.; Decker, Shawn R.; Zakharov, Lev N.; Dolgos, Michelle R. Nyman, May

    2015-01-15

    Aqueous precursors tailored for the deposition of thin film materials are desirable for sustainable, simple, low energy production of advanced materials. Yet the simple practice of using aqueous precursors is complicated by the multitude of interactions that occur between ions and water during dehydration. Here we use lithium polyoxoniobate salts to investigate the fundamental interactions in the transition from precursor cluster to oxide film. Small-angle X-ray scattering of solutions, total X-ray scattering of intermediate gels, and morphological and structural characterization of the lithium niobate thin films reveal the atomic level transitions between these states. The studies show that (1) lithium–[H{sub 2}Nb{sub 6}O{sub 19}]{sup 6−} has drastically different solution behaviour than lithium–[Nb{sub 6}O{sub 19}]{sup 8−}, linked to the precursor salt structure (2) in both compositions, the intermediate gel preserves the polyoxoniobate clusters and show similar local order and (3) the morphology and phases of deposited films reflect the ions behaviour throughout the journey from cluster solution to metal oxide. - Graphical abstract: Aqueous lithium polyoxoniobate salts were used to prepare lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) thin films. Fundamental studies were performed to investigate the interactions in the transition from precursor cluster to the oxide film. It was found that acid–base and ion-association chemistries of the aqueous and gel systems significantly affect the key processes in this atom-level journey. - Highlights: • Lithium polyoxoniobate clusters were synthesized with control over Li:Nb ratio as precursors for LiNbO{sub 3} films. • X-ray scattering studies in solution and the solid-state revealed differences controlled by Li:Nb ratio. • Film deposition studies revealed phase, composition and morphology is controlled by Li:Nb ratio. • Cluster to film transformation was revealed using total X-ray scattering and TGA.

  4. Non-equilibrium oxidation states of zirconium during early stages of metal oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Wen; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Herbert, F. William; Yildiz, Bilge

    2015-03-11

    The chemical state of Zr during the initial, self-limiting stage of oxidation on single crystal zirconium (0001), with oxide thickness on the order of 1 nm, was probed by synchrotron x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Quantitative analysis of the Zr 3d spectrum by the spectrum reconstruction method demonstrated the formation of Zr1+, Zr2+, and Zr3+ as non-equilibrium oxidation states, in addition to Zr4+ in the stoichiometric ZrO2. This finding resolves the long-debated question of whether it is possible to form any valence states between Zr0 and Zr4+ at the metal-oxide interface. As a result, the presence of local strong electric fields and the minimization of interfacial energy are assessed and demonstrated as mechanisms that can drive the formation of these non-equilibrium valence states of Zr.

  5. Method of dissolving metal oxides with di- or polyphosphonic acid and a redundant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, Earl P.; Chiarizia, Renato

    1996-01-01

    A method of dissolving metal oxides using a mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

  6. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2015-04-28

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  7. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2014-09-16

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  8. Self assembled multi-layer nanocomposite of graphene and metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Jun; Aksay, Ilhan A; Choi, Daiwon; Kou, Rong; Nie, Zimin; Wang, Donghai; Yang, Zhenguo

    2013-10-22

    Nanocomposite materials having at least two layers, each layer consisting of one metal oxide bonded to at least one graphene layer were developed. The nanocomposite materials will typically have many alternating layers of metal oxides and graphene layers, bonded in a sandwich type construction and will be incorporated into an electrochemical or energy storage device.

  9. Method of making metal oxide ceramic membranes with small pore sizes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Marc A. (Madison, WI); Xu, Qunyin (Madison, WI)

    1992-01-01

    A method for the production of metal oxide ceramic membranes is composed of very small pore size. The process is particularly useful in the creation of titanium and other transition metal oxide membranes. The method utilizes a sol-gel process in which the rate of particle formation is controlled by substituting a relatively large alcohol in the metal alkoxide and by limiting the available water. Stable, transparent metal oxide ceramic membranes are created having a narrow distribution of pore size, with the pore diameter being manipulable in the range of 5 to 40 Angstroms.

  10. Accurate Band-Structure Calculations for the 3d Transition Metal Oxides

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    has developed a method to calculate accurate band structures and bandgap energies for 3d transition metal oxides using an augmented GW formalism. Significance and Impact This approach provides a computationally viable route for high-throughput prediction of band structures and optical properties in transition metal compounds. Accurate Band-Structure Calculations for the 3d Transition Metal Oxides S. Lany, Phys. Rev. B 87, 085112 (2013). Density of states (DOS) and absorption spectrum, shown for

  11. Process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal sulfide sorbents

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E.; Gal, Eli

    1995-01-01

    A process and apparatus for generating elemental sulfur and re-usable metal oxide from spent metal-sulfur compound. Spent metal-sulfur compound is regenerated to re-usable metal oxide by moving a bed of spent metal-sulfur compound progressively through a single regeneration vessel having a first and second regeneration stage and a third cooling and purging stage. The regeneration is carried out and elemental sulfur is generated in the first stage by introducing a first gas of sulfur dioxide which contains oxygen at a concentration less than the stoichiometric amount required for complete oxidation of the spent metal-sulfur compound. A second gas containing sulfur dioxide and excess oxygen at a concentration sufficient for complete oxidation of the partially spent metal-sulfur compound, is introduced into the second regeneration stage. Gaseous sulfur formed in the first regeneration stage is removed prior to introducing the second gas into the second regeneration stage. An oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the third cooling and purging stage. Except for the gaseous sulfur removed from the first stage, the combined gases derived from the regeneration stages which are generally rich in sulfur dioxide and lean in oxygen, are removed from the regenerator as an off-gas and recycled as the first and second gas into the regenerator. Oxygen concentration is controlled by adding air, oxygen-enriched air or pure oxygen to the recycled off-gas.

  12. Inductive crystal field control in layered metal oxides with correlated electrons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balachandran, P. V.; Cammarata, A.; Rondinelli, J. M.; Nelson-Cheeseman, B. B.; Bhattacharya, A.

    2014-07-01

    We show that the NiO{sub 6} crystal field energies can be tailored indirectly via heterovalent A cation ordering in layered (La,A)NiO{sub 4} RuddlesdenPopper (RP) oxides, where A = Sr, Ca, or Ba, using density functional calculations. We leverage as a driving force the electrostatic interactions between charged [LaO]{sup 1+} and neutral [AO]{sup 0} planes to inductively tune the NiO bond distortions, without intentional doping or epitaxial strain, altering the correlated d-orbital energies. We use this strategy to design cation ordered LaCaNiO{sub 4} and LaBaNiO{sub 4} with distortions favoring enhanced Ni e{sub g} orbital polarization, and find local electronic structure signatures analogous to those in RP La-cuprates, i.e., parent phases of the high-temperature superconducting oxides.

  13. Regenerable MgO promoted metal oxide oxygen carriers for chemical looping combustion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Miller, Duane D.

    2014-08-19

    The disclosure provides an oxygen carrier comprised of a plurality of metal oxide particles in contact with a plurality of MgO promoter particles. The MgO promoter particles increase the reaction rate and oxygen utilization of the metal oxide when contacting with a gaseous hydrocarbon at a temperature greater than about 725.degree. C. The promoted oxide solid is generally comprised of less than about 25 wt. % MgO, and may be prepared by physical mixing, incipient wetness impregnation, or other methods known in the art. The oxygen carrier exhibits a crystalline structure of the metal oxide and a crystalline structure of MgO under XRD crystallography, and retains these crystalline structures over subsequent redox cycles. In an embodiment, the metal oxide is Fe.sub.2O.sub.3, and the gaseous hydrocarbon is comprised of methane.

  14. Method for heat treating and sintering metal oxides with microwave radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E.; Dykes, Norman L.; Meek, Thomas T.

    1989-01-01

    A method for microwave sintering materials, primarily metal oxides, is described. Metal oxides do not normally absorb microwave radiation at temperatures ranging from about room temperature to several hundred degrees centrigrade are sintered with microwave radiation without the use of the heretofore required sintering aids. This sintering is achieved by enclosing a compact of the oxide material in a housing or capsule formed of a oxide which has microwave coupling properties at room temprature up to at least the microwave coupling temperature of the oxide material forming the compact. The heating of the housing effects the initial heating of the oxide material forming the compact by heat transference and then functions as a thermal insulator for the encased oxide material after the oxide material reaches a sufficient temperature to adequately absorb or couple with microwave radiation for heating thereof to sintering temperature.

  15. Extrusion of metal oxide superconducting wire, tube or ribbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dusek, Joseph T. (Lombard, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A process for extruding a superconducting metal oxide composition YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x provides a wire (tube or ribbon) having a cohesive mass and a degree of flexibility together with enhanced electrical properties. Wire diameters in the range of 6-85 mils have been produced with smaller wires on the order of 10 mils in diameter exhibiting enhanced flexibility for forming braided, or multistrand, configurations for greater current carrying capacity. The composition for extrusion contains a polymeric binder to provide a cohesive mass to bind the particles together during the extrusion process with the binder subsequently removed at lower temperatures during sintering. The composition for extrusion further includes a deflocculent, an organic plasticizer and a solvent which also are subsequently removed during sintering. Electrically conductive tubing with an inner diameter of 52 mil and an outer diameter of 87-355 mil has also been produced. Flat ribbons have been produced in the range of 10-125 mil thick by 100-500 mil wide. The superconducting wire, tube or ribbon may include an outer ceramic insulating sheath co-extruded with the wire, tubing or ribbon.

  16. Extrusion of metal oxide superconducting wire, tube or ribbon

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dusek, Joseph T.

    1993-10-05

    A process for extruding a superconducting metal oxide composition YBa.sub.2 Cu.sub.3 O.sub.7-x provides a wire (tube or ribbon) having a cohesive mass and a degree of flexibility together with enhanced electrical properties. Wire diameters in the range of 6-85 mils have been produced with smaller wires on the order of 10 mils in diameter exhibiting enhanced flexibility for forming braided, or multistrand, configurations for greater current carrying capacity. The composition for extrusion contains a polymeric binder to provide a cohesive mass to bind the particles together during the extrusion process with the binder subsequently removed at lower temperatures during sintering. The composition for extrusion further includes a deflocculent, an organic plasticizer and a solvent which also are subsequently removed during sintering. Electrically conductive tubing with an inner diameter of 52 mil and an outer diameter of 87-355 mil has also been produced. Flat ribbons have been produced in the range of 10-125 mil thick by 100-500 mil wide. The superconducting wire, tube or ribbon may include an outer ceramic insulating sheath co-extruded with the wire, tubing or ribbon.

  17. Production of crystalline refractory metal oxides containing colloidal metal precipitates and useful as solar-effective absorbers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narayan, Jagdish; Chen, Yok

    1983-01-01

    This invention is a new process for producing refractory crystalline oxides having improved or unusual properties. The process comprises the steps of forming a doped-metal crystal of the oxide; exposing the doped crystal in a bomb to a reducing atmosphere at superatmospheric pressure and a temperature effecting precipitation of the dopant metal in the crystal lattice of the oxide but insufficient to effect net diffusion of the metal out of the lattice; and then cooling the crystal. Preferably, the cooling step is effected by quenching. The process forms colloidal precipitates of the metal in the oxide lattice. The process may be used, for example, to produce thermally stable black MgO crystalline bodies containing magnetic colloidal precipitates consisting of about 99% Ni. The Ni-containing bodies are solar-selective absorbers, having a room-temperature absorptivity of about 0.96 over virtually all of the solar-energy spectrum and exhibiting an absorption edge in the region of 2 .mu.m. The process parameters can be varied to control the average size of the precipitates. The process can produce a black MgO crystalline body containing colloidal Ni precipitates, some of which have the face-centered-cubic structure and others of which have the body-centered cubic structure. The products of the process are metal-precipitate-containing refractory crystalline oxides which have improved or unique optical, mechanical, magnetic, and/or electronic properties.

  18. METHOD FOR THE PREPARATION OF STABLE ACTINIDE METAL OXIDE-CONTAINING SLURRIES AND OF THE OXIDES THEREFOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hansen, R.S.; Minturn, R.E.

    1958-02-25

    This patent deals with a method of preparing actinide metal oxides of a very fine particle size and of forming stable suspensions therefrom. The process consists of dissolving the nitrate of the actinide element in a combustible organic solvent, converting the solution obtained into a spray, and igniting the spray whereby an oxide powder is obtained. The oxide powder is then slurried in an aqueous soiution of a substance which is adsorbable by said oxides, dspersed in a colloid mill whereby a suspension is obtained, and electrodialyzed until a low spectiic conductance is reached.

  19. Reactivity of biogenic manganese oxide for metal sequestration and photochemistry: Computational solid state physics study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, K.D.; Sposito, G.

    2010-02-01

    Many microbes, including both bacteria and fungi, produce manganese (Mn) oxides by oxidizing soluble Mn(II) to form insoluble Mn(IV) oxide minerals, a kinetically much faster process than abiotic oxidation. These biogenic Mn oxides drive the Mn cycle, coupling it with diverse biogeochemical cycles and determining the bioavailability of environmental contaminants, mainly through strong adsorption and redox reactions. This mini review introduces recent findings based on quantum mechanical density functional theory that reveal the detailed mechanisms of toxic metal adsorption at Mn oxide surfaces and the remarkable role of Mn vacancies in the photochemistry of these minerals.

  20. Method for the rapid synthesis of large quantities of metal oxide nanowires at low temperatures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sunkara, Mahendra Kumar; Vaddiraju, Sreeram; Mozetic, Miran; Cvelbar, Uros

    2009-09-22

    A process for the rapid synthesis of metal oxide nanoparticles at low temperatures and methods which facilitate the fabrication of long metal oxide nanowires. The method is based on treatment of metals with oxygen plasma. Using oxygen plasma at low temperatures allows for rapid growth unlike other synthesis methods where nanomaterials take a long time to grow. Density of neutral oxygen atoms in plasma is a controlling factor for the yield of nanowires. The oxygen atom density window differs for different materials. By selecting the optimal oxygen atom density for various materials the yield can be maximized for nanowire synthesis of the metal.

  1. Long-term research in Japan: amorphous metals, metal oxide varistors, high-power semiconductors and superconducting generators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hane, G.J.; Yorozu, M.; Sogabe, T.; Suzuki, S.

    1985-04-01

    The review revealed that significant activity is under way in the research of amorphous metals, but that little fundamental work is being pursued on metal oxide varistors and high-power semiconductors. Also, the investigation of long-term research program plans for superconducting generators reveals that activity is at a low level, pending the recommendations of a study currently being conducted through Japan's Central Electric Power Council.

  2. Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijesekera, Tilak; Lyons, James E.; Ellis, Jr., Paul E.; Bhinde, Manoj V.

    1998-01-01

    Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides.

  3. Alkane oxidation with porphyrins and metal complexes thereof having haloalkyl side chains

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijesekera, T.; Lyons, J.E.; Ellis, P.E. Jr.; Bhinde, M.V.

    1998-06-23

    Transition metal complexes of meso-haloalkylporphyrins are disclosed, wherein the haloalkyl groups contain 2 to 8 carbon atoms have been found to be highly effective catalysts for oxidation of alkanes and for the decomposition of hydroperoxides. 7 figs.

  4. Thermal and Physical Properties of Plutonium Dioxide Produced from the Oxidation of Metal: a Data Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wayne, David M.

    2014-01-13

    The ARIES Program at the Los Alamos National Laboratory removes plutonium metal from decommissioned nuclear weapons, and converts it to plutonium dioxide in a specially-designed Direct Metal Oxidation furnace. The plutonium dioxide is analyzed for specific surface area, particle size distribution, and moisture content. The purpose of these analyses is to certify that the plutonium dioxide powder meets or exceeds the specifications of the end-user, and the specifications for the packaging and transport of nuclear materials. Analytical results from plutonium dioxide from ARIES development activities, from ARIES production activities, from muffle furnace oxidation of metal, and from metal that was oxidized over a lengthy time interval in air at room temperature, are presented. The processes studied produce plutonium dioxide powder with distinct differences in measured properties, indicating the significant influence of oxidation conditions on physical properties.

  5. Non-uniform solute segregation at semi-coherent metal/oxide interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Choudhury, Samrat; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Fluss, Michael J.; Hsiung, Luke L.; Misra, Amit; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2015-08-26

    The properties and performance of metal/oxide nanocomposites are governed by the structure and chemistry of the metal/oxide interfaces. Here we report an integrated theoretical and experimental study examining the role of interfacial structure, particularly misfit dislocations, on solute segregation at a metal/oxide interface. We find that the local oxygen environment, which varies significantly between the misfit dislocations and the coherent terraces, dictates the segregation tendency of solutes to the interface. Depending on the nature of the solute and local oxygen content, segregation to misfit dislocations can change from attraction to repulsion, revealing the complex interplay between chemistry and structure at metal/oxide interfaces. These findings indicate that the solute chemistry at misfit dislocations is controlled by the dislocation density and oxygen content. As a result, fundamental thermodynamic concepts – the Hume-Rothery rules and the Ellingham diagram – qualitatively predict the segregation behavior of solutes to such interfaces, providing design rules for novel interfacial chemistries.

  6. Thermochemical cycle of a mixed metal oxide for augmentation of thermal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    energy storage in solid particles. (Conference) | SciTech Connect Thermochemical cycle of a mixed metal oxide for augmentation of thermal energy storage in solid particles. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Thermochemical cycle of a mixed metal oxide for augmentation of thermal energy storage in solid particles. Abstract not provided. Authors: Ehrhart, Brian David ; Coker, Eric Nicholas ; Siegel, Nathan Phillip ; Weimer, Alan Wesley. Publication Date: 2013-06-01 OSTI Identifier:

  7. Alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide double alkoxide precursors to alkali metal yttrium oxide nanomaterials

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Neville, Michael L.; Sears, Jeremiah Matthew; Cramer, Roger

    2016-03-15

    In this study, a series of alkali metal yttrium neo-pentoxide ([AY(ONep)4]) compounds were developed as precursors to alkali yttrium oxide (AYO2) nanomaterials. The reaction of yttrium amide ([Y(NR2)3] where R=Si(CH3)3) with four equivalents of H-ONep followed by addition of [A(NR2)] (A=Li, Na, K) or Ao (Ao=Rb, Cs) led to the formation of a complex series of AnY(ONep)3+n species, crystallographically identified as [Y2Li3(μ3-ONep)(μ3-HONep)(μ-ONep)5(ONep)3(HONep)2] (1), [YNa2(μ3-ONep)4(ONep)]2 (2), {[Y2K3(μ3-ONep)3(μ-ONep)4(ONep)2(ηξ-tol)2][Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4]•ηx-tol]} (3), [Y4K2(μ4-O)(μ3-ONep)8(ONep)4] (3a), [Y2Rb3(μ4-ONep)3(μ-ONep)6] (4), and [Y2Cs4(μ6-O)(μ3-ONep)6(μ3-HONep)2(ONep)2(ηx-tol)4]•tol (5). Compounds 1–5 were investigated as single source precursors to AYOx nanomaterials following solvothermal routes (pyridine, 185 °C for 24h). The final products after thermal processing weremore » found by powder X-ray diffraction experiments to be Y2O3 with variable sized particles based on transmission electron diffraction. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy studies indicated that the heavier alkali metal species were present in the isolated nanomaterials.« less

  8. Evaluation of transition metal oxide as carrier-selective contacts for silicon heterojunction solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, L.; Boccard, Matthieu; Holman, Zachary; Bertoni, M.

    2015-04-06

    "Reducing light absorption in the non-active solar cell layers, while enabling the extraction of the photogenerated minority carriers at quasi-Fermi levels are two key factors to improve current generation and voltage, and therefore efficiency of silicon heterojunction solar devices. To address these two critical aspects, transition metal oxide materials have been proposed as alternative to the n- and p-type amorphous silicon used as electron and hole selective contacts, respectively. Indeed, transition metal oxides such as molybdenum oxide, titanium oxide, nickel oxide or tungsten oxide combine a wide band gap typically over 3 eV with a band structure and theoretical band alignment with silicon that results in high transparency to the solar spectrum and in selectivity for the transport of only one carrier type. Improving carrier extraction or injection using transition metal oxide has been a topic of investigation in the field of organic solar cells and organic LEDs; from these pioneering works a lot of knowledge has been gained on materials properties, ways to control these during synthesis and deposition, and their impact on device performance. Recently, the transfer of some of this knowledge to silicon solar cells and the successful application of some metal oxide to contact heterojunction devices have gained much attention. In this contribution, we investigate the suitability of various transition metal oxide films (molybdenum oxide, titanium oxide, and tungsten oxide) deposited either by thermal evaporation or sputtering as transparent hole or electron selective transport layer for silicon solar cells. In addition to systematically characterize their optical and structural properties, we use photoemission spectroscopy to relate compound stoichiometry to band structure and characterize band alignment to silicon. The direct silicon/metal oxide interface is further analyzed by quasi-steady state photoconductance decay method to assess the quality of surface passivation. In complement, we construct full device structures incorporating in some cases surface passivation schemes, with measured initial conversion efficiency over 15% and evaluate the carrier transport properties using temperature-dependent current-voltage and capacitance-voltage measurements. With this detailed characterization study, we aim at providing the framework to assess the potential of a material as a carrier selective contact and the understanding of how each of the aforementioned parameters on the metal oxide films influence the full solar cell operating performances.

  9. Effective alkaline metal-catalyzed oxidative delignification of hybrid poplar

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bhalla, Aditya; Bansal, Namita; Stoklosa, Ryan J.; Fountain, Mackenzie; Ralph, John; Hodge, David B.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-02-09

    Background: Strategies to improve copper-catalyzed alkaline hydrogen peroxide (Cu-AHP) pretreatment of hybrid poplar were investigated. These improvements included a combination of increasing hydrolysis yields, while simultaneously decreasing process inputs through (i) more efficient utilization of H2O2 and (ii) the addition of an alkaline extraction step prior to the metal-catalyzed AHP pretreatment. We hypothesized that utilizing this improved process could substantially lower the chemical inputs needed during pretreatment. Results: Hybrid poplar was pretreated utilizing a modified process in which an alkaline extraction step was incorporated prior to the Cu-AHP treatment step and H2O2 was added batch-wise over the course of 10more » h. Our results revealed that the alkaline pre-extraction step improved both lignin and xylan solubilization, which ultimately led to improved glucose (86 %) and xylose (95 %) yields following enzymatic hydrolysis. An increase in the lignin solubilization was also observed with fed-batch H2O2 addition relative to batch-only addition, which again resulted in increased glucose and xylose yields (77 and 93 % versus 63 and 74 %, respectively). Importantly, combining these strategies led to significantly improved sugar yields (96 % glucose and 94 % xylose) following enzymatic hydrolysis. In addition, we found that we could substantially lower the chemical inputs (enzyme, H2O2, and catalyst), while still maintaining high product yields utilizing the improved Cu-AHP process. This pretreatment also provided a relatively pure lignin stream consisting of ≥90 % Klason lignin and only 3 % xylan and 2 % ash following precipitation. Two-dimensional heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (2D HSQC) NMR and size-exclusion chromatography demonstrated that the solubilized lignin was high molecular weight (Mw ≈ 22,000 Da) and only slightly oxidized relative to lignin from untreated poplar. In conclusion: This study demonstrated that the fed-batch, two-stage Cu-AHP pretreatment process was effective in pretreating hybrid poplar for its conversion into fermentable sugars. Results showed sugar yields near the theoretical maximum were achieved from enzymatically hydrolyzed hybrid poplar by incorporating an alkaline extraction step prior to pretreatment and by efficiently utilizing H2O2 during the Cu-AHP process. Significantly, this study reports high sugar yields from woody biomass treated with an AHP pretreatment under mild reaction conditions.« less

  10. Porous desulfurization sorbent pellets containing a reactive metal oxide and an inert zirconium compound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gardner, Todd H.; Gasper-Galvin, Lee D.

    1996-12-01

    Sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from coal gas are prepared by combining a reactive oxide, in particular zinc oxide, with a zirconium compound such as an oxide, silicate, or aluminate of zirconium, and an inorganic binder and pelletizing and calcining the mixture. Alternately, the zinc oxide may be replaced by copper oxide or a combination of copper, molybdenum, and manganese oxides. The pellet components may be mixed in dry form, moistened to produce a paste, and converted to pellets by forming an aqueous slurry of the components and spray drying the slurry, or the reactive oxide may be formed on existing zirconium-containing catalyst-carrier pellets by infusing a solution of a salt of the active metal onto the existing pellets and firing at a high temperature to produce the oxide. Pellets made according to this invention show a high reactivity with hydrogen sulfide and durability such as to be useful over repeated cycles of sorption and regeneration.

  11. Synthesis of high T.sub.C superconducting coatings and patterns by melt writing and oxidation of metallic precursor alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Wei; Vander Sande, John B.

    1998-01-01

    A method is provided for fabrication of superconducting oxides and superconducting oxide composites and for joining superconductors to other materials. A coating of a molten alloy containing the metallic elements of the oxide is applied to a substrate surface and oxidized to form the superconducting oxide. A material can be contacted to the molten alloy which is subsequently oxidized joining the material to the resulting superconducting oxide coating. Substrates of varied composition and shape can be coated or joined by this method.

  12. Observation of complete space-charge-limited transport in metal-oxide-graphene heterostructure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Wei; Wang, Fei; Fang, Jingyue; Wang, Guang; Qin, Shiqiao; Zhang, Xue-Ao E-mail: xazhang@nudt.edu.cn; Wang, Chaocheng; Wang, Li E-mail: xazhang@nudt.edu.cn

    2015-01-12

    The metal-oxide-graphene heterostructures have abundant physical connotations. As one of the most important physical properties, the electric transport property of the gold-chromium oxide-graphene heterostructure has been studied. The experimental measurement shows that the conductive mechanism is dominated by the space-charge-limited transport, a kind of bulk transport of an insulator with charge traps. Combining the theoretical analysis, some key parameters such as the carrier mobility and trap energy also are obtained. The study of the characteristics of the metal-oxide-graphene heterostructures is helpful to investigate the graphene-based electronic and photoelectric devices.

  13. Ultra-low contact resistance at an epitaxial metal/oxide heterojunction through interstitial site doping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gu, Meng; Sushko, Petr V.; Yang, Hao; Wang, Chong M.; Browning, Nigel D.

    2013-08-07

    The ability to form reliable, low-resistance Ohmic contacts is of critical importance to the ongoing development of oxide electronics. Most metals form Schottky barriers when deposited on oxide surfaces. Ohmic contacts rarely occur, and the associated contact resistances are not particularly low. Little is known at an atomistic level about what leads to a good Ohmic contact on a wide-gap oxide. Here we describe the structure of a simple, yet exceptionally low-contact resistance Ohmic metal on an important oxide semiconductor -- epitaxial Cr on Nb-doped SrTiO3(001). Heteroepitaxial growth is accompanied by Cr diffusion into the STO and occupation of interstitial sites within the first few atomic planes. Interstitial Cr is ionized and the resulting electrons occupy the STO conduction band, resulting in effective metallization near the interface.

  14. Plasmonic transparent conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-01-28

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a doped oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the doped oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The doped metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.18/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at a temperature of 25.degree. C. The optical response of the doped oxide materials results from the high carrier concentration of the doped metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration. These changes in effective carrier densities of conducting metal oxide nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary doped metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  15. Electronically conducting metal oxide nanoparticles and films for optical sensing applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohodnicki, Jr., Paul R.; Wang, Congjun; Andio, Mark A

    2014-09-16

    The disclosure relates to a method of detecting a change in a chemical composition by contacting a conducting oxide material with a monitored stream, illuminating the conducting oxide material with incident light, collecting exiting light, monitoring an optical signal based on a comparison of the incident light and the exiting light, and detecting a shift in the optical signal. The conducting metal oxide has a carrier concentration of at least 10.sup.17/cm.sup.3, a bandgap of at least 2 eV, and an electronic conductivity of at least 10.sup.-1 S/cm, where parameters are specified at the gas stream temperature. The optical response of the conducting oxide materials is proposed to result from the high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity of the conducting metal oxide, and the resulting impact of changing gas atmospheres on that relatively high carrier concentration and electronic conductivity. These changes in effective carrier densities and electronic conductivity of conducting metal oxide films and nanoparticles are postulated to be responsible for the change in measured optical absorption associated with free carriers. Exemplary conducting metal oxides include but are not limited to Al-doped ZnO, Sn-doped In.sub.2O.sub.3, Nb-doped TiO.sub.2, and F-doped SnO.sub.2.

  16. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN); Dykes, Norman L. (Oak Ridge, TN); Tiegs, Terry N. (Lenoir City, TN)

    1992-01-01

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  17. Method of nitriding, carburizing, or oxidizing refractory metal articles using microwaves

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcombe, C.E.; Dykes, N.L.; Tiegs, T.N.

    1992-10-13

    A method of nitriding an article of refractory-nitride-forming metal or metalloids. A consolidated metal or metalloid article is placed inside a microwave oven and nitrogen containing gas is introduced into the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is heated to a temperature sufficient to react the metal or metalloid with the nitrogen by applying a microwave energy within the microwave oven. The metal or metalloid article is maintained at that temperature for a period of time sufficient to convert the article of metal or metalloid to an article of refractory nitride. in addition, a method of applying a coating, such as a coating of an oxide, a carbide, or a carbo-nitride, to an article of metal or metalloid by microwave heating.

  18. Fabrication of superconducting metal-oxide textiles by heating impregnated polymeric material in a weakly oxidizing atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Van den Sype, J.S.

    1993-07-13

    A process is described for producing crystalline fibers, textiles or shapes comprised of YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x] where x varies from about 0 to about 0.4, said process comprising: (a) impregnating a preformed organic polymeric material with three metal compounds to provide metal elements in said material in substantially the atomic ratio occurring in said YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x]; (b) heating said impregnated material in a weakly oxidizing atmosphere containing from about 0.05% to about 2% oxygen by volume to a temperature sufficiently high to at least partially pyrolize and oxidize said organic material and at least partially oxidize said metal compounds substantially without ignition of said organic material and without formation of a molten phase or reaching a decomposition temperature of said YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7[minus]x]; and (c) cooling the resulting material in at least a moderately oxidizing atmosphere to room temperature so as to obtain said fibers, textiles or shapes.

  19. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, S.G.; Littlejohn, D.; Shi, Y.

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH{sub 3}. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: (a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20 and 90 C to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution. 34 figs.

  20. Metal regeneration of iron chelates in nitric oxide scrubbing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chang, Shih-Ger; Littlejohn, David; Shi, Yao

    1997-08-19

    The present invention relates to a process of using metal particles to reduce NO to NH.sub.3. More specifically, the invention concerns an improved process to regenerate iron (II) (CHELATE) by reduction of iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) complex, which process comprises: a) contacting an aqueous solution containing iron (II) (CHELATE) (NO) with metal particles at between about 20.degree. and 90.degree. C. to reduce NO present, produce ammonia or an ammonium ion, and produce free iron (II) (CHELATE) at a pH of between about 3 and 8. The process is useful to remove NO from flue gas and reduce pollution.

  1. Mesoporous metal oxide microsphere electrode compositions and their methods of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Parans Paranthaman, Mariappan; Bi, Zhonghe; Bridges, Craig A; Brown, Gilbert M

    2014-12-16

    Compositions and methods of making are provided for treated mesoporous metal oxide microspheres electrodes. The compositions comprise (a) microspheres with an average diameter between 200 nanometers (nm) and 10 micrometers (.mu.m); (b) mesopores on the surface and interior of the microspheres, wherein the mesopores have an average diameter between 1 nm and 50 nm and the microspheres have a surface area between 50 m.sup.2/g and 500 m.sup.2/g, and wherein the composition has an electrical conductivity of at least 1.times.10.sup.-7 S/cm at 25.degree. C. and 60 MPa. The methods of making comprise forming a mesoporous metal oxide microsphere composition and treating the mesoporous metal oxide microspheres by at least one method selected from the group consisting of: (i) annealing in a reducing atmosphere, (ii) doping with an aliovalent element, and (iii) coating with a coating composition.

  2. Band gap tuning in transition metal oxides by site-specific substitution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lee, Ho Nyung; Chisholm, Jr., Matthew F; Jellison, Jr., Gerald Earle; Singh, David J; Choi, Woo Seok

    2013-12-24

    A transition metal oxide insulator composition having a tuned band gap includes a transition metal oxide having a perovskite or a perovskite-like crystalline structure. The transition metal oxide includes at least one first element selected form the group of Bi, Ca, Ba, Sr, Li, Na, Mg, K, Pb, and Pr; and at least one second element selected from the group of Ti, Al, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Re, Os, Ir, and Pt. At least one correlated insulator is integrated into the crystalline structure, including REMO.sub.3, wherein RE is at least one Rare Earth element, and wherein M is at least one element selected from the group of Co, V, Cr, Ni, Mn, and Fe. The composition is characterized by a band gap of less of 4.5 eV.

  3. Electrocatalytic Activity of Transition Metal Oxide-Carbon Composites for Oxygen Reduction in Alkaline Batteries and Fuel Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Malkhandi, S; Trinh, P; Manohar, AK; Jayachandrababu, KC; Kindler, A; Prakash, GKS; Narayanan, SR

    2013-06-07

    Conductive transition metal oxides (perovskites, spinels and pyrochlores) are attractive as catalysts for the air electrode in alkaline rechargeable metal-air batteries and fuel cells. We have found that conductive carbon materials when added to transition metal oxides such as calcium-doped lanthanum cobalt oxide, nickel cobalt oxide and calcium-doped lanthanum manganese cobalt oxide increase the electrocatalytic activity of the oxide for oxygen reduction by a factor of five to ten. We have studied rotating ring-disk electrodes coated with (a) various mass ratios of carbon and transition metal oxide, (b) different types of carbon additives and (c) different types of transition metal oxides. Our experiments and analysis establish that in such composite catalysts, carbon is the primary electro- catalyst for the two-electron electro-reduction of oxygen to hydroperoxide while the transition metal oxide decomposes the hydroperoxide to generate additional oxygen that enhances the observed current resulting in an apparent four-electron process. These findings are significant in that they change the way we interpret previous reports in the scientific literature on the electrocatalytic activity of various transition metal oxide- carbon composites for oxygen reduction, especially where carbon is assumed to be an additive that just enhances the electronic conductivity of the oxide catalyst. (C) 2013 The Electrochemical Society. All rights reserved.

  4. Determination of Interfacial Adhesion Strength between Oxide Scale and Substrate for Metallic SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Wenning N.; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-01-21

    The interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the substrate is crucial to the reliability and durability of metallic interconnects in SOFC operating environments. It is necessary, therefore, to establish a methodology to quantify the interfacial adhesion strength between the oxide scale and the metallic interconnect substrate, and furthermore to design and optimize the interconnect material as well as the coating materials to meet the design life of an SOFC system. In this paper, we present an integrated experimental/analytical methodology for quantifying the interfacial adhesion strength between oxide scale and a ferritic stainless steel interconnect. Stair-stepping indentation tests are used in conjunction with subsequent finite element analyses to predict the interfacial strength between the oxide scale and Crofer 22 APU substrate.

  5. Structure and Electronic Properties of MoVO type Mixed-metal Oxides ¿ a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Combined View by Experiment and Theory (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structure and Electronic Properties of MoVO type Mixed-metal Oxides ¿ a Combined View by Experiment and Theory Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structure and Electronic Properties of MoVO type Mixed-metal Oxides ¿ a Combined View by Experiment and Theory Authors: Chiu, C ; Vogt, T ; Zhao, L ; Genest, A ; Rosch, N Publication Date: 2015-07-01 OSTI Identifier: 1229398 Report Number(s): BNL--111474-2015-JA

  6. Revealing the True Nature of a Metal Oxide | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Revealing the True Nature of a Metal Oxide Extensive calculations revealed that the calcium-iridium-oxygen compound CaIrO3 is a Slater-type insulator, putting to rest the debate of whether the insulating nature of the metal oxide is Mott-type or Slater-type. While both types are insulators, the insulating properties in Mott types arise from electron repulsion while in Slater types magnetic ordering plays a prominent role. Through a series of calculations, the team described the types of

  7. New strain states and radical property tuning of metal oxides using a

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    nanocomposite thin film approach (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect New strain states and radical property tuning of metal oxides using a nanocomposite thin film approach Citation Details In-Document Search Title: New strain states and radical property tuning of metal oxides using a nanocomposite thin film approach Authors: MacManus-Driscoll, Judith [1] ; Suwardi, Ady [1] Search SciTech Connect for author "Suwardi, Ady" Search SciTech Connect for ORCID "0000000273420431"

  8. Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Oxidation/Reduction Reactions at the Metal Contact-TlBr Interface: An X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study Authors: Nelson, A J ; Swanberg, E L ; Voss, L F ; Graff, R T ; Conway, A M ; Nikolic, R J ; Payne, S A ; Kim, H ; Cirignano, L ; Shah, K Publication Date:

  9. Periodic Trends in Highly Dispersed Groups IV and V Supported Metal Oxide

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Catalysts for Alkene Epoxidation with H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Periodic Trends in Highly Dispersed Groups IV and V Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts for Alkene Epoxidation with H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Periodic Trends in Highly Dispersed Groups IV and V Supported Metal Oxide Catalysts for Alkene Epoxidation with H[subscript 2]O[subscript 2] Authors: Thornburg, Nicholas E. ; Thompson, Anthony B. ; Notestein,

  10. Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery electrodes

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery electrodes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Additional capacities seen in metal oxide lithium-ion battery electrodes Authors: Hu, Yan-Yan ; Liu, Zigeng ; Nam, Kyung-Wan ; Borkiewicz, Olaf ; Cheng, Jun ; Hua, Xiao ; Dunstan, Matthew ; Yu, Xiqian ; Wiaderek, Kamila ; Du, Lin-Shu ; Chapman, Karena W. ; Chupas, Peter J. ; Yang, Xiao-Qing ; Grey, Clare P. Publication Date: 2013-11-03 OSTI

  11. Electroactive compositions with poly(arylene oxide) and stabilized lithium metal particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Zhengcheng; Yuan, Shengwen; Amine, Khalil

    2015-05-12

    An electroactive composition includes an anodic material; a poly(arylene oxide); and stabilized lithium metal particles; where the stabilized lithium metal particles have a size less than about 200 .mu.m in diameter, are coated with a lithium salt, are present in an amount of about 0.1 wt % to about 5 wt %, and are dispersed throughout the composition. Lithium secondary batteries including the electroactive composition along with methods of making the electroactive composition are also discussed.

  12. Low temperature formation of electrode having electrically conductive metal oxide surface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Simone; Anders, Andre; Brown, Ian G.; McLarnon, Frank R.; Kong, Fanping

    1998-01-01

    A low temperature process is disclosed for forming metal suboxides on substrates by cathodic arc deposition by either controlling the pressure of the oxygen present in the deposition chamber, or by controlling the density of the metal flux, or by a combination of such adjustments, to thereby control the ratio of oxide to metal in the deposited metal suboxide coating. The density of the metal flux may, in turn, be adjusted by controlling the discharge current of the arc, by adjusting the pulse length (duration of on cycle) of the arc, and by adjusting the frequency of the arc, or any combination of these parameters. In a preferred embodiment, a low temperature process is disclosed for forming an electrically conductive metal suboxide, such as, for example, an electrically conductive suboxide of titanium, on an electrode surface, such as the surface of a nickel oxide electrode, by such cathodic arc deposition and control of the deposition parameters. In the preferred embodiment, the process results in a titanium suboxide-coated nickel oxide electrode exhibiting reduced parasitic evolution of oxygen during charging of a cell made using such an electrode as the positive electrode, as well as exhibiting high oxygen overpotential, resulting in suppression of oxygen evolution at the electrode at full charge of the cell.

  13. Spinel-structured metal oxide on a substrate and method of making same by molecular beam epitaxy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chambers, Scott A.

    2006-02-21

    A method of making a spinel-structured metal oxide on a substrate by molecular beam epitaxy, comprising the step of supplying activated oxygen, a first metal atom flux, and at least one other metal atom flux to the surface of the substrate, wherein the metal atom fluxes are individually controlled at the substrate so as to grow the spinel-structured metal oxide on the substrate and the metal oxide is substantially in a thermodynamically stable state during the growth of the metal oxide. A particular embodiment of the present invention encompasses a method of making a spinel-structured binary ferrite, including Co ferrite, without the need of a post-growth anneal to obtain the desired equilibrium state.

  14. Inorganic metal oxide/organic polymer nanocomposites and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

    2004-03-30

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal inorganic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophillic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the composite material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  15. Inorganic Metal Oxide/Organic Polymer Nanocomposites And Method Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

    2004-11-16

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal in organic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophilic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  16. Method of making metal oxide ceramic powders by using a combustible amino acid compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pederson, L.R.; Chick, L.A.; Exarhos, G.J.

    1992-05-19

    This invention is directed to the formation of homogeneous, aqueous precursor mixtures of at least one substantially soluble metal salt and a substantially soluble, combustible co-reactant compound, typically an amino acid. This produces, upon evaporation, a substantially homogeneous intermediate material having a total solids level which would support combustion. The homogeneous intermediate material essentially comprises highly dispersed or solvated metal constituents and the co-reactant compound. The intermediate material is quite flammable. A metal oxide powder results on ignition of the intermediate product which combusts same to produce the product powder.

  17. Method of making metal oxide ceramic powders by using a combustible amino acid compound

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pederson, Larry R.; Chick, Lawrence A.; Exarhos, Gregory J.

    1992-01-01

    This invention is directed to the formation of homogeneous, aqueous precursor mixtures of at least one substantially soluble metal salt and a substantially soluble, combustible co-reactant compound, typically an amino acid. This produces, upon evaporation, a substantially homogeneous intermediate material having a total solids level which would support combustion. The homogeneous intermediate material essentially comprises highly dispersed or solvated metal constituents and the co-reactant compound. The intermediate material is quite flammable. A metal oxide powder results on ignition of the intermediate product which combusts same to produce the product powder.

  18. Process for making surfactant capped metal oxide nanocrystals, and products produced by the process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul; Rockenberger, Joerg

    2006-01-10

    Disclosed is a process for making surfactant capped nanocrystals of metal oxides which are dispersable in organic solvents. The process comprises decomposing a metal cupferron complex of the formula MXCupX, wherein M is a metal, and Cup is a N-substituted N-Nitroso hydroxylamine, in the presence of a coordinating surfactant, the reaction being conducted at a temperature ranging from about 150 to about 400.degree. C., for a period of time sufficient to complete the reaction. Also disclosed are compounds made by the process.

  19. Electron lone pair distortion facilitated metal-insulator transition in ?-Pb{sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wangoh, L.; Quackenbush, N. F.; Marley, P. M.; Banerjee, S.; Sallis, S.; Fischer, D. A.; Woicik, J. C.; Piper, L. F. J.

    2014-05-05

    The electronic structure of ?-Pb{sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires has been studied with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy techniques. The recent synthesis of defect-free ?-Pb{sub 0.33}V{sub 2}O{sub 5} nanowires resulted in the discovery of an abrupt voltage-induced metal insulator transition. First principle calculations predicted an additional V-O-Pb hybridized in-gap state unique to this vanadium bronze playing a significant role in facilitating the transition. We confirm the existence, energetic position, and orbital character of the in-gap state. Moreover, we reveal that this state is a hybridized Pb 6sO 2p antibonding lone pair state resulting from the asymmetric coordination of the Pb{sup 2+} ions.

  20. Non-uniform solute segregation at semi-coherent metal/oxide interfaces

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Choudhury, Samrat; Aguiar, Jeffery A.; Fluss, Michael J.; Hsiung, Luke L.; Misra, Amit; Uberuaga, Blas P.

    2015-08-26

    The properties and performance of metal/oxide nanocomposites are governed by the structure and chemistry of the metal/oxide interfaces. Here we report an integrated theoretical and experimental study examining the role of interfacial structure, particularly misfit dislocations, on solute segregation at a metal/oxide interface. We find that the local oxygen environment, which varies significantly between the misfit dislocations and the coherent terraces, dictates the segregation tendency of solutes to the interface. Depending on the nature of the solute and local oxygen content, segregation to misfit dislocations can change from attraction to repulsion, revealing the complex interplay between chemistry and structure atmore » metal/oxide interfaces. These findings indicate that the solute chemistry at misfit dislocations is controlled by the dislocation density and oxygen content. As a result, fundamental thermodynamic concepts – the Hume-Rothery rules and the Ellingham diagram – qualitatively predict the segregation behavior of solutes to such interfaces, providing design rules for novel interfacial chemistries.« less

  1. Electrochromic nickel oxide simultaneously doped with lithium and a metal dopant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gillaspie, Dane T; Weir, Douglas G

    2014-04-01

    An electrochromic device comprising a counter electrode layer comprised of lithium metal oxide which provides a high transmission in the fully intercalated state and which is capable of long-term stability, is disclosed. Methods of making an electrochromic device comprising such a counter electrode are also disclosed.

  2. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  3. In situ study of e-beam Al and Hf metal deposition on native oxide InP (100)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, H.; KC, Santosh; Azcatl, A.; Cabrera, W.; Qin, X.; Brennan, B.; Cho, K.; Wallace, R. M.; Zhernokletov, D.

    2013-11-28

    The interfacial chemistry of thin Al (∼3 nm) and Hf (∼2 nm) metal films deposited by electron beam (e-beam) evaporation on native oxide InP (100) samples at room temperature and after annealing has been studied by in situ angle resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and low energy ion scattering spectroscopy. The In-oxides are completely scavenged forming In-In/In-(Al/Hf) bonding after Al and Hf metal deposition. The P-oxide concentration is significantly decreased, and the P-oxide chemical states have been changed to more P-rich oxides upon metal deposition. Indium diffusion through these metals before and after annealing at 250 °C has also been characterized. First principles calculation shows that In has lower surface formation energy compared with Al and Hf metals, which is consistent with the observed indium diffusion behavior.

  4. Investigation of some new hydro(solvo)thermal synthesis routes to nanostructured mixed-metal oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burnett, David L.; Harunsani, Mohammad H.; Kashtiban, Reza J.; Playford, Helen Y.; Sloan, Jeremy; Hannon, Alex C.; Walton, Richard I.

    2014-06-01

    We present a study of two new solvothermal synthesis approaches to mixed-metal oxide materials and structural characterisation of the products formed. The solvothermal oxidation of metallic gallium by a diethanolamine solution of iron(II) chloride at 240 °C produces a crystalline sample of a spinel-structured material, made up of nano-scale particles typically 20 nm in dimension. XANES spectroscopy at the K-edge shows that the material contains predominantly Fe{sup 2+} in an octahedral environment, but that a small amount of Fe{sup 3+} is also present. Careful analysis using transmission electron microscopy and powder neutron diffraction shows that the sample is actually a mixture of two spinel materials: predominantly (>97%) an Fe{sup 2+} phase Ga{sub 1.8}Fe{sub 1.2}O{sub 3.9}, but with a minor impurity phase that is iron-rich. In contrast, the hydrothermal reaction of titanium bis(ammonium lactato)dihydroxide in water with increasing amounts of Sn(IV) acetate allows nanocrystalline samples of the SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} solid solution to be prepared directly, as proved by powder XRD and Raman spectroscopy. - Graphical abstract: New solvothermal synthesis approaches to spinel and rutile mixed-metal oxides are reported. - Highlights: • Solvothermal oxidation of gallium metal in organic iron(II) solution gives a novel iron gallate spinel. • Hydrothermal reaction of titanium(IV) complex and tin(IV) acetate produces the complete SnO{sub 2}–TiO{sub 2} solid solution. • Nanostructured mixed-metal oxide phases are produced directly from solution.

  5. Method of CO and/or CO.sub.2 hydrogenation using doped mixed-metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Shekhawat, Dushyant; Berry, David A.; Haynes, Daniel J.; Abdelsayed, Victor; Smith, Mark W.; Spivey, James J.

    2015-10-06

    A method of hydrogenation utilizing a reactant gas mixture comprising a carbon oxide and a hydrogen agent, and a hydrogenation catalyst comprising a mixed-metal oxide containing metal sites supported and/or incorporated into the lattice. The mixed-metal oxide comprises a perovskite, a pyrochlore, a fluorite, a brownmillerite, or mixtures thereof doped at the A-site or the B-site. The metal site may comprise a deposited metal, where the deposited metal is a transition metal, an alkali metal, an alkaline earth metal, or mixtures thereof. Contact between the carbon oxide, hydrogen agent, and hydrogenation catalyst under appropriate conditions of temperature, pressure and gas flow rate generate a hydrogenation reaction and produce a hydrogenated product made up of carbon from the carbon oxide and some portion of the hydrogen agent. The carbon oxide may be CO, CO.sub.2, or mixtures thereof and the hydrogen agent may be H.sub.2. In a particular embodiment, the hydrogenated product comprises an alcohol, an olefin, an aldehyde, a ketone, an ester, an oxo-product, or mixtures thereof.

  6. Synthesis of high {Tc} superconducting coatings and patterns by melt writing and oxidation of metallic precursor alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, W.; Vander Sande, J.B.

    1998-07-28

    A method is provided for fabrication of superconducting oxides and superconducting oxide composites and for joining superconductors to other materials. A coating of a molten alloy containing the metallic elements of the oxide is applied to a substrate surface and oxidized to form the superconducting oxide. A material can be contacted to the molten alloy which is subsequently oxidized joining the material to the resulting superconducting oxide coating. Substrates of varied composition and shape can be coated or joined by this method. 5 figs.

  7. Method for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas, device for removing heavy metal and nitrogen oxides from flue gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hann-Sheng; Livengood, Charles David

    1997-12-01

    A method for the simultaneous removal of oxides and heavy metals from a fluid is provided comprising combining the fluid with compounds containing alkali and sulfur to create a mixture; spray drying the mixture to create a vapor phase and a solid phase; and isolating the vapor phase from the solid phase. A device is also provided comprising a means for spray-drying flue gas with alkali-sulfide containing liquor at a temperature sufficient to cause the flue gas to react with the compounds so as to create a gaseous fraction and a solid fraction and a means for directing the gaseous fraction to a fabric filter.

  8. Controlling the interface charge density in GaN-based metal-oxide-semiconductor heterostructures by plasma oxidation of metal layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, Herwig Kalisch, Holger; Vescan, Andrei; Pécz, Béla; Kovács, András; Heuken, Michael

    2015-06-07

    In recent years, investigating and engineering the oxide-semiconductor interface in GaN-based devices has come into focus. This has been driven by a large effort to increase the gate robustness and to obtain enhancement mode transistors. Since it has been shown that deep interface states act as fixed interface charge in the typical transistor operating regime, it appears desirable to intentionally incorporate negative interface charge, and thus, to allow for a positive shift in threshold voltage of transistors to realise enhancement mode behaviour. A rather new approach to obtain such negative charge is the plasma-oxidation of thin metal layers. In this study, we present transmission electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy analysis as well as electrical data for Al-, Ti-, and Zr-based thin oxide films on a GaN-based heterostructure. It is shown that the plasma-oxidised layers have a polycrystalline morphology. An interfacial amorphous oxide layer is only detectable in the case of Zr. In addition, all films exhibit net negative charge with varying densities. The Zr layer is providing a negative interface charge density of more than 1 × 10{sup 13 }cm{sup –2} allowing to considerably shift the threshold voltage to more positive values.

  9. Metal oxide coating of carbon supports for supercapacitor applications.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyle, Timothy J.; Tribby, Louis, J; Lakeman, Charles D. E.; Han, Sang M.; Lambert, Timothy N.; Fleig, Patrick F.

    2008-07-01

    The global market for wireless sensor networks in 2010 will be valued close to $10 B, or 200 M units. TPL, Inc. is a small Albuquerque based business that has positioned itself to be a leader in providing uninterruptible power supplies in this growing market with projected revenues expected to exceed $26 M in 5 years. This project focused on improving TPL, Inc.'s patent-pending EnerPak{trademark} device which converts small amounts of energy from the environment (e.g., vibrations, light or temperature differences) into electrical energy that can be used to charge small energy storage devices. A critical component of the EnerPak{trademark} is the supercapacitor that handles high power delivery for wireless communications; however, optimization and miniaturization of this critical component is required. This proposal aimed to produce prototype microsupercapacitors through the integration of novel materials and fabrication processes developed at New Mexico Technology Research Collaborative (NMTRC) member institutions. In particular, we focused on developing novel ruthenium oxide nanomaterials and placed them into carbon supports to significantly increase the energy density of the supercapacitor. These improvements were expected to reduce maintenance costs and expand the utility of the TPL, Inc.'s device, enabling New Mexico to become the leader in the growing global wireless power supply market. By dominating this niche, new customers were expected to be attracted to TPL, Inc. yielding new technical opportunities and increased job opportunities for New Mexico.

  10. Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block polymers for metal oxide templating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schulze, Morgan W.; Sinturel, Christophe

    2015-09-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (CEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized through tandem anionic polymerizations and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. Solvent-annealed CEO diblock films were used to template dense arrays of inorganic oxide nanodots via simple spin coating of an inorganic precursor solution atop the ordered film. The substantial chemical dissimilarity of the two blocks enables (i) selective inclusion of the inorganic precursor within the PEO domain and (ii) the formation of exceptionally small feature sizes due to a relatively large interaction parameter estimated from mean-field analysis of the order–disorder transition temperatures of compositionally symmetric samples. UV/ozone treatment following incorporation produces an ordered arrangement of oxide nanodots and simultaneously removes the block polymer template. However, we report the smallest particles (6 ± 1 nm) templated from a selective precursor insertion method to date using a block polymer scaffold.

  11. Poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) block polymers for metal oxide templating

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schulze, Morgan W.; Sinturel, Christophe; Hillmyer, Marc A.

    2015-09-01

    A series of poly(cyclohexylethylene)-block-poly(ethylene oxide) (CEO) diblock copolymers were synthesized through tandem anionic polymerizations and heterogeneous catalytic hydrogenation. Solvent-annealed CEO diblock films were used to template dense arrays of inorganic oxide nanodots via simple spin coating of an inorganic precursor solution atop the ordered film. The substantial chemical dissimilarity of the two blocks enables (i) selective inclusion of the inorganic precursor within the PEO domain and (ii) the formation of exceptionally small feature sizes due to a relatively large interaction parameter estimated from mean-field analysis of the order–disorder transition temperatures of compositionally symmetric samples. UV/ozone treatment following incorporation produces anmore » ordered arrangement of oxide nanodots and simultaneously removes the block polymer template. However, we report the smallest particles (6 ± 1 nm) templated from a selective precursor insertion method to date using a block polymer scaffold.« less

  12. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, Marca M.; Peng, Marcus Y.; Ma, Yanping; Visco, Steven J.; DeJonghe, Lutgard C.

    1996-01-01

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M.sub.x Z.sub.y Mn.sub.(1-y) O.sub.2, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell.

  13. Secondary cell with orthorhombic alkali metal/manganese oxide phase active cathode material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doeff, M.M.; Peng, M.Y.; Ma, Y.; Visco, S.J.; DeJonghe, L.C.

    1996-09-24

    An alkali metal manganese oxide secondary cell is disclosed which can provide a high rate of discharge, good cycling capabilities, good stability of the cathode material, high specific energy (energy per unit of weight) and high energy density (energy per unit volume). The active material in the anode is an alkali metal and the active material in the cathode comprises an orthorhombic alkali metal manganese oxide which undergoes intercalation and deintercalation without a change in phase, resulting in a substantially linear change in voltage with change in the state of charge of the cell. The active material in the cathode is an orthorhombic structure having the formula M{sub x}Z{sub y}Mn{sub (1{minus}y)}O{sub 2}, where M is an alkali metal; Z is a metal capable of substituting for manganese in the orthorhombic structure such as iron, cobalt or titanium; x ranges from about 0.2 in the fully charged state to about 0.75 in the fully discharged state, and y ranges from 0 to 60 atomic %. Preferably, the cell is constructed with a solid electrolyte, but a liquid or gelatinous electrolyte may also be used in the cell. 11 figs.

  14. A Highly Active Nanostructured Metallic Oxide Cathode for Li-O2 Batteries -

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Joint Center for Energy Storage Research 27, 2015, Research Highlights A Highly Active Nanostructured Metallic Oxide Cathode for Li-O2 Batteries (Top Right) Electrochemistry of a metallic Magnéli-phase Ti4O7 cathode in a Li-O2 cell depicting the galvanostatic discharge/charge profile with an onset of OER at 3.0V vs Li/Li, and formation of a TiO2-x interface on cycling. (Top Left) SEM image shows Li2O2 as ~10 nm thin platelets and film formed on Ti4O7 cathode. (Bottom) On-line mass spec

  15. Inert anode containing oxides of nickel, iron and zinc useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A.; Liu, Xinghua

    2002-01-01

    An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and ZnO: 0.2 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.8 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.3 ZnO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

  16. NANOSTRUCTURED METAL OXIDES FOR ANODES OF LI-ION RECHARGEABLE BATTERIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Au, M.

    2009-12-04

    The aligned nanorods of Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and nanoporous hollow spheres (NHS) of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} were investigated as the anodes for Li-ion rechargeable batteries. The Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanorods demonstrated 1433 mAh/g reversible capacity. The NHS of SnO{sub 2} and Mn{sub 2}O{sub 3} delivered 400 mAh/g and 250 mAh/g capacities respectively in multiple galvonastatic discharge-charge cycles. It was found that high capacity of NHS of metal oxides is sustainable attributed to their unique structure that maintains material integrity during cycling. The nanostructured metal oxides exhibit great potential as the new anode materials for Li-ion rechargeable batteries with high energy density, low cost and inherent safety.

  17. Molecular receptors in metal oxide sol-gel materials prepared via molecular imprinting

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sasaki, Darryl Y.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Ashley, Carol S.; Daitch, Charles E.; Shea, Kenneth J.; Rush, Daniel J.

    2000-01-01

    A method is provided for molecularly imprinting the surface of a sol-gel material, by forming a solution comprised of a sol-gel material, a solvent, an imprinting molecule, and a functionalizing siloxane monomer of the form Si(OR).sub.3-n X.sub.n, wherein n is an integer between zero and three and X is a functional group capable of reacting with the imprinting molecule, evaporating the solvent, and removing the imprinting molecule to form the molecularly imprinted metal oxide sol-gel material. The use of metal oxide sol-gels allows the material porosity, pore size, density, surface area, hardness, electrostatic charge, polarity, optical density, and surface hydrophobicity to be tailored and be employed as sensors and in catalytic and separations operations.

  18. Composite materials with metal oxide attached to lead chalcogenide nanocrystal quantum dots with linkers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fuke, Nobuhiro; Koposov, Alexey Y; Sykora, Milan; Hoch, Laura

    2014-12-16

    Composite materials useful for devices such as photoelectrochemical solar cells include a substrate, a metal oxide film on the substrate, nanocrystalline quantum dots (NQDs) of lead sulfide, lead selenide, and lead telluride, and linkers that attach the NQDs to the metal oxide film. Suitable linkers preserve the 1s absorption peak of the NQDs. A suitable linker has a general structure A-B-C where A is a chemical group adapted for binding to a MO.sub.x and C is a chemical group adapted for binding to a NQD and B is a divalent, rigid, or semi-rigid organic spacer moiety. Other linkers that preserve the 1s absorption peak may also be used.

  19. Tubular solid oxide fuel cells with porous metal supports and ceramic interconnections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Kevin; Ruka, Roswell J.

    2012-05-08

    An intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cell structure capable of operating at from 600.degree. C. to 800.degree. C. having a very thin porous hollow elongated metallic support tube having a thickness from 0.10 mm to 1.0 mm, preferably 0.10 mm to 0.35 mm, a porosity of from 25 vol. % to 50 vol. % and a tensile strength from 700 GPa to 900 GPa, which metallic tube supports a reduced thickness air electrode having a thickness from 0.010 mm to 0.2 mm, a solid oxide electrolyte, a cermet fuel electrode, a ceramic interconnection and an electrically conductive cell to cell contact layer.

  20. Inert anode containing oxides of nickel iron and cobalt useful for the electrolytic production of metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Liu, Xinghua; Weirauch, Jr., Douglas A.

    2002-01-01

    An inert anode for the electrolytic production of metals such as aluminum is disclosed. The inert anode includes a ceramic oxide material preferably made from NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO. The inert anode composition may comprise the following mole fractions of NiO, Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 and CoO: 0.15 to 0.99 NiO; 0.0001 to 0.85 Fe.sub.2 O.sub.3 ; and 0.0001 to 0.45 CoO. The inert anode may optionally include other oxides and/or at least one metal phase, such as Cu, Ag, Pd, Pt, Au, Rh, Ru, Ir and/or Os. The Ni--Fe--Co--O ceramic material exhibits very low solubility in Hall cell baths used to produce aluminum.

  1. Oxidative dehydrogenation (ODH) of ethane with O[subscript 2] as oxidant on selected transition metal-loaded zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Xufeng; Hoel, Cathleen A.; Sachtler, Wolfgang M.H.; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R.; Weitz, Eric

    2009-09-14

    Ni-, Cu-, and Fe-loaded acidic and basic Y zeolites were synthesized, and their catalytic properties for oxidative dehydrogenation of ethane (ODHE) to ethylene were characterized. Acidic Ni-loaded Y zeolite exhibits an ethylene productivity of up to 108 g{sub C{sub 2}H{sub 4}}g{sub cat}{sup -1} h{sup -1} with a selectivity of {approx}75%. Acidic Cu- and Fe-loaded Y zeolites have an ethylene productivity of up to 0.37 g{sub C{sub 2}H{sub 4}}g{sub cat}{sup -1} h{sup -1} and a selectivity of {approx}50%. For the same metal, the acidity of the zeolite favors both ODHE productivity and ethylene selectivity. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) studies show that Ni, present in particles on Ni/HY during the ODHE catalytic process, contains both Ni-Ni and Ni-O bonds, and that the ratio of oxidized Ni versus metallic Ni increases with the temperature. The insights these studies provide into the ODHE reaction mechanism are discussed.

  2. Temperature threshold for nanorod structuring of metal and oxide films grown by glancing angle deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deniz, Derya; Lad, Robert J.

    2011-01-15

    Thin films of tin (Sn), aluminum (Al), gold (Au), ruthenium (Ru), tungsten (W), ruthenium dioxide (RuO{sub 2}), tin dioxide (SnO{sub 2}), and tungsten trioxide (WO{sub 3}) were grown by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) to determine the nanostructuring temperature threshold, {Theta}{sub T}, above which adatom surface diffusion becomes large enough such that nanorod morphology is no longer formed during growth. The threshold was found to be lower in metals compared to oxides. Films were grown using both dc and pulsed dc magnetron sputtering with continuous substrate rotation over the temperature range from 291 to 866 K. Film morphologies, structures, and compositions were characterized by high resolution scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction, and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Films were also grown in a conventional configuration for comparison. For elemental metals, nanorod structuring occurs for films with melting points higher than that of Al (933 K) when grown at room temperature with a rotation rate of {approx}5 rpm, corresponding to a value of {Theta}{sub T}{approx_equal}0.33{+-}0.01. For the oxide films, a value of {Theta}{sub T}{approx_equal}0.5 was found, above which GLAD nanorod structuring does not occur. The existence of a nanostructuring temperature threshold in both metal and oxide GLAD films can be attributed to greater adatom mobilities as temperature is increased resulting in nonkinetically limited film nucleation and growth processes.

  3. Oxidation Resistant, Cr Retaining, Electrically Conductive Coatings on Metallic Alloys for SOFC Interconnects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vladimir Gorokhovsky

    2008-03-31

    This report describes significant results from an on-going, collaborative effort to enable the use of inexpensive metallic alloys as interconnects in planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) through the use of advanced coating technologies. Arcomac Surface Engineering, LLC, under the leadership of Dr. Vladimir Gorokhovsky, is investigating filtered-arc and filtered-arc plasma-assisted hybrid coating deposition technologies to promote oxidation resistance, eliminate Cr volatility, and stabilize the electrical conductivity of both standard and specialty steel alloys of interest for SOFC metallic interconnect (IC) applications. Arcomac has successfully developed technologies and processes to deposit coatings with excellent adhesion, which have demonstrated a substantial increase in high temperature oxidation resistance, stabilization of low Area Specific Resistance values and significantly decrease Cr volatility. An extensive matrix of deposition processes, coating compositions and architectures was evaluated. Technical performance of coated and uncoated sample coupons during exposures to SOFC interconnect-relevant conditions is discussed, and promising future directions are considered. Cost analyses have been prepared based on assessment of plasma processing parameters, which demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed surface engineering process for SOFC metallic IC applications.

  4. Optimization of synthesis protocols to control the nanostructure and the morphology of metal oxide thin films for memristive applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baldi, G. Bosi, M.; Attolini, G.; Berzina, T.; Mosca, R.; Ponraj, J. S.; Iannotta, S.

    2015-03-10

    We propose a multi-technique approach based on in-vacuum synthesis of metal oxides to optimize the memristive properties of devices that use a metal oxide thin film as insulating layer. Pulsed Microplasma Cluster Source (PMCS) is based on supersonic beams seeded by clusters of the metal oxide. Nanocrystalline TiO{sub 2} thin films can be grown at room temperature, controlling the oxide stoichiometry from titanium metal up to a significant oxygen excess. Pulsed Electron beam Deposition (PED) is suitable to grow crystalline thin films on large areas, a step towards producing device arrays with controlled morphology and stoichiometry. Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a powerful technique to grow materials layer-by-layer, finely controlling the chemical and structural properties of the film up to thickness of 50-80 nm. We will present a few examples of metal-insulator-metal structures showing a pinched hysteresis loop in their current-voltage characteristic. The structure, stoichiometry and morphology of the metal oxide layer, either aluminum oxide or titanium dioxide, is investigated by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and by Raman scattering.

  5. Resistive switching in a few nanometers thick tantalum oxide film formed by a metal oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohno, Takeo; Samukawa, Seiji

    2015-04-27

    Resistive switching in a Cu/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/Pt structure that consisted of a few nanometer-thick Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} film was demonstrated. The Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} film with thicknesses of 25?nm was formed with a combination of Ta metal film deposition and neutral oxygen particle irradiation at room temperature. The device exhibited a bipolar resistive switching with a threshold voltage of 0.2?V and multilevel switching operation.

  6. Solubility and Surface Adsorption Characteristics of Metal Oxides to High Temperature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.J. Wesolowski; M.L. Machesky; S.E. Ziemniak; C. Xiao; D.A. Palmer; L.M. Anovitz; P. Benezeth

    2001-05-04

    The interaction of high temperature aqueous solutions with mineral surfaces plays a key role in many aspects of fossil, geothermal and nuclear energy production. This is an area of study in which the subsurface geochemical processes that determine brine composition, porosity and permeability changes, reservoir integrity, and fluid flow rates overlap with the industrial processes associated with corrosion of metal parts and deposition of solids in pipes and on heat exchanger surfaces. The sorption of ions on mineral surfaces is also of great interest in both the subsurface and ''above ground'' regimes of power production, playing a key role in subsurface migration of contaminants (nuclear waste disposal, geothermal brine re-injection, etc.) and in plant operations (corrosion mitigation, migration of radioactive metals from reactor core to heat exchanger, etc.). In this paper, results of the solubility and surface chemistry of metal oxides relevant to both regimes are summarized.

  7. Strategies to Suppress Cation Vacancies in Metal Oxide Alloys: Consequences for Solar Energy Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Toroker, Maytal; Carter, Emily A.

    2015-09-01

    First-row transition metal oxides (TMOs) are promising alternative materials for inexpensive and efficient solar energy conversion. However, their conversion efficiency can be deleteriously affected by material imperfections, such as atomic vacancies. In this work, we provide examples showing that in some iron-containing TMOs, iron cation vacancy formation can be suppressed via alloying. We calculate within density functional theory+U theory the iron vacancy formation energy in binary rock-salt oxide alloys that contain iron, manganese, nickel, zinc, and/or magnesium. We demonstrate that formation of iron vacancies is less favorable if we choose to alloy iron(II) oxide with metals that cannot readily accept vacancy-generated holes, e.g., magnesium, manganese, nickel, or zinc. Since there are less available sites for holes and the holes are forced to reside on iron cations, the driving force for iron vacancy formation decreases. These results are consistent with an experiment observing a sharp drop in cation vacancy concentration upon alloying iron(II) oxide with manganese.

  8. Evaluation of the thermodynamic properties of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles by INS techniques

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Elinor; Ross, Dr. Nancy; Parker, Stewart F.; Kolesnikov, Alexander I

    2013-01-01

    In this contribution we will present a detailed methodology for the elucidation of the following aspects of the thermodynamic properties of hydrated metal oxide nanoparticles from high-resolution, low-temperature inelastic neutron scattering (INS) data: (i) the isochoric heat capacity and entropy of the hydration layers both chemi- and physisorbed to the particle surface; (ii) the magnetic contribution to the heat capacity of the nanoparticles. This will include the calculation of the vibrational density of states (VDOS) from the raw INS spectra, and the subsequent extraction of the thermodynamic data from the VDOS. This technique will be described in terms of a worked example namely, cobalt oxide (Co3O4 and CoO). To complement this evaluation of the physical properties of metal oxide nanoparticle systems, we will emphasise the importance of high-resolution, high-energy INS for the determination of the structure and dynamics of the water species, namely molecular (H2O) and dissociated water (OH, hydroxyl), confined to the oxide surfaces. For this component of the chapter we will focus on INS investigations of hydrated isostructural rutile (a-TiO2) and cassiterite (SnO2) nanoparticles. We will complete this discussion of nanoparticle analysis by including an appraisal of the INS instrumentation employed in such studies with particular focus on TOSCA [ISIS, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), U.K.] and the newly developed spectrometer SEQUOIA [SNS, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), U.S.A].

  9. Protective coating on positive lithium-metal-oxide electrodes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Johnson, Christopher S.; Thackeray, Michael M.; Kahaian, Arthur J.

    2006-05-23

    A positive electrode for a non-aqueous lithium cell comprising a LiMn2-xMxO4 spinel structure in which M is one or more metal cations with an atomic number less than 52, such that the average oxidation state of the manganese ions is equal to or greater than 3.5, and in which 0.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.0.15, having one or more lithium spine oxide LiM'2O4 or lithiated spinel oxide Li1+yM'2O4 compounds on the surface thereof in which M' are cobalt cations and in which 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1.

  10. Method of synthesizing a plurality of reactants and producing thin films of electro-optically active transition metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Benson, D.K.; Ruth, M.R.

    1985-08-16

    A method of synthesizing a plurality of reactants by inducing a reaction by plasma deposition among the reactants. The plasma reaction is effective for consolidating the reactants and producing thin films of electro-optically active transition metal oxides.

  11. Synthesis and structural, magnetic, thermal, and transport properties of several transition metal oxides and aresnides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Das, Supriyo

    2010-05-16

    Oxide compounds containing the transition metal vanadium (V) have attracted a lot of attention in the field of condensed matter physics owing to their exhibition of interesting properties including metal-insulator transitons, structural transitions, ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic orderings, and heavy fermion behavior. Binary vanadium oxides V{sub n}O{sub 2n-1} where 2 {le} n {le} 9 have triclinic structures and exhibit metal-insulator and antiferromagnetic transitions. The only exception is V{sub 7}O{sub 13} which remains metallic down to 4 K. The ternary vanadium oxide LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4} has the normal spinel structure, is metallic, does not undergo magnetic ordering and exhibits heavy fermion behavior below 10 K. CaV{sub 2}O{sub 4} has an orthorhombic structure with the vanadium spins forming zigzag chains and has been suggested to be a model system to study the gapless chiral phase. These provide great motivation for further investigation of some known vanadium compounds as well as to explore new vanadium compounds in search of new physics. This thesis consists, in part, of experimental studies involving sample preparation and magnetic, transport, thermal, and x-ray measurements on some strongly correlated eletron systems containing the transition metal vanadium. The compounds studied are LiV{sub 2}O{sub 4}, YV{sub 4}O{sub 8}, and YbV{sub 4}O{sub 8}. The recent discovery of superconductivity in RFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x} (R = La, Ce, Pr, Gd, Tb, Dy, Sm, and Nd), and AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} (A = Ba, Sr, Ca, and Eu) doped with K, Na, or Cs at the A site with relatively high T{sub c} has sparked tremendous activities in the condensed matter physics community and a renewed interest in the area of superconductivity as occurred following the discovery of the layered cuprate high T{sub c} superconductors in 1986. To discover more superconductors with hopefully higher T{sub c}'s, it is extremely important to investigate compounds having crystal structures related to the compounds showing high T{sub c} superconductivity. Along with the vanadium oxide compounds described before, this thesis describes our investigations of magnetic, structural, thermal and transport properties of EuPd{sub 2}Sb{sub 2} single crystals which have a crystal structure closely related to the AFe{sub 2}As{sub 2} compounds and also a study of the reaction kinetics of the formation of LaFeAsO{sub 1-x}F{sub x}.

  12. Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite prepared via a precursor route and enhanced catalytic property

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fan Guoli; Wang Hui; Xiang Xu; Li Feng

    2013-01-15

    The present work reported the synthesis of Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes (CoAl-MMO/CNT) nanocomposite from Co-Al layered double hydroxide/CNTs composite precursor (CoAl-LDH/CNT). The materials were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), low temperature nitrogen adsorption-desorption experiments, thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses (TG-DTA), Raman spectra and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results revealed that in CoAl-MMO/CNT nanocomposite, the nanoparticles of cobalt oxide (CoO) and Co-containing spinel-type complex metal oxides could be well-dispersed on the surface of CNTs, thus forming the heterostructure of CoAl-MMO and CNTs. Furthermore, as-synthesized CoAl-MMO/CNT nanocomposite was utilized as additives for catalytic thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate (AP). Compared to those for pure AP and CoAl-MMO, the peak temperature of AP decomposition for CoAl-MMO/CNT was significantly decreased, which is attributed to the novel heterostructure and synergistic effect of multi-component metal oxides of nanocomposite. - Graphical abstract: Hybrid Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite showed the enhanced catalytic activity in the thermal decomposition of ammonium perchlorate, as compared to carbon nanotubes and pure Co-Al mixed metal oxides. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-Al mixed metal oxides/carbon nanotubes nanocomposite was synthesized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-Al mixed metal oxides consisted of cobalt oxide and Co-containing spinels. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nanocomposite exhibited excellent catalytic activity for the decomposition of AP. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The superior catalytic property is related to novel heterostructure and composition.

  13. Small cell experiments for electrolytic reduction of uranium oxides to uranium metal using fluoride salts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, P.A.; Adcock, P.W.; Coroneos, A.C.; Hendrix, D.E. )

    1994-08-01

    Electrolytic reduction of uranium oxide was proposed for the preparation of uranium metal feed for the atomic vapor laser isotope separation (AVLIS) process. A laboratory cell of 25-cm ID was operated to obtain additional information in areas important to design and operation of a pilot plant cell. Reproducible test results and useful operating and control procedures were demonstrated. About 20 kg of uranium metal of acceptable purity were prepared. A good supply of dissolved UO[sub 2] feed at the anode is the most important controlling requirement for efficient cell operation. A large fraction of the cell current is nonproductive in that it does not produce a metal product nor consume carbon anodes. All useful test conditions gave some reduction of UF[sub 4] to produce CF[sub 4] in addition to the reduction of UO[sub 2], but the fraction of metal from the reduction of UF[sub 4] can be decreased by increasing the concentration of dissolved UO[sub 2]. Operation of large continuous cells would probably be limited to current efficiencies of less than 60 pct, and more than 20 pct of the metal would result from the reduction of UF[sub 4].

  14. High Temperature Strength of YSZ Joints Brazed with Palladium Silver Copper Oxide Filler Metals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

    2010-06-09

    The Ag-CuOx system is being investigated as potential filler metals for use in air brazing high-temperature electrochemical devices such as solid oxide fuel cells and gas concentrators. The current study examines the effects of palladium addition on the high temperature joint strength of specimens prepared from yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) bars brazed with the binary Ag-CuOx, and 15Pd-Ag-CuO. It was found that while the binary Ag-CuOx system exhibits stronger room temperature strength than the 15Pd system the strength is reduced to values equivalent of the 15Pd system at 800C. The 15Pd system exhibits a lower ambient temperature strength that is retained at 800C. In both systems the failure mechanism at high temperature appears to be peeling of the noble metal component from the oxide phases and tearing through the noble metal phase whereas sufficient adhesion is retained at lower temperatures to cause fracture of the YSZ substrate.

  15. Modelling of multi-ion-beam reactive cosputtering for metal oxide thin films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, D.Q.; Zhu, J.G.; Qian, Z.H.; Peng, W.B.; Wei, L.F.; Li, Z.S.

    1995-12-31

    Very recently a new technique named multi-ion-beam reactive cosputtering (MIBRECS) was developed for preparing multi-component metal oxide thin films. Epitaxial or highly oriented (Pb, La) TiO{sub 3} thin films sputtered from pure metals of lead, titanium and lathanium were deposited by using this technique. In order to consummate the technique and to study the mechanism of reactive cosputtering, a general model of multi-ion-beam reactive cosputtering was proposed for the first time based on the well-known gas kinetics under stable sputtering circumstances, and a computer numerical simulation of the model was carried out with the parameters adopted in the experiments. The relationships among the sputtering ratios of the targets, and the coverage ratios of simple substances and oxides of the target metals on substrate surface with the total reactive gas flux and the densities of the sputtering ion beam were obtained respectively, and the hysteresis effect of the characteristic of reactive sputtering and the interactions during multi-ion-beam reactive cosputtering processes were also obtained. The numerical simulation results are at least qualitatively in agreement with the experiments.

  16. Manganese Doping of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles: Tailoring Surface Reactivity for a Regenerable Heavy Metal Sorbent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Warner, Cynthia L.; Chouyyok, Wilaiwan; Mackie, Katherine E.; Neiner, Doinita; Saraf, Laxmikant; Droubay, Timothy C.; Warner, Marvin G.; Addleman, Raymond S.

    2012-02-28

    A method for tuning the analyte affinity of magnetic, inorganic nanostructured sorbents for heavy metal contaminants is described. The manganese-doped iron oxide nanoparticle sorbents have a remarkably high affinity compared to the precursor material. Sorbent affinity can be tuned toward an analyte of interest simply by adjustment of the dopant quantity. The results show that following the Mn doping process there is a large increase in affinity and capacity for heavy metals (i.e., Co, Ni, Zn, As, Ag, Cd, Hg, and Tl). Capacity measurements were carried out for the removal of cadmium from river water and showed significantly higher loading than the relevant commercial sorbents tested for comparison. The reduction in Cd concentration from 100 ppb spiked river water to 1 ppb (less than the EPA drinking water limit of 5 ppb for Cd) was achieved following treatment with the Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles. The Mn-doped iron oxide nanoparticles were able to load 1 ppm of Cd followed by complete stripping and recovery of the Cd with a mild acid wash. The Cd loading and stripping is shown to be consistent through multiple cycles with no loss of sorbent performance.

  17. Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, Michael T.; Basaran, Osman A.; Sisson, Warren G.; Brunson, Ronald R.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity.

  18. Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure.

  19. Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, D.K.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are described for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure. 7 figs.

  20. Correlation effects in (111) bilayers of perovskite transition-metal oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Okamoto, Satoshi; Zhu, Wenguang; Nomura, Yusuke; Arita, R.; Xiao, Di; Nagaosa, Naoto

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the correlation-induced Mott, magnetic, and topological phase transitions in artificial (111) bilayers of perovskite transition-metal oxides LaAuO3 and SrIrO3 for which the previous density-functional theory calculations predicted topological insulating states. Using the dynamical-mean-field theory with realistic band structures and Coulomb interactions, LaAuO3 bilayer is shown to be far away from a Mott insulating regime, and a topological-insulating state is robust. On the other hand, SrIrO3 bilayer is on the verge of an orbital-selective topological Mott transition and turns to a trivial insulator by an antiferromagnetic ordering. Oxide bilayers thus provide a novel class of topological materials for which the interplay between the spin-orbit coupling and electron-electron interactions is a fundamental ingredient.

  1. Rapid thermal cycling of metal-supported solid oxide fuel cellmembranes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matus, Yuriy B.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.

    2004-01-02

    Solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) membranes were developed in which zirconia-based electrolyte thin films were supported by a composite metal/ceramic electrode, and were subjected to rapid thermal cycling between 200 and 800 C. The effects of this cycling on membrane performance were evaluated. The membranes, not yet optimized for performance, showed a peak power density of 350mW/cm2at 900 C in laboratory-sized SOFCs that was not affected by the thermal cycling. This resistance to cycling degradation is attributed to the close matching of thermal expansion coefficient of the cermet support electrode with that of the zirconia electrolyte.

  2. Irradiation of Metallic and Oxide Fuels for Actinide Transmutation in the ATR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacLean, Heather J.; Hayes, Steven L.

    2007-07-01

    Metallic fuels containing minor actinides and rare earth additions have been fabricated and are prepared for irradiation in the ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2007. Oxide fuels containing minor actinides are being fabricated and will be ready for irradiation in ATR, scheduled to begin during the summer of 2008. Fabrication and irradiation of these fuels will provide detailed studies of actinide transmutation in support of the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership. These fuel irradiations include new fuel compositions that have never before been tested. Results from these tests will provide fundamental data on fuel irradiation performance and will advance the state of knowledge for transmutation fuels. (authors)

  3. Generation of highly N-type, defect passivated transition metal oxides using plasma fluorine insertion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, L. Robert; Seo, Hyungtak; Hervier, Antoine; Somorjai, Gabor A.

    2016-04-12

    A new composition of matter is disclosed wherein oxygen vacancies in a semiconducting transition metal oxide such as titanium dioxide are filled with a halogen such as Fluorine, whereby the conductivity of the composition is greatly enhanced, while at the same time the chemical stability of the composition is greatly improved. Stoichiometric titanium dioxide having less than 3 % oxygen vacancies is subject to fluorine insertion such that oxygen vacancies are filled, limited amounts of fluorine replace additional oxygen atoms and fluorine interstitially inserts into the body of the TiO.sub.2 composition.

  4. Visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based TFTs for transparent electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ha, Tae-Jun

    2014-10-15

    We investigate the origin of visible-light-induced instability in amorphous metal-oxide based thin film transistors (oxide-TFTs) for transparent electronics by exploring the shift in threshold voltage (V{sub th}). A large hysteresis window in amorphous indium-gallium-zinc-oxide (a-IGZO) TFTs possessing large optical band-gap (≈3 eV) was observed in a visible-light illuminated condition whereas no hysteresis window was shown in a dark measuring condition. We also report the instability caused by photo irradiation and prolonged gate bias stress in oxide-TFTs. Larger V{sub th} shift was observed after photo-induced stress combined with a negative gate bias than the sum of that after only illumination stress and only negative gate bias stress. Such results can be explained by trapped charges at the interface of semiconductor/dielectric and/or in the gate dielectric which play a role in a screen effect on the electric field applied by gate voltage, for which we propose that the localized-states-assisted transitions by visible-light absorption can be responsible.

  5. Effects of heavy metals on biomarkers for oxidative stress in Griffon vulture (Gyps fulvus)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Espn, Silvia; Martnez-Lpez, Emma; Jimnez, Pedro; Mara-Mojica, Pedro; Garca-Fernndez, Antonio J.

    2014-02-01

    Metals are involved in the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which may result in metal-related oxidative stress that can lead to oxidative damage to lipids, DNA and proteins. It is necessary to understand the mechanisms of metal toxicity in wild birds, and the concentrations that cause effects on oxidative stress biomarkers. The aim of this study is to assess the concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) with regards to oxidative stress in blood samples of 66 Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus) from two areas of the Autonomous Community of Valencia (East of Spain). The two study areas (Alcoy n=36 and Cinctorres n=30) were selected as random locations of interest that had not yet been studied, and are feeding stations where supplementary food, mainly of pork origin, is provided for vultures. Given that the two study areas are not considered polluted sites, we expected to find low metal concentrations. However, there are no known threshold concentrations at which metals can affect antioxidant systems, and low metal levels may have an effect on antioxidant biomolecules. In this study, since sampling was done at the beginning of the hunting season, the low Pb levels found in most Griffon vultures from Alcoy and Cinctorres (median=12.37 and 16.26 ?g/dl, respectively) are suggestive of background levels usually found in vultures that feed on pork carcasses all year round. The ingestion of game meat with bullet fragments in carcasses or with Pb shots embedded in the flesh could be the cause of the high blood Pb concentrations found in three vultures from Cinctorres (83, 290 and 362 ?g/dl). Griffon vultures feeding in Cinctorres had enhanced CAT and GST activities and tGSH concentrations, which may be interpreted as protective response against the higher TBARS levels. This study provides threshold concentrations at which metals affect antioxidant system derived from 66 samples of Griffon vulture. Blood Cd concentrations greater than 0.05 ?g/dl produced an induction of 33% in GPx and of 44% in CAT activity in erythrocytes of vultures from Alcoy. Hg concentrations in blood higher than 3 ?g/dl produced an induction of 10% in SOD activity. Concentrations of Pb above 15 g/dl in blood produced an inhibition of 12.5% in GPx and 11.3% in CAT activity, and a TBARS induction of 10.7% in erythrocytes of Griffon vultures. - Highlights: Except for 3 Griffon vultures, lead levels could be considered background levels. Three vultures may be exposed to meat with bullet fragments (blood Pb=83362 ?g/dl). Blood Cd levels?0.05 ?g/dl caused an induction of GPx and CAT activity (33% and 44%). Blood Hg levels?3 ?g/dl caused an induction of 10% in SOD activity. Blood Pb?15 g/dl caused an inhibition of GPx and CAT activity and a TBARS induction.

  6. Impact of Iron-Reducing Bacteria on Metals and Radionuclides Adsorbed to Humic-Coated Iron(III) Oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burgos, W. D.

    2005-02-01

    This is the final report for Grant No. DEFGO2-98ER62691 submitted to the DOE NABR Program. This research has focused on (1) the role of natural organic matter (NOM), quinines, and complexants in enhancing the biological reduction of solid-phase crystalline ferric oxides, (2) the effect of heavy metals (specifically zinc) and NOM on ferric oxide bioreduction, (3) the sorption of Me(II) [Cu(II), Fe(II), Mn(II) and Zn(II)] to ferric oxides and subsequent Me(II)-promoted phase transformations of the ferric oxides, and (4) the development of reaction-based biogeochemical models to numerically simulate our experimental results.

  7. Heterojunction metal-oxide-metal Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au single nanowire device for spintronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reddy, K. M. Punnoose, Alex; Hanna, Charles; Padture, Nitin P.

    2015-05-07

    In this report, we present the synthesis of heterojunction magnetite nanowires in alumina template and describe magnetic and electrical properties from a single nanowire device for spintronics applications. Heterojunction Au-Fe-Au nanowire arrays were electrodeposited in porous aluminum oxide templates, and an extensive and controlled heat treatment process converted Fe segment to nanocrystalline cubic magnetite phase with well-defined Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} interfaces as confirmed by the transmission electron microscopy. Magnetic measurements revealed Verwey transition shoulder around 120 K and a room temperature coercive field of 90 Oe. Current–voltage (I-V) characteristics of a single Au-Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}-Au nanowire have exhibited Ohmic behavior. Anomalous positive magnetoresistance of about 0.5% is observed on a single nanowire, which is attributed to the high spin polarization in nanowire device with pure Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} phase and nanocontact barrier. This work demonstrates the ability to preserve the pristine Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and well defined electrode contact metal (Au)–magnetite interface, which helps in attaining high spin polarized current.

  8. Method and apparatus for preparation of spherical metal carbonates and lithium metal oxides for lithium rechargeable batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kang, Sun-Ho; Amine, Khalil

    2008-10-14

    A number of materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Mn.sub..beta.Co.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.2-- zF.sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti) for use with rechargeable batteries, wherein x is between about 0 and 0.3, .alpha. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .beta. is between about 0.2 and 0.6, .gamma. is between about 0 and 0.3, .delta. is between about 0 and 0.15, and z is between about 0 and 0.2. Adding the above metal and fluorine dopants affects capacity, impedance, and stability of the layered oxide structure during electrochemical cycling. Another aspect of the invention includes materials with the composition Li.sub.1+xNi.sub..alpha.Co.sub..beta.Mn.sub..gamma.M'.sub..delta.O.sub.yF- .sub.z (M'=Mg,Zn,Al,Ga,B,Zr,Ti), where the x is between 0 and 0.2, the .alpha. between 0 and 1, the .beta. between 0 and 1, the .gamma. between 0 and 2, the .delta. between about 0 and about 0.2, the y is between 2 and 4, and the z is between 0 and 0.5.

  9. Effect of pre-oxidation and environmental aging on the seal strength of a novel high-temperature solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) sealing glass with metallic interconnect

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.; Singh, Prabhakar

    2008-09-15

    A novel high-temperature alkaline-earth silicate sealing glass was developed for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. The glass was used to join two ferritic stainless steel coupons for strength evaluation. The steel coupons were pre-oxidized at elevated temperatures to promote thick oxide layers to simulate long-term exposure conditions. In addition, seals to as-received metal coupons were also tested after aging in oxidizing or reducing environments to simulate the actual SOFC environment. Room temperature tensile testing showed strength degradation when using pre-oxidized coupons, and more extensive degradation after aging in air. Fracture surface and microstructural analysis confirmed that the cause of degradation was formation of SrCrO4 at the outer sealing edges exposed to air.

  10. Disposition of Uranium -233 (sup 233U) in Plutonium Metal and Oxide at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freiboth, Cameron J.; Gibbs, Frank E.

    2000-03-01

    This report documents the position that the concentration of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) in plutonium metal and oxide currently stored at the DOE Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) is well below the maximum permissible stabilization, packaging, shipping and storage limits. The {sup 233}U stabilization, packaging and storage limit is 0.5 weight percent (wt%), which is also the shipping limit maximum. These two plutonium products (metal and oxide) are scheduled for processing through the Building 371 Plutonium Stabilization and Packaging System (PuSPS). This justification is supported by written technical reports, personnel interviews, and nuclear material inventories, as compiled in the ''History of Uranium-233 ({sup 233}U) Processing at the Rocky Flats Plant In Support of the RFETS Acceptable Knowledge Program'' RS-090-056, April 1, 1999. Relevant data from this report is summarized for application to the PuSPS metal and oxide processing campaigns.

  11. X-Ray Absorption Studies of Vanadium-Containing Metal Oxide Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohn, Keith, L.

    2006-01-09

    Metal oxide nanocrystals offer significant potential for use as catalysts or catalyst supports due to their high surface areas and unique chemical properties that result from the high number of exposed corners and edges. However, little is known about the catalytic activity of these materials, especially as oxidation catalysts. This research focused on the preparation, characterization and use of vanadium-containing nanocrystals as selective oxidation catalysts. Three vanadium-containing nanocrystals were prepared using a modified sol-gel procedure: V/MgO, V/SiO2, and vanadium phosphate (VPO). These represent active oxidation catalysts for a number of industrially relevant reactions. The catalysts were characterized by x-ray diffraction and Raman, UV-VIS, infrared and x-ray absorption spectroscopies with the goal of determining the primary structural and chemical differences between nanocrystals and microcrystals. The catalytic activity of these catalysts was also studied in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and methanol oxidation to formaldehyde. V/MgO nanocrystals were investigated for activity in oxidative dehydrogenation of butane and compared to conventional V/MgO catalysts. Characterization of V/MgO catalysts using Raman spectroscopy and x-ray absorption spectroscopy showed that both types of catalysts contained magnesium orthovanadate at vanadium loadings below 15 weight%, but above that loading, magnesium pyrovanadate may have been present. In general, MgO nanocrystals had roughly half the crystal size and double the surface area of the conventional MgO. In oxidative dehydrogenation of butane, nanocrystalline V/MgO gave higher selectivity to butene than conventional V/MgO at the same conversion. This difference was attributed to differences in vanadium domain size resulting from the higher surface areas of the nanocrystalline support, since characterization suggested that similar vanadium phases were present on both types of catalysts. Experiments in methanol oxidation were used to probe the chemical differences between sol-gel prepared and conventionally prepared metal oxides. Both V/MgO and V/SiO2 were studied. For both catalysts, similar product selectivities were noted for either preparation method, suggesting similar acid/base and redox properties for the catalysts. At lower weight loadings (<5%), activity was also similar, but at higher weight loadings the sol-gel prepared catalysts were more active. This was attributed to the greater dispersion of vanadium on sol-gel prepared catalysts, and it was suggested that small vanadium oxide domains were more active in methanol oxidation than polymeric and bulk domains. A novel sol-gel method was developed for preparation of VPO catalysts, which are used industrially in butane oxidation to maleic anhydride. In this method vanadium (V) triisopropoxide was reacted with orthophosphoric acid in THF to form a gel. Drying this gel under air resulted in an intercalated VOPO4 compound, where solvent molecules were trapped between layers of the vanadium phosphate compound. Higher surface areas could be achieved by drying this gel at high pressure in an autoclave. The amount of solvent (THF) placed in the autoclave was important in this process. Low amounts of solvent led to a lower surface area, as the solvent evaporated before reaching the critical point and collapsed the gel's pores. In addition, vanadium reduction occurred in the autoclave due to reaction of isopropanol with the vanadium phosphate. Higher amounts of THF reduced the concentration of isopropanol, leading to less reduction. Surfaces areas in excess of 100 m2/g were achieved with this method, and the product was confirmed through XPS and IR to be VOHPO4*0.5H2O, the common precursor for industrial VPO catalysts. Furthermore, this product displayed a platelet morphology, which is desirable for butane oxidation. Further work showed that this material could be transformed to (VO)2P2O7 (the industrial catalyst for butane oxidation to maleic anhydride) by heating under nitrogen without losing much surface are

  12. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0. 02 g/cc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, T.M.; Poco, J.F.; Hrubesh, L.W.; Thomas, I.M.

    1994-01-04

    A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm[sup 3] to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm[sup 3]. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm[sup 3], with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described. 7 figures.

  13. Method for producing metal oxide aerogels having densities less than 0.02 g/cc

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tillotson, Thomas M.; Poco, John F.; Hrubesh, Lawrence W.; Thomas, Ian M.

    1994-01-01

    A two-step method is described for making transparent aerogels which have a density of less than 0.003 g/cm.sup.3 to those with a density of more than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, by a sol/gel process and supercritical extraction. Condensed metal oxide intermediate made with purified reagents can be diluted to produce stable aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 g/cm.sup.3. High temperature, direct supercritical extraction of the liquid phase of the gel produces hydrophobic aerogels which are stable at atmospheric moisture conditions. Monolithic, homogeneous silica aerogels with a density of less than 0.02 to higher than 0.8 g/cm.sup.3, with high thermal insulation capacity, improved mechanical strength and good optical transparency, are described.

  14. HEU to LEU conversion and blending facility: Metal blending alternative to produce LEU oxide for disposal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-01

    US DOE is examining options for disposing of surplus weapons-usable fissile materials and storage of all weapons-usable fissile materials. The nuclear material is converted to a form more proliferation- resistant than the original form. Blending HEU (highly enriched uranium) with less-enriched uranium to form LEU has been proposed as a disposition option. Five technologies are being assessed for blending HEU. This document provides data to be used in environmental impact analysis for the HEU-LEU disposition option that uses metal blending with an oxide waste product. It is divided into: mission and assumptions, conversion and blending facility descriptions, process descriptions and requirements, resource needs, employment needs, waste and emissions from plant, hazards discussion, and intersite transportation.

  15. Transient radiation hardened CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) operational amplifiers. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trombley, G.J.

    1989-01-01

    General strategies are developed for designing radiation hardened bulk and silicon on insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) operational amplifiers. Comparisons are made between each technology concerning photocurrent mechanisms and the inherent advantages of SOI CMOS. Methods are presented for analysing circuit designs and minimizing the net photocurrent responses. Analysis is performed on standard operational amplifier circuits and subcircuits to demonstrate the usefulness of these methods. Radiation hardening topics discussed include superior radiation hardened topologies, photocurrent compensation and its limitations, and methods to ensure a preferred direction of photocurrent response. Several operational amplifier subcircuits are compared for their hardness characteristics. Folded cascode and three-stage operational amplifiers were fabricated on an SOI CMOS test chip supported by Texas Instruments, Incorporated. At the time of publication, the circuit operation was verified but radiation data were not yet available.

  16. Correlating the chemical composition and size of various metal oxide substrates with the catalytic activity and stability of as-deposited Pt nanoparticles for the methanol oxidation reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megan E. Scofield; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Bobb-Semple, Dara; Tao, Jing; Tong, Xiao; Wang, Lei; Lewis, Crystal S.; Vuklmirovic, Miomir; Zhu, Yimei; Adzic, Radoslav R.

    2015-12-09

    The performance of electrode materials in conventional direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) is constrained by (i) the low activity of the catalyst materials relative to their overall cost, (ii) the poisoning of the active sites due to the presence of partially oxidized carbon species (such as but not limited to CO, formate, and acetate) produced during small molecule oxidation, and (iii) the lack of catalytic stability and durability on the underlying commercial carbon support. Therefore, as a viable alternative, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs). Our results including unique mechanistic studies demonstrate that the SrRuO3 substrate with immobilized Pt NPs at its surface evinces the best methanol oxidation performance as compared with all of the other substrate materials tested herein, including commercial carbon itself. In addition, data from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of electron transfer from bound Pt NPs to surface Ru species within the SrRuO3 substrate itself, thereby suggesting that favorable metal support interactions are responsible for the increased methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) activity of Pt species with respect to the underlying SrRuO3 composite catalyst material.

  17. Correlating the chemical composition and size of various metal oxide substrates with the catalytic activity and stability of as-deposited Pt nanoparticles for the methanol oxidation reaction

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Megan E. Scofield; Wong, Stanislaus S.; Koenigsmann, Christopher; Bobb-Semple, Dara; Tao, Jing; Tong, Xiao; Wang, Lei; Lewis, Crystal S.; Vuklmirovic, Miomir; Zhu, Yimei; et al

    2015-12-09

    The performance of electrode materials in conventional direct alcohol fuel cells (DAFC) is constrained by (i) the low activity of the catalyst materials relative to their overall cost, (ii) the poisoning of the active sites due to the presence of partially oxidized carbon species (such as but not limited to CO, formate, and acetate) produced during small molecule oxidation, and (iii) the lack of catalytic stability and durability on the underlying commercial carbon support. Therefore, as a viable alternative, we have synthesized various metal oxide and perovskite materials of different sizes and chemical compositions as supports for Pt nanoparticles (NPs).more » Our results including unique mechanistic studies demonstrate that the SrRuO3 substrate with immobilized Pt NPs at its surface evinces the best methanol oxidation performance as compared with all of the other substrate materials tested herein, including commercial carbon itself. In addition, data from electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) confirmed the presence of electron transfer from bound Pt NPs to surface Ru species within the SrRuO3 substrate itself, thereby suggesting that favorable metal support interactions are responsible for the increased methanol oxidation reaction (MOR) activity of Pt species with respect to the underlying SrRuO3 composite catalyst material.« less

  18. Method of synthesizing a plurality of reactants and producing thin films of electro-optically active transition metal oxides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C. Edwin; Benson, David K.; Ruth, Marta R.

    1987-01-01

    A method of synthesizing electro-optically active reaction products from a plurality of reactants by inducing a reaction by plasma deposition among the reactants. The plasma reaction is effective for consolidating the reactants and producing thin films of electro-optically active transition metal oxides.

  19. Modeling and experimental studies of oxide covered metal surfaces: TiO{sub 2}/Ti a model system. Progress report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1991-12-31

    Prior work in our laboratories at the Corrosion Research Center has shown that thin, anodic TiO{sub 2} films formed by the Slow Growth Mode (SGM) on polycrystalline titanium and microcrystalline with a texture that varies from one metal grain to another. Furthermore, the underlying metal grains are mapped by the photoelectrochemical response of the oxide. The same characteristics have also been demonstrated in our laboratory for ZnO grown on Zn. The TiO{sub 2}/Ti system has been chosen for study both because of its importance in energy systems, and because it can serve as a model system for other metal-metal oxide couples. The investigations of anodic TiO{sub 2} films on Ti have shown that the properties of thin films are consistent with the rutile form of the oxide. Both experimental data and theoretical calculations show the close resemblance to results on single crystal TiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the modeling studies reveal that the optical transitions near the bandedge arise from the bulk band structure. The photoelectrochemical properties of anodic TiO{sub 2} films have now been shown to obey the simple Gaertner-Butler model for the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, with a few modifications. The most important deviation has now been shown to be a result of multiple internal reflections in the oxide film.

  20. Modeling and experimental studies of oxide covered metal surfaces: TiO sub 2 /Ti a model system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smyrl, W.H.

    1991-01-01

    Prior work in our laboratories at the Corrosion Research Center has shown that thin, anodic TiO{sub 2} films formed by the Slow Growth Mode (SGM) on polycrystalline titanium and microcrystalline with a texture that varies from one metal grain to another. Furthermore, the underlying metal grains are mapped by the photoelectrochemical response of the oxide. The same characteristics have also been demonstrated in our laboratory for ZnO grown on Zn. The TiO{sub 2}/Ti system has been chosen for study both because of its importance in energy systems, and because it can serve as a model system for other metal-metal oxide couples. The investigations of anodic TiO{sub 2} films on Ti have shown that the properties of thin films are consistent with the rutile form of the oxide. Both experimental data and theoretical calculations show the close resemblance to results on single crystal TiO{sub 2}. Furthermore, the modeling studies reveal that the optical transitions near the bandedge arise from the bulk band structure. The photoelectrochemical properties of anodic TiO{sub 2} films have now been shown to obey the simple Gaertner-Butler model for the semiconductor-electrolyte interface, with a few modifications. The most important deviation has now been shown to be a result of multiple internal reflections in the oxide film.

  1. Variation of the shape and morphological properties of silica and metal oxide powders by electro homogeneous precipitation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harris, M.T.; Basaran, O.A.; Sisson, W.G.; Brunson, R.R.

    1997-02-18

    The present invention provides a method for preparing irreversible linear aggregates (fibrils) of metal oxide powders by utilizing static or pulsed DC electrical fields across a relatively non-conducting liquid solvent in which organometal compounds or silicon alkoxides have been dissolved. The electric field is applied to the relatively non-conducting solution throughout the particle formation and growth process promoting the formation of either linear aggregates (fibrils) or spherical shaped particles as desired. Thus the present invention provides a physical method for altering the size, shape and porosity of precursor hydrous metal oxide or hydrous silicon oxide powders for the development of advanced ceramics with improved strength and insulating capacity. 3 figs.

  2. Electric double layer at metal oxide surfaces: Static properties of the cassiterite - Water Interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlcek, Lukas; Zhang, Zhan; Machesky, Michael L.; Wesolowski, David J

    2007-04-01

    The structure of water at the (110) surface of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) at ambient conditions was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray crystal truncation rod experiments and interpreted with the help of the revised MUSIC model of surface protonation. The interactions of the metal oxide in the simulations were described by a recently developed classical force field based on the SPC/E model of water. Two extreme cases of completely hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces were considered along with a mixed surface with 50% dissociation. To study the dependence of the surface properties on pH, neutral and negatively charged variants of the surfaces were constructed. Axial and lateral density distributions of water for different types of surfaces were compared to each other and to experimental axial density distributions found by X-ray experiments. Although significant differences were found between the structures of the studied interfaces, the axial distances between Sn and O atoms are very similar and therefore could not be clearly distinguished by the diffraction technique. The explanation of structures observed in the density distributions was provided by a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding in the interfacial region. It revealed qualitatively different hydrating patterns formed at neutral hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces and suggested a preference for the dissociative adsorption of water. At negatively charged surfaces, however, the situation can be reversed by the electric field stabilizing a hydrogen bond network similar to that found at the neutral nonhydroxylated surface. Comparison with previously studied rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) surfaces provided insight into the differences between the hydration of these two metal oxides, and an important role was ascribed to their different lattice parameters. A link to macroscopic properties was provided by the revised MUSIC surface protonation model. Explicit use of the Sn-O bond lengths based on ab initio calculations and H-bond configurations as inputs led to the prediction of a pH of zero net-proton induced surface charge (pH{sub pzc}) that agrees very well with those determined experimentally (about 4.4 at 298 K).

  3. Electric double layer at metal oxide surfaces:static properties of the cassiterite-water interface.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vlcek, L.; Zhang, Z.; Machesky, M .L.; Fenter, P.; Rosenqvist, J.; Wesolowski, D. J.; Anovitz, L. M.; Predota, M.; Cummings, P. T.; Vanderbilt Univ.; ORNL; Univ. of South Bohimia; Illinois State Water Survey

    2007-03-24

    The structure of water at the (110) surface of cassiterite ({alpha}-SnO{sub 2}) at ambient conditions was studied by means of molecular dynamics simulations and X-ray crystal truncation rod experiments and interpreted with the help of the revised MUSIC model of surface protonation. The interactions of the metal oxide in the simulations were described by a recently developed classical force field based on the SPC/E model of water. Two extreme cases of completely hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces were considered along with a mixed surface with 50% dissociation. To study the dependence of the surface properties on pH, neutral and negatively charged variants of the surfaces were constructed. Axial and lateral density distributions of water for different types of surfaces were compared to each other and to experimental axial density distributions found by X-ray experiments. Although significant differences were found between the structures of the studied interfaces, the axial distances between Sn and O atoms are very similar and therefore could not be clearly distinguished by the diffraction technique. The explanation of structures observed in the density distributions was provided by a detailed analysis of hydrogen bonding in the interfacial region. It revealed qualitatively different hydrating patterns formed at neutral hydroxylated and nonhydroxylated surfaces and suggested a preference for the dissociative adsorption of water. At negatively charged surfaces, however, the situation can be reversed by the electric field stabilizing a hydrogen bond network similar to that found at the neutral nonhydroxylated surface. Comparison with previously studied rutile ({alpha}-TiO{sub 2}) surfaces provided insight into the differences between the hydration of these two metal oxides, and an important role was ascribed to their different lattice parameters. A link to macroscopic properties was provided by the revised MUSIC surface protonation model. Explicit use of the Sn-O bond lengths based on ab initio calculations and H-bond configurations as inputs led to the prediction of a pH of zero net-proton induced surface charge (pH{sub pzc}) that agrees very well with those determined experimentally (about 4.4 at 298 K).

  4. Rapid low-temperature processing of metal-oxide thin film transistors with combined far ultraviolet and thermal annealing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leppniemi, J. Ojanper, K.; Kololuoma, T.; Huttunen, O.-H.; Majumdar, H.; Alastalo, A.; Dahl, J.; Tuominen, M.; Laukkanen, P.

    2014-09-15

    We propose a combined far ultraviolet (FUV) and thermal annealing method of metal-nitrate-based precursor solutions that allows efficient conversion of the precursor to metal-oxide semiconductor (indium zinc oxide, IZO, and indium oxide, In{sub 2}O{sub 3}) both at low-temperature and in short processing time. The combined annealing method enables a reduction of more than 100?C in annealing temperature when compared to thermally annealed reference thin-film transistor (TFT) devices of similar performance. Amorphous IZO films annealed at 250?C with FUV for 5?min yield enhancement-mode TFTs with saturation mobility of ?1?cm{sup 2}/(Vs). Amorphous In{sub 2}O{sub 3} films annealed for 15?min with FUV at temperatures of 180?C and 200?C yield TFTs with low-hysteresis and saturation mobility of 3.2?cm{sup 2}/(Vs) and 7.5?cm{sup 2}/(Vs), respectively. The precursor condensation process is clarified with x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Introducing the FUV irradiation at 160?nm expedites the condensation process via in situ hydroxyl radical generation that results in the rapid formation of a continuous metal-oxygen-metal structure in the film. The results of this paper are relevant in order to upscale printed electronics fabrication to production-scale roll-to-roll environments.

  5. Probing the structural dependency of photoinduced properties of colloidal quantum dots using metal-oxide photo-active substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Patty, Kira; Campbell, Quinn; Hamilton, Nathan; West, Robert G.; Sadeghi, Seyed M.; Mao, Chuanbin

    2014-09-21

    We used photoactive substrates consisting of about 1 nm coating of a metal oxide on glass substrates to investigate the impact of the structures of colloidal quantum dots on their photophysical and photochemical properties. We showed during irradiation these substrates can interact uniquely with such quantum dots, inducing distinct forms of photo-induced processes when they have different cores, shells, or ligands. In particular, our results showed that for certain types of core-shell quantum dot structures an ultrathin layer of a metal oxide can reduce suppression of quantum efficiency of the quantum dots happening when they undergo extensive photo-oxidation. This suggests the possibility of shrinking the sizes of quantum dots without significant enhancement of their non-radiative decay rates. We show that such quantum dots are not influenced significantly by Coulomb blockade or photoionization, while those without a shell can undergo a large amount of photo-induced fluorescence enhancement via such blockade when they are in touch with the metal oxide.

  6. Ultraviolet GaN photodetectors on Si via oxide buffer heterostructures with integrated short period oxide-based distributed Bragg reflectors and leakage suppressing metal-oxide-semiconductor contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Szyszka, A. E-mail: adam.szyszka@pwr.wroc.pl; Haeberlen, M.; Storck, P.; Thapa, S. B.; Schroeder, T.

    2014-08-28

    Based on a novel double step oxide buffer heterostructure approach for GaN integration on Si, we present an optimized Metal-Semiconductor-Metal (MSM)-based Ultraviolet (UV) GaN photodetector system with integrated short-period (oxide/Si) Distributed Bragg Reflector (DBR) and leakage suppressing Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) electrode contacts. In terms of structural properties, it is demonstrated by in-situ reflection high energy electron diffraction and transmission electron microscopy-energy dispersive x-ray studies that the DBR heterostructure layers grow with high thickness homogeneity and sharp interface structures sufficient for UV applications; only minor Si diffusion into the Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} films is detected under the applied thermal growth budget. As revealed by comparative high resolution x-ray diffraction studies on GaN/oxide buffer/Si systems with and without DBR systems, the final GaN layer structure quality is not significantly influenced by the growth of the integrated DBR heterostructure. In terms of optoelectronic properties, it is demonstrated thatwith respect to the basic GaN/oxide/Si system without DBRthe insertion of (a) the DBR heterostructures and (b) dark current suppressing MOS contacts enhances the photoresponsivity below the GaN band-gap related UV cut-off energy by almost up to two orders of magnitude. Given the in-situ oxide passivation capability of grown GaN surfaces and the one order of magnitude lower number of superlattice layers in case of higher refractive index contrast (oxide/Si) systems with respect to classical III-N DBR superlattices, virtual GaN substrates on Si via functional oxide buffer systems are thus a promising robust approach for future GaN-based UV detector technologies.

  7. Comprehensive study and design of scaled metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with ultrathin aluminum oxide interlayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Asahara, Ryohei; Hideshima, Iori; Oka, Hiroshi; Minoura, Yuya; Hosoi, Takuji Shimura, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Heiji; Ogawa, Shingo; Yoshigoe, Akitaka; Teraoka, Yuden

    2015-06-08

    Advanced metal/high-k/Ge gate stacks with a sub-nm equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) and improved interface properties were demonstrated by controlling interface reactions using ultrathin aluminum oxide (AlO{sub x}) interlayers. A step-by-step in situ procedure by deposition of AlO{sub x} and hafnium oxide (HfO{sub x}) layers on Ge and subsequent plasma oxidation was conducted to fabricate Pt/HfO{sub 2}/AlO{sub x}/GeO{sub x}/Ge stacked structures. Comprehensive study by means of physical and electrical characterizations revealed distinct impacts of AlO{sub x} interlayers, plasma oxidation, and metal electrodes serving as capping layers on EOT scaling, improved interface quality, and thermal stability of the stacks. Aggressive EOT scaling down to 0.56 nm and very low interface state density of 2.4 × 10{sup 11 }cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1} with a sub-nm EOT and sufficient thermal stability were achieved by systematic process optimization.

  8. Electrodeposited porous metal oxide films with interconnected nanoparticles applied as anode of lithium ion battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Anguo Zhou, Shibiao; Zuo, Chenggang; Zhuan, Yongbing; Ding, Xiang

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: Highly porous NiO film is prepared by a co-electrodeposition method. Porous NiO film is composed of interconnected nanoparticles. Porous structure is favorable for fast ion/electron transfer. Porous NiO film shows good lithium ion storage properties. - Abstract: Controllable synthesis of porous metal oxide films is highly desirable for high-performance electrochemical devices. In this work, a highly porous NiO film composed of interconnected nanoparticles is prepared by a simple co-electrodeposition method. The nanoparticles in the NiO film have a size ranging from 30 to 100 nm and construct large-quantity pores of 20120 nm. As an anode material for lithium ion batteries, the highly porous NiO film electrode delivers a high discharge capacity of 700 mA h g{sup ?1} at 0.2 C, as well as good high-rate performance. After 100 cycles at 0.2 C, a specific capacitance of 517 mA h g{sup ?1} is attained. The good electrochemical performance is attributed to the interconnected porous structure, which facilitates the diffusion of ion and electron, and provides large reaction surface area leading to improved performance.

  9. Improved layered mixed transition metal oxides for Li-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doeff, Marca M.; Conry, Thomas; Wilcox, James

    2010-03-05

    Recent work in our laboratory has been directed towards development of mixed layered transition metal oxides with general composition Li[Ni, Co, M, Mn]O2 (M=Al, Ti) for Li ion battery cathodes. Compounds such as Li[Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3]O2 (often called NMCs) are currently being commercialized for use in consumer electronic batteries, but the high cobalt content makes them too expensive for vehicular applications such as electric vehicles (EV), plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs), or hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). To reduce materials costs, we have explored partial or full substitution of Co with Al, Ti, and Fe. Fe substitution generally decreases capacity and results in poorer rate and cycling behavior. Interestingly, low levels of substitution with Al or Ti improve aspects of performance with minimal impact on energy densities, for some formulations. High levels of Al substitution compromise specific capacity, however, so further improvements require that the Ni and Mn content be increased and Co correspondingly decreased. Low levels of Al or Ti substitution can then be used offset negative effects induced by the higher Ni content. The structural and electrochemical characterization of substituted NMCs is presented in this paper.

  10. Synthesis of Metal Oxide Nanomaterials for Chemical Sensors by Molecular Beam Epitaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Kuchibhatla, Satyanarayana V N T; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2013-12-01

    Since the industrial revolution, detection and monitoring of toxic matter, chemical wastes, and air pollutants has become an important environmental issue. Thus, it leads to the development of chemical sensors for various environmental applications. The recent disastrous oil spills over the near-surface of ocean due to the offshore drilling emphasize the use of chemical sensors for prevention and monitoring of the processes that might lead to these mishaps.1, 2 Chemical sensors operated on a simple principle that the sensing platform undergoes a detectable change when exposed to the target substance to be sensed. Among all the types of chemical sensors, solid state gas sensors have attracted a great deal of attention due to their advantages such as high sensitivity, greater selectivity, portability, high stability and low cost.3, 4 Especially, semiconducting metal oxides such as SnO2, TiO2, and WO3 have been widely used as the active sensing platforms in solid state gas sensors.5 For the enhanced properties of solid state gas sensors, finding new sensing materials or development of existing materials will be needed. Thus, nanostructured materials such as nanotubes,6-8 nanowires,9-11 nanorods,12-15 nanobelts,16, 17 and nano-scale thin films18-23 have been synthesized and studied for chemical sensing applications.

  11. Close-To-Practice Assessment Of Meat Freshness With Metal Oxide Sensor Microarray Electronic Nose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Musatov, V. Yu.; Sysoev, V. V.; Sommer, M.; Kiselev, I.

    2009-05-23

    In this report we estimate the ability of KAMINA e-nose, based on a metal oxide sensor (MOS) microarray and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) pattern recognition, to evaluate meat freshness. The received results show that, 1) one or two exposures of standard meat samples to the e-nose are enough for the instrument to recognize the fresh meat prepared by the same supplier with 100% probability; 2) the meat samples of two kinds, stored at 4 deg. C and 25 deg. C, are mutually recognized at early stages of decay with the help of the LDA model built independently under the e-nose training to each kind of meat; 3) the 3-4 training cycles of exposure to meat from different suppliers are necessary for the e-nose to build a reliable LDA model accounting for the supplier factor. This study approves that the MOS e-nose is ready to be currently utilised in food industry for evaluation of product freshness. The e-nose performance is characterized by low training cost, a confident recognition power of various product decay conditions and easy adjustment to changing conditions.

  12. Degradation of solid oxide fuel cell metallic interconnects in fuels containing sulfur

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrogen is the main fuel for all types of fuel cells except direct methanol fuel cells. Hydrogen can be generated from all manner of fossil fuels, including coal, natural gas, diesel, gasoline, other hydrocarbons, and oxygenates (e.g., methanol, ethanol, butanol, etc.). Impurities in the fuel can cause significant performance problems and sulfur, in particular, can decrease the cell performance of fuel cells, including solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC). In the SOFC, the high (800-1000°C) operating temperature yields advantages (e.g., internal fuel reforming) and disadvantages (e.g., material selection and degradation problems). Significant progress in reducing the operating temperature of the SOFC from ~1000 ºC to ~750 ºC may allow less expensive metallic materials to be used for interconnects and as balance of plant (BOP) materials. This paper provides insight on the material performance of nickel, ferritic steels, and nickel-based alloys in fuels containing sulfur, primarily in the form of H2S, and seeks to quantify the extent of possible degradation due to sulfur in the gas stream.

  13. Final LDRD report : metal oxide films, nanostructures, and heterostructures for solar hydrogen production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Antoun, Bonnie R.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2012-01-01

    The distinction between electricity and fuel use in analyses of global power consumption statistics highlights the critical importance of establishing efficient synthesis techniques for solar fuels-those chemicals whose bond energies are obtained through conversion processes driven by solar energy. Photoelectrochemical (PEC) processes show potential for the production of solar fuels because of their demonstrated versatility in facilitating optoelectronic and chemical conversion processes. Tandem PEC-photovoltaic modular configurations for the generation of hydrogen from water and sunlight (solar water splitting) provide an opportunity to develop a low-cost and efficient energy conversion scheme. The critical component in devices of this type is the PEC photoelectrode, which must be optically absorptive, chemically stable, and possess the required electronic band alignment with the electrochemical scale for its charge carriers to have sufficient potential to drive the hydrogen and oxygen evolution reactions. After many decades of investigation, the primary technological obstacle remains the development of photoelectrode structures capable of efficient conversion of light with visible frequencies, which is abundant in the solar spectrum. Metal oxides represent one of the few material classes that can be made photoactive and remain stable to perform the required functions.

  14. Investigation of Some Transparent Metal Oxides as Damp Heat Protective Coating for CIGS Solar Cells: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pern, F. J.; Yan, F.; Zaaunbrecher, B.; To, B.; Perkins, J.; Noufi, R.

    2012-10-01

    We investigated the protective effectiveness of some transparent metal oxides (TMO) on CIGS solar cell coupons against damp heat (DH) exposure at 85oC and 85% relative humidity (RH). Sputter-deposited bilayer ZnO (BZO) with up to 0.5-um Al-doped ZnO (AZO) layer and 0.2-um bilayer InZnO were used as 'inherent' part of device structure on CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG. Sputter-deposited 0.2-um ZnSnO and atomic layer deposited (ALD) 0.1-um Al2O3 were used as overcoat on typical BZO/CdS/CIGS/Mo/SLG solar cells. The results were all negative -- all TMO-coated CIGS cells exhibited substantial degradation in DH. Combining the optical photographs, PL and EL imaging, SEM surface micro-morphology, coupled with XRD, I-V and QE measurements, the causes of the device degradations are attributed to hydrolytic corrosion, flaking, micro-cracking, and delamination induced by the DH moisture. Mechanical stress and decrease in crystallinity (grain size effect) could be additional degrading factors for thicker AZO grown on CdS/CIGS.

  15. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, G.E. Jr.; Holcombe, C.E. Jr.

    1988-09-13

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  16. Multilayered thermal insulation formed of zirconia bonded layers of zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers and method for making same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wrenn, Jr., George E. (Clinton, TN); Holcombe, Jr., Cressie E. (Farragut, TN)

    1988-01-01

    A multilayered thermal insulating composite is formed of a first layer of zirconia-bonded zirconia fibers for utilization near the hot phase or surface of a furnace or the like. A second layer of zirconia-bonded metal oxide fibers is attached to the zirconia fiber layer by a transition layer formed of intermingled zirconia fibers and metal oxide fibers. The thermal insulation is fabricated by vacuum molding with the layers being sequentially applied from aqueous solutions containing the fibers to a configured mandrel. A portion of the solution containing the fibers forming the first layer is intermixed with the solution containing the fibers of the second layer for forming the layer of mixed fibers. The two layers of fibers joined together by the transition layer are saturated with a solution of zirconium oxynitrate which provides a zirconia matrix for the composite when the fibers are sintered together at their nexi.

  17. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    3 (2014) 4684 - 4707 Energy Procedia GHGT-12 Geochemical impacts of carbon dioxide, brine, trace metal and organic leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing limestone aquifer Diana H. Bacon3'* *, Zhenxue Daib, Liange Zhengc "Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington, USA bLos Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA cLawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California, USA Abstract An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater

  18. Identifying the Role of N-Heteroatom Location in the Activity of Metal Catalysts for Alcohol Oxidation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chan-Thaw, Carine E.; Veith, Gabriel M; Villa, Alberto; Prati, Laura

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on understanding how the bonding of nitrogen heteroatoms contained on/in a activated carbon support influence the stability and reactivity of a supported Pd catalyst for the oxidation of alcohols in solution. The results show that simply adding N groups via solution chemistry is insufficient to improve catalytic properties. Instead a strongly bound N moiety is required to activate the catalyst and stabilize the metal particles.

  19. Time-Resolved XAFS Spectroscopic Studies of B-H and N-H Oxidative Addition to Transition Metal Catalysts Relevant to Hydrogen Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bitterwolf, Thomas E.

    2014-12-09

    Successful catalytic dehydrogenation of aminoborane, H3NBH3, prompted questions as to the potential role of N-H oxidative addition in the mechanisms of these processes. N-H oxidative addition reactions are rare, and in all cases appear to involve initial dative bonding to the metal by the amine lone pairs followed by transfer of a proton to the basic metal. Aminoborane and its trimethylborane derivative block this mechanism and, in principle, should permit authentic N-H oxidative attrition to occur. Extensive experimental work failed to confirm this hypothesis. In all cases either B-H complexation or oxidative addition of solvent C-H bonds dominate the chemistry.

  20. Geochemical, metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into trace metal utilization by methane-oxidizing microbial consortia in sulphidic marine sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, DR. Jennifer; Yu, DR. Hang; Steele, Joshua; Dawson, Katherine; Sun, S; Chourey, Karuna; Pan, Chongle; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Orphan, V

    2013-01-01

    Microbes have obligate requirements for trace metals in metalloenzymes that catalyse important biogeochemical reactions. In anoxic methane- and sulphiderich environments, microbes may have unique adaptations for metal acquisition and utilization because of decreased bioavailability as a result of metal sulphide precipitation. However, micronutrient cycling is largely unexplored in cold ( 10 C) and sulphidic (> 1 mM H2S) deep-sea methane seep ecosystems. We investigated trace metal geochemistry and microbial metal utilization in methane seeps offshore Oregon and California, USA, and report dissolved concentrations of nickel (0.5 270 nM), cobalt (0.5 6 nM), molybdenum (10 5600 nM) and tungsten (0.3 8 nM) in Hydrate Ridge sediment porewaters. Despite low levels of cobalt and tungsten, metagenomic and metaproteomic data suggest that microbial consortia catalysing anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) utilize both scarce micronutrients in addition to nickel and molybdenum. Genetic machinery for cobalt-containing vitamin B12 biosynthesis was present in both anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulphate-reducing bacteria. Proteins affiliated with the tungsten-containing form of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were expressed in ANME from two seep ecosystems, the first evidence for expression of a tungstoenzyme in psychrophilic microorganisms. Overall, our data suggest that AOM consortia use specialized biochemical strategies to overcome the challenges of metal availability in sulphidic environments.

  1. Geochemical, metagenomic and metaproteomic insights into trace metal utilization by methane-oxidizing microbial consortia in sulfidic marine sediments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Glass, DR. Jennifer; Yu, DR. Hang; Steele, Joshua; Dawson, Katherine; Sun, S; Chourey, Karuna; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Orphan, V

    2014-01-01

    Microbes have obligate requirements for trace metals in metalloenzymes that catalyze important biogeochemical reactions. In anoxic methane- and sulfide-rich environments, microbes may have unique adaptations for metal acquisition and utilization due to decreased bioavailability as a result of metal sulfide precipitation. However, micronutrient cycling is largely unexplored in cold ( 10 C) and sulfidic (>1 mM H2S) deep-sea methane seep ecosystems. We investigated trace metal geochemistry and microbial metal utilization in methane seeps offshore Oregon and California, USA, and report dissolved concentrations of nickel (0.5-270 nM), cobalt (0.5-6 nM), molybdenum (10-5,600 nM) and tungsten (0.3-8 nM) in Hydrate Ridge sediment porewaters. Despite low levels of cobalt and tungsten, metagenomic and metaproteomic data suggest that microbial consortia catalyzing anaerobic oxidation of methane utilize both scarce micronutrients in addition to nickel and molybdenum. Genetic machinery for cobalt-containing vitamin B12 biosynthesis was present in both anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Proteins affiliated with the tungsten-containing form of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase were expressed in ANME from two seep ecosystems, the first evidence for expression of a tungstoenzyme in psychrotolerant microorganisms. Finally, our data suggest that chemical speciation of metals in highly sulfidic porewaters may exert a stronger influence on microbial bioavailability than total concentration

  2. Solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane comprising a porous support and a solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Han; Mittelsteadt, Cortney K; Norman, Timothy J; Griffith, Arthur E; LaConti, Anthony B

    2015-02-24

    A solid polymer electrolyte composite membrane and method of manufacturing the same. According to one embodiment, the composite membrane comprises a thin, rigid, dimensionally-stable, non-electrically-conducting support, the support having a plurality of cylindrical, straight-through pores extending perpendicularly between opposing top and bottom surfaces of the support. The pores are unevenly distributed, with some or no pores located along the periphery and more pores located centrally. The pores are completely filled with a solid polymer electrolyte, the solid polymer electrolyte including a dispersed reduced noble metal or noble metal oxide. The solid polymer electrolyte may also be deposited over the top and/or bottom surfaces of the support.

  3. Schottky barrier height reduction for holes by Fermi level depinning using metal/nickel oxide/silicon contacts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Islam, Raisul, E-mail: raisul@stanford.edu; Shine, Gautam; Saraswat, Krishna C. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-11-03

    We report the experimental demonstration of Fermi level depinning using nickel oxide (NiO) as the insulator material in metal-insulator-semiconductor (M-I-S) contacts. Using this contact, we show less than 0.1?eV barrier height for holes in platinum/NiO/silicon (Pt/NiO/p-Si) contact. Overall, the pinning factor was improved from 0.08 (metal/Si) to 0.26 (metal/NiO/Si). The experimental results show good agreement with that obtained from theoretical calculation. NiO offers high conduction band offset and low valence band offset with Si. By reducing Schottky barrier height, this contact can be used as a carrier selective contact allowing hole transport but blocking electron transport, which is important for high efficiency in photonic applications such as photovoltaics and optical detectors.

  4. New sol-gel synthetic route to transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels using inorganic salt precursors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gash, A E; Tillotson, T M; Satcher Jr, J H; Hrubesh, L W; Simpson, R L

    2000-09-12

    We have developed a new sol-gel route to synthesize several transition and main-group metal oxide aerogels. The approach is straightforward, inexpensive, versatile, and it produces monolithic microporous materials with high surface areas. Specifically, we report the use of epoxides as gelation agents for the sol-gel synthesis of chromia aerogels and xerogels from simple Cr(III) inorganic salts. The dependence of both gel formation and its rate was studied by varying the solvent used, the Cr(III) precursor salt, the epoxide/Cr(III) ratio, as well as the type of epoxide employed. All of these variables were shown to affect the rate of gel formation and provide a convenient control of this parameter. Dried chromia aerogels were characterized by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and nitrogen adsorption/desorption analyses, results of which will be presented. Our studies have shown that rigid monolithic gels can be prepared from many different metal ions salts, provided the formal oxidation state of the metal ion is greater than or equal to +3. Conversely, when di-valent transition metal salts are used precipitated solids are the products.

  5. Kinetics and mechanism of the outer-sphere oxidation of metal carbonyl anions with coordination complexes containing chloride

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lai, C.K.; Corraine, M.S.; Atwood, J.D.

    1992-02-01

    Reactions of metal carbonyl anions, CpFe(CO){sub 2}{sup -}, Re(CO){sub 5}{sup -}, Mn(CO){sub 5}{sup -}, CpMo(CO){sub 3}{sup -}, CpCr(CO){sub 3}{sup -}, and Co(CO){sub 4}{sup -}, with CrCl{sub 3}{center_dot}3S (S = THF, CH{sub 3}CN) and reactions of Mn(CO){sub 5}{sup -} and Re(CO){sub 5}{sup -} with [Co(o-phen){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}]CIO{sub 4} are reported. Net oxidation/reduction chemistry is observed with formation of metal carbonyl dimers and CrCl{sub 2}{center_dot}4S or Co(o-phen){sub 2}Cl{sub 2}. Metal carbonyl halides are also observed and shown to arise from a secondary reaction of the metal carbonyl dimer with the oxidant. The products and rates are most consistent with outer-sphere electron-transfer reactions. Reactions of CpFe(CO){sub 2}{sup -} with CpFe(CO){sub 2}X (X = Cl, Br, I) are also reported. The rate dependence on X is very small and in the order expected for nucleophilic substitution. 21 refs. 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  6. Validation of MCNP6.1 for Criticality Safety of Pu-Metal, -Solution, and -Oxide Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiedrowski, Brian C.; Conlin, Jeremy Lloyd; Favorite, Jeffrey A.; Kahler, III, Albert C.; Kersting, Alyssa R.; Parsons, Donald K.; Walker, Jessie L.

    2014-05-13

    Guidance is offered to the Los Alamos National Laboratory Nuclear Criticality Safety division towards developing an Upper Subcritical Limit (USL) for MCNP6.1 calculations with ENDF/B-VII.1 nuclear data for three classes of problems: Pu-metal, -solution, and -oxide systems. A benchmark suite containing 1,086 benchmarks is prepared, and a sensitivity/uncertainty (S/U) method with a generalized linear least squares (GLLS) data adjustment is used to reject outliers, bringing the total to 959 usable benchmarks. For each class of problem, S/U methods are used to select relevant experimental benchmarks, and the calculational margin is computed using extreme value theory. A portion of the margin of sub criticality is defined considering both a detection limit for errors in codes and data and uncertainty/variability in the nuclear data library. The latter employs S/U methods with a GLLS data adjustment to find representative nuclear data covariances constrained by integral experiments, which are then used to compute uncertainties in keff from nuclear data. The USLs for the classes of problems are as follows: Pu metal, 0.980; Pu solutions, 0.973; dry Pu oxides, 0.978; dilute Pu oxide-water mixes, 0.970; and intermediate-spectrum Pu oxide-water mixes, 0.953.

  7. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide film on a textured metallic substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christen, David K.; He, Qing

    2001-01-01

    The present invention provides a biaxially textured laminate article having a polycrystalline biaxially textured metallic substrate with an electrically conductive oxide layer epitaxially deposited thereon and methods for producing same. In one embodiment a biaxially texture Ni substrate has a layer of LaNiO.sub.3 deposited thereon. An initial layer of electrically conductive oxide buffer is epitaxially deposited using a sputtering technique using a sputtering gas which is an inert or forming gas. A subsequent layer of an electrically conductive oxide layer is then epitaxially deposited onto the initial layer using a sputtering gas comprising oxygen. The present invention will enable the formation of biaxially textured devices which include HTS wires and interconnects, large area or long length ferromagnetic and/or ferroelectric memory devices, large area or long length, flexible light emitting semiconductors, ferroelectric tapes, and electrodes.

  8. Method of depositing an electrically conductive oxide film on a textured metallic substrate and articles formed therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christen, David K.; He, Qing

    2003-04-29

    The present invention provides a biaxially textured laminate article having a polycrystalline biaxially textured metallic substrate with an electrically conductive oxide layer epitaxially deposited thereon and methods for producing same. In one embodiment a biaxially texture Ni substrate has a layer of LaNiO.sub.3 deposited thereon. An initial layer of electrically conductive oxide buffer is epitaxially deposited using a sputtering technique using a sputtering gas which is an inert or forming gas. A subsequent layer of an electrically conductive oxide layer is then epitaxially deposited onto the initial layer using a sputtering gas comprising oxygen. The present invention will enable the formation of biaxially textured devices which include HTS wires and interconnects, large area or long length ferromagnetic and/or ferroelectric memory devices, large area or long length, flexible light emitting semiconductors, ferroelectric tapes, and electrodes.

  9. Operation of mixed conducting metal oxide membrane systems under transient conditions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis

    2008-12-23

    Method of operating an oxygen-permeable mixed conducting membrane having an oxidant feed side, an oxidant feed surface, a permeate side, and a permeate surface, which method comprises controlling the differential strain between the permeate surface and the oxidant feed surface at a value below a selected maximum value by varying the oxygen partial pressure on either or both of the oxidant feed side and the permeate side of the membrane.

  10. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Wednesday, 29 May 2013 00:00 Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides

  11. Support shape effect in metal oxide catalysis: ceria nanoshapes supported vanadia catalysts for oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Zili; Schwartz, Viviane; Li, Meijun; Rondinone, Adam Justin; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2012-01-01

    The activation energy of VOx/CeO2 catalysts in oxidative dehydrogenation of iso-butane was found dependent on the shape of ceria support: rods < octahedra, closely related to the surface oxygen vacancy formation energy and defects amount of the two ceria supports with different crystallographic surface planes.

  12. High Activity of Ce1-xNixO2-y for H2 Production through Ethanol Steam Reforming: Tuning Catalytic Performance through Metal-Oxide Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G Zhou; L Barrio; S Agnoli; S Senanayake; J Evans; A Kubacka; M Estrella; J Hanson; A Martinez-Arias; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The importance of the oxide: Ce{sub 0.8}Ni{sub 0.2}O{sub 2-y} is an excellent catalyst for ethanol steam reforming. Metal-oxide interactions perturb the electronic properties of the small particles of metallic nickel present in the catalyst under the reaction conditions and thus suppress any methanation activity. The nickel embedded in ceria induces the formation of O vacancies, which facilitate cleavage of the OH bonds in ethanol and water.

  13. A 1 A laser driver in 0.35 {mu}m complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology for a pulsed time-of-flight laser rangefinder

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nissinen, Jan; Kostamovaara, Juha

    2009-10-15

    An integrated complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) current pulse generator is presented which achieves an ampere-scale peak current pulse with a rise time and pulse width of less than 1 and 2.5 ns (pulse width at half maximum), respectively. The generator is implemented in a 0.35 {mu}m CMOS process and consists of four parallel n-type metal oxide semiconductor transistors driven by a scaled buffer chain to achieve fast switching.

  14. Doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-02-18

    A supported oxidation catalyst includes a support having a metal oxide or metal salt, and mixed metal particles thereon. The mixed metal particles include first particles including a palladium compound, and second particles including a precious metal group (PMG) metal or PMG metal compound, wherein the PMG metal is not palladium. The oxidation catalyst may also be used as a gas sensor.

  15. Oxide

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-15

    Oxide is a modular framework for feature extraction and analysis of executable files. Oxide is useful in a variety of reverse engineering and categorization tasks relating to executable content.

  16. Solid-state chemistry of molecular metal oxide clusters. Bis(triphenylphosphine)rhodium(I) carbonyl derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siedle, A.R.; Gleason, W.B.; Newmark, R.A.; Skarjune, R.P.; Lyon, P.A.; Markell, C.G. ); Hodgson, K.O.; Roe, A.L. )

    1990-05-02

    Hydronium salts of the Keggin-type XM{sub 12}O{sub 40} molecular metal oxide cluster anions SiW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4{minus}}, SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4{minus}}, PW{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3{minus}}, PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 3{minus}}, PMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}{sup 4{minus}}, and PVMo{sub 11}O{sub 40}{sup 4{minus}} react with ((Ph{sub 3}P){sub 3}Rh(CO))(HC(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}) in CH{sub 3}CN{minus}C{sub 2}H{sub 5}OH to form (trans-(Ph{sub 3}P){sub 2}Rh(CO)(CH{sub 3}CN)){sub n}XM{sub 12}O{sub 40}. These salts lose CH{sub 3}CN on heating to provide ((Ph{sub 3}P){sub 2}Rh(CO)){sub n}XM{sub 12}O{sub 40}, which may also be obtained directly from ((Ph{sub 3}P){sub 3}Rh(CO))(HC(SO{sub 2}cF{sub 3}){sub 2}) in pure ethanol. These oxometalates have been characterized by ir, NMR, and x-ray absorption spectroscopy and are considered to contain isolated, lattice-stabilized (Ph{sub 3}P){sub 2}Rh(CO)-(CH{sub 3}CN){sup +} and (Ph{sub 3}P){sub 2}Rh(CO){sup +} cations, with the latter being a three-coordinate, 14-electron Rh(I) species. The activity and selectivity of these compounds as catalysts for olefin isomerization and hydroformylation are described. Reaction of ((Ph{sub 3}P){sub 3}Rh(CO))(HC(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}) with CH{sub 3}CN produces (trans-(Ph{sub 3}P){sub 2}Rh(CO)(CH{sub 3}CN))(HC(SO{sub 2}CF{sub 3}){sub 2}). The crystal structure of the triclinic compound is reported. 41 refs., 4 figs., 8 tabs.

  17. NREL Demonstrates Efficient Solar Water Splitting by Metal Oxide Photoabsorber (Fact Sheet), NREL Highlights in Science, NREL (National Renewable Energy Laboratory)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    New development demonstrates that inexpensive and robust metal oxide photoabsorbers hold great promise as photoanodes for water oxidation. The production of solar fuels (e.g., H 2 from H 2 O, hydrocarbons from CO 2 ) via direct photoelectrochemical reactions is a promising approach in the pursuit of renewable energy sources. Production of O 2 is the only scalable and renewable oxidation that can balance these fuel-forming reduction reactions. However, few materials have the necessary properties

  18. Method of producing stable metal oxides and chalcogenides and power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1996-01-01

    A method of making chemically and electrochemically stable oxides or other chalcogenides for use as cathodes for power source applications, and of making batteries comprising such materials.

  19. Geochemical Impacts of Carbon Dioxide, Brine, Trace Metal and Organic Leakage into an Unconfined, Oxidizing Limestone Aquifer

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Bacon, Diana H.; Dai, Zhenxue; Zheng, Liange

    2014-12-31

    An important risk at CO2 storage sites is the potential for groundwater quality impacts. As part of a system to assess the potential for these impacts a geochemical scaling function has been developed, based on a detailed reactive transport model of CO2 and brine leakage into an unconfined, oxidizing carbonate aquifer. Stochastic simulations varying a number of geochemical parameters were used to generate a response surface predicting the volume of aquifer that would be impacted with respect to regulated contaminants. The brine was assumed to contain several trace metals and organic contaminants. Aquifer pH and TDS were influenced by CO2more » leakage, while trace metal concentrations were most influenced by the brine concentrations rather than adsorption or desorption on calcite. Organic plume sizes were found to be strongly influenced by biodegradation.« less

  20. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  1. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  2. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  3. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  4. Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Trending: Metal Oxo Bonds Print Metal oxides are important for scientific and technical applications in a variety of disciplines, including materials science, chemistry, and biology. Highly covalent metal-oxygen multiple bonds (metal oxos) are the building blocks of metal oxides and have a bearing on the oxide's desirable chemical, magnetic, electronic, and thermal properties. The lack of a more sophisticated grasp of bonding in metal oxides constitutes a roadblock to innovation in a wide

  5. Method of producing stable metal oxides and chalcogenides and power source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1996-10-22

    A method is described for making chemically and electrochemically stable oxides or other chalcogenides for use as cathodes for power source applications, and of making batteries comprising such materials. 6 figs.

  6. High quality HfO{sub 2}/p-GaSb(001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors with 0.8?nm equivalent oxide thickness

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barth, Michael; Datta, Suman; Bruce Rayner, G.; McDonnell, Stephen; Wallace, Robert M.; Bennett, Brian R.; Engel-Herbert, Roman

    2014-12-01

    We investigate in-situ cleaning of GaSb surfaces and its effect on the electrical performance of p-type GaSb metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor (MOSCAP) using a remote hydrogen plasma. Ultrathin HfO{sub 2} films grown by atomic layer deposition were used as a high permittivity gate dielectric. Compared to conventional ex-situ chemical cleaning methods, the in-situ GaSb surface treatment resulted in a drastic improvement in the impedance characteristics of the MOSCAPs, directly evidencing a much lower interface trap density and enhanced Fermi level movement efficiency. We demonstrate that by using a combination of ex-situ and in-situ surface cleaning steps, aggressively scaled HfO{sub 2}/p-GaSb MOSCAP structures with a low equivalent oxide thickness of 0.8?nm and efficient gate modulation of the surface potential are achieved, allowing to push the Fermi level far away from the valence band edge high up into the band gap of GaSb.

  7. High Catalytic Activity of Au/CeOx/TiO2(110) Controlled by the Nature of the Mixed Metal Oxide at the Nanometer Level

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Park, J.; Graciani, J; Evans, J; Stacchiola, D; Ma, S; Liu, P; Nambu, A; Sanz, J; Hrbek, J; et. al.

    2009-01-01

    Mixed-metal oxides play a very important role in many areas of chemistry, physics, materials science, and geochemistry. Recently, there has been a strong interest in understanding phenomena associated with the deposition of oxide nanoparticles on the surface of a second (host) oxide. Here, scanning tunneling microscopy, photoemission, and density-functional calculations are used to study the behavior of ceria nanoparticles deposited on a TiO2(110) surface. The titania substrate imposes nontypical coordination modes on the ceria nanoparticles. In the CeOx/TiO2(110) systems, the Ce cations adopt an structural geometry and an oxidation state (+3) that are quite different from those seen in bulk ceria or for ceria nanoparticles deposited on metal substrates. The increase in the stability of the Ce3+ oxidation state leads to an enhancement in the chemical and catalytic activity of the ceria nanoparticles. The codeposition of ceria and gold nanoparticles on a TiO2(110) substrate generates catalysts with an extremely high activity for the production of hydrogen through the water-gas shift reaction (H2O + CO ? H2 + CO2) or for the oxidation of carbon monoxide (2CO + O2 ? 2CO2). The enhanced stability of the Ce3+ state is an example of structural promotion in catalysis described here on the atomic level. The exploration of mixed-metal oxides at the nanometer level may open avenues for optimizing catalysts through stabilization of unconventional surface structures with special chemical activity.

  8. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phasesmore » changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.« less

  9. Effect of hydrothermal condition on the formation of multi-component oxides of Ni-based metallic glass under high temperature water near the critical point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, J. S.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, D. H.; Ott, R. T.; Kim, H. G.; Lee, M. H.

    2015-07-01

    The specific feature of multi-component oxides synthesized by hydrothermal process under high temperature (633 K) and highly pressurized water (18.9 MPa) near critical point. Effects of hydrothermal processing duration times 24 hours and 72 hours, respectively, on the oxide formation of the Ni59Zr20Ti16Si2Sn3 metallic glass synthesized by powder metallurgy process were characterized by X-ray diffractometer, differential scanning calorimeter along with the particle size, morphology and crystalline phase of the oxides. The crystallization of the needle-shape NiTiO3, ZrTiO4 and ZrSnO4 ternary oxide phases observed on the surface of metallic glass at below glass transition temperature and the morphology of oxide phases changed to plate-shape around 2 μm in diameter by the increase processing time. This hydrothermal processing in subcritical water provides accelerated dense metal oxide crystals due to the reaction medium being at higher pressure than conventional oxidation processing.

  10. Fe3-xTixO4 Nanoparticles as Tunable Probes of Microbial Metal Oxidation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Juan; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Liu, Chongxuan; Wang, Zheming; Shi, Liang; Arenholz, Elke; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2013-05-14

    Present and emerging biotechnological applications for iron (oxyhydr)oxide nanomaterials depend on their interaction with microorganisms, as do their toxicity, transport, and fate in biological and environmental systems. However, mass or electron transfer along key molecular pathways at microbe-nanomaterial interfaces is extremely difficult to quantify because of system complexity. Inspired by Fe(II)-oxidizing microbes widespread in nature, we isolate and characterize one such pathway by examining the oxidation of Fe3-xTixO4 (magnetite-titanomagnetite) nanoparticles by the bacterial electron transfer enzyme MtoA, a decaheme c-type cytochrome. Oxidation by MtoA was studied as a function of the thermodynamic driving force for electron transfer by controlling the Ti(IV) doping content (x), which tunes the solid-state Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio built into the nanoparticles. A higher Fe(II)/Fe(III) ratio appears to proportionally increase the electron transfer kinetics to the cytochrome. In situ x-ray diffraction indicated that during oxidation the spinel ferrite lattice remains intact while structural Fe(II) is progressively depleted. Surface and atomic site specific Fe L2,3-edge x-ray magnetic circular dichroism indicated that MtoA directly accesses magnetically-ordered B-sublattice Fe(II) at the interface. This study provides first quantitative insights into an isolated molecular pathway for biotransformation of iron (oxyhydr)oxide nanomaterials. And, more generally, it also illustrates new techniques for probing these pathways in detail, featuring use of tailored nanoparticles, purified metalloenzyme, and synchrotron x-ray absorption spectroscopies.

  11. Preparation of low oxygen-to-metal mixed oxide fuels for the advanced fast reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kato, Masato; Nakamichi, Shinya; Takano, Tatsuo

    2007-07-01

    The preparation process for homogeneous mixed oxide pellets with a precise O/M ratio was established. The process was used to prepare pellets for heat treatments in two stages which consisted of the sintering process at high oxygen potential and the annealing process done in the atmosphere of controlled oxygen partial pressure. In the annealing process, it was found that abnormal growth of pores and occurrence of cracks were caused inside the pellet, and it was necessary for prevention of the microstructure change to control the oxygen potential of the atmosphere. Mixed oxide pellets with minor actinides were fabricated by the process and were provided to irradiation tests. (authors)

  12. Synthesis and characterization of some metal oxide nanocrystals by microwave irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashad, M.; Gaber, A.; Abdelrahim, M. A.; Abdel-Baset, A. M.; Moharram, A. H.

    2013-12-16

    Copper oxide and cobalt oxide (CuO, Co3O4) nanocrystals (NCs) have been successfully prepared in a short time using microwave irradiation. The resulted powders of nanocrystals (NCs) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements are also studied. Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UVvisible absorption spectroscopy of both kind of nanoparticels are illustrated. Optical absorption analysis indicated the direct band gap for both kinds of nanocrystals.

  13. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, D.E.

    1996-02-20

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed. 16 figs.

  14. Method of producing highly oxidized superconductors containing barium, copper, and a third metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Donald E.

    1996-01-01

    Novel superconducting materials in the form of compounds, structures or phases are formed by performing otherwise known syntheses in a highly oxidizing atmosphere rather than that created by molecular oxygen at atmospheric pressure or below. This leads to the successful synthesis of novel superconducting compounds which are thermodynamically stable at the conditions under which they are formed.

  15. Characterization of a Fe/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal/oxide interface using neutron and x-ray scattering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Watkins, E. B.; Majewski, J. E-mail: jarek@lanl.gov; Kashinath, A.; Wang, P.; Baldwin, J. K.; Demkowicz, M. J. E-mail: jarek@lanl.gov

    2014-07-28

    The structure of metal/oxide interfaces is important to the radiation resistance of oxide dispersion-strengthened steels. We find evidence of gradual variations in stoichiometry and magnetization across a Fe/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} metal/oxide heterophase interface using neutron and x-ray reflectometry. These findings suggest that the Fe/Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} interface is a transitional zone approximately ?64?-thick containing mixtures or compounds of Fe, Y, and O. Our results illustrate the complex chemical and magnetic nature of Fe/oxide interfaces and demonstrate the utility of combined neutron and x-ray techniques as tools for characterizing them.

  16. Atomic-Resolution Visualization of Distinctive Chemical Mixing Behavior of Ni, Co and Mn with Li in Layered Lithium Transition-Metal Oxide Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Lv, Dongping; Wei, Yi; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Zhiguo; Kuppan, Saravanan; Yu, Jianguo; Luo, Langli; Edwards, Danny J.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie; Pan, Feng; Chen, Guoying; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-07-06

    Capacity and voltage fading of layer structured cathode based on lithium transition metal oxide is closely related to the lattice position and migration behavior of the transition metal ions. However, it is scarcely clear about the behavior of each of these transition metal ions. We report direct atomic resolution visualization of interatomic layer mixing of transition metal (Ni, Co, Mn) and lithium ions in layer structured oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries. Using chemical imaging with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and DFT calculations, we discovered that in the layered cathodes, Mn and Co tend to reside almost exclusively at the lattice site of transition metal (TM) layer in the structure or little interlayer mixing with Li. In contrast, Ni shows high degree of interlayer mixing with Li. The fraction of Ni ions reside in the Li layer followed a near linear dependence on total Ni concentration before reaching saturation. The observed distinctively different behavior of Ni with respect to Co and Mn provides new insights on both capacity and voltage fade in this class of cathode materials based on lithium and TM oxides, therefore providing scientific basis for selective tailoring of oxide cathode materials for enhanced performance.

  17. Giant switchable Rashba effect in oxide heterostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhong, Zhicheng; Si, Liang; Zhang, Qinfang; Yin, Wei-Guo; Yunoki, Seiji; Held, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    One of the most fundamental phenomena and a reminder of the electron’s relativistic nature is the Rashba spin splitting for broken inversion symmetry. Usually this splitting is a tiny relativistic correction. Interfacing ferroelectric BaTiO₃ and a 5d (or 4d) transition metal oxide with a large spin-orbit coupling, Ba(Os,Ir,Ru)O₃, we show that giant Rashba spin splittings are indeed possible and even controllable by an external electric field. Based on density functional theory and a microscopic tight binding understanding, we conclude that the electric field is amplified and stored as a ferroelectric Ti-O distortion which, through the network of oxygen octahedra, inducesmore » a large (Os,Ir,Ru)-O distortion. The BaTiO₃/Ba(Os,Ru,Ir)O₃ heterostructure is hence the ideal test station for switching and studying the Rashba effect and allows applications at room temperature.« less

  18. Giant switchable Rashba effect in oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Zhicheng; Si, Liang; Zhang, Qinfang; Yin, Wei-Guo; Yunoki, Seiji; Held, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    One of the most fundamental phenomena and a reminder of the electron’s relativistic nature is the Rashba spin splitting for broken inversion symmetry. Usually this splitting is a tiny relativistic correction. Interfacing ferroelectric BaTiO₃ and a 5d (or 4d) transition metal oxide with a large spin-orbit coupling, Ba(Os,Ir,Ru)O₃, we show that giant Rashba spin splittings are indeed possible and even controllable by an external electric field. Based on density functional theory and a microscopic tight binding understanding, we conclude that the electric field is amplified and stored as a ferroelectric Ti-O distortion which, through the network of oxygen octahedra, induces a large (Os,Ir,Ru)-O distortion. The BaTiO₃/Ba(Os,Ru,Ir)O₃ heterostructure is hence the ideal test station for switching and studying the Rashba effect and allows applications at room temperature.

  19. Giant switchable Rashba effect in oxide heterostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhong, Zhicheng; Si, Liang; Zhang, Qinfang; Yin, Wei-Guo; Yunoki, Seiji; Held, Karsten

    2015-03-01

    One of the most fundamental phenomena and a reminder of the electrons relativistic nature is the Rashba spin splitting for broken inversion symmetry. Usually this splitting is a tiny relativistic correction. Interfacing ferroelectric BaTiO? and a 5d (or 4d) transition metal oxide with a large spin-orbit coupling, Ba(Os,Ir,Ru)O?, we show that giant Rashba spin splittings are indeed possible and even controllable by an external electric field. Based on density functional theory and a microscopic tight binding understanding, we conclude that the electric field is amplified and stored as a ferroelectric Ti-O distortion which, through the network of oxygen octahedra, induces a large (Os,Ir,Ru)-O distortion. The BaTiO?/Ba(Os,Ru,Ir)O? heterostructure is hence the ideal test station for switching and studying the Rashba effect and allows applications at room temperature.

  20. Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel Castings Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation of Distortion and Residual ...

  1. Method for improving the oxidation-resistance of metal substrates coated with thermal barrier coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anthony Mark; Gray, Dennis Michael; Jackson, Melvin Robert

    2002-01-01

    A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

  2. Design and construction of a radiation resistant quadrupole using metal oxide insulated CICC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert F. Zeller

    2012-12-28

    The construction of a engineering test model of a radiation resistant quadrupole is described. The cold-iron quadrupole uses coils fabricated from metal-oixide (synthetic spinel) insulated Cable-In-Conduit-Conductor (CICC). The superconductor is NbTi in a copper matrix. The quadrupole is designed to produce a pole-tip field of 2 T with an operating current of 7,000 A.

  3. Functionalized Graphene Sheets as Molecular Templates for Controlled Nucleation and Self-Assembly of Metal Oxide-Graphene Nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiaolin; Qi, Wen N.; Mei, Donghai; Sushko, Maria L.; Aksay, Ilhan A.; Liu, Jun

    2012-09-25

    Graphene sheets have been extensively studied as a key functional component of graphene-based nanocomposites for electronics, energy, catalysis,and sensing applications. However, fundamental understanding of the interfacial binding and nucleation processes at graphene surfaces remains lacking, and the range of controlled structures that can be produced are limited. Here, by using a combination of theoretical and experimental approaches, we demonstrate that functionalized graphene sheets (FGS) can function as a new class of molecular templates to direct nucleation and self-assembly and produce novel, three-dimensional nanocomposite materials. Two key aspects are demonstrated: First, the functional groups on FGS surface determine the nucleation energy, and thus control the nucleation sites and nucleation density, as well as the preferred crystalline phases. Second, FGS can function as a template to direct the self-assembly of surfactant micelles and produce ordered, mesoporous arrays of crystalline metal oxides and composites.

  4. Dominance of interface chemistry over the bulk properties in determining the electronic structure of epitaxial metal/perovskite oxide heterojunctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Du, Yingge; Gu, Meng; Droubay, Timothy C.; Hepplestone, Steven; Sushko, Petr

    2015-06-09

    We show that despite very similar crystallographic properties and work function values in the bulk, epitaxial Fe and Cr metallizations on Nb:SrTiO3(001) generate completely different heterojunction electronic properties. Cr is Ohmic whereas Fe forms a Schottky barrier with a barrier height of 0.50 eV. This contrast arises because of differences in interface chemistry. In contrast to Cr [Chambers, S. A. et al., Adv. Mater. 2013, 25, 4001.], Fe exhibits a +2 oxidation state and occupies Ti sites in the perovskite lattice, resulting in negligible charge transfer to Ti, upward band bending, and Schottky barrier formation. The differences between Cr and Fe are understood by performing first-principles calculations of the energetics of defect formation which corroborate the observed interface chemistry and structure.

  5. Use of impure inert gases in the controlled heating and cooling of mixed conducting metal oxide materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carolan, Michael Francis (Allentown, PA); Bernhart, John Charles (Fleetwood, PA)

    2012-08-21

    Method for processing an article comprising mixed conducting metal oxide material. The method comprises contacting the article with an oxygen-containing gas and either reducing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a cooling period or increasing the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas during a heating period; during the cooling period, reducing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the cooling period and increasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is reduced during at least a portion of the cooling period; and during the heating period, increasing the oxygen activity in the oxygen-containing gas during at least a portion of the heating period and decreasing the rate at which the temperature of the oxygen-containing gas is increased during at least a portion of the heating period.

  6. Solvent-directed Solgel Assembly of 3-dimensional Graphene-tented Metal Oxides and Strong Synergistic Disparities in Lithium Storage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Ye, Jianchao C.; An, Yonghao H.; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Campbell, Patrick G.; Worsley, Marcus A.; Tran, Ich C.; Liu, Yuanyue Y.; Wood, Brand C.; Biener, Juergen; Jiang, Hanqing Q.; et al

    2016-02-10

    The graphene/metal oxide (GMO) nanocomposites promise a broad range of utilities for lithium ion batteries (LIBs), pseudocapacitors, catalysts, and sensors. When applied as anodes for LIBs, GMOs often exhibit high capacity, improved rate capability and cycling performance. Numerous studies have attributed these favorable properties to the charisma of graphene in assisting various metal oxides (MOs) to achieve near-theoretical capacities, exploiting the exceptional electronic and mechanical properties of graphene. By comparison, the true lithium storage mechanisms of graphene and their correlations with MOs remain enigmatic. Via a unique two-step liquid-flow-guided solgel process, we have synthesized and investigated the electrochemical performance ofmore » several representative GMOs, namely Fe2O3/graphene, SnO2/graphene, and TiO2/graphene. We observe that MOs play an equally important role in promoting graphene to achieve large reversible lithium storage capacity. Our experiments suggest that the unexpected lithium storage heightening may arise from a unique surface coverage mechanism of MOs. The magnitude of capacity improvement is found to scale crudely with the surface coverage of MOs but depend strongly upon the storage mechanisms of MOs variety. Importantly, synergistic effect is only observed in conversion reaction GMOs (i.e., Fe2O3/graphene and SnO2/graphene) but not in intercalationbased GMOs (i.e., TiO2/graphene). Our first principles calculations suggest an alternative lithium storage sites from resultant interfaces between Li2O and graphene that agree with our experimental observations. This unusually beneficial role of MOs to graphene suggests an effective pathway for reversible lithium storage in graphene and shifts design paradigms for graphene-based electrodes.« less

  7. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2004-07-13

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  8. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani

    2006-04-04

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  9. Photo-oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pitts, J. Roland; Liu, Ping; Smith, R. Davis

    2009-07-14

    Photo-oxidation catalysts and methods for cleaning a metal-based catalyst are disclosed. An exemplary catalyst system implementing a photo-oxidation catalyst may comprise a metal-based catalyst, and a photo-oxidation catalyst for cleaning the metal-based catalyst in the presence of light. The exposure to light enables the photo-oxidation catalyst to substantially oxidize absorbed contaminants and reduce accumulation of the contaminants on the metal-based catalyst. Applications are also disclosed.

  10. Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ayala, Raul E.

    1993-01-01

    This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

  11. Method For Improving The Oxidation Resistance Of Metal Substrates Coated With Thermal Barrier Coatings

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Anthony Mark; Gray, Dennis Michael; Jackson, Melvin Robert

    2003-05-13

    A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described. A method for providing a protective coating on a metal-based substrate is disclosed. The method involves the application of an aluminum-rich mixture to the substrate to form a discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles, followed by the application of a second coating over the discontinuous layer of aluminum-rich particles. Aluminum diffuses from the aluminum-rich layer into the substrate, and into any bond coat layer which is subsequently applied. Related articles are also described.

  12. Synthesis and characterization of metal oxide materials for thermochemical CO2 splitting using concentrated solar energy.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stechel, Ellen Beth; Ambrosini, Andrea; Coker, Eric Nicholas; Rodriguez, Mark Andrew; Miller, James Edward; Evans, Lindsey R.; Livers, Stephanie

    2010-07-01

    The Sunshine to Petrol effort at Sandia aims to convert carbon dioxide and water to precursors for liquid hydrocarbon fuels using concentrated solar power. Significant advances have been made in the field of solar thermochemical CO{sub 2}-splitting technologies utilizing yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ)-supported ferrite composites. Conceptually, such materials work via the basic redox reactions: Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} {yields} 3FeO + 0.5O{sub 2} (Thermal reduction, >1350 C) and 3FeO + CO{sub 2} {yields} Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} + CO (CO{sub 2}-splitting oxidation, <1200 C). There has been limited fundamental characterization of the ferrite-based materials at the high temperatures and conditions present in these cycles. A systematic study of these composites is underway in an effort to begin to elucidate microstructure, structure-property relationships, and the role of the support on redox behavior under high-temperature reducing and oxidizing environments. In this paper the synthesis, structural characterization (including scanning electron microscopy and room temperature and in-situ x-ray diffraction), and thermogravimetric analysis of YSZ-supported ferrites will be reported.

  13. Development of carbon-metal oxide supercapacitors from sol-gel derived carbon-ruthenium xerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, C.; Ritter, J.A.; Popov, B.N.

    1999-09-01

    There has been increasing interest in electrochemical capacitors as energy storage systems because of their high power density and long cycle life, compared to battery devices. According to the mechanism of energy storage, there are two types of electrochemical capacitors. One type is based on double layer (dl) formation due to charge separation, and the other type is based on a faradaic process due to redox reactions. Sol-gel derived high surface area carbon-ruthenium xerogels were prepared from carbonized resorcinol-formaldehyde resins containing an electrochemically active form of ruthenium oxide. The electrochemical capacitance of these materials increased with an increase in the ruthenium content indicating the presence of pseudocapacitance associated with the ruthenium oxide undergoing reversible faradaic redox reactions. A specific capacitance of 256 F/g (single electrode) was obtained from a carbon xerogel containing 14 wt% Ru, which corresponded to more than 50% utilization of the ruthenium. The double layer accounted for 40% of this capacitance. This material was also electrochemically stable, showing no change in a cyclic voltammogram for over 2,000 cycles.

  14. Understanding Atom Probe Tomography of Oxide-Supported Metal Nanoparticles by Correlation with Atomic Resolution Electron Microscopy and Field Evaporation Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devaraj, Arun; Colby, Robert J.; Vurpillot, F.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai

    2014-03-26

    Metal-dielectric composite materials, specifically metal nanoparticles supported on or embedded in metal oxides, are widely used in catalysis. The accurate optimization of such nanostructures warrants the need for detailed three-dimensional characterization. Atom probe tomography is uniquely capable of generating sub-nanometer structural and compositional data with part-per-million mass sensitivity, but there are reconstruction artifacts for composites containing materials with strongly differing fields of evaporation, as for oxide-supported metal nanoparticles. By correlating atom probe tomography with scanning transmission electron microscopy for Au nanoparticles embedded in an MgO support, deviations from an ideal topography during evaporation are demonstrated directly, and correlated with compositional errors in the reconstructed data. Finite element simulations of the field evaporation process confirm that protruding Au nanoparticles will evolve on the tip surface, and that evaporation field variations lead to an inaccurate assessment of the local composition, effectively lowering the spatial resolution of the final reconstructed dataset. Cross-correlating the experimental data with simulations results in a more detailed understanding of local evaporation aberrations during APT analysis of metal-oxide composites, paving the way towards a more accurate three-dimensional characterization of this technologically important class of materials.

  15. Reflective optical imaging systems with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hudyma, Russell M.

    2001-01-01

    Optical systems compatible with extreme ultraviolet radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate are described. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical systems are particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput, and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical systems are characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  16. Reflective optical imaging system with balanced distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chapman, Henry N.; Hudyma, Russell M.; Shafer, David R.; Sweeney, Donald W.

    1999-01-01

    An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) An optical system compatible with short wavelength (extreme ultraviolet) radiation comprising four reflective elements for projecting a mask image onto a substrate. The four optical elements comprise, in order from object to image, convex, concave, convex and concave mirrors. The optical system is particularly suited for step and scan lithography methods. The invention enables the use of larger slit dimensions associated with ring field scanning optics, improves wafer throughput and allows higher semiconductor device density. The inventive optical system is characterized by reduced dynamic distortion because the static distortion is balanced across the slit width.

  17. Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, G.F.; Comaskey, B.; Sutton, S.B.

    1994-04-19

    The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends. 11 figures.

  18. Zigzag laser with reduced optical distortion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Albrecht, Georg F.; Comaskey, Brian; Sutton, Steven B.

    1994-01-01

    The architecture of the present invention has been driven by the need to solve the beam quality problems inherent in Brewster's angle tipped slab lasers. The entrance and exit faces of a solid state slab laser are cut perpendicular with respect to the pump face, thus intrinsically eliminating distortion caused by the unpumped Brewster's angled faces. For a given zigzag angle, the residual distortions inherent in the remaining unpumped or lightly pumped ends may be reduced further by tailoring the pump intensity at these ends.

  19. Cladding inner surface wastage for mixed-oxide liquid metal reactor fuel pins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lawrence, L.A.; Bard, F.E.; Cannon, N.S.

    1990-11-01

    Cladding inner surface wastage was measured on reference fuel pins with stainless steel and D9 cladding irradiated beyond goal burnup in the Fast Flux Test Facility. Measurements were compared to the Experimental Breeder Reactor No. 2 based fuel-cladding chemical interaction correlation developed for uranium-plutonium oxide fuels with 20% cold-worked stainless steel cladding. The fuel-cladding chemical interaction was also measured in fuel pins irradiated with HT9 cladding. Comparison of the measurements with the design correlation showed the correlation adequately accounted for the extent of interaction in the Fast Flux Test Facility fuel pins with cold-worked stainless steel D9, and HT9 cladding. 9 refs., 6 figs.

  20. STUDY MAGNETIC EXCITATIONS IN DOPED TRANSITION METAL OXIDES USING INELASTIC NEUTRON SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Pengcheng

    2014-02-18

    Understanding the interplay between magnetism and superconductivity continues to be a hot topic in modern condensed matter physics. The discovery of high-temperature superconductivity in iron-based materials in 2008 provided an unique opportunity to compare and contrast these materials with traditional high-Tc copper oxide superconductors. Neutron scattering plays an important role in determining the dynamical spin properties in these materials. This proposal is a continuation of previous DOE supported proposal. This report summarizes the final progress we have made over from May 2005 till Aug. 2013. Overall, we continue to carry out extensive neutron scattering experiments on Fe-based materials, focusing on understanding their magnetic properties. In addition, we have established a materials laboratory at UT that has allowed us to grow these superconductors. Because neutron scattering typically demands a large amount of samples, by growing these materials in our own laboratory, we can now pursuit neutron scattering experiments over the entire electronic phase diagram, focusing on regions of interests. The material synthesis laboratory at UT was established entirely with the support of DOE funding. This not only allowed us to carry out neutron scattering experiments, but also permit us to provide samples to other US/International collaborators for studying these materials.

  1. Initiation of atomic layer deposition of metal oxides on polymer substrates by water plasma pretreatment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Brandt, E.; Grace, Jeremy M.

    2012-01-15

    The role of surface hydroxyl content in atomic layer deposition (ALD) of aluminum oxide (AO) on polymers is demonstrated by performing an atomic layer deposition of AO onto a variety of polymer types, before and after pretreatment in a plasma struck in water vapor. The treatment and deposition reactions are performed in situ in a high vacuum chamber that is interfaced to an x-ray photoelectron spectrometer to prevent adventitious exposure to atmospheric contaminants. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to follow the surface chemistries of the polymers, including theformation of surface hydroxyls and subsequent growth of AO by ALD. Using dimethyl aluminum isopropoxide and water as reactants, ALD is obtained for water-plasma-treated poly(styrene) (PS), poly(propylene) (PP), poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), and poly(ethylene naphthalate) (PEN). For PS, PP, and PEN, initial growth rates of AO on the native (untreated) polymers are at least an order of magnitude lower than on the same polymer surface following the plasma treatment. By contrast, native PVA is shown to initiate ALD of AO as a result of the presence of intrinsic surface hydroxyls that are derived from the repeat unit of this polymer.

  2. Multiple Redox Modes in the Reversible Lithiation of High-Capacity, Peierls-Distorted Vanadium Sulfide

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Britto, Sylvia; Leskes, Michal; Hua, Xiao; Hébert, Claire-Alice; Shin, Hyeon Suk; Clarke, Simon; Borkiewicz, Olaf; Chapman, Karena W.; Seshadri, Ram; Cho, Jaephil; et al

    2015-06-08

    Vanadium sulfide VS4 in the patronite mineral structure, is a linear chain compound comprising vanadium atoms coordinated by disulfide anions [S2]2–. 51V NMR shows that the material, despite having V formally in the d1 configuration, is diamagnetic, suggesting potential dimerization through metal-metal bonding associated with a Peierls distortion of the linear chains. This is supported by density functional calculations, and is also consistent with the observed alternation in V-V distances of 2.8 Å and 3.2 Å along the chains. Partial lithiation results in reduction of the disulfide ions to sulfide S2–, including via an internal redox process whereby an electronmore » from V4+ is transferred to [S2]2– resulting in oxidation of V4+ to V5+ and reduction of the [S2]2– to S2- to form Li3VS4 containing tetrahedral [VS4]3– anions. On further lithiation this is followed by reduction of the V5+ in Li3VS4 to form Li3+xVS4 (x=0.5-1), a mixed valent V4+/V5+ compound. Eventually reduction to Li2S plus elemental V occurs. Despite the complex redox processes involving both the cation and the anion occurring in this material, the system is found to be partially reversible between 0 and 3 V. In conclusion, the unusual redox processes in this system are elucidated using a suite of short range characterization tools including 51V Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy (NMR), S Kedge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Spectroscopy (XANES) and Pair Distribution Function (PDF) Analysis of X-ray data.« less

  3. Plasmonic Based Sensing Using an Array of Au-Metal Oxide Thin Films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joy, N.; Rogers, Phillip H.; Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Carpenter, Michael A.

    2012-12-04

    An optical plasmonic-based sensing array has been developed and tested for the selective and sensitive detection of H2, CO, and NO2 at a temperature of 500C in an oxygen-containing background. The three element sensing array used Au nanoparticles embedded in separate thin films of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ), CeO2, and TiO2. A peak in the absorbance spectrum due to a localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) on the Au nanoparticles was monitored for each film during gas exposures and showed a blue shift in the peak positions for the reducing gases, H2 and CO, and a red shift for the oxidizing gas NO2. A more in-depth look at the sensing response was performed using the multivariate methods of principal component analysis (PCA) analysis and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) on data from across the entire absorbance spectrum range. Qualitative results from both methods showed good separation between the three analytes for both the full array and the Au-TiO2 sample. Quantification of LDA cluster separation using the Mahalanobis distance showed better cluster separation for the array, but there were some instances with the lowest concentrations where the single Au-TiO2 film had better separation than the array. A second method to quantify cluster separation in LDA space was developed using multidimensional volume analysis of the individual cluster volume, overlapped cluster volume and empty volume between clusters. Compared to the individual sensing elements, the array showed less cluster overlap, smaller cluster volumes, and more space between clusters, all of which were expected for improved separability between the analytes.

  4. Mssbauer study of metallic iron and iron oxide nanoparticles having environmental purifying ability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubuki, Shiro Watanabe, Yuka Akiyama, Kazuhiko; Risti?, Mira; Krehula, Stjepko; Homonnay, Zoltn; Kuzmann, Ern?; Nishida, Tetsuaki

    2014-10-27

    A relationship between local structure and methylene blue (MB) decomposing ability of nanoparticles (NPs) of metallic iron (Fe{sup 0}) and maghemite (??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) was investigated by {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometry and UV-visible light absorption spectroscopy. ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs were successfully prepared by mixing (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}Fe(SO{sub 4}){sub 2}?6H{sub 2}O (Mohr's salt) and (NH{sub 4}){sub 3}Fe(C{sub 2}O{sub 4}){sub 3}?3H{sub 2}O aqueous solution at 30 C for 1 h, while those of Fe{sup 0} were obtained by the reduction of Mohr's salt with NaBH{sub 4}. From the Scherrer's equation, the smallest crystallite sizes of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs and Fe{sup 0} NPs were determined to be 9.7 and 1.5 nm, respectively. {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectrum of ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs consists of a relaxed sextet with isomer shift (?) of 0.33{sub 0.01} mm s{sup ?1}, internal magnetic field (H{sub int}) of 25.8{sub 0.5} T, and linewidth (?) of 0.62{sub 0.04} mm s{sup ?1}. {sup 57}Fe Mssbauer spectrum of Fe{sup 0} NP is mainly composed of a sextet having ?, ?, and H{sub int} of 0.00{sub 0.01} mm s{sup ?1} 0.45{sub 0.01} mm s{sup ?1}, and 22.8{sub 0.1} T, respectively. A bleaching test of the mixture of Fe{sup 0} and ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} NPs (3:7 ratio, 100 mg) in MB aqueous solution (20 mL) for 6 h showed a remarkable decrease of MB concentration with the first-order rate constant (k{sub MB}) of 6.7 10{sup ?1} h{sup ?1}. This value is larger than that obtained for the bleaching test using bulk Fe{sup 0}+??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} (3:7) mixture (k{sub MB}?=?6.510{sup ?3}h{sup ?1}). These results prove that MB decomposing ability is enhanced by the NPs mixture of Fe{sub 0} and ??Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}.

  5. Ultrasonic fingerprint sensor using a piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducer array integrated with complementary metal oxide semiconductor electronics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Y.; Fung, S.; Wang, Q.; Horsley, D. A.; Tang, H.; Boser, B. E.; Tsai, J. M.; Daneman, M.

    2015-06-29

    This paper presents an ultrasonic fingerprint sensor based on a 24 × 8 array of 22 MHz piezoelectric micromachined ultrasonic transducers (PMUTs) with 100 μm pitch, fully integrated with 180 nm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuitry through eutectic wafer bonding. Each PMUT is directly bonded to a dedicated CMOS receive amplifier, minimizing electrical parasitics and eliminating the need for through-silicon vias. The array frequency response and vibration mode-shape were characterized using laser Doppler vibrometry and verified via finite element method simulation. The array's acoustic output was measured using a hydrophone to be ∼14 kPa with a 28 V input, in reasonable agreement with predication from analytical calculation. Pulse-echo imaging of a 1D steel grating is demonstrated using electronic scanning of a 20 × 8 sub-array, resulting in 300 mV maximum received amplitude and 5:1 contrast ratio. Because the small size of this array limits the maximum image size, mechanical scanning was used to image a 2D polydimethylsiloxane fingerprint phantom (10 mm × 8 mm) at a 1.2 mm distance from the array.

  6. The relationship between hydroxyl groups on oxide surfaces and the properties of supported metals. Progress report, June 1, 1992--January 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schwarz, J.A.

    1994-05-01

    Supported metal catalysts are commonly prepared by depositing catalytic precursors from aqueous solutions of electrolytes onto high surface area oxides. A general conclusion of our previous studies was that the performance of the finished catalyst depends on the characteristic properties of the hydroxyl inventory on the surface of the oxide support, both in wet and in (pseudo)-dry conditions. Hydroxyl groups serve as adsorption or exchange sites during catalyst preparation. On the other hand, the configuration of hydroxyl groups still remaining on oxides after dehydration determines the acid-base characteristics of the catalyst, which is an important catalytic property. The purpose of the investigation is to characterize the relationship between the complex inventory of hydroxyl groups at oxide surfaces, the acid-base properties of oxides (both in aqueous solution and in the pseudo-dry state) and the resultant effects on the properties of catalytic materials formed by adsorption/impregnation onto these hydroxylated supports during catalyst preparation. We use a common crystallographic model to describe the local configuration of hydroxyl groups on both the pseudo-dry surface and -the oxide/aqueous solution interface. This allows us to extend the concept of structurally determined intrinsic heterogeneity of pseudo-dry surfaces (as already known from the IR spectra of isolated surface hydroxyls) to the oxide/solution interface. We examine the consequences of that heterogeneity upon the impregnation step during catalyst preparation.

  7. Redshift distortions of galaxy correlation functions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fry, J.N. Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL . Dept. of Physics); Gaztanaga, E. Oxford Univ. . Dept. of Physics)

    1993-05-12

    To examine how peculiar velocities can affect the 2-, 3-, and 4-point correlation functions, we evaluate volume-average correlations for configurations that emphasize and minimize distortions for four different volume-limited samples from each of the CfA, SSRS, and IRAS redshift catalogs. We present the results as the correlation length r[sub 0] and power index [gamma] of the 2-point correlation, [anti [Xi

  8. Electron-electron scattering-induced channel hot electron injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors with high-k/metal gate stacks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, Jyun-Yu; Liu, Kuan-Ju; Lu, Ying-Hsin; Liu, Xi-Wen; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chen, Ching-En; Ho, Szu-Han; Tseng, Tseung-Yuen; Cheng, Osbert; Huang, Cheng-Tung; Lu, Ching-Sen

    2014-10-06

    This work investigates electron-electron scattering (EES)-induced channel hot electron (CHE) injection in nanoscale n-channel metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistors (n-MOSFETs) with high-k/metal gate stacks. Many groups have proposed new models (i.e., single-particle and multiple-particle process) to well explain the hot carrier degradation in nanoscale devices and all mechanisms focused on Si-H bond dissociation at the Si/SiO{sub 2} interface. However, for high-k dielectric devices, experiment results show that the channel hot carrier trapping in the pre-existing high-k bulk defects is the main degradation mechanism. Therefore, we propose a model of EES-induced CHE injection to illustrate the trapping-dominant mechanism in nanoscale n-MOSFETs with high-k/metal gate stacks.

  9. Novel, band-controlled metal oxide compositions for semiconductor-mediated photocatalytic splitting of water to produce H{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Narendra M.

    2013-02-05

    Semiconductor-mediated photo-catalytic dissociation of water offers a unique opportunity for the production of H{sub 2}, a sustainable source of energy. More efficient and chemically stable photo-catalysts, however, remain a vital requirement for commercial viability of this process. The recent research in my group has focused on the synthesis of several new metal oxide (MO) photo-catalysts, such as: LaInO{sub 3}, GaFeO{sub 3}, InVO{sub 4}, In{sub 2}TiO{sub 5} and nanotubular TiO{sub 2}. These samples of controlled grain morphology have been synthesized by using different synthesis protocols and with and without coating of a noble metal co-catalyst. The doping of an impurity, either at cationic or at anionic lattice site, has helped in the tailoring of band structure and making these oxides visible-light-sensitive. Our study has revealed that the surface characteristics, grain morphology, band structure, and doping-induced lattice imperfections control the photo-physical properties and overall photo-catalytic water splitting activity of these metal/MO composites [1-6]. We have demonstrated that, besides promoting certain charge-transfer steps, metal-semiconductor interfaces influence the adsorption of water molecules and their subsequent interaction with photo-generated electron-hole pair at the catalyst surface. The role played by the above-mentioned micro-structural properties in photo-catalytic water splitting process will be discussed.

  10. Method and electrochemical cell for synthesis and treatment of metal monolayer electrocatalysts metal, carbon, and oxide nanoparticles ion batch, or in continuous fashion

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adzic, Radoslav; Zhang, Junliang; Sasaki, Kotaro

    2015-04-28

    An apparatus and method for synthesis and treatment of electrocatalyst particles in batch or continuous fashion is provided. In one embodiment, the apparatus comprises a sonication bath and a two-compartment chamber submerged in the sonication bath. The upper and lower compartments are separated by a microporous material surface. The upper compartment comprises a cover and a working electrode (WE) connected to a Pt foil contact, with the foil contact connected to the microporous material. The upper chamber further comprises reference counter electrodes. The lower compartment comprises an electrochemical cell containing a solution of metal ions. In one embodiment, the method for synthesis of electrocatalysts comprises introducing a plurality of particles into the apparatus and applying sonication and an electrical potential to the microporous material connected to the WE. After the non-noble metal ions are deposited onto the particles, the non-noble metal ions are displaced by noble-metal ions by galvanic displacement.

  11. Selective Catalytic Oxidation (SCO) of NH3 to N2 for Hot Exhaust Treatment

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Investigation of a series of transition metal oxides and precious metal based catalysts for ammonia selective oxidation at low temperatures

  12. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  13. Nanostructured Metal Oxide Anodes

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

  14. Potential-well distortion in barrier Rf

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King Ng

    2004-04-29

    Head-tail asymmetry has been observed in the longitudinal beam profiles in the Fermilab Recycler Ring where protons or antiprotons are stored in rf barrier buckets. The asymmetry is caused by the distortion of the rf potential well in the presence of resistive impedance. Gaussian energy distribution can fit the observed asymmetric beam profile but not without discrepancy. It can also fit the measured energy distribution. On the other hand, generalized elliptic distribution gives a better fit to the beam profile. However, it fails to reproduce the observed energy distribution.

  15. Prediction of Part Distortion in Die Casting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. Allen Miller

    2005-03-30

    The die casting process is one of the net shape manufacturing techniques and is widely used to produce high production castings with tight tolerances for many industries. An understanding of the stress distribution and the deformation pattern of parts produced by die casting will result in less deviation from the part design specification, a better die design and eventually more productivity and cost savings. This report presents methods that can be used to simulate the die casting process in order to predict the deformation and stresses in the produced part and assesses the degree to which distortion modeling is practical for die casting at the current time. A coupled thermal-mechanical finite elements model was used to simulate the die casting process. The simulation models the effect of thermal and mechanical interaction between the casting and the die. It also includes the temperature dependant material properties of the casting. Based on a designed experiment, a sensitivity analysis was conducted on the model to investigate the effect of key factors. These factors include the casting material model, material properties and thermal interaction between casting and dies. To verify the casting distortion predictions, it was compared against the measured dimensions of produced parts. The comparison included dimensions along and across the parting plane and the flatness of one surface.

  16. Adsorption of propane, isopropyl, and hydrogen on cluster models of the M1 phase of Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Govindasamy, Agalya; Muthukumar, Kaliappan; Yu, Junjun; Xu, Ye; Guliants, Vadim V.

    2010-01-01

    The Mo-V-Te-Nb-O mixed metal oxide catalyst possessing the M1 phase structure is uniquely capable of directly converting propane into acrylonitrile. However, the mechanism of this complex eight-electron transformation, which includes a series of oxidative H-abstraction and N-insertion steps, remains poorly understood. We have conducted a density functional theory study of cluster models of the proposed active and selective site for propane ammoxidation, including the adsorption of propane, isopropyl (CH{sub 3}CHCH{sub 3}), and H which are involved in the first step of this transformation, that is, the methylene C-H bond scission in propane, on these active site models. Among the surface oxygen species, the telluryl oxo (Te=O) is found to be the most nucleophilic. Whereas the adsorption of propane is weak regardless of the MO{sub x} species involved, isopropyl and H adsorption exhibits strong preference in the order of Te=O > V=O > bridging oxygens > empty Mo apical site, suggesting the importance of TeO{sub x} species for H abstraction. The adsorption energies of isopropyl and H and consequently the reaction energy of the initial dehydrogenation of propane are strongly dependent on the number of ab planes included in the cluster, which points to the need to employ multilayer cluster models to correctly capture the energetics of surface chemistry on this mixed metal oxide catalyst.

  17. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, P.O.; Kennedy, C.E.; Jorgensen, G.J.; Shinton, Y.D.; Goggin, R.M.

    1994-11-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction is disclosed having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate. 6 figs.

  18. Durable metallized polymer mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schissel, Paul O.; Kennedy, Cheryl E.; Jorgensen, Gary J.; Shinton, Yvonne D.; Goggin, Rita M.

    1994-01-01

    A metallized polymer mirror construction having improved durability against delamination and tunneling, comprising: an outer layer of polymeric material; a metal oxide layer underlying the outer layer of polymeric material; a silver reflective layer underneath the metal oxide layer; and a layer of adhesive attaching the silver layer to a substrate.

  19. Rotating stall control in a high-speed stage with inlet distortion. Part 2: Circumferential distortion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spakovszky, Z.S.; Weigl, H.J.; Paduano, J.D.; Schalkwyk, C.M. van; Suder, K.L.; Bright, M.M.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents the first attempt to stabilize rotating stall in a single-stage transonic axial flow compressor with inlet distortion using active feedback control. The experiments were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center on a single-stage transonic core compressor inlet stage. An array of 12 jet injectors located upstream of the compressor was used for forced response testing and feedback stabilization. Results for a circumferential total pressure distortion of about one dynamic head and a 120 deg extent (DC(60){equals}0.61) are reported in this paper. Part 1 (Spaskovszky et al., 1999) reports results for radial distortion. Control laws were designed using empirical transfer function estimates determined from forced response results. Distortion introduces coupling between the harmonics of circumferential pressure perturbations, requiring multivariable identification and control design techniques. The compressor response displayed a strong first spatial harmonic, dominated by the well-known incompressible Moore-Greitzer mode. Steady axisymmetric injection of 4 percent of the compressor mass flow resulted in a 6.2 percent reduction of stalling mass flow. Constant gain feedback, using unsteady asymmetric injection, yielded a further range extension of 9 percent. A more sophisticated robust H{sub {infinity}} controller allowed a reduction in stalling mass flow of 10.2 percent relative to steady injection, yielding a total reduction in stalling mass flow of 16.4 percent.

  20. Method for synthesis of high T.sub.c superconducting materials by oxidation and press coating of metallic precursor alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, Wei (Somerville, MA); Vander Sande, John B. (Newbury, MA)

    1993-01-01

    A superconductor oxide composite is prepared using a press coating technique. The coated layers on various substrates exhibit good adhesion, textured microstructure, and improved J.sub.c.

  1. Method for synthesis of high T[sub c] superconducting materials by oxidation and press coating of metallic precursor alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gao, W.; Vander Sande, J.B.

    1993-01-19

    A superconductor oxide composite is prepared using a press coating technique. The coated layers on various substrates exhibit good adhesion, textured microstructure, and improved J[sub c].

  2. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, Nancy N. (Los Alamos, NM); Watkin, John G. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1992-01-01

    A process of converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plnium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is provided together with a low temperature process of preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrte. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  3. Actinide metal processing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sauer, N.N.; Watkin, J.G.

    1992-03-24

    A process for converting an actinide metal such as thorium, uranium, or plutonium to an actinide oxide material by admixing the actinide metal in an aqueous medium with a hypochlorite as an oxidizing agent for sufficient time to form the actinide oxide material and recovering the actinide oxide material is described together with a low temperature process for preparing an actinide oxide nitrate such as uranyl nitrate. Additionally, a composition of matter comprising the reaction product of uranium metal and sodium hypochlorite is provided, the reaction product being an essentially insoluble uranium oxide material suitable for disposal or long term storage.

  4. Process for the production of hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide from hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide using a multi-metal oxide/sulfide catalyst

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jevnikar, M. G.; Kuch, Ph. L.

    1985-02-19

    Hydrogen and carbonyl sulfide are produced by a process comprising contacting gaseous hydrogen sulfide with gaseous carbon monoxide in the presence of a catalytic composition containing an oxide and/or sulfide of at least one of molybdenum, tungsten, iron, chromium and vanadium in combination with at least one promoter metal, e.g. a catalyst of the formula Cs Cu /SUB 0.2/ Zn /SUB 0.5/ Mn /SUB 0.5/ Sn /SUB 2.4/ Mo O /SUB x/ S /SUB y/ .

  5. An in-depth noise model for giant magnetoresistance current sensors for circuit design and complementary metaloxidesemiconductor integration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Roldn, A. Roldn, J. B.; Reig, C.; Cardoso, S.; Cardoso, F.; Ferreira, R.; Freitas, P. P.

    2014-05-07

    Full instrumentation bridges based on spin valve of giant magnetoresistance and magnetic tunnel junction devices have been microfabricated and experimentally characterized from the DC and noise viewpoint. A more realistic model of these devices was obtained in this work, an electrical and thermal model previously developed have been improved in such a way that noise effects are also included. We have implemented the model in a circuit simulator and reproduced the experimental measurements accurately. This provides a more realistic and complete tool for circuit design where magnetoresistive elements are combined with well-known complementary metaloxidesemiconductor modules.

  6. Method and system for the combination of non-thermal plasma and metal/metal oxide doped .gamma.-alumina catalysts for diesel engine exhaust aftertreatment system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aardahl, Christopher L.; Balmer-Miller, Mari Lou; Chanda, Ashok; Habeger, Craig F.; Koshkarian, Kent A.; Park, Paul W.

    2006-07-25

    The present disclosure pertains to a system and method for treatment of oxygen rich exhaust and more specifically to a method and system that combines non-thermal plasma with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina catalyst. Current catalyst systems for the treatment of oxygen rich exhaust are capable of achieving only approximately 7 to 12% NO.sub.x reduction as a passive system and only 25 40% reduction when a supplemental hydrocarbon reductant is injected into the exhaust stream. It has been found that treatment of an oxygen rich exhaust initially with a non-thermal plasma and followed by subsequent treatment with a metal doped .gamma.-alumina prepared by the sol gel method is capable of increasing the NO.sub.x reduction to a level of approximately 90% in the absence of SO.sub.2 and 80% in the presence of 20 ppm of SO.sub.2. Especially useful metals have been found to be indium, gallium, and tin.

  7. Reducible oxide based catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thompson, Levi T.; Kim, Chang Hwan; Bej, Shyamal K.

    2010-04-06

    A catalyst is disclosed herein. The catalyst includes a reducible oxide support and at least one noble metal fixed on the reducible oxide support. The noble metal(s) is loaded on the support at a substantially constant temperature and pH.

  8. Redshift-space distortions in massive neutrino and evolving dark...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Redshift-space distortions in massive neutrino and evolving dark energy cosmologies ... This content will become publicly available on March 16, 2017 Title: Redshift-space ...

  9. Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the production of aluminum alloy satellite boxes. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Overcoming residual stresses and machining distortion in the production of ...

  10. Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation of Distortion and Residual Stress Development During Heat Treatment of Steel ... Available experimental steel casting heat treatment data was determined to be of ...

  11. Harmonic and interharmonic distortion modeling in multiconverter systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carbone, R.; Morrison, R.E.; Testa, A.; Menniti, D.

    1995-07-01

    The problem of modeling multiconverter systems in presence of harmonic and interharmonic distortion is considered. Specifically, current source rectifiers are considered as distortion sources some supply d.c. motors and the remaining supplying inverters feeding a.c. machines. The classical analogue, frequency domain and time domain models proposed in the literature to study harmonic distortion in a multiconverter system are considered and for each model suitable extension to include the interharmonic distortion are presented and critically analyzed. The results of several experiments are reported to show the usefulness and to compare the accuracy of the different extensions considered.

  12. The Fundamental Role of Nano-Scale Oxide Films in the Oxidation of Hydrogen and the Reduction of Oxygen on Noble Metal Electrocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Digby Macdonald

    2005-04-15

    The derivation of successful fuel cell technologies requires the development of more effective, cheaper, and poison-resistant electrocatalysts for both the anode (H{sub 2} oxidation in the presence of small amounts of CO from the reforming of carbonaceous fuels) and the cathode (reduction of oxygen in the presence of carried-over fuel). The proposed work is tightly focused on one specific aspect of electrocatalysis; the fundamental role(s) played by nanoscale (1-2 nm thick) oxide (''passive'') films that form on the electrocatalyst surfaces above substrate-dependent, critical potentials, on charge transfer reactions, particularly at elevated temperatures (25 C < T < 200 C). Once the role(s) of these films is (are) adequately understood, we will then use this information to specify, at the molecular level, optimal properties of the passive layer for the efficient electrocatalysis of the oxygen reduction reaction.

  13. L{sub g}?=?100?nm In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As quantum well metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistors with atomic layer deposited beryllium oxide as interfacial layer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koh, D., E-mail: dh.koh@utexas.edu, E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States); SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kwon, H. M. [Department of Electronics Engineering, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, T.-W., E-mail: dh.koh@utexas.edu, E-mail: Taewoo.Kim@sematech.org; Veksler, D.; Gilmer, D.; Kirsch, P. D. [SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Kim, D.-H. [SEMATECH, Inc., Albany, New York 12203 (United States); GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Malta, New York 12020 (United States); Hudnall, Todd W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Texas State University, San Marcos, Texas, 78666 (United States); Bielawski, Christopher W. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Maszara, W. [GLOBALFOUNDRIES, Santa Clara, California 95054 (United States); Banerjee, S. K. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microelectronics Research Center, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78758 (United States)

    2014-04-21

    In this study, we have fabricated nanometer-scale channel length quantum-well (QW) metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) incorporating beryllium oxide (BeO) as an interfacial layer. BeO has high thermal stability, excellent electrical insulating characteristics, and a large band-gap, which make it an attractive candidate for use as a gate dielectric in making MOSFETs. BeO can also act as a good diffusion barrier to oxygen owing to its small atomic bonding length. In this work, we have fabricated In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As MOS capacitors with BeO and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and compared their electrical characteristics. As interface passivation layer, BeO/HfO{sub 2} bilayer gate stack presented effective oxide thickness less 1 nm. Furthermore, we have demonstrated In{sub 0.7}Ga{sub 0.3}As QW MOSFETs with a BeO/HfO{sub 2} dielectric, showing a sub-threshold slope of 100?mV/dec, and a transconductance (g{sub m,max}) of 1.1 mS/?m, while displaying low values of gate leakage current. These results highlight the potential of atomic layer deposited BeO for use as a gate dielectric or interface passivation layer for IIIV MOSFETs at the 7?nm technology node and/or beyond.

  14. Selective CO{sub 2} reduction conjugated with H{sub 2}O oxidation utilizing semiconductor/metal-complex hybrid photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morikawa, T. Sato, S. Arai, T. Uemura, K. Yamanaka, K. I. Suzuki, T. M. Kajino, T. Motohiro, T.

    2013-12-10

    We developed a new hybrid photocatalyst for CO{sub 2} reduction, which is composed of a semiconductor and a metal complex. In the hybrid photocatalyst, ?G between the position of conduction band minimum (E{sub CBM}) of the semiconductor and the CO{sub 2} reduction potential of the complex is an essential factor for realizing fast electron transfer from the conduction band of semiconductor to metal complex leading to high photocatalytic activity. On the basis of this concept, the hybrid photocatalyst InP/Ru-complex, which functions in aqueous media, was developed. The photoreduction of CO{sub 2} to formate using water as an electron donor and a proton source was successfully achieved as a Z-scheme system by functionally conjugating the InP/Ru-complex photocatalyst for CO{sub 2} reduction with a TiO{sub 2} photocatalyst for water oxidation. The conversion efficiency from solar energy to chemical energy was ca. 0.04%, which approaches that for photosynthesis in a plant. Because this system can be applied to many other inorganic semiconductors and metal-complex catalysts, the efficiency and reaction selectivity can be enhanced by optimization of the electron transfer process including the energy-band configurations, conjugation conformations, and catalyst structures. This electrical-bias-free reaction is a huge leap forward for future practical applications of artificial photosynthesis under solar irradiation to produce organic species.

  15. Method for preparing metal powder, device for preparing metal powder, method for processing spent nuclear fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Park, Jong-Hee (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    2011-11-29

    A method for producing metal powder is provided the comprising supplying a molten bath containing a reducing agent, contacting a metal oxide with the molten bath for a time and at a temperature sufficient to reduce the metal in the metal oxide to elemental metal and produce free oxygen; and isolating the elemental metal from the molten bath.

  16. Strategies to curb structural changes of lithium/transition metal oxide cathode materials & the changes' effects on thermal & cycling stability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiqian; Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seongmin; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2015-12-07

    Structural transformation behaviors of several typical oxide cathode materials during a heating process are reviewed in detail to provide in-depth understanding of the key factors governing the thermal stability of these materials. Furthermore, we also discuss applying the information about heat induced structural evolution in the study of electrochemically induced structural changes. All these discussions are expected to provide valuable insights for designing oxide cathode materials with significantly improved structural stability for safe, long-life lithium ion batteries, as the safety of lithium-ion batteries is a critical issue. As a result, it is widely accepted that the thermal instability of themore » cathodes is one of the most critical factors in thermal runaway and related safety problems.« less

  17. Strategies to curb structural changes of lithium/transition metal oxide cathode materials & the changes' effects on thermal & cycling stability

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yu, Xiqian; Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seongmin; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2015-12-07

    Structural transformation behaviors of several typical oxide cathode materials during a heating process are reviewed in detail to provide in-depth understanding of the key factors governing the thermal stability of these materials. Furthermore, we also discuss applying the information about heat induced structural evolution in the study of electrochemically induced structural changes. All these discussions are expected to provide valuable insights for designing oxide cathode materials with significantly improved structural stability for safe, long-life lithium ion batteries, as the safety of lithium-ion batteries is a critical issue. As a result, it is widely accepted that the thermal instability of themore »cathodes is one of the most critical factors in thermal runaway and related safety problems.« less

  18. Strategies to curb structural changes of lithium/transition metal oxide cathode materials & the changes' effects on thermal & cycling stability

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, Xiqian; Hu, Enyuan; Bak, Seongmin; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2015-12-07

    Structural transformation behaviors of several typical oxide cathode materials during a heating process are reviewed in detail to provide in-depth understanding of the key factors governing the thermal stability of these materials. Furthermore, we also discuss applying the information about heat induced structural evolution in the study of electrochemically induced structural changes. All these discussions are expected to provide valuable insights for designing oxide cathode materials with significantly improved structural stability for safe, long-life lithium ion batteries, as the safety of lithium-ion batteries is a critical issue. As a result, it is widely accepted that the thermal instability of the cathodes is one of the most critical factors in thermal runaway and related safety problems.

  19. Metal-free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} photocatalyst by sulfuric acid activation for selective aerobic oxidation of benzyl alcohol under visible light

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Ligang; Liu, Di; Guan, Jing; Chen, Xiufang; Guo, Xingcui; Zhao, Fuhua; Hou, Tonggang; Mu, Xindong

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: A novel visible-light-driven acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} was prepared. The texture, electronic and surface property were tuned by acid modification. Acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} shows much higher activity for photocatalytic activity. Acid sites on the surface of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} favor efficient charge separation. - Abstract: In this work, modification of graphitic carbon nitride photocatalyst with acid was accomplished with a facile method through reflux in different acidic substances. The g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based material was found to be a metal-free photocatalyst useful for the selective oxidation of benzyl alcohol with dioxygen as the oxidant under visible light irradiation. Acid modification had a significant influence on the photocatalytic performance of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. Among all acid tested, sulfuric acid-modified g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4} showed the highest catalytic activity and gave benzaldehyde in 23% yield for 4 h under visible light irradiation, which was about 2.5 times higher than that of g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}. The acid modification effectively improved surface area, reduced structural size, enlarged band gap, enhanced surface chemical state, and facilitated photoinduced charge separation, contributing to the enhanced photocatalytic activity. It is hoped that our work can open promising prospects for the utilization of metal free g-C{sub 3}N{sub 4}-based semiconductor as visible-light photocatalyst for selective organic transformation.

  20. Interaction of iron-copper mixed metal oxide oxygen carriers with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.; Ksepko, Ewelina; Tian, Hanging

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to prepare supported bimetallic FeCu oxygen carriers and to evaluate their performance for the chemical-looping combustion (CLC) process with simulated synthesis gas derived from steam gasification of coal/air. Ten-cycle CLC tests were conducted with FeCu oxygen carriers in an atmospheric thermogravimetric analyzer utilizing simulated synthesis gas derived from the steam gasification of Polish Janina coal and Illinois #6 coal as fuel. The effect of temperature on reaction rates, chemical stability, and oxygen transport capacity were determined. Fractional reduction, fractional oxidation, and global rates of reactions were calculated from the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data. The supports greatly affected reaction performance. Data showed that reaction rates and oxygen capacities were stable during the 10-cycle TGA tests for most FeCu/support oxygen carriers. Bimetallic FeCu/support oxygen carriers showed higher reduction rates than Fe-support oxygen carriers. The carriers containing higher Cu content showed better stabilities and better reduction rates. An increase in temperature from 800 C to 900 C did not have a significant effect on either the oxygen capacity or the reduction rates with synthesis gas derived from Janina coal. Oxidation reaction was significantly faster than reduction reaction for all supported FeCu oxygen carriers. Carriers with higher Cu content had lower oxidation rates. Ten-cycle TGA data indicated that these oxygen carriers had stable performances at 800900 C and might be successfully used up to 900 C for coal CLC reaction in the presence of steam.

  1. Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    correction. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Technical Report: Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion correction. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion correction. Recent world events have underscored the need for a satellite based persistent global surveillance capability. To be useful, the satellite must be able to continuously monitor objects the size of a person anywhere on the globe

  2. Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    correction. (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion correction. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Ultra-lightweight telescope with MEMS adaptive optic for distortion correction. × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional

  3. Enhanced stability against bias-stress of metal-oxide thin film transistors deposited at elevated temperatures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fakhri, M.; Goerrn, P.; Riedl, T. [Institute of Electronic Devices, University of Wuppertal, Rainer-Gruenter-St. 21, 42119 Wuppertal (Germany); Weimann, T.; Hinze, P. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt Braunschweig, Bundesallee 100, 38116 Braunschweig (Germany)

    2011-09-19

    Transparent zinc-tin-oxide (ZTO) thin film transistors (TFTs) have been prepared by DC magnetron sputtering. Compared to reference devices with a channel deposited at room temperature and subsequently annealing at 400 deg. C, a substantially enhanced stability against bias stress is evidenced for devices with in-situ substrate heating during deposition (400 deg. C). A reduced density of sub-gap defect states in TFT channels prepared with in-situ substrate heating is found. Concomitantly, a reduced sensitivity to the adsorption of ambient gases is evidenced for the in-situ heated devices. This finding is of particular importance for an application as driver electronics for organic light emitting diode displays.

  4. Light-induced hysteresis and recovery behaviors in photochemically activated solution-processed metal-oxide thin-film transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Jeong-Wan; Park, Sung Kyu E-mail: skpark@cau.ac.kr; Kim, Yong-Hoon E-mail: skpark@cau.ac.kr

    2014-07-28

    In this report, photo-induced hysteresis, threshold voltage (V{sub T}) shift, and recovery behaviors in photochemically activated solution-processed indium-gallium-zinc oxide (IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) are investigated. It was observed that a white light illumination caused negative V{sub T} shift along with creation of clockwise hysteresis in electrical characteristics which can be attributed to photo-generated doubly ionized oxygen vacancies at the semiconductor/gate dielectric interface. More importantly, the photochemically activated IGZO TFTs showed much reduced overall V{sub T} shift compared to thermally annealed TFTs. Reduced number of donor-like interface states creation under light illumination and more facile neutralization of ionized oxygen vacancies by electron capture under positive gate potential are claimed to be the origin of the less V{sub T} shift in photochemically activated TFTs.

  5. Heteroepitaxial growth of highly conductive metal oxide RuO{sub 2} thin films by pulsed laser deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jia, Q.X.; Wu, X.D.; Foltyn, S.R.; Findikoglu, A.T.; Tiwari, P.; Zheng, J.P.; Jow, T.R.

    1995-09-18

    Highly conductive ruthenium oxide (RuO{sub 2}) has been epitaxially grown on LaAlO{sub 3} substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The RuO{sub 2} film is ({ital h}00) oriented normal to the substrate surface. The heteroepitaxial growth of RuO{sub 2} on LaAlO{sub 3} is demonstrated by the strong in-plane orientation of thin films with respect to the major axes of the substrate. High crystallinity of RuO{sub 2} thin films is also determined from Rutherford backscattering channeling measurements. Electrical measurements on the RuO{sub 2} thin films demonstrate a quite low room-temperature resistivity of 35{plus_minus}2 {mu}{Omega} cm at deposition temperatures of above 500 {degree}C. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  6. Mesoporous Silica-Supported Metal Oxide-Promoted Rh Nanocatalyst for Selective Production of Ethanol from Syngas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George Kraus

    2010-09-30

    The objective is to develop a process that will convert synthesis gas from coal into ethanol and then transform the ethanol into hydrogen. Principal investigators from Iowa State University include Dr. George Kraus, Dr. Victor Lin, Marek Pruski, and Dr. Robert Brown. Task 1 involves catalyst development and catalyst scale up. Mesoporous manganese silicate mixed oxide materials will be synthesized, characterized and evaluated. The first-and secondgeneration catalysts have been prepared and scaled up for use in Task 2. The construction of a high-pressure reactor system for producing synthetic liquid fuel from simulated synthesis gas stream has been completed as the first step in Task 2. Using the first- and second generation catalysts, the reactor has demonstrated the production of synthetic liquid fuel from a simulated synthesis gas stream.

  7. Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries |...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Manganese Oxide Composite Electrodes for Lithium Batteries Technology available for licensing: Improved spinel-containing "layered-layered" lithium metal oxide electrodes Materials ...

  8. Correlation of Chemisorption and Electronic Effects for Metal Oxide Interfaces: Transducing Principles for Temperature Programmed Gas Microsensors (Final Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    S. Semancik; R. E. Cavicchi; D. L. DeVoe; T. J. McAvoy |

    2001-12-21

    This Final Report describes efforts and results for a 3-year DoE/OST-EMSP project centered at NIST. The multidisciplinary project investigated scientific and technical concepts critical for developing tunable, MEMS-based, gas and vapor microsensors that could be applied for monitoring the types of multiple analytes (and differing backgrounds) encountered at DoE waste sites. Micromachined ''microhotplate'' arrays were used as platforms for fabricating conductometric sensor prototypes, and as microscale research tools. Efficient microarray techniques were developed for locally depositing and then performance evaluating thin oxide films, in order to correlate gas sensing characteristics with properties including composition, microstructure, thickness and surface modification. This approach produced temperature-dependent databases on the sensitivities of sensing materials to varied analytes (in air) which enable application-specific tuning of microsensor arrays. Mechanistic studies on adsorb ate transient phenomena were conducted to better understand the ways in which rapid temperature programming schedules can be used to produce unique response signatures and increase information density in microsensor signals. Chemometric and neural network analyses were also employed in our studies for recognition and quantification of target analytes.

  9. Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, Carlos E.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites.

  10. Process for making transition metal nitride whiskers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bamberger, C.E.

    1988-04-12

    A process for making metal nitrides, particularly titanium nitride whiskers, using a cyanide salt as a reducing agent for a metal compound in the presence of an alkali metal oxide. Sodium cyanide, various titanates and titanium oxide mixed with sodium oxide react to provide titanium nitride whiskers that can be used as reinforcement to ceramic composites. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  11. Method for producing metallic nanoparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-02-10

    Method for producing metallic nanoparticles. The method includes generating an aerosol of solid metallic microparticles, generating non-oxidizing plasma with a plasma hot zone at a temperature sufficiently high to vaporize the microparticles into metal vapor, and directing the aerosol into the hot zone of the plasma. The microparticles vaporize in the hot zone to metal vapor. The metal vapor is directed away from the hot zone and to the plasma afterglow where it cools and condenses to form solid metallic nanoparticles.

  12. Method for producing metallic microparticles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Phillips, Jonathan; Perry, William L.; Kroenke, William J.

    2004-06-29

    Method for producing metallic particles. The method converts metallic nanoparticles into larger, spherical metallic particles. An aerosol of solid metallic nanoparticles and a non-oxidizing plasma having a portion sufficiently hot to melt the nanoparticles are generated. The aerosol is directed into the plasma where the metallic nanoparticles melt, collide, join, and spheroidize. The molten spherical metallic particles are directed away from the plasma and enter the afterglow where they cool and solidify.

  13. Synthesis, structure elucidation and redox properties of 99Tc complexes of lacunary Wells Dawson polyoxometalates: insights into molecular 99Tc - metal oxide interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGregor, Donna; Burton-Pye, Benjamin P.; Howell, Robertha C.; Mbomekalle, Israel M.; Lukens Jr, Wayne W.; Bian, Fang; Mausolf, Edward; Poineau, Frederic; Czerwinski, Kenneth R; Francesconi, Lynn C.

    2011-01-10

    The isotope 99Tc (beta max: 250 keV, half-life: 2 x 105 year) is an abundant product of uranium-235 fission in nuclear reactors and is present throughout the radioactive waste stored in underground tanks at Hanford and Savannah River. Understanding and controlling the extensive redox chemistry of 99Tc is important to identify tunable strategies to separate 99Tc from spent fuel and from waste tanks and once separated, to identify and develop an appropriately stable waste-form for 99Tc. Polyoxometalates (POMs), nanometer sized models for metal oxide solid-state materials, are used in this study to provide a molecular level understanding of the speciation and redox chemistry of incorporated 99Tc. In this study, 99Tc complexes of the (alpha 2-P2W17O61)10- and (alpha 1-P2W17O61)10- isomers were prepared. Ethylene glycol was used as a"transfer ligand" to minimize the formation of TcO2 cdot xH2O. The solution structures, formulations, and purity of TcVO(alpha 1/alpha 2-P2W17O61)7- were determined by multinuclear NMR. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy of the complexes are in agreement with the formulation and structures determined from 31P and 183W NMR. Preliminary electrochemistry results are consistent with the EXAFS results, showing a facile reduction of the TcVO(alpha 1-P2W17O61)7- species compared to the TcVO(alpha 2-P2W17O61)7- analog. The alpha1- defect is unique in that a basic oxygen atom is positioned toward the alpha1- site and the TcVO center appears to form a dative metal-metal bond with a framework W site. These attributes may lead to the assistance of protonation events that facilitate reduction. Electrochemistry comparison shows that the ReV analogs are about 200 mV more difficult to reduce in accordance with periodic trends.

  14. PULSAR PAIR CASCADES IN A DISTORTED MAGNETIC DIPOLE FIELD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harding, Alice K.; Muslimov, Alex G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of a distorted neutron star dipole magnetic field on pulsar pair cascade multiplicity and pair death lines. Using a simple model for a distorted dipole field that produces an offset polar cap (PC), we derive the accelerating electric field above the PC in space-charge-limited flow. We find that even a modest azimuthally asymmetric distortion can significantly increase the accelerating electric field on one side of the PC and, combined with a smaller field line radius of curvature, leads to larger pair multiplicity. The death line for producing pairs by curvature radiation moves downward in the P- P-dot diagram, allowing high pair multiplicities in a larger percentage of the radio pulsar population. These results could have important implications for the radio pulsar population, high energy pulsed emission, and the pulsar contribution to cosmic ray positrons.

  15. A hydrodynamical approach to CMB ?-distortion from primordial perturbations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pajer, Enrico; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu

    2013-02-01

    Spectral distortion of the cosmic microwave background provides a unique opportunity to probe primordial perturbations on very small scales by performing large-scale measurements. We discuss in a systematic and pedagogic way all the relevant physical phenomena involved in the production and evolution of the ?-type spectral distortion. Our main results agree with previous estimates (in particular we show that a recently found factor of 3/4 arises from relativistic corrections to the wave energy). We also discuss several subleading corrections such as adiabatic cooling and the effects of bulk viscosity, baryon loading and photon heat conduction. Finally we provide formulae for the spatial dependence of ?-distortions and its transfer function between the end of the ?-era and now.

  16. Oxidative homo-coupling reactions of aryl boronic acids using a porous copper metal-organic framework as a highly efficient heterogeneous catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yaghi, Omar M.; Czaja, Alexander U.; Wang, Bo; Lu, Zheng

    2015-06-02

    The disclosure provides methods for the use of open metal frameworks to catalyze coupling reactions.

  17. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, Barbara K.

    1991-01-01

    Volatilized metal compounds retard vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  18. Low thermal distortion Extreme-UV lithography reticle and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gianoulakis, Steven E.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.

  19. Low thermal distortion extreme-UV lithography reticle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gianoulakis, Steven E.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.

    2001-01-01

    Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.

  20. Low thermal distortion extreme-UV lithography reticle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gianoulakis, Steven E.; Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.

    2002-01-01

    Thermal distortion of reticles or masks can be significantly reduced by emissivity engineering, i.e., the selective placement or omission of coatings on the reticle. Reflective reticles so fabricated exhibit enhanced heat transfer thereby reducing the level of thermal distortion and ultimately improving the quality of the transcription of the reticle pattern onto the wafer. Reflective reticles include a substrate having an active region that defines the mask pattern and non-active region(s) that are characterized by a surface that has a higher emissivity than that of the active region. The non-active regions are not coated with the radiation reflective material.

  1. SURFACE TREATMENT OF METALLIC URANIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, A.G.; Schweikher, E.W.

    1958-05-27

    The treatment of metallic uranium to provide a surface to which adherent electroplates can be applied is described. Metallic uranium is subjected to an etchant treatment in aqueous concentrated hydrochloric acid, and the etched metal is then treated to dissolve the resulting black oxide and/or chloride film without destroying the etched metal surface. The oxide or chloride removal is effected by means of moderately concentrated nitric acid in 3 to 20 seconds.

  2. Realistic multisite lattice-gas modeling and KMC simulation of catalytic surface reactions: Kinetics and multiscale spatial behavior for CO-oxidation on metal (100) surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Dajiang [Ames Laboratory; Evans, James W. [Ames Laboratory

    2013-12-01

    A realistic molecular-level description of catalytic reactions on single-crystal metal surfaces can be provided by stochastic multisite lattice-gas (msLG) models. This approach has general applicability, although in this report, we will focus on the example of CO-oxidation on the unreconstructed fcc metal (100) or M(100) surfaces of common catalyst metals M = Pd, Rh, Pt and Ir (i.e., avoiding regimes where Pt and Ir reconstruct). These models can capture the thermodynamics and kinetics of adsorbed layers for the individual reactants species, such as CO/M(100) and O/M(100), as well as the interaction and reaction between different reactant species in mixed adlayers, such as (CO + O)/M(100). The msLG models allow population of any of hollow, bridge, and top sites. This enables a more flexible and realistic description of adsorption and adlayer ordering, as well as of reaction configurations and configuration-dependent barriers. Adspecies adsorption and interaction energies, as well as barriers for various processes, constitute key model input. The choice of these energies is guided by experimental observations, as well as by extensive Density Functional Theory analysis. Model behavior is assessed via Kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulation. We also address the simulation challenges and theoretical ramifications associated with very rapid diffusion and local equilibration of reactant adspecies such as CO. These msLG models are applied to describe adsorption, ordering, and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) for individual CO/M(100) and O/M(100) reactant adlayers. In addition, they are also applied to predict mixed (CO + O)/M(100) adlayer structure on the nanoscale, the complete bifurcation diagram for reactive steady-states under continuous flow conditions, temperature programmed reaction (TPR) spectra, and titration reactions for the CO-oxidation reaction. Extensive and reasonably successful comparison of model predictions is made with experimental data. Furthermore, we discuss the possible transition from traditional mean-field-type bistability and reaction kinetics for lower-pressure to multistability and enhanced fluctuation effects for moderate- or higher-pressure. Behavior in the latter regime reflects a stronger influence of adspecies interactions and also lower diffusivity in the higher-coverage mixed adlayer. We also analyze mesoscale spatiotemporal behavior including the propagation of reaction diffusion fronts between bistable reactive and inactive states, and associated nucleation-mediated transitions between these states. This behavior is controlled by complex surface mass transport processes, specifically chemical diffusion in mixed reactant adlayers for which we provide a precise theoretical formulation. The msLG models together with an appropriate treatment of chemical diffusivity enable equation-free heterogeneous coupled lattice-gas (HCLG) simulations of spatiotemporal behavior. In addition, msLG + HCLG modeling can describe coverage variations across polycrystalline catalysts surfaces, pressure variations across catalyst surfaces in microreactors, and could be incorporated into a multiphysics framework to describe mass and heat transfer limitations for high-pressure catalysis. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Method for forming glass-to-metal seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, Daniel P.; Massey, Richard T.

    1986-01-01

    A method for forming a glass-to-metal seal in which the glass has a higher melting point than the metal. The molten glass is vacuum injection molded onto the metal, thus melting a very thin layer of the surface of the metal long enough to form a seal, but not long enough to cause a distortion in the shape of the metal component.

  4. Method for forming glass-to-metal seals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kramer, D.P.; Massey, R.T.

    1985-08-26

    Disclosed is a method for forming a glass-to-metal seal in which the glass has a higher melting point than the metal. The molten glass is vacuum injection molded onto the metal, thus melting a very thin layer of the surface of the metal long enough to form a seal, but not long enough to cause a distortion in the shape of the metal component.

  5. Method of forming supported doped palladium containing oxidation catalysts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mohajeri, Nahid

    2014-04-22

    A method of forming a supported oxidation catalyst includes providing a support comprising a metal oxide or a metal salt, and depositing first palladium compound particles and second precious metal group (PMG) metal particles on the support while in a liquid phase including at least one solvent to form mixed metal comprising particles on the support. The PMG metal is not palladium. The mixed metal particles on the support are separated from the liquid phase to provide the supported oxidation catalyst.

  6. System for interferometric distortion measurements that define an optical path

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bokor, Jeffrey; Naulleau, Patrick

    2003-05-06

    An improved phase-shifting point diffraction interferometer can measure both distortion and wavefront aberration. In the preferred embodiment, the interferometer employs an object-plane pinhole array comprising a plurality of object pinholes located between the test optic and the source of electromagnetic radiation and an image-plane mask array that is positioned in the image plane of the test optic. The image-plane mask array comprises a plurality of test windows and corresponding reference pinholes, wherein the positions of the plurality of pinholes in the object-plane pinhole array register with those of the plurality of test windows in image-plane mask array. Electromagnetic radiation that is directed into a first pinhole of object-plane pinhole array thereby creating a first corresponding test beam image on the image-plane mask array. Where distortion is relatively small, it can be directly measured interferometrically by measuring the separation distance between and the orientation of the test beam and reference-beam pinhole and repeating this process for at least one other pinhole of the plurality of pinholes of the object-plane pinhole array. Where the distortion is relative large, it can be measured by using interferometry to direct the stage motion, of a stage supporting the image-plane mask array, and then use the final stage motion as a measure of the distortion.

  7. Degenerate doping of metallic anodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friesen, Cody A; Zeller, Robert A; Johnson, Paul B; Switzer, Elise E

    2015-05-12

    Embodiments of the invention relate to an electrochemical cell comprising: (i) a fuel electrode comprising a metal fuel, (ii) a positive electrode, (iii) an ionically conductive medium, and (iv) a dopant; the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the metal fuel is oxidized at the fuel electrode and the dopant increases the conductivity of the metal fuel oxidation product. In an embodiment, the oxidation product comprises an oxide of the metal fuel which is doped degenerately. In an embodiment, the positive electrode is an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, wherein during discharge mode, oxygen is reduced at the air electrode. Embodiments of the invention also relate to methods of producing an electrode comprising a metal and a doped metal oxidation product.

  8. Sample size requirements for estimating effective dose from computed tomography using solid-state metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor dosimetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trattner, Sigal; Cheng, Bin; Pieniazek, Radoslaw L.; Hoffmann, Udo; Douglas, Pamela S.; Einstein, Andrew J.

    2014-04-15

    Purpose: Effective dose (ED) is a widely used metric for comparing ionizing radiation burden between different imaging modalities, scanners, and scan protocols. In computed tomography (CT), ED can be estimated by performing scans on an anthropomorphic phantom in which metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) solid-state dosimeters have been placed to enable organ dose measurements. Here a statistical framework is established to determine the sample size (number of scans) needed for estimating ED to a desired precision and confidence, for a particular scanner and scan protocol, subject to practical limitations. Methods: The statistical scheme involves solving equations which minimize the sample size required for estimating ED to desired precision and confidence. It is subject to a constrained variation of the estimated ED and solved using the Lagrange multiplier method. The scheme incorporates measurement variation introduced both by MOSFET calibration, and by variation in MOSFET readings between repeated CT scans. Sample size requirements are illustrated on cardiac, chest, and abdomenpelvis CT scans performed on a 320-row scanner and chest CT performed on a 16-row scanner. Results: Sample sizes for estimating ED vary considerably between scanners and protocols. Sample size increases as the required precision or confidence is higher and also as the anticipated ED is lower. For example, for a helical chest protocol, for 95% confidence and 5% precision for the ED, 30 measurements are required on the 320-row scanner and 11 on the 16-row scanner when the anticipated ED is 4 mSv; these sample sizes are 5 and 2, respectively, when the anticipated ED is 10 mSv. Conclusions: Applying the suggested scheme, it was found that even at modest sample sizes, it is feasible to estimate ED with high precision and a high degree of confidence. As CT technology develops enabling ED to be lowered, more MOSFET measurements are needed to estimate ED with the same precision and confidence.

  9. Hysteresis-free high rate reactive sputtering of niobium oxide, tantalum oxide, and aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Srhammar, Erik, E-mail: erik.sarhammar@angstrom.uu.se; Berg, Sren; Nyberg, Tomas [Department of Solid State Electronics, The ngstrm Laboratory, Uppsala University, Box 534, SE-751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    This work reports on experimental studies of reactive sputtering from targets consisting of a metal and its oxide. The composition of the targets varied from pure metal to pure oxide of Al, Ta, and Nb. This combines features from both the metal target and oxide target in reactive sputtering. If a certain relation between the metal and oxide parts is chosen, it may be possible to obtain a high deposition rate, due to the metal part, and a hysteresis-free process, due to the oxide part. The aim of this work is to quantify the achievable boost in oxide deposition rate from a hysteresis-free process by using a target consisting of segments of a metal and its oxide. Such an increase has been previously demonstrated for Ti using a homogeneous substoichiometric target. The achievable gain in deposition rate depends on transformation mechanisms from oxide to suboxides due to preferential sputtering of oxygen. Such mechanisms are different for different materials and the achievable gain is therefore material dependent. For the investigated materials, the authors have demonstrated oxide deposition rates that are 1.510 times higher than what is possible from metal targets in compound mode. However, although the principle is demonstrated for oxides of Al, Ta, and Nb, a similar behavior is expected for most oxides.

  10. Hydrogenation of CO2 to methanol on CeOx/Cu(111) and ZnO/Cu(111) catalysts: Role of the metal-oxide interface and importance of Ce3+ sites

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sanjaya D. Senanayake; Ramirez, Pedro J.; Waluyo, Iradwikanari; Kundu, Shankhamala; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Liu, Zongyuan; Liu, Zhi; Axnanda, Stephanus; Stacchiola, Dario J.; Evans, Jaime; et al

    2016-01-06

    The role of the interface between a metal and oxide (CeOx–Cu and ZnO–Cu) is critical to the production of methanol through the hydrogenation of CO2 (CO2 + 3H2 → CH3OH + H2O). The deposition of nanoparticles of CeOx or ZnO on Cu(111), θoxi < 0.3 monolayer, produces highly active catalysts for methanol synthesis. The catalytic activity of these systems increases in the sequence: Cu(111) < ZnO/Cu(111) < CeOx/Cu(111). The apparent activation energy for the CO2 → CH3OH conversion decreases from 25 kcal/mol on Cu(111) to 16 kcal/mol on ZnO/Cu(111) and 13 kcal/mol on CeOx/Cu(111). The surface chemistry of the highlymore » active CeOx–Cu(111) interface was investigated using ambient pressure X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (AP-XPS) and infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (AP-IRRAS). Both techniques point to the formation of formates (HCOO–) and carboxylates (CO2δ–) during the reaction. Our results show an active state of the catalyst rich in Ce3+ sites which stabilize a CO2δ– species that is an essential intermediate for the production of methanol. Furthermore, the inverse oxide/metal configuration favors strong metal–oxide interactions and makes possible reaction channels not seen in conventional metal/oxide catalysts.« less

  11. Superconductivity Distorted by the Coexisting Pseudogap in the Antinodal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Region of Bi1.5Pb0.55Sr1.6La0.4CuO6+\delta: A Photon-Energy-Dependent Angle-Resolved Photoemission Study (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Superconductivity Distorted by the Coexisting Pseudogap in the Antinodal Region of Bi1.5Pb0.55Sr1.6La0.4CuO6+\delta: A Photon-Energy-Dependent Angle-Resolved Photoemission Study Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Superconductivity Distorted by the Coexisting Pseudogap in the Antinodal Region of Bi1.5Pb0.55Sr1.6La0.4CuO6+\delta: A

  12. Breast tissue decomposition with spectral distortion correction: A postmortem study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, Huanjun; Zhao, Bo; Baturin, Pavlo; Behroozi, Farnaz; Molloi, Sabee

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of an accurate measurement of water, lipid, and protein composition of breast tissue using a photon-counting spectral computed tomography (CT) with spectral distortion corrections. Methods: Thirty-eight postmortem breasts were imaged with a cadmium-zinc-telluride-based photon-counting spectral CT system at 100 kV. The energy-resolving capability of the photon-counting detector was used to separate photons into low and high energy bins with a splitting energy of 42 keV. The estimated mean glandular dose for each breast ranged from 1.8 to 2.2 mGy. Two spectral distortion correction techniques were implemented, respectively, on the raw images to correct the nonlinear detector response due to pulse pileup and charge-sharing artifacts. Dual energy decomposition was then used to characterize each breast in terms of water, lipid, and protein content. In the meantime, the breasts were chemically decomposed into their respective water, lipid, and protein components to provide a gold standard for comparison with dual energy decomposition results. Results: The accuracy of the tissue compositional measurement with spectral CT was determined by comparing to the reference standard from chemical analysis. The averaged root-mean-square error in percentage composition was reduced from 15.5% to 2.8% after spectral distortion corrections. Conclusions: The results indicate that spectral CT can be used to quantify the water, lipid, and protein content in breast tissue. The accuracy of the compositional analysis depends on the applied spectral distortion correction technique.

  13. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2001-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  14. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2002-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  15. Catalysts for the selective oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfur

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Srinivas, Girish; Bai, Chuansheng

    2000-08-08

    This invention provides catalysts for the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide. In particular, the invention provides catalysts for the partial oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to elemental sulfur and water. The catalytically active component of the catalyst comprises a mixture of metal oxides containing titanium oxide and one or more metal oxides which can be selected from the group of metal oxides or mixtures of metal oxides of transition metals or lanthanide metals. Preferred metal oxides for combination with TiO.sub.2 in the catalysts of this invention include oxides of V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Nb, Mo, Tc, Ru, Rh, Hf, Ta, W, Au, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, and Lu. Catalysts which comprise a homogeneous mixture of titanium oxide and niobium (Nb) oxide are also provided. A preferred method for preparing the precursor homogenous mixture of metal hydroxides is by coprecipitation of titanium hydroxide with one or more other selected metal hydroxides. Catalysts of this invention have improved activity and/or selectivity for elemental sulfur production. Further improvements of activity and/or selectivity can be obtained by introducing relatively low amounts (up to about 5 mol %)of a promoter metal oxide (preferably of metals other than titanium and that of the selected second metal oxide) into the homogeneous metal/titanium oxide catalysts of this invention.

  16. Friction stir welding and processing of oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) alloys

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Weiju

    2014-11-11

    A method of welding including forming a filler material of a first oxide dispersoid metal, the first oxide dispersoid material having first strengthening particles that compensate for decreases in weld strength of friction stir welded oxide dispersoid metals; positioning the filler material between a first metal structure and a second metal structure each being comprised of at least a second oxide dispersoid metal; and friction welding the filler material, the first metal structure and the second metal structure to provide a weld.

  17. Fiber metal interlayer improves ceramic coating performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jarrabet, G.P.

    1994-11-01

    This article is a review of the use of a compliant fiber metal inner layer between a ceramic coating and metal. The material used is Zirconia with phase stabilizers of magnesium oxide, calcium oxide, and yttrium oxide. Design, fabrication, and testing of the stabilized zirconia is discussed.

  18. Electrocatalyst for Oxygen Reduction with Reduced Platinum Oxidation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction with reduced platinum oxidation and dissolution rates The invention relates to platinum-metal oxide composite particles and their use as...

  19. Metallization of electronic insulators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gottesfeld, Shimshon (Los Alamos, NM); Uribe, Francisco A. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1994-01-01

    An electroplated element is formed to include an insulating substrate, a conducting polymer polymerized in situ on the substrate, and a metal layer deposited on the conducting polymer. In one application a circuit board is formed by polymerizing pyrrole on an epoxy-fiberglass substrate in a single step process and then electrodepositing a metal over the resulting polypyrrole polymer. No chemical deposition of the metal is required prior to electroplating and the resulting layer of substrate-polymer-metal has excellent adhesion characteristics. The metal deposition is surprisingly smooth and uniform over the relatively high resistance film of polypyrrole. A continuous manufacturing process is obtained by filtering the solution between successive substrates to remove polymer formed in the solution, by maintaining the solution oxidizing potential within selected limits, and by adding a strong oxidant, such as KMnO.sub.4 at periodic intervals to maintain a low sheet resistivity in the resulting conducting polymer film.

  20. Probing correlations of early magnetic fields using μ-distortion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ganc, Jonathan; Sloth, Martin S. E-mail: sloth@cp3.dias.sdu.dk

    2014-08-01

    The damping of a non-uniform magnetic field between the redshifts of about 10{sup 4} and 10{sup 6} injects energy into the photon-baryon plasma and causes the CMB to deviate from a perfect blackbody spectrum, producing a so-called μ-distortion. We can calculate the correlation (μ T) of this distortion with the temperature anisotropy T of the CMB to search for a correlation ( B{sup 2}ζ) between the magnetic field B and the curvature perturbation ζ; knowing the ( B{sup 2}ζ) correlation would help us distinguish between different models of magnetogenesis. Since the perturbations which produce the μ-distortion will be much smaller scale than the relevant density perturbations, the observation of this correlation is sensitive to the squeezed limit of ( B{sup 2}ζ), which is naturally parameterized by b{sub NL} (a parameter defined analogously to f{sub NL}). We find that a PIXIE-like CMB experiments has a signal to noise S/N≈ 1.0 × b{sub NL} ( B-tilde {sub μ}/10nG){sup 2}, where B-tilde {sub μ} is the magnetic field's strength on μ-distortion scales normalized to today's redshift; thus, a 10 nG field would be detectable with b{sub NL}=O(1). However, if the field is of inflationary origin, we generically expect it to be accompanied by a curvature bispectrum (ζ{sup 3}) induced by the magnetic field. For sufficiently small magnetic fields, the signal ( B{sup 2} ζ) will dominate, but for B-tilde {sub μ}∼> 1 nG, one would have to consider the specifics of the inflationary magnetogenesis model. We also discuss the potential post-magnetogenesis sources of a ( B{sup 2}ζ) correlation and explain why there will be no contribution from the evolution of the magnetic field in response to the curvature perturbation.

  1. One dimensional wavefront distortion sensor comprising a lens array system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, Daniel R. (Tijeras, NM); Michie, Robert B. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A 1-dimensional sensor for measuring wavefront distortion of a light beam as a function of time and spatial position includes a lens system which incorporates a linear array of lenses, and a detector system which incorporates a linear array of light detectors positioned from the lens system so that light passing through any of the lenses is focused on at least one of the light detectors. The 1-dimensional sensor determines the slope of the wavefront by location of the detectors illuminated by the light. The 1 dimensional sensor has much greater bandwidth that 2 dimensional systems.

  2. One dimensional wavefront distortion sensor comprising a lens array system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Neal, D.R.; Michie, R.B.

    1996-02-20

    A 1-dimensional sensor for measuring wavefront distortion of a light beam as a function of time and spatial position includes a lens system which incorporates a linear array of lenses, and a detector system which incorporates a linear array of light detectors positioned from the lens system so that light passing through any of the lenses is focused on at least one of the light detectors. The 1-dimensional sensor determines the slope of the wavefront by location of the detectors illuminated by the light. The 1 dimensional sensor has much greater bandwidth that 2 dimensional systems. 8 figs.

  3. Voltage distortion in distribution feeders with nonlinear loads

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emanuel, A.E.; Janczak, J. ); Pileggi, D.J.; Gulachenski, E.M.; Root, C.E.; Breen, M. ); Gentile, T.J. )

    1994-01-01

    The voltage of three real-life 13.8kV feeders supplying customers with non-linear loads was analyzed by means of computer simulations. Three classes of non-linear loads were considered. Each class is characteristic for different types of ac to dc converters such as the input dc supply used for adjustable-speed-drives, battery chargers, PC's, TV's and electronically ballasted lights. The analysis is based on the determination of the most harmonic susceptible busses and their response to each harmonic frequency. A new expeditive method that takes into account the background harmonic voltage phasor, and an equivalent bus impedance was developed and used to compute the maximum non-linear loads that yields VTHD = 5%, (Voltage Total Harmonic Distortion). The main conclusion of this work is that when mitigation methods are not used, for a 15kV class feeder with a maximum 10MVA installed load, the total non-linear residential load should not exceed 300kW if the ITHD <30% (Current Total Harmonic Distortion), and 100kW if ITHD >100%.

  4. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  5. Light metal explosives and propellants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wood, Lowell L.; Ishikawa, Muriel Y.; Nuckolls, John H.; Pagoria, Phillip F.; Viecelli, James A.

    2005-04-05

    Disclosed herein are light metal explosives, pyrotechnics and propellants (LME&Ps) comprising a light metal component such as Li, B, Be or their hydrides or intermetallic compounds and alloys containing them and an oxidizer component containing a classic explosive, such as CL-20, or a non-explosive oxidizer, such as lithium perchlorate, or combinations thereof. LME&P formulations may have light metal particles and oxidizer particles ranging in size from 0.01 .mu.m to 1000 .mu.m.

  6. Wick for metal vapor laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duncan, David B. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    An improved wick for a metal vapor laser is made of a refractory metal cylinder, preferably molybdenum or tungsten for a copper laser, which provides the wicking surface. Alternately, the inside surface of the ceramic laser tube can be metalized to form the wicking surface. Capillary action is enhanced by using wire screen, porous foam metal, or grooved surfaces. Graphite or carbon, in the form of chunks, strips, fibers or particles, is placed on the inside surface of the wick to reduce water, reduce metal oxides and form metal carbides.

  7. Anaerobic microbial remobilization of coprecipitated metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, A.J.; Dodge, C.J.

    1994-10-11

    A process is provided for solubilizing coprecipitated metals. Metals in waste streams are concentrated by treatment with an iron oxide coprecipitating agent. The coprecipitated metals are solubilized by contacting the coprecipitate with a bacterial culture of a Clostridium species ATCC 53464. The remobilized metals can then be recovered and recycled. 4 figs.

  8. Anaerobic microbial remobilization of coprecipitated metals

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Dodge, Cleveland J.

    1994-10-11

    A process is provided for solubilizing coprecipitated metals. Metals in wastestreams are concentrated by treatment with an iron oxide coprecipitating agent. The coprecipitated metals are solubilized by contacting the coprecipitate with a bacterial culture of a Clostridium species ATCC 53464. The remobilized metals can then be recovered and recycled.

  9. Partial oxidation catalyst

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Krumpelt, Michael; Ahmed, Shabbir; Kumar, Romesh; Doshi, Rajiv

    2000-01-01

    A two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion. The dehydrogenation portion is a group VIII metal and the oxide-ion conducting portion is selected from a ceramic oxide crystallizing in the fluorite or perovskite structure. There is also disclosed a method of forming a hydrogen rich gas from a source of hydrocarbon fuel in which the hydrocarbon fuel contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion at a temperature not less than about 400.degree. C. for a time sufficient to generate the hydrogen rich gas while maintaining CO content less than about 5 volume percent. There is also disclosed a method of forming partially oxidized hydrocarbons from ethanes in which ethane gas contacts a two-part catalyst comprising a dehydrogenation portion and an oxide-ion conducting portion for a time and at a temperature sufficient to form an oxide.

  10. Electroactive compositions with poly(arylene oxide) and stabilized lithium

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    metal particles (Patent) | DOEPatents Data Explorer Search Results Electroactive compositions with poly(arylene oxide) and stabilized lithium metal particles Title: Electroactive compositions with poly(arylene oxide) and stabilized lithium metal particles An electroactive composition includes an anodic material; a poly(arylene oxide); and stabilized lithium metal particles; where the stabilized lithium metal particles have a size less than about 200 .mu.m in diameter, are coated with a

  11. Incorporation of noble metals into aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hair, L.M.; Sanner, R.D.; Coronado, P.R.

    1998-12-22

    Aerogels or xerogels containing atomically dispersed noble metals for applications such as environmental remediation are disclosed. New noble metal precursors, such as Pt--Si or Pd(Si--P){sub 2}, have been created to bridge the incompatibility between noble metals and oxygen, followed by their incorporation into the aerogel or xerogel through sol-gel chemistry and processing. Applications include oxidation of hydrocarbons and reduction of nitrogen oxide species, complete oxidation of volatile organic carbon species, oxidative membranes for photocatalysis and partial oxidation for synthetic applications.

  12. Incorporation of noble metals into aerogels

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hair, Lucy M.; Sanner, Robert D.; Coronado, Paul R.

    1998-01-01

    Aerogels or xerogels containing atomically dispersed noble metals for applications such environmental remediation. New noble metal precursors, such as Pt--Si or Pd(Si--P).sub.2, have been created to bridge the incompatibility between noble metals and oxygen, followed by their incorporation into the aerogel or xerogel through sol-gel chemistry and processing. Applications include oxidation of hydrocarbons and reduction of nitrogen oxide species, complete oxidation of volatile organic carbon species, oxidative membranes for photocatalysis and partial oxidation for synthetic applications.

  13. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott; Wang, Ruiping; Derouane, Eric

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  14. Testing cosmic geometry without dynamic distortions using voids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamaus, Nico; Sutter, P.M.; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin D. E-mail: sutter@iap.fr E-mail: wandelt@iap.fr

    2014-12-01

    We propose a novel technique to probe the expansion history of the Universe based on the clustering statistics of cosmic voids. In particular, we compute their two-point statistics in redshift space on the basis of realistic mock galaxy catalogs and apply the Alcock-Paczynski test. In contrast to galaxies, we find void auto-correlations to be marginally affected by peculiar motions, providing a model-independent measure of cosmological parameters without systematics from redshift-space distortions. Because only galaxy-galaxy and void-galaxy correlations have been considered in these types of studies before, the presented method improves both statistical and systematic uncertainties on the product of angular diameter distance and Hubble rate, furnishing the potentially cleanest probe of cosmic geometry available to date.

  15. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D.; Hash, Mark C.; Krumpelt, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  16. Heavy metal movement in metal-contaminated soil profiles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Zhenbin; Shuman, L.M.

    1996-10-01

    Heavy metal movement in soil profiles is a major environmental concern because even slow transport through the soil may eventually lead to deterioration of groundwater quality. In this study, three metal-contaminated soil (Fuquay, Dothan, and Clarendon) were selected from cropland were a high-metal flue dust had been applied annually for 6 years to raise soil pH, with application ending 4 years before sampling. One uncontaminated soil (Tifton) from the same physiographic area was also sampled as a control. Soil samples were collected in 15-cm increments from the surface to 105 cm in depth. Total contents of Zn, Cd, and Pb in the soils samples were determined. To better understand metal movement in relation to metal fractions in the soil profile, soil samples were also extracted sequentially for exchangeable (EXC), organic matter (OM), Mn oxide (MNO), amorphous Fe oxide (AFEO), crystalline Fe oxide (CFEO), and residual (RES) fractions. 35 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. PREPARATION OF REFRACTORY OXIDE MICROSPHERE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haws, C.C. Jr.

    1963-09-24

    A method is described of preparing thorium oxide in the form of fused spherical particles about 1 to 2 microns in diameter. A combustible organic solution of thorium nitrate containing additive metal values is dispersed into a reflected, oxygen-fed flame at a temperature above the melting point of the resulting oxide. The metal additive is aluminum at a proportion such as to provide 1 to 10 weight per cent aluminum oxide in the product, silicon at the same proportion, or beryllium at a proportion of 12 to 25 weight per cent beryllium oxide in the product. A minor proportion of uranium values may also be provided in the solution. The metal additive lowers the oxide melting point and allows fusion and sphere formation in conventional equipment. The product particles are suitable for use in thorium oxide slurries for nuclear reactors. (AEC)

  18. Electrochromic Nickel Oxide Simultaneously Doped with Lithium...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrochromic Nickel Oxide Simultaneously Doped with Lithium and a Metal Dopant National ... quantity of charge balancing lithium ions per unit area, which may be ...

  19. ELECTROCHROMIC NICKEL OXIDE SIMULTANEOUSLY DOPED WITH LITHIUM...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    News Events Return to Search ELECTROCHROMIC NICKEL OXIDE SIMULTANEOUSLY DOPED WITH LITHIUM AND A METAL DOPANT United States Patent Application *** PATENT GRANTED ***...

  20. Double perovskite catalysts for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, K.D.

    1991-01-01

    Alkali metal doped double perovskites containing manganese and at least one of cobalt, iron and nickel are useful in the oxidative coupling of alkane to higher hydrocarbons.

  1. Vapor phase modifiers for oxidative coupling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warren, B.K.

    1991-12-17

    Volatilized metal compounds are described which are capable of retarding vapor phase alkane conversion reactions in oxidative coupling processes that convert lower alkanes to higher hydrocarbons.

  2. Epitaxial growth of NiTiO3 with a distorted ilmenite structure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Varga, Tamas; Droubay, Timothy C.; Bowden, Mark E.; Nachimuthu, Ponnusamy; Shutthanandan, V.; Bolin, Trudy B.; Shelton, William A.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2012-06-30

    MTiO3 (M = Fe, Mn, Ni) compounds have received recent attention as possible candidates for new multiferroic materials capable of magnetization switching by application of an electric field. Epitaxial Ni1-xTi1-yO3 films of different thickness and composition were deposited on Al2O3(0001) by pulsed laser deposition, and characterized using several techniques. Structural parameters for the metastable LiNbO3-type NiTiO3 structure with the space group R3c were predicted using density functional theory calculations, and compared with the experimental results. Our structural data from x-ray diffraction and x-ray absorption spectroscopy indicate that epitaxial ilmenite-type NiTiO3 films were successfully grown. Furthermore, lattice strain exerted by the sapphire substrate results in a distorted ilmenite structure similar to the LiNbO3-type one. Our results demonstrate the potential of oxide heteroepitaxy to stabilize metastable multiferroic phases that may be difficult to prepare or are inaccessible in the bulk.

  3. Electrolytic production of metals using a resistant anode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarcy, G.P.; Gavasto, T.M.; Ray, S.P.

    1986-11-04

    An electrolytic process is described comprising evolving oxygen on an anode in a molten salt, the anode comprising an alloy comprising a first metal and a second metal, both metals forming oxides, the oxide of the first metal being more resistant than the second metal to attack by the molten salt, the oxide of the second metal being more resistant than the first metal to the diffusion of oxygen. The electrode may also be formed of CuAlO[sub 2] and/or Cu[sub 2]O. 2 figs.

  4. Low interface defect density of atomic layer deposition BeO with self-cleaning reaction for InGaAs metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shin, H. S.; SEMATECH, 2706 Montopolis Dr., Austin, Texas 78741; The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 ; Yum, J. H.; The University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78758 ; Johnson, D. W.; Texas A and M University College Station, Texas 77843 ; Harris, H. R.; Hudnall, Todd W.; Oh, J.; Kirsch, P.; Wang, W.-E.; Bielawski, C. W.; Banerjee, S. K.; Lee, J. C.; Lee, H. D.

    2013-11-25

    In this paper, we discuss atomic configuration of atomic layer deposition (ALD) beryllium oxide (BeO) using the quantum chemistry to understand the theoretical origin. BeO has shorter bond length, higher reaction enthalpy, and larger bandgap energy compared with those of ALD aluminum oxide. It is shown that the excellent material properties of ALD BeO can reduce interface defect density due to the self-cleaning reaction and this contributes to the improvement of device performance of InGaAs MOSFETs. The low interface defect density and low leakage current of InGaAs MOSFET were demonstrated using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and the corresponding electrical results.

  5. Charge transfer from an adsorbed ruthenium-based photosensitizer through an ultra-thin aluminium oxide layer and into a metallic substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gibson, Andrew J.; Temperton, Robert H.; Handrup, Karsten; Weston, Matthew; Mayor, Louise C.; O’Shea, James N.

    2014-06-21

    The interaction of the dye molecule N3 (cis-bis(isothiocyanato)bis(2,2-bipyridyl-4,4′-dicarbo-xylato) -ruthenium(II)) with the ultra-thin oxide layer on a AlNi(110) substrate, has been studied using synchrotron radiation based photoelectron spectroscopy, resonant photoemission spectroscopy, and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy. Calibrated X-ray absorption and valence band spectra of the monolayer and multilayer coverages reveal that charge transfer is possible from the molecule to the AlNi(110) substrate via tunnelling through the ultra-thin oxide layer and into the conduction band edge of the substrate. This charge transfer mechanism is possible from the LUMO+2 and 3 in the excited state but not from the LUMO, therefore enabling core-hole clock analysis, which gives an upper limit of 6.0 ± 2.5 fs for the transfer time. This indicates that ultra-thin oxide layers are a viable material for use in dye-sensitized solar cells, which may lead to reduced recombination effects and improved efficiencies of future devices.

  6. Oxidation of ethane to ethanol by N2O in a metal-organic framework with coordinatively unsaturated iron(II) sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiao, Dianne J.; Bloch, Eric D.; Mason, Jarad A.; Queen, Wendy L.; Hudson, Matthew R.; Planas, Nora; Borycz, Joshua; Dzubak, Allison L.; Verma, Pragya; Lee, Kyuho; Bonino, Francesca; Crocellà, Valentina; Yano, Junko; Bordiga, Silvia; Truhlar, Donald G.; Gagliardi, Laura; Brown, Craig M.; Long, Jeffrey R.

    2014-08-19

    Enzymatic haem and non-haem high-valent iron–oxo species are known to activate strong C–H bonds, yet duplicating this reactivity in a synthetic system remains a formidable challenge. Although instability of the terminal iron–oxo moiety is perhaps the foremost obstacle, steric and electronic factors also limit the activity of previously reported mononuclear iron(IV)–oxo compounds. In particular, although nature's non-haem iron(IV)–oxo compounds possess high-spin S = 2 ground states, this electronic configuration has proved difficult to achieve in a molecular species. These challenges may be mitigated within metal–organic frameworks that feature site-isolated iron centres in a constrained, weak-field ligand environment. Here, we show that the metal–organic framework Fe2(dobdc) (dobdc4- = 2,5-dioxido-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate) and its magnesium-diluted analogue, Fe0.1Mg1.9(dobdc), are able to activate the C–H bonds of ethane and convert it into ethanol and acetaldehyde using nitrous oxide as the terminal oxidant. Electronic structure calculations indicate that the active oxidant is likely to be a high-spin S = 2 iron(IV)–oxo species.

  7. Reversible photodeposition and dissolution of metal ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foster, Nancy S.; Koval, Carl A.; Noble, Richard D.

    1994-01-01

    A cyclic photocatalytic process for treating waste water containing metal and organic contaminants. In one embodiment of the method, metal ions are photoreduced onto the photocatalyst and the metal concentrated by resolubilization in a smaller volume. In another embodiment of the method, contaminant organics are first oxidized, then metal ions removed by photoreductive deposition. The present invention allows the photocatalyst to be recycled until nearly complete removal of metal ions and organic contaminants is achieved.

  8. Strain Accommodation By Facile WO6 Octahedral Distortion and Tilting During WO3 Heteroepitaxy on SrTiO3(001)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du, Yingge; Gu, Meng; Varga, Tamas; Wang, Chong M.; Bowden, Mark E.; Chambers, Scott A.

    2014-08-27

    In this paper, we show that compared to other BO6 octahedra in ABO3 structured perovskite oxides, the WO6 octahedra in tungsten trioxide (WO3) can withstand a much larger degree of distortion and tilting to accommodate interfacial strain, which in turn strongly impact the nucleation, structure, and defect formation during the epitaxial growth of WO3 on SrTiO3(001). A meta-stable tetragonal phase can be stabilized by epitaxy and a thickness dependent phase transition (tetragonal to monoclinic) is observed. In contrast to misfit dislocations to accommodate the interfacial stain, the facial WO6 octahedral distortion and tilting give rise to three types of planar defects that affect more than 15 monolayers from the interface. These atomically resolved, unusual interfacial defects may significantly alter the electronic, electrochromic, and mechanical properties of the epitaxial films.

  9. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  10. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, W.; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, M.

    1996-03-19

    A method and composition are disclosed for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdenum, copper, cobalt, manganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  11. Process for electrolytically preparing uranium metal

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Haas, Paul A.

    1989-01-01

    A process for making uranium metal from uranium oxide by first fluorinating uranium oxide to form uranium tetrafluoride and next electrolytically reducing the uranium tetrafluoride with a carbon anode to form uranium metal and CF.sub.4. The CF.sub.4 is reused in the fluorination reaction rather than being disposed of as a hazardous waste.

  12. Corrosion-resistant metal surfaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sugama, Toshifumi (Wading River, NY)

    2009-03-24

    The present invention relates to metal surfaces having thereon an ultrathin (e.g., less than ten nanometer thickness) corrosion-resistant film, thereby rendering the metal surfaces corrosion-resistant. The corrosion-resistant film includes an at least partially crosslinked amido-functionalized silanol component in combination with rare-earth metal oxide nanoparticles. The invention also relates to methods for producing such corrosion-resistant films.

  13. Virtually distortion-free imaging system for large field, high resolution lithography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hawryluk, A.M.; Ceglio, N.M.

    1993-01-05

    Virtually distortion free large field high resolution imaging is performed using an imaging system which contains large field distortion or field curvature. A reticle is imaged in one direction through the optical system to form an encoded mask. The encoded mask is then imaged back through the imaging system onto a wafer positioned at the reticle position.

  14. Hydrolysis of ZrCl4 and HfCl4: The Initial Steps in the High-Temperature Oxidation of Metal Chlorides to Produce ZrO2 and HfO2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fang, Zongtang; Dixon, David A.

    2013-03-08

    The gas-phase hydrolysis of MCl4 (M = Zr, Hf) to produce the initial particles on the way to zirconia and hafnia nanoparticles has been studied with electronic structure theory. The potential energy surfaces, the themochemistry of the reaction species, and the reaction paths for the initial steps of MCl4 reacting with H2O have been calculated. The hydrolysis of MCl4 at higher temperatures begins with the formation of oxychlorohydroxides followed by the elimination of HCl instead of the direct production of MOCl2 and HCl or MO2 and HCl due to the substantial endothermicities associated with the formation of gas-phase MO2. The structural properties and heats of formation of the reactants and products are consistent with the available experimental results. A number of metal oxychlorides (oxychlorohydroxides) intermediate clusters have been studied to assess their role in the production of MO2 nanoparticles. The calculated clustering reaction energies of those intermediates are highly exothermic, so they could be readily formed in the hydrolysis process. These intermediate clusters can be formed exothermically from metal oxychlorohydroxides by the elimination of one HCl or H2O molecule. Our calculations show that the mechanisms leading to the formation of MO2 nanoparticles are complicated and are accompanied by the potential production of a wide range of intermediates, as found for the production of TiO2 particles from the high-temperature oxidation of TiCl4.

  15. metals Fischer, S.H.; Grubelich, M.C. 37 INORGANIC, ORGANIC,...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    IGNITION; MIXTURES; PRODUCTION; REACTION HEAT; SPECIFIC HEAT; STABILITY Thermite (metal oxide) mixtures, intermetallic reactants, and metal fuels have long been used in...

  16. Selective extraction of U(VI) and some other metals from nitric acid media by poly-phosphine poly-oxides

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nogami, M.; Sugiyama, Y.; Ikeda, Y.; Maruyama, K.

    2008-07-01

    For the selective extraction of radionuclides from nitrate media, the extractabilities of organo-poly-phosphine poly-oxides were examined in the form of impregnated resins. It was found that the extractability of 1,1,3,5,5-pentaphenyl-1,3,5-tri-phospha-pentane trioxide (PPTPT) for U(VI) is quite unusual with very high values at both low and high concentrations of nitric acid, which is not observed for other types of extractants. Thus, this extractant might be promising for the selective extraction of U(VI) in very high concentrations of HNO{sub 3}. (authors)

  17. Superior performance of Ni–W–Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernández-García, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; et al

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was examined over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO₂ lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Nimore » under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.« less

  18. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernandez-Garica, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.

    2014-11-26

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  19. Superior performance of Ni–W–Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernández-García, Marcos; Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Rodriguez, José A.

    2014-11-26

    In this study, the ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was examined over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO₂ lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (< 2 nm) outside the Ni-W-Ce oxide structure. The nano NiO was reduced to Ni under ESR conditions. The Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.

  20. Electronically conductive ceramics for high temperature oxidizing environments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kucera, Gene H. (Downers Grove, IL); Smith, James L. (Lemont, IL); Sim, James W. (Evergreen Park, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, ceramic composition having electronic conductivity as measured by resistivity below about 500 ohm-cm, chemical stability particularly with respect to cathode conditions in a molten carbonate fuel cell, and composed of an alkali metal, transition metal oxide containing a dopant metal in the crystalline structure to replace a portion of the alkali metal or transition metal.

  1. Metal aminoboranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burrell, Anthony K.; Davis, Benjamin J.; Thorn, David L.; Gordon, John C.; Baker, R. Thomas; Semelsberger, Troy Allen; Tumas, William; Diyabalanage, Himashinie Vichalya Kaviraj; Shrestha, Roshan P.

    2010-05-11

    Metal aminoboranes of the formula M(NH.sub.2BH.sub.3).sub.n have been synthesized. Metal aminoboranes are hydrogen storage materials. Metal aminoboranes are also precursors for synthesizing other metal aminoboranes. Metal aminoboranes can be dehydrogenated to form hydrogen and a reaction product. The reaction product can react with hydrogen to form a hydrogen storage material. Metal aminoboranes can be included in a kit.

  2. Methods of selectively incorporating metals onto substrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst; Richard D. , Eyring; Edward M. , Turpin; Gregory C. , Dunn; Brian C.

    2008-09-30

    A method for forming multi-metallic sites on a substrate is disclosed and described. A substrate including active groups such as hydroxyl can be reacted with a pretarget metal complex. The target metal attached to the active group can then be reacted with a secondary metal complex such that an oxidation-reduction (redox) reaction occurs to form a multi-metallic species. The substrate can be a highly porous material such as aerogels, xerogels, zeolites, and similar materials. Additional metal complexes can be reacted to increase catalyst loading or control co-catalyst content. The resulting compounds can be oxidized to form oxides or reduced to form metals in the ground state which are suitable for practical use.

  3. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  4. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gessert, Timothy A; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J

    2014-05-27

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target (110) doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber (100). The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target (110) to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  5. Metal Hydrides

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Metal Hydrides Theodore Motyka Savannah River National Laboratory Metal Hydride System Architect Jose-Miguel Pasini, & Bart van Hassel UTRC Claudio Corgnale & Bruce Hardy SRNL ...

  6. Catalysts for low temperature oxidation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Toops, Todd J.; Parks, III, James E.; Bauer, John C.

    2016-03-01

    The invention provides a composite catalyst containing a first component and a second component. The first component contains nanosized gold particles. The second component contains nanosized platinum group metals. The composite catalyst is useful for catalyzing the oxidation of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, oxides of nitrogen, and other pollutants at low temperatures.

  7. Superior performance of Ni-W-Ce mixed-metal oxide catalysts for ethanol steam reforming: Synergistic effects of W- and Ni-dopants

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rodriguez, Jose A.; Liu, Zongyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Yao, Siyu; Johnson-Peck, Aaron C.; Zhao, Fuzhen; Michorczyk, Piotr; Kubacka, Anna; Stach, Eric A.; Fernandez-Garica, Marcos; et al

    2014-11-26

    The ethanol steam reforming (ESR) reaction was studied over a series of Ni-W-Ce oxide catalysts. The structures of the catalysts were characterized using in-situ techniques including X-ray diffraction, Pair Distribution Function, X-ray absorption fine structure and transmission electron microscopy; while possible surface intermediates for the ESR reaction were investigated by Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform Spectroscopy. In these materials, all the W and part of the Ni were incorporated into the CeO? lattice, with the remaining Ni forming highly dispersed nano NiO (moreThe Ni-W-Ce systeme exhibited a much larger lattice strain than those seen for Ni-Ce and W-Ce. Synergistic effects between Ni and W inside ceria produced a substantial amount of defects and O vacancies that led to high catalytic activity, selectivity and stability (i.e. resistance to coke formation) during ethanol steam reforming.less

  8. Molten metal injector system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meyer, Thomas N.; Kinosz, Michael J.; Bigler, Nicolas; Arnaud, Guy

    2003-04-01

    Disclosed is a molten metal injector system including a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and a molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal having a metal oxide film surface. The bottom side of the mold faces the holder furnace. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The injector projects into the holder furnace and is in fluid communication with the mold cavity. The injector includes a piston positioned within a piston cavity defined by a cylinder for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace and injecting the molten metal into the mold cavity under pressure. The piston and cylinder are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder further includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity. The molten metal intake is located below the metal oxide film surface of the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. A method of injecting molten metal into a mold cavity of a casting mold is also disclosed.

  9. Dimensionally stable metallic hydride composition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heung, Leung K.

    1994-01-01

    A stable, metallic hydride composition and a process for making such a composition. The composition comprises a uniformly blended mixture of a metal hydride, kieselguhr, and a ballast metal, all in the form of particles. The composition is made by subjecting a metal hydride to one or more hydrogen absorption/desorption cycles to disintegrate the hydride particles to less than approximately 100 microns in size. The particles are partly oxidized, then blended with the ballast metal and the kieselguhr to form a uniform mixture. The mixture is compressed into pellets and calcined. Preferably, the mixture includes approximately 10 vol. % or more kieselguhr and approximately 50 vol. % or more ballast. Metal hydrides that can be used in the composition include Zr, Ti, V, Nb, Pd, as well as binary, tertiary, and more complex alloys of La, Al, Cu, Ti, Co, Ni, Fe, Zr, Mg, Ca, Mn, and mixtures and other combinations thereof. Ballast metals include Al, Cu and Ni.

  10. Memristor comprising film with comb-like structure of nanocolumns of metal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    oxide embedded in a metal oxide matrix (Patent) | SciTech Connect Patent: Memristor comprising film with comb-like structure of nanocolumns of metal oxide embedded in a metal oxide matrix Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Memristor comprising film with comb-like structure of nanocolumns of metal oxide embedded in a metal oxide matrix Films having a comb-like structure of nanocolumns of Sm.sub.2O.sub.3 embedded in a SrTiO.sub.3 formed spontaneously on a substrate surface by pulsed

  11. Mixed oxide nanoparticles and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, Robert J.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Zhang, Chuanlun; Roh, Yul

    2002-09-03

    Methods and apparatus for producing mixed oxide nanoparticulates are disclosed. Selected thermophilic bacteria cultured with suitable reducible metals in the presence of an electron donor may be cultured under conditions that reduce at least one metal to form a doped crystal or mixed oxide composition. The bacteria will form nanoparticles outside the cell, allowing easy recovery. Selection of metals depends on the redox potentials of the reducing agents added to the culture. Typically hydrogen or glucose are used as electron donors.

  12. Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, David J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1997-01-01

    A method for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases.

  13. Aqueous biphasic plutonium oxide extraction process with pH and particle control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chaiko, D.J.; Mensah-Biney, R.

    1997-04-29

    A method is described for simultaneously partitioning a metal oxide and silica from a material containing silica and the metal oxide, using a biphasic aqueous medium having immiscible salt and polymer phases. 2 figs.

  14. Minute-MOFs: Ultrafast Synthesis of M2(dobpdc) Metal-Organic Frameworks

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    from Divalent Metal Oxide Colloidal Nanocrystals | Center for Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Minute-MOFs: Ultrafast Synthesis of M2(dobpdc) Metal-Organic Frameworks from Divalent Metal Oxide Colloidal Nanocrystals Previous Next List Maserati, Lorenzo; Meckler, Stephen M.; Li, Changyi; and Helms, Brett A. Minute-MOFs: Ultrafast Synthesis of M2(dobpdc) Metal-Organic Frameworks from Divalent Metal Oxide Colloidal Nanocrystals. Chem. Mater., 28, 1581-1588

  15. Uncertainties in compliance with harmonic current distortion limits in electric power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruzs, T.M. )

    1991-07-01

    The harmonic distortion of any repetitive voltage or current waveform is typically described by the quantity total harmonic distortion (THD). With the proliferation of nonlinear loads, such as static power converters, there has been increasing concern over the generation of harmonic currents and the effects of these currents on the power system. Proposals have been made to limit harmonic currents in power systems using the total harmonic distortion of the current as the criterion. This criterion, although it may be necessary, can be ambiguous and lead to compliance uncertainties. In this paper a discussion is presented on several of the practical problems by applying total harmonic current distortion limits to industrial and commercial power systems.

  16. A restoration model of distorted electron density in wave-cutoff probe measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jun, Hyun-Su Lee, Yun-Seong

    2014-02-15

    This study investigates the problem of electron density distortion and how the density can be restored in a wave-cutoff probe. Despite recent plasma diagnostics research using a wave-cutoff probe, the problem of electron density distortion caused by plasma conditions has not been resolved. Experimental results indicate that electron density measured using the wave-cutoff method is highly susceptible to variations in the probe tip gap. This electron density distortion is caused by the bulk plasma disturbance between probe tips, and it must be removed for calculating the absolute electron density. To do this, a detailed analytic model was developed using the power balance equation near probe tips. This model demonstrates the characteristics of plasma distortion in wave-cutoff probe measurement and successfully restored the absolute value of electron density with varying probe tip gaps.

  17. A study of astrometric distortions due to "tree rings" in CCD sensors

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    using LSST Photon Simulator (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A study of astrometric distortions due to "tree rings" in CCD sensors using LSST Photon Simulator Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A study of astrometric distortions due to "tree rings" in CCD sensors using LSST Photon Simulator Imperfections in the production process of thick CCDs lead to circularly symmetric dopant concentration variations, which in turn produce electric fields transverse to the

  18. Distorted spin dependent spectral function of {sup 3}He and semi-inclusive

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    deep inelastic scattering processes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Distorted spin dependent spectral function of {sup 3}He and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distorted spin dependent spectral function of {sup 3}He and semi-inclusive deep inelastic scattering processes The spin dependent spectral function, relevant to describe polarized electron scattering off polarized {sup 3}He, is studied, within the Plane Wave Impulse

  19. Method and apparatus for dissociating metals from metal compounds extracted into supercritical fluids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wai, Chien M.; Hunt, Fred H.; Smart, Neil G.; Lin, Yuehe

    2000-01-01

    A method for dissociating metal-ligand complexes in a supercritical fluid by treating the metal-ligand complex with heat and/or reducing or oxidizing agents is described. Once the metal-ligand complex is dissociated, the resulting metal and/or metal oxide form fine particles of substantially uniform size. In preferred embodiments, the solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the ligand is a .beta.-diketone such as hexafluoroacetylacetone or dibutyldiacetate. In other preferred embodiments, the metals in the metal-ligand complex are copper, silver, gold, tungsten, titanium, tantalum, tin, or mixtures thereof. In preferred embodiments, the reducing agent is hydrogen. The method provides an efficient process for dissociating metal-ligand complexes and produces easily-collected metal particles free from hydrocarbon solvent impurities. The ligand and the supercritical fluid can be regenerated to provide an economic, efficient process.

  20. O3-type layered transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 as a high rate and long cycle life cathode material for sodium ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yue, Ji -Li; Yang, Xiao -Qing; Zhou, Yong -Ning; Yu, Xiqian; Bak, Seong -Min; Fu, Zheng -Wen

    2015-10-09

    High rate capability and long cycle life are challenging goals for the development of room temperature sodium-ion batteries. Here we report a new single phase quaternary O3-type layer-structured transition metal oxide Na(NiCoFeTi)1/4O2 synthesized by a simple solid-state reaction as a new cathode material for sodium-ion batteries. It can deliver a reversible capacity of 90.6 mA h g–1 at a rate as high as 20C. At 5C, 75.0% of the initial specific capacity can be retained after 400 cycles with a capacity-decay rate of 0.07% per cycle, demonstrating a superior long-term cyclability at high current density. X-ray diffraction and absorption characterization revealed reversible phase transformations and electronic structural changes during the Na+ deintercalation/intercalation process. Ni, Co and Fe ions contribute to charge compensation during charge and discharge. Although Ti ions do not contribute to the charge transfer, they play a very important role in stabilizing the structure during charge and discharge by suppressing the Fe migration. Additionally, Ti substitution can also smooth the charge–discharge plateaus effectively, which provides a potential advantage for the commercialization of this material for room temperature sodium-ion batteries.