National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for distinct population segment

  1. Tailored Marketing for Low-income and Under-Represented Population Segments (201)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Tailored Marketing for Low-Income and Under-Represented Population Segments (201), call slides and discussion summary.

  2. Residential Segmentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (PDF, 96 pages) Sub-regional overviews and segment personalizations, including demographics, attributes and other information specific to each sub-region. View the reports for...

  3. Tailored Marketing for Low-income and Under-Represented Population...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Tailored Marketing for Low-income and Under-Represented Population Segments (201) Tailored Marketing for Low-income and Under-Represented Population Segments (201) Better Buildings ...

  4. Impact assisted segmented cutterhead

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morrell, Roger J. (Bloomington, MN); Larson, David A. (Minneapolis, MN); Ruzzi, Peter L. (Eagan, MN)

    1992-01-01

    An impact assisted segmented cutterhead device is provided for cutting various surfaces from coal to granite. The device comprises a plurality of cutting bit segments deployed in side by side relationship to form a continuous cutting face and a plurality of impactors individually associated with respective cutting bit segments. An impactor rod of each impactor connects that impactor to the corresponding cutting bit segment. A plurality of shock mounts dampening the vibration from the associated impactor. Mounting brackets are used in mounting the cutterhead to a base machine.

  5. Solar Distinction | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distinction Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solar Distinction Place: Albuquerque, New Mexico Product: New Mexico-based PV module maker. References: Solar Distinction1 This...

  6. Parallel grid population

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  7. Segmented pyroelector detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stotlar, S.C.; McLellan, E.J.

    1981-01-21

    A pyroelectric detector is described which has increased voltage output and improved responsivity over equivalent size detectors. The device comprises a plurality of edge-type pyroelectric detectors which have a length which is much greater than the width of the segments between the edge-type electrodes. External circuitry connects the pyroelectric detector segments in parallel to provide a single output which maintains 50 ohm impedance characteristics.

  8. Segmented heat exchanger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baldwin, Darryl Dean (Lafayette, IN); Willi, Martin Leo (Dunlap, IL); Fiveland, Scott Byron (Metamara, IL); Timmons, Kristine Ann (Chillicothe, IL)

    2010-12-14

    A segmented heat exchanger system for transferring heat energy from an exhaust fluid to a working fluid. The heat exchanger system may include a first heat exchanger for receiving incoming working fluid and the exhaust fluid. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the first heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration. In addition, the heat exchanger system may include a second heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the first heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from a third heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the second heat exchanger in a counter flow configuration. Furthermore, the heat exchanger system may include a third heat exchanger for receiving working fluid from the second heat exchanger and exhaust fluid from the first heat exchanger. The working fluid and exhaust fluid may travel through at least a portion of the third heat exchanger in a parallel flow configuration.

  9. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  10. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bliss, Erlan S. (Danville, CA); Smith, James R. (Livermore, CA); Salmon, J. Thaddeus (Livermore, CA); Monjes, Julio A. (San Ramon, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  11. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, M. Jr.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-09-03

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces. 6 figs.

  12. Segmented rail linear induction motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Jr., Maynard (1107 Stagecoach Rd. SE., Albuquerque, NM 87123); Marder, Barry M. (1412 Pinnacle View Dr. NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1996-01-01

    A segmented rail linear induction motor has a segmented rail consisting of a plurality of nonferrous electrically conductive segments aligned along a guideway. The motor further includes a carriage including at least one pair of opposed coils fastened to the carriage for moving the carriage. A power source applies an electric current to the coils to induce currents in the conductive surfaces to repel the coils from adjacent edges of the conductive surfaces.

  13. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostelnik, Kevin M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Meservey, Richard H. (Idaho Falls, ID); Landon, Mark D. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D&D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded.

  14. Optimal segmentation and packaging process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kostelnik, K.M.; Meservey, R.H.; Landon, M.D.

    1999-08-10

    A process for improving packaging efficiency uses three dimensional, computer simulated models with various optimization algorithms to determine the optimal segmentation process and packaging configurations based on constraints including container limitations. The present invention is applied to a process for decontaminating, decommissioning (D and D), and remediating a nuclear facility involving the segmentation and packaging of contaminated items in waste containers in order to minimize the number of cuts, maximize packaging density, and reduce worker radiation exposure. A three-dimensional, computer simulated, facility model of the contaminated items are created. The contaminated items are differentiated. The optimal location, orientation and sequence of the segmentation and packaging of the contaminated items is determined using the simulated model, the algorithms, and various constraints including container limitations. The cut locations and orientations are transposed to the simulated model. The contaminated items are actually segmented and packaged. The segmentation and packaging may be simulated beforehand. In addition, the contaminated items may be cataloged and recorded. 3 figs.

  15. @ work' video segment features Robotic Software Engineer

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Idaho National Laboratory

    2010-01-08

    @ work highlights Idaho National Laboratory employees and the jobs they perform.This segment features Robotic Software Engineer Miles Walton.

  16. Financing Program Market Segments | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Program Market Segments Financing Program Market Segments Financing programs are not one-size-fits-all-different financial products will work better for different market segments. Markets to consider include: Public Sector Residential Commercial and Industrial Select a financing structure in the table for more information. Financing Structures Market Segment Public Sector Residential Commercial Small Business Bonds X X X Clean Renewable Energy Bonds X Energy Efficient Mortgages X Energy Savings

  17. Distinctive Appliances: Order (2014-CE-23020)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE ordered Distinctive Appliances Distributing, Inc. to pay a $8,000 civil penalty after finding Distinctive Appliances had failed to certify that certain models of cooking products comply with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  18. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, A.H.; Holcombe, C.E.

    1994-07-26

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace. 5 figs.

  19. Segmented ceramic liner for induction furnaces

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gorin, Andrew H. (Knoxville, TN); Holcombe, Cressie E. (Knoxville, TN)

    1994-01-01

    A non-fibrous ceramic liner for induction furnaces is provided by vertically stackable ring-shaped liner segments made of ceramic material in a light-weight cellular form. The liner segments can each be fabricated as a single unit or from a plurality of arcuate segments joined together by an interlocking mechanism. Also, the liner segments can be formed of a single ceramic material or can be constructed of multiple concentric layers with the layers being of different ceramic materials and/or cellular forms. Thermomechanically damaged liner segments are selectively replaceable in the furnace.

  20. Special Population Planner for Emergency Management

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-04-17

    The SPP is a tool for use by emergency management agencies in creating plans for possible events requiring their attention. It incorporates extensive data including those on special needs populations so that this segment of the population will be considered in general plans.

  1. Fluidized bed boiler having a segmented grate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Waryasz, Richard E. (Longmeadow, MA)

    1984-01-01

    A fluidized bed furnace (10) is provided having a perforate grate (9) within a housing which supports a bed of particulate material including some combustibles. The grate is divided into a plurality of segments (E2-E6, SH1-SH5, RH1-RH5), with the airflow to each segment being independently controlled. Some of the segments have evaporating surface imbedded in the particulate material above them, while other segments are below superheater surface or reheater surface. Some of the segments (E1, E7) have no surface above them, and there are ignitor combustors (32, 34) directed to fire into the segments, for fast startup of the furnace without causing damage to any heating surface.

  2. Cooling system for three hook ring segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Christian X.; Eng, Darryl; Lee, Ching-Pang; Patat, Harry

    2014-08-26

    A triple hook ring segment including forward, midsection and aft mounting hooks for engagement with respective hangers formed on a ring segment carrier for supporting a ring segment panel, and defining a forward high pressure chamber and an aft low pressure chamber on opposing sides of the midsection mounting hook. An isolation plate is provided on the aft side of the midsection mounting hook to form an isolation chamber between the aft low pressure chamber and the ring segment panel. High pressure air is supplied to the forward chamber and flows to the isolation chamber through crossover passages in the midsection hook. The isolation chamber provides convection cooling air to an aft portion of the ring segment panel and enables a reduction of air pressure in the aft low pressure chamber to reduce leakage flow of cooling air from the ring segment.

  3. Segmented Nanowires Displaying Locally Controllable Properties...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented...

  4. Distinct Mechanisms of Recognizing Endosomal Sorting Complex...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distinct Mechanisms of Recognizing Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport III (ESCRT-III) Protein IST1 by Different Microtubule Interacting and Trafficking (MIT) Domains...

  5. Distinctive Appliances: Proposed Penalty (2014-CE-23020)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Distinctive Appliances Distributing Inc. failed to certify cooking products as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  6. Method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lenox, Carl

    2013-11-05

    One embodiment of the invention relates to a segmented photovoltaic (PV) module which is manufactured from laminate segments. The segmented PV module includes rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped PV laminates and further includes non-rectangular-shaped laminate segments formed from rectangular-shaped and approximately-triangular-shaped PV laminates. The laminate segments are mechanically joined and electrically interconnected to form the segmented module. Another embodiment relates to a method of manufacturing a large-area segmented photovoltaic module from laminate segments of various shapes. Other embodiments relate to processes for providing a photovoltaic array for installation at a site. Other embodiments and features are also disclosed.

  7. Distinctive Appliances: Proposed Penalty (2015-CE-14019)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE alleged in a Notice of Proposed Civil Penalty that Distinctive Appliances Distributing, Inc. failed to certify various Fhiaba-brand refrigerator-freezers as compliant with the applicable energy conservation standards.

  8. Vane segment support and alignment device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLaurin, L.D.; Sizemore, J.D.

    1999-07-13

    A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position. 5 figs.

  9. Vane segment support and alignment device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLaurin, Leroy Dixon (Winter Springs, FL); Sizemore, John Derek (Orlando, FL)

    1999-01-01

    A support and alignment assembly for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. The support and alignment assembly comprises a torque plate which defines an opening for receiving an eccentric pin and a locking end member for receiving a lock socket member. An eccentric pin adjustably supported by the torque plate opening for supporting and aligning a vane segment is provided. A lock socket member adapted to securely receive the eccentric pin and rotated therewith, and adjustably engage the torque plate locking end is provided. The lock socket member receives the eccentric pin, such that when the eccentric pin is adjusted to align the vane segment, the lock socket member engages the torque plate locking end to secure the vane segment in the desired position.

  10. Household Energy Consumption Segmentation Using Hourly Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwac, J; Flora, J; Rajagopal, R

    2014-01-01

    The increasing US deployment of residential advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) has made hourly energy consumption data widely available. Using CA smart meter data, we investigate a household electricity segmentation methodology that uses an encoding system with a pre-processed load shape dictionary. Structured approaches using features derived from the encoded data drive five sample program and policy relevant energy lifestyle segmentation strategies. We also ensure that the methodologies developed scale to large data sets.

  11. Audience Segmentation and Analysis Strategies for Targeted Marketing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audience Segmentation and Analysis Strategies for Targeted Marketing (301) Audience Segmentation and Analysis Strategies for Targeted Marketing (301) September 24, 2015 12:30PM to...

  12. Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Discusses progress...

  13. Audience Segmentation and Analysis Strategies for Targeted Marketing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audience Segmentation and Analysis Strategies for Targeted Marketing (301) Audience Segmentation and Analysis Strategies for Targeted Marketing (301) Better Buildings Residential ...

  14. Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design (2008...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design (2008 CIEE Report) Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design (2008 CIEE Report) This paper describes the...

  15. Newport News in Review, ch. 47, segment includes TEDF groundbreaking...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsarticlesnewport-news-review-ch-47-segment-includes-tedf-groundbreaking-event Newport News in Review, ch. 47, segment includes TEDF groundbreaking event...

  16. Nuclear propulsion apparatus with alternate reactor segments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Szekely, Thomas

    1979-04-03

    1. Nuclear propulsion apparatus comprising: A. means for compressing incoming air; B. nuclear fission reactor means for heating said air; C. means for expanding a portion of the heated air to drive said compressing means; D. said nuclear fission reactor means being divided into a plurality of radially extending segments; E. means for directing a portion of the compressed air for heating through alternate segments of said reactor means and another portion of the compressed air for heating through the remaining segments of said reactor means; and F. means for further expanding the heated air from said drive means and the remaining heated air from said reactor means through nozzle means to effect reactive thrust on said apparatus.

  17. Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design (2008 CIEE Report)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design (2008 CIEE Report) Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design (2008 CIEE Report) This paper describes the existing state of market segmentation among California's electric utilities, with an emphasis on the investor-owned utilities (IOUs). PDF icon Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design More Documents & Publications Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design

  18. Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design Describe the existing state of market segmentation among California's electric utilities, with an emphasis on the investor-owned utilities. Author: Steve J. Moss PDF icon Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design More Documents & Publications Market Segmentation and Energy Efficiency Program Design (2008 CIEE Report) Behavioral Assumptions Underlying

  19. Distinctive Appliances: Order (2015-CE-14019) | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Distinctive Appliances: Order (2015-CE-14019) Distinctive Appliances: Order (2015-CE-14019) February 19, 2015 DOE ordered Distinctive Appliances Distributing, Inc. to pay a $16,000 civil penalty after finding Distinctive Appliances had failed to certify that certain models of Fhiaba-brand refrigerator-freezers comply with the applicable energy conservation standards. The Order adopted a Compromise Agreement, which reflected settlement terms between DOE and Distinctive Appliances. PDF icon

  20. Segmented nanowires displaying locally controllable properties

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sutter, Eli Anguelova; Sutter, Peter Werner

    2013-03-05

    Vapor-liquid-solid growth of nanowires is tailored to achieve complex one-dimensional material geometries using phase diagrams determined for nanoscale materials. Segmented one-dimensional nanowires having constant composition display locally variable electronic band structures that are determined by the diameter of the nanowires. The unique electrical and optical properties of the segmented nanowires are exploited to form electronic and optoelectronic devices. Using gold-germanium as a model system, in situ transmission electron microscopy establishes, for nanometer-sized Au--Ge alloy drops at the tips of Ge nanowires (NWs), the parts of the phase diagram that determine their temperature-dependent equilibrium composition. The nanoscale phase diagram is then used to determine the exchange of material between the NW and the drop. The phase diagram for the nanoscale drop deviates significantly from that of the bulk alloy.

  1. Smart Meter Driven Segmentation: What Your Consumption Says About You

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert, A; Rajagopal, R

    2013-11-01

    With the rollout of smart metering infrastructure at scale, demand-response (DR) programs may now be tailored based on users' consumption patterns as mined from sensed data. For issuing DR events it is key to understand the inter-temporal consumption dynamics as to appropriately segment the user population. We propose to infer occupancy states from consumption time series data using a hidden Markov model framework. Occupancy is characterized in this model by 1) magnitude, 2) duration, and 3) variability. We show that users may be grouped according to their consumption patterns into groups that exhibit qualitatively different dynamics that may be exploited for program enrollment purposes. We investigate empirically the information that residential energy consumers' temporal energy demand patterns characterized by these three dimensions may convey about their demographic, household, and appliance stock characteristics. Our analysis shows that temporal patterns in the user's consumption data can predict with good accuracy certain user characteristics. We use this framework to argue that there is a large degree of individual predictability in user consumption at a population level.

  2. Audience Segmentation and Analysis Strategies for Targeted Marketing (301)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Audience Segmentation and Analysis Strategies for Targeted Marketing (301) Audience Segmentation and Analysis Strategies for Targeted Marketing (301) Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Audience Segmentation and Analysis Strategies for Targeted Marketing (301), call slides and discussion summary. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications NOx Adsorber Regeneration Phenomena In Heavy Duty Applications

  3. Apparatus For Laminating Segmented Core For Electric Machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lawrence, Robert Anthony (Kokomo, IN); Stabel, Gerald R (Swartz Creek, MI)

    2003-06-17

    A segmented core for an electric machine includes segments stamped from coated electric steel. The segments each have a first end, a second end, and winding openings. A predetermined number of segments are placed end-to-end to form layers. The layers are stacked such that each of the layers is staggered from adjacent layers by a predetermined rotation angle. The winding openings of each of the layers are in vertical alignment with the winding openings of the adjacent layers. The stack of layers is secured to form the segmented core.

  4. Segmented electrode hall thruster with reduced plume

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fisch, Nathaniel J.; Raitses, Yevgeny

    2004-08-17

    An apparatus and method for thrusting plasma, utilizing a Hall thruster with segmented electrodes along the channel, which make the acceleration region as localized as possible. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to minimize erosion and arcing. Also disclosed are methods of arranging the electrodes so as to produce a substantial reduction in plume divergence. The use of electrodes made of emissive material will reduce the radial potential drop within the channel, further decreasing the plume divergence. Also disclosed is a method of arranging and powering these electrodes so as to provide variable mode operation.

  5. Distinct optical properties of relativistically degenerate matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, we use the collisional quantum magnetohydrodynamic (CQMHD) model to derive the transverse dielectric function of a relativistically degenerate electron fluid and investigate various optical parameters, such as the complex refractive index, the reflection and absorption coefficients, the skin-depth and optical conductivity. In this model we take into accounts effects of many parameters such as the atomic-number of the constituent ions, the electron exchange, electron diffraction effect and the electron-ion collisions. Study of the optical parameters in the solid-density, the warm-dense-matter, the big-planetary core, and the compact star number-density regimes reveals that there are distinct differences between optical characteristics of the latter and the former cases due to the fundamental effects of the relativistic degeneracy and other quantum mechanisms. It is found that in the relativistic degeneracy plasma regime, such as found in white-dwarfs and neutron star crusts, matter possess a much sharper and well-defined step-like reflection edge beyond the x-ray electromagnetic spectrum, including some part of gamma-ray frequencies. It is also remarked that the magnetic field intensity only significantly affects the plasma reflectivity in the lower number-density regime, rather than the high density limit. Current investigation confirms the profound effect of relativistic degeneracy on optical characteristics of matter and can provide an important plasma diagnostic tool for studying the physical processes within the wide scope of quantum plasma regimes be it the solid-density, inertial-confined, or astrophysical compact stars.

  6. Segmented lasing tube for high temperature laser assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sawicki, Richard H. (Danville, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA); Finucane, Raymond G. (Pleasanton, CA); Hall, Jerome P. (Livermore, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A high temperature laser assembly capable of withstanding operating temperatures in excess of 1500.degree. C. is described comprising a segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube having a plurality of cylindrical ceramic lasing tube segments of the same inner and outer diameters non-rigidly joined together in axial alignment; insulation of uniform thickness surround the walls of the ceramic lasing tube; a ceramic casing, preferably of quartz, surrounding the insulation; and a fluid cooled metal jacket surrounds the ceramic casing. In a preferred embodiment, the inner surface of each of the ceramic lasing tube segments are provided with a pair of oppositely spaced grooves in the wall thereof parallel to the center axis of the segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube, and both of the grooves and the center axis of the segmented cylindrical ceramic lasing tube lie in a common plane, with the grooves in each ceramic lasing tube segment in circumferential alignment with the grooves in the adjoining ceramic lasing tube segments; and one or more ceramic plates, all lying in a common plane to one another and with the central axis of the segmented ceramic lasing tube, are received in the grooves to provide additional wall area in the segmented ceramic lasing tube for collision and return to ground state of metastable metal atoms within the segmented ceramic lasing tube.

  7. Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Recovery | Department of Energy Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Discusses progress of thermoelectric generator development at BSST and assessment of potential to enter commercial operation in vehicles PDF icon crane.pdf More Documents & Publications Status of Segmented Element Thermoelectric Generator for Vehicle Waste Heat Recovery Development of a 100-Watt

  8. A Dielectric Relaxometry Study of Segmental Dynamics in PDMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in PDMSBoron Composite and Hybrid Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Dielectric Relaxometry Study of Segmental Dynamics in PDMSBoron Composite and ...

  9. A Dielectric Relaxometry Study of Segmental Dynamics in PDMS...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A Dielectric Relaxometry Study of Segmental Dynamics in PDMSBoron Composite and Hybrid Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Dielectric Relaxometry Study of...

  10. Active Fault Segments As Potential Earthquake Sources- Inferences...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Segments As Potential Earthquake Sources- Inferences From Integrated Geophysical Mapping Of The Magadi Fault System, Southern Kenya Rift Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI...

  11. Cutting assembly including expanding wall segments of auger

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Treuhaft, Martin B. (San Antonio, TX); Oser, Michael S. (San Antonio, TX)

    1983-01-01

    A mining auger comprises a cutting head carried at one end of a tubular shaft and a plurality of wall segments which in a first position thereof are disposed side by side around said shaft and in a second position thereof are disposed oblique to said shaft. A vane projects outwardly from each wall segment. When the wall segments are in their first position, the vanes together form a substantially continuous helical wall. A cutter is mounted on the peripheral edge of each of the vanes. When the wall segments are in their second position, the cutters on the vanes are disposed radially outward from the perimeter of the cutting head.

  12. Synthesis of segmented silica rods by growth temperature regulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    silica rods by growth temperature regulation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis of segmented silica rods by growth temperature regulation Authors: Sharma, ...

  13. Molecular Basis for the Recognition of Structurally Distinct...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    compounds that are structurally distinct from the homoserine lactone autoinducer, yet interact specifically and potently with LasR receptor to modulate quorum sensing (Muh et al.,...

  14. ORNL FISH Telomere Segmentation GUI and Instruction Manual

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-12-01

    The ORNL FISH Telomere Segmentation GUI takes images of cellular chromosomes and telomeres obtained through Fluorescent in-situ Hybridization and automatically labels the pixels that belong to the chromosomes and telomeres, which are cellular structures of interest to cancer researchers. The process of labeling the pixels is called segmentation. The resulting segmentation can be edited through the use of an extensive graphical user-interface or GUI, saved, and exported to a data file suitable for use withmore » data analysis programs such as Microsoft Excel.« less

  15. Segmented instrumentation tube including a locking sleeve for interlocking the segments of the instrumentation tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Obermeyer, F.D.

    1993-11-16

    Segmented instrumentation tube including a locking sleeve for interlocking the segments of the instrumentation tube, so that the threaded ends of the instrumentation tube do not unthread when subjected to vibration, such an instrumentation tube being suitable for use in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The instrumentation tube has a first member having a threaded end portion that has a plurality of first holes circumferentially around the outside surface thereof. The instrumentation tube also has a second member having a threaded end portion that has a plurality of second holes circumferentially around the outside surface thereof. The threads of the second member are caused to threadably engage the threads of the first member for defining a threaded joint there between. A sleeve having an inside surface surrounds the end portion of the first member and the end portion of the second member and thus surrounds the threaded joint. The sleeve includes a plurality of first projections and second projections that outwardly extend from the inside surface to engage the first holes and the second holes, respectively. The outside surface of the sleeve is crimped or swaged at the locations of the first projections and second projections such that the first projections and the second projections engage their respective holes. In this manner, independent rotation of the first member with respect to the second member is prevented, so that the instrumentation tube will not unthread at its threaded joint. 10 figures.

  16. Segmented instrumentation tube including a locking sleeve for interlocking the segments of the instrumentation tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Obermeyer, Franklin D. (Pensacola, FL)

    1993-01-01

    Segmented instrumentation tube including a locking sleeve for interlocking the segments of the instrumentation tube, so that the threaded ends of the instrumentation tube do not unthread when subjected to vibration, such an instrumentation tube being suitable for use in a nuclear reactor pressure vessel. The instrumentation tube has a first member having a threaded end portion that has a plurality of first holes circumferentially around the outside surface thereof. The instrumentation tube also has a second member having a threaded end portion that has a plurality of second holes circumferentially around the outside surface thereof. The threads of the second member are caused to threadably engage the threads of the first member for defining a threaded joint therebetween. A sleeve having an inside surface surrounds the end portion of the first member and the end portion of the second member and thus surrounds the threaded joint. The sleeve includes a plurality of first projections and second projections that outwardly extend from the inside surface to engage the first holes and the second holes, respectively. The outside surface of the sleeve is crimped or swaged at the locations of the first projections and second projections such that the first projections and the second projections engage their respective holes. In this manner, independent rotation of the first member with respect to the second member is prevented, so that the instrumentation tube will not unthread at its threaded joint.

  17. Curved track segment finding using Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Jin-Yuan; Wang, M.; Gottschalk, E.; Shi, Z.; /Fermilab

    2006-11-01

    We describe the applications of a track segment recognition scheme called the Tiny Triplet Finder (TTF) that involves the grouping of three hits satisfying a constraint forming of a track segment. The TTF was originally developed solving straight track segment finding problem, however, it is also suitable in many curved track segment finding problems. The examples discussed in this document are among popular detector layouts in high-energy/nuclear physics experiments. Although it is not practical to find a universal recipe for arbitrary detector layouts, the method of the TTF application is illustrated via the discussion of the examples. Generally speaking, whenever the data item to be found in a pattern recognition problem contains two free parameters, and if the constraint connecting the measurements and the two free parameters has an approximate shift invariant property, the Tiny Triplet Finder can be used.

  18. Distinct Structural Elements Dictate the Specificity of the Type III

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pentaketide Synthase from Neurospora crassa (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Distinct Structural Elements Dictate the Specificity of the Type III Pentaketide Synthase from Neurospora crassa Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distinct Structural Elements Dictate the Specificity of the Type III Pentaketide Synthase from Neurospora crassa The fungal type III polyketide synthase 2'-oxoalkylresorcyclic acid synthase (ORAS) primes with a range of acyl-Coenzyme A thioesters (C{sub

  19. Synthesis of segmented silica rods by growth temperature regulation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect segmented silica rods by growth temperature regulation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Synthesis of segmented silica rods by growth temperature regulation Authors: Sharma, Jaswinder K [1] ; Datskos, Panos G [1] + Show Author Affiliations ORNL Publication Date: 2014-01-01 OSTI Identifier: 1115377 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Angewandte Chemie International Edition; Journal

  20. Image segmentation by hierarchial agglomeration of polygons using ecological statistics

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Lakshman; Swaminarayan, Sriram

    2013-04-23

    A method for rapid hierarchical image segmentation based on perceptually driven contour completion and scene statistics is disclosed. The method begins with an initial fine-scale segmentation of an image, such as obtained by perceptual completion of partial contours into polygonal regions using region-contour correspondences established by Delaunay triangulation of edge pixels as implemented in VISTA. The resulting polygons are analyzed with respect to their size and color/intensity distributions and the structural properties of their boundaries. Statistical estimates of granularity of size, similarity of color, texture, and saliency of intervening boundaries are computed and formulated into logical (Boolean) predicates. The combined satisfiability of these Boolean predicates by a pair of adjacent polygons at a given segmentation level qualifies them for merging into a larger polygon representing a coarser, larger-scale feature of the pixel image and collectively obtains the next level of polygonal segments in a hierarchy of fine-to-coarse segmentations. The iterative application of this process precipitates textured regions as polygons with highly convolved boundaries and helps distinguish them from objects which typically have more regular boundaries. The method yields a multiscale decomposition of an image into constituent features that enjoy a hierarchical relationship with features at finer and coarser scales. This provides a traversable graph structure from which feature content and context in terms of other features can be derived, aiding in automated image understanding tasks. The method disclosed is highly efficient and can be used to decompose and analyze large images.

  1. Side wall cooling for nozzle segments for a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A nozzle vane segment includes outer and inner band portions with a vane extending therebetween and defining first and second cavities separated by an impingement plate for flowing cooling medium for impingement cooling of nozzle side walls. The side wall of each nozzle segment has an undercut region. The impingement plate has an inturned flange with a plurality of openings. Cooling inserts or receptacles having an open end are received in the openings and the base and side walls of the receptacles have apertures for receiving cooling medium from the first cavity and directing the cooling medium for impingement cooling of the side wall of the nozzle segment and a portion of the nozzle wall.

  2. Segmented inlet nozzle for gas turbine, and methods of installation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klompas, Nicholas (Scotia, NY)

    1985-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle guide vane assembly is formed of individual arcuate nozzle segments. The arcuate nozzle segments are elastically joined to each other to form a complete ring, with edges abutted to prevent leakage. The resultant nozzle ring is included within the overall gas turbine stationary structure and secured by a mounting arrangement which permits relative radial movement at both the inner and outer mountings. A spline-type outer mounting provides circumferential retention. A complete rigid nozzle ring with freedom to "float" radially results. Specific structures are disclosed for the inner and outer mounting arrangements. A specific tie-rod structure is also disclosed for elastically joining the individual nozzle segments. Also disclosed is a method of assembling the nozzle ring subassembly-by-subassembly into a gas turbine employing temporary jacks.

  3. Documented Safety Analysis for the B695 Segment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laycak, D

    2008-09-11

    This Documented Safety Analysis (DSA) was prepared for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Building 695 (B695) Segment of the Decontamination and Waste Treatment Facility (DWTF). The report provides comprehensive information on design and operations, including safety programs and safety structures, systems and components to address the potential process-related hazards, natural phenomena, and external hazards that can affect the public, facility workers, and the environment. Consideration is given to all modes of operation, including the potential for both equipment failure and human error. The facilities known collectively as the DWTF are used by LLNL's Radioactive and Hazardous Waste Management (RHWM) Division to store and treat regulated wastes generated at LLNL. RHWM generally processes low-level radioactive waste with no, or extremely low, concentrations of transuranics (e.g., much less than 100 nCi/g). Wastes processed often contain only depleted uranium and beta- and gamma-emitting nuclides, e.g., {sup 90}Sr, {sup 137}Cs, or {sup 3}H. The mission of the B695 Segment centers on container storage, lab-packing, repacking, overpacking, bulking, sampling, waste transfer, and waste treatment. The B695 Segment is used for storage of radioactive waste (including transuranic and low-level), hazardous, nonhazardous, mixed, and other waste. Storage of hazardous and mixed waste in B695 Segment facilities is in compliance with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). LLNL is operated by the Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC, for the Department of Energy (DOE). The B695 Segment is operated by the RHWM Division of LLNL. Many operations in the B695 Segment are performed under a Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) operation plan, similar to commercial treatment operations with best demonstrated available technologies. The buildings of the B695 Segment were designed and built considering such operations, using proven building systems, and keeping them as simple as possible while complying with industry standards and institutional requirements. No operations to be performed in the B695 Segment or building system are considered to be complex. No anticipated future change in the facility mission is expected to impact the extent of safety analysis documented in this DSA.

  4. Method of making segmented pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKernan, Mark A. (Livermore, CA); Alford, Craig S. (Tracy, CA); Makowiecki, Daniel M. (Livermore, CA); Chen, Chih-Wen (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite wafers are oriented and bonded together such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are maximized along the back surface of the segmented pyrolytic graphite target to allow for optimum heat conduction away from the sputter target's sputtering surface and to allow for maximum energy transmission from the target's sputtering surface.

  5. Decreasing transmembrane segment length greatly decreases perfringolysin O pore size

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Qingqing; Li, Huilin; Wang, Tong; London, Erwin

    2015-04-08

    Perfringolysin O (PFO) is a transmembrane (TM) β-barrel protein that inserts into mammalian cell membranes. Once inserted into membranes, PFO assembles into pore-forming oligomers containing 30–50 PFO monomers. These form a pore of up to 300 Å, far exceeding the size of most other proteinaceous pores. In this study, we found that altering PFO TM segment length can alter the size of PFO pores. A PFO mutant with lengthened TM segments oligomerized to a similar extent as wild-type PFO, and exhibited pore-forming activity and a pore size very similar to wild-type PFO as measured by electron microscopy and a leakage assay. In contrast, PFO with shortened TM segments exhibited a large reduction in pore-forming activity and pore size. This suggests that the interaction between TM segments can greatly affect the size of pores formed by TM β-barrel proteins. PFO may be a promising candidate for engineering pore size for various applications.

  6. Method of making segmented pyrolytic graphite sputtering targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McKernan, M.A.; Alford, C.S.; Makowiecki, D.M.; Chen, C.W.

    1994-02-08

    Anisotropic pyrolytic graphite wafers are oriented and bonded together such that the graphite's high thermal conductivity planes are maximized along the back surface of the segmented pyrolytic graphite target to allow for optimum heat conduction away from the sputter target's sputtering surface and to allow for maximum energy transmission from the target's sputtering surface. 2 figures.

  7. Decreasing transmembrane segment length greatly decreases perfringolysin O pore size

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lin, Qingqing; Li, Huilin; Wang, Tong; London, Erwin

    2015-04-08

    Perfringolysin O (PFO) is a transmembrane (TM) β-barrel protein that inserts into mammalian cell membranes. Once inserted into membranes, PFO assembles into pore-forming oligomers containing 30–50 PFO monomers. These form a pore of up to 300 Å, far exceeding the size of most other proteinaceous pores. In this study, we found that altering PFO TM segment length can alter the size of PFO pores. A PFO mutant with lengthened TM segments oligomerized to a similar extent as wild-type PFO, and exhibited pore-forming activity and a pore size very similar to wild-type PFO as measured by electron microscopy and a leakagemore » assay. In contrast, PFO with shortened TM segments exhibited a large reduction in pore-forming activity and pore size. This suggests that the interaction between TM segments can greatly affect the size of pores formed by TM β-barrel proteins. PFO may be a promising candidate for engineering pore size for various applications.« less

  8. Mask-assisted seeded growth of segmented metallic heteronanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crane, Cameron C.; Tao, Jing; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Chen, Jingyi

    2014-11-24

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclines to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO? mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.

  9. Mask-Assisted Seeded Growth of Segmented Metallic Heteronanostructures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crane, Cameron C.; Tao, Jing; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Chen, Jingyi

    2014-12-04

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclines to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO? mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.

  10. Mask-Assisted Seeded Growth of Segmented Metallic Heteronanostructures

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Crane, Cameron C.; Tao, Jing; Wang, Feng; Zhu, Yimei; Chen, Jingyi

    2014-12-04

    Controlling the deposition of exotic metals in the seeded growth of multi-metal nanostructures is challenging. This work describes a seeded growth method assisted by a mask for synthesis of segmented binary or ternary metal nanostructures. Silica is used as a mask to partially block the surface of a seed and a second metal is subsequently deposited on the exposed area, forming a bimetallic heterodimer. The initial demonstration was carried out on a Au seed, followed by deposition of Pd or Pt on the seed. It was found that Pd tends to spread out laterally on the seed while Pt inclinesmore » to grow vertically into branched topology on Au. Without removal of the SiO₂ mask, Pt could be further deposited on the unblocked Pd of the Pd-Au dimer to form a Pt-Pd-Au trimer. The mask-assisted seeded growth provides a general strategy to construct segmented metallic nanoarchitectures.« less

  11. Segmented saddle-shaped passive stabilization conductors for toroidal plasmas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Leuer, J.A.

    1990-05-01

    A large toroidal vacuum chamber for plasma generation and confinement is lined with a toroidal blanket for shielding using modules segmented in the toroidal direction. To provide passive stabilization in the same manner as a conductive vacuum chamber wall, saddle-shaped conductor loops are provided on blanket modules centered on a midplane of the toroidal chamber with horizontal conductive bars above and below the midplane, and vertical conductive legs on opposite sides of each module to provide return current paths between the upper and lower horizontal conductive bars. The close proximity of the vertical legs provided on adjacent modules without making physical contact cancel the electromagnetic field of adjacent vertical legs. The conductive bars spaced equally above and below the midplane simulate toroidal conductive loops or hoops that are continuous, for vertical stabilization of the plasma even though they are actually segmented. 5 figs.

  12. Lithium-drifted silicon detector with segmented contacts

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tindall, Craig S.; Luke, Paul N.

    2006-06-13

    A method and apparatus for creating both segmented and unsegmented radiation detectors which can operate at room temperature. The devices include a metal contact layer, and an n-type blocking contact formed from a thin layer of amorphous semiconductor. In one embodiment the material beneath the n-type contact is n-type material, such as lithium compensated silicon that forms the active region of the device. The active layer has been compensated to a degree at which the device may be fully depleted at low bias voltages. A p-type blocking contact layer, or a p-type donor material can be formed beneath a second metal contact layer to complete the device structure. When the contacts to the device are segmented, the device is capable of position sensitive detection and spectroscopy of ionizing radiation, such as photons, electrons, and ions.

  13. Microbial Populations in CAVES

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Microbial Populations in CAVES: A Comparison of Sulfur Biosignatures Annette Summers Engel, Department of Geology and Geophysics Compare Frasassi (Italy) and Lower Kane (Wyoming) CAVES

  14. Automated matching and segmentation of lymphoma on serial CT examinations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan Jiayong; Zhao Binsheng; Curran, Sean; Zelenetz, Andrew; Schwartz, Lawrence H.

    2007-01-15

    In patients with lymphoma, identification and quantification of the tumor extent on serial CT examinations is critical for assessing tumor response to therapy. In this paper, we present a computer method to automatically match and segment lymphomas in follow-up CT images. The method requires that target lymph nodes in baseline CT images be known. A fast, approximate alignment technique along the x, y, and axial directions is developed to provide a good initial condition for the subsequent fast free form deformation (FFD) registration of the baseline and the follow-up images. As a result of the registration, the deformed lymph node contours from the baseline images are used to automatically determine internal and external markers for the marker-controlled watershed segmentation performed in the follow-up images. We applied this automated registration and segmentation method retrospectively to 29 lymph nodes in 9 lymphoma patients treated in a clinical trial at our cancer center. A radiologist independently delineated all lymph nodes on all slices in the follow-up images and his manual contours served as the ''gold standard'' for evaluation of the method. Preliminary results showed that 26/29 (89.7%) lymph nodes were correctly matched; i.e., there was a geometrical overlap between the deformed lymph node from the baseline and its corresponding mass in the follow-up images. Of the matched 26 lymph nodes, 22 (84.6%) were successfully segmented; for these 22 lymph nodes, several metrics were calculated to quantify the method's performance. Among them, the average distance and the Hausdorff distance between the contours generated by the computer and those generated by the radiologist were 0.9 mm (stdev. 0.4 mm) and 3.9 mm (stdev. 2.1 mm), respectively.

  15. GPU-based relative fuzzy connectedness image segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuge Ying; Ciesielski, Krzysztof C.; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Miller, Robert W. [Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Department of Mathematics, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States) and Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Medical Image Processing Group, Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Radiation Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Purpose:Recently, clinical radiological research and practice are becoming increasingly quantitative. Further, images continue to increase in size and volume. For quantitative radiology to become practical, it is crucial that image segmentation algorithms and their implementations are rapid and yield practical run time on very large data sets. The purpose of this paper is to present a parallel version of an algorithm that belongs to the family of fuzzy connectedness (FC) algorithms, to achieve an interactive speed for segmenting large medical image data sets. Methods: The most common FC segmentations, optimizing an Script-Small-L {sub {infinity}}-based energy, are known as relative fuzzy connectedness (RFC) and iterative relative fuzzy connectedness (IRFC). Both RFC and IRFC objects (of which IRFC contains RFC) can be found via linear time algorithms, linear with respect to the image size. The new algorithm, P-ORFC (for parallel optimal RFC), which is implemented by using NVIDIA's Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) platform, considerably improves the computational speed of the above mentioned CPU based IRFC algorithm. Results: Experiments based on four data sets of small, medium, large, and super data size, achieved speedup factors of 32.8 Multiplication-Sign , 22.9 Multiplication-Sign , 20.9 Multiplication-Sign , and 17.5 Multiplication-Sign , correspondingly, on the NVIDIA Tesla C1060 platform. Although the output of P-ORFC need not precisely match that of IRFC output, it is very close to it and, as the authors prove, always lies between the RFC and IRFC objects. Conclusions: A parallel version of a top-of-the-line algorithm in the family of FC has been developed on the NVIDIA GPUs. An interactive speed of segmentation has been achieved, even for the largest medical image data set. Such GPU implementations may play a crucial role in automatic anatomy recognition in clinical radiology.

  16. Dual-circuit segmented rail phased induction motor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Marder, Barry M. (Albuquerque, NM); Cowan, Jr., Maynard (Albuquerque, NM)

    2002-01-01

    An improved linear motor utilizes two circuits, rather that one circuit and an opposed plate, to gain efficiency. The powered circuit is a flat conductive coil. The opposed segmented rail circuit is either a plurality of similar conductive coils that are shorted, or a plurality of ladders formed of opposed conductive bars connected by a plurality of spaced conductors. In each embodiment, the conductors are preferably cables formed from a plurality of intertwined insulated wires to carry current evenly.

  17. Distinct photoresponse in graphene induced by laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wen Hui; Nan, Hai Yan; Liu, Qi; Ni, Zhen Hua; Liang, Zheng; Yu, Zhi Hao; Liu, Feng Yuan; Wang, Xin Ran; Hu, Wei Da; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-12

    The graphene-based photodetector with tunable p-p{sup +}-p junctions was fabricated through a simple laser irradiation process. Distinct photoresponse was observed at the graphene (G)-laser irradiated graphene (LIG) junction by scanning photocurrent measurements, and its magnitude can be modulated as a result of a positive correlation between the photocurrent and doping concentration in LIG region. Detailed investigation suggests that the photo-thermoelectric effect, instead of the photovoltaic effect, dominates the photocurrent generation at the G-LIG junctions. Such a simple and low-cost technique offers an alternative way for the fabrication of graphene-based optoelectronic devices.

  18. Distinct magnetic signatures of fractional vortex configurations in multiband superconductors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silva, R. M. da; Domnguez, D.; Aguiar, J. Albino

    2014-12-08

    Vortices carrying fractions of a flux quantum are predicted to exist in multiband superconductors, where vortex core can split between multiple band-specific components of the superconducting condensate. Using the two-component Ginzburg-Landau model, we examine such vortex configurations in a two-band superconducting slab in parallel magnetic field. The fractional vortices appear due to the band-selective vortex penetration caused by different thresholds for vortex entry within each band-condensate, and stabilize near the edges of the sample. We show that the resulting fractional vortex configurations leave distinct fingerprints in the static measurements of the magnetization, as well as in ac dynamic measurements of the magnetic susceptibility, both of which can be readily used for the detection of these fascinating vortex states in several existing multiband superconductors.

  19. Internal Josephson oscillations for distinct momenta Bose-Einstein condensates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lim, Lih-King [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands); Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, CNRS UMR 8502, Universite Paris-Sud, F-91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Troppenz, T.; Morais Smith, C. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3584 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-11-15

    The internal Josephson oscillations between an atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) and a molecular one are studied for atoms in a square optical lattice subjected to a staggered gauge field. The system is described by a Bose-Hubbard model with complex and anisotropic hopping parameters that are different for each species, i.e., atoms and molecules. When the flux per plaquette for each species is small, the system oscillates between two conventional zero-momentum condensates. However, there is a regime of parameters in which Josephson oscillations between a vortex-carrying atomic condensate (finite momentum BEC) and a conventional zero-momentum molecular condensate may be realized. The experimental observation of the oscillations between these qualitatively distinct BEC's is possible with state-of-the-art Ramsey interference techniques.

  20. Quant-CT: Segmenting and Quantifying Computed Tomography

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2011-10-01

    Quant-CT is currently a plugin to ImageJ, designed as a Java-class that provides control mechanism for the user to choose volumes of interest within porous material, followed by the selection of image subsamples for automated tuning of parameters for filters and classifiers, and finally measurement of material geometry, porosity, and visualization. Denoising is mandatory before any image interpretation, and we implemented a new 3D java code that performs bilateral filtering of data. Segmentation of themore » dense material is essential before any quantifications about geological sample structure, and we invented new schemes to deal with over segmentation when using statistical region merging algorithm to pull out grains that compose imaged material. It make uses of ImageJ API and other standard and thirty-party APIs. Quant-CT conception started in 2011 under Scidac-e sponsor, and details of the first prototype were documented in publications below. While it is used right now for microtomography images, it can potentially be used by anybody with 3D image data obtained by experiment or produced by simulation.« less

  1. Microstructure and thermomechanical properties relationship of segmented thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Frick, Achim, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de; Borm, Michael, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de; Kaoud, Nouran, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de; Kolodziej, Jan, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de; Neudeck, Jens, E-mail: achim.frick@htw-aalen.de [Institute of Polymer Science and Processing (iPSP), HTW Aalen (Germany)

    2014-05-15

    Thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU) are important polymeric materials for seals. In competition with Acrylonitrile butadiene rubbers (NBR), TPU exhibits higher strength and a considerable better abrasion resistance. The advantage of NBR over TPU is a smaller compression set but however TPU excels in its much shorter processing cycle times. Generally a TPU is a block copolymer composed of hard and soft segments, which plays an important role in determining the material properties. TPU can be processed either to ready moulded parts or can be incorporated by multi component moulding, in both cases it shows decent mechanical properties. In the present work, the relationship between melt-process induced TPU morphology and resultant thermo mechanical properties were examined and determined by means of quasi-static tensile test, creep experiment, tension test and dynamical mechanical analysis (DMA). Scanning electron beam microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) were used to study the morphology of the samples. A significant mathematical description of the stress-strain behaviour of TPU was found using a 3 term approach. Moreover it became evident that processing conditions such as processing temperature have crucial influence on morphology as well as short and long-term performance. To be more precise, samples processed at higher temperatures showed a lack of large hard segment agglomerates, a smaller strength for strains up to 250% and higher creep compliance.

  2. Distinctive Higgs signals of a type II two-Higgs-doublet model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Distinctive Higgs signals of a type II two-Higgs-doublet model at the LHC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distinctive Higgs signals of a type II two-Higgs-doublet model ...

  3. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; et al

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates throughmore » a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XB’s characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using λpump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains from the dissociation of exciton XA is involved in the creation of this trion with a binding energy ~ 10 meV with respect to XA. The absorption peak that corresponds to trion T2 appears when λpump > 2.4 eV, which is just sufficient to excite exciton XB. The dynamics of trion T2 formation are found to correlate with the disappearance of the bleach of XB exciton, which indicates the involvement of holes participating in the bleach dynamics of exciton XB. Static electrical-doping photoabsorption measurements confirm the presence of an induced absorption peak similar to that of T2. Since the proposed trion formation process here involves exciton dissociation through hole-trapping by defects in the 2D crystal or substrate, this discovery highlights the strong role that defects have in defining the optical and electrical properties of 2D metal chalcogenides, which is relevant to a broad spectrum of basic science and technology applications.« less

  4. Observation of two distinct negative trions in tungsten disulfide monolayers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boulesbaa, Abdelaziz; Huang, Bing; Wang, Kai; Lin, Ming-Wei; Mahjouri-Samani, Masoud; Rouleau, Christopher M.; Xiao, Kai; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Puretzky, Alexander A.; Geohegan, David B.

    2015-09-25

    We report on the observation of two distinct photogenerated negative trion states TA and TB in two-dimensional tungsten disulfide (2D-WS2) monolayers. These trions are postulated to emerge from their parent excitons XA and XB, which originate from spin-orbit-split (SOS) levels in the conduction band (CB) and valence band (VB). Time-resolved spectroscopy measurements suggests that Pauli blocking controls a competition process between TA and TB photoformation, following dissociation of XA and XB through hole trapping at internal or substrate defect sites. While TA arises directly from its parent XA, TB emerges through a different transition accessible only after XB dissociates through a hole trapping channel. This discovery of additional optically-active band-edge transitions in atomically-thin metal dichalcogenides may revolutionize optoelectronic applications and fundamental research opportunities for many-body interaction physics. Ultrafast pump-probe spectroscopy of two-dimensional tungsten disulfide monolayers (2D-WS2) grown on sapphire substrates revealed two transient absorption spectral peaks that are attributed to distinct negative trions at ~2.02 eV (T1) and ~1.98 eV (T2). The dynamics measurements indicate that trion formation by the probe is enabled by photodoped electrons that remain after trapping of holes from excitons or free electron-hole pairs at defect sites in the crystal or on the substrate. Dynamics of the excitons XA and XBs characteristic absorption bands, at ~2.03 and ~2.40 eV, respectively, were separately monitored and compared with the photoinduced absorption features. Selective excitation of the lowest exciton level XA using ?pump < 2.4 eV forms only trion T1, which implies that the electron that remains from the dissociation of exciton XA is involved in the creation of this trion with a binding energy ~ 10 meV with respect to XA. The absorption peak that corresponds to trion T2 appears when ?pump > 2.4 eV, which is just sufficient to excite exciton XB. The dynamics of trion T2 formation are found to correlate with the disappearance of the bleach of XB exciton, which indicates the involvement of holes participating in the bleach dynamics of exciton XB. Static electrical-doping photoabsorption measurements confirm the presence of an induced absorption peak similar to that of T2. Since the proposed trion formation process here involves exciton dissociation through hole-trapping by defects in the 2D crystal or substrate, this discovery highlights the strong role that defects have in defining the optical and electrical properties of 2D metal chalcogenides, which is relevant to a broad spectrum of basic science and technology applications.

  5. Segmentation-free empirical beam hardening correction for CT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schller, Sren; Sawall, Stefan; Stannigel, Kai; Hlsbusch, Markus; Ulrici, Johannes; Hell, Erich; Kachelrie, Marc

    2015-02-15

    Purpose: The polychromatic nature of the x-ray beams and their effects on the reconstructed image are often disregarded during standard image reconstruction. This leads to cupping and beam hardening artifacts inside the reconstructed volume. To correct for a general cupping, methods like water precorrection exist. They correct the hardening of the spectrum during the penetration of the measured object only for the major tissue class. In contrast, more complex artifacts like streaks between dense objects need other techniques of correction. If using only the information of one single energy scan, there are two types of corrections. The first one is a physical approach. Thereby, artifacts can be reproduced and corrected within the original reconstruction by using assumptions in a polychromatic forward projector. These assumptions could be the used spectrum, the detector response, the physical attenuation and scatter properties of the intersected materials. A second method is an empirical approach, which does not rely on much prior knowledge. This so-called empirical beam hardening correction (EBHC) and the previously mentioned physical-based technique are both relying on a segmentation of the present tissues inside the patient. The difficulty thereby is that beam hardening by itself, scatter, and other effects, which diminish the image quality also disturb the correct tissue classification and thereby reduce the accuracy of the two known classes of correction techniques. The herein proposed method works similar to the empirical beam hardening correction but does not require a tissue segmentation and therefore shows improvements on image data, which are highly degraded by noise and artifacts. Furthermore, the new algorithm is designed in a way that no additional calibration or parameter fitting is needed. Methods: To overcome the segmentation of tissues, the authors propose a histogram deformation of their primary reconstructed CT image. This step is essential for the proposed algorithm to be segmentation-free (sf). This deformation leads to a nonlinear accentuation of higher CT-values. The original volume and the gray value deformed volume are monochromatically forward projected. The two projection sets are then monomially combined and reconstructed to generate sets of basis volumes which are used for correction. This is done by maximization of the image flatness due to adding additionally a weighted sum of these basis images. sfEBHC is evaluated on polychromatic simulations, phantom measurements, and patient data. The raw data sets were acquired by a dual source spiral CT scanner, a digital volume tomograph, and a dual source micro CT. Different phantom and patient data were used to illustrate the performance and wide range of usability of sfEBHC across different scanning scenarios. The artifact correction capabilities are compared to EBHC. Results: All investigated cases show equal or improved image quality compared to the standard EBHC approach. The artifact correction is capable of correcting beam hardening artifacts for different scan parameters and scan scenarios. Conclusions: sfEBHC generates beam hardening-reduced images and is furthermore capable of dealing with images which are affected by high noise and strong artifacts. The algorithm can be used to recover structures which are hardly visible inside the beam hardening-affected regions.

  6. Turbine stator vane segment having internal cooling circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Raymond Joseph (Oxford, MA); Burns, James Lee (Schenectady, NY); Bojappa, Parvangada Ganapathy (Simpsonville, SC); Jones, Schotsch Margaret (Greer, SC)

    2003-01-01

    A turbine stator vane includes outer and inner walls each having outer and inner chambers and a vane extending between the outer and inner walls. The vane includes first, second, third, fourth and fifth cavities for flowing a cooling medium. The cooling medium enters the outer chamber of the outer wall, flows through an impingement plate for impingement cooling of the outer band wall defining in part the hot gas path and through openings in the first, second and fourth cavities for flow radially inwardly, cooling the vane. The spent cooling medium flows into the inner wall and inner chamber for flow through an impingement plate radially outwardly to cool the inner wall. The spent cooling medium flows through the third cavity for egress from the turbine vane segment from the outer wall. The first, second or third cavities contain inserts having impingement openings for impingement cooling of the vane walls. The fifth cavity provides air cooling for the trailing edge.

  7. Newport News in Review, ch. 47, segment includes TEDF groundbreaking event

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    | Jefferson Lab https://www.jlab.org/news/articles/newport-news-review-ch-47-segment-includes-tedf-groundbreaking-event Newport News in Review, ch. 47, segment includes TEDF groundbreaking event The September 2010 "Newport News in Review" program includes a segment on JLab's Sept. 1 Technology and Engineering Development Facility Groundbreaking event. The program may be viewed at NNGOV.COM:

  8. Role of Polymer Segment–Particle Surface Interactions in Controlling...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Role of Polymer SegmentParticle Surface Interactions in Controlling Nanoparticle Dispersions in Concentrated Polymer Solutions Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Role of ...

  9. Population attribute compression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    White, James M. (Los Alamos, NM); Faber, Vance (Los Alamos, NM); Saltzman, Jeffrey S. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  10. Investigation into the use of market segmentation analysis in transportation energy planning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trombly, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    This research explores the application of market-segmentation analysis in transportation energy planning. The study builds on the concepts of market segmentation developed in the marketing literature to suggest a strategy of segmentation analysis for use in transportation planning. Results of the two statewide telephone surveys conducted in 1979 and 1980 for the New York State Department of Transportation are used as the data base for identifying target segments. Subjects in these surveys were asked to indicate which of 18 energy conservation actions had been implemented over the prior year to conserve gasoline. These responses serve as the basis for segmentation. Two alternative methods are pursued in identifying target market segments for purposes of transportation energy planning. The first approach consists of the application of conventional multivariate analysis procedures. The second method exploits the principles of latent trait or modern test theory. Results of the conventional analysis suggest that the data collected can be divided into eight segments. Results of the application of latent trait theory identify three market segments. Results of this study may be used to design future responses to energy shortages in addition to suggesting strategies to be pursued in measuring consumer response.

  11. A Segmented Drive Inverter Topology with a Small DC Bus Capacitor |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Inverter Topology with a Small DC Bus Capacitor A Segmented Drive Inverter Topology with a Small DC Bus Capacitor 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon ape004_su_2010_o.pdf More Documents & Publications A Segmented Drive System

  12. Microfluidic device and method for focusing, segmenting, and dispensing of a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Stephen C.; Ramsey, J. Michael

    2004-09-14

    A microfluidic device for forming and/or dispensing minute volume segments of a material is described. In accordance with one aspect of the present invention, a microfluidic device and method is provided for spatially confining the material in a focusing element. The device is also capable of segmenting the confined material into minute volume segments, and dispensing a volume segment to a waste or collection channel. The device further includes means for driving the respective streams of sample and focusing fluids through respective channels into a chamber, such that the focusing fluid streams spatially confine the sample material. The device may also include additional means for driving a minute volume segment of the spatially confined sample material into a collection channel in fluid communication with the waste reservoir.

  13. Microfluidic device and method for focusing, segmenting, and dispensing of a fluid stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jacobson, Stephen C [Knoxville, TN; Ramsey, J Michael [Knoxville, TN

    2008-09-09

    A microfluidic device and method for forming and dispensing minute volume segments of a material are described. In accordance with the present invention, a microfluidic device and method are provided for spatially confining the material in a focusing element. The device is also adapted for segmenting the confined material into minute volume segments, and dispensing a volume segment to a waste or collection channel. The device further includes means for driving the respective streams of sample and focusing fluids through respective channels into a chamber, such that the focusing fluid streams spatially confine the sample material. The device may also include additional means for driving a minute volume segment of the spatially confined sample material into a collection channel in fluid communication with the waste reservoir.

  14. Adaptive Breast Radiation Therapy Using Modeling of Tissue Mechanics: A Breast Tissue Segmentation Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Juneja, Prabhjot; Harris, Emma J.; Kirby, Anna M.; Evans, Philip M.

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To validate and compare the accuracy of breast tissue segmentation methods applied to computed tomography (CT) scans used for radiation therapy planning and to study the effect of tissue distribution on the segmentation accuracy for the purpose of developing models for use in adaptive breast radiation therapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four patients receiving postlumpectomy radiation therapy for breast cancer underwent CT imaging in prone and supine positions. The whole-breast clinical target volume was outlined. Clinical target volumes were segmented into fibroglandular and fatty tissue using the following algorithms: physical density thresholding; interactive thresholding; fuzzy c-means with 3 classes (FCM3) and 4 classes (FCM4); and k-means. The segmentation algorithms were evaluated in 2 stages: first, an approach based on the assumption that the breast composition should be the same in both prone and supine position; and second, comparison of segmentation with tissue outlines from 3 experts using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC). Breast datasets were grouped into nonsparse and sparse fibroglandular tissue distributions according to expert assessment and used to assess the accuracy of the segmentation methods and the agreement between experts. Results: Prone and supine breast composition analysis showed differences between the methods. Validation against expert outlines found significant differences (P<.001) between FCM3 and FCM4. Fuzzy c-means with 3 classes generated segmentation results (mean DSC = 0.70) closest to the experts' outlines. There was good agreement (mean DSC = 0.85) among experts for breast tissue outlining. Segmentation accuracy and expert agreement was significantly higher (P<.005) in the nonsparse group than in the sparse group. Conclusions: The FCM3 gave the most accurate segmentation of breast tissues on CT data and could therefore be used in adaptive radiation therapy-based on tissue modeling. Breast tissue segmentation methods should be used with caution in patients with sparse fibroglandular tissue distribution.

  15. Feral Cat Population Decline

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Feral Cat Population Decline Fun in the Sun Control methods lead to lower number of strays. New 3D technology aids in retrofit, remodel projects. Picnic, BBQ attracts hundreds of NvE employees. In December 2015, the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) will celebrate a storied 65-year history of atomic testing and homeland security support. OneVoice is paying tribute to the men and women who supported that mission with stories each month that look back at special events. See page 4. See page 7.

  16. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J. [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wiggins, Brandon K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johnson, Jarrett L., E-mail: dwhalen1999@gmail.com [XTD-PRI, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ?} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ? 20 in the first generation of stars.

  17. DETECTION OF A DISTINCT METAL-POOR STELLAR HALO IN THE EARLY-TYPE GALAXY NGC3115

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peacock, Mark B.; Strader, Jay; Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.

    2015-02-10

    We present the resolved stellar populations in the inner and outer halo of the nearby lenticular galaxy NGC3115. Using deep Hubble Space Telescope observations, we analyze stars 2 mag fainter than the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). We study three fields along the minor axis of this galaxy, 19, 37, and 54kpc from its centercorresponding to 7, 14, and 21 effective radii (r{sub e} ). Even at these large galactocentric distances, all of the fields are dominated by a relatively enriched population, with the main peak in the metallicity distribution decreasing with radius from [Z/H] ? 0.5 to 0.65. The fraction of metal-poor stars ([Z/H] < 0.95) increases from 17% at 16-37 kpc to 28% at ?54kpc. We observe a distinct low-metallicity population (peaked at [Z/H] ? 1.3 and with total mass 2 10{sup 10} M {sub ?} ? 14% of the galaxy's stellar mass) and argue that this represents the detection of an underlying low-metallicity stellar halo. Such halos are generally predicted by galaxy formation theories and have been observed in several late-type galaxies, including the Milky Way and M31. The metallicity and spatial distribution of the stellar halo of NGC3115 are consistent with the galaxy's globular cluster system, which has a similar low-metallicity population that becomes dominant at these large radii. This finding supports the use of globular clusters as bright chemodynamical tracers of galaxy halos. These data also allow us to make a precise measurement of the magnitude of the TRGB, from which we derive a distance modulus of NGC3115 of 30.05 0.05 0.10{sub sys} (10.2 0.2 0.5{sub sys}Mpc)

  18. Population Density by County, 2000

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2009-01-18

    Map showing a United States profile including race, population by sex and age, housing tenure, and more.

  19. SpArcFiRe: Scalable automated detection of spiral galaxy arm segments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, Darren R.; Hayes, Wayne B. E-mail: whayes@uci.edu

    2014-08-01

    Given an approximately centered image of a spiral galaxy, we describe an entirely automated method that finds, centers, and sizes the galaxy (possibly masking nearby stars and other objects if necessary in order to isolate the galaxy itself) and then automatically extracts structural information about the spiral arms. For each arm segment found, we list the pixels in that segment, allowing image analysis on a per-arm-segment basis. We also perform a least-squares fit of a logarithmic spiral arc to the pixels in that segment, giving per-arc parameters, such as the pitch angle, arm segment length, location, etc. The algorithm takes about one minute per galaxies, and can easily be scaled using parallelism. We have run it on all ?644,000 Sloan objects that are larger than 40 pixels across and classified as 'galaxies'. We find a very good correlation between our quantitative description of a spiral structure and the qualitative description provided by Galaxy Zoo humans. Our objective, quantitative measures of structure demonstrate the difficulty in defining exactly what constitutes a spiral 'arm', leading us to prefer the term 'arm segment'. We find that pitch angle often varies significantly segment-to-segment in a single spiral galaxy, making it difficult to define the pitch angle for a single galaxy. We demonstrate how our new database of arm segments can be queried to find galaxies satisfying specific quantitative visual criteria. For example, even though our code does not explicitly find rings, a good surrogate is to look for galaxies having one long, low-pitch-angle armwhich is how our code views ring galaxies. SpArcFiRe is available at http://sparcfire.ics.uci.edu.

  20. Microsoft Word - Segment and Value Propositions Draft Task 6 v3

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MUIR DATA SYSTEMS, INC. Wind Industry Segments & CMMS Value Propositions Muir Data Systems / Wind Energy Technology Sandia National Laboratories James Parle, Jonathan Gibson, Chad Reese 11/12/2013 1 Contents Background ................................................................................................................................................... 3 1.0 Executive Summary

  1. DOE Launches First Segment of its Next-Generation Nationwide Network to Support Scientific Research Efforts

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    WASHINGTON, DC- The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science and Internet2 announced today that the first segment of a next-generation, nationwide network has gone live, marking a key...

  2. Vortex nozzle for segmenting and transporting metal chips from turning operations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, L.F.

    1993-04-20

    Apparatus for collecting, segmenting and conveying metal chips from machining operations utilizes a compressed gas driven vortex nozzle for receiving the chip and twisting it to cause the chip to segment through the application of torsional forces to the chip. The vortex nozzle is open ended and generally tubular in shape with a converging inlet end, a constant diameter throat section and a diverging exhaust end. Compressed gas is discharged through angled vortex ports in the nozzle throat section to create vortex flow in the nozzle and through an annular inlet at the entrance to the converging inlet end to create suction at the nozzle inlet and cause ambient air to enter the nozzle. The vortex flow in the nozzle causes the metal chip to segment and the segments thus formed to pass out of the discharge end of the nozzle where they are collected, cleaned and compacted as needed.

  3. A Dielectric Relaxometry Study of Segmental Dynamics in PDMS/Boron

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Composite and Hybrid Elastomers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect A Dielectric Relaxometry Study of Segmental Dynamics in PDMS/Boron Composite and Hybrid Elastomers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Dielectric Relaxometry Study of Segmental Dynamics in PDMS/Boron Composite and Hybrid Elastomers Authors: Lewicki, J P ; Beavis, P W ; Robinson, M C ; Maxwell, R S Publication Date: 2013-11-18 OSTI Identifier: 1144772 Report Number(s): LLNL-JRNL-646738 DOE Contract Number:

  4. DISTINCT CHEMICAL REGIONS IN THE ''PRESTELLAR'' INFRARED DARK CLOUD G028.23-00.19

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanhueza, Patricio; Jackson, James M. [Institute for Astrophysical Research, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Foster, Jonathan B. [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Jimenez-Serra, Izaskun [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dirienzo, William J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 3818, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Pillai, Thushara, E-mail: patricio@bu.edu [Caltech, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-08-20

    We have observed the Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) G028.23-00.19 at 3.3 mm using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy. In its center, the IRDC hosts one of the most massive ({approx}1520 M{sub Sun }) quiescent, cold (12 K) clumps known (MM1). The low temperature, high NH{sub 2}D abundance, narrow molecular line widths, and absence of embedded infrared sources (from 3.6 to 70 {mu}m) indicate that the clump is likely prestellar. Strong SiO emission with broad line widths (6-9 km s{sup -1}) and high abundances ((0.8-4) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -9}) is detected in the northern and southern regions of the IRDC, unassociated with MM1. We suggest that SiO is released to the gas phase from the dust grains through shocks produced by outflows from undetected intermediate-mass stars or clusters of low-mass stars deeply embedded in the IRDC. A weaker SiO component with narrow line widths ({approx}2 km s{sup -1}) and low abundances (4.3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -11}) is detected in the center-west region, consistent with either a ''subcloud-subcloud'' collision or an unresolved population of a few low-mass stars. We report widespread CH{sub 3}OH emission throughout the whole IRDC and the first detection of extended narrow methanol emission ({approx}2 km s{sup -1}) in a cold, massive prestellar clump (MM1). We suggest that the most likely mechanism releasing methanol into the gas phase in such a cold region is the exothermicity of grain-surface reactions. HN{sup 13}C reveals that the IRDC is actually composed of two distinct substructures ({sup s}ubclouds{sup )} separated in velocity space by {approx}1.4 km s{sup -1}. The narrow SiO component arises where the subclouds overlap. The spatial distribution of C{sub 2}H resembles that of NH{sub 2}D, which suggests that C{sub 2}H also traces cold gas in this IRDC.

  5. Energetic neutral atoms measured by the interstellar boundary explorer (IBEX): Evidence for multiple heliosheath populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Desai, M. I.; Allegrini, F. A.; Dayeh, M. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Bzowski, M.; Kubiak, M. A.; Sok?, J. M.; Funsten, H.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Zank, G. P.; Zirnstein, E. J.; Schwadron, N. A.

    2014-01-01

    Energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) observed by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) provide powerful diagnostics about the origin of the progenitor ion populations and the physical mechanisms responsible for their production. In this paper, we extend the work of Desai et al. and Fuselier et al. and combine and compare ENA spectra from the first 3 yr of observations by the IBEX-Hi and -Lo ENA imagers along the lines-of-sight (LOSs) from the inner heliosphere through to the locations of Voyager 1 and 2 with results from an updated physics-based model of the three-dimensional heliosphere and its constituent ion populations. Our results show that (1) IBEX ENA fluxes and spectra above ?0.7 keV measured along the LOSs of the Voyagers are consistent with several models in which the parent pickup ion (PUI) populations originate in the inner heliosheath, and (2) a significant fraction of lower energy ENAs between ?0.1-0.5 keV may originate from interstellar neutral gas charge-exchanging with a non-thermalized (hot) population of PUIs in the outer heliosheath beyond the heliopause. We discuss the implications of ENAs observed by IBEX originating from distinct parent populations as well as from two distinct locations in the heliospheric interface. These results indicate that ENA spectral measurements at various energies can be used to remotely probe distinct physical processes operating in vastly different regions of the distant heliosphere.

  6. How an mRNA capping enzyme reads distinct RNA polymerase II and Spt5 CTD

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    phosphorylation codes (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: How an mRNA capping enzyme reads distinct RNA polymerase II and Spt5 CTD phosphorylation codes Citation Details In-Document Search Title: How an mRNA capping enzyme reads distinct RNA polymerase II and Spt5 CTD phosphorylation codes Authors: Doamekpor, Selom K. ; Sanchez, Ana M. ; Schwer, Beate ; Shuman, Stewart ; Lima, Christopher D. [1] ; MSKCC) [2] + Show Author Affiliations

  7. Structures of two distinct conformations of holo-non-ribosomal peptide

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    synthetases (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Structures of two distinct conformations of holo-non-ribosomal peptide synthetases Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Structures of two distinct conformations of holo-non-ribosomal peptide synthetases Authors: Drake, Eric J. ; Miller, Bradley R. ; Shi, Ce ; Tarrasch, Jeffrey T. ; Sundlov, Jesse A. ; Allen, C. Leigh ; Skiniotis, Georgios ; Aldrich, Courtney C. ; Gulick, Andrew M. [1] ; UMM) [2] ; HWMRI) [2] + Show Author Affiliations

  8. The differing magnitude distributions of the two Jupiter Trojan color populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wong, Ian; Brown, Michael E.; Emery, Joshua P.

    2014-12-01

    The Jupiter Trojans are a significant population of minor bodies in the middle solar system that have garnered substantial interest in recent years. Several spectroscopic studies of these objects have revealed notable bimodalities with respect to near-infrared spectra, infrared albedo, and color, which suggest the existence of two distinct groups among the Trojan population. In this paper, we analyze the magnitude distributions of these two groups, which we refer to as the red and less red color populations. By compiling spectral and photometric data from several previous works, we show that the observed bimodalities are self-consistent and categorize 221 of the 842 Trojans with absolute magnitudes in the range H<12.3 into the two color populations. We demonstrate that the magnitude distributions of the two color populations are distinct to a high confidence level (>95%) and fit them individually to a broken power law, with special attention given to evaluating and correcting for incompleteness in the Trojan catalog as well as incompleteness in our categorization of objects. A comparison of the best-fit curves shows that the faint-end power-law slopes are markedly different for the two color populations, which indicates that the red and less red Trojans likely formed in different locations. We propose a few hypotheses for the origin and evolution of the Trojan population based on the analyzed data.

  9. Energy demand and population changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, E.L.; Edmonds, J.A.

    1980-12-01

    Since World War II, US energy demand has grown more rapidly than population, so that per capita consumption of energy was about 60% higher in 1978 than in 1947. Population growth and the expansion of per capita real incomes have led to a greater use of energy. The aging of the US population is expected to increase per capita energy consumption, despite the increase in the proportion of persons over 65, who consume less energy than employed persons. The sharp decline in the population under 18 has led to an expansion in the relative proportion of population in the prime-labor-force age groups. Employed persons are heavy users of energy. The growth of the work force and GNP is largely attributable to the growing participation of females. Another important consequence of female employment is the growth in ownership of personal automobiles. A third factor pushing up labor-force growth is the steady influx of illegal aliens.

  10. TWO POPULATIONS OF GAMMA-RAY BURST RADIO AFTERGLOWS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hancock, P. J.; Gaensler, B. M.; Murphy, T., E-mail: Paul.Hancock@Sydney.edu.au [Also at Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for All-sky Astrophysics (CAASTRO), The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2006, Australia. (Australia)

    2013-10-20

    The detection rate of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows is ?30% at radio wavelengths, much lower than in the X-ray (?95%) or optical (?70%) bands. The cause of this low radio detection rate has previously been attributed to limited observing sensitivity. We use visibility stacking to test this idea, and conclude that the low detection rate is instead due to two intrinsically different populations of GRBs: radio-bright and radio-faint. We calculate that no more than 70% of GRB afterglows are truly radio-bright, leaving a significant population of GRBs that lack a radio afterglow. These radio-bright GRBs have higher gamma-ray fluence, isotropic energies, X-ray fluxes, and optical fluxes than the radio-faint GRBs, thus confirming the existence of two physically distinct populations. We suggest that the gamma-ray efficiency of the prompt emission is responsible for the difference between the two populations. We also discuss the implications for future radio and optical surveys.

  11. A Segmented, Enriched N-type Germanium Detector for Neutrinoless Double Beta-Decay Experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leviner, L.; Aalseth, Craig E.; Ahmed, M. W.; Avignone, F. T.; Back, Henning O.; Barabash, Alexander S.; Boswell, M.; De Braeckeleer, L.; Brudanin, V.; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Egorov, Viatcheslav; Elliott, Steven R.; Gehman, Victor M.; Hossbach, Todd W.; Kephart, Jeremy; Kidd, M. F.; Konovalov, S.; Lesko, Kevin; Li, Jingyi; Mei, Dongming; Mikhailov, S.; Miley, Harry S.; Radford, D. C.; Reeves, James H.; Sandukovsky, Viatcheslav; Umatov, Valdimir; Underwood, T. A.; Tornow, W.; Wu, Y. K.; Young, A.

    2014-01-21

    We present data characterizing the performance of the _rst segmented, N- type Ge detector, isotopically enriched to 85% 76Ge. This detector, based on the Ortec PT6x2 design and referred to as SEGA (Segmented, Enriched Germanium Assembly), was developed as a possible prototype for neutrinoless double beta-decay measurements by the Majorana collaboration. We present some of the general characteristics (including bias potential, efficiency, leakage current, and integral cross-talk) for this detector in its temporary cryostat. We also present an analysis of the resolution of the detector, and demonstrate that for all but two segments there is at least one channel that reaches the Majorana resolution goal below 4 keV FWHM at 2039 keV, and all channels are below 4.5 keV FWHM.

  12. Segmented superconducting tape having reduced AC losses and method of making

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Foltyn, Stephen R. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM); Arendt, Paul N. (Los Alamos, NM); Holesinger, Terry G. (Los Alamos, NM); Wang, Haiyan (Los Alamos, NM)

    2009-09-22

    A superconducting tape having reduced AC losses. The tape has a high temperature superconductor layer that is segmented. Disruptive strips, formed in one of the tape substrate, a buffer layer, and the superconducting layer create parallel discontinuities in the superconducting layer that separate the current-carrying elements of the superconducting layer into strips or filament-like structures. Segmentation of the current-carrying elements has the effect of reducing AC current losses. Methods of making such a superconducting tape and reducing AC losses in such tapes are also disclosed.

  13. Distinctive Higgs signals of a type II two-Higgs-doublet model at the LHC

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Distinctive Higgs signals of a type II two-Higgs-doublet model at the LHC Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Distinctive Higgs signals of a type II two-Higgs-doublet model at the LHC We perform a numerical analysis of Higgs-to-Higgs decays within a type II two-Higgs-doublet model (2HDM), highlighting several channels that cannot occur in its supersymmetric version, thereby allowing one to possibly distinguish between these two scenarios. Our

  14. Toward accurate tooth segmentation from computed tomography images using a hybrid level set model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, Yangzhou; Zhao, Qunfei; Xia, Zeyang E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Hu, Ying; Xiong, Jing E-mail: jing.xiong@siat.ac.cn; Zhang, Jianwei

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: A three-dimensional (3D) model of the teeth provides important information for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning. Tooth segmentation is an essential step in generating the 3D digital model from computed tomography (CT) images. The aim of this study is to develop an accurate and efficient tooth segmentation method from CT images. Methods: The 3D dental CT volumetric images are segmented slice by slice in a two-dimensional (2D) transverse plane. The 2D segmentation is composed of a manual initialization step and an automatic slice by slice segmentation step. In the manual initialization step, the user manually picks a starting slice and selects a seed point for each tooth in this slice. In the automatic slice segmentation step, a developed hybrid level set model is applied to segment tooth contours from each slice. Tooth contour propagation strategy is employed to initialize the level set function automatically. Cone beam CT (CBCT) images of two subjects were used to tune the parameters. Images of 16 additional subjects were used to validate the performance of the method. Volume overlap metrics and surface distance metrics were adopted to assess the segmentation accuracy quantitatively. The volume overlap metrics were volume difference (VD, mm{sup 3}) and Dice similarity coefficient (DSC, %). The surface distance metrics were average symmetric surface distance (ASSD, mm), RMS (root mean square) symmetric surface distance (RMSSSD, mm), and maximum symmetric surface distance (MSSD, mm). Computation time was recorded to assess the efficiency. The performance of the proposed method has been compared with two state-of-the-art methods. Results: For the tested CBCT images, the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the incisor were 38.16 ± 12.94 mm{sup 3}, 88.82 ± 2.14%, 0.29 ± 0.03 mm, 0.32 ± 0.08 mm, and 1.25 ± 0.58 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the canine were 49.12 ± 9.33 mm{sup 3}, 91.57 ± 0.82%, 0.27 ± 0.02 mm, 0.28 ± 0.03 mm, and 1.06 ± 0.40 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the premolar were 37.95 ± 10.13 mm{sup 3}, 92.45 ± 2.29%, 0.29 ± 0.06 mm, 0.33 ± 0.10 mm, and 1.28 ± 0.72 mm, respectively; the VD, DSC, ASSD, RMSSSD, and MSSD for the molar were 52.38 ± 17.27 mm{sup 3}, 94.12 ± 1.38%, 0.30 ± 0.08 mm, 0.35 ± 0.17 mm, and 1.52 ± 0.75 mm, respectively. The computation time of the proposed method for segmenting CBCT images of one subject was 7.25 ± 0.73 min. Compared with two other methods, the proposed method achieves significant improvement in terms of accuracy. Conclusions: The presented tooth segmentation method can be used to segment tooth contours from CT images accurately and efficiently.

  15. Reactor Vessel and Reactor Vessel Internals Segmentation at Zion Nuclear Power Station - 13230

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Conrad; Spann, Holger

    2013-07-01

    Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS) is a dual-unit Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant located on the Lake Michigan shoreline, in the city of Zion, Illinois approximately 64 km (40 miles) north of Chicago, Illinois and 67 km (42 miles) south of Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Each PWR is of the Westinghouse design and had a generation capacity of 1040 MW. Exelon Corporation operated both reactors with the first unit starting production of power in 1973 and the second unit coming on line in 1974. The operation of both reactors ceased in 1996/1997. In 2010 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission approved the transfer of Exelon Corporation's license to ZionSolutions, the Long Term Stewardship subsidiary of EnergySolutions responsible for the decommissioning of ZNPS. In October 2010, ZionSolutions awarded Siempelkamp Nuclear Services, Inc. (SNS) the contract to plan, segment, remove, and package both reactor vessels and their respective internals. This presentation discusses the tools employed by SNS to remove and segment the Reactor Vessel Internals (RVI) and Reactor Vessels (RV) and conveys the recent progress. SNS's mechanical segmentation tooling includes the C-HORCE (Circumferential Hydraulically Operated Cutting Equipment), BMT (Bolt Milling Tool), FaST (Former Attachment Severing Tool) and the VRS (Volume Reduction Station). Thermal segmentation of the reactor vessels will be accomplished using an Oxygen- Propane cutting system. The tools for internals segmentation were designed by SNS using their experience from other successful reactor and large component decommissioning and demolition (D and D) projects in the US. All of the designs allow for the mechanical segmentation of the internals remotely in the water-filled reactor cavities. The C-HORCE is designed to saw seven circumferential cuts through the Core Barrel and Thermal Shield walls with individual thicknesses up to 100 mm (4 inches). The BMT is designed to remove the bolts that fasten the Baffle Plates to the Baffle Former Plates. The FaST is designed to remove the Baffle Former Plates from the Core Barrel. The VRS further volume reduces segmented components using multiple configurations of the 38i and horizontal reciprocating saws. After the successful removal and volume reduction of the Internals, the RV will be segmented using a 'First in the US' thermal cutting process through a co-operative effort with Siempelkamp NIS Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH using their experience at the Stade NPP and Karlsruhe in Germany. SNS mobilized in the fall of 2011 to commence execution of the project in order to complete the RVI segmentation, removal and packaging activities for the first unit (Unit 2) by end of the 2012/beginning 2013 and then mobilize to the second unit, Unit 1. Parallel to the completion of the segmentation of the reactor vessel internals at Unit 1, SNS will segment the Unit 2 pressure vessel and at completion move to Unit 1. (authors)

  16. Two distinct origins of a common BRCA1 mutation in breast-ovarian cancer families: A genetic study of 15 185delAG-mutation kindreds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berman, D.B.; Schultz, D.C.; Godwin, A.K.

    1996-06-01

    We screened 163 women from breast-ovarian cancer-prone families, as well as 178 individuals affected with breast and/or ovarian cancer but unselected for family history, for germ-line mutations in exon 2 of BRCA1, by SSCP analysis and direct sequencing. A total of 25 mutations were detected. Thirteen of 64 Jewish Ashkenazi women and 2 non-Jewish individuals were found to possess the 185delAG mutation. Haplotype data for all 15 individuals, with markers intragenic to BRCA1, suggest that the Jewish Ashkenazi individuals share a common ancestry that is distinct from the lineage shared by the other two women. These data provide the first evidence of two distinct lines of transmission for the 185delAG mutation, only one of which has its origins in the Jewish Ashkenazi population. Our screening also uncovered 10 affected individuals with an 11-bp deletion at nucleotide 188 of BRCA1 (188del11), 4 of whom are Ashkenazi Jews. This is only the third reported mutation detected within the Jewish Ashkenazi population and may represent the second most common alteration in BRCA1 found in Ashkenazi Jews in the United States. The observed overrepresentation of specific mutations within a subgroup of the general population may eventually contribute to the development of inexpensive and routine tests for BRCA1 mutations, as well as to the elucidation of other contributory factors (e.g., diet, environment, and chemical exposures) that may play a key role in cancer initiation and development. The implications of the mutational data, as well as the role that founder effect, demographic history, and penetrance play in the resulting observed phenomena, are discussed. 32 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Multilevel learning-based segmentation of ill-defined and spiculated masses in mammograms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tao, Yimo; Lo, Shih-Chung B.; Freedman, Matthew T.; Makariou, Erini; Xuan, Jianhua

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: A learning-based approach integrating the use of pixel-level statistical modeling and spiculation detection is presented for the segmentation of mammographic masses with ill-defined margins and spiculations. Methods: The algorithm involves a multiphase pixel-level classification, using a comprehensive group of features computed from regional intensity, shape, and textures, to generate a mass-conditional probability map (PM). Then, the mass candidate, along with the background clutters consisting of breast fibroglandular and other nonmass tissues, is extracted from the PM by integrating the prior knowledge of shape and location of masses. A multiscale steerable ridge detection algorithm is employed to detect spiculations. Finally, all the object-level findings, including mass candidate, detected spiculations, and clutters, along with the PM, are integrated by graph cuts to generate the final segmentation mask. Results: The method was tested on 54 masses (51 malignant and 3 benign), all with ill-defined margins and irregular shape or spiculations. The ground truth delineations were provided by five experienced radiologists. Area overlapping ratio of 0.689 ({+-}0.160) and 0.540 ({+-}0.164) were obtained for segmenting entire mass and margin portion only, respectively. Williams index of area and contour based measurements indicated that the segmentation results of the algorithm agreed well with the radiologists' delineation. Conclusions: The proposed approach could closely delineate the mass body. Most importantly, it is capable of including mass margin and its spicule extensions which are considered as key features for breast lesion analyses.

  18. Using Doppler spectra to separate hydrometeor populations and analyze ice precipitation in multilayered mixed-phase clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rambukkange, Mahlon P.; Verlinde, J.; Eloranta, E. W.; Flynn, Connor J.; Clothiaux, Eugene E.

    2011-01-31

    Multimodality of cloud radar Doppler spectra is used to partition cloud particle phases and to separate distinct ice populations in the radar sample volume, thereby facilitating analysis of individual ice showers in multilayered mixed-phase clouds. A 35-GHz cloud radar located at Barrow, Alaska, during the Mixed-Phase Arctic Cloud Experiment collected the Doppler spectra. Data from a pair of collocated depolarization lidars confirmed the presence of two liquid cloud layers reported in this study. Surprisingly, both of these cloud layers were embedded in ice precipitation yet maintained their liquid. Our spectral separation of the ice precipitation yielded two distinct ice populations: ice initiated within the two liquid cloud layers and ice precipitation formed in higher cloud layers. Comparisons of ice fall velocity versus radar reflectivity relationships derived for distinct showers reveal that a single relationship might not properly represent the ice showers during this period.

  19. Two-stage atlas subset selection in multi-atlas based image segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhao, Tingting Ruan, Dan

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Fast growing access to large databases and cloud stored data presents a unique opportunity for multi-atlas based image segmentation and also presents challenges in heterogeneous atlas quality and computation burden. This work aims to develop a novel two-stage method tailored to the special needs in the face of large atlas collection with varied quality, so that high-accuracy segmentation can be achieved with low computational cost. Methods: An atlas subset selection scheme is proposed to substitute a significant portion of the computationally expensive full-fledged registration in the conventional scheme with a low-cost alternative. More specifically, the authors introduce a two-stage atlas subset selection method. In the first stage, an augmented subset is obtained based on a low-cost registration configuration and a preliminary relevance metric; in the second stage, the subset is further narrowed down to a fusion set of desired size, based on full-fledged registration and a refined relevance metric. An inference model is developed to characterize the relationship between the preliminary and refined relevance metrics, and a proper augmented subset size is derived to ensure that the desired atlases survive the preliminary selection with high probability. Results: The performance of the proposed scheme has been assessed with cross validation based on two clinical datasets consisting of manually segmented prostate and brain magnetic resonance images, respectively. The proposed scheme demonstrates comparable end-to-end segmentation performance as the conventional single-stage selection method, but with significant computation reduction. Compared with the alternative computation reduction method, their scheme improves the mean and medium Dice similarity coefficient value from (0.74, 0.78) to (0.83, 0.85) and from (0.82, 0.84) to (0.95, 0.95) for prostate and corpus callosum segmentation, respectively, with statistical significance. Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel two-stage atlas subset selection scheme for multi-atlas based segmentation. It achieves good segmentation accuracy with significantly reduced computation cost, making it a suitable configuration in the presence of extensive heterogeneous atlases.

  20. Comparison of Daytime and Nighttime Populations Adjacent to Interstate Highways in Metropolitan Areas Using LandScan USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Paul E

    2007-01-01

    An article of similar title was published in the International Journal of Radioactive Materials Transport in 1999. The study concluded that the daytime and nighttime populations are not substantially different for the metropolitan areas examined. This study revisits the issue, but using the LandScan USA high resolution population distribution data, which includes daytime and night-time population. Segments of Interstate highway beltways, along with the direct route through the city, for Atlanta, St. Louis, and Kansas City are examined with an 800m buffer from either side of the highways. The day/night ratio of population is higher using the LandScan USA data. LandScan USA daytime and night-time data will be incorporated into the TRAGIS routing model in future.

  1. Brachial artery vasomotion and transducer pressure effect on measurements by active contour segmentation on ultrasound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cary, Theodore W.; Sultan, Laith R.; Sehgal, Chandra M.; Reamer, Courtney B.; Mohler, Emile R.

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: To use feed-forward active contours (snakes) to track and measure brachial artery vasomotion on ultrasound images recorded in both transverse and longitudinal views; and to compare the algorithm's performance in each view. Methods: Longitudinal and transverse view ultrasound image sequences of 45 brachial arteries were segmented by feed-forward active contour (FFAC). The segmented regions were used to measure vasomotion artery diameter, cross-sectional area, and distention both as peak-to-peak diameter and as area. ECG waveforms were also simultaneously extracted frame-by-frame by thresholding a running finite-difference image between consecutive images. The arterial and ECG waveforms were compared as they traced each phase of the cardiac cycle. Results: FFAC successfully segmented arteries in longitudinal and transverse views in all 45 cases. The automated analysis took significantly less time than manual tracing, but produced superior, well-behaved arterial waveforms. Automated arterial measurements also had lower interobserver variability as measured by correlation, difference in mean values, and coefficient of variation. Although FFAC successfully segmented both the longitudinal and transverse images, transverse measurements were less variable. The cross-sectional area computed from the longitudinal images was 27% lower than the area measured from transverse images, possibly due to the compression of the artery along the image depth by transducer pressure. Conclusions: FFAC is a robust and sensitive vasomotion segmentation algorithm in both transverse and longitudinal views. Transverse imaging may offer advantages over longitudinal imaging: transverse measurements are more consistent, possibly because the method is less sensitive to variations in transducer pressure during imaging.

  2. Evaluation of Automatic Atlas-Based Lymph Node Segmentation for Head-and-Neck Cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stapleford, Liza J.; Lawson, Joshua D.; Perkins, Charles; Edelman, Scott; Davis, Lawrence

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate if automatic atlas-based lymph node segmentation (LNS) improves efficiency and decreases inter-observer variability while maintaining accuracy. Methods and Materials: Five physicians with head-and-neck IMRT experience used computed tomography (CT) data from 5 patients to create bilateral neck clinical target volumes covering specified nodal levels. A second contour set was automatically generated using a commercially available atlas. Physicians modified the automatic contours to make them acceptable for treatment planning. To assess contour variability, the Simultaneous Truth and Performance Level Estimation (STAPLE) algorithm was used to take collections of contours and calculate a probabilistic estimate of the 'true' segmentation. Differences between the manual, automatic, and automatic-modified (AM) contours were analyzed using multiple metrics. Results: Compared with the 'true' segmentation created from manual contours, the automatic contours had a high degree of accuracy, with sensitivity, Dice similarity coefficient, and mean/max surface disagreement values comparable to the average manual contour (86%, 76%, 3.3/17.4 mm automatic vs. 73%, 79%, 2.8/17 mm manual). The AM group was more consistent than the manual group for multiple metrics, most notably reducing the range of contour volume (106-430 mL manual vs. 176-347 mL AM) and percent false positivity (1-37% manual vs. 1-7% AM). Average contouring time savings with the automatic segmentation was 11.5 min per patient, a 35% reduction. Conclusions: Using the STAPLE algorithm to generate 'true' contours from multiple physician contours, we demonstrated that, in comparison with manual segmentation, atlas-based automatic LNS for head-and-neck cancer is accurate, efficient, and reduces interobserver variability.

  3. Steam Dryer Segmentation and Packaging at Grand Gulf Nuclear Station - 13577

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kreitman, Paul J.; Sirianni, Steve R.; Pillard, Mark M.

    2013-07-01

    Entergy recently performed an Extended Power Up-rate (EPU) on their Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, near Port Gibson, Mississippi. To support the EPU, a new Steam Dryer Assembly was installed during the last refueling outage. Due to limited access into the containment, the large Replacement Steam Dryer (RSD) had to be brought into the containment in pieces and then final assembly was completed on the refueling floor before installation into the reactor. Likewise, the highly contaminated Original Steam Dryer (OSD) had to be segmented into manageable sections, loaded into specially designed shielded containers, and rigged out of containment where they will be safely stored until final disposal is accomplished at an acceptable waste repository. Westinghouse Nuclear Services was contracted by Entergy to segment, package and remove the OSD from containment. This work was performed on critical path during the most recent refueling outage. The segmentation was performed underwater to minimize radiation exposure to the workers. Special hydraulic saws were developed for the cutting operations based on Westinghouse designs previously used in Sweden to segment ABB Reactor Internals. The mechanical cutting method was selected because of its proven reliability and the minimal cutting debris that is generated by the process. Maintaining stability of the large OSD sections during cutting was accomplished using a custom built support stand that was installed into the Moisture Separator Pool after the Moisture Separator was installed back in the reactor vessel. The OSD was then moved from the Steam Dryer Pool to the Moisture Separator Pool for segmentation. This scenario resolved the logistical challenge of having two steam dryers and a moisture separator in containment simultaneously. A water filtration/vacuum unit was supplied to maintain water clarity during the cutting and handling operations and to collect the cutting chips. (authors)

  4. Chemical constraints on the contribution of population III stars to cosmic reionization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Hennawi, Joseph F. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Knigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Rollinde, Emmanuel; Vangioni, Elisabeth, E-mail: girish@mpia-hd.mpg.de [Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095, UPMC, Paris VI, 98 bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France)

    2014-05-20

    Recent studies have highlighted that galaxies at z = 6-8 fall short of producing enough ionizing photons to reionize the intergalactic medium, and suggest that Population III stars could resolve this tension, because their harder spectra can produce ?10 more ionizing photons than Population II. We use a semi-analytic model of galaxy formation, which tracks galactic chemical evolution, to gauge the impact of Population III stars on reionization. Population III supernovae produce distinct metal abundances, and we argue that the duration of the Population III era can be constrained by precise relative abundance measurements in high-z damped Ly? absorbers (DLAs), which provide a chemical record of past star formation. We find that a single generation of Population III stars can self-enrich galaxies above the critical metallicity Z {sub crit} = 10{sup 4} Z {sub ?} for the Population III-to-II transition, on a very short timescale t {sub self-enrich} ? 10{sup 6} yr, owing to the large metal yields and short lifetimes of Population III stars. This subsequently terminates the Population III era, so they contribute ? 50% of the ionizing photons only for z ? 30, and at z = 10 contribute <1%. The Population III contribution can be increased by delaying metal mixing into the interstellar medium. However, comparing the resulting metal abundance pattern to existing measurements in z ? 6 DLAs, we show that the observed [O/Si] ratios of absorbers rule out Population III stars being a major contributor to reionization. Future abundance measurements of z ? 7-8 QSOs and gamma-ray bursts should probe the era when the chemical vestiges of Population III star formation become detectable.

  5. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Locations for Possible Small Modular Reactor Siting This report documents population density studies of selected sites in the Hampton Roads, Virginia area. PDF icon Population...

  6. Distinct p53 genomic binding patterns in normal and cancer-derived human cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Botcheva K.; McCorkle S. R.; McCombie W. R.; Dunn J. J.; Anderson C. W.

    2011-12-15

    We report here genome-wide analysis of the tumor suppressor p53 binding sites in normal human cells. 743 high-confidence ChIP-seq peaks representing putative genomic binding sites were identified in normal IMR90 fibroblasts using a reference chromatin sample. More than 40% were located within 2 kb of a transcription start site (TSS), a distribution similar to that documented for individually studied, functional p53 binding sites and, to date, not observed by previous p53 genome-wide studies. Nearly half of the high-confidence binding sites in the IMR90 cells reside in CpG islands, in marked contrast to sites reported in cancer-derived cells. The distinct genomic features of the IMR90 binding sites do not reflect a distinct preference for specific sequences, since the de novo developed p53 motif based on our study is similar to those reported by genome-wide studies of cancer cells. More likely, the different chromatin landscape in normal, compared with cancer-derived cells, influences p53 binding via modulating availability of the sites. We compared the IMR90 ChIPseq peaks to the recently published IMR90 methylome1 and demonstrated that they are enriched at hypomethylated DNA. Our study represents the first genome-wide, de novo mapping of p53 binding sites in normal human cells and reveals that p53 binding sites reside in distinct genomic landscapes in normal and cancer-derived human cells.

  7. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane therebetween. Each band includes a nozzle wall, a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and the nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The impingement plate has a turned flange welded to the inturned flange. A backing plate overlies the turned flange and aligned apertures are formed through the backing plate and turned flange to direct and focus cooling flow onto the side wall of the nozzle segment.

  8. Support pedestals for interconnecting a cover and nozzle band wall in a gas turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Yufeng Phillip (Simpsonville, SC); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC); Webbon, Waylon Willard (Greenville, SC); Bagepalli, Radhakrishna (Schenectady, NY); Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Kellock, Iain Robertson (Simpsonville, SC)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner band portions. Each band portion includes a nozzle wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through the apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. Structural pedestals interconnect the cover and nozzle wall and pass through holes in the impingement plate to reduce localized stress otherwise resulting from a difference in pressure within the chamber of the nozzle segment and the hot gas path and the fixed turbine casing surrounding the nozzle stage. The pedestals may be cast or welded to the cover and nozzle wall.

  9. Generator Bidding Strategies in a Competitive Electricity Market with Derating and Bid-Segment Considerations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ning; Chow, Joe H.; Desrochers, Alan A.

    2009-07-31

    This paper develops optimal generator bidding strategies in a competitive electricity market. Starting from a generators cost curve, basic bidding concepts such as the break-even bid curve and the maximum profit bid curve can be readily derived. The maximum profit bid curve can be extended to account for generator availability and derating. In addition, multiple-segment block energy bids can be optimized based on the maximum profit curve and the probabilistic distribution of market clearing prices.

  10. Method of joining a vane cavity insert to a nozzle segment of a gas turbine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    An insert containing apertures for impingement cooling a nozzle vane of a nozzle segment in a gas turbine is inserted into one end of the vane. The leading end of the insert is positioned slightly past a rib adjacent the opposite end of the vane through which the insert is inserted. The end of the insert is formed or swaged into conformance with the inner margin of the rib. The insert is then brazed or welded to the rib.

  11. Bleeding peptic ulcer caused by ectopic gastric mucosa in a duplicated segment of jejunum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Newmark, H.; Ching, G.; Halls, J.; Levy, I.J.

    1981-02-01

    The authors present a case in which a patient suffered a bleeding jejunal ulcer caused by heterotopic gastric mucosa in a congenital duplication of a segment of jejunum. This is the first case diagnosed preoperatively by two different radiographic means. These lesions were shown by both pertechnetate flow and barium small bowel studies. The rarity of these entities and the modalities used for diagnosis are described.

  12. Simultaneous hierarchical segmentation and vectorization of satellite images through combined data sampling and anisotropic triangulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grazzini, Jacopo; Prasad, Lakshman; Dillard, Scott

    2010-10-21

    The automatic detection, recognition , and segmentation of object classes in remote sensed images is of crucial importance for scene interpretation and understanding. However, it is a difficult task because of the high variability of satellite data. Indeed, the observed scenes usually exhibit a high degree of complexity, where complexity refers to the large variety of pictorial representations of objects with the same semantic meaning and also to the extensive amount of available det.ails. Therefore, there is still a strong demand for robust techniques for automatic information extraction and interpretation of satellite images. In parallel, there is a growing interest in techniques that can extract vector features directly from such imagery. In this paper, we investigate the problem of automatic hierarchical segmentation and vectorization of multispectral satellite images. We propose a new algorithm composed of the following steps: (i) a non-uniform sampling scheme extracting most salient pixels in the image, (ii) an anisotropic triangulation constrained by the sampled pixels taking into account both strength and directionality of local structures present in the image, (iii) a polygonal grouping scheme merging, through techniques based on perceptual information , the obtained segments to a smaller quantity of superior vectorial objects. Besides its computational efficiency, this approach provides a meaningful polygonal representation for subsequent image analysis and/or interpretation.

  13. EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994) EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994) To ...

  14. Segmented Ultralight Pre-Aligned Rotor for Extreme-Scale Wind Turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loth, E.; Steele, A.; Ichter, B.; Selig, M.; Moriarty, P.

    2012-01-01

    To alleviate the mass-scaling issues associated with conventional upwind rotors of extreme-scale turbines, a downwind rotor concept is proposed which employs fixed blade curvature based on force alignment at rated conditions. For a given peak stress constraint, the reduction in downwind cantilever loads allows reduced shell and spar thickness, and thus a reduced blade mass as compared with a conventional upwind rotor, especially as rotor sizes approach extreme-scales. To quantify this mass reduction, a Finite Element Analysis was conducted for a 10 MW rated rotor based on the NREL offshore 5 MW baseline wind turbine. The results show that this 'pre-alignment' yields a net downstream deflection of 32 deg, a downward hub-pitch angle of 6 deg, a 20% increase in blade length (to maintain the same radius as the conventional blade), and a net mass savings of about 50% through decreased shell and spar thicknesses. The pre-alignment may also allow a more straightforward and efficient segmentation of the blade since shear stresses near joints are substantially reduced. Segmenting, in turn, can dramatically reduce costs associated with fabrication, transport and assembly for extreme-scale off-shore systems. The pre-aligned geometric curvature can also help alleviate tower wake effects on the blades since blade tips (where shadow effects can be most problematic) are shifted downstream where the tower wake is weaker. In addition, the portion of the tower that is upstream of the blade tips can be faired with an externally-rotating aerodynamic shroud. Furthermore, the downwind rotor can allow a floating off-shore tri-pod platform to reduce tower weight and yaw-control requirements. A simple economic analysis of the segmented ultralight pre-aligned rotor (SUPAR) concept suggests that the overall system cost savings can be as much as 25%, indicating that more detailed (numerical and experimental) investigations are warranted.

  15. A Multiphase Validation of Atlas-Based Automatic and Semiautomatic Segmentation Strategies for Prostate MRI

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Spencer; Rodrigues, George; Department of Epidemiology Patil, Nikhilesh; Bauman, Glenn; Department of Radiation Oncology, London Regional Cancer Program, London ; D'Souza, David; Sexton, Tracy; Palma, David; Louie, Alexander V.; Khalvati, Farzad; Tizhoosh, Hamid R.; Segasist Technologies, Toronto, Ontario ; Gaede, Stewart

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To perform a rigorous technological assessment and statistical validation of a software technology for anatomic delineations of the prostate on MRI datasets. Methods and Materials: A 3-phase validation strategy was used. Phase I consisted of anatomic atlas building using 100 prostate cancer MRI data sets to provide training data sets for the segmentation algorithms. In phase II, 2 experts contoured 15 new MRI prostate cancer cases using 3 approaches (manual, N points, and region of interest). In phase III, 5 new physicians with variable MRI prostate contouring experience segmented the same 15 phase II datasets using 3 approaches: manual, N points with no editing, and full autosegmentation with user editing allowed. Statistical analyses for time and accuracy (using Dice similarity coefficient) endpoints used traditional descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, analysis of covariance, and pooled Student t test. Results: In phase I, average (SD) total and per slice contouring time for the 2 physicians was 228 (75), 17 (3.5), 209 (65), and 15 seconds (3.9), respectively. In phase II, statistically significant differences in physician contouring time were observed based on physician, type of contouring, and case sequence. The N points strategy resulted in superior segmentation accuracy when initial autosegmented contours were compared with final contours. In phase III, statistically significant differences in contouring time were observed based on physician, type of contouring, and case sequence again. The average relative timesaving for N points and autosegmentation were 49% and 27%, respectively, compared with manual contouring. The N points and autosegmentation strategies resulted in average Dice values of 0.89 and 0.88, respectively. Pre- and postedited autosegmented contours demonstrated a higher average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.94. Conclusion: The software provided robust contours with minimal editing required. Observed time savings were seen for all physicians irrespective of experience level and baseline manual contouring speed.

  16. Total Measurement Uncertainty for the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) Segmented Gamma Scan Assay System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    WESTSIK, G.A.

    2001-06-06

    This report presents the results of an evaluation of the Total Measurement Uncertainty (TMU) for the Canberra manufactured Segmented Gamma Scanner Assay System (SGSAS) as employed at the Hanford Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP). In this document, TMU embodies the combined uncertainties due to all of the individual random and systematic sources of measurement uncertainty. It includes uncertainties arising from corrections and factors applied to the analysis of transuranic waste to compensate for inhomogeneities and interferences from the waste matrix and radioactive components. These include uncertainty components for any assumptions contained in the calibration of the system or computation of the data. Uncertainties are propagated at 1 sigma. The final total measurement uncertainty value is reported at the 95% confidence level. The SGSAS is a gamma assay system that is used to assay plutonium and uranium waste. The SGSAS system can be used in a stand-alone mode to perform the NDA characterization of a container, particularly for low to medium density (0-2.5 g/cc) container matrices. The SGSAS system provides a full gamma characterization of the container content. This document is an edited version of the Rocky Flats TMU Report for the Can Scan Segment Gamma Scanners, which are in use for the plutonium residues projects at the Rocky Flats plant. The can scan segmented gamma scanners at Rocky Flats are the same design as the PFP SGSAS system and use the same software (with the exception of the plutonium isotopics software). Therefore, all performance characteristics are expected to be similar. Modifications in this document reflect minor differences in the system configuration, container packaging, calibration technique, etc. These results are supported by the Quality Assurance Objective (QAO) counts, safeguards test data, calibration data, etc. for the PFP SGSAS system. Other parts of the TMU analysis utilize various modeling techniques such as Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) and In Situ Object Counting Software (ISOCS).

  17. Highly polarized light emission by isotropic quantum dots integrated with magnetically aligned segmented nanowires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Uran, Can; Erdem, Talha; Guzelturk, Burak; Perkgz, Nihan Kosku; Jun, Shinae; Jang, Eunjoo; Demir, Hilmi Volkan

    2014-10-06

    In this work, we demonstrate a proof-of-concept system for generating highly polarized light from colloidal quantum dots (QDs) coupled with magnetically aligned segmented Au/Ni/Au nanowires (NWs). Optical characterizations reveal that the optimized QD-NW coupled structures emit highly polarized light with an s-to p-polarization (s/p) contrast as high as 15:1 corresponding to a degree of polarization of 0.88. These experimental results are supported by the finite-difference time-domain simulations, which demonstrate the interplay between the inter-NW distance and the degree of polarization.

  18. Electrical Signal Path Study and Component Assay for the MAJORANA N-Type Segmented Contact Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Amman, Mark; Bergevin, Marc; Chan, Yuen-Dat; Detwiler, Jason A.; Fujikawa, Brian .; Lesko, Kevin T.; Luke, Paul N.; Prior, Gersende; Poon, Alan W.; Smith, Alan R.; Vetter, Kai; Yaver, Harold; Zimmermann, Sergio

    2009-02-24

    The purpose of the present electrical signal path study is to explore the various issues related to the deployment of highly-segmented low-background Ge detectors for the MAJORANA double-beta decay experiment. A significant challenge is to simultaneously satisfy competing requirements for the mechanical design, electrical readout performance, and radiopurity specifications from the MAJORANA project. Common to all rare search experiments, there is a very stringent limit on the acceptable radioactivity level of all the electronics components involved. Some of the findings are summarized in this report.

  19. Modified SSCP method using sequential electrophoresis of multiple nucleic acid segments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gatti, Richard A. (Sherman Oaks, CA)

    2002-10-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of screening large, complex, polyexonic eukaryotic genes such as the ATM gene for mutations and polymorphisms by an improved version of single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) electrophoresis that allows electrophoresis of two or three amplified segments in a single lane. The present invention also is directed to new mutations and polymorphisms in the ATM gene that are useful in performing more accurate screening of human DNA samples for mutations and in distinguishing mutations from polymorphisms, thereby improving the efficiency of automated screening methods.

  20. Distinctive microstructural features of aged sodium silicate-activated slag concretes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    San Nicolas, Rackel; Bernal, Susan A.; Meja de Gutirrez, Ruby; Deventer, Jannie S.J. van; Provis, John L.

    2014-11-15

    Electron microscopic characterisation of 7-year old alkali-activated blast-furnace slag concretes enabled the identification of distinct microstructural features, providing insight into the mechanisms by which these materials evolve over time. Backscattered electron images show the formation of Liesegang-type ring formations, suggesting that the reaction at advanced age is likely to follow an Oswald supersaturationnucleationdepletion cycle. Segregation of Ca-rich veins, related to the formation of Ca(OH){sub 2}, is observed in microcracked regions due to the ongoing reaction between the pore solution and available calcium from remnant slag grains. A highly dense and uniform interfacial transition zone is identified between siliceous aggregate particles and the alkali activated slag binders, across the concretes assessed. Alkali-activated slag concretes retain a highly dense and stable microstructure at advanced ages, where any microcracks induced at early ages seem to be partially closing, and the remnant slag grains continue reacting.

  1. Interplay of relativistic and nonrelativistic transport in atomically precise segmented graphene nanoribbons

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Yannouleas, Constantine; Romanovsky, Igor; Landman, Uzi

    2015-01-20

    Graphene's isolation launched explorations of fundamental relativistic physics originating from the planar honeycomb lattice arrangement of the carbon atoms, and of potential technological applications in nanoscale electronics. Bottom-up fabricated atomically-precise segmented graphene nanoribbons, SGNRs, open avenues for studies of electrical transport, coherence, and interference effects in metallic, semiconducting, and mixed GNRs, with different edge terminations. Conceptual and practical understanding of electric transport through SGNRs is gained through nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) conductance calculations and a Dirac continuum model that absorbs the valence-to-conductance energy gaps as position-dependent masses, including topological-in-origin mass-barriers at the contacts between segments. The continuum model reproduces themore » NEGF results, including optical Dirac Fabry-Pérot (FP) equidistant oscillations for massless relativistic carriers in metallic armchair SGNRs, and an unequally-spaced FP pattern for mixed armchair-zigzag SGNRs where carriers transit from a relativistic (armchair) to a nonrelativistic (zigzag) regime. This provides a unifying framework for analysis of coherent transport phenomena and interpretation of forthcoming experiments in SGNRs.« less

  2. Seismic fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems including the impact of differential ground subsidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pineda Porras, Omar Andrey; Ordaz, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Though Differential Ground Subsidence (DGS) impacts the seismic response of segmented buried pipelines augmenting their vulnerability, fragility formulations to estimate repair rates under such condition are not available in the literature. Physical models to estimate pipeline seismic damage considering other cases of permanent ground subsidence (e.g. faulting, tectonic uplift, liquefaction, and landslides) have been extensively reported, not being the case of DGS. The refinement of the study of two important phenomena in Mexico City - the 1985 Michoacan earthquake scenario and the sinking of the city due to ground subsidence - has contributed to the analysis of the interrelation of pipeline damage, ground motion intensity, and DGS; from the analysis of the 48-inch pipeline network of the Mexico City's Water System, fragility formulations for segmented buried pipeline systems for two DGS levels are proposed. The novel parameter PGV{sup 2}/PGA, being PGV peak ground velocity and PGA peak ground acceleration, has been used as seismic parameter in these formulations, since it has shown better correlation to pipeline damage than PGV alone according to previous studies. By comparing the proposed fragilities, it is concluded that a change in the DGS level (from Low-Medium to High) could increase the pipeline repair rates (number of repairs per kilometer) by factors ranging from 1.3 to 2.0; being the higher the seismic intensity the lower the factor.

  3. Machining Test Specimens from Harvested Zion RPV Segments for Through Wall Attenuation Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rosseel, Thomas M; Sokolov, Mikhail A; Nanstad, Randy K

    2015-01-01

    The decommissioning of the Zion Units 1 and 2 Nuclear Generating Station (NGS) in Zion, Illinois presents a special opportunity for developing a better understanding of materials degradation and other issues associated with extending the lifetime of existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) beyond 60 years of service. In support of extended service and current operations of the US nuclear reactor fleet, the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), through the Department of Energy (DOE), Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) Program, is coordinating and contracting with Zion Solutions, LLC, a subsidiary of Energy Solutions, the selective procurement of materials, structures, and components from the decommissioned reactors. In this paper, we will discuss the acquisition of segments of the Zion Unit 2 Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the cutting of these segments into sections and blocks from the beltline and upper vertical welds and plate material, the current status of machining those blocks into mechanical (Charpy, compact tension, and tensile) test specimens and coupons for chemical and microstructural (TEM, APT, SANS, and nano indention) characterization, as well as the current test plans and possible collaborative projects. Access to service-irradiated RPV welds and plate sections will allow through wall attenuation studies to be performed, which will be used to assess current radiation damage models (Rosseel et al. (2012) and Rosseel et al. (2015)).

  4. ORISE Resources: Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies: A Guide for State and Local Health Planners A newly released guide from the Radiation Studies Branch (RSB) of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) sets the standard for population monitoring after a radiation emergency. The second edition of Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies: A Guide for State and Local Public Health Planners was released in April and presented at the National Association of County and City Health

  5. ORISE Resources: Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Population Monitoring in Radiation Emergencies: A Guide for State and Local Health Planners A newly released guide from the Radiation Studies Branch (RSB) of the Centers for...

  6. Apparatus for impingement cooling a side wall adjacent an undercut region of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and vanes therebetween. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. Slots are formed through the inturned flange along the nozzle side wall. A plate having through-apertures extending between opposite edges thereof is disposed in each slot, the slots and plates being angled such that the cooling medium exiting the apertures in the second cavity lie close to the side wall for focusing and targeting cooling medium onto the side wall.

  7. Method of controlling the side wall thickness of a turbine nozzle segment for improved cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY)

    2002-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands and a vane extending therebetween. Each band has a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band has an inturned flange defining with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The outer surface of the side wall is provided with a step prior to welding the cover to the side wall. A thermal barrier coating is applied in the step and, after the cover is welded to the side wall, the side wall is finally machined to a controlled thickness removing all, some or none of the coating.

  8. CHARACTERIZING COMPLEXITY IN SOLAR MAGNETOGRAM DATA USING A WAVELET-BASED SEGMENTATION METHOD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kestener, P.; Khalil, A.; Arneodo, A.

    2010-07-10

    The multifractal nature of solar photospheric magnetic structures is studied using the two-dimensional wavelet transform modulus maxima (WTMM) method. This relies on computing partition functions from the wavelet transform skeleton defined by the WTMM method. This skeleton provides an adaptive space-scale partition of the fractal distribution under study, from which one can extract the multifractal singularity spectrum. We describe the implementation of a multiscale image processing segmentation procedure based on the partitioning of the WT skeleton, which allows the disentangling of the information concerning the multifractal properties of active regions from the surrounding quiet-Sun field. The quiet Sun exhibits an average Hoelder exponent {approx}-0.75, with observed multifractal properties due to the supergranular structure. On the other hand, active region multifractal spectra exhibit an average Hoelder exponent {approx}0.38, similar to those found when studying experimental data from turbulent flows.

  9. Nondestructive examination of 51 fuel and reflector elements from Fort St. Vrain Core Segment 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, C.M.; Saurwein, J.J.

    1980-12-01

    Fifty-one fuel and reflector elements irradiated in core segment 1 of the Fort St. Vrain High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR) were inspected dimensionally and visually in the Hot Service Facility at Fort St. Vrain in July 1979. Time- and volume-averaged graphite temperatures for the examined fuel elements ranged from approx. 400/sup 0/ to 750/sup 0/C. Fast neutron fluences varied from approx. 0.3 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ to 1.0 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/. Nearly all of the examined elements shrank in both axial and radial dimensions. The measured data were compared with strain and bow predictions obtained from SURVEY/STRESS, a computer code that employs viscoelastic beam theory to calculate stresses and deformations in HTGR fuel elements.

  10. Nondestructive examination of 54 fuel and reflector elements from Fort St. Vrain core segment 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saurwein, J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Fifty-four fuel and reflector elements irradiated in core segment 2 of the Fort St. Vrain high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) were nondestructively examined. The time- and volume-averaged graphite irradiation temperatures for the elements ranged from approx. 350/sup 0/ to 750/sup 0/C. The element-averaged fast neutron fluences ranged from approx. 0.2 to 1.6 x 10/sup 25/ n/m/sup 2/ (E > 29 fJ)/sub HTGR/. The elements, except for two fuel elements in which single localizeed cracks developed during irradiation, were in excellent condition. No evidence was observed of significant graphite oxidation or mechanical interaction beween elements. The cracks in the two elements did not affect their performance or handling. These elements were, otherwise, in excellent condition. Nearly all elements shrank in both the axial and radial directions, but the dimensional changes were relatively small.

  11. Level-set segmentation of pulmonary nodules in megavolt electronic portal images using a CT prior

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schildkraut, J. S.; Prosser, N.; Savakis, A.; Gomez, J.; Nazareth, D.; Singh, A. K.; Malhotra, H. K.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Pulmonary nodules present unique problems during radiation treatment due to nodule position uncertainty that is caused by respiration. The radiation field has to be enlarged to account for nodule motion during treatment. The purpose of this work is to provide a method of locating a pulmonary nodule in a megavolt portal image that can be used to reduce the internal target volume (ITV) during radiation therapy. A reduction in the ITV would result in a decrease in radiation toxicity to healthy tissue. Methods: Eight patients with nonsmall cell lung cancer were used in this study. CT scans that include the pulmonary nodule were captured with a GE Healthcare LightSpeed RT 16 scanner. Megavolt portal images were acquired with a Varian Trilogy unit equipped with an AS1000 electronic portal imaging device. The nodule localization method uses grayscale morphological filtering and level-set segmentation with a prior. The treatment-time portion of the algorithm is implemented on a graphical processing unit. Results: The method was retrospectively tested on eight cases that include a total of 151 megavolt portal image frames. The method reduced the nodule position uncertainty by an average of 40% for seven out of the eight cases. The treatment phase portion of the method has a subsecond execution time that makes it suitable for near-real-time nodule localization. Conclusions: A method was developed to localize a pulmonary nodule in a megavolt portal image. The method uses the characteristics of the nodule in a prior CT scan to enhance the nodule in the portal image and to identify the nodule region by level-set segmentation. In a retrospective study, the method reduced the nodule position uncertainty by an average of 40% for seven out of the eight cases studied.

  12. Apparatus and methods for impingement cooling of an undercut region adjacent a side wall of a turbine nozzle segment

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdgick, Steven Sebastian (Schenectady, NY); Itzel, Gary Michael (Simpsonville, SC)

    2001-01-01

    A gas turbine nozzle segment has outer and inner bands. Each band includes a side wall, a cover and an impingement plate between the cover and nozzle wall defining two cavities on opposite sides of the impingement plate. Cooling steam is supplied to one cavity for flow through apertures of the impingement plate to cool the nozzle wall. The side wall of the band and inturned flange define with the nozzle wall an undercut region. The inturned flange has a plurality of apertures for directing cooling steam to cool the side wall between adjacent nozzle segments.

  13. Covered Sites/Populations | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Covered Sites/Populations Covered Sites/Populations Construction Worker Screening Projects Construction Worker Projects, Former Worker Medical Screening Program (FWP) Production Worker Screening Projects Production Worker Projects, Former Worker Medical Screening Program (FWP) National Supplemental Screening Program National Supplemental Screening Program Beryllium Vendor Screening Program Defunct Beryllium Vendor Screening Program

  14. Energy Systems and Population Health

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ezzati, Majid; Bailis, Rob; Kammen, Daniel M.; Holloway, Tracey; Price, Lynn; Cifuentes, Luis A.; Barnes, Brendon; Chaurey, Akanksha; Dhanapala, Kiran N.

    2004-04-12

    It is well-documented that energy and energy systems have a central role in social and economic development and human welfare at all scales, from household and community to regional and national (41). Among its various welfare effects, energy is closely linked with people s health. Some of the effects of energy on health and welfare are direct. With abundant energy, more food or more frequent meals can be prepared; food can be refrigerated, increasing the types of food items that are consumed and reducing food contamination; water pumps can provide more water and eliminate the need for water storage leading to contamination or increased exposure to disease vectors such as mosquitoes or snails; water can be disinfected by boiling or using other technologies such as radiation. Other effects of energy on public health are mediated through more proximal determinants of health and disease. Abundant energy can lead to increased irrigation, agricultural productivity, and access to food and nutrition; access to energy can also increase small-scale income generation such as processing of agricultural commodities (e.g., producing refined oil from oil seeds, roasting coffee, drying and preserving fruits and meats) and production of crafts; ability to control lighting and heating allows education or economic activities to be shielded from daily or seasonal environmental constraints such as light, temperature, rainfall, or wind; time and other economic resources spent on collecting and/or transporting fuels can be used for other household needs if access to energy is facilitated; energy availability for transportation increases access to health and education facilities and allow increased economic activity by facilitating the transportation of goods and services to and from markets; energy for telecommunication technology (radio, television, telephone, or internet) provides increased access to information useful for health, education, or economic purposes; provision of energy to rural and urban health facilities allows increased delivery and coverage of 3 various health services and interventions such as tests and treatments, better storage of medicine and vaccines, disinfection of medical equipment by boiling or radiation, and more frequent and efficient health system encounters through mobile clinics or longer working hours; and so on. In fact, while the dominant view of development-energy-health linkages has been that improvements in energy and health are outcomes of the socioeconomic development process (e.g., the ''energy ladder'' framework discussed below), it has even been argued that access to higher quality energy sources and technologies can initiate a chain of demographic, health, and development outcomes by changing the household structure and socioeconomic relationships. For example, in addition to increased opportunities for food and income production, reduced infant mortality as a result of transition to cleaner fuels or increased coverage of vaccination with availability of refrigerators in rural clinics may initiate a process of ''demographic transition'' to low-mortality and low-fertility populations (14). Such a transition has historically been followed with further improvements in maternal and child health and increased female participation in the labor markets and other economic activities.

  15. EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    WHITE HOUSE WASHINGTON February 11, 1994 MEMORANDUM FOR THE HEADS OF ALL DEPARTMENTS AND AGENCIES SUBJECT: Executive Order on Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low- Income Populations Today I have issued an Executive Order on Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations. That order is designed to focus Federal attention on the environmental and human health conditions in minority communities and

  16. Population Structure of Columbia River Basin Chinook Salmon and Steelhead Trout, Technical Report 2001.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brannon, E.L.; National Science Foundation

    2002-08-01

    The population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead trout is presented as an assimilation of the life history forms that have evolved in synchrony with diverse and complex environments over their Pacific range. As poikilotherms, temperature is described as the overwhelming environmental influence that determines what life history options occur and where they are distributed. The different populations represent ecological types referred to as spring-, summer-, fall, and winter-run segments, as well as stream- and ocean-type, or stream- and ocean-maturing life history forms. However, they are more correctly described as a continuum of forms that fall along a temporal cline related to incubation and rearing temperatures that determine spawn timing and juvenile residence patterns. Once new habitats are colonized, members of the founding populations spread through adaptive evolution to assume complementary life history strategies. The related population units are collectively referred to as a metapopulation, and members most closely associated within common temporal and geographic boundaries are designated as first-order metapopulations. Population structure of chinook salmon and steelhead in the Columbia Basin, therefore, is the reflection of the genetic composition of the founding source or sources within the respective region, shaped by the environment, principally temperature, that defines life history evolutionary strategy to maximize fitness under the conditions delineated. The complexity of structure rests with the diversity of opportunities over the elevations that exist within the Basin. Consistent with natural selection, rather than simply attempting to preserve populations, the challenge is to provide opportunities to expand their range to new or restored habitat that can accommodate genetic adaptation as directional environmental changes are elaborated. Artificial propagation can have a critical role in this process, and the emphasis must be placed on promoting the ability for anadromous salmonids to respond to change by assuring that the genetic diversity to facilitate such responses is present. The key in developing an effective recovery program for chinook salmon and steelhead is to recognize that multiple life history forms associated with temperature characterize the species in the Columbia Basin, and recovery measures taken must address the biological requirements of the population unit within the environmental template identified. Unless such measures are given first and highest priority, establishment of biologically self-sustaining populations will be restrained.

  17. Distinctive Oxidative Stress Responses to Hydrogen Peroxide in Sulfate Reducing Bacteria Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Aifen; He, Zhili; Redding, A.M.; Mukhopadhyay, Aindrila; Hemme, Christopher L.; Joachimiak, Marcin P.; Bender, Kelly S.; Keasling, Jay D.; Stahl, David A.; Fields, Matthew W.; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Wall, Judy D.; Zhou, Jizhong

    2009-01-01

    Response of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2, 1 mM) was investigated with transcriptomic, proteomic and genetic approaches. Microarray data demonstrated that gene expression was extensively affected by H2O2 with the response peaking at 120 min after H2O2 treatment. Genes affected include those involved with energy production, sulfate reduction, ribosomal structure and translation, H2O2 scavenging, posttranslational modification and DNA repair as evidenced by gene coexpression networks generated via a random matrix-theory based approach. Data from this study support the hypothesis that both PerR and Fur play important roles in H2O2-induced oxidative stress response. First, both PerR and Fur regulon genes were significantly up-regulated. Second, predicted PerR regulon genes ahpC and rbr2 were derepressedin Delta PerR and Delta Fur mutants and induction of neither gene was observed in both Delta PerR and Delta Fur when challenged with peroxide, suggesting possible overlap of these regulons. Third, both Delta PerR and Delta Fur appeared to be more tolerant of H2O2 as measured by optical density. Forth, proteomics data suggested de-repression of Fur during the oxidative stress response. In terms of the intracellular enzymatic H2O2 scavenging, gene expression data suggested that Rdl and Rbr2 may play major roles in the detoxification of H2O2. In addition, induction of thioredoxin reductase and thioredoxin appeared to be independent of PerR and Fur. Considering all data together, D. vulgaris employed a distinctive stress resistance mechanism to defend against increased cellular H2O2, and the temporal gene expression changes were consistent with the slowdown of cell growth at the onset of oxidative stress.

  18. Spatial regulation of a common precursor from two distinct genes generates metabolite diversity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guo, Chun -Jun; Sun, Wei -Wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2015-07-13

    In secondary metabolite biosynthesis, core synthetic genes such as polyketide synthase genes usually encode proteins that generate various backbone precursors. These precursors are modified by other tailoring enzymes to yield a large variety of different secondary metabolites. The number of core synthesis genes in a given species correlates, therefore, with the number of types of secondary metabolites the organism can produce. In our study, heterologous expression of all the A. terreus NRPSlike genes showed that two NRPS-like proteins, encoded by atmelA and apvA, release the same natural product, aspulvinone E. In hyphae this compound is converted to aspulvinones whereas in conidia it is converted to melanin. The genes are expressed in different tissues and this spatial control is probably regulated by their own specific promoters. Comparative genomics indicates that atmelA and apvA might share a same ancestral gene and the gene apvA is located in a highly conserved region in Aspergillus species that contains genes coding for life-essential proteins. Our data reveal the first case in secondary metabolite biosynthesis in which the tissue specific production of a single compound directs it into two separate pathways, producing distinct compounds with different functions. Our data also reveal that a single trans-prenyltransferase, AbpB, prenylates two substrates, aspulvinones and butyrolactones, revealing that genes outside of contiguous secondary metabolism gene clusters can modify more than one compound thereby expanding metabolite diversity. Our study raises the possibility of incorporation of spatial, cell-type specificity in expression of secondary metabolites of biological interest and provides new insight into designing and reconstituting their biosynthetic pathways.

  19. High-precision flexible fabrication of tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wei, Chuang; Cai, Lei; Sonawane, Bhushan; Wang, Shanfeng; Dong, Jingyan

    2012-01-01

    Three-dimensional porous structures using biodegradable materials with excellent biocompatibility are critically important for tissue engineering applications. We present a multi-nozzle-based versatile deposition approach to flexibly construct porous tissue engineering scaffolds using distinct polymeric biomaterials such as thermoplastic and photo-crosslinkable polymers. We first describe the development of the deposition system and fabrication of scaffolds from two types of biodegradable polymers using this system. The thermoplastic sample is semi-crystalline poly({var_epsilon}-caprolactone) (PCL) that can be processed at a temperature higher than its melting point and solidifies at room temperature. The photo-crosslinkable one is polypropylene fumarate (PPF) that has to be dissolved in a reactive solvent as a resin for being cured into solid structures. Besides the direct fabrication of thermoplastic PCL scaffolds, we specifically develop a layer molding approach for the fabrication of crosslinkable polymers, which traditionally can only be fabricated by stereolithography. In this approach, a thermoplastic supporting material (paraffin wax) is first deposited to make a mold for each specific layer, and then PPF is deposited on demand to fill the mold and cured by the UV light. The supporting material can be removed to produce a porous scaffold of crosslinked PPF. Both PCL and crosslinked PPF scaffolds fabricated using the developed system have been characterized in terms of compressive mechanical properties, morphology, pore size and porosity. Mouse MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cell studies on the fabricated scaffolds have been performed to demonstrate their capability of supporting cell proliferation and ingrowth, aiming for bone tissue engineering applications.

  20. Spatial regulation of a common precursor from two distinct genes generates metabolite diversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Guo, Chun -Jun; Sun, Wei -Wen; Bruno, Kenneth S.; Oakley, Berl R.; Keller, Nancy P.; Wang, Clay C. C.

    2015-07-13

    In secondary metabolite biosynthesis, core synthetic genes such as polyketide synthase genes usually encode proteins that generate various backbone precursors. These precursors are modified by other tailoring enzymes to yield a large variety of different secondary metabolites. The number of core synthesis genes in a given species correlates, therefore, with the number of types of secondary metabolites the organism can produce. In our study, heterologous expression of all the A. terreus NRPSlike genes showed that two NRPS-like proteins, encoded by atmelA and apvA, release the same natural product, aspulvinone E. In hyphae this compound is converted to aspulvinones whereas inmore » conidia it is converted to melanin. The genes are expressed in different tissues and this spatial control is probably regulated by their own specific promoters. Comparative genomics indicates that atmelA and apvA might share a same ancestral gene and the gene apvA is located in a highly conserved region in Aspergillus species that contains genes coding for life-essential proteins. Our data reveal the first case in secondary metabolite biosynthesis in which the tissue specific production of a single compound directs it into two separate pathways, producing distinct compounds with different functions. Our data also reveal that a single trans-prenyltransferase, AbpB, prenylates two substrates, aspulvinones and butyrolactones, revealing that genes outside of contiguous secondary metabolism gene clusters can modify more than one compound thereby expanding metabolite diversity. Our study raises the possibility of incorporation of spatial, cell-type specificity in expression of secondary metabolites of biological interest and provides new insight into designing and reconstituting their biosynthetic pathways.« less

  1. Ovarian carcinomas with genetic and epigenetic BRCA1 loss have distinct molecular abnormalities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gilks, C. Blake; Press, Joshua Z.; De Luca, Alessandro; Boyd, Niki; Young, Sean; Troussard, Armelle; Ridge, Yolanda; Kaurah, Pardeep; Kalloger, Steve E.; Blood, Katherine A.; Smith, Margaret; Spellman, Paul T.; Wang, Yuker; Miller, Dianne M.; Horsman, Doug; Faham, Malek; Gilks, C. Blake; Gray, Joe; Huntsman, David G.

    2008-05-02

    Subclassification of ovarian carcinomas can be used to guide treatment and determine prognosis. Germline and somatic mutations, loss of heterozygosity (LOH), and epigenetic events such as promoter hypermethylation can lead to decreased expression of BRCA1/2 in ovarian cancers. The mechanism of BRCA1/2 loss is a potential method of subclassifying high grade serous carcinomas. A consecutive series of 49 ovarian cancers was assessed for mutations status of BRCA1 and BRCA2, LOH at the BRCA1 and BRCA2 loci, methylation of the BRCA1 promoter, BRCA1, BRCA2, PTEN, and PIK3CA transcript levels, PIK3CA gene copy number, and BRCA1, p21, p53, and WT-1 immunohistochemistry. Eighteen (37%) of the ovarian carcinomas had germline or somatic BRCA1 mutations, or epigenetic loss of BRCA1. All of these tumors were high-grade serous or undifferentiated type. None of the endometrioid (n=5), clear cell (n=4), or low grade serous (n=2) carcinomas showed loss of BRCA1, whereas 47% of the 38 high-grade serous or undifferentiated carcinomas had loss of BRCA1. It was possible to distinguish high grade serous carcinomas with BRCA1 mutations from those with epigenetic BRCA1 loss: tumors with BRCA1 mutations typically had decreased PTEN mRNA levels while those with epigenetic loss of BRCA1 had copy number gain of PIK3CA. Overexpression of p53 with loss of p21 expression occurred significantly more frequently in high grade serous carcinomas with epigenetic loss of BRCA1, compared to high grade serous tumors without loss of BRCA1. High grade serous carcinomas can be subclassified into three groups: BRCA1 loss (genetic), BRCA1 loss (epigenetic), and no BRCA1 loss. Tumors in these groups show distinct molecular alterations involving the PI3K/AKT and p53 pathways.

  2. TU-F-18A-03: Improving Tissue Segmentation for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Using DECT Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Di, Salvio A; Bedwani, S; Carrier, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a new segmentation technique using dual energy CT (DECT) to overcome limitations related to segmentation from a standard Hounsfield unit (HU) to electron density (ED) calibration curve. Both methods are compared with a Monte Carlo analysis of dose distribution. Methods: DECT allows a direct calculation of both ED and effective atomic number (EAN) within a given voxel. The EAN is here defined as a function of the total electron cross-section of a medium. These values can be effectively acquired using a calibrated method from scans at two different energies. A prior stoichiometric calibration on a Gammex RMI phantom allows us to find the parameters to calculate EAN and ED within a voxel. Scans from a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash dual source system provided the data for our study. A Monte Carlo analysis compares dose distribution simulated by dosxyz-nrc, considering a head phantom defined by both segmentation techniques. Results: Results from depth dose and dose profile calculations show that materials with different atomic compositions but similar EAN present differences of less than 1%. Therefore, it is possible to define a short list of basis materials from which density can be adapted to imitate interaction behavior of any tissue. Comparison of the dose distributions on both segmentations shows a difference of 50% in dose in areas surrounding bone at low energy. Conclusion: The presented segmentation technique allows a more accurate medium definition in each voxel, especially in areas of tissue transition. Since the behavior of human tissues is highly sensitive at low energies, this reduces the errors on calculated dose distribution. This method could be further developed to optimize the tissue characterization based on anatomic site.

  3. Sampling strategies for subsampled segmented EPI PRF thermometry in MR guided high intensity focused ultrasound

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oden, Henrik Diakite, Mahamadou; Todd, Nick; Minalga, Emilee; Payne, Allison; Parker, Dennis L.

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: To investigate k-space subsampling strategies to achieve fast, large field-of-view (FOV) temperature monitoring using segmented echo planar imaging (EPI) proton resonance frequency shift thermometry for MR guided high intensity focused ultrasound (MRgHIFU) applications. Methods: Five different k-space sampling approaches were investigated, varying sample spacing (equally vs nonequally spaced within the echo train), sampling density (variable sampling density in zero, one, and two dimensions), and utilizing sequential or centric sampling. Three of the schemes utilized sequential sampling with the sampling density varied in zero, one, and two dimensions, to investigate sampling the k-space center more frequently. Two of the schemes utilized centric sampling to acquire the k-space center with a longer echo time for improved phase measurements, and vary the sampling density in zero and two dimensions, respectively. Phantom experiments and a theoretical point spread function analysis were performed to investigate their performance. Variable density sampling in zero and two dimensions was also implemented in a non-EPI GRE pulse sequence for comparison. All subsampled data were reconstructed with a previously described temporally constrained reconstruction (TCR) algorithm. Results: The accuracy of each sampling strategy in measuring the temperature rise in the HIFU focal spot was measured in terms of the root-mean-square-error (RMSE) compared to fully sampled truth. For the schemes utilizing sequential sampling, the accuracy was found to improve with the dimensionality of the variable density sampling, giving values of 0.65?C, 0.49?C, and 0.35?C for density variation in zero, one, and two dimensions, respectively. The schemes utilizing centric sampling were found to underestimate the temperature rise, with RMSE values of 1.05?C and 1.31?C, for variable density sampling in zero and two dimensions, respectively. Similar subsampling schemes with variable density sampling implemented in zero and two dimensions in a non-EPI GRE pulse sequence both resulted in accurate temperature measurements (RMSE of 0.70?C and 0.63?C, respectively). With sequential sampling in the described EPI implementation, temperature monitoring over a 192 144 135 mm{sup 3} FOV with a temporal resolution of 3.6 s was achieved, while keeping the RMSE compared to fully sampled truth below 0.35?C. Conclusions: When segmented EPI readouts are used in conjunction with k-space subsampling for MR thermometry applications, sampling schemes with sequential sampling, with or without variable density sampling, obtain accurate phase and temperature measurements when using a TCR reconstruction algorithm. Improved temperature measurement accuracy can be achieved with variable density sampling. Centric sampling leads to phase bias, resulting in temperature underestimations.

  4. Hanford Site Regional Population - 2010 Census

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hamilton, Erin L.; Snyder, Sandra F.

    2011-08-12

    The U.S. Department of Energy conducts radiological operations in south-central Washington State. Population dose estimates must be performed to provide a measure of the impact from site radiological releases. Results of the U.S. 2010 Census were used to determine counts and distributions for the residential population located within 50-miles of several operating areas of the Hanford Site. Year 2010 was the first census year that a 50-mile population of a Hanford Site operational area exceeded the half-million mark.

  5. Estimating Traveler Populations at Airport and Cruise Terminals for Population Distribution and Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jochem, Warren C; Sims, Kelly M; Bright, Eddie A; Urban, Marie L; Rose, Amy N; Coleman, Phil R; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, uses of high-resolution population distribution databases are increasing steadily for environmental, socioeconomic, public health, and disaster-related research and operations. With the development of daytime population distribution, temporal resolution of such databases has been improved. However, the lack of incorporation of transitional population, namely business and leisure travelers, leaves a significant population unaccounted for within the critical infrastructure networks, such as at transportation hubs. This paper presents two general methodologies for estimating passenger populations in airport and cruise port terminals at a high temporal resolution which can be incorporated into existing population distribution models. The methodologies are geographically scalable and are based on, and demonstrate how, two different transportation hubs with disparate temporal population dynamics can be modeled utilizing publicly available databases including novel data sources of flight activity from the Internet which are updated in near-real time. The airport population estimation model shows great potential for rapid implementation for a large collection of airports on a national scale, and the results suggest reasonable accuracy in the estimated passenger traffic. By incorporating population dynamics at high temporal resolutions into population distribution models, we hope to improve the estimates of populations exposed to or at risk to disasters, thereby improving emergency planning and response, and leading to more informed policy decisions.

  6. Structurally distinct polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induce differential transcriptional responses in developing zebrafish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goodale, Britton C.; Tilton, Susan C.; Corvi, Margaret M.; Wilson, Glenn R.; Janszen, Derek B.; Anderson, Kim A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Tanguay, Robert L.

    2013-11-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are ubiquitous in the environment as components of fossil fuels and by-products of combustion. These multi-ring chemicals differentially activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) in a structurally dependent manner, and induce toxicity via both AHR-dependent and -independent mechanisms. PAH exposure is known to induce developmental malformations in zebrafish embryos, and recent studies have shown cardiac toxicity induced by compounds with low AHR affinity. Unraveling the potentially diverse molecular mechanisms of PAH toxicity is essential for understanding the hazard posed by complex PAH mixtures present in the environment. We analyzed transcriptional responses to PAH exposure in zebrafish embryos exposed to benz(a)anthracene (BAA), dibenzothiophene (DBT) and pyrene (PYR) at concentrations that induced developmental malformations by 120 h post-fertilization (hpf). Whole genome microarray analysis of mRNA expression at 24 and 48 hpf identified genes that were differentially regulated over time and in response to the three PAH structures. PAH body burdens were analyzed at both time points using GCMS, and demonstrated differences in PAH uptake into the embryos. This was important for discerning dose-related differences from those that represented unique molecular mechanisms. While BAA misregulated the least number of transcripts, it caused strong induction of cyp1a and other genes known to be downstream of the AHR, which were not induced by the other two PAHs. Analysis of functional roles of misregulated genes and their predicted regulatory transcription factors also distinguished the BAA response from regulatory networks disrupted by DBT and PYR exposure. These results indicate that systems approaches can be used to classify the toxicity of PAHs based on the networks perturbed following exposure, and may provide a path for unraveling the toxicity of complex PAH mixtures. - Highlights: Defined global mRNA expression changes induced by developmental exposure to PAHs Determined PAH body burdens following developmental exposure Genes uniquely induced by benz(a)anthracene included targets of the AHR and RELA Dibenzothiophene and pyrene perturbed a distinct RELA network Transcriptional networks reveal differential mechanisms of PAH toxicity.

  7. Method for spatially distributing a population

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bright, Edward A [Knoxville, TN; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [Knoxville, TN; Coleman, Phillip R [Knoxville, TN; Dobson, Jerome E [Lawrence, KS

    2007-07-24

    A process for spatially distributing a population count within a geographically defined area can include the steps of logically correlating land usages apparent from a geographically defined area to geospatial features in the geographically defined area and allocating portions of the population count to regions of the geographically defined area having the land usages, according to the logical correlation. The process can also include weighing the logical correlation for determining the allocation of portions of the population count and storing the allocated portions within a searchable data store. The logically correlating step can include the step of logically correlating time-based land usages to geospatial features of the geographically defined area. The process can also include obtaining a population count for the geographically defined area, organizing the geographically defined area into a plurality of sectors, and verifying the allocated portions according to direct observation.

  8. Fact #661: February 7, 2011 Population Density

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The density of the population in the U.S., measured as the number of people per square mile, affects the way goods and people are transported. The newly released 2010 Census data show that, on a...

  9. Who Will More Likely Buy PHEV: A Detailed Market Segmentation Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, Zhenhong; Greene, David L

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the diverse PHEV purchase behaviors among prospective new car buyers is key for designing efficient and effective policies for promoting new energy vehicle technologies. The ORNL MA3T model developed for the U.S. Department of Energy is described and used to project PHEV purchase probabilities by different consumers. MA3T disaggregates the U.S. household vehicle market into 1458 consumer segments based on region, residential area, driver type, technology attitude, home charging availability and work charging availability and is calibrated to the EIA s Annual Energy Outlook. Simulation results from MA3T are used to identify the more likely PHEV buyers and provide explanations. It is observed that consumers who have home charging, drive more frequently and live in urban area are more likely to buy a PHEV. Early adopters are projected to be more likely PHEV buyers in the early market, but the PHEV purchase probability by the late majority consumer can increase over time when PHEV gradually becomes a familiar product. Copyright Form of EVS25.

  10. Sensitivity and specificity of whole chromosome paint (WCP) probes are correlated with size of translocated segment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qumsiyeh, M.B.; Peppers, J.A.

    1996-10-16

    Wiley et al. reported on a de novo {open_quotes}non-reciprocal translocation 1;8{close_quotes} as {open_quotes}confirmed{close_quotes} by whole chromosome paints (WCP). The assumption in this and similar papers is that WCP for one chromosome would light the ends of a derivative chromosome if the derivative chromosome carries such material and that the signal would be missing from donor chromosome. However, it has been our experience that WCP do not rule out reciprocal translocations involving small segments. Our lab has had three recent relevant examples: Case 1: A t(4;5)(p16.3;p15.3)mat. The initial discovery by G-banding was of a small piece of extra material on 4p in mother and child. Initial trials using a paint 4 probe on the mother`s metaphases, both in our laboratory and in another laboratory, failed to show signal on any other chromosome. The reciprocal 4;5 nature was demonstrated later using a cosmid to 4p. Painting with a chromosome 5 probe on metaphases from the mother with the rcp(4;5) showed apparently complete painting of both chromosome 5s in all cells. The signal from the WCP 5 probe on the derivative 4 was seen as a very small signal in only 30% of the cells. 4 refs.

  11. Impact of Resolution on Simulation of Closed Mesoscale Cellular Convection Identified by Dynamically Guided Watershed Segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martini, Matus; Gustafson, William I.; Yang, Qing; Xiao, Heng

    2014-11-27

    Organized mesoscale cellular convection (MCC) is a common feature of marine stratocumulus that forms in response to a balance between mesoscale dynamics and smaller scale processes such as cloud radiative cooling and microphysics. We use the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry (WRF-Chem) and fully coupled cloud-aerosol interactions to simulate marine low clouds during the VOCALS-REx campaign over the southeast Pacific. A suite of experiments with 3- and 9-km grid spacing indicates resolution-dependent behavior. The simulations with finer grid spacing have smaller liquid water paths and cloud fractions, while cloud tops are higher. The observed diurnal cycle is reasonably well simulated. To isolate organized MCC characteristics we develop a new automated method, which uses a variation of the watershed segmentation technique that combines the detection of cloud boundaries with a test for coincident vertical velocity characteristics. This ensures that the detected cloud fields are dynamically consistent for closed MCC, the most common MCC type over the VOCALS-REx region. We demonstrate that the 3-km simulation is able to reproduce the scaling between horizontal cell size and boundary layer height seen in satellite observations. However, the 9-km simulation is unable to resolve smaller circulations corresponding to shallower boundary layers, instead producing invariant MCC horizontal scale for all simulated boundary layers depths. The results imply that climate models with grid spacing of roughly 3 km or smaller may be needed to properly simulate the MCC structure in the marine stratocumulus regions.

  12. New thermal model with distinct freeze-out temperatures for baryons and mesons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    De Assis, Leonardo P. G.; Duarte, Sergio B.; Chiapparini, Marcelo; Hirsch, Luciana R.; Delfino, Antonio Jr.

    2013-05-06

    A significant amount of experimental data for particle production in high-energy heavy ion collisions (10 - 200 GeV/A at center of mass) has been accumulated during last years. Many different theoretical attempts have tried to describe these data using thermal models in the approximation of global thermal equilibrium considering only one freeze-out temperature. However the thermal models often are not able to describe adequately the whole multiplicities of hadrons. For instance, the abundance of strange particles is overestimate and the pion yields are underestimated. In this work is presented a thermal hadronic model with two different temperatures in order to describe the baryonic and mesonic chemical freeze-out in ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The model is used to fit the particle population ratios of the hadrons produced in the reaction. The proposal is not merely to incorporate one additional degree of freedom in the adjustment procedure of data, but to present and alternative scenario for the freeze out stage in the collisional proces s. This new reformulated version of thermal model was applied to a set of data, offering a rather good improvement in the fitting of the calculated particle ratios to the data. The results suggest that the introduced model makes the thermal approach more robust to handle with a larger number of colliding systems and a more comprehensive set of reaction observables.

  13. Muscle segment homeobox genes direct embryonic diapause by limiting inflammation in the uterus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cha, Jeeyeon; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Bartos, Amanda; Li, Yingju; Baker, Erin Shammel; Tilton, Susan C.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Piehowski, Paul D.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Jegga, Anil; Murata, Shigeo; Hirota, Yasushi; Dey, Sudhansu K.

    2015-06-11

    Embryonic diapause (delayed implantation) is a reproductive strategy widespread in the animal kingdom. Under this condition, embryos at the blastocyst stage become dormant simultaneously with uterine quiescence until environmental or physiological conditions are favorable for the survival of the mother and newborn. Under favorable conditions, activation of the blastocyst and uterus ensues with implantation and progression of pregnancy. Although endocrine factors are known to participate in this process, the underlying molecular mechanism coordinating this phenomenon is not clearly understood. We recently found that uterine muscle segment homeobox (Msx) transcription factors are critical for the initiation and maintenance of delayed implantation in mice. To better understand why Msx genes are critical for delayed implantation, we compared uterine proteomics profiles between littermate floxed (Msx1/Msx2f/f) mice and mice with uterine deletion of Msx genes (Msx1/Msx2d/d) under delayed conditions. In Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri, pathways including protein translation, ubiquitin-proteasome system, inflammation, chaperone-mediated protein folding, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were enriched, and computational modeling showed intersection of these pathways on inflammatory responses. Indeed, increases in the ubiquitin-proteasome system and inflammation conformed to proteotoxic and ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri under delayed conditions. Interestingly, treatment with a proteasome inhibitor bortezomib further exacerbated ER stress in Msx1/Msx2d/d uteri with aggravated inflammatory response, deteriorating rate of blastocyst recovery and failure to sustain delayed implantation. This study highlights a previously unrecognized role for Msx in preventing proteotoxic stress and inflammatory responses to coordinate embryo dormancy and uterine quiescence during embryonic diapause.

  14. Clinical Utility of the Modified Segmental Boost Technique for Treatment of the Pelvis and Inguinal Nodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, M.S.; Castrucci, W.A.; Ahmad, M.; Song, H.; Lund, M.W.; Mani, S.; Chamberlain, Daniel; Higgins, S.A.

    2010-03-15

    Purpose: Low-lying pelvic malignancies often require simultaneous radiation to pelvis and inguinal nodes. We previously reported improved homogeneity with the modified segmental boost technique (MSBT) compared to that with traditional methods, using phantom models. Here we report our institutional clinical experience with MSBT. Methods and Materials: MSBT patients from May 2001 to March 2007 were evaluated. Parameters analyzed included isocenter/multileaf collimation shifts, time per fraction (four fields), monitor units (MU)/fraction, femoral doses, maximal dose relative to body mass index, and inguinal node depth. In addition, a dosimetric comparison of the MSBT versus intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) was conducted. Results: Of the 37 MSBT patients identified, 32 were evaluable. Port film adjustments were required in 6% of films. Median values for each analyzed parameter were as follows: MU/fraction, 298 (range, 226-348); delivery time, 4 minutes; inguinal depth, 4.5 cm; volume receiving 45 Gy (V45), 7%; V27.5, 87%; body mass index, 25 (range, 16.0-33.8). Inguinal dose was 100% in all cases; in-field inhomogeneity ranged from 111% to 118%. IMRT resulted in significantly decreased dose to normal tissue but required more time for treatment planning and a higher number of MUs (1,184 vs. 313 MU). Conclusions: In our clinical experience, the mono-isocentric MSBT provides a high degree of accuracy, improved homogeneity compared with traditional techniques, ease of simulation, treatment planning, treatment delivery, and acceptable femoral doses for pelvic/inguinal radiation fields requiring 45 to 50.4 Gy. In addition, the MSBT delivers a relatively uniform dose distribution throughout the treatment volume, despite varying body habitus. Clinical scenarios for the use of MSBT vs. intensity-modulated radiation therapy are discussed. To our knowledge, this is the first study reporting the utility of MSBT in the clinical setting.

  15. Evaluation of atlas-based auto-segmentation software in prostate cancer patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Greenham, Stuart; Dean, Jenna; Fu, Cheuk Kuen Kenneth; Goman, Joanne; Mulligan, Jeremy; Tune, Deanna; Sampson, David; Westhuyzen, Justin; McKay, Michael

    2014-09-15

    The performance and limitations of an atlas-based auto-segmentation software package (ABAS; Elekta Inc.) was evaluated using male pelvic anatomy as the area of interest. Contours from 10 prostate patients were selected to create atlases in ABAS. The contoured regions of interest were created manually to align with published guidelines and included the prostate, bladder, rectum, femoral heads and external patient contour. Twenty-four clinically treated prostate patients were auto-contoured using a randomised selection of two, four, six, eight or ten atlases. The concordance between the manually drawn and computer-generated contours were evaluated statistically using Pearson's productmoment correlation coefficient (r) and clinically in a validated qualitative evaluation. In the latter evaluation, six radiation therapists classified the degree of agreement for each structure using seven clinically appropriate categories. The ABAS software generated clinically acceptable contours for the bladder, rectum, femoral heads and external patient contour. For these structures, ABAS-generated volumes were highly correlated with as treated volumes, manually drawn; for four atlases, for example, bladder r = 0.988 (P < 0.001), rectum r = 0.739 (P < 0.001) and left femoral head r = 0.560 (P < 0.001). Poorest results were seen for the prostate (r = 0.401, P < 0.05) (four atlases); however this was attributed to the comparison prostate volume being contoured on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) rather than computed tomography (CT) data. For all structures, increasing the number of atlases did not consistently improve accuracy. ABAS-generated contours are clinically useful for a range of structures in the male pelvis. Clinically appropriate volumes were created, but editing of some contours was inevitably required. The ideal number of atlases to improve generated automatic contours is yet to be determined.

  16. Potential of the tractor-trailer and container segments as entry markets for a proposed refrigeration technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, S.A.; Davis, L.J.; Garrett, B.A.

    1987-05-01

    The refrigerated trailer and container segments of the transportation industry are evaluated as potential entry markets for a proposed absorption refrigeration technology. To perform this analysis the existing transportation refrigeration industry is characterized; this includes a description of the current refrigeration technology, rating systems, equipment manufacturers, maintenance requirements, and sales trends. This information indicates that the current transportation refrigeration industry is composed of two major competitors, Thermo King and Carrier. In addition, it has low profit potential, some barriers to entry and low growth potential. Data are also presented that characterize the transportation refrigeration consumers, specifically, major groups, market segmentation, consumer decision process, and buying criteria. This consumer information indicates that the majority of refrigerated trailer consumers are private carriers, and that the majority of refrigerated container consumers are shipping companies. Also, these consumers are primarily interested in buying reliable equipment at a low price, and are quite satisfied with existing refrigeration equipment.

  17. ELECTROCHEMICAL CORROSION STUDIES FOR TANK 241-AN-107 CORE 309 SEGMENTS 21R1 & 21R2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DUNCAN JB

    2007-11-13

    Liquid waste in tank 241-AN-107 is below Technical Safety Requirements Administrative Control 5.16 (AC 5.16) limits. Electrochemical corrosion testing was performed on Core 309, Segments 21R1 and 21R2, to provide information on the conductivity and corrosive tendencies of the tank saltcake and interstitial liquid. This report describes data obtained under the execution of RPP-PLAN-29001, 'Electrochemical Corrosion Studies for Tank 241-AN-107 Core 309, Segments 21R1 and 21R2'. Analytical results are presented that show supernatant was within the limits while the interstitial liquid remained below the limits for the analytical cores. Applicable AC 5.16 chemistry control limits for AN-107 are presented.

  18. Inter-slice bidirectional registration-based segmentation of the prostate gland in MR and CT image sequences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khalvati, Farzad Tizhoosh, Hamid R.; Salmanpour, Aryan; Rahnamayan, Shahryar; Rodrigues, George

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Accurate segmentation and volume estimation of the prostate gland in magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomography (CT) images are necessary steps in diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of prostate cancer. This paper presents an algorithm for the prostate gland volume estimation based on the semiautomated segmentation of individual slices in T2-weighted MR and CT image sequences. Methods: The proposedInter-Slice Bidirectional Registration-based Segmentation (iBRS) algorithm relies on interslice image registration of volume data to segment the prostate gland without the use of an anatomical atlas. It requires the user to mark only three slices in a given volume dataset, i.e., the first, middle, and last slices. Next, the proposed algorithm uses a registration algorithm to autosegment the remaining slices. We conducted comprehensive experiments to measure the performance of the proposed algorithm using three registration methods (i.e., rigid, affine, and nonrigid techniques). Results: The results with the proposed technique were compared with manual marking using prostate MR and CT images from 117 patients. Manual marking was performed by an expert user for all 117 patients. The median accuracies for individual slices measured using the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) were 92% and 91% for MR and CT images, respectively. The iBRS algorithm was also evaluated regarding user variability, which confirmed that the algorithm was robust to interuser variability when marking the prostate gland. Conclusions: The proposed algorithm exploits the interslice data redundancy of the images in a volume dataset of MR and CT images and eliminates the need for an atlas, minimizing the computational cost while producing highly accurate results which are robust to interuser variability.

  19. Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: Audience Segmentation and Analysis Strategies for Targeted Marketing (301)

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Audience Segmentation and Analysis Strategies for Targeted Marketing (301) September 24, 2015 Call Slides and Discussion Summary Call Participants Residential Network Members  Build It Green  City of Fort Collins (CO)  City of Plano (TX)  City of Sunnyvale (CA)  Energy Efficiency Specialists, LLC  EnergySavvy  Greater Cincinnati Energy Alliance (GCEA)  International Center for Appropriate & Sustainable Technology (ICAST)  Local Energy Alliance Program (LPEA) 

  20. A segmented multi-loop antenna for selective excitation of azimuthal mode number in a helicon plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shinohara, S.; Tanikawa, T.; Motomura, T.

    2014-09-15

    A flat type, segmented multi-loop antenna was developed in the Tokai Helicon Device, built for producing high-density helicon plasma, with a diameter of 20 cm and an axial length of 100 cm. This antenna, composed of azimuthally splitting segments located on four different radial positions, i.e., r = 2.8, 4.8, 6.8, and 8.8 cm, can excite the azimuthal mode number m of 0, 1, and 2 by a proper choice of antenna feeder parts just on the rear side of the antenna. Power dependencies of the electron density n{sub e} were investigated with a radio frequency (rf) power less than 3 kW (excitation frequency ranged from 8 to 20 MHz) by the use of various types of antenna segments, and n{sub e} up to ?5 10{sup 12} cm{sup ?3} was obtained after the density jump from inductively coupled plasma to helicon discharges. Radial density profiles of m = 0 and 1 modes with low and high rf powers were measured. For the cases of these modes after the density jump, the excited mode structures derived from the magnetic probe measurements were consistent with those expected from theory on helicon waves excited in the plasma.

  1. Application of modern-control-design methodologies to a multi-segmented deformable-mirror system. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaughan, E.M.

    1991-05-23

    The multi-segmented deformable mirror system is proposed as an element for a portion of a ballistic missile defense system. The size of the mirror required for this defense function requires that the mirror be developed in segments, and then these segments should be phased together to produce one continuous, large optic. The application of multivariable control system synthesis techniques to provide closed-loop wavefront control of the deformable mirror system is the problem discussed in this thesis. The method of H at infinity control system synthesis using loop-shaping techniques was used to develop a controller that meets a robust performance specification. The number and location of sensors was treated as a design variable, and the structured singular value (mu) was used to determine the performance robustness of the deformable mirror system. Decentralized control issues are also addressed through the use of necessary conditions in an effort to determine a suitable decentralized control structure with performance similar to that of the centralized controller.

  2. Femtosecond Population Inversion and Stimulated Emission of Dense...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Femtosecond Population Inversion and Stimulated Emission of Dense Dirac Fermions in Graphene Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Femtosecond Population Inversion and...

  3. EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations To focus Federal attention on the environmental and human health conditions in minority ...

  4. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater ...

  5. THE BLUE STRAGGLER STAR POPULATION IN NGC1261: EVIDENCE FOR A POST-CORE-COLLAPSE BOUNCE STATE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simunovic, Mirko; Puzia, Thomas H.; Sills, Alison E-mail: tpuzia@astro.puc.cl

    2014-11-01

    We present a multi-passband photometric study of the Blue Straggler Star (BSS) population in the Galactic globular cluster (GC) NGC1261, using available space- and ground-based survey data. The inner BSS population is found to have two distinct sequences in the color-magnitude diagram (CMD), similar to double BSS sequences detected in other GCs. These well defined sequences are presumably linked to single short-lived events such as core collapse, which are expected to boost the formation of BSSs. In agreement with this, we find a BSS sequence in NGC1261 which can be well reproduced individually by a theoretical model prediction of a 2 Gyr old population of stellar collision products, which are expected to form in the denser inner regions during short-lived core contraction phases. Additionally, we report the occurrence of a group of BSSs with unusually blue colors in the CMD, which are consistent with a corresponding model of a 200Myr old population of stellar collision products. The properties of the NGC1261 BSS populations, including their spatial distributions, suggest an advanced dynamical evolutionary state of the cluster, but the core of this GC does not show the classical signatures of core collapse. We argue that these apparent contradictions provide evidence for a post-core-collapse bounce state seen in dynamical simulations of old GCs.

  6. Nanochannel-Directed Growth of One-Dimensional Multi-Segment Heterojunctions of Metallic Au1-xGex and Semiconducting Ge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Xiangdong; Meng, Guowen; Qin, Shengyong; Xu, Qiaoling; Chu, Zhaoqin; Zhu, Xiaoguang; Kong, Mingguang; Li, An-Ping

    2012-01-01

    We report on the synthesis of multi-segment nanowire (NW) junctions of Au{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} and Ge inside the nanochannels of porous anodic aluminum oxide template. The one-dimensional heterostructures are grown with a low-temperature chemical vapor deposition process, assisted by electrodeposited Au nanowires (AuNWs). The Au-catalyzed vapor-liquid-solid growth process occurs simultaneously in multiple locations along the nanochannel, which leads to multi-segment Au{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}/Ge heterojunctions. The structures of the as-grown hybrid NWs, analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy elemental mapping, show clear compositional modulation with variable modulation period and controllable junction numbers. Remarkably, both GeNW and Au{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x}NW segments are single crystalline with abrupt interfaces and good crystallographic coherences. The electronic and transport properties of individual NW junctions are measured by using a multi-probe scanning tunneling microscope, which confirms the semiconducting nature of Ge segments and the metallic behavior of Au{sub 1-x}Ge{sub x} segments, respectively. The high yield of multiple segment NW junctions of a metal-semiconductor can facilitate the applications in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics that harness multiple functionalities of heterointerfaces.

  7. Bacterial Population Genetics in a Forensic Context

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Velsko, S P

    2009-11-02

    This report addresses the recent Department of Homeland Security (DHS) call for a Phase I study to (1) assess gaps in the forensically relevant knowledge about the population genetics of eight bacterial agents of concern, (2) formulate a technical roadmap to address those gaps, and (3) identify new bioinformatics tools that would be necessary to analyze and interpret population genetic data in a forensic context. The eight organisms that were studied are B. anthracis, Y. pestis, F. tularensis, Brucella spp., E. coli O157/H7, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, and C. botulinum. Our study focused on the use of bacterial population genetics by forensic investigators to test hypotheses about the possible provenance of an agent that was used in a crime or act of terrorism. Just as human population genetics underpins the calculations of match probabilities for human DNA evidence, bacterial population genetics determines the level of support that microbial DNA evidence provides for or against certain well-defined hypotheses about the origins of an infecting strain. Our key findings are: (1) Bacterial population genetics is critical for answering certain types of questions in a probabilistic manner, akin (but not identical) to 'match probabilities' in DNA forensics. (2) A basic theoretical framework for calculating likelihood ratios or posterior probabilities for forensic hypotheses based on microbial genetic comparisons has been formulated. This 'inference-on-networks' framework has deep but simple connections to the population genetics of mtDNA and Y-STRs in human DNA forensics. (3) The 'phylogeographic' approach to identifying microbial sources is not an adequate basis for understanding bacterial population genetics in a forensic context, and has limited utility, even for generating 'leads' with respect to strain origin. (4) A collection of genotyped isolates obtained opportunistically from international locations augmented by phylogenetic representations of relatedness will not and enzootic outbreaks noted through international outbreak surveillance systems, and 'representative' genetic sequences from each outbreak. (5) Interpretation of genetic comparisons between an attack strain and reference strains requires a model for the network structure of maintenance foci, enzootic outbreaks, and human outbreaks of that disease, coupled with estimates of mutational rate constants. Validation of the model requires a set of sequences from exemplary outbreaks and laboratory data on mutation rates during animal passage. The necessary number of isolates in each validation set is determined by disease transmission network theory, and is based on the 'network diameter' of the outbreak. (6) The 8 bacteria in this study can be classified into 4 categories based on the complexity of the transmission network structure of their natural maintenance foci and their outbreaks, both enzootic and zoonotic. (7) For B. anthracis, Y. pestis, E. coli O157, and Brucella melitensis, and their primary natural animal hosts, most of the fundamental parameters needed for modeling genetic change within natural host or human transmission networks have been determined or can be estimated from existing field and laboratory studies. (8) For Burkholderia mallei, plausible approaches to transmission network models exist, but much of the fundamental parameterization does not. In addition, a validated high-resolution typing system for characterizing genetic change within outbreaks or foci has not yet been demonstrated, although a candidate system exists. (9) For Francisella tularensis, the increased complexity of the transmission network and unresolved questions about maintenance and transmission suggest that it will be more complex and difficult to develop useful models based on currently available data. (10) For Burkholderia pseudomallei and Clostridium botulinum, the transmission and maintenance networks involve complex soil communities and metapopulations about which very little is known. It is not clear that these pathogens can be brought into the in

  8. Obstacle to populating the string theory landscape

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Matthew C; Larfors, Magdalena

    2008-12-15

    We construct domain walls and instantons in a class of models with coupled scalar fields, determining, in agreement with previous studies, that many such solutions contain naked timelike singularities. Vacuum bubble solutions of this type do not contain a region of true vacuum, obstructing the ability of eternal inflation to populate other vacua. We determine a criterion that potentials must satisfy to avoid the existence of such singularities and show that many domain wall solutions in type IIB string theory are singular.

  9. Structurally Distinct Bacterial TBC-like GAPs Link Arf GTPase to Rab1 Inactivation to Counteract Host Defenses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Na; Zhu, Yongqun; Lu, Qiuhe; Hu, Liyan; Zheng, Yuqing; Shao, Feng

    2012-10-10

    Rab GTPases are frequent targets of vacuole-living bacterial pathogens for appropriate trafficking of the vacuole. Here we discover that bacterial effectors including VirA from nonvacuole Shigella flexneri and EspG from extracellular Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) harbor TBC-like dual-finger motifs and exhibits potent RabGAP activities. Specific inactivation of Rab1 by VirA/EspG disrupts ER-to-Golgi trafficking. S. flexneri intracellular persistence requires VirA TBC-like GAP activity that mediates bacterial escape from autophagy-mediated host defense. Rab1 inactivation by EspG severely blocks host secretory pathway, resulting in inhibited interleukin-8 secretion from infected cells. Crystal structures of VirA/EspG-Rab1-GDP-aluminum fluoride complexes highlight TBC-like catalytic role for the arginine and glutamine finger residues and reveal a 3D architecture distinct from that of the TBC domain. Structure of Arf6-EspG-Rab1 ternary complex illustrates a pathogenic signaling complex that rewires host Arf signaling to Rab1 inactivation. Structural distinctions of VirA/EspG further predict a possible extensive presence of TBC-like RabGAP effectors in counteracting various host defenses.

  10. Automated fibroglandular tissue segmentation and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI using an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, Shandong; Weinstein, Susan P.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Breast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays an important role in the clinical management of breast cancer. Studies suggest that the relative amount of fibroglandular (i.e., dense) tissue in the breast as quantified in MR images can be predictive of the risk for developing breast cancer, especially for high-risk women. Automated segmentation of the fibroglandular tissue and volumetric density estimation in breast MRI could therefore be useful for breast cancer risk assessment. Methods: In this work the authors develop and validate a fully automated segmentation algorithm, namely, an atlas-aided fuzzy C-means (FCM-Atlas) method, to estimate the volumetric amount of fibroglandular tissue in breast MRI. The FCM-Atlas is a 2D segmentation method working on a slice-by-slice basis. FCM clustering is first applied to the intensity space of each 2D MR slice to produce an initial voxelwise likelihood map of fibroglandular tissue. Then a prior learned fibroglandular tissue likelihood atlas is incorporated to refine the initial FCM likelihood map to achieve enhanced segmentation, from which the absolute volume of the fibroglandular tissue (|FGT|) and the relative amount (i.e., percentage) of the |FGT| relative to the whole breast volume (FGT%) are computed. The authors' method is evaluated by a representative dataset of 60 3D bilateral breast MRI scans (120 breasts) that span the full breast density range of the American College of Radiology Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System. The automated segmentation is compared to manual segmentation obtained by two experienced breast imaging radiologists. Segmentation performance is assessed by linear regression, Pearson's correlation coefficients, Student's pairedt-test, and Dice's similarity coefficients (DSC). Results: The inter-reader correlation is 0.97 for FGT% and 0.95 for |FGT|. When compared to the average of the two readers manual segmentation, the proposed FCM-Atlas method achieves a correlation ofr = 0.92 for FGT% and r = 0.93 for |FGT|, and the automated segmentation is not statistically significantly different (p = 0.46 for FGT% and p = 0.55 for |FGT|). The bilateral correlation between left breasts and right breasts for the FGT% is 0.94, 0.92, and 0.95 for reader 1, reader 2, and the FCM-Atlas, respectively; likewise, for the |FGT|, it is 0.92, 0.92, and 0.93, respectively. For the spatial segmentation agreement, the automated algorithm achieves a DSC of 0.69 0.1 when compared to reader 1 and 0.61 0.1 for reader 2, respectively, while the DSC between the two readers manual segmentation is 0.67 0.15. Additional robustness analysis shows that the segmentation performance of the authors' method is stable both with respect to selecting different cases and to varying the number of cases needed to construct the prior probability atlas. The authors' results also show that the proposed FCM-Atlas method outperforms the commonly used two-cluster FCM-alone method. The authors' method runs at ?5 min for each 3D bilateral MR scan (56 slices) for computing the FGT% and |FGT|, compared to ?55 min needed for manual segmentation for the same purpose. Conclusions: The authors' method achieves robust segmentation and can serve as an efficient tool for processing large clinical datasets for quantifying the fibroglandular tissue content in breast MRI. It holds a great potential to support clinical applications in the future including breast cancer risk assessment.

  11. The reionization of galactic satellite populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ocvirk, P.; Gillet, N.; Aubert, D.; Chardin, J.; Knebe, A.; Yepes, G.; Libeskind, N.; Gottlber, S.; Hoffman, Y.

    2014-10-10

    We use high-resolution simulations of the formation of the local group, post-processed by a radiative transfer code for UV photons, to investigate the reionization of the satellite populations of an isolated Milky Way-M31 galaxy pair in a variety of scenarios. We use an improved version of ATON which includes a simple recipe for radiative feedback. In our baseline models, reionization is initiated by low-mass, radiatively regulated halos at high redshift, until more massive halos appear, which then dominate and complete the reionization process. We investigate the relation between reionization history and present-day positions of the satellite population. We find that the average reionization redshift (z {sub r}) of satellites is higher near galaxy centers (MW and M31). This is due to the inside out reionization patterns imprinted by massive halos within the progenitor during the epoch of reionization, which end up forming the center of the galaxy. Due to incomplete dynamical mixing during galaxy assembly, these early patterns survive to present day, resulting in a clear radial gradient in the average satellite reionization redshift, up to the virial radius of MW and M31 and beyond. In the lowest emissivity scenario, the outer satellites are reionized about 180 Myr later than the inner satellites. This delay decreases with increasing source model emissivity, or in the case of external reionization by Virgo or M31, because reionization occurs faster overall and becomes spatially quasi-uniform at the highest emissivity.

  12. A Population Health Model for Integrated Assessment Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pitcher, Hugh M.; Ebi, Kristie L.; Brenkert, Antoinette L.

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents the initial results of a project to develop a population health model so we can extend the scenarios included in the IPCC's Special Report on Emissions Scenarios to include population health status.

  13. Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Small Modular Reactor Siting | Department of Energy Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible Small Modular Reactor Siting Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible Small Modular Reactor Siting This report documents population density studies of selected sites in the Hampton Roads, Virginia area. PDF icon Population Sensitivity Evaluation of Two Candidate Locations for Possible Small Modular Reactor Siting More Documents &

  14. Source and seed populations for relativistic electrons: Their roles in radiation belt changes

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jaynes, A. N.; Baker, D. N.; Singer, H. J.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Loto'aniu, T. M.; Ali, A. F.; Elkington, S. R.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S. G.; Claudepierre, S. G.; et al

    2015-09-09

    Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in August–September 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 13–22more » September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), showed strong depletion of relativistic electrons (including an unprecedented observation of long-lasting depletion at geostationary orbit) while an immediately preceding, and another immediately subsequent, storm showed strong radiation belt enhancement. We demonstrate with these data that two distinct electron populations resulting from magnetospheric substorm activity are crucial elements in the ultimate acceleration of highly relativistic electrons in the outer belt: the source population (tens of keV) that give rise to VLF wave growth and the seed population (hundreds of keV) that are, in turn, accelerated through VLF wave interactions to much higher energies. ULF waves may also play a role by either inhibiting or enhancing this process through radial diffusion effects. Furthermore, if any components of the inner magnetospheric accelerator happen to be absent, the relativistic radiation belt enhancement fails to materialize.« less

  15. Source and seed populations for relativistic electrons: Their roles in radiation belt changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jaynes, A. N.; Baker, D. N.; Singer, H. J.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Loto'aniu, T. M.; Ali, A. F.; Elkington, S. R.; Li, X.; Kanekal, S. G.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Kletzing, C. A.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.

    2015-09-09

    Strong enhancements of outer Van Allen belt electrons have been shown to have a clear dependence on solar wind speed and on the duration of southward interplanetary magnetic field. However, individual case study analyses also have demonstrated that many geomagnetic storms produce little in the way of outer belt enhancements and, in fact, may produce substantial losses of relativistic electrons. In this study, focused upon a key period in AugustSeptember 2014, we use GOES geostationary orbit electron flux data and Van Allen Probes particle and fields data to study the process of radiation belt electron acceleration. One particular interval, 1322 September, initiated by a short-lived geomagnetic storm and characterized by a long period of primarily northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), showed strong depletion of relativistic electrons (including an unprecedented observation of long-lasting depletion at geostationary orbit) while an immediately preceding, and another immediately subsequent, storm showed strong radiation belt enhancement. We demonstrate with these data that two distinct electron populations resulting from magnetospheric substorm activity are crucial elements in the ultimate acceleration of highly relativistic electrons in the outer belt: the source population (tens of keV) that give rise to VLF wave growth and the seed population (hundreds of keV) that are, in turn, accelerated through VLF wave interactions to much higher energies. ULF waves may also play a role by either inhibiting or enhancing this process through radial diffusion effects. Furthermore, if any components of the inner magnetospheric accelerator happen to be absent, the relativistic radiation belt enhancement fails to materialize.

  16. Distinctive plume formation in atmospheric Ar and He plasmas in microwave frequency band and suitability for biomedical applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, H. Wk.; Kang, S. K.; Won, I. H.; Kim, H. Y.; Kwon, H. C.; Sim, J. Y.; Lee, J. K.

    2013-12-15

    Distinctive discharge formation in atmospheric Ar and He plasmas was observed in the microwave frequency band using coaxial transmission line resonators. Ar plasmas formed a plasma plume whereas He formed only confined plasmas. As the frequency increased from 0.9 GHz to 2.45 GHz, the Ar plasma exhibited contraction and filamentation, and the He plasmas were constricted. Various powers and gas flow rates were applied to identify the effect of the electric field and gas flow rate on plasma plume formation. The He plasmas were more strongly affected by the electric field than the Ar plasmas. The breakdown and sustain powers yielded opposite results from those for low-frequency plasmas (?kHz). The phenomena could be explained by a change in the dominant ionization process with increasing frequency. Penning ionization and the contribution of secondary electrons in sheath region reduced as the frequency increased, leading to less efficient ionization of He because its ionization and excitation energies are higher than those of Ar. The emission spectra showed an increase in the NO and N{sub 2} second positive band in both the Ar and He plasmas with increasing frequency whereas the hydroxyl radical and atomic O peaks did not increase with increasing frequency but were highest at particular frequencies. Further, the frequency effect of properties such as the plasma impedance, electron density, and device efficiency were presented. The study is expected to be helpful for determining the optimal conditions of plasma systems for biomedical applications.

  17. Structure of N-Terminal Domain of NPC1 Reveals Distinct Subdomains for Binding and Transfer of Cholesterol

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kwon, Hyock Joo; Abi-Mosleh, Lina; Wang, Michael L.; Deisenhofer, Johann; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.; Infante, Rodney E.

    2010-09-21

    LDL delivers cholesterol to lysosomes by receptor-mediated endocytosis. Exit of cholesterol from lysosomes requires two proteins, membrane-bound Niemann-Pick C1 (NPC1) and soluble NPC2. NPC2 binds cholesterol with its isooctyl side chain buried and its 3{beta}-hydroxyl exposed. Here, we describe high-resolution structures of the N-terminal domain (NTD) of NPC1 and complexes with cholesterol and 25-hydroxycholesterol. NPC1(NTD) binds cholesterol in an orientation opposite to NPC2: 3{beta}-hydroxyl buried and isooctyl side chain exposed. Cholesterol transfer from NPC2 to NPC1(NTD) requires reorientation of a helical subdomain in NPC1(NTD), enlarging the opening for cholesterol entry. NPC1 with point mutations in this subdomain (distinct from the binding subdomain) cannot accept cholesterol from NPC2 and cannot restore cholesterol exit from lysosomes in NPC1-deficient cells. We propose a working model wherein after lysosomal hydrolysis of LDL-cholesteryl esters, cholesterol binds NPC2, which transfers it to NPC1(NTD), reversing its orientation and allowing insertion of its isooctyl side chain into the outer lysosomal membranes.

  18. Special population planner, version 4.0.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, J.; Tanzman, E.; Metz, W.

    2007-03-26

    Emergencies happen every day. Many are caused by storms or auto accidents and can be planned for, if not predicted. Emergencies resulting from natural hazards often affect a large number of people, and planning for them can be difficult, since knowledge of the needs of the people involved is generally unavailable. Emergencies resulting from accidents at industrial and military facilities can also be large scale in nature if people must be evacuated or sheltered in place. Federal planning for large scale emergencies is the responsibility of the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), which provides assistance to various emergency management agencies at the national, state and local level. More information about FEMA is available at http://www.fema.gov/. The purpose of the Special Population Planner (SPP) is to help emergency planners address the needs of persons with special needs. The exact definition of 'special population' is a policy decision. Policymakers have included a variety of groups in this term, such as persons with disabilities, those who do not have vehicles with which to evacuate, children who are unattended at times (latchkey children), and many others. The SPP was developed initially for the Alabama Emergency Management Agency as part of its Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP), which aids emergency planning and preparedness in communities surrounding military installations across the United States where chemical weapons are stored pending their destruction under federal law. Like that specialized application, this open-source version contains a set of specialized Geographic Information System (GIS) tools to facilitate emergency planning on behalf of persons with special needs, regardless of how the term is defined. While the original SPP system was developed for emergency planning relating to chemical hazards, it can be applied to other threats as well. It is apparent from Hurricane Katrina and other natural and man-made disasters that many of the problems posed by emergency planning for a chemical weapons agent release are shared by other hazards as well. The notion that emergency planning shares common functions underlies the decision by FEMA to include the Chemical Stockpile Emergency Preparedness Program (CSEPP) in its 'all-hazards' planning approach. The CSEPP's official planning guidance operationalizes this approach by suggesting that state and local CSEPP emergency plans 'should be appended to the existing all-hazards emergency plan.' The SPP is programmed as a set of tools within an ESRI ArcMap 9.1 project. ArcMap is a component of both ESRI ArcGIS 9.1 and ESRI ArcView 9.1, and it provides a rich GIS user interface for viewing spatial and tabular data, analyzing it, and producing output reports and maps. This GIS interface has been augmented with the SPP tools for a user interface that provides custom functionality for emergency planning. The system as released also includes some hypothetical example records for special needs populations, facilities, resources, control points and sirens sufficient for showing how the system would work with real information. A GIS database is included with some publicly available example layers. The SPP is designed to support emergency planners as they address emergency management issues, and includes capabilities that support the collection and importing of data, the review of data in a spatial context, and GIS tools for emergency planning. The SPP system allows for the identification and categorization of response zones to allow for multiple levels of preparedness. An Immediate Response Zone (IRZ) might be designated as the area 0 to 10 miles from a facility where the response would be the most urgent. SPP can support more than one set of planning zones to accommodate different types of emergencies or the different jurisdictions of emergency response organizations. These areas can be delineated by any number of criteria that make sense for the area. An area like New Orleans might designate response zones based on the depth above/below s

  19. Longwall population holds steady at 52

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-02-15

    The overall population stands at 48 mines operating 53 longwalls. CONSOL Energy remains the leading US longwall operator with 12 installations. With the acquisition of the Andalex properties in Utah, Robert E Murray now owns eight longwall mines followed by Arch Coal (5) and Massey Energy (4). West Virginia remains the leading longwall mining state with 14 faces in 2005, followed by Pennsylvania (8), Alabama (6), Utah (6) and Colorado (5). A detailed table gives for each longwall installation, the ownership, seam height, cutting height, panel width and length, overburden, number of gate entries, depth of cut, model of equipment used (shearer, haulage system, roof support, face conveyor, stage loader, crusher, electrical controls and voltage to face). The most striking difference between the 2007 US Longwall Census and past reports carried out by Coal Age is the increased number of longwall operators that believe they have the most productive operation. Several operators have purchased or intend to purchase new equipment or upgrade the technology of the faces. Longwall mining in the US has reached a balanced state. 1 photo., 1 tab.

  20. Magnetic Fields in Population III Star Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Turk, Matthew J.; Oishi, Jeffrey S.; Abel, Tom; Bryan, Greg

    2012-02-22

    We study the buildup of magnetic fields during the formation of Population III star-forming regions, by conducting cosmological simulations from realistic initial conditions and varying the Jeans resolution. To investigate this in detail, we start simulations from identical initial conditions, mandating 16, 32 and 64 zones per Jeans length, and studied the variation in their magnetic field amplification. We find that, while compression results in some amplification, turbulent velocity fluctuations driven by the collapse can further amplify an initially weak seed field via dynamo action, provided there is sufficient numerical resolution to capture vortical motions (we find this requirement to be 64 zones per Jeans length, slightly larger than, but consistent with previous work run with more idealized collapse scenarios). We explore saturation of amplification of the magnetic field, which could potentially become dynamically important in subsequent, fully-resolved calculations. We have also identified a relatively surprising phenomena that is purely hydrodynamic: the higher-resolved simulations possess substantially different characteristics, including higher infall-velocity, increased temperatures inside 1000 AU, and decreased molecular hydrogen content in the innermost region. Furthermore, we find that disk formation is suppressed in higher-resolution calculations, at least at the times that we can follow the calculation. We discuss the effect this may have on the buildup of disks over the accretion history of the first clump to form as well as the potential for gravitational instabilities to develop and induce fragmentation.

  1. An estimate for the sum of a Dirichlet series in terms of the minimum of its modulus on a vertical line segment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gaisin, Ahtyar M; Rakhmatullina, Zhanna G

    2011-12-31

    The behaviour of the sum of an entire Dirichlet series is analyzed in terms of the minimum of its modulus on a system of vertical line segments. Also a more general problem, connected with the Polya conjecture is posed and solved. It concerns the minimum modulus of an entire function with Fabri gaps and its growth along curves going to infinity. Bibliography: 33 titles.

  2. Prostate CT segmentation method based on nonrigid registration in ultrasound-guided CT-based HDR prostate brachytherapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Xiaofeng Rossi, Peter; Ogunleye, Tomi; Marcus, David M.; Jani, Ashesh B.; Curran, Walter J.; Liu, Tian; Mao, Hui

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: The technological advances in real-time ultrasound image guidance for high-dose-rate (HDR) prostate brachytherapy have placed this treatment modality at the forefront of innovation in cancer radiotherapy. Prostate HDR treatment often involves placing the HDR catheters (needles) into the prostate gland under the transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) guidance, then generating a radiation treatment plan based on CT prostate images, and subsequently delivering high dose of radiation through these catheters. The main challenge for this HDR procedure is to accurately segment the prostate volume in the CT images for the radiation treatment planning. In this study, the authors propose a novel approach that integrates the prostate volume from 3D TRUS images into the treatment planning CT images to provide an accurate prostate delineation for prostate HDR treatment. Methods: The authors approach requires acquisition of 3D TRUS prostate images in the operating room right after the HDR catheters are inserted, which takes 13 min. These TRUS images are used to create prostate contours. The HDR catheters are reconstructed from the intraoperative TRUS and postoperative CT images, and subsequently used as landmarks for the TRUSCT image fusion. After TRUSCT fusion, the TRUS-based prostate volume is deformed to the CT images for treatment planning. This method was first validated with a prostate-phantom study. In addition, a pilot study of ten patients undergoing HDR prostate brachytherapy was conducted to test its clinical feasibility. The accuracy of their approach was assessed through the locations of three implanted fiducial (gold) markers, as well as T2-weighted MR prostate images of patients. Results: For the phantom study, the target registration error (TRE) of gold-markers was 0.41 0.11 mm. For the ten patients, the TRE of gold markers was 1.18 0.26 mm; the prostate volume difference between the authors approach and the MRI-based volume was 7.28% 0.86%, and the prostate volume Dice overlap coefficient was 91.89% 1.19%. Conclusions: The authors have developed a novel approach to improve prostate contour utilizing intraoperative TRUS-based prostate volume in the CT-based prostate HDR treatment planning, demonstrated its clinical feasibility, and validated its accuracy with MRIs. The proposed segmentation method would improve prostate delineations, enable accurate dose planning and treatment delivery, and potentially enhance the treatment outcome of prostate HDR brachytherapy.

  3. LandScan 2003 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  4. LandScan 2007 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  5. LandScan 2010 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2010-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  6. LandScan 2002 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2003-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  7. LandScan 2008 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  8. LandScan 2005 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  9. LandScan 2009 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2009-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  10. LandScan 2004 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2005-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  11. LandScan 2006 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  12. Pair instability supernovae of very massive population III stars (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Pair instability supernovae of very massive population III stars Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Pair instability supernovae of very massive population III stars Numerical studies of primordial star formation suggest that the first stars in the universe may have been very massive. Stellar models indicate that non-rotating Population III stars with initial masses of 140-260 M {sub ☉} die as highly energetic pair-instability supernovae. We present new

  13. LandScan 2013 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-07-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  14. The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations Better Buildings Residential Network Peer Exchange Call Series: The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations, call slides and discussion summary. PDF icon Call Slides and Discussion Summary More Documents & Publications Staged Upgrades - Homeowner-focused Strategies for Encouraging Energy Upgrades over Time Strengthening

  15. ARM - Lesson Plans: Expansion of Population and Environment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Expansion of Population and Environment Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Expansion of Population and Environment Objective The objective is to highlight the future population of the world in order to estimate its effect on the environment and on climate change.

  16. LandScan 2011 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2012-11-19

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  17. Simulated population responses of common carp to commercial exploitation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weber, Michael J.; Hennen, Matthew J.; Brown, Michael L.

    2011-12-01

    Common carp Cyprinus carpio is a widespread invasive species that can become highly abundant and impose deleterious ecosystem effects. Thus, aquatic resource managers are interested in controlling common carp populations. Control of invasive common carp populations is difficult, due in part to the inherent uncertainty of how populations respond to exploitation. To understand how common carp populations respond to exploitation, we evaluated common carp population dynamics (recruitment, growth, and mortality) in three natural lakes in eastern South Dakota. Common carp exhibited similar population dynamics across these three systems that were characterized by consistent recruitment (ages 3 to 15 years present), fast growth (K = 0.37 to 0.59), and low mortality (A = 1 to 7%). We then modeled the effects of commercial exploitation on size structure, abundance, and egg production to determine its utility as a management tool to control populations. All three populations responded similarly to exploitation simulations with a 575-mm length restriction, representing commercial gear selectivity. Simulated common carp size structure modestly declined (9 to 37%) in all simulations. Abundance of common carp declined dramatically (28 to 56%) at low levels of exploitation (0 to 20%) but exploitation >40% had little additive effect and populations were only reduced by 49 to 79% despite high exploitation (>90%). Maximum lifetime egg production was reduced from 77 to 89% at a moderate level of exploitation (40%), indicating the potential for recruitment overfishing. Exploitation further reduced common carp size structure, abundance, and egg production when simulations were not size selective. Our results provide insights to how common carp populations may respond to exploitation. Although commercial exploitation may be able to partially control populations, an integrated removal approach that removes all sizes of common carp has a greater chance of controlling population abundance and reducing perturbations induced by this invasive species.

  18. LandScan 2000 High Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-12-31

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  19. Visualizing Diurnal Population Change in Urban Areas for Emergency Management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kobayashi, Tetsuo; Medina, Richard M; Cova, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    There is an increasing need for a quick, simple method to represent diurnal population change in metropolitan areas for effective emergency management and risk analysis. Many geographic studies rely on decennial U.S. Census data that assume that urban populations are static in space and time. This has obvious limitations in the context of dynamic geographic problems. The U.S. Department of Transportation publishes population data at the transportation analysis zone level in fifteen-minute increments. This level of spatial and temporal detail allows for improved dynamic population modeling. This article presents a methodology for visualizing and analyzing diurnal population change for metropolitan areas based on this readily available data. Areal interpolation within a geographic information system is used to create twenty-four (one per hour) population surfaces for the larger metropolitan area of Salt Lake County, Utah. The resulting surfaces represent diurnal population change for an average workday and are easily combined to produce an animation that illustrates population dynamics throughout the day. A case study of using the method to visualize population distributions in an emergency management context is provided using two scenarios: a chemical release and a dirty bomb in Salt Lake County. This methodology can be used to address a wide variety of problems in emergency management.

  20. Core-Collapse Supernovae and Host Galaxy Stellar Populations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Core-Collapse Supernovae and Host Galaxy Stellar Populations Authors: Kelly, Patrick L. ; KIPAC, Menlo Park SLAC ; Kirshner, Robert P. ; Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. ...

  1. Greater Sage-Grouse Populations and Energy Development in Wyoming...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    development affects greater sage-grouse populations in Wyoming. Authors Renee C. Taylor, Matthew R. Dzialak and Larry D. Hayden-Wing Published Taylor, Dzialak and...

  2. United Nations Population Information Network | Open Energy Informatio...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Focus Area: People and Policy Resource Type: Dataset Website: www.un.orgpopin Cost: Free United Nations Population Information Network Screenshot References: United Nations...

  3. Deprotonated Water Dimers: The Building Blocks of Segmented Water Chains on Rutile RuO2(110)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mu, Rentao; Cantu Cantu, David; Glezakou, Vassiliki Alexandra; Lyubinetsky, Igor; Rousseau, Roger J.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2015-10-15

    Despite the importance of RuO2 in photocatalytic water splitting and catalysis in general, the interactions of water with even its most stable (110) surface are not well-understood. In this study we employ a combination of high-resolution scanning tunneling microscopy imaging with density functional theory based ab initio molecular dynamics, and we follow the formation and binding of linear water clusters on coordinatively unsaturated ruthenium rows. We find that clusters of all sizes (dimers, trimers, tetramers, extended chains) are stabilized by donating one proton per every two water molecules to the surface bridge bonded oxygen sites, in contrast with water monomers that do not show a significant propensity for dissociation. The clusters with odd number of water molecules are less stable than the clusters with even number, and are generally not observed under thermal equilibrium. For all clusters with even numbers, the dissociated dimers represent the fundamental building blocks with strong intra-dimer hydrogen bonds and only very weak inter-dimer interactions resulting in segmented water chains.

  4. The Nature of the Distinctive Microscopic Features in R5(SixGe1-x)4 Magnetic Refrigeration Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ozan Ugurlu

    2006-05-01

    Magnetic refrigeration is a promising technology that offers a potential for high energy efficiency. The giant magnetocaloric effect of the R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}, Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} alloys (where R=rare-earth and O {le} x {le} 1), which was discovered in 1997, make them perfect candidates for magnetic refrigeration applications. In this study the microstructures of Gd{sub 5}(Si{sub x}Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} alloys have been characterized using electron microscopy techniques, with the focus being on distinctive linear features first examined in 1999. These linear features have been observed in R{sub 5}(Si{sub x}, Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 4} alloys prepared from different rare-earths (Gd, Tb, Dy and Er) with different crystal structures (Gd{sub 5}Si{sub 4}-type orthorhombic, monoclinic and Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4}-type orthorhombic). Systematic scanning electron microscope studies revealed that these linear features are actually thin-plates, which grow along specific directions in the matrix material. The crystal structure of the thin-plates has been determined as hexagonal with lattice parameters a=b=8.53 {angstrom} and c=6.40 {angstrom} using selected area diffraction (SAD). Energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis, carried out in both scanning and transmission electron microscopes, showed that the features have a composition approximating to R{sub 5}(Si{sub x},Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 3}.phase. Orientation relationship between the matrix and the thin-plates has been calculated as [- 1010](1-211){sub p}//[010](10-2){sub m}. The growth direction of the thin plates are calculated as (22 0 19) and (-22 0 19) by applying the Ag approach of Zhang and Purdy to the SAD patterns of this system. High Resolution TEM images of the Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 4} were used to study the crystallographic relationship. A terrace-ledge structure was observed at the interface and a 7{sup o} rotation of the reciprocal lattices with respect to each other, consistent with the determined orientation relationship, was noted. Both observations are consistent with the stated hypothesis that the growth direction of the thin-plates is parallel to an invariant line direction. Based on the terrace-ledge structure of the thin-plate interface a displacive-diffusional growth mechanism has been proposed to explain the rapid formation of the R{sub 5}(Si{sub x},Ge{sub 1-x}){sub 3} plates.

  5. LandCast 2030 High-Resolution Population Projection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The LandCast 2030 data set is an empirically-informed spatial distribution of projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 compiled on a 30" x 30" latitute/longitude grid. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census's projection methodology - with the U.S. Census's official projection as the benchmark. Projected census counts were apportioned to each grid cell based on locally adaptive likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, distances to larger cities, a moving average of current population, and other data sets. The LandCast 2030 data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  6. LandCast 2030 High-Resolution Population Projection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The LandCast 2030 data set is an empirically-informed spatial distribution of projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 compiled on a 30" x 30" latitute/longitude grid. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census's projection methodology - with the U.S. Census's official projection as the benchmark. Projected census counts were apportioned to each grid cell based on locally adaptive likelihood coefficients, which are based on landmore »cover, slope, road proximity, distances to larger cities, a moving average of current population, and other data sets. The LandCast 2030 data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.« less

  7. LandCast 2050 High-Resolution Population Projection

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2014-01-01

    The LandCast 2050 data set is an empirically-informed spatial distribution of projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2050 compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census's projection methodology - with the U.S. Census's official projection as the benchmark. Projected census counts were apportioned to each grid cell based on locally adaptive likelihood coefficients, which are based on landmore »cover, slope, road proximity, distances to larger cities, a moving average of current population, and other data sets. The LandCast data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.« less

  8. Segmented stator assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwalla, Murtuza; Alexander, James Pellegrino; El-Refaie, Ayman Mohamed Fawzi; Shah, Manoj Ramprasad; Quirion, Owen Scott

    2013-04-02

    An electric machine and stator assembly are provided that include a continuous stator portion having stator teeth, and a tooth tip portion including tooth tips corresponding to the stator teeth of the continuous stator portion, respectively. The tooth tip portion is mounted onto the continuous stator portion.

  9. Spatial and kinematic distributions of transition populations in intermediate redshift galaxy clusters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crawford, Steven M.; Wirth, Gregory D.; Bershady, Matthew A. E-mail: wirth@keck.hawaii.edu

    2014-05-01

    We analyze the spatial and velocity distributions of confirmed members in five massive clusters of galaxies at intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 0.9) to investigate the physical processes driving galaxy evolution. Based on spectral classifications derived from broad- and narrow-band photometry, we define four distinct galaxy populations representing different evolutionary stages: red sequence (RS) galaxies, blue cloud (BC) galaxies, green valley (GV) galaxies, and luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs). For each galaxy class, we derive the projected spatial and velocity distribution and characterize the degree of subclustering. We find that RS, BC, and GV galaxies in these clusters have similar velocity distributions, but that BC and GV galaxies tend to avoid the core of the two z ? 0.55 clusters. GV galaxies exhibit subclustering properties similar to RS galaxies, but their radial velocity distribution is significantly platykurtic compared to the RS galaxies. The absence of GV galaxies in the cluster cores may explain their somewhat prolonged star-formation history. The LCBGs appear to have recently fallen into the cluster based on their larger velocity dispersion, absence from the cores of the clusters, and different radial velocity distribution than the RS galaxies. Both LCBG and BC galaxies show a high degree of subclustering on the smallest scales, leading us to conclude that star formation is likely triggered by galaxy-galaxy interactions during infall into the cluster.

  10. Computational Model of Population Dynamics Based on the Cell Cycle and Local Interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oprisan, Sorinel Adrian; Oprisan, Ana

    2005-03-31

    Our study bridges cellular (mesoscopic) level interactions and global population (macroscopic) dynamics of carcinoma. The morphological differences and transitions between well and smooth defined benign tumors and tentacular malignat tumors suggest a theoretical analysis of tumor invasion based on the development of mathematical models exhibiting bifurcations of spatial patterns in the density of tumor cells. Our computational model views the most representative and clinically relevant features of oncogenesis as a fight between two distinct sub-systems: the immune system of the host and the neoplastic system. We implemented the neoplastic sub-system using a three-stage cell cycle: active, dormant, and necrosis. The second considered sub-system consists of cytotoxic active (effector) cells -- EC, with a very broad phenotype ranging from NK cells to CTL cells, macrophages, etc. Based on extensive numerical simulations, we correlated the fractal dimensions for carcinoma, which could be obtained from tumor imaging, with the malignat stage. Our computational model was able to also simulate the effects of surgical, chemotherapeutical, and radiotherapeutical treatments.

  11. Energy Management in Small Commercial Buildings: A Look at How HVAC Contractors Can Deliver Energy Efficiency to this Segment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hult, Erin; Granderson, Jessica; Mathew, Paul

    2014-07-01

    While buildings smaller than 50,000 sq ft account for nearly half of the energy used in US commercial buildings, energy efficiency programs to-date have primarily focused on larger buildings. Interviews with stakeholders and a review of the literature indicate interest in energy efficiency from the small commercial building sector, provided solutions are simple and low-cost. An approach to deliver energy management to small commercial buildings via HVAC contractors and preliminary demonstration findings are presented. The energy management package (EMP) developed includes five technical elements: benchmarking and analysis of monthly energy use; analysis of interval electricity data (if available), a one-hour onsite walkthrough, communication with the building owner, and checking of results. This data-driven approach tracks performance and identifies low-cost opportunities, using guidelines and worksheets for each element to streamline the delivery process and minimize the formal training required. This energy management approach is unique from, but often complementary to conventional quality maintenance or retrofit-focused programs targeting the small commercial segment. Because HVAC contractors already serve these clients, the transaction cost to market and deliver energy management services can be reduced to the order of hundreds of dollars per year. This business model, outlined briefly in this report, enables the offering to benefit the contractor and client even at the modest expected energy savings in small buildings. Results from a small-scale pilot of this approach validated that the EMP could be delivered by contractors in 4-8 hours per building per year, and that energy savings of 3-5percent are feasible through this approach.

  12. Semiautomatic segmentation and follow-up of multicomponent low-grade tumors in longitudinal brain MRI studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weizman, Lior; Sira, Liat Ben; Joskowicz, Leo; Rubin, Daniel L.; Yeom, Kristen W.; Constantini, Shlomi; Shofty, Ben; Bashat, Dafna Ben

    2014-05-15

    Purpose: Tracking the progression of low grade tumors (LGTs) is a challenging task, due to their slow growth rate and associated complex internal tumor components, such as heterogeneous enhancement, hemorrhage, and cysts. In this paper, the authors show a semiautomatic method to reliably track the volume of LGTs and the evolution of their internal components in longitudinal MRI scans. Methods: The authors' method utilizes a spatiotemporal evolution modeling of the tumor and its internal components. Tumor components gray level parameters are estimated from the follow-up scan itself, obviating temporal normalization of gray levels. The tumor delineation procedure effectively incorporates internal classification of the baseline scan in the time-series as prior data to segment and classify a series of follow-up scans. The authors applied their method to 40 MRI scans of ten patients, acquired at two different institutions. Two types of LGTs were included: Optic pathway gliomas and thalamic astrocytomas. For each scan, a “gold standard” was obtained manually by experienced radiologists. The method is evaluated versus the gold standard with three measures: gross total volume error, total surface distance, and reliability of tracking tumor components evolution. Results: Compared to the gold standard the authors' method exhibits a mean Dice similarity volumetric measure of 86.58% and a mean surface distance error of 0.25 mm. In terms of its reliability in tracking the evolution of the internal components, the method exhibits strong positive correlation with the gold standard. Conclusions: The authors' method provides accurate and repeatable delineation of the tumor and its internal components, which is essential for therapy assessment of LGTs. Reliable tracking of internal tumor components over time is novel and potentially will be useful to streamline and improve follow-up of brain tumors, with indolent growth and behavior.

  13. ZipperDB: Predictions of Fibril-forming Segments within Proteins Identified by the 3D Profile Method (from the UCLA-DOE Institute for Genomics and Proteomics)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Goldschmidt, L.; Teng, P. K.; Riek, R.; Eisenberg, D.

    ZipperDB contains predictions of fibril-forming segments within proteins identified by the 3D Profile Method. The UCLA-DOE Institute for Genomics and Proteomics has analyzed over 20,000 putative protein sequences for segments with high fibrillation propensity that could form a "steric zipper"two self-complementary beta sheets, giving rise to the spine of an amyloid fibril. The approach is unique in that structural information is used to evaluate the likelihood that a particular sequence can form fibrils. [copied with edits from http://www.doe-mbi.ucla.edu/]. In addition to searching the database, academic and non-profit users may also submit their protein sequences to the database.

  14. ZipperDB: Predictions of Fibril-forming Segments within Proteins Identified by the 3D Profile Method (from the UCLA-DOE Institute for Genomics and Proteomics)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Goldschmidt, L.; Teng, P. K.; Riek, R.; Eisenberg, D.

    ZipperDB contains predictions of fibril-forming segments within proteins identified by the 3D Profile Method. The UCLA-DOE Institute for Genomics and Proteomics has analyzed over 20,000 putative protein sequences for segments with high fibrillation propensity that could form a "steric zipper"ùtwo self-complementary beta sheets, giving rise to the spine of an amyloid fibril. The approach is unique in that structural information is used to evaluate the likelihood that a particular sequence can form fibrils. [copied with edits from http://www.doe-mbi.ucla.edu/]. In addition to searching the database, academic and non-profit users may also submit their protein sequences to the database.

  15. Electricity Demand Evolution Driven by Storm Motivated Population Movement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Fu, Joshua S; Walker, Kimberly A

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change to energy production and delivery is a challenge for communities worldwide. Sea Level rise and increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters due to sea surface temperature rise force populations to move locations, resulting in changing patterns of demand for infrastructure services. Thus, Infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for exploring the universe of these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. In this work, we created a prototype agent based population distribution model and developed a methodology to establish utility functions that provide insight about new infrastructure vulnerabilities that might result from these patterns. Combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory, we use the new Department of Energy (DOE) Connected Infrastructure Dynamics Models (CIDM) to examine electricity demand response to increased temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. This work suggests that the importance of established evacuation routes that move large populations repeatedly through convergence points as an indicator may be under recognized.

  16. Diversity waves in collapse-driven population dynamics

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Maslov, Sergei; Sneppen, Kim

    2015-09-14

    Populations of species in ecosystems are often constrained by availability of resources within their environment. In effect this means that a growth of one population, needs to be balanced by comparable reduction in populations of others. In neutral models of biodiversity all populations are assumed to change incrementally due to stochastic births and deaths of individuals. Here we propose and model another redistribution mechanism driven by abrupt and severe collapses of the entire population of a single species freeing up resources for the remaining ones. This mechanism may be relevant e.g. for communities of bacteria, with strain-specific collapses caused e.g.more » by invading bacteriophages, or for other ecosystems where infectious diseases play an important role. The emergent dynamics of our system is cyclic ‘‘diversity waves’’ triggered by collapses of globally dominating populations. The population diversity peaks at the beginning of each wave and exponentially decreases afterwards. Species abundances are characterized by a bimodal time-aggregated distribution with the lower peak formed by populations of recently collapsed or newly introduced species while the upper peak - species that has not yet collapsed in the current wave. In most waves both upper and lower peaks are composed of several smaller peaks. This self-organized hierarchical peak structure has a long-term memory transmitted across several waves. It gives rise to a scale-free tail of the time-aggregated population distribution with a universal exponent of 1.7. We show that diversity wave dynamics is robust with respect to variations in the rules of our model such as diffusion between multiple environments, species-specific growth and extinction rates, and bet-hedging strategies.« less

  17. The general relativistic instability supernova of a supermassive population

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    III star (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect The general relativistic instability supernova of a supermassive population III star Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The general relativistic instability supernova of a supermassive population III star The formation of supermassive Population III stars with masses ≳10,000 M{sub ☉} in primeval galaxies in strong ultraviolet backgrounds at z ∼ 15 may be the most viable pathway to the formation of supermassive black holes by z ∼ 7.

  18. Template-based CTA to x-ray angio rigid registration of coronary arteries in frequency domain with automatic x-ray segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aksoy, Timur; Unal, Gozde; Demirci, Stefanie; Navab, Nassir; Degertekin, Muzaffer

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: A key challenge for image guided coronary interventions is accurate and absolutely robust image registration bringing together preinterventional information extracted from a three-dimensional (3D) patient scan and live interventional image information. In this paper, the authors present a novel scheme for 3D to two-dimensional (2D) rigid registration of coronary arteries extracted from preoperative image scan (3D) and a single segmented intraoperative x-ray angio frame in frequency and spatial domains for real-time angiography interventions by C-arm fluoroscopy.Methods: Most existing rigid registration approaches require a close initialization due to the abundance of local minima and high complexity of search algorithms. The authors' method eliminates this requirement by transforming the projections into translation-invariant Fourier domain for estimating the 3D pose. For 3D rotation recovery, template Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs (DRR) as candidate poses of 3D vessels of segmented computed tomography angiography are produced by rotating the camera (image intensifier) around the DICOM angle values with a specific range as in C-arm setup. The authors have compared the 3D poses of template DRRs with the segmented x-ray after equalizing the scales in three domains, namely, Fourier magnitude, Fourier phase, and Fourier polar. The best rotation pose candidate was chosen by one of the highest similarity measures returned by the methods in these domains. It has been noted in literature that frequency domain methods are robust against noise and occlusion which was also validated by the authors' results. 3D translation of the volume was then recovered by distance-map based BFGS optimization well suited to convex structure of the authors' objective function without local minima due to distance maps. A novel automatic x-ray vessel segmentation was also performed in this study.Results: Final results were evaluated in 2D projection space for patient data; and with ground truth values and landmark distances for the images acquired with a solid phantom vessel. Results validate that rotation recovery in frequency domain is robust against differences in segmentations in two modalities. Distance-map translation is successful in aligning coronary trees with highest possible overlap.Conclusions: Numerical and qualitative results show that single view rigid alignment in projection space is successful. This work can be extended with multiple views to resolve depth ambiguity and with deformable registration to account for nonrigid motion in patient data.

  19. CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    population parameters, and the same sampling cadences and radial velocity errors as ... we apply the method to a sample of approx4000 WDs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. ...

  20. Sandia Energy - CFD-Populated Empirical Turbine Wake Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    parameters that effect tidal turbine wakes, such as yaw angle to incident flow and vertical blockage ratio, may be incorporated as part of future revisions of the CFD populated...

  1. National Population, Economic, and Infrastructure Impacts of Pandemic

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Influenza with Strategic Recommendations | NISAC SheetsNational Population, Economic, and Infrastructure Impacts of Pandemic Influenza with Strategic Recommendations content top National Population, Economic, and Infrastructure Impacts of Pandemic Influenza with Strategic Recommendations Results of NISAC's two-year study on the potential impacts of pandemic influenza in the United States were published in October 2007 and released to the public in 2008. The summary report and supplemental

  2. CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH SPARSELY

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SAMPLED RADIAL VELOCITY DATA (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH SPARSELY SAMPLED RADIAL VELOCITY DATA Citation Details In-Document Search Title: CHARACTERIZING THE GALACTIC WHITE DWARF BINARY POPULATION WITH SPARSELY SAMPLED RADIAL VELOCITY DATA We present a method to characterize statistically the parameters of a detached binary sample-binary fraction, separation distribution, and mass-ratio distribution-using noisy radial

  3. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    of Greater Prairie-Chickens | Department of Energy Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in

  4. Executive Order 12898: Federal Actions to Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994)

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Documents Federal Register Vol. 59, No. 32 Wednesday, February 16, 1994 Title 3- The President Executive Order 12898 of February 11, 1994 Federal Actions To Address Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows: Section 1-1.Implementation. 1-101. Agency Responsibilities. To the greatest extent practicable and per- mitted by law,

  5. Factors affecting the failure of copper connectors brazed to copper bus bar segments on a 615-MVA hydroelectric generator at Grand Coulee Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Atteridge, D.G.; Klein, R.F.; Layne, R.; Anderson, W.E.; Correy, T.B.

    1988-01-01

    On March 21, 1986, the United States Bureau of Reclamation experienced a ground fault in the main parallel ring assembly of Unit G19 - a 615-MVA hydroelectric generator - at Grand Coulee Dam, Washington. Inspection of the unit revealed that the ground fault had been induced by fracture of one or more of the copper connectors used to join adjacent segments of one of the bus bars in the north half of the assembly. Various experimental techniques were used to detect and determine the presence of cracks, crack morphology, corrosion products, and material microstructure and/or embrittlement. The results of these inspections and recommendations are given. 7 refs., 27 figs.

  6. Stochastic resonance in a generalized Von Foerster population growth model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lumi, N.; Mankin, R.

    2014-11-12

    The stochastic dynamics of a population growth model, similar to the Von Foerster model for human population, is studied. The influence of fluctuating environment on the carrying capacity is modeled as a multiplicative dichotomous noise. It is established that an interplay between nonlinearity and environmental fluctuations can cause single unidirectional discontinuous transitions of the mean population size versus the noise amplitude, i.e., an increase of noise amplitude can induce a jump from a state with a moderate number of individuals to that with a very large number, while by decreasing the noise amplitude an opposite transition cannot be effected. An analytical expression of the mean escape time for such transitions is found. Particularly, it is shown that the mean transition time exhibits a strong minimum at intermediate values of noise correlation time, i.e., the phenomenon of stochastic resonance occurs. Applications of the results in ecology are also discussed.

  7. Real-Time Bioluminescent Tracking of Cellular Population Dynamics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Close, Dan; Sayler, Gary Steven; Xu, Tingting; Ripp, Steven Anthony

    2014-01-01

    Cellular population dynamics are routinely monitored across many diverse fields for a variety of purposes. In general, these dynamics are assayed either through the direct counting of cellular aliquots followed by extrapolation to the total population size, or through the monitoring of signal intensity from any number of externally stimulated reporter proteins. While both viable methods, here we describe a novel technique that allows for the automated, non-destructive tracking of cellular population dynamics in real-time. This method, which relies on the detection of a continuous bioluminescent signal produced through expression of the bacterial luciferase gene cassette, provides a low cost, low time-intensive means for generating additional data compared to alternative methods.

  8. The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mitigation on building energy use in the U.S. and China (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate mitigation on building energy use in the U.S. and China Citation Details In-Document Search Title: The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate mitigation on building energy use in the U.S. and China A changing climate will affect the energy system in a number of

  9. Methods for the survey and genetic analysis of populations

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashby, Matthew

    2003-09-02

    The present invention relates to methods for performing surveys of the genetic diversity of a population. The invention also relates to methods for performing genetic analyses of a population. The invention further relates to methods for the creation of databases comprising the survey information and the databases created by these methods. The invention also relates to methods for analyzing the information to correlate the presence of nucleic acid markers with desired parameters in a sample. These methods have application in the fields of geochemical exploration, agriculture, bioremediation, environmental analysis, clinical microbiology, forensic science and medicine.

  10. Analysis of three sets of SWIW tracer-test data using a two-population complex fracture model for matrix diffusion and sorption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Doughty, C.; Tsang, C.F.

    2009-08-01

    A complex fracture model employing two populations for diffusion and sorption is proposed to analyze three representative single-well injection-withdrawal (SWIW) tracer tests from Forsmark and Laxemar, the two sites under investigation by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB). One population represents the semi-infinite rock matrix and the other represents finite blocks that can become saturated, thereafter accepting no further diffusion or sorption. The diffusion and sorption parameters of the models are inferred by matching tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs). Three tracers are simultaneously injected, uranine (Ur), which is conservative, and rubidium (Rb) and cesium (Cs), which are non-conservative. For non-sorbing tracer uranine, the finite blocks become saturated with test duration of the order of 10 hours, and both the finite and the semi-infinite populations play a distinct role in controlling BTCs. For sorbing tracers Rb and Cs, finite blocks do not saturate, but act essentially as semi-infinite, and thus BTC behavior is comparable to that obtained for a model containing only a semi-infinite rock matrix. The ability to obtain good matches to BTCs for both sorbing and non-sorbing tracers for these three different SWIW data sets demonstrates that the two-population complex fracture model may be a useful conceptual model to analyze all SWIW tracer tests in fractured rock, and perhaps also usual multiwell tracer tests. One of the two populations should be semi-infinite rock matrix and the other finite blocks that can saturate. The latter can represent either rock blocks or gouge within the fracture, a fracture skin zone, or stagnation zones.

  11. "Table HC15.13 Lighting Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lighting Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Lighting Usage ...

  12. "Table HC15.8 Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Water Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Water Heating ...

  13. Populations Voss, R.; /Garching, Max Planck Inst., MPE; Ajello...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    study the populations of X-ray sources in the Milky Way in the 15-55 keV band using a deep survey with the BAT instrument aboard the Swift observatory. We present the logN-logS...

  14. Special population planner 4 : an open source release.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuiper, J.; Metz, W.; Tanzman, E.

    2008-01-01

    Emergencies like Hurricane Katrina and the recent California wildfires underscore the critical need to meet the complex challenge of planning for individuals with special needs and for institutionalized special populations. People with special needs and special populations often have difficulty responding to emergencies or taking protective actions, and emergency responders may be unaware of their existence and situations during a crisis. Special Population Planner (SPP) is an ArcGIS-based emergency planning system released as an open source product. SPP provides for easy production of maps, reports, and analyses to develop and revise emergency response plans. It includes tools to manage a voluntary registry of data for people with special needs, integrated links to plans and documents, tools for response planning and analysis, preformatted reports and maps, and data on locations of special populations, facility and resource characteristics, and contacts. The system can be readily adapted for new settings without programming and is broadly applicable. Full documentation and a demonstration database are included in the release.

  15. ORISE: Worker Health Studies - Testing Beryllium Vendor Populations

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Beryllium Testing Vendor Populations When former employees at 25 closed U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) beryllium vendor companies needed an entity to provide medical screening and tests related to their beryllium exposure, the agency chose the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) to manage the program. ORISE administers a brief health questionnaire and a blood test known as the beryllium lymphocyte proliferation test (BeLPT) to

  16. The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Other 15%: Expanding Energy Efficiency to Rural Populations September 10, 2015 Call Slides and Discussion Summary Agenda  Call Logistics and Opening Poll  Residential Network and Peer Exchange Call Overview  Featured Speakers  Alan Shedd, Energy Solutions Director, Touchstone Energy Cooperatives, National Rural Electric Cooperative Association (NRECA)  Elizabeth Ogg, Economic Developer, Bates County, Missouri GUEP Program (Residential Network Member)  Christine Grant,

  17. EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Populations (1994) | Department of Energy 2898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994) EO 12898: Environmental Justice in Minority Populations and Low-Income Populations (1994) To focus Federal attention on the environmental and human health conditions in minority communities and low-income communities with the goal of achieving environmental justice. That order is also intended to promote nondiscrimination in Federal programs substantially affecting

  18. Reconnecting fragmented sturgeon populations in North American rivers

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Jager, Yetta; Forsythe, Patrick S.; McLaughlin, Robert L.; Joseph J. Cech, Jr.; Parsley, Michael; Elliott, Robert F.; Pracheil, Brenda M.

    2016-02-24

    The majority of large North American rivers are fragmented by dams that interrupt migrations of wide-ranging fishes like sturgeons. Reconnecting habitat is viewed as an important means of protecting sturgeon species in U.S. rivers because these species have lost between 5% and 60% of their historical ranges. Unfortunately, facilities designed to pass other fishes have rarely worked well for sturgeons. The most successful passage facilities were sized appropriately for sturgeons and accommodated bottom-oriented species. For upstream passage, facilities with large entrances, full-depth guidance systems, large lifts, or wide fishways without obstructions or tight turns worked well. However, facilitating upstream migrationmore » is only half the battle. Broader recovery for linked sturgeon populations requires safe round-trip passage involving multiple dams. The most successful downstream passage facilities included nature-like fishways, large canal bypasses, and bottom-draw sluice gates. We outline an adaptive approach to implementing passage that begins with temporary programs and structures and monitors success both at the scale of individual fish at individual dams and the scale of metapopulations in a river basin. The challenge will be to learn from past efforts and reconnect North American sturgeon populations in a way that promotes range expansion and facilitates population recovery.« less

  19. Energy policy: Comparative effects on minority population groups

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Henderson, L.

    1995-06-01

    For a number of years, analyses of minority household energy demand have been supported by the United States Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Economic Impact and Diversity (formerly the Office of Minority Economic Impact). The intention of these analyses has been to characterize patterns of energy demand by various demographic, regional and socioeconomic groups and to develop analytical tools to assess the distributive impact of energy prices and policy on these groups. The model supports strategic objectives outlined by the Department of Energy to explicitly recognize and promote equity in state public utility commission decisions and to assess the potential impact of federal and state energy policy on demographically diverse groups as reported in the Department`s Annual Energy Outlook and the upcoming National Energy Policy Plan. The legislation mandating the Office of Economic Impact and Diversity had been premised on the assumption that patterns of energy demand for minority households are different from the population as a whole. Determining the validity of this premise and its potential economic impact on different population groups has been a major objective of these analyses. Consequently, the recripriocal impacts of energy policy on demographic groups and energy consumption and expenditure dynamics on policy formulation and strategy is a central objective of these studies. Residential energy demand research has been substantial in the past twenty years. Insightful and useful research has been done in this area. However, none of this research has addressed the potential differences in the residential energy demand structure among various population groups. Recent work does compare energy and electricity demand elasticities for non-Latino Whites, with the demand elasticities for Latinos and Blacks. This research is particularly important for examination of questions related to the economic welfare implications of national energy policy.

  20. THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY: PROSPECTS FOR RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Baslio X.; Girardi, Lo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; Pellegrini, Paulo S.; Ramos, Beatriz; de Simoni, Fernando; Armstrong, R.; Bertin, E.; Desai, S.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lin, H.; Mohr, J. J.; Tucker, D. L.

    2011-06-01

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of the Galaxy.

  1. THE DARK ENERGY SURVEY: PROSPECTS FOR RESOLVED STELLAR POPULATIONS

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Rossetto, Bruno M.; Santiago, Baslio X.; Girardi, Lo; Camargo, Julio I. B.; Balbinot, Eduardo; da Costa, Luiz N.; Yanny, Brian; Maia, Marcio A. G.; Makler, Martin; Ogando, Ricardo L. C.; et al

    2011-06-01

    Wide angle and deep surveys, regardless of their primary purpose, always sample a large number of stars in the Galaxy and in its satellite system. We here make a forecast of the expected stellar sample resulting from the Dark Energy Survey and the perspectives that it will open for studies of Galactic structure and resolved stellar populations in general. An estimated 1.2 x 108 stars will be sampled in DES grizY filters in the southern equatorial hemisphere. This roughly corresponds to 20% of all DES sources. Most of these stars belong to the stellar thick disk and halo of themoreGalaxy.less

  2. Population of 195Os via a deep-inelastic reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valiente-Dobon, J.J.; Wheldon, C.; Regan, P.H.; Langdown, S.D.; Yamamoto, A.D.; Wu, C.Y.; Cline, D.; Hayes, A.; Hua, H.; Teng, R.; Andreoiu, C.; Svensson, C.E.; Chapman, R.; Liang, X.; Fallon, P.; Lee, I.Y.; Macchiavelli, A.O.; Ward, D.; Freeman, S. J.; Smith, J.F.

    2004-09-13

    The present work reports on the {sub 76}{sup 195}Os isotope, which is the most neutron-rich osmium isotope for which transitions have been measured. It has been populated following a multi-nucleon transfer reaction between a thin {sub 78}{sup 198}Pt target and an 850-MeV {sub 54}{sup 136}Xe beam. Evidence from {gamma}-ray coincidences has been found for an I{sup {pi}} = ((27/2){sup -}) isomeric state with a measured half-life of 26 {+-} 9ns.

  3. Population and community ecology of the rare plant amsinckia grandiflora

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsen, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    Research was conducted between the fall of 1992 and the spring on the population and community ecology of the rare annual plant, Amsinckia glandiflora (Gray) Kleeb. ex Greene (Boraginaceae). The research goal was to investigate the causes of the species rarity, data useful to restorative efforts. The work focused on the examination of competitive suppression by exotic annual grasses; comparisons with common, weedy congener; and the role of litter cover and seed germination and seedling establishment. Annual exotic grasses reduced A. grandiflora reproductive output to a greater extent than did the native perennial bunch grass.

  4. Population viability analysis of the Endangered shortnose sturgeon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jager, Yetta; Bevelhimer, Mark S; Peterson, Douglas L.

    2011-07-01

    This study used population viability analysis (PVA) to partition the influences of potential threats to the endangered shortnose sturgeon (Acipenser brevirostrum). A workshop brought together experts to help identify potential threats including groundwater withdrawal, poor water quality, saltwater intrusion, mercury effects, harvest as by-catch, and sedimentation of spawning habitat. During the course of the project, we eliminated some threats and added new ones. Groundwater withdrawal was dismissed after a study failed to identify connection with groundwater and the majority of pumping is from a confined aquifer. We also eliminated activities on Fort Stewart as influences on spawning habitat because any successful spawning must occur upstream of Fort Stewart. We added climate change to the list of threats based on our assessment of temperature effects and expectations of sea-level rise. Our study highlighted the role of populations in nearby rivers in providing metapopulation support, raising the concern that the population in the Ogeechee River acts as a demographic sink. As part of this study, we carried out a field sampling study to analyze effects of training activities on headwater streams. We developed a new methodology for sampling design as part of this effort and used a mixed-modeling approach to identify relationships between land cover-land use, including those associated with military training activity and water quality. We found that tank training was associated with higher suspended sediment and equipment training was associated with higher organic carbon) and water quality. We detected effects of training on suspended sediment and organic carbon. We also carried out a field sampling effort in the Canoochee and Ogeechee Rivers. In the Ogeechee River, we found that dissolved oxygen in 40% of measurements during summer were below 4 mg L-1. To evaluate mercury as a potential threat, we developed a mercury uptake model and analyzed mercury levels in amphipod prey and sturgeon eggs. These did not exceed EPA guidelines. Finally, we developed a PVA model that including linkages between shortnose sturgeon growth, reproduction, and survival and each remaining threat; All three had significant influences. Preliminary simulations suggest that elevated temperatures under future climate will extirpate this population and add support to the hypothesis that this species requires access to spawning habitat far upstream to persist.

  5. Atomic-Resolution Visualization of Distinctive Chemical Mixing Behavior of Ni, Co and Mn with Li in Layered Lithium Transition-Metal Oxide Cathode Materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yan, Pengfei; Zheng, Jianming; Lv, Dongping; Wei, Yi; Zheng, Jiaxin; Wang, Zhiguo; Kuppan, Saravanan; Yu, Jianguo; Luo, Langli; Edwards, Danny J.; Olszta, Matthew J.; Amine, Khalil; Liu, Jun; Xiao, Jie; Pan, Feng; Chen, Guoying; Zhang, Jiguang; Wang, Chong M.

    2015-07-06

    Capacity and voltage fading of layer structured cathode based on lithium transition metal oxide is closely related to the lattice position and migration behavior of the transition metal ions. However, it is scarcely clear about the behavior of each of these transition metal ions. We report direct atomic resolution visualization of interatomic layer mixing of transition metal (Ni, Co, Mn) and lithium ions in layer structured oxide cathodes for lithium ion batteries. Using chemical imaging with aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) and DFT calculations, we discovered that in the layered cathodes, Mn and Co tend to reside almost exclusively at the lattice site of transition metal (TM) layer in the structure or little interlayer mixing with Li. In contrast, Ni shows high degree of interlayer mixing with Li. The fraction of Ni ions reside in the Li layer followed a near linear dependence on total Ni concentration before reaching saturation. The observed distinctively different behavior of Ni with respect to Co and Mn provides new insights on both capacity and voltage fade in this class of cathode materials based on lithium and TM oxides, therefore providing scientific basis for selective tailoring of oxide cathode materials for enhanced performance.

  6. Electrocatalytic Hydrogen Production by [Ni(7PPh2NH)2]2+: Removing the Distinction Between Endo- and Exo- Protonation Sites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Houston JS; Wiese, Stefan; Roberts, John A.; Bullock, R. Morris; Helm, Monte L.

    2015-04-03

    A new Ni(II) complex, [Ni(7PPh2NH)2]2+ (7PPh2NH = 3,6-triphenyl-1-aza-3,6-diphosphacycloheptane) has been synthesized, and its electrochemical properties are reported. The 7PPh2NH ligand features an NH, ensuring properly positioned protonated amine groups (NH+) for electrocatalysis, regardless of whether protonation occurs exo- or endo- to the metal center. The compound is an electrocatalyst for H2 production in the presence of organic acids (pKa range 1013 in CH3CN) with turnover frequencies ranging from 160770 s-1 at overpotentials between 320470 mV, as measured at the half peak potential of the catalytic wave. In stark contrast to [Ni(PR2NR'2)2]2+ and other [Ni(7PPh2NR')]2+ complexes, catalytic turnover frequencies for H2 production by [Ni(7PPh2NH)2]2+ do not show catalytic rate enhancement upon the addition of H2O. This finding supports the assertion that [Ni(7PPh2NH)2]2+ eliminates the distinction between the endo- and exo-protonation isomers. This research was supported as part of the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy.

  7. 2001 New York State NHTS: Travel Patterns of Special Populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Patricia S; Reuscher, Tim

    2010-03-01

    Policymakers rely on transportation statistics, including data on personal travel behavior, to formulate strategic transportation policies, and to improve the safety and efficiency of the U.S. transportation system. Data on personal travel trends are needed to examine the reliability, efficiency, capacity, and flexibility of the Nation's transportation system to meet current demands and accommodate future demands; to assess the feasibility and efficiency of alternative congestion-alleviating technologies (e.g., high-speed rail, magnetically levitated trains, intelligent vehicle and highway systems); to evaluate the merits of alternative transportation investment programs; and to assess the energy-use and air-quality impacts of various policies. To address these data needs, the U.S. Department of Transportation (USDOT) initiated an effort in 1969 to collect detailed data on personal travel. The 1969 survey was the first Nationwide Personal Transportation Survey (NPTS). The survey was conducted again in 1977, 1983, 1990, 1995, and 2001. Data on daily travel were collected in 1969, 1977, 1983, 1990 and 1995. Longer-distance travel was collected in 1977 and 1995. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) collected both daily and longer-distance trips in one survey. The 2001 survey was sponsored by three USDOT agencies: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA), Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), and National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). The primary objective of the survey was to collect trip-based data on the nature and characteristics of personal travel so that the relationships between the characteristics of personal travel and the demographics of the traveler can be established. Commercial and institutional travel was not part of the survey. New York State participated in the 2001 NHTS by procuring additional 12,000 sample households. These additional sample households allowed New York State to address transportation planning issues pertinent to geographic areas that are significantly smaller than what the national NHTS data allowed. The final sample size for New York State was 13,423 usable households. In this report, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) identifies and analyzes differences, if any, in travel patterns that are attributable to demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, age, race and ethnicity), household characteristics (e.g., low income households, zero and one car households), modal characteristics and geographic location. Travel patterns of those who work at home are examined and compared to those of conventional workers, as well as those who do not work. Focus is given to trip frequency, travel by time of day, trip purpose, and mode choice. For example, included in this analysis is the mobility of the elderly population in New York State. The American society is undergoing a major demographic transformation that is resulting in a greater percentage of older individuals in the population. In addition to demographic changes, recent travel surveys show that an increasing number of older individuals are licensed to drive and that they drive more than their same age cohort did a decade ago. Cohort differences in driving are particularly apparent - not only are more of today's elderly population licensed to drive than their age cohort two decades ago, they also drive more. Equally important are the increase in immigration and in racial and cultural diversity. This report also discusses vehicle availability, socioeconomic characteristics, travel trends (e.g., miles travelled, distance driven, commute patterns), and the transportation accessibility of these populations. Specifically, this report addresses in detail the travel behavior of the following special populations: (1) the elderly, defined as those who were 65 years old or older, (2) low-income households, (3) ethnic groups and immigrants, and (4) those who worked at home.

  8. Distinct summer and winter bacterial communities in the active layer of Svalbard permafrost revealed by DNA- and RNA-based analyses

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schostag, Morten; Stibal, Marek; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Bælum, Jacob; Taş, Neslihan; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, Janet K.; Semenchuk, Philipp; Priemé, Anders

    2015-04-30

    The active layer of soil overlaying permafrost in the Arctic is subjected to dramatic annual changes in temperature and soil chemistry, which likely affect bacterial activity and community structure. We studied seasonal variations in the bacterial community of active layer soil from Svalbard (78°N) by co-extracting DNA and RNA from 12 soil cores collected monthly over a year. PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA genes (DNA) and reverse transcribed transcripts (cDNA) were quantified and sequenced to test for the effect of low winter temperature and seasonal variation in concentration of easily degradable organic matter on the bacterial communities. The copy numbermore » of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts revealed no distinct seasonal changes indicating potential bacterial activity during winter despite soil temperatures well below -10°C. Multivariate statistical analysis of the bacterial diversity data (DNA and cDNA libraries) revealed a season-based clustering of the samples, and, e.g., the relative abundance of potentially active Cyanobacteria peaked in June and Alphaproteobacteria increased over the summer and then declined from October to November. The structure of the bulk (DNA-based) community was significantly correlated with pH and dissolved organic carbon, while the potentially active (RNA-based) community structure was not significantly correlated with any of the measured soil parameters. A large fraction of the 16S rRNA transcripts was assigned to nitrogen-fixing bacteria (up to 24% in June) and phototrophic organisms (up to 48% in June) illustrating the potential importance of nitrogen fixation in otherwise nitrogen poor Arctic ecosystems and of phototrophic bacterial activity on the soil surface.« less

  9. Distinct summer and winter bacterial communities in the active layer of Svalbard permafrost revealed by DNA- and RNA-based analyses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schostag, Morten; Stibal, Marek; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Blum, Jacob; Ta?, Neslihan; Elberling, Bo; Jansson, Janet K.; Semenchuk, Philipp; Priem, Anders

    2015-04-30

    The active layer of soil overlaying permafrost in the Arctic is subjected to dramatic annual changes in temperature and soil chemistry, which likely affect bacterial activity and community structure. We studied seasonal variations in the bacterial community of active layer soil from Svalbard (78N) by co-extracting DNA and RNA from 12 soil cores collected monthly over a year. PCR amplicons of 16S rRNA genes (DNA) and reverse transcribed transcripts (cDNA) were quantified and sequenced to test for the effect of low winter temperature and seasonal variation in concentration of easily degradable organic matter on the bacterial communities. The copy number of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts revealed no distinct seasonal changes indicating potential bacterial activity during winter despite soil temperatures well below -10C. Multivariate statistical analysis of the bacterial diversity data (DNA and cDNA libraries) revealed a season-based clustering of the samples, and, e.g., the relative abundance of potentially active Cyanobacteria peaked in June and Alphaproteobacteria increased over the summer and then declined from October to November. The structure of the bulk (DNA-based) community was significantly correlated with pH and dissolved organic carbon, while the potentially active (RNA-based) community structure was not significantly correlated with any of the measured soil parameters. A large fraction of the 16S rRNA transcripts was assigned to nitrogen-fixing bacteria (up to 24% in June) and phototrophic organisms (up to 48% in June) illustrating the potential importance of nitrogen fixation in otherwise nitrogen poor Arctic ecosystems and of phototrophic bacterial activity on the soil surface.

  10. Comparative genomics of the white-rot fungi, Phanerochaete carnosa and P. chrysosporium, to elucidate the genetic basis of the distinct wood types they colonize

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suzuki, Hitoshi; MacDonald, Jacqueline; Syed, Khajamohiddin; Salamov, Asaf; Hori, Chiaki; Aerts, Andrea; Henrissat, Bernard; Wiebenga, Ad; vanKuyk, Patricia A.; Barry, Kerrie; Lindquist, Erika; LaButti, Kurt; Lapidus, Alla; Lucas, Susan; Coutinho, Pedro; Gong, Yunchen; Samejima, Masahiro; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh; de Vries, Ronald P.; Igarashi, Kiyohiko; Yadav, Jagit S.; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Master, Emma R.

    2012-02-17

    Background Softwood is the predominant form of land plant biomass in the Northern hemisphere, and is among the most recalcitrant biomass resources to bioprocess technologies. The white rot fungus, Phanerochaete carnosa, has been isolated almost exclusively from softwoods, while most other known white-rot species, including Phanerochaete chrysosporium, were mainly isolated from hardwoods. Accordingly, it is anticipated that P. carnosa encodes a distinct set of enzymes and proteins that promote softwood decomposition. To elucidate the genetic basis of softwood bioconversion by a white-rot fungus, the present study reports the P. carnosa genome sequence and its comparative analysis with the previously reported P. chrysosporium genome. Results P. carnosa encodes a complete set of lignocellulose-active enzymes. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that P. carnosa is enriched with genes encoding manganese peroxidase, and that the most divergent glycoside hydrolase families were predicted to encode hemicellulases and glycoprotein degrading enzymes. Most remarkably, P. carnosa possesses one of the largest P450 contingents (266 P450s) among the sequenced and annotated wood-rotting basidiomycetes, nearly double that of P. chrysosporium. Along with metabolic pathway modeling, comparative growth studies on model compounds and chemical analyses of decomposed wood components showed greater tolerance of P. carnosa to various substrates including coniferous heartwood. Conclusions The P. carnosa genome is enriched with genes that encode P450 monooxygenases that can participate in extractives degradation, and manganese peroxidases involved in lignin degradation. The significant expansion of P450s in P. carnosa, along with differences in carbohydrate- and lignin-degrading enzymes, could be correlated to the utilization of heartwood and sapwood preparations from both coniferous and hardwood species.

  11. Population exposure dose reconstruction for the Urals Region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degteva, M.O.; Kozheurov, V.P.; Vorobiova, M.I.; Burmistrov, D.S.; Khokhryakov, V.V.; Suslova, K.G.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.

    1996-06-01

    This presentation describes the first preliminary results of an ongoing joint Russian-US pilot feasibility study. Many people participated in workshops to determine what Russian and United States scientists could do together in the area of dose reconstruction in the Urals population. Most of the results presented here came from a joint work shop in St. Petersburg, Russia (11-13 July 1995). The Russians at the workshop represented the Urals Research Center for Radiation Medicine (URCRM), the Mayak Industrial Association, and Branch One of the Moscow Biophysics Institute. The US Collaborators were Dr. Anspaugh of LLNL, Dr. Nippier of PNL, and Dr. Bouville of the National Cancer Institute. The objective of the first year of collaboration was to look at the source term and levels of radiation contamination, the historical data available, and the results of previous work carried out by Russian scientists, and to determine a conceptual model for dose reconstruction.

  12. The RR Lyrae variable population in the Phoenix dwarf galaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ordoez, Antonio J.; Sarajedini, Ata [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Yang, Soung-Chul, E-mail: a.ordonez@ufl.edu, E-mail: ata@astro.ufl.edu, E-mail: sczoo@kasi.re.kr [Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI), Daejeon 305-348 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-10

    We present the first detailed study of the RR Lyrae variable population in the Local Group dSph/dIrr transition galaxy, Phoenix, using previously obtained HST/WFPC2 observations of the galaxy. We utilize template light curve fitting routines to obtain best fit light curves for RR Lyrae variables in Phoenix. Our technique has identified 78 highly probable RR Lyrae stars (54 ab-type; 24 c-type) with about 40 additional candidates. We find mean periods for the two populations of (P {sub ab}) = 0.60 0.03 days and (P{sub c} ) = 0.353 0.002 days. We use the properties of these light curves to extract, among other things, a metallicity distribution function for ab-type RR Lyrae. Our analysis yields a mean metallicity of ([Fe/H]) = 1.68 0.06 dex for the RRab stars. From the mean period and metallicity calculated from the ab-type RR Lyrae, we conclude that Phoenix is more likely of intermediate Oosterhoff type; however the morphology of the Bailey diagram for Phoenix RR Lyraes appears similar to that of an Oosterhoff type I system. Using the RRab stars, we also study the chemical enrichment law for Phoenix. We find that our metallicity distribution is reasonably well fitted by a closed-box model. The parameters of this model are compatible with the findings of Hidalgo et al., further supporting the idea that Phoenix appears to have been chemically enriched as a closed-box-like system during the early stage of its formation and evolution.

  13. Evaluate Potenial Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.; Hesse, Jay A.

    2004-02-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This report presents a summary of results from the 1997-2002 Phase II data collection and represents the end of phase II. From 1997 to 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon. A total of 1,785 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 77 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 25.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. Relative density of white sturgeon was highest in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River, with reduced densities of fish in Lower Granite Reservoir, and low densities the Salmon River. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir, the free-flowing Snake River and the Salmon River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. Total annual mortality rate was estimated to be 0.14 (95% confidence interval of 0.12 to 0.17). A total of 35 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 1999-2002. The movement of these fish ranged from 53 km (33 miles) downstream to 77 km (48 miles) upstream; however, 38.8 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. The results suggest fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate egg mats documented white sturgeon spawning in four consecutive years. A total of 49 white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River from 1999-2002, and seven from the Salmon River during 2000.

  14. Remarkable waxing, waning, and wandering of populations of Mimulus guttatus: An unexpected example of global warming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vickery, R.K. Jr.

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the dynamics of a meta-population of Mimulus guttatus. Changes in size and location of 16 original populations and the new populations established in their vicinities in Big Cottonwood Canyon, Salt Lake county, Utah, were observed for 25 yr. Twenty-three new populations appeared. Seven original populations and 13 new populations had become extinct by the end of the observation period in 1996. Many populations died out and were reestablished, often repeatedly, during the observation period. Altogether there were 54 population disappearances and 34 reappearances. Many populations changed size as much as 100-fold or more from year to year. There were spectacular examples of populations expanding to fill newly available, large habitats. Frequent extinctions were due overwhelmingly to the canyon drying trend, which led to the drying up of most Mill D North drainage springs, creeks, and ponds. Precipitation and minimum temperatures increased moderately during the observation period. The growing season lengthened almost 50%, a typical consequence of global warming. The drying trend, lengthened growing season, and disappearance of Mimulus populations in Big Cottonwood Canyon appear to be a clear, local example of global warming.

  15. Locally-Adaptive, Spatially-Explicit Projection of U.S. Population for 2030 and 2050

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McKee, Jacob J; Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A; Huynh, Timmy N; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2015-01-01

    Localized adverse events, including natural hazards, epidemiological events, and human conflict, underscore the criticality of quantifying and mapping current population. Moreover, knowing the spatial distribution of future population allows for increased preparation in the event of an emergency. Building on the spatial interpolation technique previously developed for high resolution population distribution data (LandScan Global and LandScan USA), we have constructed an empirically-informed spatial distribution of the projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 and 2050. Whereas most current large-scale, spatially explicit population projections typically rely on a population gravity model to determine areas of future growth, our projection modelmore » departs from these by accounting for multiple components that affect population distribution. Modelled variables, which included land cover, slope, distances to larger cities, and a moving average of current population, were locally adaptive and geographically varying. The resulting weighted surface was used to determine which areas had the greatest likelihood for future population change. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census s projection methodology with the U.S. Census s official projection as the benchmark. Applications of our model include, but are not limited to, suitability modelling, service area planning for governmental agencies, consequence assessment, mitigation planning and implementation, and assessment of spatially vulnerable populations.« less

  16. Locally-Adaptive, Spatially-Explicit Projection of U.S. Population for 2030 and 2050

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McKee, Jacob J; Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A; Huynh, Timmy N; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2015-01-01

    Localized adverse events, including natural hazards, epidemiological events, and human conflict, underscore the criticality of quantifying and mapping current population. Moreover, knowing the spatial distribution of future population allows for increased preparation in the event of an emergency. Building on the spatial interpolation technique previously developed for high resolution population distribution data (LandScan Global and LandScan USA), we have constructed an empirically-informed spatial distribution of the projected population of the contiguous U.S. for 2030 and 2050. Whereas most current large-scale, spatially explicit population projections typically rely on a population gravity model to determine areas of future growth, our projection model departs from these by accounting for multiple components that affect population distribution. Modelled variables, which included land cover, slope, distances to larger cities, and a moving average of current population, were locally adaptive and geographically varying. The resulting weighted surface was used to determine which areas had the greatest likelihood for future population change. Population projections of county level numbers were developed using a modified version of the U.S. Census s projection methodology with the U.S. Census s official projection as the benchmark. Applications of our model include, but are not limited to, suitability modelling, service area planning for governmental agencies, consequence assessment, mitigation planning and implementation, and assessment of spatially vulnerable populations.

  17. Data Driven Approach for High Resolution Population Distribution and Dynamics Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Bright, Eddie A; Rose, Amy N; Liu, Cheng; Urban, Marie L; Stewart, Robert N

    2014-01-01

    High resolution population distribution data are vital for successfully addressing critical issues ranging from energy and socio-environmental research to public health to human security. Commonly available population data from Census is constrained both in space and time and does not capture population dynamics as functions of space and time. This imposes a significant limitation on the fidelity of event-based simulation models with sensitive space-time resolution. This paper describes ongoing development of high-resolution population distribution and dynamics models, at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, through spatial data integration and modeling with behavioral or activity-based mobility datasets for representing temporal dynamics of population. The model is resolved at 1 km resolution globally and describes the U.S. population for nighttime and daytime at 90m. Integration of such population data provides the opportunity to develop simulations and applications in critical infrastructure management from local to global scales.

  18. Nuisance Source Population Modeling for Radiation Detection System Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sokkappa, P; Lange, D; Nelson, K; Wheeler, R

    2009-10-05

    A major challenge facing the prospective deployment of radiation detection systems for homeland security applications is the discrimination of radiological or nuclear 'threat sources' from radioactive, but benign, 'nuisance sources'. Common examples of such nuisance sources include naturally occurring radioactive material (NORM), medical patients who have received radioactive drugs for either diagnostics or treatment, and industrial sources. A sensitive detector that cannot distinguish between 'threat' and 'benign' classes will generate false positives which, if sufficiently frequent, will preclude it from being operationally deployed. In this report, we describe a first-principles physics-based modeling approach that is used to approximate the physical properties and corresponding gamma ray spectral signatures of real nuisance sources. Specific models are proposed for the three nuisance source classes - NORM, medical and industrial. The models can be validated against measured data - that is, energy spectra generated with the model can be compared to actual nuisance source data. We show by example how this is done for NORM and medical sources, using data sets obtained from spectroscopic detector deployments for cargo container screening and urban area traffic screening, respectively. In addition to capturing the range of radioactive signatures of individual nuisance sources, a nuisance source population model must generate sources with a frequency of occurrence consistent with that found in actual movement of goods and people. Measured radiation detection data can indicate these frequencies, but, at present, such data are available only for a very limited set of locations and time periods. In this report, we make more general estimates of frequencies for NORM and medical sources using a range of data sources such as shipping manifests and medical treatment statistics. We also identify potential data sources for industrial source frequencies, but leave the task of estimating these frequencies for future work. Modeling of nuisance source populations is only useful if it helps in understanding detector system performance in real operational environments. Examples of previous studies in which nuisance source models played a key role are briefly discussed. These include screening of in-bound urban traffic and monitoring of shipping containers in transit to U.S. ports.

  19. A dual model HU conversion from MRI intensity values within and outside of bone segment for MRI-based radiotherapy treatment planning of prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korhonen, Juha; Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB-180, 00029 HUS ; Kapanen, Mika; Department of Oncology, Helsinki University Central Hospital, POB-180, 00029 HUS; Department of Medical Physics, Tampere University Hospital, POB-2000, 33521 Tampere ; Keyrilinen, Jani; Seppl, Tiina; Tenhunen, Mikko

    2014-01-15

    Purpose: The lack of electron density information in magnetic resonance images (MRI) poses a major challenge for MRI-based radiotherapy treatment planning (RTP). In this study the authors convert MRI intensity values into Hounsfield units (HUs) in the male pelvis and thus enable accurate MRI-based RTP for prostate cancer patients with varying tissue anatomy and body fat contents. Methods: T{sub 1}/T{sub 2}*-weighted MRI intensity values and standard computed tomography (CT) image HUs in the male pelvis were analyzed using image data of 10 prostate cancer patients. The collected data were utilized to generate a dual model HU conversion technique from MRI intensity values of the single image set separately within and outside of contoured pelvic bones. Within the bone segment local MRI intensity values were converted to HUs by applying a second-order polynomial model. This model was tuned for each patient by two patient-specific adjustments: MR signal normalization to correct shifts in absolute intensity level and application of a cutoff value to accurately represent low density bony tissue HUs. For soft tissues, such as fat and muscle, located outside of the bone contours, a threshold-based segmentation method without requirements for any patient-specific adjustments was introduced to convert MRI intensity values into HUs. The dual model HU conversion technique was implemented by constructing pseudo-CT images for 10 other prostate cancer patients. The feasibility of these images for RTP was evaluated by comparing HUs in the generated pseudo-CT images with those in standard CT images, and by determining deviations in MRI-based dose distributions compared to those in CT images with 7-field intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with the anisotropic analytical algorithm and 360 volumetric-modulated arc therapy (VMAT) with the Voxel Monte Carlo algorithm. Results: The average HU differences between the constructed pseudo-CT images and standard CT images of each test patient ranged from ?2 to 5 HUs and from 22 to 78 HUs in soft and bony tissues, respectively. The average local absolute value differences were 11 HUs in soft tissues and 99 HUs in bones. The planning target volume doses (volumes 95%, 50%, 5%) in the pseudo-CT images were within 0.8% compared to those in CT images in all of the 20 treatment plans. The average deviation was 0.3%. With all the test patients over 94% (IMRT) and 92% (VMAT) of dose points within body (lower than 10% of maximum dose suppressed) passed the 1 mm and 1% 2D gamma index criterion. The statistical tests (t- and F-tests) showed significantly improved (p ? 0.05) HU and dose calculation accuracies with the soft tissue conversion method instead of homogeneous representation of these tissues in MRI-based RTP images. Conclusions: This study indicates that it is possible to construct high quality pseudo-CT images by converting the intensity values of a single MRI series into HUs in the male pelvis, and to use these images for accurate MRI-based prostate RTP dose calculations.

  20. Negative terahertz conductivity in disordered graphene bilayers with population inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svintsov, D.; Otsuji, T.; Ryzhii, V.; Mitin, V.; Shur, M. S.

    2015-03-16

    The gapless energy band spectra make the structures based on graphene and graphene bilayer with the population inversion to be promising media for the interband terahertz (THz) lasing. However, a strong intraband absorption at THz frequencies still poses a challenge for efficient THz lasing. In this paper, we show that in the pumped graphene bilayer, the indirect interband radiative transitions accompanied by scattering of carriers by disorder can provide a substantial negative contribution to the THz conductivity (together with the direct interband transitions). In the graphene bilayer on high-? substrates with point charged defects, these transitions substantially compensate the losses due to the intraband (Drude) absorption. We also demonstrate that the indirect interband contribution to the THz conductivity in a graphene bilayer with the extended defects (such as the charged impurity clusters) can surpass by several times the fundamental limit associated with the direct interband transitions, and the Drude conductivity as well. These predictions can affect the strategy of the graphene-based THz laser implementation.

  1. Climate change and health: Indoor heat exposure in vulnerable populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White-Newsome, Jalonne L.; Sanchez, Brisa N.; Jolliet, Olivier; Zhang, Zhenzhen; Parker, Edith A.; Timothy Dvonch, J.; O'Neill, Marie S.

    2012-01-15

    Introduction: Climate change is increasing the frequency of heat waves and hot weather in many urban environments. Older people are more vulnerable to heat exposure but spend most of their time indoors. Few published studies have addressed indoor heat exposure in residences occupied by an elderly population. The purpose of this study is to explore the relationship between outdoor and indoor temperatures in homes occupied by the elderly and determine other predictors of indoor temperature. Materials and methods: We collected hourly indoor temperature measurements of 30 different homes; outdoor temperature, dewpoint temperature, and solar radiation data during summer 2009 in Detroit, MI. We used mixed linear regression to model indoor temperatures' responsiveness to weather, housing and environmental characteristics, and evaluated our ability to predict indoor heat exposures based on outdoor conditions. Results: Average maximum indoor temperature for all locations was 34.85 Degree-Sign C, 13.8 Degree-Sign C higher than average maximum outdoor temperature. Indoor temperatures of single family homes constructed of vinyl paneling or wood siding were more sensitive than brick homes to outdoor temperature changes and internal heat gains. Outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and dewpoint temperature predicted 38% of the variability of indoor temperatures. Conclusions: Indoor exposures to heat in Detroit exceed the comfort range among elderly occupants, and can be predicted using outdoor temperatures, characteristics of the housing stock and surroundings to improve heat exposure assessment for epidemiological investigations. Weatherizing homes and modifying home surroundings could mitigate indoor heat exposure among the elderly.

  2. Pair instability supernovae of very massive population III stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan; Heger, Alexander; Almgren, Ann; Whalen, Daniel J.

    2014-09-01

    Numerical studies of primordial star formation suggest that the first stars in the universe may have been very massive. Stellar models indicate that non-rotating Population III stars with initial masses of 140-260 M {sub ?} die as highly energetic pair-instability supernovae. We present new two-dimensional simulations of primordial pair-instability supernovae done with the CASTRO code. Our simulations begin at earlier times than previous multidimensional models, at the onset of core contraction, to capture any dynamical instabilities that may be seeded by core contraction and explosive burning. Such instabilities could enhance explosive yields by mixing hot ash with fuel, thereby accelerating nuclear burning, and affect the spectra of the supernova by dredging up heavy elements from greater depths in the star at early times. Our grid of models includes both blue supergiants and red supergiants over the range in progenitor mass expected for these events. We find that fluid instabilities driven by oxygen and helium burning arise at the upper and lower boundaries of the oxygen shell ?20-100 s after core bounce. Instabilities driven by burning freeze out after the SN shock exits the helium core. As the shock later propagates through the hydrogen envelope, a strong reverse shock forms that drives the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities. In red supergiant progenitors, the amplitudes of these instabilities are sufficient to mix the supernova ejecta.

  3. Assessment of plutonium exposure in the Enewetak population by urinalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun, L.C.; Meinhold, C.B.; Moorthy, A.R.

    1997-07-01

    Since 1980, the inhabitants of Enewetak Atoll have been monitored periodically by scientists from Brookhaven National Laboratory for internally deposited radioactive material. In 1989, the establishment of fission track analysis and of a protocol for shipboard collection of 24-h urine samples significantly improved our ability to assess the internal uptake of plutonium. The purpose of this report is to show the distribution of plutonium concentrations in urine collected in 1989 and 1991, and to assess the associated committed effective doses for the Enewetak population based on a long-term chronic uptake of low-level plutonium. To estimate dose, we derived the plutonium dose-per-unit-uptake coefficients based on the dosimetric system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Assuming a continuous uptake, an integrated Jones`s plutonium urine excretion function was developed to interpret the Enewetak urine data. The Appendix shows how these values were derived. The committed effective doses were 0.2 mSv, calculated from the 1991 average plutonium content in 69 urine samples. 29 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. LandScan 2001 High-Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" x 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on proximity to roads, slope, land cover, nighttime lights, and other data sets. LandScan 2001 has been developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient population risk.

  5. LandScan 2014 High-Resolution Global Population Data Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-01-01

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30" X 30" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts (at sub-national level) were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets. The LandScan data set was developed as part of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Global Population Project for estimating ambient populations at risk.

  6. Predation, Competition, and Abiotic Disturbance: Population Dynamics of Small Mammals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yunger, John A.; /Northern Illinois U. /Northern Illinois U.

    1996-01-01

    Predation and food availability have been implicated in annual non-cyclic fluctuations of vertebrate prey at mid-latitudes. The timing and magnitude of these factors are unclear due to a lack of large-scale field experiments, little attention to interactions, and a failure to closely link vertebrate predators with their prey. From October 1992 to January 1996, small mammal populations were censused on eight 0.6 ha plots at monthly intervals in a 32-ha prairie restoration at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Illinois. Terrestrial vertebrate predators were excluded after July 1993 from four of the eight plots and canid diets monitored. Both terrestrial and avian vertebrate predators were excluded in March 1994. During 1993 small mammal densities (i.e., Microtus Pennsylvanicus, Peromyscus leucopus, and P. maniculatus) were relatively high. Following peak densities in late summer, Microtus numbers wer 2-3x greater on exclusion plots relative to controls due to preferential selection of Microtus by canids, as reflected in dits. Following an ice-storm and crash in small mammal numbers (particularly Microtus), vertebrate predator exclusion had no detectable effect on P. leucopus numbers, probably due to an abundance of alternative prey (i.e., Sylvilagus floridanus). Meadow vole numbers began to increase in Fall 1995, and a numerical effect of predator exclusion, similar to that in 1993, was observed. Predator exclusion had no detectable effect on the movements and spatial patterns of Microtus during 1993. There was a significant decrease in home range and a significant increase in home range overlap for P. leucopus on the predator exclusion plots. The change in spatial behavior may be due to interspecific competition with Microtus resulting from increased densities on exclusion plots. Thus, predators had an indirect effect on P. leucopus spatial patterns mediated through M. Pennsylvanicus. The role of food limitation was studied using natural and manipulative experiments. Unusually high acorn production in Fall 1994 resulted in increased P. leucopus numbers at one Fermilab site due to immigration since survivorship or reproduction were unaffected. A food supplementation experiment during October 1994-March 1995 induced a strong increase in P. leucopus numbers, due again to immigration, although reproduction also was advanced by two months.

  7. SU-D-BRD-06: Automated Population-Based Planning for Whole Brain Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schreibmann, E; Fox, T; Crocker, I; Shu, H

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Treatment planning for whole brain radiation treatment is technically a simple process but in practice it takes valuable clinical time of repetitive and tedious tasks. This report presents a method that automatically segments the relevant target and normal tissues and creates a treatment plan in only a few minutes after patient simulation. Methods: Segmentation is performed automatically through morphological operations on the soft tissue. The treatment plan is generated by searching a database of previous cases for patients with similar anatomy. In this search, each database case is ranked in terms of similarity using a customized metric designed for sensitivity by including only geometrical changes that affect the dose distribution. The database case with the best match is automatically modified to replace relevant patient info and isocenter position while maintaining original beam and MLC settings. Results: Fifteen patients were used to validate the method. In each of these cases the anatomy was accurately segmented to mean Dice coefficients of 0.970 ± 0.008 for the brain, 0.846 ± 0.009 for the eyes and 0.672 ± 0.111 for the lens as compared to clinical segmentations. Each case was then subsequently matched against a database of 70 validated treatment plans and the best matching plan (termed auto-planned), was compared retrospectively with the clinical plans in terms of brain coverage and maximum doses to critical structures. Maximum doses were reduced by a maximum of 20.809 Gy for the left eye (mean 3.533), by 13.352 (1.311) for the right eye, and by 27.471 (4.856), 25.218 (6.315) for the left and right lens. Time from simulation to auto-plan was 3-4 minutes. Conclusion: Automated database- based matching is an alternative to classical treatment planning that improves quality while providing a cost—effective solution to planning through modifying previous validated plans to match a current patient's anatomy.

  8. Columbia River White Sturgeon (Acipenser Transmontanus) Population Genetics and Early Life History Study, January 1, 1986 to December 31, 1986, Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brannon, Ernest L.

    1986-12-01

    The 1986 Columbia River white sturgeon investigations continued to assess genetic variability of sturgeon populations isolated in various areas of the Columbia River, and to examine environmental factors in the habitat that may affect early life history success. Baseline data have been collected for three character sets. Twenty-eight loci have been analyzed for differences using electrophoresis, snout shapes were assessed for multivariate distinction, and scute counts have been examined as an index of variability. Fish that reside in the mid-Columbia and lower river have been sufficiently characterized by electrophoresis to compare with up-river areas. To date, few electrophoretic differences have been identified. However, Lake Roosevelt sturgeon sample size will be increased to determine if some of the observed differences from lower river fish are significant. Snout shape has been shown to be easily quantifiable using the digitizing technique. Scute count data initially indicate that variability exists within as well as between areas. Patterns of differentiation of one or more of these data sets may be used to formulate stock transplant guidelines essential for proper management or enhancement of this species. The historical habitat available to sturgeon in the Columbia River has changed through the development of hydroelectric projects. Dams have reduced the velocity and turbulence, and increased light penetration in the water column from less silt. These changes have affected the ability of sturgeon to feed and have made them more vulnerable to predation, which appear to have altered the ability of populations isolated in the reservoirs to sustain themselves. Present studies support the theory that both the biological and physical habitat characteristics of the Columbia River are responsible for reduced sturgeon survival, and justify consideration of enhancement initiatives above Bonneville to improve sturgeon reproductive success.

  9. Perspective: The Climate-Population-Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation Fertile Area for New Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Walker, Kimberly A; Fu, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change and extreme weather to energy production and delivery is a challenge to communities worldwide. As climate conditions change, populations will shift, and demand will re-locate; and networked infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers, and, hopefully, minimize vulnerability to natural disaster. Climate effects such as sea level rise, increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters, force populations to move locations. Displaced population creates new demand for built infrastructure that in turn generates new economic activity that attracts new workers and associated households to the new locations. Infrastructures and their interdependencies will change in reaction to climate drivers as the networks expand into new population areas and as portions of the networks are abandoned as people leave. Thus, infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Forecasting the location of these vulnerabilities by combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for defining these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. By combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory it has been only recently possible to examine electricity demand response to increased climactic temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. These emerging results suggest a research agenda of coupling these disparate modelling approaches to understand the implications of climate change for protecting the nation s critical infrastructure.

  10. Estimating Small-area Populations by Age and Sex Using Spatial Interpolation and Statistical Inference Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Qai, Qiang [University of Iowa; Rushton, Gerald [University of Iowa; Bhaduri, Budhendra L [ORNL; Bright, Eddie A [ORNL; Coleman, Phil R [ORNL

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this research is to compute population estimates by age and sex for small areas whose boundaries are different from those for which the population counts were made. In our approach, population surfaces and age-sex proportion surfaces are separately estimated. Age-sex population estimates for small areas and their confidence intervals are then computed using a binomial model with the two surfaces as inputs. The approach was implemented for Iowa using a 90 m resolution population grid (LandScan USA) and U.S. Census 2000 population. Three spatial interpolation methods, the areal weighting (AW) method, the ordinary kriging (OK) method, and a modification of the pycnophylactic method, were used on Census Tract populations to estimate the age-sex proportion surfaces. To verify the model, age-sex population estimates were computed for paired Block Groups that straddled Census Tracts and therefore were spatially misaligned with them. The pycnophylactic method and the OK method were more accurate than the AW method. The approach is general and can be used to estimate subgroup-count types of variables from information in existing administrative areas for custom-defined areas used as the spatial basis of support in other applications.

  11. The LandScan Global Population Distribution Project: Current State of the Art and Prospective Innovation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rose, Amy N; Bright, Eddie A

    2014-01-01

    Advances in remote sensing, dasymetric mapping techniques, and the ever-increasing availability of spatial datasets have enhanced global human population distribution databases. These datasets demonstrate an enormous improvement over the conventional use of choropleth maps to represent population distribution and are vital for analysis and planning purposes including humanitarian response, disease mapping, risk analysis, and evacuation modeling. Dasymetric mapping techniques have been employed to address spatial mismatch, but also to develop finer resolution population distributions in areas of the world where subnational census data are coarse or non-existent. One such implementation is the LandScan Global model which provides a 30 arc-second global population distribution based on ancillary datasets such as land cover, slope, proximity to roads, and settlement locations. This work will review the current state of the LandScan model, future innovations aimed at increasing spatial and demographic resolution, and situate LandScan within the landscape of other global population distribution datasets.

  12. Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang Yan; Zheng Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., 'FOR PROCESSING') and vendor postprocessed (i.e., 'FOR PRESENTATION'), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which are then aggregated into a final dense tissue segmentation that is used to compute breast PD%. Our method is validated on a group of 81 women for whom bilateral, mediolateral oblique, raw and processed screening digital mammograms were available, and agreement is assessed with both continuous and categorical density estimates made by a trained breast-imaging radiologist. Results: Strong association between algorithm-estimated and radiologist-provided breast PD% was detected for both raw (r= 0.82, p < 0.001) and processed (r= 0.85, p < 0.001) digital mammograms on a per-breast basis. Stronger agreement was found when overall breast density was assessed on a per-woman basis for both raw (r= 0.85, p < 0.001) and processed (0.89, p < 0.001) mammograms. Strong agreement between categorical density estimates was also seen (weighted Cohen's {kappa}{>=} 0.79). Repeated measures analysis of variance demonstrated no statistically significant differences between the PD% estimates (p > 0.1) due to either presentation of the image (raw vs processed) or method of PD% assessment (radiologist vs algorithm). Conclusions: The proposed fully automated algorithm was successful in estimating breast percent density from both raw and processed digital mammographic images. Accurate assessment of a woman's breast density is critical in order for the estimate to be incorporated into risk assessment models. These results show promise for the clinical application of the algorithm in quantifying breast density in a repeatable manner, both at time of imaging as well as in retrospective studies.

  13. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2000 annual report covers the fourth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2000 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 53,277 hours of setline effort and 630 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2000. A total of 538 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 25 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 32.8 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 48 cm to 271 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 103 cm to 227 cm and averaged 163 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber open population estimator, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,725 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,668-5,783. A total of 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 54.7 km (34 miles) downstream to 78.8 km (49 miles) upstream; however, 43.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 31 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 138 aged white sturgeon. The results suggests fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. A total of 34 white sturgeon eggs were recovered: 27 in the Snake River, and seven in the Salmon River.

  14. Spatial Estimation of Populations at Risk from Radiological Dispersion Device Terrorism Incidents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Regens, J.L.; Gunter, J.T.

    2008-07-01

    Delineation of the location and size of the population potentially at risk of exposure to ionizing radiation is one of the key analytical challenges in estimating accurately the severity of the potential health effects associated with a radiological terrorism incident. Regardless of spatial scale, the geographical units for which population data commonly are collected rarely coincide with the geographical scale necessary for effective incident management and medical response. This paper identifies major government and commercial open sources of U.S. population data and presents a GIS-based approach for allocating publicly available population data, including age distributions, to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical response strategies. In summary: The gravity model offers a straight-forward, empirical tool for estimating population flows, especially when geographical areas are relatively well-defined in terms of accessibility and spatial separation. This is particularly important for several reasons. First, the spatial scale for the area impacted by a RDD terrorism event is unlikely to match fully the spatial scale of available population data. That is, the plume spread typically will not uniformly overlay the impacted area. Second, the number of people within the impacted area varies as a function whether an attack occurs during the day or night. For example, the population of a central business district or industrial area typically is larger during the day while predominately residential areas have larger night time populations. As a result, interpolation techniques that link population data to geographical units and allocate those data based on time-frame at a spatial scale that is relevant to enhancing preparedness and response. The gravity model's main advantage is that it efficiently allocates readily available, open source population data to geographical units appropriate for planning and implementing incident management and medical monitoring strategies. The importance of being able to link population estimates to geographic areas during the course of an RDD incident can be understood intuitively: - The spatial distribution of actual total dose equivalents of ionizing radiation is likely to vary due to changes in meteorological parameters as an event evolves over time; - The size of the geographical area affected also is likely to vary as a function of the actual release scenario; - The ability to identify the location and size of the populations that may be exposed to doses of ionizing radiation is critical to carrying out appropriate treatment and post-event medical monitoring; - Once a spatial interaction model has been validated for a city or a region, it can then be used for simulation and prediction purposes to assess the possible human health consequences of different release scenarios. (authors)

  15. Inequivalence of Single-Particle and Population Lifetimes in a Cuprate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Superconductor (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Inequivalence of Single-Particle and Population Lifetimes in a Cuprate Superconductor Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on June 14, 2016 Title: Inequivalence of Single-Particle and Population Lifetimes in a Cuprate Superconductor Authors: Yang, S.-L. ; Sobota, J. A. ; Leuenberger, D. ; He, Y. ; Hashimoto, M. ; Lu, D. H. ; Eisaki, H. ; Kirchmann, P. S. ; Shen, Z.-X. Publication Date: 2015-06-15

  16. OGLE-ing the Magellanic system: stellar populations in the Magellanic Bridge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skowron, D. M.; Jacyszyn, A. M.; Udalski, A.; Szyma?ski, M. K.; Skowron, J.; Poleski, R.; Koz?owski, S.; Kubiak, M.; Pietrzy?ski, G.; Soszy?ski, I.; Mrz, P.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Wyrzykowski, ?.

    2014-11-10

    We report the discovery of a young stellar bridge that forms a continuous connection between the Magellanic Clouds. This finding is based on number density maps for stellar populations found in data gathered by OGLE-IV that fully cover over 270 deg{sup 2} of the sky in the Magellanic Bridge area. This is the most extensive optical survey of this region to date. We find that the young population is present mainly in the western half of the MBR, which, together with the newly discovered young population in the eastern Bridge, form a continuous stream of stars connecting both galaxies along ? ? 73.5 deg. The young population distribution is clumped, with one of the major densities close to the SMC and the other fairly isolated and located approximately mid-way between the Clouds, which we call the OGLE island. These overdensities are well matched by H I surface density contours, although the newly found young population in the eastern Bridge is offset by ?2 deg north from the highest H I density contour. We observe a continuity of red clump stars between the Magellanic Clouds which represent an intermediate-age population. Red clump stars are present mainly in the southern and central parts of the Magellanic Bridge, below its gaseous part, and their presence is reflected by a strong deviation from the radial density profiles of the two galaxies. This may indicate either a tidal stream of stars, or that the stellar halos of the two galaxies overlap. On the other hand, we do not observe such an overlap within an intermediate-age population represented by the top of the red giant branch and the asymptotic giant branch stars. We also see only minor mixing of the old populations of the Clouds in the southern part of the Bridge, represented by the lowest part of the red giant branch.

  17. Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population -

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Final Report, May 2005 | Department of Energy U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 Characterization of the U.S. Industrial/Commercial Boiler Population - Final Report, May 2005 The U.S. industrial and commercial sectors consume large quantities of energy. Much of this energy is used in boilers to generate steam and hot water. This 2005 report characterizes the boilers in the industrial and commercial sector in terms of number of units, aggregate capacity,

  18. Modeling tracers of young stellar population age in star-forming galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Leitherer, Claus

    2013-12-20

    The young stellar population of a star-forming galaxy is the primary engine driving its radiative properties. As a result, the age of a galaxy's youngest generation of stars is critical for a detailed understanding of its star formation history, stellar content, and evolutionary state. Here we present predicted equivalent widths for the H?, H?, and Br? recombination lines as a function of stellar population age. The equivalent widths are produced by the latest generations of stellar evolutionary tracks and the Starburst99 stellar population synthesis code, and are the first to fully account for the combined effects of both nebular emission and continuum absorption produced by the synthetic stellar population. Our grid of model stellar populations spans six metallicities (0.001 < Z < 0.04), two treatments of star formation history (a 10{sup 6} M {sub ?} instantaneous burst and a continuous star formation rate of 1 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}), and two different treatments of initial rotation rate (v {sub rot} = 0.0v {sub crit} and 0.4v {sub crit}). We also investigate the effects of varying the initial mass function. Given constraints on galaxy metallicity, our predicted equivalent widths can be applied to observations of star-forming galaxies to approximate the age of their young stellar populations.

  19. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1999 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuell, Michael A.; Everett, Scott R.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 1999 annual report covers the third year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 1999 white sturgeon were captured, marked and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. A total of 33,943 hours of setline effort and 2,112 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 1999. A total of 289 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 29 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 11.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 27 cm to 261 cm and averaged 110 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 98 cm to 244 cm and averaged 183.5 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon < 60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 1,823 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,052-4,221. A total of 15 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags. The movement of these fish ranged from 6.4 km (4 miles) downstream to 13.7 km (8.5 miles) upstream; however, 83.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 kilometers (0.5 miles). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P < 0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 29 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir were slightly larger than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 49 aged white sturgeon. The results suggests the fish are currently growing faster than fish historicly inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. Five white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River.

  20. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Everett, Scott R.; Tuell, Michael A.

    2003-03-01

    The specific research goal of this project is to identify means to restore and rebuild the Snake River white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) population to support a sustainable annual subsistence harvest equivalent to 5 kg/ha/yr (CBFWA 1997). Based on data collected, a white sturgeon adaptive management plan will be developed. This 2001 annual report covers the fifth year of sampling of this multi-year study. In 2001 white sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected in the Snake and Salmon rivers. The Snake River was sampled between Lower Granite Dam (rkm 174) and the mouth of the Salmon River (rkm 303), and the Salmon River was sampled from its mouth upstream to Hammer Creek (rkm 84). A total of 45,907 hours of setline effort and 186 hours of hook-and-line effort was employed in 2001. A total of 390 white sturgeon were captured and tagged in the Snake River and 12 in the Salmon River. Since 1997, 36.1 percent of the tagged white sturgeon have been recaptured. In the Snake River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 42 cm to 307 cm and averaged 107 cm. In the Salmon River, white sturgeon ranged in total length from 66 cm to 235 cm and averaged 160 cm. Using the Jolly-Seber model, the abundance of white sturgeon <60 cm, between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River, was estimated at 2,483 fish, with a 95% confidence interval of 1,208-7,477. An additional 10 white sturgeon were fitted with radio-tags during 2001. The locations of 17 radio-tagged white sturgeon were monitored in 2001. The movement of these fish ranged from 38.6 km (24 miles) downstream to 54.7 km (34 miles) upstream; however, 62.6 percent of the detected movement was less than 0.8 km (0.5 mile). Both radio-tagged fish and recaptured white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir appear to move more than fish in the free-flowing segment of the Snake River. No seasonal movement pattern was detected, and no movement pattern was detected for different size fish. Differences were detected in the length frequency distributions of white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir and the free-flowing Snake River (Chi-Square test, P<0.05). The proportion of white sturgeon greater than 92 cm (total length) in the free-flowing Snake River has shown an increase of 30 percent since the 1970's. Analysis of the length-weight relationship indicated that white sturgeon in Lower Granite Reservoir had a higher relative weight factor than white sturgeon in the free-flowing Snake River. A von Bertalanffy growth curve was fitted to 309 aged white sturgeon. The results suggest fish are currently growing faster than fish historically inhabiting the study area, as well as other Columbia River basin white sturgeon populations. Artificial substrate mats were used to document white sturgeon spawning. A total of 14 white sturgeon eggs were recovered in the Snake River in 2001.

  1. Crab trapping causes population decline and demographic changes in diamondback terrapins over two decades

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dorcas, M.E., J.D. Willson and J.W. Gibbons

    2007-01-01

    Diamondback terrapins (Malaclemys terrapin) are thought to be declining throughout their range. Although many factors have been proposed to contribute to terrapin declines, including increased predation of nests and adults, habitat loss and degradation, road mortality, commercial harvest for food, and mortality as bycatch in crab traps, few studies have provided evidence linking these agents to population declines. Because male and small female terrapins are most susceptible to mortality in crab traps, population declines should coincide with shifts in the age and size distributions of the population and a shift to a more female-biased sex ratio. We used twenty-one years of mark-recapture data (>2800 captures of 1399 individuals) from a declining diamondback terrapin population in South Carolina to test the prediction that the decline is the result of mortality in crab traps. Since the 1980s, the modal size of both male and female terrapins has increased substantially and the proportion that are females is higher than in earlier samples. Additionally, the population now contains more old and fewer young individuals than before. The changes in demography and sex ratio we observed suggest that this terrapin population has declined as a result of selective mortality of smaller individuals in crab traps. The use of bycatch-reduction devices on crab traps may help prevent terrapins from entering the traps, but current models are too large to prevent mortality of males and many females in this population. Future research should focus on design and testing of effective bycatch-reduction devices for specific regions and other methods to prevent terrapin mortality in crab traps.

  2. Local population impacts of geothermal energy development in the Geysers: Calistoga region

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haven, K.F.; Berg, V.; Ladson, Y.W.

    1980-09-01

    The country-level population increase implications of two long-term geothermal development scenarios for the Geysers region in California are addressed. This region is defined to include the counties of Lake, Sonoma, Mendocino and Napa, all four in northern California. The development scenarios include two components: development for electrical energy production and direct use applications. Electrical production scenarios are derived by incorporating current development patterns into previous development scenarios by both industry and research organizations. The scenarios are made county-specific, specific to the type of geothermal system constructed, and are projected through the year 2000. Separate high growth rate and low growth rate scenarios are developed, based on a set of specified assumptions. Direct use scenarios are estimated from the nature of the available resource, existing local economic and demographic patterns, and available experience with various separate direct use options. From the composite development scenarios, required numbers of direct and indirect employees and the resultant in-migration patterns are estimated. In-migration patterns are compared to current county level population and ongoing trends in the county population change for each of the four counties. From this comparison, conclusions are drawn concerning the contributions of geothermal resource development to future population levels and the significance of geothermally induced population increase from a county planning perspective.

  3. Managing Natural and Reintroduced Rare Plant Populations within a Large Government Reservation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlsen, T M; Paterson, L E; Alfaro, T M

    2009-07-15

    California is home to many large government reservations that have been in existence for decades. Many of these reservations were formed to support various Department of Defense and Department of Energy national defense activities. Often, only a very small percentage of the reservation is actively used for programmatic activities, resulting in large areas of intact habitat. In some cases, this has benefited rare plant populations, as surrounding lands have been developed for residential or industrial use. However, land management activities such as the suppression or active use of fire and other disturbance (such as fire trail grading) can also work to either the detriment or benefit of rare plant populations at these sites. A management regime that is beneficial to the rare plant populations of interest and is at best consistent with existing site programmatic activities, and at a minimum does not impact such activities, has the best potential for a positive outcome. As a result, some species may be 'difficult' while others may be 'easy' to manage in this context, depending on how closely the species biological requirements match the programmatic activities on the reservation. To illustrate, we compare and contrast two rare annual plant species found at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's Site 300. Although several populations of Amsinckia grandiflora have been restored on the site, and all populations are intensively managed, this species continues to decline. In contrast, Blepharizonia plumosa appears to take advantage of the annual controlled burns conducted on the site, and is thriving.

  4. Thermoelectric power generator module of 16x16 Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 0.6%ErAs:(InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} segmented elements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zeng Gehong; Bahk, Je-Hyeong; Bowers, John E.; Lu Hong; Gossard, Arthur C.; Singer, Suzanne L.; Majumdar, Arun; Bian, Zhixi; Zebarjadi, Mona; Shakouri, Ali

    2009-08-24

    We report the fabrication and characterization of thermoelectric power generator modules of 16x16 segmented elements consisting of 0.8 mm thick Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and 50 {mu}m thick ErAs:(InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} with 0.6% ErAs by volume. An output power up to 6.3 W was measured when the heat source temperature was at 610 K. The thermoelectric properties of (InGaAs){sub 1-x}(InAlAs){sub x} were characterized from 300 up to 830 K. The finite element modeling shows that the performance of the generator modules can further be enhanced by improving the thermoelectric properties of the element materials, and reducing the electrical and thermal parasitic losses.

  5. Seismic isolation systems with distinct multiple frequencies

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ting-shu (Downers Grove, IL); Seidensticker, Ralph W. (Wheaton, IL)

    1990-01-01

    A method and apparatus for isolating a building or other structure from smic vibratory motion which provides increased assurance that large horizontal motion of the structure will not occur than is provided by other isolation systems. Increased assurance that large horizontal motion will not occur is achieved by providing for change of the natural frequency of the support and structure system in response to displacement of the structure beyond a predetermined value. The natural frequency of the support and structure system may be achieved by providing for engaging and disengaging of the structure and some supporting members in response to motion of the supported structure.

  6. Modeling the influence of polls on elections: a population dynamics approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyman, James M; Restrepo, Juan M; Rael, Rosalyn C

    2009-01-01

    We propose a population dynamics model for quantifying the effects of polling data on the outcome of multi-party elections decided by a majority-rule voting process. We divide the population into two groups: committed voters impervious to polling data, and susceptible voters whose decision to vote is influenced by data, depending on its reliability. This population-based approach to modeling the process sidesteps the problem of upscaling models based upon the choices made by individuals. We find releasing poll data is not advantageous to leading candidates, but it can be exploited by those closely trailing. The analysis identifies the particular type of voting impetus at play in different stages of an election and could help strategists optimize their influence on susceptible voters.

  7. Long-term variation of fiddler crab populations in North Carolina salt marshes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cammen, L.M.; Seneca, E.D.; Stroud, L.M.

    1984-06-01

    As part of the environmental monitoring of possible effects of the Brunswick nuclear power plant fiddle crab populations were sampled in several salt marshes in the lower Cape Fear River estuary, North Carolina for five years. Total biomass of the fiddler crabs Uca Pugnax and U. minax in four Spartina marshes declined by 65 to 70% between the summers of 1974-1975 and 1976-1977 with no significant decrease in population density; there was evidence of a recovery in summer of 1978 to the 1974-1975 levels. The cause of these fluctuations is unknown, but such a degree of variability in intertidal populations emphasizes the need for caution in using one or two-year baseline studies to evalute potential environmental impacts. 1 figure, 2 table.

  8. Table HC1-7a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7a. Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, Million U.S. Households, 2001 Housing Unit Characteristics RSE Column Factor: Total U.S. Four Most Populated States RSE Row Factors New York California Texas Florida 0.4 1.0 1.0 1.3 1.7 Total .............................................................. 107.0 7.1 12.3 7.7 6.3 NE Census Region and Division Northeast ..................................................... 20.3 7.1 -- -- -- NF New England

  9. Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phonons in Fcc d-Pu-Ga (Conference) | SciTech Connect Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc d-Pu-Ga Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Intensity Pattern of Diffuse X-Ray Scattering From Thermally Populated Phonons in Fcc d-Pu-Ga Authors: Wong, J. ; Holt, M. ; Hong, H. ; Wall, M. ; Schwartz, A. ; Zschack, P. ; Chiang, T.-C. Publication Date: 2016-01-20 OSTI Identifier: 1235452 Resource Type: Conference Resource Relation: Conference:

  10. On the mechanism of populating 3p levels of neon under pumping by a hard ioniser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khasenov, M U

    2011-03-31

    The effect of quenching additives on the luminescence properties of helium - neon mixtures under pumping by {alpha} particles emitted from {sup 210}Po atoms is considered. It is concluded that, under excitation by a heavy charged particle, the population of the 3p'[1/2]{sub 0} level of neon is not related to the dissociative recombination of molecular ions. It is suggested that the most likely channels for populating the 3p level are the excitation transfer from metastable helium atoms to neon atoms and direct excitation of neon by nuclear particles and secondary electrons. (lasers and active media)

  11. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    2013-05-22

    This report summarizes the results of a seven-year, DOE-funded research project, conducted by researchers from Kansas State University and the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative, to assess the effects of wind energy development in Kansas on the population and reproduction of greater prairie chickens.

  12. LandScan 2012 High Resolution Global Population DataSet

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-09-17

    The LandScan data set is a worldwide population database compiled on a 30"x20" latitude/longitude grid. Census counts at sub-national level were apportioned to each grid cell based on likelihood coefficients, which are based on land cover, slope, road proximity, high-resolution imagery, and other data sets.

  13. Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. comprehensive earthquake management plan: General population training manual

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The objectives are to: Describe the Paducah Plant Earthquake Preparedness Program, characterize the earthquake threat for the region, describe the actions which should be taken by the plant population during and after an earthquake to reduce the risk of injury, and explain the program which exists to help the plant prepare for and rapidly respond/recover from the effects of an earthquake.

  14. The effect of acidity variations in cloud droplet populations on aqueous-phase sulfate production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gurciullo, C.S.; Pandis, S.N.

    1995-12-31

    The majority of global atmospheric sulfate production occurs in clouds. Experimental evidence suggests that significant chemical heterogeneities exist in cloud droplet populations. Both theoretical and field studies suggest that the acidity of a cloud droplet population can differ by 1 pH unit or more between the smallest and largest droplets. Traditionally, cloud chemistry has been studied using bulk models that assume that the aqueous- phase chemistry can be accurately modeled using {open_quotes}mean droplet{close_quotes} properties. The average droplet population pH is then used as the basis for calculating reaction rates. Using this bulk chemistry approach in cloud or fog models may lead to significant errors in the predicted aqueous-phase reaction rates. We prove analytically that the use of a droplet Population`s average pH always results in the underestimation of the rate of sulfate production. In order to examine the magnitude of this error, we have developed two aqueous-phase chemistry models: a droplet size-resolved model and a bulk chemistry model. The discrepancy between the results of these two models indicates the degree of error introduced by assuming bulk aqueous-phase properties. The magnitude of this error depends on the availability of SO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, and acidity, and can range from zero to a factor of three for reasonable ambient conditions. A modeling approach that combines the accuracy of the size-resolved model and the low computing requirements of the bulk model is developed.

  15. The OH rotational population and photodissociation of H{sub 2}O in DG Tauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carr, John S.; Najita, Joan R.

    2014-06-10

    We analyze the OH rotational emission in the Spitzer Space Telescope mid-infrared spectrum of the T Tauri star DG Tau. OH is observed in emission from upper level energies of 1900 K to 28,000 K. The rotational diagram cannot be fit with any single combination of temperature and column density and has slopes that correspond to excitation temperatures ranging from 200 K to 6000 K. The relative ?-doublet population within each rotational level is not equal, showing that the OH population is not in thermal equilibrium. The symmetric ?-doublet state is preferred in all rotational states, with an average of 0.5 for the population ratio of the anti-symmetric to symmetric state. We show that the population distribution of the high rotational lines and the ?-doublet ratio are consistent with the formation of OH following the photo-dissociation of H{sub 2}O by FUV photons in the second absorption band of water (?1150-1400 ), which includes Ly?. Other processes, OH formation from either photo-dissociation of water in the first absorption band (1450-1900 ) or the reaction O({sup 1} D) + H{sub 2}, or collisional excitation, cannot explain the observed emission in the high rotational states but could potentially contribute to the population of lower rotational levels. These results demonstrate that the photodissociation of water is active in DG Tau and support the idea that the hot rotational OH emission commonly observed in Classical T Tauri stars is due to the dissociation of H{sub 2}O by FUV radiation.

  16. INTERMEDIATE-AGE STELLAR POPULATIONS IN CLASSICAL QUASI-STELLAR OBJECT HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Canalizo, Gabriela; Stockton, Alan E-mail: stockton@ifa.hawaii.edu

    2013-08-01

    Although mergers and starbursts are often invoked in the discussion of quasi-stellar object (QSO) activity in the context of galaxy evolution, several studies have questioned their importance or even their presence in QSO host galaxies. Accordingly, we are conducting a study of z {approx} 0.2 QSO host galaxies previously classified as passively evolving elliptical galaxies. We present deep Keck/LRIS spectroscopy of a sample of 15 hosts and model their stellar absorption spectra using stellar synthesis models. The high signal-to-noise ratio of our spectra allows us to break various degeneracies that arise from different combinations of models, varying metallicities, and contamination from QSO light. We find that none of the host spectra can be modeled by purely old stellar populations and that the majority of the hosts (14/15) have a substantial contribution from intermediate-age populations with ages ranging from 0.7 to 2.4 Gyr. An average host spectrum is strikingly well fit by a combination of an old population and a 2.1 (+0.5, -0.7) Gyr population. The morphologies of the host galaxies suggest that these aging starbursts were induced during the early stages of the mergers that resulted in the elliptical-shaped galaxies that we observe. The current active galactic nucleus activity likely corresponds to the late episodes of accretion predicted by numerical simulations, which occur near the end of the mergers, whereas earlier episodes may be more difficult to observe due to obscuration. Our off-axis observations prevent us from detecting any current star formation or young stellar populations that may be present in the central few kiloparsecs.

  17. The LMC geometry and outer stellar populations from early DES data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Plazas, A.; Santiago, B. X.; Girardi, L.; Pieres, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Gruendl, R. A.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; Drlica-Wagner, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Allam, S. S.; Annis, J.; Bernstein, J. P.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Cunha, C. E.; Depoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Estrada, J.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J. A.; Gruen, D.; Honscheid, K.; James, D.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; March, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Miller, C.; Miquel, R.; Ogando, R.; Peoples, J.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Tucker, D. L.; Wechsler, R.; Zuntz, J.

    2015-03-20

    The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey. The SV footprint covers a large portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 magnitudes fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stellar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disc. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of i = 38.140.08 (near side in the North) and a position angle for the line of nodes of ?? = 129.510.17. We find that stars younger than ~4 Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disc shows that the scale radius of the old populations is R>4Gyr = 1.41 0.01 kpc, while the younger population has R<4Gyr = 0.72 0.01 kpc. However, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disc model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of Rt = 13.5 0.8 kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is ?24+96 times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fit LMC disc model, we find that the LMC disc is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. As a result, our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disc in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component.

  18. The LMC geometry and outer stellar populations from early DES data

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Balbinot, Eduardo; Plazas, A.; Santiago, B. X.; Girardi, L.; Pieres, A.; da Costa, L. N.; Maia, M. A. G.; Gruendl, R. A.; Walker, A. R.; Yanny, B.; et al

    2015-03-20

    The Dark Energy Camera has captured a large set of images as part of Science Verification (SV) for the Dark Energy Survey. The SV footprint covers a large portion of the outer Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), providing photometry 1.5 magnitudes fainter than the main sequence turn-off of the oldest LMC stellar population. We derive geometrical and structural parameters for various stellar populations in the LMC disc. For the distribution of all LMC stars, we find an inclination of i = –38.14°±0.08° (near side in the North) and a position angle for the line of nodes of θ₀ = 129.51°±0.17°. Wemore » find that stars younger than ~4 Gyr are more centrally concentrated than older stars. Fitting a projected exponential disc shows that the scale radius of the old populations is R>4Gyr = 1.41 ± 0.01 kpc, while the younger population has R<4Gyr = 0.72 ± 0.01 kpc. However, the spatial distribution of the younger population deviates significantly from the projected exponential disc model. The distribution of old stars suggests a large truncation radius of Rt = 13.5 ± 0.8 kpc. If this truncation is dominated by the tidal field of the Galaxy, we find that the LMC is ≃24+9–6 times less massive than the encircled Galactic mass. By measuring the Red Clump peak magnitude and comparing with the best-fit LMC disc model, we find that the LMC disc is warped and thicker in the outer regions north of the LMC centre. As a result, our findings may either be interpreted as a warped and flared disc in the LMC outskirts, or as evidence of a spheroidal halo component.« less

  19. "Table HC15.3 Household Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3 Household Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Household Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Household Size" "1 Person",30,1.8,1.9,2,3.2 "2 Persons",34.8,2.2,2.3,2.4,3.2 "3 Persons",18.4,1.1,1.3,1.2,1.8

  20. The ArcSDE GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool for Savannah River Site Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MCLANE, TRACY; JONES, DWIGHT

    2005-10-03

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is a 310-square-mile Department of Energy site located near Aiken, South Carolina. With a workforce of over 10,000 employees and subcontractors, SRS emergency personnel must be able to respond to an emergency event in a timely and effective manner, in order to ensure the safety and security of the Site. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) provides the technology needed to give managers and emergency personnel the information they need to make quick and effective decisions. In the event of a site evacuation, knowing the number of on-site personnel to evacuate from a given area is an essential piece of information for emergency staff. SRS has developed a GIS Dynamic Population Model Tool to quickly communicate real-time information that summarizes employee populations by facility area and building and then generates dynamic maps that illustrate output statistics.

  1. Table HC15.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005 Total.................................................................................... 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Cooking Appliances Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked 3 or More Times A Day................................................. 8.2 0.6 0.5 0.8 1.4 2 Times A Day.............................................................. 24.6 1.4 1.5 2.0 3.1 Once a Day...................................................................

  2. Transient population and polarization gratings induced by (1+1)-dimensional ultrashort dipole soliton

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xia, Keyu; Niu, Yueping; Li, Ruxin; Jin, Shiqi; Gong, Shangqing

    2007-05-15

    An ultrafast transient population grating induced by a (1+1)-dimensional, ultrashort dipole soliton is demonstrated by solving the full-wave Maxwell-Bloch equations. The number of lines and the period of the grating can be controlled by the beam waist and the area of the pulse. Of interest is that a polarization grating is produced. A coherent control scheme based on these phenomena can be contemplated as ultrafast transient grating techniques.

  3. Ex-ante modeling, Load Scheduling and Differentiated Service Models for Populations of Flexible Loads

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Ex-ante modeling, Load Scheduling and Differentiated Service Models for Populations of Flexible Loads Anna Scaglione (UC Davis) GSR: Mahnoosh Alizadeh CERTS Review Meeting 2014 1 / 42 Main objectives of the project Objectives: Modeling control mechanisms and economic value for aggregated load flexibility Evaluation: Theory and validation by simulations 2 / 42 Residential/personal appliances potential Observation: Costs include that of recruiting customers The "Internet of things" will

  4. Framework for assessing impacts of pile-driving noise from offshore wind farm construction on a harbour seal population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, Paul M.; Hastie, Gordon D.; Nedwell, Jeremy; Barham, Richard; Brookes, Kate L.; Cordes, Line S.; Bailey, Helen; McLean, Nancy

    2013-11-15

    Offshore wind farm developments may impact protected marine mammal populations, requiring appropriate assessment under the EU Habitats Directive. We describe a framework developed to assess population level impacts of disturbance from piling noise on a protected harbour seal population in the vicinity of proposed wind farm developments in NE Scotland. Spatial patterns of seal distribution and received noise levels are integrated with available data on the potential impacts of noise to predict how many individuals are displaced or experience auditory injury. Expert judgement is used to link these impacts to changes in vital rates and applied to population models that compare population changes under baseline and construction scenarios over a 25 year period. We use published data and hypothetical piling scenarios to illustrate how the assessment framework has been used to support environmental assessments, explore the sensitivity of the framework to key assumptions, and discuss its potential application to other populations of marine mammals. -- Highlights: We develop a framework to support Appropriate Assessment for harbour seal populations. We assessed potential impacts of wind farm construction noise. Data on distribution of seals and noise were used to predict effects on individuals. Expert judgement linked these impacts to vital rates to model population change. We explore the sensitivity of the framework to key assumptions and uncertainties.

  5. Travel determinants and multi-scale transferability of national activity patterns to local populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henson, Kriste M; Gou; ias, Konstadinos G

    2010-11-30

    The ability to transfer national travel patterns to a local population is of interest when attempting to model megaregions or areas that exceed metropolitan planning organization (MPO) boundaries. At the core of this research are questions about the connection between travel behavior and land use, urban form, and accessibility. As a part of this process, a group of land use variables have been identified to define activity and travel patterns for individuals and households. The 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS) participants are divided into categories comprised of a set of latent cluster models representing persons, travel, and land use. These are compared to two sets of cluster models constructed for two local travel surveys. Comparison of means statistical tests are used to assess differences among sociodemographic groups residing in localities with similar land uses. The results show that the NHTS and the local surveys share mean population activity and travel characteristics. However, these similarities mask behavioral heterogeneity that are shown when distributions of activity and travel behavior are examined. Therefore, data from a national household travel survey cannot be used to model local population travel characteristics if the goal to model the actual distributions and not mean travel behavior characteristics.

  6. Population dose commitments due to radioactive releases from nuclear power plant sites in 1987

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, D.A. )

    1990-08-01

    Population radiation dose commitments have been estimated from reported radionuclide releases from commercial power reactors operating during 1987. Fifty-year dose commitments for a one-year exposure from both liquid and atmospheric releases were calculated for four population groups (infant, child, teen-ager and adult) residing between 2 and 80 km from each of 70 reactor sites. This report tabulates the results of these calculations, showing the dose commitments for both water and airborne pathways for each age group and organ. Also included for reach of the sites is a histogram showing the fraction of the total population within 2 to 80 km around each site receiving various average dose commitments from the airborne pathways. The site average individual dose commitment from all pathways ranged from a low of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}6} mrem to a high of 0.009 mrem. No attempt was made in this study to determine the maximum dose commitment received by any one individual from the radionuclides released at any of the sites. However, licensee calculation of doses to the maximally exposed individual at some sites indicated values of up to approximately 100 times average individual doses (on the order of a few millirem per year). 2 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  7. Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics of Episomes among Ecologically Cohesive Bacterial Populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Hong; Cordero, Otto X.; Camas, Francisco M.; Trimble, William; Meyer, Folker; Guglielmini, Julien; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Polz, Martin F.

    2015-05-05

    Although plasmids and other episomes are recognized as key players in horizontal gene transfer among microbes, their diversity and dynamics among ecologically structured host populations in the wild remain poorly understood. Here, we show that natural populations of marine Vibrionaceae bacteria host large numbers of families of episomes, consisting of plasmids and a surprisingly high fraction of plasmid-like temperate phages. Episomes are unevenly distributed among host populations, and contrary to the notion that high-density communities in biofilms act as hot spots of gene transfer, we identified a strong bias for episomes to occur in free-living as opposed to particle-attached cells. Mapping of episomal families onto host phylogeny shows that, with the exception of all phage and a few plasmid families, most are of recent evolutionary origin and appear to have spread rapidly by horizontal transfer. Such high eco-evolutionary turnover is particularly surprising for plasmids that are, based on previously suggested categorization, putatively nontransmissible, indicating that this type of plasmid is indeed frequently transferred by currently unknown mechanisms. Finally, analysis of recent gene transfer among plasmids reveals a network of extensive exchange connecting nearly all episomes. Genes functioning in plasmid transfer and maintenance are frequently exchanged, suggesting that plasmids can be rapidly transformed from one category to another. The broad distribution of episomes among distantly related hosts and the observed promiscuous recombination patterns show how episomes can offer their hosts rapid assembly and dissemination of novel functions.

  8. The massive star population in M101. II. Spatial variations in the recent star formation history

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Grammer, Skyler; Humphreys, Roberta M. E-mail: roberta@umn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We investigate star formation history (SFH) as a function of radius in M101 using archival Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys photometry. We derive the SFH from the resolved stellar populations in five 2' wide annuli. Binning the SFH into time frames corresponding to stellar populations traced by H?, far-ultraviolet, and near-ultraviolet emission, we find that the fraction of stellar populations young enough to contribute in H? is 15%-35% in the inner regions, compared to less than 5% in the outer regions. This provides a sufficient explanation for the lack of H? emission at large radii. We also model the blue to red supergiant ratio in our five annuli, examine the effects that a metallicity gradient and variable SFH have on the predicted ratios, and compare to the observed values. We find that the radial behavior of our modeled blue to red supergiant ratios is highly sensitive to both spatial variations in the SFH and metallicity. Incorporating the derived SFH into modeled ratios, we find that we are able to reproduce the observed values at large radii (low metallicity), but at small radii (high metallicity) the modeled and observed ratios are discrepant.

  9. ASTEROSEISMIC CLASSIFICATION OF STELLAR POPULATIONS AMONG 13,000 RED GIANTS OBSERVED BY KEPLER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stello, Dennis; Bedding, Timothy R.; Benomar, Othman; White, Timothy R.; Huber, Daniel; Bildsten, Lars; Paxton, Bill; Elsworth, Yvonne P.; Gilliland, Ronald L.; Mosser, Benoit

    2013-03-10

    Of the more than 150,000 targets followed by the Kepler Mission, about 10% were selected as red giants. Due to their high scientific value, in particular for Galaxy population studies and stellar structure and evolution, their Kepler light curves were made public in late 2011. More than 13,000 (over 85%) of these stars show intrinsic flux variability caused by solar-like oscillations making them ideal for large-scale asteroseismic investigations. We automatically extracted individual frequencies and measured the period spacings of the dipole modes in nearly every red giant. These measurements naturally classify the stars into various populations, such as the red giant branch, the low-mass (M/M{sub Sun} {approx}< 1.8) helium-core-burning red clump, and the higher-mass (M/M{sub Sun} {approx}> 1.8) secondary clump. The period spacings also reveal that a large fraction of the stars show rotationally induced frequency splittings. This sample of stars will undoubtedly provide an extremely valuable source for studying the stellar population in the direction of the Kepler field, in particular when combined with complementary spectroscopic surveys.

  10. Eco-Evolutionary Dynamics of Episomes among Ecologically Cohesive Bacterial Populations

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Xue, Hong; Cordero, Otto X.; Camas, Francisco M.; Trimble, William; Meyer, Folker; Guglielmini, Julien; Rocha, Eduardo P. C.; Polz, Martin F.

    2015-05-05

    Although plasmids and other episomes are recognized as key players in horizontal gene transfer among microbes, their diversity and dynamics among ecologically structured host populations in the wild remain poorly understood. Here, we show that natural populations of marine Vibrionaceae bacteria host large numbers of families of episomes, consisting of plasmids and a surprisingly high fraction of plasmid-like temperate phages. Episomes are unevenly distributed among host populations, and contrary to the notion that high-density communities in biofilms act as hot spots of gene transfer, we identified a strong bias for episomes to occur in free-living as opposed to particle-attached cells.more » Mapping of episomal families onto host phylogeny shows that, with the exception of all phage and a few plasmid families, most are of recent evolutionary origin and appear to have spread rapidly by horizontal transfer. Such high eco-evolutionary turnover is particularly surprising for plasmids that are, based on previously suggested categorization, putatively nontransmissible, indicating that this type of plasmid is indeed frequently transferred by currently unknown mechanisms. Finally, analysis of recent gene transfer among plasmids reveals a network of extensive exchange connecting nearly all episomes. Genes functioning in plasmid transfer and maintenance are frequently exchanged, suggesting that plasmids can be rapidly transformed from one category to another. The broad distribution of episomes among distantly related hosts and the observed promiscuous recombination patterns show how episomes can offer their hosts rapid assembly and dissemination of novel functions.« less

  11. Overexpression of human fatty acid transport protein 2/very long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 1 (FATP2/Acsvl1) reveals distinct patterns of trafficking of exogenous fatty acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Melton, Elaina M.; Center for Cardiovascular Sciences, Albany Medical College, Albany, NY ; Cerny, Ronald L.; DiRusso, Concetta C.; Black, Paul N.

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: Roles of FATP2 in fatty acid transport/activation contribute to lipid homeostasis. Use of 13C- and D-labeled fatty acids provide novel insights into FATP2 function. FATP2-dependent trafficking of FA into phospholipids results in distinctive profiles. FATP2 functions in the transport and activation pathways for exogenous fatty acids. -- Abstract: In mammals, the fatty acid transport proteins (FATP1 through FATP6) are members of a highly conserved family of proteins, which function in fatty acid transport proceeding through vectorial acylation and in the activation of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids and secondary bile acids. FATP1, 2 and 4, for example directly function in fatty acid transport and very long chain fatty acids activation while FATP5 does not function in fatty acid transport but activates secondary bile acids. In the present work, we have used stable isotopically labeled fatty acids differing in carbon length and saturation in cells expressing FATP2 to gain further insights into how this protein functions in fatty acid transport and intracellular fatty acid trafficking. Our previous studies showed the expression of FATP2 modestly increased C16:0-CoA and C20:4-CoA and significantly increased C18:3-CoA and C22:6-CoA after 4 h. The increases in C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA suggest FATP2 must necessarily partner with a long chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl) to generate C16:0-CoA and C18:3-CoA through vectorial acylation. The very long chain acyl CoA synthetase activity of FATP2 is consistent in the generation of C20:4-CoA and C22:6-CoA coincident with transport from their respective exogenous fatty acids. The trafficking of exogenous fatty acids into phosphatidic acid (PA) and into the major classes of phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylinositol (PI), and phosphatidyserine (PS)) resulted in distinctive profiles, which changed with the expression of FATP2. The trafficking of exogenous C16:0 and C22:6 into PA was significant where there was 6.9- and 5.3-fold increased incorporation, respectively, over the control; C18:3 and C20:4 also trended to increase in the PA pool while there were no changes for C18:1 and C18:2. The trafficking of C18:3 into PC and PI trended higher and approached significance. In the case of C20:4, expression of FATP2 resulted in increases in all four classes of phospholipid, indicating little selectivity. In the case of C22:6, there were significant increases of this exogenous fatty acids being trafficking into PC and PI. Collectively, these data support the conclusion that FATP2 has a dual function in the pathways linking the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids. We discuss the differential roles of FATP2 and its role in both fatty acid transport and fatty acid activation in the context of lipid homeostasis.

  12. Efficient breakdown of lignocellulose using mixed-microbe populations for bioethanol production.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murton, Jaclyn K.; Ricken, James Bryce; Powell, Amy Jo

    2009-11-01

    This report documents progress in discovering new catalytic technologies that will support the development of advanced biofuels. The global shift from petroleum-based fuels to advanced biofuels will require transformational breakthroughs in biomass deconstruction technologies, because current methods are neither cost effective nor sufficiently efficient or robust for scaleable production. Discovery and characterization of lignocellulolytic enzyme systems adapted to extreme environments will accelerate progress. Obvious extreme environments to mine for novel lignocellulolytic deconstruction technologies include aridland ecosystems (ALEs), such as those of the Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site in central New Mexico (NM). ALEs represent at least 40% of the terrestrial biosphere and are classic extreme environments, with low nutrient availability, high ultraviolet radiation flux, limited and erratic precipitation, and extreme variation in temperatures. ALEs are functionally distinct from temperate environments in many respects; one salient distinction is that ALEs do not accumulate soil organic carbon (SOC), in marked contrast to temperate settings, which typically have large pools of SOC. Low productivity ALEs do not accumulate carbon (C) primarily because of extraordinarily efficient extracellular enzyme activities (EEAs) that are derived from underlying communities of diverse, largely uncharacterized microbes. Such efficient enzyme activities presumably reflect adaptation to this low productivity ecosystem, with the result that all available organic nutrients are assimilated rapidly. These communities are dominated by ascomycetous fungi, both in terms of abundance and contribution to ecosystem-scale metabolic processes, such as nitrogen and C cycling. To deliver novel, robust, efficient lignocellulolytic enzyme systems that will drive transformational advances in biomass deconstruction, we have: (1) secured an award through the Department of Energy (DoE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) to perform metatranscriptomic functional profiling of eukaryotic microbial communities of blue grama grass (Bouteloua gracilis) rhizosphere (RHZ) soils and (2) isolated and provided initial genotypic and phenotypic characterization data for thermophilic fungi. Our preliminary results show that many strains in our collection of thermophilic fungi frequently outperform industry standards in key assays; we also demonstrated that this collection is taxonomically diverse and phenotypically compelling. The studies summarized here are being performed in collaboration with University of New Mexico and are based at the Sevilleta LTER research site.

  13. Population Estimates for Chum Salmon Spawning in the Mainstem Columbia River, 2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rawding, Dan; Hillson, Todd D.

    2003-11-15

    Accurate and precise population estimates of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) spawning in the mainstem Columbia River are needed to provide a basis for informed water allocation decisions, to determine the status of chum salmon listed under the Endangered Species Act, and to evaluate the contribution of the Duncan Creek re-introduction program to mainstem spawners. Currently, mark-recapture experiments using the Jolly-Seber model provide the only framework for this type of estimation. In 2002, a study was initiated to estimate mainstem Columbia River chum salmon populations using seining data collected while capturing broodstock as part of the Duncan Creek re-introduction. The five assumptions of the Jolly-Seber model were examined using hypothesis testing within a statistical framework, including goodness of fit tests and secondary experiments. We used POPAN 6, an integrated computer system for the analysis of capture-recapture data, to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of standard model parameters, derived estimates, and their precision. A more parsimonious final model was selected using Akaike Information Criteria. Final chum salmon escapement estimates and (standard error) from seining data for the Ives Island, Multnomah, and I-205 sites are 3,179 (150), 1,269 (216), and 3,468 (180), respectively. The Ives Island estimate is likely lower than the total escapement because only the largest two of four spawning sites were sampled. The accuracy and precision of these estimates would improve if seining was conducted twice per week instead of weekly, and by incorporating carcass recoveries into the analysis. Population estimates derived from seining mark-recapture data were compared to those obtained using the current mainstem Columbia River salmon escapement methodologies. The Jolly-Seber population estimate from carcass tagging in the Ives Island area was 4,232 adults with a standard error of 79. This population estimate appears reasonable and precise but batch marks and lack of secondary studies made it difficult to test Jolly-Seber assumptions, necessary for unbiased estimates. We recommend that individual tags be applied to carcasses to provide a statistical basis for goodness of fit tests and ultimately model selection. Secondary or double marks should be applied to assess tag loss and male and female chum salmon carcasses should be enumerated separately. Carcass tagging population estimates at the two other sites were biased low due to limited sampling. The Area-Under-the-Curve escapement estimates at all three sites were 36% to 76% of Jolly-Seber estimates. Area-Under-the Curve estimates are likely biased low because previous assumptions that observer efficiency is 100% and residence time is 10 days proved incorrect. If managers continue to rely on Area-Under-the-Curve to estimate mainstem Columbia River spawners, a methodology is provided to develop annual estimates of observer efficiency and residence time, and to incorporate uncertainty into the Area-Under-the-Curve escapement estimate.

  14. Decreasing transmembrane segment length greatly decreases perfringolys...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Date: 2015-04-08 OSTI Identifier: 1215609 Report Number(s): BNL--108347-2015-JA Journal ID: ISSN 0022-2631; 400412000 GrantContract Number: SC00112704 Type: Accepted...

  15. Vectorized image segmentation via trixel agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prasad, Lakshman (Los Alamos, NM); Skourikhine, Alexei N. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2006-10-24

    A computer implemented method transforms an image comprised of pixels into a vectorized image specified by a plurality of polygons that can be subsequently used to aid in image processing and understanding. The pixelated image is processed to extract edge pixels that separate different colors and a constrained Delaunay triangulation of the edge pixels forms a plurality of triangles having edges that cover the pixelated image. A color for each one of the plurality of triangles is determined from the color pixels within each triangle. A filter is formed with a set of grouping rules related to features of the pixelated image and applied to the plurality of triangle edges to merge adjacent triangles consistent with the filter into polygons having a plurality of vertices. The pixelated image may be then reformed into an array of the polygons, that can be represented collectively and efficiently by standard vector image.

  16. FAINT POPULATION III SUPERNOVAE AS THE ORIGIN OF THE MOST IRON-POOR STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ishigaki, Miho N.; Tominaga, Nozomu; Kobayashi, Chiaki; Nomoto, Ken'ichi, E-mail: miho.ishigaki@ipmu.jp [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (WPI), The University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan)

    2014-09-10

    The most iron-poor stars in the Milky Way provide important observational clues to the astrophysical objects that enriched the primordial gas with heavy elements. Among them, the recently discovered iron-deficient star SMSS J031300.36670839.3 shows a remarkable chemical composition with a non-detection of iron ([Fe/H] <7.1) and large enhancement of carbon and magnesium relative to calcium. We investigate supernova yields of metal-free (Population III) stars to interpret the abundance pattern observed in this star. We report that the high [C/Ca] and [C/Mg] ratios and upper limits of other elemental abundances are well reproduced with the yields of core-collapse supernovae (which have normal kinetic energies of explosion E of E {sub 51} = E/10{sup 51}erg=1) and hypernovae (E {sub 51} ? 10) of Population III 25 M {sub ?} or 40 M {sub ?} stars. The best-fit models assume that the explosions undergo extensive matter mixing and fallback, leaving behind a black hole remnant. In these models, Ca is produced by static/explosive O burning and incomplete Si burning in the Population III supernova/hypernova, in contrast to the suggestion that Ca is originated from the hot-CNO cycle during pre-supernova evolution. Chemical abundances of four carbon-rich iron-poor stars with [Fe/H] <4.5, including SMSS J031300.36670839.3, are consistently explained by faint supernova models with ejected masses of {sup 56}Ni less than 10{sup 3} M {sub ?}.

  17. Final report-98-ERI-003 identification of population with lifetime 41Ca-labeled skeletons

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, S P

    1999-02-25

    In 1997 we first postulated the existence of a special human population that had had their skeletons inadvertently isotopically adulterated in the past. We theorized that the population, and the necessary LLNL accelerator mass spectrometer (AMS) measurement technology, would prove a significant resource in the fight to combat osteoporosis. This LDRD project was to establish such. The project was significantly successful in its initial year, but was not renewed for another and the research is now ended at LLNL. We proposed a three-year program to (1) confirm the magnitude and extent of historical 41 Ca dosing, (2) exactly characterize the long-term 41 Ca signal by comparing it with conventional measurements of skeletal health, and (3) demonstrate the utility of the historically labeled population in evaluating an actual potential therapy for osteoporosis. However, rather than investigate historical records to learn the identity of those inadvertently dosed, find them, and if possible enroll them into a new protocol, this project was to be particularly efficient by making use of a multiyear archive of samples from original, inadvertent 41 Ca-dosing experiments at Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska. Because the subjects had been dosed in conventional studies of calcium kinetics, much important correlating historical data would also be available for comparison. Measurements of contemporary urine samples specifically provided for this project by selected identified subjects would follow. We discovered a second archive at the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center. This is potentially a better source of material as the samples were generated in numerous historical evaluations of actual osteoporosis therapies in which 41 Ca-impure radiotracers were used. The therapies might now powerfully be retrospectively evaluated, both to contribute to our understanding of the therapies and to highlight the potential of the use of 41 Ca tracer and LLNL measurement.

  18. Assessment of Technologies Used to Characterize Wildlife Populations in the Offshore Environment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duberstein, Corey A.; Tagestad, Jerry D.; Larson, Kyle B.

    2011-12-09

    Wind energy development in the offshore environment can have both direct and indirect effects on wildlife, yet little is known about most species that use near-shore and offshore waters due in part to the difficulty involved in studying animals in remote, challenging environments. Traditional methods to characterize offshore wildlife populations include shipboard observations. Technological advances have provided researches with an array of technologies to gather information about fauna from afar. This report describes the use and application of radar, thermal and optical imagery, and acoustic detection technologies for monitoring birds, bats, and marine mammals in offshore environments.

  19. WARM BREEZE FROM THE STARBOARD BOW: A NEW POPULATION OF NEUTRAL HELIUM IN THE HELIOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kubiak, M. A.; Bzowski, M.; Sok?, J. M.; Swaczyna, P.; Grzedzielski, S.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Mbius, E.; Leonard, T.; Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J.; Wurz, P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the signals from neutral helium atoms observed in situ from Earth orbit in 2010 by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The full helium signal observed during the 2010 observation season can be explained as a superposition of pristine neutral interstellar He gas and an additional population of neutral helium that we call the Warm Breeze. The Warm Breeze is approximately 2 times slower and 2.5 times warmer than the primary interstellar He population, and its density in front of the heliosphere is ?7% that of the neutral interstellar helium. The inflow direction of the Warm Breeze differs by ?19 from the inflow direction of interstellar gas. The Warm Breeze seems to be a long-term, perhaps permanent feature of the heliospheric environment. It has not been detected earlier because it is strongly ionized inside the heliosphere. This effect brings it below the threshold of detection via pickup ion and heliospheric backscatter glow observations, as well as by the direct sampling of GAS/Ulysses. We discuss possible sources for the Warm Breeze, including (1) the secondary population of interstellar helium, created via charge exchange and perhaps elastic scattering of neutral interstellar He atoms on interstellar He{sup +} ions in the outer heliosheath, or (2) a gust of interstellar He originating from a hypothetic wave train in the Local Interstellar Cloud. A secondary population is expected from models, but the characteristics of the Warm Breeze do not fully conform to modeling results. If, nevertheless, this is the explanation, IBEX-Lo observations of the Warm Breeze provide key insights into the physical state of plasma in the outer heliosheath. If the second hypothesis is true, the source is likely to be located within a few thousand AU from the Sun, which is the propagation range of possible gusts of interstellar neutral helium with the Warm Breeze characteristics against dissipation via elastic scattering in the Local Cloud. Whatever the nature of the Warm Breeze, its discovery exposes a critical new feature of our heliospheric environment.

  20. CANDELS: THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE OBSERVED GALAXY POPULATION TO COSMIC REIONIZATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Finkelstein, Steven L.; Pawlik, Andreas H.; Papovich, Casey; Ryan, Russell E.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Grogin, Norman A.; Dickinson, Mark; Finlator, Kristian; Giavalisco, Mauro; Cooray, Asantha; Dunlop, James S.; Faber, Sandy M.; Kocevski, Dale D.

    2012-10-20

    We present measurements of the specific ultraviolet luminosity density from a sample of 483 galaxies at 6 {approx}< z {approx}< 8. These galaxies were selected from new deep near-infrared Hubble Space Telescope imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, Hubble UltraDeep Field 2009, and Wide Field Camera 3 Early Release Science programs. We investigate the contribution to reionization from galaxies that we observe directly, thus sidestepping the uncertainties inherent in complementary studies that have invoked assumptions regarding the intrinsic shape or the faint-end cutoff of the galaxy ultraviolet (UV) luminosity function. Due to our larger survey volume, wider wavelength coverage, and updated assumptions about the clumping of gas in the intergalactic medium (IGM), we find that the observable population of galaxies can sustain a fully reionized IGM at z = 6, if the average ionizing photon escape fraction (f {sub esc}) is {approx}30%. Our result contrasts with a number of previous studies that have measured UV luminosity densities at these redshifts that vary by a factor of five, with many concluding that galaxies could not complete reionization by z = 6 unless a large population of galaxies fainter than the detection limit were invoked, or extremely high values of f {sub esc} were present. The specific UV luminosity density from our observed galaxy samples at z = 7 and 8 is not sufficient to maintain a fully reionized IGM unless f {sub esc} > 50%. We examine the contribution from galaxies in different luminosity ranges and find that the sub-L* galaxies we detect are stronger contributors to the ionizing photon budget than the L > L* population, unless f {sub esc} is luminosity dependent. Combining our observations with constraints on the emission rate of ionizing photons from Ly{alpha} forest observations at z = 6, we find that we can constrain f {sub esc} < 34% (2{sigma}) if the observed galaxies are the only contributors to reionization, or <13% (2{sigma}) if the luminosity function extends to a limiting magnitude of M {sub UV} = -13. These escape fractions are sufficient to sustain an ionized IGM by z = 6. Current constraints on the high-redshift galaxy population imply that the volume ionized fraction of the IGM, while consistent with unity at z {<=} 6, appears to drop at redshifts not much higher than 7, consistent with a number of complementary reionization probes. If faint galaxies dominated the ionizing photon budget at z = 6-7, future extremely deep observations with the James Webb Space Telescope will probe deep enough to directly observe them, providing an indirect constraint on the global ionizing photon escape fraction.

  1. Table HC15.7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    7 Air-Conditioning Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005 Total.................................................................................. 111.1 7.1 7.0 8.0 12.1 Do Not Have Cooling Equipment.................................... 17.8 1.8 Q Q 4.9 Have Cooling Equipment................................................. 93.3 5.3 7.0 7.8 7.2 Use Cooling Equipment.................................................. 91.4 5.3 7.0 7.7 6.6 Have Equipment But Do Not Use

  2. Combinational pixel-by-pixel and object-level classifying, segmenting, and agglomerating in performing quantitative image analysis that distinguishes between healthy non-cancerous and cancerous cell nuclei and delineates nuclear, cytoplasm, and stromal material objects from stained biological tissue materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boucheron, Laura E

    2013-07-16

    Quantitative object and spatial arrangement-level analysis of tissue are detailed using expert (pathologist) input to guide the classification process. A two-step method is disclosed for imaging tissue, by classifying one or more biological materials, e.g. nuclei, cytoplasm, and stroma, in the tissue into one or more identified classes on a pixel-by-pixel basis, and segmenting the identified classes to agglomerate one or more sets of identified pixels into segmented regions. Typically, the one or more biological materials comprises nuclear material, cytoplasm material, and stromal material. The method further allows a user to markup the image subsequent to the classification to re-classify said materials. The markup is performed via a graphic user interface to edit designated regions in the image.

  3. Nonstationary argon plasma, containing Ne-like and Na-like ions. 'fast compression' and population inversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ivanov, L. N.; Knight, L. V.

    1995-05-01

    Evolution of levels populations in Ar plasma with varying parameters is under theoretical investigation. The model imitates fast compression and expansion of the capillary plasma column. The role of the hydrogen admixture is discussed.

  4. A Population-Based Study of the Fractionation of Postlumpectomy Breast Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ashworth, Allison; Cancer Center of Southeastern Ontario, Kingston, Ontario ; Kong, Weidong; Whelan, Timothy; Mackillop, William J.

    2013-05-01

    Purpose: The optimal fractionation schedule of post lumpectomy radiation therapy remains controversial. The objective of this study was to describe the fractionation of post-lumpectomy radiation therapy (RT) in Ontario, before and after the seminal Ontario Clinical Oncology Group (OCOG) trial, which showed the equivalence of 16- and 25-fraction schedules. Methods and Materials: This was a retrospective cohort study conducted by linking electronic treatment records to a population-based cancer registry. The study population included all patients who underwent lumpectomy for invasive breast cancer in Ontario, Canada, between 1984 and 2008. Results: Over the study period, 41,747 breast cancer patients received post lumpectomy radiation therapy to the breast only. Both 16- and 25-fraction schedules were commonly used throughout the study period. In the early 1980s, shorter fractionation schedules were used in >80% of cases. Between 1985 and 1995, the proportion of patients treated with shorter fractionation decreased to 48%. After completion of the OCOG trial, shorter fractionation schemes were once again widely adopted across Ontario, and are currently used in about 71% of cases; however, large intercenter variations in fractionation persisted. Conclusions: The use of shorter schedules of post lumpectomy RT in Ontario increased after completion of the OCOG trial, but the trial had a less normative effect on practice than expected.

  5. Spinning like a blue straggler: the population of fast rotating blue straggler stars in ? Centauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mucciarelli, A.; Lovisi, L.; Ferraro, F. R.; Dalessandro, E.; Lanzoni, B.

    2014-12-10

    By using high-resolution spectra acquired with FLAMES-GIRAFFE at the ESO/VLT, we measured the radial and rotational velocities for 110 blue straggler stars (BSSs) in ? Centauri, the globular cluster-like stellar system harboring the largest known BSS population. According to their radial velocities, 109 BSSs are members of the system. The rotational velocity distribution is very broad, with the bulk of BSSs spinning at less than ?40 km s{sup 1} (in agreement with the majority of such stars observed in other globular clusters) and a long tail reaching ?200 km s{sup 1}. About 40% of the sample has v{sub e} sin i > 40 km s{sup 1} and about 20% has v{sub e} sin i > 70 km s{sup 1}. Such a large fraction is very similar to the percentage of fast rotating BSSs observed in M4. Thus, ? Centauri is the second stellar cluster, beyond M4, with a surprisingly high population of fast spinning BSSs. We found a hint of radial behavior for a fraction of fast rotating BSSs, with a mild peak within one core radius, and a possible rise in the external regions (beyond four core radii). This may suggest that recent formation episodes of mass transfer BSSs occurred preferentially in the outskirts of ? Centauri, or that braking mechanisms able to slow down these stars are least efficient in the lowest density environments.

  6. The VMC survey. XI. Radial stellar population gradients in the galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Chengyuan; De Grijs, Richard; Deng, Licai; Rubele, Stefano; Girardi, Leo; Gullieuszik, Marco; Wang, Chuchu; Bekki, Kenji; For, Bi-Qing; Cioni, Maria-Rosa L.; Clementini, Gisella; Emerson, Jim; Groenewegen, Martin A. T.; Guandalini, Roald; Marconi, Marcella; Ripepi, Vincenzo; Piatti, Andrs E.; Van Loon, Jacco Th. E-mail: grijs@pku.edu.cn

    2014-07-20

    We present a deep near-infrared color-magnitude diagram of the Galactic globular cluster 47 Tucanae, obtained with the Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) as part of the VISTA near-infrared Y, J, K{sub s} survey of the Magellanic System (VMC). The cluster stars comprising both the subgiant and red giant branches exhibit apparent, continuous variations in color-magnitude space as a function of radius. Subgiant branch stars at larger radii are systematically brighter than their counterparts closer to the cluster core; similarly, red-giant-branch stars in the cluster's periphery are bluer than their more centrally located cousins. The observations can very well be described by adopting an age spread of ?0.5 Gyr as well as radial gradients in both the cluster's helium abundance (Y) and metallicity (Z), which change gradually from (Y = 0.28, Z = 0.005) in the cluster core to (Y = 0.25, Z = 0.003) in its periphery. We conclude that the cluster's inner regions host a significant fraction of second-generation stars, which decreases with increasing radius; the stellar population in the 47 Tuc periphery is well approximated by a simple stellar population.

  7. ORIGIN OF 12 {mu}m EMISSION ACROSS GALAXY POPULATIONS FROM WISE AND SDSS SURVEYS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Donoso, E.; Yan Lin; Tsai, C.; Eisenhardt, P.; Stern, D.; Assef, R. J.; Leisawitz, D.; Jarrett, T. H.; Stanford, S. A.

    2012-04-01

    We cross-matched Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer sources brighter than 1 mJy at 12 {mu}m with the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxy spectroscopic catalog to produce a sample of {approx}10{sup 5} galaxies at (z) = 0.08, the largest of its kind. This sample is dominated (70%) by star-forming (SF) galaxies from the blue sequence, with total IR luminosities in the range {approx}10{sup 8}-10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }. We identify which stellar populations are responsible for most of the 12 {mu}m emission. We find that most ({approx}80%) of the 12 {mu}m emission in SF galaxies is produced by stellar populations younger than 0.6 Gyr. In contrast, the 12 {mu}m emission in weak active galactic nuclei (AGNs; L{sub [Oiii]} < 10{sup 7} L{sub .}) is produced by older stars, with ages of {approx}1-3 Gyr. We find that L{sub 12{mu}m} linearly correlates with stellar mass for SF galaxies. At fixed 12 {mu}m luminosity, weak AGNs deviate toward higher masses since they tend to be hosted by massive, early-type galaxies with older stellar populations. SF galaxies and weak AGNs follow different L{sub 12{mu}m}-SFR (star formation rate) relations, with weak AGNs showing excess 12 {mu}m emission at low SFR (0.02-1 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}). This is likely due to dust grains heated by older stars. While the specific star formation rate (SSFR) of SF galaxies is nearly constant, the SSFR of weak AGNs decreases by {approx}3 orders of magnitude, reflecting the very different star formation efficiencies between SF galaxies and massive, early-type galaxies. Stronger type II AGNs in our sample (L[{sub Oiii]} > 10{sup 7} L{sub .}), act as an extension of massive SF galaxies, connecting the SF and weak AGN sequences. This suggests a picture where galaxies form stars normally until an AGN (possibly after a starburst episode) starts to gradually quench the SF activity. We also find that 4.6-12 {mu}m color is a useful first-order indicator of SF activity in a galaxy when no other data are available.

  8. Aqueous precipitation: Population balance modeling and control in multi-cation systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Voigt, J.A.

    1996-03-01

    Efficient separation of metal species from aqueous streams by precipitation techniques requires a fundamental understanding of the processes that occur during precipitation. These processes include particle nucleation, particle growth by solute deposition, agglomerate formation, and agglomerate breakup. Population balance method has been used to develop a kinetic model that accounts for these competing kinetic processes. The usefulness of the model is illustrated through its application to precipitation of yttrium hydroxynitrate, YHN. Kinetic parameters calculated from the model equations and system-specific solution chemistry are used to describe several aspects of the effect of pH on YHN precipitation. Implications for simultaneous precipitation of more than one cation type are discussed with examples. Effects of solution chemistry, precipitator design, and solvent choice are considered.

  9. High Contrast Ramsey Fringes with Coherent-Population-Trapping Pulses in a Double Lambda Atomic System

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zanon, T.; Guerandel, S.; Clercq, E. de; Holleville, D.; Dimarcq, N.; Clairon, A. [SYRTE, Observatoire de Paris, 61 Avenue de l'Observatoire, 75014 Paris (France)

    2005-05-20

    We report the observation of Raman-Ramsey fringes using a double lambda scheme creating coherent population trapping in an atomic ensemble combined with pulsed optical radiations. The observation was made in a Cs vapor mixed with N{sub 2} buffer gas in a closed cell. The double lambda scheme is created with lin perpendicular lin polarized laser beams leading to higher contrast than the usual simple lambda scheme. The pulsed trapping technique leads to narrow fringe widths scaling as 1/(2T) with high contrasts which are no longer limited by the saturation effect. This technique operates in a different way from the classical Ramsey sequence: the signal is done by applying a long trapping pulse to prepare the atomic state superposition, and fringe detection is accomplished by optical transmission during a short second trapping pulse without any perturbation of the dark state.

  10. Estimating the Spatial Distribution of Population without Power during Extreme Weather Events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Fernandez, Steven J; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2010-01-01

    One challenge in emergency preparedness and response during extreme weather events such as hurricanes and ice storms is estimating how many people may be without power and how long they could be without power. In this presentation, we will discuss a method for estimating the spatial distribution of people without power during extreme weather events. The method is based on a directional nearest-neighbor approach in which grid cells representing substation locations acquire other grid cells representing customers/population demand with respect to the capacity of each substation. We also present a method for estimating restoration time in case of an outage. The application of these methods during the 2008 hurricane season will also be discussed.

  11. A population of relic intermediate-mass black holes in the halo of the Milky Way

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rashkov, Valery; Madau, Piero

    2014-01-10

    If 'seed' central black holes were common in the subgalactic building blocks that merged to form present-day massive galaxies, then relic intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs) should be present in the Galactic bulge and halo. We use a particle tagging technique to dynamically populate the N-body Via Lactea II high-resolution simulation with black holes, and assess the size, properties, and detectability of the leftover population. The method assigns a black hole to the most tightly bound central particle of each subhalo at infall according to an extrapolation of the M {sub BH}-?{sub *} relation, and self-consistently follows the accretion and disruption of Milky Way progenitor dwarfs and their holes in a cosmological 'live' host from high redshift to today. We show that, depending on the minimum stellar velocity dispersion, ? {sub m}, below which central black holes are assumed to be increasingly rare, as many as ?2000 (? {sub m} = 3 km s{sup 1}) or as few as ?70 (? {sub m} = 12 km s{sup 1}) IMBHs may be left wandering in the halo of the Milky Way today. The fraction of IMBHs forced from their hosts by gravitational recoil is ? 20%. We identify two main Galactic subpopulations, 'naked' IMBHs, whose host subhalos were totally destroyed after infall, and 'clothed' IMBHs residing in dark matter satellites that survived tidal stripping. Naked IMBHs typically constitute 40%-50% of the total and are more centrally concentrated. We show that, in the ? {sub m} = 12 km s{sup 1} scenario, the clusters of tightly bound stars that should accompany naked IMBHs would be fainter than m{sub V} = 16 mag, spatially resolvable, and have proper motions of 0.1-10 mas yr{sup 1}. Their detection may provide an observational tool to constrain the formation history of massive black holes in the early universe.

  12. The Norma arm region Chandra survey catalog: X-ray populations in the spiral arms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fornasini, Francesca M. [Astronomy Department, University of California, 601 Campbell Hall, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Tomsick, John A.; Bodaghee, Arash; Krivonos, Roman A. [Space Sciences Laboratory, 7 Gauss Way, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); An, Hongjun [Department of Physics, McGill University, Rutherford Physics Building, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC H3A 2T8 (Canada); Rahoui, Farid [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching bei Mnchen (Germany); Gotthelf, Eric V. [Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Bauer, Franz E. [Instituto de Astrofsica, Facultad de Fsica, Pontificia Universidad Catlica de Chile, 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Stern, Daniel, E-mail: f.fornasini@berkeley.edu [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, MS 169-506, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    We present a catalog of 1415 X-ray sources identified in the Norma Arm Region Chandra Survey (NARCS), which covers a 2 0.8 region in the direction of the Norma spiral arm to a depth of ?20 ks. Of these sources, 1130 are point-like sources detected with ?3? confidence in at least one of three energy bands (0.5-10, 0.5-2, and 2-10 keV), five have extended emission, and the remainder are detected at low significance. Since most sources have too few counts to permit individual classification, they are divided into five spectral groups defined by their quantile properties. We analyze stacked spectra of X-ray sources within each group, in conjunction with their fluxes, variability, and infrared counterparts, to identify the dominant populations in our survey. We find that ?50% of our sources are foreground sources located within 1-2 kpc, which is consistent with expectations from previous surveys. Approximately 20% of sources are likely located in the proximity of the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arm, while 30% are more distant, in the proximity of the far Norma arm or beyond. We argue that a mixture of magnetic and nonmagnetic cataclysmic variables dominates the Scutum-Crux and near Norma arms, while intermediate polars and high-mass stars (isolated or in binaries) dominate the far Norma arm. We also present the cumulative number count distribution for sources in our survey that are detected in the hard energy band. A population of very hard sources in the vicinity of the far Norma arm and active galactic nuclei dominate the hard X-ray emission down to f{sub X} ? 10{sup 14} erg cm{sup 2} s{sup 1}, but the distribution curve flattens at fainter fluxes. We find good agreement between the observed distribution and predictions based on other surveys.

  13. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms: a population-based study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G.

    1987-01-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in six cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms. 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or to fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalence of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared to unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR=1.53, 95% CI=1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  14. Occupational exposures and chronic respiratory symptoms. A population-based study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Korn, R.J.; Dockery, D.W.; Speizer, F.E.; Ware, J.H.; Ferris, B.G. Jr.

    1987-08-01

    Data from a random sample of 8515 white adults residing in 6 cities in the eastern and midwestern United States were used to examine the relationships between occupational exposures to dust or to gases and fumes and chronic respiratory symptoms; 31% of the population had a history of occupational dust exposure and 30% reported exposure to gas or fumes. After adjusting for smoking habits, age, gender, and city of residence, subjects with either occupational exposure had significantly elevated prevalences of chronic cough, chronic phlegm, persistent wheeze, and breathlessness. The adjusted relative odds of chronic respiratory symptoms for subjects exposed to dust ranged from 1.32 to 1.60. Subjects with gas or fume exposure had relative odds of symptoms between 1.27 and 1.43 when compared with unexposed subjects. Occupational dust exposure was associated with a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as defined by an FEV1/FVC ratio of less than 0.6, when comparing exposed and unexposed participants (OR = 1.53, 95% Cl = 1.17-2.08). Gas or fume exposure was associated with a small, but not significant, increase in COPD prevalence. Significant trends were noted for wheeze and phlegm with increasing duration of dust exposure. Although 36% of exposed subjects reported exposure to both dust and fumes, there was no evidence of a multiplicative interaction between the effects of the individual exposures. Smoking was a significant independent predictor of symptoms, but did not appear to modify the effect of dust or fumes on symptom reporting. These data, obtained in random samples of general populations, demonstrate that chronic respiratory symptoms and disease can be independently associated with occupational exposures.

  15. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies. A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-03-27

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity and disability.

  16. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies. A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-03-27

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use formore » the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity and disability.« less

  17. Modeling the Potential Effects of New Tobacco Products and Policies: A Dynamic Population Model for Multiple Product Use and Harm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vugrin, Eric D.; Rostron, Brian L.; Verzi, Stephen J.; Brodsky, Nancy S.; Brown, Theresa J.; Choiniere, Conrad J.; Coleman, Blair N.; Paredes, Antonio; Apelberg, Benjamin J.

    2015-03-27

    Background Recent declines in US cigarette smoking prevalence have coincided with increases in use of other tobacco products. Multiple product tobacco models can help assess the population health impacts associated with use of a wide range of tobacco products. Methods and Findings We present a multi-state, dynamical systems population structure model that can be used to assess the effects of tobacco product use behaviors on population health. The model incorporates transition behaviors, such as initiation, cessation, switching, and dual use, related to the use of multiple products. The model tracks product use prevalence and mortality attributable to tobacco use for the overall population and by sex and age group. The model can also be used to estimate differences in these outcomes between scenarios by varying input parameter values. We demonstrate model capabilities by projecting future cigarette smoking prevalence and smoking-attributable mortality and then simulating the effects of introduction of a hypothetical new lower-risk tobacco product under a variety of assumptions about product use. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to examine the range of population impacts that could occur due to differences in input values for product use and risk. We demonstrate that potential benefits from cigarette smokers switching to the lower-risk product can be offset over time through increased initiation of this product. Model results show that population health benefits are particularly sensitive to product risks and initiation, switching, and dual use behaviors. Conclusion Our model incorporates the variety of tobacco use behaviors and risks that occur with multiple products. As such, it can evaluate the population health impacts associated with the introduction of new tobacco products or policies that may result in product switching or dual use. Further model development will include refinement of data inputs for non-cigarette tobacco products and inclusion of health outcomes such as morbidity and disability.

  18. Mass-loss evolution of close-in exoplanets: Evaporation of hot Jupiters and the effect on population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurokawa, H.; Nakamoto, T.

    2014-03-01

    During their evolution, short-period exoplanets may lose envelope mass through atmospheric escape owing to intense X-ray and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from their host stars. Roche-lobe overflow induced by orbital evolution or intense atmospheric escape can also contribute to mass loss. To study the effects of mass loss on inner planet populations, we calculate the evolution of hot Jupiters considering mass loss of their envelopes and thermal contraction. Mass loss is assumed to occur through XUV-driven atmospheric escape and the following Roche-lobe overflow. The runaway effect of mass loss results in a dichotomy of populations: hot Jupiters that retain their envelopes and super Earths whose envelopes are completely lost. Evolution primarily depends on the core masses of planets and only slightly on migration history. In hot Jupiters with small cores (? 10 Earth masses), runaway atmospheric escape followed by Roche-lobe overflow may create sub-Jupiter deserts, as observed in both mass and radius distributions of planetary populations. Comparing our results with formation scenarios and observed exoplanets populations, we propose that populations of closely orbiting exoplanets are formed by capturing planets at/inside the inner edges of protoplanetary disks and subsequent evaporation of sub-Jupiters.

  19. A CATALOG OF GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEMS: WHAT DETERMINES THE SIZE OF A GALAXY'S GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATION?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harris, William E.; Alessi, Matthew; Harris, Gretchen L. H. E-mail: alessimj@mcmaster.ca

    2013-08-01

    We present a catalog of 422 galaxies with published measurements of their globular cluster (GC) populations. Of these, 248 are E galaxies, 93 are S0 galaxies, and 81 are spirals or irregulars. Among various correlations of the total number of GCs with other global galaxy properties, we find that N{sub GC} correlates well though nonlinearly with the dynamical mass of the galaxy bulge M{sub dyn}= 4{sigma}{sub e}{sup 2} R{sub e} /G, where {sigma}{sub e} is the central velocity dispersion and R{sub e} the effective radius of the galaxy light profile. We also present updated versions of the GC specific frequency S{sub N} and specific mass S{sub M} versus host galaxy luminosity and baryonic mass. These graphs exhibit the previously known U-shape: highest S{sub N} or S{sub M} values occur for either dwarfs or supergiants, but in the midrange of galaxy size (10{sup 9}-10{sup 10} L{sub Sun }) the GC numbers fall along a well-defined baseline value of S{sub N} {approx_equal} 1 or S{sub M} = 0.1, similar among all galaxy types. Along with other recent discussions, we suggest that this trend may represent the effects of feedback, which systematically inhibited early star formation at either very low or very high galaxy mass, but which had its minimum effect for intermediate masses. Our results strongly reinforce recent proposals that GC formation efficiency appears to be most nearly proportional to the galaxy halo mass M{sub halo}. The mean 'absolute' efficiency ratio for GC formation that we derive from the catalog data is M{sub GCS}/M{sub halo} = 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. We suggest that the galaxy-to-galaxy scatter around this mean value may arise in part because of differences in the relative timing of GC formation versus field-star formation. Finally, we find that an excellent empirical predictor of total GC population for galaxies of all luminosities is N{sub GC} {approx} (R{sub e} {sigma}{sub e}){sup 1.3}, a result consistent with fundamental plane scaling relations.

  20. 2007 TY430: A COLD CLASSICAL KUIPER BELT TYPE BINARY IN THE PLUTINO POPULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheppard, Scott S.; Ragozzine, Darin; Trujillo, Chadwick

    2012-03-15

    Kuiper Belt object 2007 TY430 is the first wide, equal-sized, binary known in the 3:2 mean motion resonance with Neptune. The two components have a maximum separation of about 1 arcsec and are on average less than 0.1 mag different in apparent magnitude with identical ultra-red colors (g - i = 1.49 {+-} 0.01 mag). Using nearly monthly observations of 2007 TY430 from 2007 to 2011, the orbit of the mutual components was found to have a period of 961.2 {+-} 4.6 days with a semi-major axis of 21000 {+-} 160 km and eccentricity of 0.1529 {+-} 0.0028. The inclination with respect to the ecliptic is 15.68 {+-} 0.22 deg and extensive observations have allowed the mirror orbit to be eliminated as a possibility. The total mass for the binary system was found to be 7.90 {+-} 0.21 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 17} kg. Equal-sized, wide binaries and ultra-red colors are common in the low-inclination 'cold' classical part of the Kuiper Belt and likely formed through some sort of three-body interactions within a much denser Kuiper Belt. To date 2007 TY430 is the only ultra-red, equal-sized binary known outside of the classical Kuiper Belt population. Numerical simulations suggest 2007 TY430 is moderately unstable in the outer part of the 3:2 resonance and thus 2007 TY430 is likely an escaped 'cold' classical object that later got trapped in the 3:2 resonance. Similar to the known equal-sized, wide binaries in the cold classical population, the binary 2007 TY430 requires a high albedo and very low density structure to obtain the total mass found for the pair. For a realistic minimum density of 0.5 g cm{sup -3} the albedo of 2007 TY430 would be greater than 0.17. For reasonable densities, the radii of either component should be less than 60 km, and thus the relatively low eccentricity of the binary is interesting since no tides should be operating on the bodies at their large distances from each other. The low prograde inclination of the binary also makes it unlikely that the Kozai mechanism could have altered the orbit, making the 2007 TY430 binary orbit likely one of the few relatively unaltered primordial binary orbits known. Under some binary formation models, the low-inclination prograde orbit of the 2007 TY430 binary indicates formation within a relatively high velocity regime in the Kuiper Belt.

  1. Energy consumption and expenditure projections by population group on the basis of the annual energy outlook 1999 forecast

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Balsley, J.H.

    2000-01-07

    This report presents an analysis of the relative impact of the base-case scenario used in Annual Energy Outlook 1999 on different population groups. Projections of energy consumption and expenditures, as well as energy expenditure as a share of income, from 1996 to 2020 are given. The projected consumption of electricty, natural gas, distillate fuel, and liquefied petroleum gas during this period is also reported for each population group. In addition, this report compares the findings of the Annual Energy Outlook 1999 report with the 1998 report. Changes in certain indicators and information affect energy use forecasts, and these effects are analyzed and discussed.

  2. Increasing cell culture population doublings for long-term growth of finite life span human cell cultures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stampfer, Martha R; Garbe, James C

    2015-02-24

    Cell culture media formulations for culturing human epithelial cells are herein described. Also described are methods of increasing population doublings in a cell culture of finite life span human epithelial cells and prolonging the life span of human cell cultures. Using the cell culture media disclosed alone and in combination with addition to the cell culture of a compound associated with anti-stress activity achieves extended growth of pre-stasis cells and increased population doublings and life span in human epithelial cell cultures.

  3. "Table HC15.1 Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Housing Unit Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Housing Unit Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Census Region and Division" "Northeast",20.6,7.1,"N","N","N" "New

  4. "Table HC15.10 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0 Home Appliances Usage Indicators by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Home Appliances Usage Indicators",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Cooking Appliances" "Frequency of Hot Meals Cooked" "3 or More Times A Day",8.2,0.6,0.5,0.8,1.4 "2 Times

  5. "Table HC15.11 Home Electronics Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1 Home Electronics Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Home Electronics Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Personal Computers" "Do Not Use a Personal Computer ",35.5,3,2,2.7,3.1 "Use a Personal

  6. "Table HC15.2 Living Space Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2 Living Space Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Living Space Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Floorspace (Square Feet)" "Total Floorspace1" "Fewer than 500",3.2,0.4,"Q","Q",0.5 "500

  7. "Table HC15.4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Space Heating Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Space Heating Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Space Heating Equipment",1.2,"Q","Q","Q",0.2 "Have Main Space Heating

  8. "Table HC15.6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 Air Conditioning Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Air Conditioning Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Do Not Have Cooling Equipment",17.8,1.8,"Q","Q",4.9 "Have Cooling Equipment",93.3,5.3,7,7.8,7.2

  9. "Table HC15.9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9 Home Appliances Characteristics by Four Most Populated States, 2005" " Million U.S. Housing Units" ,"U.S. Housing Units (millions)","Four Most Populated States" "Home Appliances Characteristics",,"New York","Florida","Texas","California" "Total U.S.",111.1,7.1,7,8,12.1 "Cooking Appliances" "Conventional Ovens" "Use an Oven",109.6,7.1,6.9,7.8,11.7

  10. Coherent population trapping resonances at lower atomic levels of Doppler broadened optical lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ?ahin, E; Hamid, R; elik, M; zen, G; Izmailov, A Ch

    2014-11-30

    We have detected and analysed narrow high-contrast coherent population trapping (CPT) resonances, which are induced in absorption of a weak monochromatic probe light beam by counterpropagating two-frequency pump radiation in a cell with rarefied caesium vapour. The experimental investigations have been performed by the example of nonclosed three level ?-systems formed by spectral components of the D{sub 2} line of caesium atoms. The applied method allows one to analyse features of the CPT phenomenon directly at a given low long-lived level of the selected ?-system even in sufficiently complicated spectra of atomic gases with large Doppler broadening. We have established that CPT resonances in transmission of the probe beam exhibit not only a higher contrast but also a much lesser width in comparison with well- known CPT resonances in transmission of the corresponding two-frequency pump radiation. The results obtained can be used in selective photophysics, photochemistry and ultra-high resolution atomic (molecular) spectroscopy. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  11. Environmental Impacts of Wind Power Development on the Population Biology of Greater Prairie-Chickens

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandercock, Brett K.

    2013-05-22

    Executive Summary 1. We investigated the impacts of wind power development on the demography, movements, and population genetics of Greater Prairie-Chickens (Tympanuchus cupido) at three sites in northcentral and eastern Kansas for a 7-year period. Only 1 of 3 sites was developed for wind power, the 201MW Meridan Way Wind Power Facility at the Smoky Hills site in northcentral Kansas. Our project report is based on population data for prairie chickens collected during a 2-year preconstruction period (2007-2008), a 3-year postconstruction period (2009-2011) and one final year of lek surveys (2012). Where relevant, we present preconstruction data from our field studies at reference sites in the northern Flint Hills (2007-2009) and southern Flint Hills (2006-2008). 2. We addressed seven potential impacts of wind power development on prairie chickens: lek attendance, mating behavior, use of breeding habitat, fecundity rates, natal dispersal, survival rates, and population numbers. Our analyses of pre- and postconstruction impacts are based on an analysis of covariance design where we modeled population performance as a function of treatment period, distance to eventual or actual site of the nearest wind turbine, and the interaction of these factors. Our demographic and movement data from the 6-year study period at the Smoky Hills site included 23 lek sites, 251 radio-marked females monitored for 287 bird-years, and 264 nesting attempts. Our genetic data were based on genotypes of 1,760 females, males and chicks that were screened with a set of 27 microsatellite markers that were optimized in the lab. 3. In our analyses of lek attendance, the annual probability of lek persistence during the preconstruction period was ~0.9. During the postconstruction period, distance to nearest turbine did not have a significant effect on the probability of lek persistence. However, the probability of lek persistence increased from 0.69 at 0 m to 0.89 at 30 km from turbines, and most abandoned lek sites were located <5 km from turbines. Probability of lek persistence was significantly related to habitat and number of males. Leks had a higher probability of persistence in grasslands than agricultural fields, and increased from ~0.2 for leks of 5 males, to >0.9 for leks of 10 or more males. Large leks in grasslands should be a higher priority for conservation. Overall, wind power development had a weak effect on the annual probability of lek persistence. 3. We used molecular methods to investigate the mating behavior of prairie chickens. The prevailing view for lek-mating grouse is that females mate once to fertilize the clutch and that conspecific nest parasitism is rare. We found evidence that females mate multiple times to fertilize the clutch (8-18% of broods, 4-38% of chicks) and will parasitize nests of other females during egg-laying (~17% of nests). Variable rates of parentage were highest in the fragmented landscapes at the Smoky Hills field site, and were lower at the Flint Hills field site. Comparisons of the pre- and postconstruction periods showed that wind energy development did not affect the mating behaviors of prairie chickens. 4. We examined use of breeding habitats by radio-marked females and conducted separate analyses for nest site selection, and movements of females not attending nests or broods. The landscape was a mix of native prairie and agricultural habitats, and nest site selection was not random because females preferred to nest in grasslands. Nests tended to be closer to turbines during the postconstruction period and there was no evidence of behavioral avoidance of turbines by females during nest site selection. Movements of females not attending nests or broods showed that females crossed the site of the wind power development at higher rates during the preconstruction period (20%) than the postconstruction period (11%), and that movements away from turbines were more frequent during the postconstruction period. Thus, wind power development appears to affect movements in breeding habitats but not nest site s

  12. REVISITING THE FIRST GALAXIES: THE EFFECTS OF POPULATION III STARS ON THEIR HOST GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muratov, Alexander L.; Gnedin, Oleg Y.; Zemp, Marcel [Department of Astronomy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Gnedin, Nickolay Y., E-mail: muratov@umich.edu [Particle Astrophysics Center, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We revisit the formation and evolution of the first galaxies using new hydrodynamic cosmological simulations with the adaptive refinement tree code. Our simulations feature a recently developed model for H{sub 2} formation and dissociation, and a star formation recipe that is based on molecular rather than atomic gas. Here, we develop and implement a recipe for the formation of metal-free Population III (Pop III) stars in galaxy-scale simulations that resolve primordial clouds with sufficiently high density. We base our recipe on the results of prior zoom-in simulations that resolved the protostellar collapse in pre-galactic objects. We find the epoch during which Pop III stars dominated the energy and metal budget of the first galaxies to be short-lived. Galaxies that host Pop III stars do not retain dynamical signatures of their thermal and radiative feedback for more than 10{sup 8} years after the lives of the stars end in pair-instability supernovae, even when we consider the maximum reasonable efficiency of the feedback. Though metals ejected by the supernovae can travel well beyond the virial radius of the host galaxy, they typically begin to fall back quickly, and do not enrich a large fraction of the intergalactic medium. Galaxies with a total mass in excess of 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 6} M{sub Sun} re-accrete most of their baryons and transition to metal-enriched Pop II star formation.

  13. Exploring Ramsey-coherent population trapping atomic clock realized with pulsed microwave modulated laser

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Jing; Yun, Peter [Key Laboratory of Atomic Frequency Standards, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Tian, Yuan; Tan, Bozhong [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Gu, Sihong, E-mail: shgu@wipm.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Atomic Frequency Standards, Wuhan Institute of Physics and Mathematics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430071 (China); Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2014-03-07

    A scheme for a Ramsey-coherent population trapping (CPT) atomic clock that eliminates the acousto-optic modulator (AOM) is proposed and experimentally studied. Driven by a periodically microwave modulated current, the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser emits a continuous beam that switches between monochromatic and multichromatic modes. Ramsey-CPT interference has been studied with this mode-switching beam. In eliminating the AOM, which is used to generate pulsed laser in conventional Ramsey-CPT atomic clock, the physics package of the proposed scheme is virtually the same as that of a conventional compact CPT atomic clock, although the resource budget for the electronics will slightly increase as a microwave switch should be added. By evaluating and comparing experimentally recorded signals from the two Ramsey-CPT schemes, the short-term frequency stability of the proposed scheme was found to be 46% better than the scheme with AOM. The experimental results suggest that the implementation of a compact Ramsey-CPT atomic clock promises better frequency stability.

  14. Experiments to populate and validate a processing model for polyurethane foam :

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mondy, Lisa Ann; Rao, Rekha Ranjana; Shelden, Bion; Soehnel, Melissa Marie; O'Hern, Timothy J.; Grillet, Anne; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Wyatt, Nicholas B.; Russick, Edward Mark; Bauer, Stephen J.; Hileman, Michael Bryan; Urquhart, Alexander; Thompson, Kyle Richard; Smith, David Michael

    2014-03-01

    We are developing computational models to elucidate the expansion and dynamic filling process of a polyurethane foam, PMDI. The polyurethane of interest is chemically blown, where carbon dioxide is produced via the reaction of water, the blowing agent, and isocyanate. The isocyanate also reacts with polyol in a competing reaction, which produces the polymer. Here we detail the experiments needed to populate a processing model and provide parameters for the model based on these experiments. The model entails solving the conservation equations, including the equations of motion, an energy balance, and two rate equations for the polymerization and foaming reactions, following a simplified mathematical formalism that decouples these two reactions. Parameters for the polymerization kinetics model are reported based on infrared spectrophotometry. Parameters describing the gas generating reaction are reported based on measurements of volume, temperature and pressure evolution with time. A foam rheology model is proposed and parameters determined through steady-shear and oscillatory tests. Heat of reaction and heat capacity are determined through differential scanning calorimetry. Thermal conductivity of the foam as a function of density is measured using a transient method based on the theory of the transient plane source technique. Finally, density variations of the resulting solid foam in several simple geometries are directly measured by sectioning and sampling mass, as well as through x-ray computed tomography. These density measurements will be useful for model validation once the complete model is implemented in an engineering code.

  15. Trinucleotide repeats at the FRAXF locus: Frequency and distribution in the general population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holden, J.J.A.; Walker, M.

    1996-08-09

    FRAXF the third X-chromosomal fragile site to be cloned, has been shown to harbor a polymorphic compound triplet array: (GC-CGTC){sub n} (GCC){sub n}. Expansion and methylation of the GCC-repeat and the neighboring CpG-rich region result in chromosomal fragility. DNAs from 500 anonymous consecutive newborn males were examined to determine the incidence of various repeat numbers. The range of repeats was from 10-38, with the most common alleles having 14 (52.7%), 12 (16.6%), 21 (9.0%), and 22 (5.2%) triplets. Based on the distribution of repeat numbers, we suggest that the 21-repeat allele resulted from hairpin formation involving 7 GCC-repeats in a 14-repeat allele, accompanied by polymerase slippage. Examination of dinucleotide repeats near the FRAXF repeat will be important in testing this hypothesis. Since the clinical phenotype, if any, of FRAXF is unknown, this database will also be valuable for comparisons with repeat numbers in individuals from special populations. 20 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. The general relativistic instability supernova of a supermassive population III star

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Ke-Jung; Woosley, Stan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Heger, Alexander [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, Monash University, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Almgren, Ann [Center for Computational Sciences and Engineering, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Whalen, Daniel J. [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johnson, Jarrett L., E-mail: kchen@ucolick.org [XTD-PRI, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    The formation of supermassive Population III stars with masses ?10,000 M{sub ?} in primeval galaxies in strong ultraviolet backgrounds at z ? 15 may be the most viable pathway to the formation of supermassive black holes by z ? 7. Most of these stars are expected to live for short times and then directly collapse to black holes, with little or no mass loss over their lives. However, we have now discovered that non-rotating primordial stars with masses close to 55,000 M{sub ?} can instead die as highly energetic thermonuclear supernovae powered by explosive helium burning, releasing up to 10{sup 55} erg, or about 10,000 times the energy of a Type Ia supernova. The explosion is triggered by the general relativistic contribution of thermal photons to gravity in the core of the star, which causes the core to contract and explosively burn. The energy release completely unbinds the star, leaving no compact remnant, and about half of the mass of the star is ejected into the early cosmos in the form of heavy elements. The explosion would be visible in the near infrared at z ? 20 to Euclid and the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, perhaps signaling the birth of supermassive black hole seeds and the first quasars.

  17. The WFPC2 ultraviolet survey: The blue straggler population in NGC 5824

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanna, N.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Miocchi, P.

    2014-01-01

    We have used a combination of high-resolution Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 and wide-field ground-based observations, in ultraviolet and optical bands, to study the blue straggler star population of the massive outer halo globular cluster NGC 5824 over its entire radial extent. We have computed the center of the cluster and constructed the radial density profile from detailed star counts. The profile is well reproduced by a Wilson model with a small core (r{sub c} ? 4.''4) and a concentration parameter c ? 2.74. We also present the first age determination for this cluster. From a comparison with isochrones, we find t = 13 0.5 Gyr. We discuss this result in the context of the observed age-metallicity relation of Galactic globular clusters. A total of 60 bright blue stragglers has been identified. Their radial distribution is found to be bimodal, with a central peak, a well-defined minimum at r ? 20'', and an upturn at large radii. In the framework of the dynamical clock recently defined by Ferraro et al., this feature suggests that NGC 5824 is a cluster of intermediate dynamical age.

  18. Respiratory health effects of the indoor environment in a population of Dutch children

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dijkstra, L.; Houthuijs, D.; Brunekreef, B.; Akkerman, I.; Boleij, J.S. )

    1990-11-01

    The effect of indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide on respiratory health was studied over a period of 2 yr in a population of nonsmoking Dutch children 6 to 12 yr of age. Lung function was measured at the schools, and information on respiratory symptoms was collected from a self-administered questionnaire completed by the parents of the children. Nitrogen dioxide was measured in the homes of all children with Palmes' diffusion tubes. In addition, information on smoking and dampness in the home was collected by questionnaire. There was no relationship between exposure to nitrogen dioxide in the home and respiratory symptoms. Respiratory symptoms were found to be associated with exposure to tobacco smoke and home dampness. There was a weak, negative association between maximal midexpiratory flow (MMEF) and exposure to nitrogen dioxide. FEV1, peak expiratory flow, and MMEF were all negatively associated with exposure to tobacco smoke. Home dampness was not associated with pulmonary function. Lung function growth, measured over a period of 2 yr, was not consistently associated with any of the indoor exposure variables. The development of respiratory symptoms over time was not associated with indoor exposure to nitrogen dioxide. There was a significant association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the home and the development of wheeze. There was also a significant association between home dampness and the development of cough.

  19. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic tomore » these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.« less

  20. Enhanced γ -Ray Emission from Neutron Unbound States Populated in β Decay

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Tain, J. L.; Valencia, E.; Algora, A.; Agramunt, J.; Rubio, B.; Rice, S.; Gelletly, W.; Regan, P.; Zakari-Issoufou, A. -A.; Fallot, M.; et al

    2015-08-01

    Total absorption spectroscopy was used to investigate the β -decay intensity to states above the neutron separation energy followed by γ -ray emission in 87,88Br and 94Rb. Accurate results were obtained thanks to the careful control of systematic errors. An unexpectedly large γ intensity was observed in all three cases extending well beyond the excitation energy region where neutron penetration is hindered by low neutron energy. The γ branching as a function of excitation energy was compared to Hauser-Feshbach model calculations. For 87Br and 88Br the branching reaches 57% and 20% respectively, and could be explained as a nuclear structuremore » effect. Some of the states populated in the daughter can only decay through the emission of a large orbital angular momentum neutron with a strongly reduced barrier penetrability. In the case of neutron-rich 94Rb the observed 4.5% branching is much larger than the calculations performed with standard nuclear statistical model parameters, even after proper correction for fluctuation effects on individual transition widths. The difference can be reconciled introducing an enhancement of one order-of-magnitude in the photon strength to neutron strength ratio. An increase in the photon strength function of such magnitude for very neutron-rich nuclei, if it proved to be correct, leads to a similar increase in the (n, γ) cross section that would have an impact on r process abundance calculations.« less

  1. Mutation analysis of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in a male breast cancer population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Friedman, L.S.; Gayther, S.A.; Ponder, B.A.J.

    1997-02-01

    A population-based series of 54 male breast cancer cases from Southern California were analyzed for germ-line mutations in the inherited breast/ovarian cancer genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. Nine (17%) of the patients had a family history of breast and/or ovarian cancer in at least one first-degree relative. A further seven (13%) of the patients reported breast/ovarian cancer in at least one second-degree relative and in no first-degree relatives. No germ-line BRCA1 mutations were found. Two male breast cancer patients (4% of the total) were found to carry novel truncating mutations in the BRCA2 gene. Only one of the two male breast cancer patients carrying a BRCA2 mutation had a family history of cancer, with one case of ovarian cancer in a first-degree relative. The remaining eight cases (89%) of male breast cancer with a family history of breast/ovarian cancer in first-degree relatives remain unaccounted for by mutations in either the BRCA1 gene or the BRCA2 gene. 23 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  2. Ecological distribution and population physiology defined by proteomics in a natural microbial community

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muller, R; Denef, Vincent; Kalnejals, Linda; Suttle, K Blake; Thomas, Brian; Wilmes, P; Smith, Richard L.; Nordstrom, D Kirk; McCleskey, R Blaine; Shah, Manesh B; Verberkmoes, Nathan C; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Banfield, Jillian F.

    2010-01-01

    An important challenge in microbial ecology is developing methods that simultaneously examine the physiology of organisms at the molecular level and their ecosystem level interactions in complex natural systems.We integrated extensive proteomic, geochemical, and biological information from 28 microbial communities collected from an acid mine drainage environment and representing a range of biofilm development stages and geochemical conditions to evaluate how the physiologies of the dominant and less abundant organisms change along environmental gradients. The initial colonist dominates across all environments, but its proteome changes between two stable states as communities diversify, implying that interspecies interactions affect this organism s metabolism. Its overall physiology is robust to abiotic environmental factors, but strong correlations exist between these factors and certain subsets of proteins, possibly accounting for its wide environmental distribution. Lower abundance populations are patchier in their distribution, and proteomic data indicate that their environmental niches may be constrained by specific sets of abiotic environmental factors. This research establishes an effective strategy to investigate ecological relationships between microbial physiology and the environment for whole communities in situ

  3. THE ARAUCARIA PROJECT. POPULATION EFFECTS ON THE V- AND I-BAND MAGNITUDES OF RED CLUMP STARS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pietrzynski, Grzegorz; Gieren, Wolfgang; Gorski, Marek; Udalski, Andrzej; Ciechanowska, Anna; Laney, David E-mail: pietrzyn@astrouw.edu.p E-mail: udalski@astrouw.edu.p E-mail: cdl@saao.ac.z

    2010-10-15

    We present measurements of the V- and I-band magnitudes of red clump stars in 15 nearby galaxies obtained from recently published homogeneous Hubble Space Telescope photometry. Supplementing these results with similar data for another eight galaxies available in the literature, the populational effects on the V- and I-band magnitudes of red clump stars were investigated. Comparing red clump magnitudes with the I-band magnitude of the tip of the red giant branch in a total sample of 23 galaxies possessing very different environments, we demonstrate that population effects strongly affect both the V- and I-band magnitude of red clump stars in a complex way. Our empirical results basically confirm the theoretical results of Girardi and Salaris, and show that optical (V - I) photometry of red clump stars is not an accurate method for the determination of distances to nearby galaxies at the present moment, as long as the population effects are not better calibrated, both empirically and theoretically. Near-infrared photometry is a much better way to measure galaxy distances with red clump stars given its smaller sensitivity to population effects.

  4. Manipulation of Zeeman coherence in solids at room temperature: Ramsey interference in the coherent-population-trapping spectrum of ruby

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kolesov, Roman; Scully, Marlan O.; Kocharovskaya, Olga [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States)

    2006-11-15

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) in a three-level atomic medium pumped by two subsequent short optical pulses is considered under the condition of negligible population decay from the excited optical state. It is shown that the amount of atomic population transferred to the excited state by the combined action of the pulses strongly depends on the phase of the ground-state coherence excited by the first pulse at the arrival time of the second pulse. Oscillatory behavior of optical excitation efficiency on the time delay between the pulses is predicted. It is also shown that saturating optical pulses can produce population inversion in a resonantly pumped quasi-two-level system. A class of solid materials in which the predicted phenomena can be observed at room temperature is found. It includes some rare-earth and transition-metal doped dielectric crystals where Orbach relaxation between ground-state Zeeman states is suppressed: ruby, alexandrite, and several others. On the basis of the theoretical predictions, experimental observation of Ramsey fringes in CPT spectrum of ruby is reported.

  5. Surveys of forest bird populations found in the vicinity of proposed geothermal project subzones in the district of Puna, Hawaii

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jacobi, J.D.; Reynolds, M.; Ritchotte, G.; Nielsen, B.; Viggiano, A.; Dwyer, J.

    1994-10-01

    This report presents data on the distribution and status of forest bird species found within the vicinity of proposed geothermal resource development on the Island of Hawaii. Potential impacts of the proposed development on the native bird populations found in the project are are addressed.

  6. Dworshak Kokanee Population and Entrainment Assessment 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stark, Eric J.

    2008-11-06

    During this contract, we continued testing underwater strobe lights to determine their effectiveness at repelling kokanee Oncorhynchus nerka away from Dworshak Dam. We tested one set of nine strobe lights flashing at a rate of 360 flashes/min in front of turbine 3 while operating at higher discharges than previously tested. The density and distribution of fish, (thought to be mostly kokanee), were monitored with a split-beam echo sounder. We then compared fish counts and densities during nights when the lights were flashing to counts and densities during adjacent nights without the lights on. On five nights between January 31 and February 28, 2006, when no lights were present, fish counts near turbine 3 averaged eight fish and densities averaged 91 fish/ha. When strobe lights were turned on during five adjacent nights during the same period, mean counts dropped to four fish and densities dropped to 35 fish/ha. The decline in counts (49%) was not statistically significant (p = 0.182), but decline in densities (62%) was significant (p = 0.049). There appeared to be no tendency for fish to habituate to the lights during the night. Test results indicated that strobe lights were able to reduce fish densities by at least 50% in front of turbines operating at higher discharges, which would be sufficient to improve sportfish harvest. We also used split-beam hydroacoustics to monitor the kokanee population in Dworshak Reservoir during 2005. Estimated abundance of kokanee decreased from the 2004 population estimate. Based on hydroacoustic surveys, we estimated 3,011,626 kokanee (90% CI {+-} 15.2%) in Dworshak Reservoir, July 2005. This included 2,135,986 age-0 (90% CI {+-} 15.9%), 769,175 age-1 (90% CI {+-} 16.0%), and 107,465 age-2 (90% CI {+-} 15.2%). Poor survival of kokanee from age-1 to age-2 continued to keep age-2 densities below the management goal of 30-50 adults/ha. Entrainment sampling was conducted with fixed-site split-beam hydroacoustics a minimum of two days per month for a continuous 24 h period when dam operations permitted. The highest fish detection rates from entrainment assessments were again found during nighttime periods and lowest during the day. Fish detection rates were low during high discharges throughout the spring and summer and highest during low discharges in September and November. High discharge during drawdowns for anadromous fish flows in July and August again resulted in low detection rates and susceptibility to entrainment. Index counts of spawning kokanee in four tributary streams totaled 12,742 fish. This data fits the previously developed relationship between spawner counts and adult kokanee abundance in the reservoir.

  7. GLOBULAR CLUSTER POPULATIONS: FIRST RESULTS FROM S{sup 4}G EARLY-TYPE GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zaritsky, Dennis; Aravena, Manuel; Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert; Comern, Sbastien; Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago; Knapen, Johan H.; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Hinz, Joannah L.; Ho, Luis C.; Holwerda, Benne; Sheth, Kartik

    2015-02-01

    Using 3.6 ?m images of 97 early-type galaxies, we develop and verify methodology to measure globular cluster populations from the S{sup 4}G survey images. We find that (1) the ratio, T {sub N}, of the number of clusters, N {sub CL}, to parent galaxy stellar mass, M {sub *}, rises weakly with M {sub *} for early-type galaxies with M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ?} when we calculate galaxy masses using a universal stellar initial mass function (IMF) but that the dependence of T {sub N} on M {sub *} is removed entirely once we correct for the recently uncovered systematic variation of IMF with M {sub *}; and (2) for M {sub *} < 10{sup 10} M {sub ?}, there is no trend between N {sub CL} and M {sub *}, the scatter in T {sub N} is significantly larger (approaching two orders of magnitude), and there is evidence to support a previous, independent suggestion of two families of galaxies. The behavior of N {sub CL} in the lower-mass systems is more difficult to measure because these systems are inherently cluster-poor, but our results may add to previous evidence that large variations in cluster formation and destruction efficiencies are to be found among low-mass galaxies. The average fraction of stellar mass in clusters is ?0.0014 for M {sub *} > 10{sup 10} M {sub ?} and can be as large as ?0.02 for less massive galaxies. These are the first results from the S{sup 4}G sample of galaxies and will be enhanced by the sample of early-type galaxies now being added to S{sup 4}G and complemented by the study of later-type galaxies within S{sup 4}G.

  8. THE TIDAL DISRUPTION OF GIANT STARS AND THEIR CONTRIBUTION TO THE FLARING SUPERMASSIVE BLACK HOLE POPULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    MacLeod, Morgan; Guillochon, James; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico E-mail: jfg@ucolick.org

    2012-10-01

    Sun-like stars are thought to be regularly disrupted by supermassive black holes (SMBHs) within galactic nuclei. Yet, as stars evolve off the main sequence their vulnerability to tidal disruption increases drastically as they develop a bifurcated structure consisting of a dense core and a tenuous envelope. Here we present the first hydrodynamic simulations of the tidal disruption of giant stars and show that the core has a substantial influence on the star's ability to survive the encounter. Stars with more massive cores retain large fractions of their envelope mass, even in deep encounters. Accretion flares resulting from the disruption of giant stars should last for tens to hundreds of years. Their characteristic signature in transient searches would not be the t {sup -5/3} decay typically associated with tidal disruption events, but a correlated rise over many orders of magnitude in brightness on timescales of months to years. We calculate the relative disruption rates of stars of varying evolutionary stages in typical galactic centers, then use our results to produce Monte Carlo realizations of the expected flaring event populations. We find that the demographics of tidal disruption flares are strongly dependent on both stellar and black hole mass, especially near the limiting SMBH mass scale of {approx}10{sup 8} M{sub Sun }. At this black hole mass, we predict a sharp transition in the SMBH flaring diet beyond which all observable disruptions arise from evolved stars, accompanied by a dramatic cutoff in the overall tidal disruption flaring rate. Black holes less massive than this limiting mass scale will show observable flares from both main-sequence and evolved stars, with giants contributing up to 10% of the event rate. The relative fractions of stars disrupted at different evolutionary states can constrain the properties and distributions of stars in galactic nuclei other than our own.

  9. A new population of ultra-long duration gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levan, A. J.; Brown, G. C.; Tunnicliffe, R. L.; Tanvir, N. R.; Starling, R. L. C.; Wiersema, K.; Page, K. L.; Wynn, G. A.; O'Brien, P. T.; Perley, D. A.; Schulze, S.; Chornock, R.; Malesani, D.; Watson, D.; Berger, E.; Hjorth, J.; Cenko, S. B.; Fruchter, A. S.; Jakobsson, P.; Bersier, D.; and others

    2014-01-20

    We present comprehensive multiwavelength observations of three gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with durations of several thousand seconds. We demonstrate that these events are extragalactic transients; in particular, we resolve the long-standing conundrum of the distance of GRB 101225A (the 'Christmas-day burst'), finding it to have a redshift z = 0.847 and showing that two apparently similar events (GRB 111209A and GRB 121027A) lie at z = 0.677 and z = 1.773, respectively. The systems show extremely unusual X-ray and optical light curves, very different from classical GRBs, with long-lasting, highly variable X-ray emission and optical light curves that exhibit little correlation with the behavior seen in the X-ray. Their host galaxies are faint, compact, and highly star-forming dwarf galaxies, typical of 'blue compact galaxies'. We propose that these bursts are the prototypes of a hitherto largely unrecognized population of ultra-long GRBs, which while observationally difficult to detect may be astrophysically relatively common. The long durations may naturally be explained by the engine-driven explosions of stars of much larger radii than normally considered for GRB progenitors, which are thought to have compact Wolf-Rayet progenitor stars. However, we cannot unambiguously identify supernova signatures within their light curves or spectra. We also consider the alternative possibility that they arise from the tidal disruption of stars by massive black holes and conclude that the associated timescales are only consistent with the disruption of compact stars (e.g., white dwarfs) by black holes of relatively low mass (<10{sup 5} M {sub ?}).

  10. An Evaluation of Parametric and Nonparametric Models of Fish Population Response.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haas, Timothy C.; Peterson, James T.; Lee, Danny C.

    1999-11-01

    Predicting the distribution or status of animal populations at large scales often requires the use of broad-scale information describing landforms, climate, vegetation, etc. These data, however, often consist of mixtures of continuous and categorical covariates and nonmultiplicative interactions among covariates, complicating statistical analyses. Using data from the interior Columbia River Basin, USA, we compared four methods for predicting the distribution of seven salmonid taxa using landscape information. Subwatersheds (mean size, 7800 ha) were characterized using a set of 12 covariates describing physiography, vegetation, and current land-use. The techniques included generalized logit modeling, classification trees, a nearest neighbor technique, and a modular neural network. We evaluated model performance using out-of-sample prediction accuracy via leave-one-out cross-validation and introduce a computer-intensive Monte Carlo hypothesis testing approach for examining the statistical significance of landscape covariates with the non-parametric methods. We found the modular neural network and the nearest-neighbor techniques to be the most accurate, but were difficult to summarize in ways that provided ecological insight. The modular neural network also required the most extensive computer resources for model fitting and hypothesis testing. The generalized logit models were readily interpretable, but were the least accurate, possibly due to nonlinear relationships and nonmultiplicative interactions among covariates. Substantial overlap among the statistically significant (P<0.05) covariates for each method suggested that each is capable of detecting similar relationships between responses and covariates. Consequently, we believe that employing one or more methods may provide greater biological insight without sacrificing prediction accuracy.

  11. ORIGIN OF THE UNUSUALLY LOW NITROGEN ABUNDANCES IN YOUNG POPULATIONS OF THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bekki, Kenji [ICRAR, M468, University of Western Australia, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley Western Australia 6009 (Australia); Tsujimoto, Takuji [National Astronomical Observatory, Mitaka-shi, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)

    2010-10-01

    It is a longstanding problem that H II regions and very young stellar populations in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) have nitrogen abundances ([N/H]) that are a factor of {approx}7 lower than the solar value. We here discuss a new scenario in which the observed unusually low nitrogen abundances can be closely associated with recent collisions and subsequent accretion of H I high velocity clouds (HVCs) that surround the Galaxy and have low nitrogen abundances. We show that if the observed low [N/H] is limited to very young stars with ages less than {approx}10{sup 7} yr, then the collision/accretion rate of the HVCs onto the LMC needs to be {approx}0.2 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} (corresponding to the total HVC mass of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} M{sub sun}) to dilute the original interstellar medium (ISM) before star formation. The required accretion rate means that even if the typical mass of HVCs accreted onto the LMC is {approx}10{sup 7} M{sub sun}, the Galaxy needs to have {approx}2500 massive HVCs within the LMC's orbital radius with respect to the Galactic center. The rather large number of required massive HVCs drives us to suggest that the HVCs are not likely to efficiently dilute the ISM of the LMC and consequently lower the [N/H]. We thus suggest the transfer of gas with low [N/H] from the Small Magellanic Cloud to the LMC as a promising scenario that can explain the observed low [N/H].

  12. Interesting features in the combined Galex and Sloan color diagrams of solar-like galactic populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Myron A.; Shiao, Bernard; Bianchi, Luciana E-mail: shiao@stsci.edu

    2014-06-01

    We report on intriguing photometric properties of Galactic stars observed in the Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) satellite's far-UV (FUV) and near-UV (NUV) bandpasses, as well as from the ground-based Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the Kepler Input Catalog. The first property is that the (FUV NUV) color distribution of stars in the Kepler field consists of two well-separated peaks. A second and more perplexing property is that for stars with spectral types G or later the mean (FUV NUV) color becomes much bluer, contrary to expectation. Investigating this tendency further, we found in two samples of mid-F through K type stars that 17%-22% of them exhibit FUV excesses relative to their NUV fluxes and spectral types. A correction for FUV incompleteness of the FUV magnitude-limited star sample brings this ratio to 14%-18%. Nearly the same fractions are also discovered among members of the Kepler Eclipsing Binary Catalog and in the published list of Kepler Objects of Interest. These UV-excess ('UVe') colors are confirmed by the negative UV continuum slopes in GALEX spectra of members of the population. The SDSS spectra of some UVe stars exhibit metallic line weakening, especially in the blue. This suggests an enhanced contribution of UV flux relative to photospheric flux of a solar-type single star. We consider the possibility that the UV excesses originate from various types of hot stars, including white dwarf DA and sdB stars, binaries, and strong chromosphere stars that are young or in active binaries. The space density of compact stars is too low to explain the observed frequency of the UVe stars. Our model atmosphere-derived simulations of colors for binaries with main-sequence pairs with a hot secondary demonstrate that the color loci conflict with the observed sequence. As a preferred alternative we are left with the active chromospheres explanation, whether in active close binaries or young single stars, despite the expected paucity of young, chromospherically active stars in the field. We also address a third perplexing color property, namely, the presence of a prominent island of 'UV red' stars surrounded by 'UV blue' stars in the diagnostic (NUVg), (g i) color diagram. We find that the subpopulation composing this island is mainly horizontal branch stars. These objects do not exhibit UV excesses and therefore have UV colors typical for their spectral types. This subpopulation appears 'red' in the UV only because the stars' colors are not pulled to the blue by the inclusion of UVe stars.

  13. Within- and among-population level differences in response to chronic copper exposure in southern toads, Anaxyrus terrestris

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Within- and among-population level differences in response to chronic copper exposure in southern toads, Anaxyrus terrestris Stacey L. Lance * , R. Wesley Flynn, Matthew R. Erickson 1 , David E. Scott Savannah River Ecology Laboratory, University of Georgia, P.O. Drawer E, Aiken, SC 29802, USA a r t i c l e i n f o Article history: Received 5 September 2012 Received in revised form 29 January 2013 Accepted 5 February 2013 Keywords: Anaxyrus (Bufo) terrestris Amphibian Copper Ecotoxicology Metal

  14. CHARACTERIZING ULTRAVIOLET AND INFRARED OBSERVATIONAL PROPERTIES FOR GALAXIES. I. INFLUENCES OF DUST ATTENUATION AND STELLAR POPULATION AGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mao Yewei; Kong Xu [Center for Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Kennicutt, Robert C. Jr. [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Hao, Cai-Na [Tianjin Astrophysics Center, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Zhou Xu, E-mail: owen81@mail.ustc.edu.cn, E-mail: xkong@ustc.edu.cn [National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China)

    2012-09-20

    The correlation between infrared-to-ultraviolet luminosity ratio and ultraviolet color (or ultraviolet spectral slope), i.e., the IRX-UV (or IRX-{beta}) relation, found in studies of starburst galaxies is a prevalent recipe for correcting extragalactic dust attenuation. Considerable dispersion in this relation discovered for normal galaxies, however, complicates its usability. In order to investigate the cause of the dispersion and to have a better understanding of the nature of the IRX-UV relation, in this paper, we select five nearby spiral galaxies, and perform spatially resolved studies on each of the galaxies, with a combination of ultraviolet and infrared imaging data. We measure all positions within each galaxy and divide the extracted regions into young and evolved stellar populations. By means of this approach, we attempt to discover separate effects of dust attenuation and stellar population age on the IRX-UV relation for individual galaxies. In this work, in addition to dust attenuation, stellar population age is interpreted to be another parameter in the IRX-UV function, and the diversity of star formation histories is suggested to disperse the age effects. At the same time, strong evidence shows the need for more parameters in the interpretation of observational data, such as variations in attenuation/extinction law. Fractional contributions of different components to the integrated luminosities of the galaxies suggest that the integrated measurements of these galaxies, which comprise different populations, would weaken the effect of the age parameter on IRX-UV diagrams. The dependence of the IRX-UV relation on luminosity and radial distance in galaxies presents weak trends, which offers an implication of selective effects. The two-dimensional maps of the UV color and the infrared-to-ultraviolet ratio are displayed and show a disparity in the spatial distributions between the two galaxy parameters, which offers a spatial interpretation of the scatter in the IRX-UV relation.

  15. Narrowing of the coherent population trapping resonance under zone pumping in cells with different characteristics of the wall coating

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kazakov, G A; Litvinov, A N; Matisov, B G [St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University, St. Petersburg (Russian Federation)

    2012-02-28

    It is shown that when coherent population trapping (CPT) resonance is excited by a narrow laser beam, the presence of elastic collisions with the cell wall significantly affects the line shape of the CPT-resonance. We have constructed a theoretical model, which is based on averaging over the random Ramsey sequences of the atom dwell time in the beam and dark zones and takes into account the probability of elastic bounce of an atom from the wall.

  16. Excited states in {sup 115}Pd populated in the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 115}Rh

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurpeta, J.; Plochocki, A. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Urban, W. [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, ul. Hoza 69, PL-00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue J. Horowitz, F-38042 Grenoble (France); Rissanen, J.; Eronen, T.; Hakala, J.; Jokinen, A.; Kankainen, A.; Karvonen, P.; Moore, I. D.; Penttilae, H.; Saastamoinen, A.; Weber, C.; Aeystoe, J. [Department of Physics, University of Jyvaeskylae, P.O. Box 35, FIN-40351, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Elomaa, V.-V. [Turku PET Centre, Accelerator Laboratory, Abo Akademi University, FIN-20500 Turku (Finland); Rahaman, S. [Physics Division, P-23, Mail Stop H803, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Sonoda, T. [Nishina Center for Accelerator Based Science, RIKEN, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Szerypo, J. [Fakultaet fuer Physik, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet Muenchen, Am Coulombwall 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    Excited states in {sup 115}Pd, populated following the {beta}{sup -} decay of {sup 115}Rh have been studied by means of {gamma} spectroscopy after the Penning-trap station at the IGISOL facility, University of Jyvaeskylae. The 1/2{sup +} spin and parity assignment of the ground state of {sup 115}Pd, confirmed in this work, may indicate a transition to an oblate shape in Pd isotopes at high neutron number.

  17. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apte, M.G.

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10{degrees}C to 30{degrees}C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  18. Impact of Concomitant Chemotherapy on Outcomes of Radiation Therapy for Head-and-Neck Cancer: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gupta, Shlok; Kong, Weidong; Booth, Christopher M.; Mackillop, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Clinical trials have shown that the addition of chemotherapy to radiation therapy (RT) improves survival in advanced head-and-neck cancer. The objective of this study was to describe the effectiveness of concomitant chemoradiation therapy (C-CRT) in routine practice. Methods and Materials: This was a population-based cohort study. Electronic records of treatment from all provincial cancer centers were linked to a population--based cancer registry to describe the adoption of C-CRT for head-and-neck cancer patients in Ontario, Canada. The study population was then divided into pre- and postadoption cohorts, and their outcomes were compared. Results: Between 1992 and 2008, 18,867 patients had diagnoses of head-and-neck cancer in Ontario, of whom 7866 (41.7%) were treated with primary RT. The proportion of primary RT cases that received C-CRT increased from 2.2% in the preadoption cohort (1992-1998) to 39.3% in the postadoption cohort (2003-2008). Five-year survival among all primary RT cases increased from 43.6% in the preadoption cohort to 51.8% in the postadoption cohort (P<.001). Over the same period, treatment-related hospital admissions increased significantly, but there was no significant increase in treatment-related deaths. Conclusions: C-CRT was widely adopted in Ontario after 2003, and its adoption was temporally associated with an improvement in survival.

  19. WIYN open cluster study. LIX. Radial velocity membership of the evolved population of the old open cluster NGC 6791

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tofflemire, Benjamin M.; Gosnell, Natalie M.; Mathieu, Robert D.; Platais, Imants E-mail: imants@pha.jhu.edu

    2014-10-01

    The open cluster NGC 6791 has been the focus of much recent study due to its intriguing combination of old age and high metallicity (?8 Gyr, [Fe/H] = +0.30), as well as its location within the Kepler field. As part of the WIYN Open Cluster Study, we present precise (? = 0.38 km s{sup 1}) radial velocities for proper motion candidate members of NGC 6791 from Platais et al. Our survey, extending down to g' ? 16.8, is comprised of the evolved cluster population, including blue stragglers, giants, and horizontal branch stars. Of the 280 proper-motion-selected stars above our magnitude limit, 93% have at least one radial velocity measurement and 79% have three measurements over the course of at least 200 days, sufficient for secure radial-velocity-determined membership of non-velocity-variable stars. The Platais et al. proper motion catalog includes 12 anomalous horizontal branch candidates blueward of the red clump, of which we find only 4 to be cluster members. Three fall slightly blueward of the red clump and the fourth is consistent with being a blue straggler. The cleaned color-magnitude diagram shows a richly populated red giant branch and a blue straggler population. Half of the blue stragglers are in binaries. From our radial velocity measurement distribution, we find the cluster's radial velocity dispersion to be ? {sub c} = 0.62 0.10 km s{sup 1}. This corresponds to a dynamical mass of ?4600 M {sub ?}.

  20. Population inversion in a magnetized hydrogen plasma expansion as a consequence of the molecular mutual neutralization process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harskamp, W. E. N. van; Brouwer, C. M.; Schram, D. C.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Engeln, R.

    2011-03-15

    A weakly magnetized expanding hydrogen plasma, created by a cascaded arc, was investigated using optical emission spectroscopy. The emission of the expanding plasma is dominated by H{sub {alpha}} emission in the first part of the plasma expansion, after which a sharp transition to a blue afterglow is observed. The position of this sharp transition along the expansion axis depends on the magnetic field strength. The blue afterglow emission is associated with population inversion of the electronically excited atomic hydrogen states n=4-6 with respect to n=3. By comparing the measured densities with the densities using an atomic collisional radiative model, we conclude that atomic recombination processes cannot account for the large population densities observed. Therefore, molecular processes must be important for the formation of excited states and for the occurrence of population inversion. This is further corroborated at the transition from red to blue, where a hollow profile of the excited states n=4-6 in the radial direction is observed. This hollow profile is explained by the molecular mutual neutralization process of H{sub 2}{sup +} with H{sup -}, which has a maximum production for excited atomic hydrogen 1-2 cm outside the plasma center.

  1. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1996-1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, David L.

    1998-02-01

    This report focuses on work performed from April 1996 through March 1997 to update life history parameters and population dynamics of white sturgeon in John Day Reservoir.

  2. Recombination enhances HIV-1 envelope diversity by facilitating the survival of latent genomic fragments in the plasma virus population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Immonen, Taina T.; Conway, Jessica M.; Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Perelson, Alan S.; Leitner, Thomas; Kouyos, Roger Dimitri

    2015-12-22

    HIV-1 is subject to immune pressure exerted by the host, giving variants that escape the immune response an advantage. Virus released from activated latent cells competes against variants that have continually evolved and adapted to host immune pressure. Nevertheless, there is increasing evidence that virus displaying a signal of latency survives in patient plasma despite having reduced fitness due to long-term immune memory. We investigated the survival of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments by simulating within-host HIV-1 sequence evolution and the cycling of viral lineages in and out of the latent reservoir. Our model incorporates a detailed mutation process including nucleotide substitution, recombination, latent reservoir dynamics, diversifying selection pressure driven by the immune response, and purifying selection pressure asserted by deleterious mutations. We evaluated the ability of our model to capture sequence evolution in vivo by comparing our simulated sequences to HIV-1 envelope sequence data from 16 HIV-infected untreated patients. Empirical sequence divergence and diversity measures were qualitatively and quantitatively similar to those of our simulated HIV-1 populations, suggesting that our model invokes realistic trends of HIV-1 genetic evolution. Moreover, reconstructed phylogenies of simulated and patient HIV-1 populations showed similar topological structures. Our simulation results suggest that recombination is a key mechanism facilitating the persistence of virus with latent envelope genomic fragments in the productively infected cell population. Recombination increased the survival probability of latent virus forms approximately 13-fold. Prevalence of virus with latent fragments in productively infected cells was observed in only 2% of simulations when we ignored recombination, while the proportion increased to 27% of simulations when we allowed recombination. We also found that the selection pressures exerted by different fitness landscapes influenced the shape of phylogenies, diversity trends, and survival of virus with latent genomic fragments. Furthermore, our model predicts that the persistence of latent genomic fragments from multiple different ancestral origins increases sequence diversity in plasma for reasonable fitness landscapes.

  3. The snapshot Hubble U-band cluster survey (SHUCS). II. The star cluster population of NGC 2997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryon, J. E.; Gallagher, J. S. III; Adamo, A.; Bastian, N.; Smith, L. J.; Konstantopoulos, I. S.; Larsen, S.; Zackrisson, E.

    2014-08-01

    We study the star cluster population of NGC 2997, a giant spiral galaxy located at 9.5 Mpc and targeted by the Snapshot Hubble U-band Cluster Survey (SHUCS). Combining our U-band imaging from SHUCS with archival BVI imaging from the Hubble Space Telescope, we select a high confidence sample of clusters in the circumnuclear ring and disk through a combination of automatic detection procedures and visual inspection. The cluster luminosity functions in all four filters can be approximated by power laws with indices of 1.7 to 2.3. Some deviations from pure power-law shape are observed, hinting at the presence of a high-mass truncation in the cluster mass function. However, upon inspection of the cluster mass function, we find it is consistent with a pure power law of index 2.2 0.2 despite a slight bend at ?2.5 10{sup 4} M {sub ?}. No statistically significant truncation is observed. From the cluster age distributions, we find a low rate of disruption (? ? 0.1) in both the disk and circumnuclear ring. Finally, we estimate the cluster formation efficiency (?) over the last 100 Myr in each region, finding 7% 2% for the disk, 12% 4% for the circumnuclear ring, and 10% 3% for the entire UBVI footprint. This study highlights the need for wide-field UBVI coverage of galaxies to study cluster populations in detail, though a small sample of clusters can provide significant insight into the characteristics of the population.

  4. TRACKING DOWN THE SOURCE POPULATION RESPONSIBLE FOR THE UNRESOLVED COSMIC 6-8 keV BACKGROUND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Y. Q.; Wang, S. X.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Schneider, D. P.; Young, M.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Fabian, A. C.; Lehmer, B. D.; Vignali, C.

    2012-10-20

    Using the 4 Ms Chandra Deep Field-South (CDF-S) survey, we have identified a sample of 6845 X-ray-undetected galaxies that dominates the unresolved Almost-Equal-To 20%-25% of the 6-8 keV cosmic X-ray background (XRB). This sample was constructed by applying mass and color cuts to sources from a parent catalog based on GOODS-South Hubble Space Telescope z-band imaging of the central 6'radius area of the 4 Ms CDF-S. The stacked 6-8 keV detection is significant at the 3.9{sigma} level, but the stacked emission was not detected in the 4-6 keV band, which indicates the existence of an underlying population of highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Further examinations of these 6845 galaxies indicate that the galaxies on the top of the blue cloud and with redshifts of 1 {approx}< z {approx}< 3, magnitudes of 25 {approx}< z {sub 850} {approx}< 28, and stellar masses of 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} {approx}< M {sub *}/M {sub Sun} {approx}< 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} make the majority contributions to the unresolved 6-8 keV XRB. Such a population is seemingly surprising given that the majority of the X-ray-detected AGNs reside in massive ({approx}> 10{sup 10} M {sub Sun }) galaxies. We discuss constraints upon this underlying AGN population, supporting evidence for relatively low mass galaxies hosting highly obscured AGNs, and prospects for further boosting the stacked signal.

  5. Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program, Part A; Fisheries Creel Survey and Population Status Analysis, 1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spotts, Jim; Shields, John; Underwood, Keith

    2002-05-01

    The Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program is the result of a merger between two projects, the Lake Roosevelt Monitoring Program (BPA No. 8806300) and the Lake Roosevelt Data Collection Project (BPA No. 9404300). These projects were merged in 1996 to continue work historically completed under the separate projects, and is now referred to as the Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Evaluation Program. Creel and angler surveys estimated that anglers made 196,775 trips to Lake Roosevelt during 1998, with an economic value of $8.0 million dollars, based on the Consumer Price Index (CPI). In 1998 it was estimated that 9,980 kokanee salmon, 226,809 rainbow trout, 119,346 walleye, and over 14,000 smallmouth bass and other species were harvested. Creel data indicates that hatchery reared rainbow trout contribute substantially to the Lake Roosevelt fishery. The contribution of kokanee salmon to the creel has not met the expectations of fishery managers to date, and is limited by entrainment from the reservoir, predation, and possible fish culture obstacles. The 1998 Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Creel and Population Analysis Annual Report includes analyses of the relative abundance of fish species, and reservoir habitat relationships (1990-1998). Fisheries surveys (1990-1998) indicate that walleye and burbot populations appear to be increasing, while yellow perch, a preferred walleye prey species, and other prey species are decreasing in abundance. The long term decreasing abundance of yellow perch and other prey species are suspected to be the result of the lack of suitable multiple reservoir elevation spawning and rearing refugia for spring spawning reservoir prey species, resulting from seasonal spring-early summer reservoir elevation manipulations, and walleye predation. Reservoir water management is both directly, and indirectly influencing the success of mitigation hatchery production of kokanee salmon and rainbow trout. Tag return data suggested excessive entrainment occurred in 1997, with 97 percent of tag recoveries from rainbow trout coming from below Grand Coulee Dam. High water years appear to have substantial entrainment impacts on salmonids. The 1998 salmonid harvest has improved from the previous two years, due to the relatively water friendly year of 1998, from the harvest observed in the 1996-1997 high water years, which were particularly detrimental to the reservoir salmonid fisheries. Impacts from those water years are still evident in the reservoir fish populations. Analysis of historical relative species abundance, tagging data and hydroacoustical studies, indicate that hydro-operations have a substantial influence on the annual standing crop of reservoir salmonid populations due to entrainment losses, and limited prey species recruitment, due to reservoir elevation level fluctuation, and corresponding reproductive success.

  6. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  7. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidentally exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.

    1991-12-31

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Particularly important has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  8. Fallout: The experiences of a medical team in the care of a Marshallese population accidently exposed to fallout radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Conard, R.A.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents an historical account of the experiences of the Brookhaven Medical Team in the examination and treatment of the Marshallese people following their accidental exposure to radioactive fallout in 1954. This is the first time that a population has been heavily exposed to radioactive fallout, and even though this was a tragic mishap, the medical findings have provided valuable information for other accidents involving fallout such as the recent reactor accident at Chernobyl. Noteworthy has been the unexpected importance of radioactive iodine in the fallout in producing thyroid abnormalities.

  9. EXPLORING THE z = 3-4 MASSIVE GALAXY POPULATION WITH ZFOURGE: THE PREVALENCE OF DUSTY AND QUIESCENT GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spitler, Lee R.; Rees, Glen; Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Labb, Ivo; Glazebrook, Karl; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Nanayakkara, Themiya; Tran, Kim-Vy H.; Papovich, Casey; Kawinwanichakij, Lalitwadee; Mehrtens, Nicola; Tilvi, Vithal; Tomczak, Adam R.; Quadri, Ryan F.; Persson, S. Eric; Kelson, Daniel D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Monson, Andrew J.; Van Dokkum, Pieter; Allen, Rebecca

    2014-06-01

    Our understanding of the redshift z > 3 galaxy population relies largely on samples selected using the popular ''dropout'' technique, typically consisting of UV-bright galaxies with blue colors and prominent Lyman breaks. As it is currently unknown if these galaxies are representative of the massive galaxy population, we here use the FOURSTAR Galaxy Evolution (ZFOURGE) survey to create a stellar mass-limited sample at z = 3-4. Uniquely, ZFOURGE uses deep near-infrared medium-bandwidth filters to derive accurate photometric redshifts and stellar population properties. The mass-complete sample consists of 57 galaxies with log M>10.6, reaching below M {sup *} at z = 3-4. On average, the massive z = 3-4 galaxies are extremely faint in the observed optical with median R{sub tot}{sup AB}=27.480.41 (rest-frame M {sub 1700} = 18.05 0.37). They lie far below the UV luminosity-stellar mass relation for Lyman break galaxies and are about ?100 fainter at the same mass. The massive galaxies are red (R K {sub s} {sub AB} = 3.9 0.2; rest-frame UV-slope ? = 0.2 0.3) likely from dust or old stellar ages. We classify the galaxy spectral energy distributions by their rest-frame UV and VJ colors and find a diverse population: 46{sub ?6?17}{sup +6+10}% of the massive galaxies are quiescent, 40{sub ?6?5}{sup +6+7}% are dusty star-forming galaxies, and only 14{sub ?3?4}{sup +3+10}% resemble luminous blue star-forming Lyman break galaxies. This study clearly demonstrates an inherent diversity among massive galaxies at higher redshift than previously known. Furthermore, we uncover a reservoir of dusty star-forming galaxies with 4 lower specific star-formation rates compared to submillimeter-selected starbursts at z > 3. With 5 higher numbers, the dusty galaxies may represent a more typical mode of star formation compared to submillimeter-bright starbursts.

  10. FOOD CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF THE OZYORSK POPULATION IN 1948-1966, IMPORTANT FOR ESTIMATING PERORAL COMPONENT OF INTERNAL EXPOSURE DOSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mokrov, Y.; Martyushov, V. Z.; Stukalov, Pavel M.; Ivanov, I. A.; Beregich, D. A.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, Bruce A.

    2008-06-01

    Results of reconstruction of food consumption patterns are presented for the residents of Ozyorsk for the period of 1948-1966. The reconstruction was performed on the basis analysis of the archive data. The given period of time is characterized by maximum releases into the atmosphere from the Mayak PA sources, and, therefore, it is considered to be the most significant period for calculating peroral component contribution to effective exposure doses to the population. The paper describes main foodstuff suppliers (regions) and their economic indices, as well as delivery rates and consumption rates for most important foodstuffs (primarily whole milk).

  11. Distinct Structural Elements Dictate the Specificity of the Type...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    To gain insight into this unusual substrate specificity and product profile, we have ... Argonne, IL (US) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: ...

  12. Structures of two distinct conformations of holo-non-ribosomal...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: Nature (London); Journal Volume: 529; Journal Issue: 01, 2016 Publisher: Nature Publishing Group Research Org: ...

  13. Fermi Observations of GRB 090902B: A Distinct Spectral Component...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Cruz ; Axelsson, M. ; Stockholm U. Stockholm U., OKC ; Baldini, L. ; INFN, Pisa ; Ballet, J. ; DAPNIA, Saclay ; Barbiellini, G. ; INFN, Trieste Trieste U. ; Baring, M.G. ;...

  14. Eolian paleotopographic highs as stratigraphic traps: origin and distinction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eschner, T.B.; Kocurek, G.A.

    1985-02-01

    Significant hydrocarbon accumulations occur where eolian paleotopographic highs are preserved beneath transgressive marine deposits. Paleotopographic highs can represent erosional remnants of an unconformity, or partly preserved eolian dunes, or combinations of both. Paleotopography reflects the extent of modification undergone by eolian units prior to or during transgression. Modification varies between extremes of (1) destruction - where eolian deposits are deeply eroded and the former dunal profile is lost, and (2) preservation - where dunes and interdune areas are preserved nearly intact. The extent of modification that occurs during transgression is controlled primarily by (1) the energy of the transgressing sea, (2) the speed of transgression, and (3) the abundance of sand-stabilizing early cements or plants. High-energy seas destroy dunes through persistent erosion by tides and waves and by initiating dune collapse and mass flowage of dune sands. Preservation occurs where quiescent seas flood interdune areas and create shallow to periodically emergent marine environments, such as interdune sabkhas or tidal flats. Gradual filling of interdune areas with shallow marine sediments can fortify and preserve adjacent dunes. These varied processes that interact between marine and eolian environments to create different types of topography are exemplified in ancient eolian-marine sequences of the Western Interior of North America, and preserved Holocene dunes of coastal Australia. Different types of eolian highs can be recognized by analysis of bounding surfaces in outcrop or core. An understanding of eolian-marine processes and environments that create topography allows for prediction of areas of potential stratigraphic traps.

  15. Distinct superconducting states in the pressure-induced metallic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Save Share this Record Citation Formats MLA APA Chicago Bibtex Export Metadata Endnote Excel CSV XML Save to My Library Send to Email Send to Email Email address:...

  16. Distinct summer and winter bacterial communities in the active...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Biology University of Tromso, Tromso, Norway The active layer of soil overlaying permafrost in the Arctic is subjected to dramatic annual changes in temperature and soil...

  17. Distinct summer and winter bacterial communities in the active...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of Svalbard permafrost revealed by DNA- and RNA-based analyses The active layer of soil overlaying permafrost in the Arctic is subjected to dramatic annual changes in...

  18. Fermi Observations of GRB 090902B: A Distinct Spectral Component...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phys. Dept. ; Asano, K. ; Tokyo Inst. Tech. Tokyo Inst. Tech. ; Atwood, W.B. ; UC, Santa Cruz ; Axelsson, M. ; Stockholm U. Stockholm U., OKC ; Baldini, L. ; INFN, Pisa ;...

  19. A Distinction Technique Between Volcanic And Tectonic Depression...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Modeling Of Gravity Anomaly- A Case Study Of The Hohi Volcanic Zone, Central Kyushu, Japan Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Journal Article: A...

  20. Comparison of Normalized and Unnormalized Single Cell and Population Assemblies (MICW - Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop: 10K Genomes at a Time)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hugenholtz, Phil [University of Queensland

    2013-01-22

    University of Queensland's Phil Hugenholtz on "Comparison of Normalized and Unnormalized Single Cell and Population Assemblies" at the Metagenomics Informatics Challenges Workshop held at the DOE JGI on October 12-13, 2011.

  1. The potential for detecting gamma-ray burst afterglows from population III stars with the next generation of infrared telescopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Macpherson, D. [ICRAR, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Coward, D. M. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); Zadnik, M. G., E-mail: damien.macpherson@icrar.org [Department of Imaging and Applied Physics, Curtin University, Perth, WA 6845 (Australia)

    2013-12-10

    We investigate the detectability of a proposed population of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) from the collapse of Population III (Pop III) stars. The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) and Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) will be able to observe the late time infrared afterglows. We have developed a new method to calculate their detectability, which takes into account the fundamental initial mass function and formation rates of Pop III stars, from which we find the temporal variability of the afterglows and ultimately the length of time JWST and SPICA can detect them. In the range of plausible Pop III GRB parameters, the afterglows are always detectable by these instruments during the isotropic emission, for a minimum of 55 days and a maximum of 3.7 yr. The average number of detectable afterglows will be 2.96 10{sup 5} per SPICA field of view (FOV) and 2.78 10{sup 6} per JWST FOV. These are lower limits, using a pessimistic estimate of Pop III star formation. An optimal observing strategy with SPICA could identify a candidate orphan afterglow in ?1.3 yr, with a 90% probability of confirmation with further detailed observations. A beamed GRB will align with the FOV of the planned GRB detector Energetic X-ray Imaging Survey Telescope once every 9 yr. Pop III GRBs will be more easily detected by their isotropic emissions (i.e., orphan afterglows) rather than by their prompt emissions.

  2. Resolved H I imaging of a population of massive H I-rich galaxies with suppressed star formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemonias, Jenna J.; Schiminovich, David; Catinella, Barbara; Heckman, Timothy M.; Moran, Sean M.

    2014-07-20

    Despite the existence of well-defined relationships between cold gas and star formation, there is evidence that some galaxies contain large amounts of H I that do not form stars efficiently. By systematically assessing the link between H I and star formation within a sample of galaxies with extremely high H I masses (log M{sub H{sub I}}/M{sub ?} > 10), we uncover a population of galaxies with an unexpected combination of high H I masses and low specific star formation rates that exists primarily at stellar masses greater than log M{sub *}/M{sub ?} ? 10.5. We obtained H I maps of 20 galaxies in this population to understand the distribution of the H I and the physical conditions in the galaxies that could be suppressing star formation in the presence of large quantities of H I. We find that all of the galaxies we observed have low H I surface densities in the range in which inefficient star formation is common. The low H I surface densities are likely the main cause of the low specific star formation rates, but there is also some evidence that active galactic nuclei or bulges contribute to the suppression of star formation. The sample's agreement with the global star formation law highlights its usefulness as a tool for understanding galaxies that do not always follow expected relationships.

  3. Impact of Boost Radiation in the Treatment of Ductal Carcinoma In Situ: A Population-Based Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rakovitch, Eileen; Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario; University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Narod, Steven A.; Womens College Research Institute, Toronto, Ontario ; Nofech-Moses, Sharon; Hanna, Wedad; University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario ; Thiruchelvam, Deva; Saskin, Refik; Taylor, Carole; Tuck, Alan; Youngson, Bruce; Miller, Naomi; Done, Susan J.; Sengupta, Sandip; Elavathil, Leela; Henderson General Hospital, 711 Concession Street, Hamilton, Ontario ; Jani, Prashant A.; Regional Health Sciences Centre, Thunder Bay, Ontario ; Bonin, Michel; Metcalfe, Stephanie; Paszat, Lawrence; Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences, Toronto, Ontario; University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: To report the outcomes of a population of women with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation and to evaluate the independent effect of boost radiation on the development of local recurrence. Methods and Materials: All women diagnosed with DCIS and treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy in Ontario from 1994 to 2003 were identified. Treatments and outcomes were identified through administrative databases and validated by chart review. The impact of boost radiation on the development of local recurrence was determined using survival analyses. Results: We identified 1895 cases of DCIS that were treated by breast-conserving surgery and radiation therapy; 561 patients received boost radiation. The cumulative 10-year rate of local recurrence was 13% for women who received boost radiation and 12% for those who did not (P=.3). The 10-year local recurrence-free survival (LRFS) rate among women who did and who did not receive boost radiation was 88% and 87%, respectively (P=.27), 94% and 93% for invasive LRFS (P=.58), and was 95% and 93% for DCIS LRFS (P=.31). On multivariable analyses, boost radiation was not associated with a lower risk of local recurrence (hazard ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.59-1.15) (P=.25). Conclusions: Among a population of women treated with breast-conserving surgery and radiation for DCIS, additional (boost) radiation was not associated with a lower risk of local or invasive recurrence.

  4. Genetic and Phenotypic Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-2001 Report : Populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan and Methow River Drainages.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-10-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project was to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-2001 was year three (and final year) of a project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-2001 we worked in collaboration with the Wenatchee National Forest to catalog populations in the Wenatchee, Entiat, Lake Chelan, and Methow River drainages of Washington State.

  5. Population Pulsation Resonances of Excitons in Monolayer MoSe 2 with Sub- 1 μ eV Linewidths

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schaibley, John R.; Karin, Todd; Yu, Hongyi; Ross, Jason S.; Rivera, Pasqual; Jones, Aaron M.; Scott, Marie E.; Yan, Jiaqiang; Mandrus, D. G.; Yao, Wang; et al

    2015-04-01

    Monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides, a new class of atomically thin semiconductors, possess optically coupled 2D valley excitons. The nature of exciton relaxation in these systems is currently poorly understood. Here, we investigate exciton relaxation in monolayer MoSe₂ using polarization-resolved coherent nonlinear optical spectroscopy with high spectral resolution. We report strikingly narrow population pulsation resonances with two different characteristic linewidths of 1 and <0.2 μeV at low temperature. These linewidths are more than 3 orders of magnitude narrower than the photoluminescence and absorption linewidth, and indicate that a component of the exciton relaxation dynamics occurs on time scales longer than 1more » ns. The ultranarrow resonance (<0.2 μeV) emerges with increasing excitation intensity, and implies the existence of a long-lived state whose lifetime exceeds 6 ns.« less

  6. COMPARISON OF THE POPULATIONS OF COMMON WOOD-NYMPH BUTTERFLIES IN BURNED PRAIRIE, UNBURNED PRAIRIE AND OLD FIELD GRASSES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hahn, M.; Walton, R.

    2007-01-01

    Common wood-nymph butterfl ies are found throughout the United States and Canada. However, not much is known about how they overwinter or their preferences for particular grasses and habitats. In this study, the impact of prairie management plans on the abundance of the wood-nymph population was assessed, as well as the preference of these butterfl ies for areas with native or non-native grasses. The abundance of common wood-nymph butterfl ies was determined using Pollard walks; more common wood-nymph butterfl ies were found in the European grasses than were found in the burned and unburned prairie sites. The majority of the vegetation at each of the three sites was identifi ed and documented. Using a 1 X 3 ANOVA analysis, it was determined there were signifi cantly more butterfl ies in the European grasses than in the burned and unburned prairie sites (p < 0.0005). There was no signifi cant difference between the burned and unburned treatments of the prairie on the common wood-nymph population. A multiple variable linear regression model described the effect of temperature and wind speed on the number of observed common wood-nymph butterfl ies per hour (p = 0.026). These preliminary results need to be supplemented with future studies. Quadrat analysis of the vegetation from all three sites should be done to search for a correlation between common wood-nymph butterfl y abundance per hour and the specifi c types or quantity of vegetation at each site. The effect of vegetation height and density on the observers visual fi eld should also be assessed.

  7. Being WISE. I. Validating stellar population models and M {sub *}/L ratios at 3.4 and 4.6 ?m

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Mark A.; Meidt, Sharon; Van de Ven, Glenn; Schinnerer, Eva; Groves, Brent; Querejeta, Miguel

    2014-12-10

    Using data from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mission, we have measured near infra-red (NIR) photometry of a diverse sample of dust-free stellar systems (globular clusters, dwarf and giant early-type galaxies) which have metallicities that span the range -2.2 < [Fe/H] (dex) < 0.3. This dramatically increases the sample size and broadens the metallicity regime over which the 3.4 (W1) and 4.6 ?m (W2) photometry of stellar populations have been examined. We find that the W1 W2 colors of intermediate and old (>2 Gyr) stellar populations are insensitive to the age of the stellar population, but that the W1 W2 colors become bluer with increasing metallicity, a trend not well reproduced by most stellar population synthesis (SPS) models. In common with previous studies, we attribute this behavior to the increasing strength of the CO absorption feature located in the 4.6 ?m bandpass with metallicity. Having used our sample to validate the efficacy of some of the SPS models, we use these models to derive stellar mass-to-light ratios in the W1 and W2 bands. Utilizing observational data from the SAURON and ATLAS3D surveys, we demonstrate that these bands provide extremely simple, yet robust stellar mass tracers for dust free older stellar populations that are freed from many of the uncertainties common among optical estimators.

  8. The progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies across cosmic time: from dusty star-bursting to quiescent stellar populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marchesini, Danilo; Marsan, Cemile Z.; Muzzin, Adam; Franx, Marijn; Stefanon, Mauro; Brammer, Gabriel G.; Vulcani, Benedetta; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Dunlop, James S.; Buitrago, Fernando

    2014-10-10

    Using the UltraVISTA catalogs, we investigate the evolution in the 11.4 Gyr since z = 3 of the progenitors of local ultra-massive galaxies (log (M {sub star}/M {sub ?}) ? 11.8; UMGs), providing a complete and consistent picture of how the most massive galaxies at z = 0 have assembled. By selecting the progenitors with a semi-empirical approach using abundance matching, we infer a growth in stellar mass of 0.56{sub ?0.25}{sup +0.35} dex, 0.45{sub ?0.20}{sup +0.16} dex, and 0.27{sub ?0.12}{sup +0.08} dex from z = 3, z = 2, and z = 1, respectively, to z = 0. At z < 1, the progenitors of UMGs constitute a homogeneous population of only quiescent galaxies with old stellar populations. At z > 1, the contribution from star-forming galaxies progressively increases, with the progenitors at 2 < z < 3 being dominated by massive (M {sub star} ? 2 10{sup 11} M {sub ?}), dusty (A {sub V} ? 1-2.2 mag), star-forming (SFR ? 100-400 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}) galaxies with a large range in stellar ages. At z = 2.75, ?15% of the progenitors are quiescent, with properties typical of post-starburst galaxies with little dust extinction and strong Balmer break, and showing a large scatter in color. Our findings indicate that at least half of the stellar content of local UMGs was assembled at z > 1, whereas the remaining was assembled via merging from z ? 1 to the present. Most of the quenching of the star-forming progenitors happened between z = 2.75 and z = 1.25, in good agreement with the typical formation redshift and scatter in age of z = 0 UMGs as derived from their fossil records. The progenitors of local UMGs, including the star-forming ones, never lived on the blue cloud since z = 3. We propose an alternative path for the formation of local UMGs that refines previously proposed pictures and that is fully consistent with our findings.

  9. The vast population of Wolf-Rayet and red supergiant stars in M101. I. Motivation and first results

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shara, Michael M.; Bibby, Joanne L.; Zurek, David; Crowther, Paul A.; Moffat, Anthony F. J.; Drissen, Laurent

    2013-12-01

    Assembling a catalog of at least 10,000 Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars is an essential step in proving (or disproving) that these stars are the progenitors of Type Ib and Type Ic supernovae. To this end, we have used the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to carry out a deep, He II optical narrowband imaging survey of the ScI spiral galaxy M101. Almost the entire galaxy was imaged with the unprecedented depth and resolution that only the HST affords. Differenced with archival broadband images, the narrowband images allow us to detect much of the W-R star population of M101. We describe the extent of the survey and our images, as well as our data reduction procedures. A detailed broadband-narrowband imaging study of a field east of the center of M101, containing the giant star-forming region NGC 5462, demonstrates our completeness limits, how we find W-R candidates, their properties and spatial distribution, and how we rule out most contaminants. We use the broadband images to locate luminous red supergiant (RSG) candidates. The spatial distributions of the W-R and RSG stars near NGC 5462 are strikingly different. W-R stars dominate the complex core, while RSGs dominate the complex halo. Future papers in this series will describe and catalog more than a thousand W-R and RSG candidates that are detectable in our images, as well as spectra of many of those candidates.

  10. Dose reconstruction for the Urals population: Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research Project 1.1. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degteva, M.O.; Drozhko, E.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.C.; Miller, C.W.

    1996-01-01

    Population exposure in the Urals occurred as a result of failures in the technological processes at the Mayak plutonium facility in the 1950s. Construction of the Mayak facility began in 1945 and was completed in 1948. Initially this complex consisted of three main parts: Reactor plant, radiochemical facility, and waste-management facilities. The major sources of radioactive contamination were the discharges of 2.7 x 10{sup 6}Ci of liquid wastes into the Techa River (1949-1956); an explosion in the radioactive waste storage facility in 1957 (the so-called Kyshtym Accident) that formed the East Urals Radioactive Trace (EURT) due to dispersion. of 2 x 10{sup 6}Ci into the atmosphere; and gaseous aerosol releases (about 560,000 Ci of {sup 131}I in total) within the first decades of the facility`s operation. The significant portion of activity for the Techa River and EURT consists of long-lived radionuclides, mainly {sup 9O}Sr. These releases resulted in the long-lived contamination of surrounding territories. The predominant radionuclide for operating gaseous aerosol releases was short-lived {sup 131}I resulting from reprocessing of nuclear fuel. The maximal annual rates, which occurred in 1952-1953, were reconstructed on the basis of technological records by the Mayak team.

  11. Dose reconstruction for the Urals population. Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research, Project 1.1 -- Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Degteva, M.O.; Drozhko, E.; Anspaugh, L.R.; Napier, B.A.; Bouville, A.C.; Miller, C.W.

    1996-02-01

    This work is being carried out as a feasibility study to determine if a long-term course of work can be implemented to assess the long-term risks of radiation exposure delivered at low to moderate dose rates to the populations living in the vicinity of the Mayak Industrial Association (MIA). This work was authorized and conducted under the auspices of the US-Russian Joint Coordinating Committee on Radiation Effects Research (JCCRER) and its Executive Committee (EC). The MIA was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. This plant began operation in 1948, and during its early days there were technological failures that resulted in the release of large amounts of waste into the rather small Techa River. There were also gaseous releases of radioiodines and other radionuclides during the early days of operation. In addition, there was an accidental explosion in a waste storage tank in 1957 that resulted in a significant release. The Techa River Cohort has been studied for several years by scientists from the Urals Research Centre for Radiation Medicine and an increase in both leukemia and solid tumors has been noted.

  12. A simplified model for estimating population-scale energy impacts of building envelope air-tightening and mechanical ventilation retrofits

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Logue, Jennifer M.; Turner, William J. N.; Walker, Iain S.; Singer, Brett C.

    2015-01-19

    Changing the air exchange rate of a home (the sum of the infiltration and mechanical ventilation airflow rates) affects the annual thermal conditioning energy. Large-scale changes to air exchange rates of the housing stock can significantly alter the residential sector's energy consumption. However, the complexity of existing residential energy models is a barrier to the accurate quantification of the impact of policy changes on a state or national level. The Incremental Ventilation Energy (IVE) model developed in this study combines the output of simple air exchange models with a limited set of housing characteristics to estimate the associated change in energy demand of homes. The IVE model was designed specifically to enable modellers to use existing databases of housing characteristics to determine the impact of ventilation policy change on a population scale. The IVE model estimates of energy change when applied to US homes with limited parameterisation are shown to be comparable to the estimates of a well-validated, complex residential energy model.

  13. Toward the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background: Evolution of X-ray luminosity and absorption functions of active galactic nuclei including Compton-thick populations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Akiyama, Masayuki; Hasinger, Gnther; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Watson, Michael G.

    2014-05-10

    We present the most up to date X-ray luminosity function (XLF) and absorption function of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) over the redshift range from 0 to 5, utilizing the largest, highly complete sample ever available obtained from surveys performed with Swift/BAT, MAXI, ASCA, XMM-Newton, Chandra, and ROSAT. The combined sample, including that of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey, consists of 4039 detections in the soft (0.5-2 keV) and/or hard (>2 keV) band. We utilize a maximum likelihood method to reproduce the count rate versus redshift distribution for each survey, by taking into account the evolution of the absorbed fraction, the contribution from Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs, and broadband spectra of AGNs, including reflection components from tori based on the luminosity- and redshift-dependent unified scheme. We find that the shape of the XLF at z ? 1-3 is significantly different from that in the local universe, for which the luminosity-dependent density evolution model gives much better description than the luminosity and density evolution model. These results establish the standard population synthesis model of the X-ray background (XRB), which well reproduces the source counts, the observed fractions of CTK AGNs, and the spectrum of the hard XRB. The number ratio of CTK AGNs to the absorbed Compton-thin (CTN) AGNs is constrained to be ?0.5-1.6 to produce the 20-50 keV XRB intensity within present uncertainties, by assuming that they follow the same evolution as CTN AGNs. The growth history of supermassive black holes is discussed based on the new AGN bolometric luminosity function.

  14. Residential energy consumption across different population groups: Comparative analysis for Latino and non-Latino households in U.S.A.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Poyer, D.A.; Teotia, A.P.S.; Henderson, L.

    1998-05-01

    Residential energy cost, an important part of the household budget, varies significantly across different population groups. In the United States, researchers have conducted many studies of household fuel consumption by fuel type -- electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) -- and by geographic areas. The results of past research have also demonstrated significant variation in residential energy use across various population groups, including white, black, and Latino. However, research shows that residential energy demand by fuel type for Latinos, the fastest-growing population group in the United States, has not been explained by economic and noneconomic factors in any available statistical model. This paper presents a discussion of energy demand and expenditure patterns for Latino and non-Latino households in the United States. The statistical model developed to explain fuel consumption and expenditures for Latino households is based on Stone and Geary`s linear expenditure system model. For comparison, the authors also developed models for energy consumption in non-Latino, black, and nonblack households. These models estimate consumption of and expenditures for electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and LPG by various households at the national level. The study revealed significant variations in the patterns of fuel consumption for Latinos and non-Latinos. The model methodology and results of this research should be useful to energy policymakers in government and industry, researchers, and academicians who are concerned with economic and energy issues related to various population groups.

  15. A pilot study using deep infrared imaging to constrain the star formation history of the XUV stellar populations in NGC 4625

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bush, Stephanie J.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Bresolin, Fabio

    2014-09-20

    In a ?CDM universe, disk galaxies' outer regions are the last to form. Characterizing their contents is critical for understanding the ongoing process of disk formation, but observing outer disk stellar populations is challenging due to their low surface brightness. We present extremely deep 3.6 ?m observations (Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera) of NGC 4625, a galaxy known for its radially extended ultraviolet-emitting stellar population. We combine the new imaging with archival UV imaging from the GALEX mission to derive multi-wavelength radial profiles for NGC 4625 and compare them to stellar populations models. The colors can be explained by the young stellar population that is responsible for the UV emission and indicate that the current star formation rates in the outermost disk are recent. Extended star formation in NGC 4625 may have been initiated by an interaction with neighboring galaxies NGC 4618 and NGC 4625a, supporting speculation that minor interactions are a common trigger for outer disk star formation and late stage disk growth.

  16. Evaluation of Multiplexed 16S rRNA Microbial Population Surveys Using Illumina MiSeq Platform (Seventh Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting 2012)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Tremblay, Julien [DOE JGI

    2013-01-25

    Julien Tremblay from DOE JGI presents "Evaluation of Multiplexed 16S rRNA Microbial Population Surveys Using Illumina MiSeq Platorm" at the 7th Annual Sequencing, Finishing, Analysis in the Future (SFAF) Meeting held in June, 2012 in Santa Fe, NM.

  17. Technical Basis Document: A Statistical Basis for Interpreting Urinary Excretion of Plutonium Based on Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) for Selected Atoll Populations in the Marshall Islands

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogen, K; Hamilton, T F; Brown, T A; Martinelli, R E; Marchetti, A A; Kehl, S R; Langston, R G

    2007-05-01

    We have developed refined statistical and modeling techniques to assess low-level uptake and urinary excretion of plutonium from different population group in the northern Marshall Islands. Urinary excretion rates of plutonium from the resident population on Enewetak Atoll and from resettlement workers living on Rongelap Atoll range from <1 to 8 {micro}Bq per day and are well below action levels established under the latest Department regulation 10 CFR 835 in the United States for in vitro bioassay monitoring of {sup 239}Pu. However, our statistical analyses show that urinary excretion of plutonium-239 ({sup 239}Pu) from both cohort groups is significantly positively associated with volunteer age, especially for the resident population living on Enewetak Atoll. Urinary excretion of {sup 239}Pu from the Enewetak cohort was also found to be positively associated with estimates of cumulative exposure to worldwide fallout. Consequently, the age-related trends in urinary excretion of plutonium from Marshallese populations can be described by either a long-term component from residual systemic burdens acquired from previous exposures to worldwide fallout or a prompt (and eventual long-term) component acquired from low-level systemic intakes of plutonium associated with resettlement of the northern Marshall Islands, or some combination of both.

  18. Visualizing MCNP Tally Segment Geometry and Coupling Results with ABAQUS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. R. Parry; J. A. Galbraith

    2007-11-01

    The Advanced Graphite Creep test, AGC-1, is planned for irradiation in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) in support of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant program. The experiment requires very detailed neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses to show compliance with programmatic and ATR safety requirements. The MCNP model used for the neutronics analysis required hundreds of tally regions to provide the desired detail. A method for visualizing the hundreds of tally region geometries and the tally region results in 3 dimensions has been created to support the AGC-1 irradiation. Additionally, a method was created which would allow ABAQUS to access the results directly for the thermal analysis of the AGC-1 experiment.

  19. Cost-of-Service Segmentation of Energy Consumers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albert, A; Rajagopal, R

    2014-11-01

    Uncertainty in consumption is a key challenge at energy utility companies, which are faced with balancing highly stochastic demand with increasingly volatile supply characterized by significant penetration rates of intermittent renewable sources. This paper proposes a methodology to quantify uncertainty in consumption that highlights the dependence of the cost-of-service with volatility in demand. We use a large and rich dataset of consumption time series to provide evidence that there is a substantial degree of high-level structure in the statistics of consumption across users which may be partially explained by certain characteristics of the users. To uncover this structure, we propose a new technique for extracting typical statistical signatures of consumption-energy demand distributions (EDDs)-that is based on clustering distributions using a fast, approximated algorithm. We next study the factors influencing the choice of consumption signature and identify certain types of appliances and behaviors related to appliance operation that are most predictive. Finally, we comment on how structure in consumption statistics may be used to target residential energy efficiency programs to achieve greatest impact in curtailing cost of service.

  20. Global GPS Phones Market Size, Segmentation, Demand Forecast...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    we deeply analyzed the world's main region market conditions that including the product price, profit, capacity, production, capacity utilization, supply, demand and industry...

  1. Microsoft Word - Segment and Value Propositions Draft Task 6...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... The data in-take interface needs to be smart and task ... this capital-investment-heavy industry minimize costs. ... and IT assets such as servers, cables, and power grids. ...

  2. Structures with three dimensional nanofences comprising single crystal segments

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goyal, Amit; Wee, Sung-Hun

    2013-08-27

    An article includes a substrate having a surface and a nanofence supported by the surface. The nanofence includes a multiplicity of primary nanorods and branch nanorods, each of the primary nanorods being attached to said substrate, and each of the branch nanorods being attached to a primary nanorods and/or another branch nanorod. The primary and branch nanorods are arranged in a three-dimensional, interconnected, interpenetrating, grid-like network defining interstices within the nanofence. The article further includes an enveloping layer supported by the nanofence, disposed in the interstices, and forming a coating on the primary and branch nanorods. The enveloping layer has a different composition from that of the nanofence and includes a radial p-n single junction solar cell photovoltaic material and/or a radial p-n multiple junction solar cell photovoltaic material.

  3. A Segmented Drive System with a Small DC Bus Capacitor

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    2009 DOE Hydrogen Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, May 18-22, 2009 -- Washington D.C.

  4. Segment of Smithsonian Video history interview - December 1987

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The interviewees were George M. Banic, Jr., John M. Googin, Chris P. Keim, Clarence Larson and Robert S. Livingston. Before looking at the specific interviews let's learn a bit...

  5. Base Oil Market Segment Forecasts up to 2020,Research Reports...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Market Research Home > Groups > Future of Condition Monitoring for Wind Turbines Wayne31jan's picture Submitted by Wayne31jan(150) Contributor 11 June, 2015 - 03:19 Base Oil...

  6. North America Drilling Fluids Market Segment Forecasts up to...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    removal of cuttings from wellbore, counterbalancing the formation processes, maintaining wellbore stability and so on, are on the rise in the offshore areas of Gulf of Mexico. As...

  7. DOE Launches First Segment of its Next-Generation Nationwide...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Among the most ambitious projects to be undertaken by physicists around the globe is a series of experiments at the new Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, near Geneva, ...

  8. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Interstate Pipelines Segment

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    natural gas (Tcf) was transported by interstate pipeline companies on behalf of shippers. ... The 30 largest interstate pipeline companies own about 77 percent of all interstate ...

  9. RX J0848.6+4453: The evolution of galaxy sizes and stellar populations in A z = 1.27 cluster

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jrgensen, Inger; Chiboucas, Kristin; Schiavon, Ricardo P.; Toft, Sune; Zirm, Andrew; Bergmann, Marcel; Grtzbauch, Ruth E-mail: kchiboucas@gemini.edu E-mail: sune@dark-cosmology.dk E-mail: marcelbergmann@gmail.com

    2014-12-01

    RX J0848.6+4453 (Lynx W) at redshift 1.27 is part of the Lynx Supercluster of galaxies. We present an analysis of the stellar populations and star formation history for a sample of 24 members of the cluster. Our study is based on deep optical spectroscopy obtained with Gemini North combined with imaging data from Hubble Space Telescope. Focusing on the 13 bulge-dominated galaxies for which we can determine central velocity dispersions, we find that these show a smaller evolution with redshift of sizes and velocity dispersions than reported for field galaxies and galaxies in poorer clusters. Our data show that the galaxies in RX J0848.6+4453 populate the fundamental plane (FP) similar to that found for lower-redshift clusters. The zero-point offset for the FP is smaller than expected if the cluster's galaxies are to evolve passively through the location of the FP we established in our previous work for z = 0.8-0.9 cluster galaxies and then to the present-day FP. The FP zero point for RX J0848.6+4453 corresponds to an epoch of last star formation at z{sub form}=1.95{sub ?0.15}{sup +0.22}. Further, we find that the spectra of the galaxies in RX J0848.6+4453 are dominated by young stellar populations at all galaxy masses and in many cases show emission indicating low-level ongoing star formation. The average age of the young stellar populations as estimated from the strength of the high-order Balmer line H? is consistent with a major star formation episode 1-2 Gyr prior, which in turn agrees with z {sub form} = 1.95. These galaxies dominated by young stellar populations are distributed throughout the cluster. We speculate that low-level star formation has not yet been fully quenched in the center of this cluster, possibly because the cluster is significantly poorer than other clusters previously studied at similar redshifts, which appear to have very little ongoing star formation in their centers. The mixture in RX J0848.6+4453 of passive galaxies with young stellar populations and massive galaxies still experiencing some star formation appears similar to the galaxy populations recently identified in two z ? 2 clusters.

  10. Characterization of novel sorghum brown midrib mutants from an EMS-mutagenized population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sattler, Scott E.; Saballos, Ana; Xin, Zhanguo; Funnell-Harris, Deanna L.; Vermerris, Wilfred; Pedersen, Jeffrey F.

    2014-09-02

    Reducing lignin concentration in lignocellulosic biomass can increase forage digestibility for ruminant livestock and saccharification yields of biomass for bioenergy. In sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) and several other C4 grasses, brown midrib (bmr) mutants have been shown to reduce lignin concentration. Putative bmr mutants isolated from an EMS-mutagenized population were characterized and classified based on their leaf midrib phenotype and allelism tests with the previously described sorghum bmr mutants bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12. These tests resulted in the identification of additional alleles of bmr2, bmr6,and bmr12, and, in addition, six bmr mutants were identified that were not allelic to these previously described loci. Further allelism testing among these six bmr mutants showed that they represented four novel bmr loci. Based on this study, the number of bmr loci uncovered in sorghum has doubled. The impact of these lines on agronomic traits and lignocellulosic composition was assessed in a 2-yr field study. Most of the identified bmr lines showed reduced lignin concentration of their biomass relative to wild-type (WT). Effects of the six new bmr mutants on enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic materials were determined, but the amount of glucose released from the stover was similar to WT in all cases. Like bmr2, bmr6, and bmr12, these mutants may affect monolignol biosynthesis and may be useful for bioenergy and forage improvement when stacked together or in combination with the three previously described bmr alleles.

  11. Muddy Water? Variation in Reporting Receipt of Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy by Population-Based Tumor Registries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, Gary V.; Giordano, Sharon H.; Williams, Melanie; Jiang, Jing; Niu, Jiangong; MacKinnon, Jill; Anderson, Patricia; Wohler, Brad; Sinclair, Amber H.; Boscoe, Francis P.; Schymura, Maria J.; Buchholz, Thomas A.; Smith, Benjamin D.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To evaluate, in the setting of breast cancer, the accuracy of registry radiation therapy (RT) coding compared with the gold standard of Medicare claims. Methods and Materials: Using Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER)Medicare data, we identified 73,077 patients aged ?66 years diagnosed with breast cancer in the period 2001-2007. Underascertainment (1 - sensitivity), sensitivity, specificity, ?, and ?{sup 2} were calculated for RT receipt determined by registry data versus claims. Multivariate logistic regression characterized patient, treatment, and geographic factors associated with underascertainment of RT. Findings in the SEERMedicare registries were compared with three non-SEER registries (Florida, New York, and Texas). Results: In the SEERMedicare registries, 41.6% (n=30,386) of patients received RT according to registry coding, versus 49.3% (n=36,047) according to Medicare claims (P<.001). Underascertainment of RT was more likely if patients resided in a newer SEER registry (odds ratio [OR] 1.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.60-1.80; P<.001), rural county (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.21-1.48; P<.001), or if RT was delayed (OR 1.006/day, 95% CI 1.006-1.007; P<.001). Underascertainment of RT receipt in SEER registries was 18.7% (95% CI 18.6-18.8%), compared with 44.3% (95% CI 44.0-44.5%) in non-SEER registries. Conclusions: Population-based tumor registries are highly variable in ascertainment of RT receipt and should be augmented with other data sources when evaluating quality of breast cancer care. Future work should identify opportunities for the radiation oncology community to partner with registries to improve accuracy of treatment data.

  12. Heating the intergalactic medium by X-rays from population III binaries in high-redshift galaxies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, Hao; Norman, Michael L.; Ahn, Kyungjin; Wise, John H.; O'Shea, Brian W. E-mail: mlnorman@ucsd.edu E-mail: jwise@gatech.edu

    2014-08-20

    Due to their long mean free path, X-rays are expected to have an important impact on cosmic reionization by heating and ionizing the intergalactic medium (IGM) on large scales, especially after simulations have suggested that Population III (Pop III) stars may form in pairs at redshifts as high as 20-30. We use the Pop III distribution and evolution from a self-consistent cosmological radiation hydrodynamic simulation of the formation of the first galaxies and a simple Pop III X-ray binary model to estimate their X-ray output in a high-density region larger than 100 comoving (Mpc){sup 3}. We then combine three different methodsray tracing, a one-zone model, and X-ray background modelingto investigate the X-ray propagation, intensity distribution, and long-term effects on the IGM thermal and ionization state. The efficiency and morphology of photoheating and photoionization are dependent on the photon energies. The sub-kiloelectronvolt X-rays only impact the IGM near the sources, while the kiloelectronvolt photons contribute significantly to the X-ray background and heat and ionize the IGM smoothly. The X-rays just below 1 keV are most efficient in heating and ionizing the IGM. We find that the IGM might be heated to over 100 K by z = 10 and the high-density source region might reach 10{sup 4} K, limited by atomic hydrogen cooling. This may be important for predicting the 21 cm neutral hydrogen signals. On the other hand, the free electrons from X-ray ionizations are not enough to contribute significantly to the optical depth of the cosmic microwave background to the Thomson scattering.

  13. CONSTRAINING VERY HIGH MASS POPULATION III STARS THROUGH He II EMISSION IN GALAXY BDF-521 AT z = 7.01

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cai, Zheng; Fan, Xiaohui; Dav, Romeel; Zabludoff, Ann; Jiang, Linhua; Oh, S. Peng; Yang, Yujin

    2015-01-30

    Numerous theoretical models have long proposed that a strong He II?1640 emission line is the most prominent and unique feature of massive Population III (Pop III) stars in high-redshift galaxies. The He II?1640 line strength can constrain the mass and initial mass function (IMF) of Pop III stars. We use F132N narrowband filter on the Hubble Space Telescope's (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 to look for strong He II?1640 emission in the galaxy BDF-521 at z = 7.01, one of the most distant spectroscopically confirmed galaxies to date. Using deep F132N narrowband imaging, together with our broadband imaging with F125W and F160W filters, we do not detect He II emission from this galaxy, but place a 2? upper limit on the flux of 5.310{sup ?19}ergs{sup ?1}cm{sup ?2}. This measurement corresponds to a 2? upper limit on the Pop III star formation rate (SFR{sub PopIII}) of ?0.2 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}, assuming a Salpeter IMF with 50 ? M/M {sub ?} ? 1000. From the high signal-to-noise broadband measurements in F125W and F160W, we fit the UV continuum for BDF-521. The spectral flux density is ?3.610{sup ?11}?{sup ?2.32}ergs{sup ?1}cm{sup ?2} {sup 1}, which corresponds to an overall unobscured SFR of ?5 M {sub ?} yr{sup 1}. Our upper limit on SFR{sub PopIII} suggests that massive Pop III stars represent ? 4% of the total star formation. Further, the HST high-resolution imaging suggests that BDF-521 is an extremely compact galaxy, with a half-light radius of 0.6 kpc.

  14. The effect of climate change, population distribution, and climate mitigation on building energy use in the U.S. and China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Eom, Jiyong; Clarke, Leon E.

    2013-08-01

    A changing climate will affect the energy system in a number of ways, one of which is through changes in demands for heating and cooling in buildings. Understanding the potential effect of climate on heating and cooling demands must take into account not only the manner in which the building sector might evolve over time - including, for example, movements from rural to urban environments in developing countries - but also important uncertainty about the nature of climate change itself and the growth and movements of populations over time. In this study, we explored the uncertainty in climate change impacts on heating and cooling by constructing estimates of heating and cooling degree days for both a reference (no-policy) scenario and a climate mitigation scenario built from 0.5 degree latitude by 0.5 degree longitude resolution output from three different Global Climate Models (GCMs) and three gridded scenarios of population distribution. The implications that changing climate and population distribution might have for building energy consumption in the U.S. and China were then explored by using the heating and cooling degree days results as inputs to a detailed, building energy model, nested in the long-term global integrated assessment framework, Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM). Across the climate models and population distribution scenarios, the results indicate that unabated climate change would cause total final energy consumption to decrease modestly in both U.S. and China buildings by the end of the century, as decreased heating consumption is more than balanced by increased cooling using primarily electricity. However, the results also indicate that when indirect emissions from the power sector are also taken into account, climate change may have negligible effect on building sector CO2 emissions in the two countries. The variation in results due to variation of population distribution is noticeably smaller than variation due to the use of different climate models.

  15. Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat Use and Population Demographics at the Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area, Carbon County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gregory D. Johnson; Chad W. LeBeau; Ryan Nielsen; Troy Rintz; Jamey Eddy; Matt Holloran

    2012-03-27

    This study was conducted to obtain baseline data on use of the proposed Simpson Ridge Wind Resource Area (SRWRA) in Carbon County, Wyoming by greater sage-grouse. The first two study years were designed to determine pre-construction seasonally selected habitats and population-level vital rates (productivity and survival). The presence of an existing wind energy facility in the project area, the PacifiCorp Seven Mile Hill (SMH) project, allowed us to obtain some information on initial sage-grouse response to wind turbines the first two years following construction. To our knowledge these are the first quantitative data on sage-grouse response to an existing wind energy development. This report presents results of the first two study years (April 1, 2009 through March 30, 2011). This study was selected for continued funding by the National Wind Coordinating Collaborative Sage-Grouse Collaborative (NWCC-SGC) and has been ongoing since March 30, 2011. Future reports summarizing results of this research will be distributed through the NWCC-SGC. To investigate population trends through time, we determined the distribution and numbers of males using leks throughout the study area, which included a 4-mile radius buffer around the SRWRA. Over the 2-year study, 116 female greater sage-grouse were captured by spotlighting and use of hoop nets on roosts surrounding leks during the breeding period. Radio marked birds were located anywhere from twice a week to once a month, depending on season. All radio-locations were classified to season. We developed predictor variables used to predict success of fitness parameters and relative probability of habitat selection within the SRWRA and SMH study areas. Anthropogenic features included paved highways, overhead transmission lines, wind turbines and turbine access roads. Environmental variables included vegetation and topography features. Home ranges were estimated using a kernel density estimator. We developed resource selection functions (RSF) to estimate probability of selection within the SRWRA and SMH. Fourteen active greater sage-grouse leks were documented during lek surveys Mean lek size decreased from 37 in 2008 to 22 in 2010. Four leks located 0.61, 1.3, 1.4 and 2.5 km from the nearest wind turbine remained active throughout the study, but the total number of males counted on these four leks decreased from 162 the first year prior to construction (2008), to 97 in 2010. Similar lek declines were noted in regional leks not associated with wind energy development throughout Carbon County. We obtained 2,659 sage-grouse locations from radio-equipped females, which were used to map use of each project area by season. The sage-grouse populations within both study areas are relatively non-migratory, as radio-marked sage-grouse used similar areas during all annual life cycles. Potential impacts to sage-grouse from wind energy infrastructure are not well understood. The data rom this study provide insight into the early interactions of wind energy infrastructure and sage-grouse. Nest success and brood-rearing success were not statistically different between areas with and without wind energy development in the short-term. Nest success also was not influenced by anthropogenic features such as turbines in the short-term. Additionally, female survival was similar among both study areas, suggesting wind energy infrastructure was not impacting female survival in the short-term; however, further analysis is needed to identify habitats with different levels of risk to better understand the impact of wind enregy development on survival. Nest and brood-rearing habitat selection were not influenced by turbines in the short-term; however, summer habitat selection occurred within habitats closer to wind turbines. Major roads were avoided in both study areas and during most of the seasons. The impact of transmission lines varied among study areas, suggesting other landscape features may be influencing selection. The data provided in this report are preliminary and are not meant to provide a basis for fo

  16. The relationship between cadmium in kidney and cadmium in urine and blood in an environmentally exposed population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akerstrom, Magnus; Barregard, Lars; Lundh, Thomas; Sallsten, Gerd

    2013-05-01

    Introduction: Cadmium (Cd) is toxic to the kidney and a major part of the body burden occurs here. Cd in urine (U-Cd) and blood (B-Cd) are widely-used biomarkers for assessing Cd exposure or body burden. However, empirical general population data on the relationship between Cd in kidney (K-Cd), urine, and blood are scarce. Our objectives were to determine the relationship between cadmium in kidney, urine, and blood, and calculate the elimination half-time of Cd from the kidney. Methods: Kidney cortex biopsies, urine, and blood samples were collected from 109 living kidney donors. Cd concentrations were determined and the relationships between K-Cd, U-Cd, and B-Cd were investigated in regression models. The half-time of K-Cd was estimated from the elimination constant. Results: There was a strong association between K-Cd and U-Cd adjusted for creatinine (r{sub p} = 0.70, p < 0.001), while the association with B-Cd was weaker (r{sub p} = 0.44, p < 0.001). The relationship between K-Cd and U-Cd was nonlinear, with slower elimination of Cd at high K-Cd. Estimates of the K-Cd half-time varied between 18 and 44 years. A K-Cd of 25 ?g/g corresponds to U-Cd of 0.42 ?g/g creatinine in overnight urine (U-Cd/K-Cd ratio: about 1:60). Multivariate models showed Cd in blood and urinary albumin as determinants for U-Cd excretion. Discussion: In healthy individuals with low-level Cd exposure, there was a strong correlation between Cd in kidney and urine, especially after adjustment for creatinine. Urinary Cd was also affected by Cd in blood and urinary albumin. Previous estimates of the U-Cd/K-Cd ratio may underestimate K-Cd at low U-Cd. - Highlights: ? The first study of the relation between Cd in kidney, blood and urine at low U-Cd ? Simultaneous samples were collected from healthy kidney donors. ? There was a nonlinear relationship between cadmium in kidney and urine. ? Estimates of the kidney cadmium half-time were 1844 years, depending on model used. ? Previous data seem to underestimate kidney cadmium at low urinary cadmium.

  17. Examining the infrared variable star population discovered in the Small Magellanic Cloud using the SAGE-SMC survey

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polsdofer, Elizabeth; Marengo, M.; Seale, J.; Sewi?o, M.; Vijh, U. P.; Terrazas, M.; Meixner, M.

    2015-02-01

    We present our study on the infrared variability of point sources in the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). We use the data from the Spitzer Space Telescope Legacy Program Surveying the Agents of Galaxy Evolution in the Tidally Stripped, Low Metallicity Small Magellanic Cloud (SAGE-SMC) and the Spitzer Survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud (S{sup 3}MC) survey, over three different epochs, separated by several months to 3 years. Variability in the thermal infrared is identified using a combination of Spitzers InfraRed Array Camera 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 ?m bands, and the Multiband Imaging Photometer for Spitzer 24 ?m band. An error-weighted flux difference between each pair of three epochs (variability index) is used to assess the variability of each source. A visual source inspection is used to validate the photometry and image quality. Out of ?2 million sources in the SAGE-SMC catalog, 814 meet our variability criteria. We matched the list of variable star candidates to the catalogs of SMC sources classified with other methods, available in the literature. Carbon-rich Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars make up the majority (61%) of our variable sources, with about a third of all of our sources being classified as extreme AGB stars. We find a small, but significant population of oxygen-rich (O-rich) AGB (8.6%), Red Supergiant (2.8%), and Red Giant Branch (<1%) stars. Other matches to the literature include Cepheid variable stars (8.6%), early type stars (2.8%), Young-stellar objects (5.8%), and background galaxies (1.2%). We found a candidate OH maser star, SSTISAGE1C J005212.88-730852.8, which is a variable O-rich AGB star, and would be the first OH/IR star in the SMC, if confirmed. We measured the infrared variability of a rare RV Tau variable (a post-AGB star) that has recently left the AGB phase. 59 variable stars from our list remain unclassified.

  18. Competing-Risks Mortality After Radiotherapy vs. Observation for Localized Prostate Cancer: A Population-based Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abdollah, Firas; Department of Urology, Vita Salute San Raffaele University, Milan ; Sun, Maxine; Schmitges, Jan; Martini-Clinic, Prostate Cancer Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg ; Thuret, Rodolphe; Department of Urology, University of Montpellier Health Centre, Montpellier ; Tian, Zhe; Shariat, Shahrokh F.; Briganti, Alberto; Jeldres, Claudio; Perrotte, Paul; Department of Urology, University of Montreal Health Centre, Montreal ; Montorsi, Francesco; Karakiewicz, Pierre I.; Department of Urology, University of Montreal Health Centre, Montreal

    2012-09-01

    Purpose: Contemporary patients with localized prostate cancer (PCa) are more frequently treated with radiotherapy. However, there are limited data on the effect of this treatment on cancer-specific mortality (CSM). Our objective was to test the relationship between radiotherapy and survival in men with localized PCa and compare it with those treated with observation. Methods: A population-based cohort identified 68,797 men with cT1-T2 PCa treated with radiotherapy or observation between the years 1992 and 2005. Propensity-score matching was used to minimize potential bias related to treatment assignment. Competing-risks analyses tested the effect of treatment type (radiotherapy vs. observation) on CSM, after accounting to other-cause mortality. All analyses were carried out within PCa risk, baseline comorbidity status, and age groups. Results: Radiotherapy was associated with more favorable 10-year CSM rates than observation in patients with high-risk PCa (8.8 vs. 14.4%, hazard ratio [HR]: 0.59, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.50-0.68). Conversely, the beneficial effect of radiotherapy on CSM was not evident in patients with low-intermediate risk PCa (3.7 vs. 4.1%, HR: 0.91, 95% CI: 0.80-1.04). Radiotherapy was beneficial in elderly patients (5.6 vs. 7.3%, HR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.59-0.80). Moreover, it was associated with improved CSM rates among patients with no comorbidities (5.7 vs. 6.5%, HR: 0.81, 95% CI: 0.67-0.98), one comorbidity (4.6 vs. 6.0%, HR: 0.87, 95% CI: 0.75-0.99), and more than two comorbidities (4.2 vs. 5.0%, HR: 0.79, 95% CI: 0.65-0.96). Conclusions: Radiotherapy substantially improves CSM in patients with high-risk PCa, with little or no benefit in patients with low-/intermediate-risk PCa relative to observation. These findings must be interpreted within the context of the limitations of observational data.

  19. Long-term monitoring of reef corals at the Flower Garden Banks (northwest Gulf of Mexico): Reef coral population changes and historical incorporation of barium in Montastrea annularis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deslarzes, K.J.P.

    1992-01-01

    Reef coral populations were monitored from 1988 to 1991 at the Flower Garden Banks located in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. The status of reef coral populations, and natural or man-made factors potentially affecting their well-being were determined. Man-made chronic disturbances are degrading coral reef resources on a global scale. Yet, the Flower Garden coral reefs seem to have been sheltered from the effects of regional stresses generated by population growth and increased industrial activity. Since 1974, reef coral population levels have remained unchanged in the Montastrea-Diploria Zones at the Flower Garden Banks. Live coral cover ranges between 46 and 46.5%. Montastrea annularis and Diploria strigosa comprise 80% of the coral cover on either bank. The remainder of the cover is mostly shared by eight other taxa. Coral taxa appear to be more homogeneously distributed on the West Bank. The relatively greater number of Agaricia spp., Madracis decastis, and P. astreoides colonies on the East Bank may be the source of a decreased evenness. The health of reef corals was assessed using repetitive and non-repetitive photographic methods, and accretionary growth measurements of M. annularis. Reef corals have undergone small scale changes at the Flower Gardens probably reflecting natural disturbance, predation, disease, and inter-specific competition. White mat disease (ridge disease) is shown to generate more tissue loss than any of the three bleaching events that took place at the Flower Gardens (1989, 1990, and 1991). Advance to retreat linear ratios of encrusting growth revealed a net tissue gain on the East Bank and a net tissue loss on the West Bank. Growth rates of M. annularis were highly variable. The annual barium content from 1910 in 1989 in a M. annularis colony from the West Flower Garden did not reveal trends associated with the extensive oil and gas exploration in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

  20. Agent-based model forecasts aging of the population of people who inject drugs in metropolitan Chicago and changing prevalence of hepatitis C infections

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; Prachand, Nikhil; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Dahari, Harel; Major, Marian E.; Kaderali, Lars

    2015-09-30

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for blood-borne pathogens transmitted during the sharing of contaminated injection equipment, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence is influenced by a complex interplay of drug-use behaviors, social networks, and geography, as well as the availability of interventions, such as needle exchange programs. To adequately address this complexity in HCV epidemic forecasting, we have developed a computational model, the Agent-based Pathogen Kinetics model (APK). APK simulates the PWID population in metropolitan Chicago, including the social interactions that result in HCV infection. We used multiple empirical data sources on Chicago PWID to build a spatial distribution of an in silico PWID population and modeled networks among the PWID by considering the geography of the city and its suburbs. APK was validated against 2012 empirical data (the latest available) and shown to agree with network and epidemiological surveys to within 1%. For the period 2010–2020, APK forecasts a decline in HCV prevalence of 0.8% per year from 44(±2)% to 36(±5)%, although some sub-populations would continue to have relatively high prevalence, including Non-Hispanic Blacks, 48(±5)%. The rate of decline will be lowest in Non-Hispanic Whites and we find, in a reversal of historical trends, that incidence among non-Hispanic Whites would exceed incidence among Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.66 per 100 per years vs 0.17 per 100 person years). APK also forecasts an increase in PWID mean age from 35(±1) to 40(±2) with a corresponding increase from 59(±2)% to 80(±6)% in the proportion of the population >30 years old. Our research highlight the importance of analyzing sub-populations in disease predictions, the utility of computer simulation for analyzing demographic and health trends among PWID and serve as a tool for guiding intervention and prevention strategies in Chicago, and other major cities.

  1. Evaluate Potential Means of Rebuilding Sturgeon Populations in the Snake River between Lower Granite and Hells Canyon Dams, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoefs, Nancy

    2004-02-01

    During 1997 the first phase of the Nez Perce Tribe White Sturgeon Project was completed and the second phase was initiated. During Phase I the ''Upper Snake River White Sturgeon Biological Assessment'' was completed, successfully: (1) compiling regional white sturgeon management objectives, and (2) identifying potential mitigation actions needed to rebuild the white sturgeon population in the Snake River between Hells Canyon and Lower Granite dams. Risks and uncertainties associated with implementation of these potential mitigative actions could not be fully assessed because critical information concerning the status of the population and their habitat requirements were unknown. The biological risk assessment identified the fundamental information concerning the white sturgeon population that is needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness of alternative mitigative strategies. Accordingly, a multi-year research plan was developed to collect specific biological and environmental data needed to assess the health and status of the population and characterize habitat used for spawning and rearing. In addition, in 1997 Phase II of the project was initiated. White sturgeon were captured, marked, and population data were collected between Lower Granite Dam and the mouth of the Salmon River. During 1997, 316 white sturgeon were captured in the Snake River. Of these, 298 were marked. Differences in the fork length frequency distributions of the white sturgeon were not affected by collection method. No significant differences in length frequency distributions of sturgeon captured in Lower Granite Reservoir and the mid- and upper free-flowing reaches of the Snake River were detected. The length frequency distribution indicated that white sturgeon between 92 and 183 cm are prevalent in the reaches of the Snake River that were sampled. However, white sturgeon >183 have not changed markedly since 1970. I would speculate that some factor other than past over-fishing practices is limiting the recruitment of white sturgeon into larger size classes (>183 cm). Habitat, food resources, and migration have been severely altered by the impoundment of the Snake River and it appears that the recruitment of young may not be severely affected as recruitment of fish into size classes > 183 cm.

  2. Agent-based model forecasts aging of the population of people who inject drugs in metropolitan Chicago and changing prevalence of hepatitis C infections

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gutfraind, Alexander; Boodram, Basmattee; Prachand, Nikhil; Hailegiorgis, Atesmachew; Dahari, Harel; Major, Marian E.; Kaderali, Lars

    2015-09-30

    People who inject drugs (PWID) are at high risk for blood-borne pathogens transmitted during the sharing of contaminated injection equipment, particularly hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV prevalence is influenced by a complex interplay of drug-use behaviors, social networks, and geography, as well as the availability of interventions, such as needle exchange programs. To adequately address this complexity in HCV epidemic forecasting, we have developed a computational model, the Agent-based Pathogen Kinetics model (APK). APK simulates the PWID population in metropolitan Chicago, including the social interactions that result in HCV infection. We used multiple empirical data sources on Chicago PWID tomore » build a spatial distribution of an in silico PWID population and modeled networks among the PWID by considering the geography of the city and its suburbs. APK was validated against 2012 empirical data (the latest available) and shown to agree with network and epidemiological surveys to within 1%. For the period 2010–2020, APK forecasts a decline in HCV prevalence of 0.8% per year from 44(±2)% to 36(±5)%, although some sub-populations would continue to have relatively high prevalence, including Non-Hispanic Blacks, 48(±5)%. The rate of decline will be lowest in Non-Hispanic Whites and we find, in a reversal of historical trends, that incidence among non-Hispanic Whites would exceed incidence among Non-Hispanic Blacks (0.66 per 100 per years vs 0.17 per 100 person years). APK also forecasts an increase in PWID mean age from 35(±1) to 40(±2) with a corresponding increase from 59(±2)% to 80(±6)% in the proportion of the population >30 years old. Our research highlight the importance of analyzing sub-populations in disease predictions, the utility of computer simulation for analyzing demographic and health trends among PWID and serve as a tool for guiding intervention and prevention strategies in Chicago, and other major cities.« less

  3. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam; Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1995-1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rien, Thomas A.; Beiningen, Kirk T.

    1997-07-01

    This project began in July 1986 and is a cooperative effort of federal, state, and tribal fisheries entities to determine (1) the status and habitat requirements, and (2) effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the lower Colombia and Snake rivers.

  4. Impact of Preoperative Radiotherapy on General and Disease-Specific Health Status of Rectal Cancer Survivors: A Population-Based Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thong, Melissa S.Y., E-mail: M.Thong@uvt.nl [Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases (CoRPS), Tilburg University (Netherlands); Comprehensive Cancer Centre South, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Mols, Floortje [Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases (CoRPS), Tilburg University (Netherlands); Comprehensive Cancer Centre South, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Lemmens, Valery E.P.P. [Comprehensive Cancer Centre South, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Department of Public Health, Erasmus University Medical Centre, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Rutten, Harm J.T. [Department of Surgery, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Roukema, Jan A. [Department of Surgery, St. Elisabeth Hospital, Tilburg (Netherlands); Martijn, Hendrik [Department of Radiotherapy, Catharina Hospital, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Poll-Franse, Lonneke V. van de [Center of Research on Psychology in Somatic Diseases (CoRPS), Tilburg University (Netherlands); Comprehensive Cancer Centre South, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To date, few studies have evaluated the impact of preoperative radiotherapy (pRT) on long-term health status of rectal cancer survivors. Using a population-based sample, we assessed the impact of pRT on general and disease-specific health status of rectal cancer survivors up to 10 years postdiagnosis. The health status of older ({>=}75 years old at diagnosis) pRT survivors was also compared with that of younger survivors. Methods and Materials: Survivors identified from the Eindhoven Cancer Registry treated with surgery only (SU) or with pRT between 1998 and 2007 were included. Survivors completed the Short Form-36 (SF-36) health survey questionnaire and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Colorectal 38 (EORTC QLQ-CR38) questionnaire. The SF-36 and EORTC QLQ-CR38 (sexuality subscale) scores of the survivors were compared to an age- and sex-matched Dutch normal population. Results: A total of 340 survivors (response, 85%; pRT survivors, 71%) were analyzed. Overall, survivors had similar general health status. Both short-term (<5 years) and long-term ({>=}5 years) pRT survivors had significantly poorer body image and more problems with gastrointestinal function, male sexual dysfunction, and defecation than SU survivors. Survivors had comparable general health status but greater sexual dysfunction than the normal population. Older pRT survivors had general and disease-specific health status comparable to that of younger pRT survivors. Conclusions: For better survivorship care, rectal cancer survivors could benefit from increased clinical and psychological focus on the possible long-term morbidity of treatment and its effects on health status.

  5. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the IM Province of the Columbia Basin, Annual Report 2002-2003.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wielgus, Robert; Shipley, Lisa; Myers, Woodrow

    2003-09-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the sub basins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated 'press' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM sub basins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates of deer will be determined using radio telemetry. Changes in cougar functional (kills/unit time), aggregative (cougars/unit area), numerical (offspring/cougar), and total (predation rate) responses on deer will also be monitored using radio telemetry. The experiment will be conducted and completed over a period of 5 years. Results will be used to determine the cause and try to halt the mule deer population declines. Results will also guide deer mitigation and management in the IM and throughout the North American West.

  6. Effects of Cougar Predation and Nutrition on Mule Deer Population Declines in the Intermountain Province of the Columbia Basin, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wielgus, Robert B.; Shipley, Lisa

    2002-07-01

    Construction of the Grand Coulee and Chief Joseph dams has resulted in inundation and loss of 29,125 total habitat units for mule deer and irrigation agriculture in many parts the Intermountain Province (IM) of the Columbia Basin. Mule deer in the Shrub-Steppe are ranked high priority target species for mitigation and management and are declining in most portions of the subbasins of the IM. Reasons for the decline are unknown but believed to be related to habitat changes resulting from dams and irrigation agriculture. White-tailed deer are not ranked as target species and are believed to be increasing throughout the basin because of habitat changes brought about by the dams and irrigation agriculture. Recent research (1997-2000) in the NE IM and adjacent Canadian portions of the Columbia Basin (conducted by this author and funded by the Columbia Basin Fish & Wildlife Compensation Program B.C.), suggest that the increasing white-tailed deer populations (because of dams and irrigation agriculture) are resulting in increased predation by cougars on mule deer (apparent competition or alternate prey hypothesis). The apparent competition hypothesis predicts that as alternate prey (white-tailed deer) densities increase, so do densities of predators, resulting in increased incidental predation on sympatric native prey (mule deer). Apparent competition can result in population declines and even extirpation of native prey in some cases. Such a phenomenon may account for declines of mule deer in the IM and throughout arid and semi-arid West where irrigation agriculture is practiced. We will test the apparent competition hypothesis by conducting a controlled, replicated ''press'' experiment in at least 2 treatment and 2 control areas of the IM subbasins by reducing densities of white-tailed deer and observing any changes in cougar predation on mule deer. Deer densities will be monitored by WADFW personnel using annual aerial surveys and/or other trend indices. Predation rates and population growth rates of deer will be determined using radio telemetry. Changes in cougar functional (kills/unit time), aggregative (cougars/unit area), numerical (offspring/cougar), and total (predation rate) responses on deer will also be monitored using radio telemetry. The experiment will be conducted and completed over a period of 5 years. Results will be used to determine the cause and try to halt the mule deer population declines. Results will also guide deer mitigation and management in the IM and throughout the North American West.

  7. K{sub s} -BAND LUMINOSITY EVOLUTION OF THE ASYMPTOTIC GIANT BRANCH POPULATION BASED ON STAR CLUSTERS IN THE LARGE MAGELLANIC CLOUD

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ko, Youkyung; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lim, Sungsoon E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr

    2013-11-10

    We present a study of K{sub s} -band luminosity evolution of the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) population in simple stellar systems using star clusters in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). We determine physical parameters of LMC star clusters including center coordinates, radii, and foreground reddenings. Ages of 83 star clusters are derived from isochrone fitting with the Padova models, and those of 19 star clusters are taken from the literature. The AGB stars in 102 star clusters with log(age) = 7.3-9.5 are selected using near-infrared color-magnitude diagrams based on Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. Then we obtain the K{sub s} -band luminosity fraction of AGB stars in these star clusters as a function of ages. The K{sub s} -band luminosity fraction of AGB stars increases, on average, as age increases from log(age) ? 8.0, reaching a maximum at log(age) ? 8.5, and it decreases thereafter. There is a large scatter in the AGB luminosity fraction for given ages, which is mainly due to stochastic effects. We discuss this result in comparison with five simple stellar population models. The maximum K{sub s} -band AGB luminosity fraction for bright clusters is reproduced by the models that expect the value of 0.7-0.8 at log(age) = 8.5-8.7. We discuss the implication of our results with regard to the study of size and mass evolution of galaxies.

  8. The Impact of Hypofractionated Whole Breast Radiotherapy on Local Relapse in Patients With Grade 3 Early Breast Cancer: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Herbert, Christopher; Nichol, Alan; Olivotto, Ivo; Weir, Lorna; Woods, Ryan; Speers, Caroline; Truong, Pauline; Tyldesley, Scott

    2012-04-01

    Purpose: To determine whether patients with Grade 3 early breast cancer have an inferior rate of local disease control at 10 years with hypofractionated radiotherapy compared with more conventionally fractionated schedules. Methods and Materials: Local relapse rates were compared between patients receiving hypofractionated radiotherapy or conventionally fractionated radiotherapy to the whole breast in a population-based cohort of women with early-stage (T1-T2, N0, M0) Grade 3 breast cancers diagnosed between 1990 and 2000 and referred to the British Columbia Cancer Agency. Cumulative rates of local relapse were estimated using a competing risk method, and factors significant on univariate analysis were included with fractionation group in a multivariate model. The primary end point was local control at 10 years. Results: A total of 1,335 patients with Grade 3 tumors were treated with adjuvant radiotherapy, 252 with conventional fractionation, and 1,083 with a hypofractionated schedule. The 10-year cumulative incidence of local relapse was 6.9% in the hypofractionated group and 6.2% in the conventionally fractionated group (p = 0.99). Conclusions: There is no evidence that hypofractionation is inferior to conventional fractionation for breast conserving therapy in patients with Grade 3 breast cancer in this large population-based series after 10 years of follow-up.

  9. DIRECT N-BODY MODELING OF THE OLD OPEN CLUSTER NGC 188: A DETAILED COMPARISON OF THEORETICAL AND OBSERVED BINARY STAR AND BLUE STRAGGLER POPULATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geller, Aaron M.; Hurley, Jarrod R.; Mathieu, Robert D. E-mail: mathieu@astro.wisc.edu

    2013-01-01

    Following on from a recently completed radial-velocity survey of the old (7 Gyr) open cluster NGC 188 in which we studied in detail the solar-type hard binaries and blue stragglers of the cluster, here we investigate the dynamical evolution of NGC 188 through a sophisticated N-body model. Importantly, we employ the observed binary properties of the young (180 Myr) open cluster M35, where possible, to guide our choices for parameters of the initial binary population. We apply pre-main-sequence tidal circularization and a substantial increase to the main-sequence tidal circularization rate, both of which are necessary to match the observed tidal circularization periods in the literature, including that of NGC 188. At 7 Gyr the main-sequence solar-type hard-binary population in the model matches that of NGC 188 in both binary frequency and distributions of orbital parameters. This agreement between the model and observations is in a large part due to the similarities between the NGC 188 and M35 solar-type binaries. Indeed, among the 7 Gyr main-sequence binaries in the model, only those with P {approx}> 1000 days begin to show potentially observable evidence for modifications by dynamical encounters, even after 7 Gyr of evolution within the star cluster. This emphasizes the importance of defining accurate initial conditions for star cluster models, which we propose is best accomplished through comparisons with observations of young open clusters like M35. Furthermore, this finding suggests that observations of the present-day binaries in even old open clusters can provide valuable information on their primordial binary populations. However, despite the model's success at matching the observed solar-type main-sequence population, the model underproduces blue stragglers and produces an overabundance of long-period circular main-sequence-white-dwarf binaries as compared with the true cluster. We explore several potential solutions to the paucity of blue stragglers and conclude that the model dramatically underproduces blue stragglers through mass-transfer processes. We suggest that common-envelope evolution may have been incorrectly imposed on the progenitors of the spurious long-period circular main-sequence-white-dwarf binaries, which perhaps instead should have gone through stable mass transfer to create blue stragglers, thereby bringing both the number and binary frequency of the blue straggler population in the model into agreement with the true blue stragglers in NGC 188. Thus, improvements in the physics of mass transfer and common-envelope evolution employed in the model may in fact solve both discrepancies with the observations. This project highlights the unique accessibility of open clusters to both comprehensive observational surveys and full-scale N-body simulations, both of which have only recently matured sufficiently to enable such a project, and underscores the importance of open clusters to the study of star cluster dynamics.

  10. Genetic and Phenotype [Phenotypic] Catalog of Native Resident Trout of the interior Columbia River Basin : FY-99 Report : Populations of the Pend Oreille, Kettle, and Sanpoil River Basins of Colville National Forest.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trotter, Patrick C.

    2001-05-01

    The 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power Planning Council specifies the recovery and preservation of population health of native resident fishes of the Columbia River Basin. Among the native resident species of concern are interior rainbow trout of the Columbia River redband subspecies Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri 1 and westslope cutthroat trout O. clarki lewisi. The westslope cutthroat trout has been petitioned for listing under the U. S. Endangered Species Act (American Wildlands et al. 1997). Before at-risk populations can be protected, their presence and status must be established. Where introgression from introduced species is a concern, as in the case of both westslope cutthroat trout and redband rainbow trout, genetic issues must be addressed as well. As is true with native trout elsewhere in the western United States (Behnke 1992), most of the remaining pure populations of these species in the Columbia River Basin are in relatively remote headwater reaches. The objective of this project is to photo-document upper Columbia Basin native resident trout populations in Washington, and to ascertain their species or subspecies identity and relative genetic purity using a nonlethal DNA technique. FY-99 was year two of a five-year project in which we conducted field visits to remote locations to seek out and catalog these populations. In FY-99 we worked in collaboration with the Colville National Forest and Kalispel Indian Tribe to catalog populations in the northeastern corner of Washington State.

  11. Modeling the effects of river flow on population dynamics of piping plovers (Charadrius melodus) and least terns (Sternula antillarum) nesting on the Missouri River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Buenau, Kate E.; Hiller, Tim L.; Tyre, Andrew J.

    2014-10-01

    Humans make extensive use of rivers and floodplains for economic benefits including agriculture, hydropower, commerce and recreation. Economic development of floodplains subsequently requires control of river levels to avoid flood damage. This process began in the Missouri River basin in the 1890s with the construction of a series of hydropower dams in Montana and escalated to new levels with the approval of the Pick-Sloan plan in the 1944 Flood Control Act. Maximizing these human uses of the river led to changes in and losses of hydrological and ecological processes, ultimately resulting in the federal listing of three fish and wildlife species under the Endangered Species Act: the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhyncus albus; 1983), the piping plover (Charadrius melodus; 1984), and the interior population of least tern (Sternula antillarum; 1985). The listing of terns and plovers did not affect river management until the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) proposed to modify the governing document of the Missouri River Mainstem System, the Master Manual, a process which was completed in 2003. Although there was little disagreement over the habitat conditions that terns and plovers used for nesting, there was substantial disagreement over the amount of habitat necessary for terns and plovers to meet population recovery goals. Answering this question requires forecasting species-specific population responses to dynamic habitat affected by both human actions (reservoir management and habitat restoration) and natural variability in precipitation. Piping plovers and least terns nest along the Missouri River from Fort Peck, Montana to just north of Sioux City, Iowa (Figure 1). Both species prefer to nest on sand and fine gravel substrates with no or sparse vegetation cover (Prindiville Gaines and Ryan, 1988; Sherfy et al., 2012), such as riverine sandbars (emergent sandbar habitat; ESH). Piping plovers also nest on reservoir shorelines that lack vegetation cover (Anteau et al., 2012). The amount of ESH available for nesting in a given year is strongly affected by the amount of water entering the Missouri River system through precipitation and the management of water flow from six reservoirs operated by the USACE on the mainstem Missouri River. Prior to the construction of dams, the Missouri River experienced bimodal peak flows in spring and early summer in concordance with the melting of plains and mountain snowpack (Galat and Lipkin, 2000). Flows decreased during summer months, with river stage then dependent upon rainfall. The combination of consistent high flows and occasional extreme high flows, together with the meandering characteristic of the river, regularly reshaped and scoured vegetation from ESH.

  12. Mathematical model for predicting the probability of acute mortality in a human population exposed to accidentally released airborne radionuclides. Final report for Phase I

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filipy, R.E.; Borst, F.J.; Cross, F.T.; Park, J.F.; Moss, O.R.; Roswell, R.L.; Stevens, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    A mathematical model was constructed for the purpose of predicting the fraction of human population which would die within 1 year of an accidental exposure to airborne radionuclides. The model is based on data from laboratory experiments with rats, dogs and baboons, and from human epidemiological data. Doses from external, whole-body irradiation and from inhaled, alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides are calculated for several organs. The probabilities of death from radiation pneumonitis and from bone marrow irradiation are predicted from doses accumulated within 30 days of exposure to the radioactive aerosol. The model is compared with existing similar models under hypothetical exposure conditions. Suggestions for further experiments with inhaled radionuclides are included. 25 refs., 16 figs., 13 tabs.

  13. Population studies. XIII. A new analysis of the Bidelman-Macconnell 'weak-metal' stars - confirmation of metal-poor stars in the thick disk of the galaxy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beers, Timothy C.; Norris, John E.; Placco, Vinicius M.; Lee, Young Sun; Rossi, Silvia; Carollo, Daniela; Masseron, Thomas E-mail: jen@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: youngsun@cnu.ac.kr E-mail: daniela.carollo@mq.edu.au

    2014-10-10

    A new set of very high signal-to-noise (S/N > 100/1), medium-resolution (R ? 3000) optical spectra have been obtained for 302 of the candidate 'weak-metal' stars selected by Bidelman and MacConnell. We use these data to calibrate the recently developed generalization of the Sloan Extension for Galactic Exploration and Understanding and Exploration (SEGUE) Stellar Parameter Pipeline, and obtain estimates of the atmospheric parameters (T {sub eff}, log g, and [Fe/H]) for these non-Sloan Digital Sky Survey/SEGUE data; we also obtain estimates of [C/Fe]. The new abundance measurements are shown to be consistent with available high-resolution spectroscopic determinations, and represent a substantial improvement over the accuracies obtained from the previous photometric estimates reported in Paper I of this series. The apparent offset in the photometric abundances of the giants in this sample noted by several authors is confirmed by our new spectroscopy; no such effect is found for the dwarfs. The presence of a metal-weak thick-disk (MWTD) population is clearly supported by these new abundance data. Some 25% of the stars with metallicities 1.8 < [Fe/H] ?0.8 exhibit orbital eccentricities e < 0.4, yet are clearly separated from members of the inner-halo population with similar metallicities by their location in a Lindblad energy versus angular momentum diagram. A comparison is made with recent results for a similar-size sample of Radial Velocity Experiment stars from Ruchti et al. We conclude, based on both of these samples, that the MWTD is real, and must be accounted for in discussions of the formation and evolution of the disk system of the Milky Way.

  14. HOW THERMAL EVOLUTION AND MASS-LOSS SCULPT POPULATIONS OF SUPER-EARTHS AND SUB-NEPTUNES: APPLICATION TO THE KEPLER-11 SYSTEM AND BEYOND

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez, Eric D.; Miller, Neil; Fortney, Jonathan J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States)

    2012-12-10

    We use models of thermal evolution and extreme ultraviolet (XUV) driven mass loss to explore the composition and history of low-mass, low-density transiting planets. We investigate the Kepler-11 system in detail and provide estimates of both the current and past planetary compositions. We find that an H/He envelope on Kepler-11b is highly vulnerable to mass loss. By comparing to formation models, we show that in situ formation of the system is extremely difficult. Instead we propose that it is a water-rich system of sub-Neptunes that migrated from beyond the snow line. For the broader population of observed planets, we show that there is a threshold in bulk planet density and incident flux above which no low-mass transiting planets have been observed. We suggest that this threshold is due to the instability of H/He envelopes to XUV-driven mass loss. Importantly, we find that this mass-loss threshold is well reproduced by our thermal evolution/contraction models that incorporate a standard mass-loss prescription. Treating the planets' contraction history is essential because the planets have significantly larger radii during the early era of high XUV fluxes. Over time low-mass planets with H/He envelopes can be transformed into water-dominated worlds with steam envelopes or rocky super-Earths. Finally, we use this threshold to provide likely minimum masses and radial-velocity amplitudes for the general population of Kepler candidates. Likewise, we use this threshold to provide constraints on the maximum radii of low-mass planets found by radial-velocity surveys.

  15. DATA SHARING REPORT CHARACTERIZATION OF POPULATION 7: PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT, DRY ACTIVE WASTE, AND MISCELLANEOUS DEBRIS, SURVEILLANCE AND MAINTENANCE PROJECT OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY OAK RIDGE, TENNESSEE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Harpenau, Evan M

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  16. Radiation Dose to the Esophagus From Breast Cancer Radiation Therapy, 1943-1996: An International Population-Based Study of 414 Patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lamart, Stephanie; Stovall, Marilyn; Simon, Steven L.; Smith, Susan A.; Weathers, Rita E.; Howell, Rebecca M.; Curtis, Rochelle E.; Aleman, Berthe M.P.; Travis, Lois; Kwon, Deukwoo; Morton, Lindsay M.

    2013-07-15

    Purpose: To provide dosimetric data for an epidemiologic study on the risk of second primary esophageal cancer among breast cancer survivors, by reconstructing the radiation dose incidentally delivered to the esophagus of 414 women treated with radiation therapy for breast cancer during 1943-1996 in North America and Europe. Methods and Materials: We abstracted the radiation therapy treatment parameters from each patients radiation therapy record. Treatment fields included direct chest wall (37% of patients), medial and lateral tangentials (45%), supraclavicular (SCV, 64%), internal mammary (IM, 44%), SCV and IM together (16%), axillary (52%), and breast/chest wall boosts (7%). The beam types used were {sup 60}Co (45% of fields), orthovoltage (33%), megavoltage photons (11%), and electrons (10%). The population median prescribed dose to the target volume ranged from 21 Gy to 40 Gy. We reconstructed the doses over the length of the esophagus using abstracted patient data, water phantom measurements, and a computational model of the human body. Results: Fields that treated the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were used for 85% of the patients and delivered the highest doses within 3 regions of the esophagus: cervical (population median 38 Gy), upper thoracic (32 Gy), and middle thoracic (25 Gy). Other fields (direct chest wall, tangential, and axillary) contributed substantially lower doses (approximately 2 Gy). The cervical to middle thoracic esophagus received the highest dose because of its close proximity to the SCV and IM fields and less overlying tissue in that part of the chest. The location of the SCV field border relative to the midline was one of the most important determinants of the dose to the esophagus. Conclusions: Breast cancer patients in this study received relatively high incidental radiation therapy doses to the esophagus when the SCV and/or IM lymph nodes were treated, whereas direct chest wall, tangentials, and axillary fields contributed lower doses.

  17. Urinary arsenic profiles and the risks of cancer mortality: A population-based 20-year follow-up study in arseniasis-endemic areas in Taiwan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chung, Chi-Jung; Department of Medical Research, China Medical Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan ; Huang, Ya-Li; Huang, Yung-Kai; Wu, Meei-Maan; Chen, Shu-Yuan; Hsueh, Yu-Mei; School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan ; Chen, Chien-Jen

    2013-04-15

    Few studies investigated the association between chronic arsenic exposure and the mortality of cancers by estimating individual urinary arsenic methylation profiles. Therefore, we compared with the general population in Taiwan to calculate the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) in arseniasis-endemic area of Taiwan from 1996 to 2010 and evaluated the dose-response relationships between environmental arsenic exposure indices or urinary arsenic profiles and the mortality of cause-specific cancer. A cohort of 1563 residents was conducted and collected their urine sample and information regarding arsenic exposure from a questionnaire. All-cause death was identified using the National Death Registry of Taiwan. Urinary arsenic profiles were measured using high performance liquid chromatographyhydride generatoratomic absorption spectrometry. We used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the mortality risks. In results, 193 all-site cancer deaths, and 29, 71, 43 deaths respectively for liver, lung and bladder cancers were ascertained. The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. People with high urinary InAs% or low DMA% or low secondary methylation index (SMI) were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer after adjusting other risk factors. Even stopping exposure to arsenic from the artesian well water, the mortality rates of the residents were higher than general population. Finally, urinary InAs%, DMA% and SMI could be the potential biomarkers to predict the mortality risk of bladder cancer. -- Highlights: ? The SMRs were significantly high in arseniasis-endemic areas for liver, lung, and bladder cancers. ? People with high urinary InAs% were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer. ? People with low DMA% or low SMI were the most likely to suffer bladder cancer.

  18. Midday Meeting- The Population Explosion

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2011-04-25

    Birth Control- Contraception- Family Planning (Inde, Chine....)- présenté par le Docteur A. Kessler, expert de ces problèmes

  19. A Multiple Watershed Approach to Assessing the Effects of Habitat Restoration Actions on Anadromous and Resident Fish Populations, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marmorek, David

    2004-03-01

    Habitat protection and restoration is a cornerstone of current strategies to restore ecosystems, recover endangered fish species, and rebuild fish stocks within the Columbia River Basin. Strategies featuring habitat restoration include the 2000 Biological Opinion on operation of the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS BiOp) developed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), the 2000 Biological Opinion on Bull Trout developed by the US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), and Sub-Basin Plans developed under the Fish and Wildlife Program of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NWPCC). There is however little quantitative information about the effectiveness of different habitat restoration techniques. Such information is crucial for helping scientists and program managers allocate limited funds towards the greatest benefits for fish populations. Therefore, it is critical to systematically test the hypotheses underlying habitat restoration actions for both anadromous and resident fish populations. This pilot project was developed through a proposal to the Innovative Projects fund of the NWPCC (ESSA 2002). It was funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) following reviews by the Independent Scientific Review Panel (ISRP 2002), the Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority (CBFWA 2002), the NWPCC and BPA. The study was designed to respond directly to the above described needs for information on the effectiveness of habitat restoration actions, including legal measures specified in the 2000 FCRPS BiOp (RPA 183, pg. 9-133, NMFS 2000). Due to the urgency of addressing these measures, the timeline of the project was accelerated from a duration of 18 months to 14 months. The purpose of this pilot project was to explore methods for evaluating past habitat restoration actions and their effects on fish populations. By doing so, the project will provide a foundation of retrospective analyses, on which to build prospective, multi-watershed designs for future habitat restoration actions. Such designs are being developed concurrently with this project by several other groups in the Columbia Basin (RME Workgroup 2003, NMFS 2003, Hillman and Paulsen 2002, Hillman 2003). By addressing questions about habitat restoration and monitoring (in coordination with other related efforts), we hope that this project will catalyze a shift in the Basin's paradigm of habitat restoration, moving from implementation of individual watershed projects towards rigorously designed and monitored, multiwatershed, adaptive management experiments. The project involved three phases of work, which were closely integrated with various related and ongoing efforts in the region: (1) Scoping - We met with a Core Group of habitat experts and managers to scope out a set of testable habitat restoration hypotheses, identify candidate watersheds and recommend participants for a data evaluation workshop. (2) Data Assembly - We contacted over 80 scientists and managers to help evaluate the suitability of each candidate watershed's historical data for assessing the effectiveness of past restoration actions. We eventually settled on the Yakima, Wenatchee, Clearwater, and Salmon subbasins, and began gathering relevant data for these watersheds at a workshop with habitat experts and managers. Data assembly continued for several months after the workshop. (3) Data Analysis and Synthesis - We explored statistical approaches towards retrospectively analyzing the effects of restoration 'treatments' at nested spatial scales across multiple watersheds (Chapters 2-5 of this report). These analyses provided a foundation for identifying existing constraints to testing restoration hypotheses, and opportunities to overcome these constraints through improved experimental designs, monitoring protocols and project selection strategies (Chapters 6 and 7 of this report). Finally, we developed a set of recommendations to improve the design, implementation, and monitoring of prospective habitat restoration programs in the Columbia River Basin (Chapter 8).

  20. STELLAR POPULATIONS OF Ly{alpha} EMITTERS AT z {approx} 6-7: CONSTRAINTS ON THE ESCAPE FRACTION OF IONIZING PHOTONS FROM GALAXY BUILDING BLOCKS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ono, Yoshiaki; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Okamura, Sadanori; Masami Ouchi; Dunlop, James; Farrah, Duncan; McLure, Ross

    2010-12-01

    We investigate the stellar populations of Ly{alpha} emitters (LAEs) at z = 5.7 and 6.6 in a 0.65 deg{sup 2} sky of the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey (SXDS) Field, using deep images taken with the Subaru/Suprime-Cam, United Kingdom Infrared Telescope/Wide Field Infrared Camera, and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera (IRAC). We produce stacked multiband images at each redshift from 165 (z = 5.7) and 91 (z = 6.6) IRAC-undetected objects to derive typical spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of z {approx} 6-7 LAEs for the first time. The stacked LAEs have as blue UV continua as the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) z-dropout galaxies of similar M{sub UV}, with a spectral slope {beta} {approx} -3, but at the same time they have red UV-to-optical colors with detection in the 3.6 {mu}m band. Using SED fitting we find that the stacked LAEs have low stellar masses of {approx}(3-10) x 10{sup 7} M{sub sun}, very young ages of {approx}1-3 Myr, negligible dust extinction, and strong nebular emission from the ionized interstellar medium, although the z = 6.6 object is fitted similarly well with high-mass models without nebular emission; inclusion of nebular emission reproduces the red UV-to-optical colors while keeping the UV colors sufficiently blue. We infer that typical LAEs at z {approx} 6-7 are building blocks of galaxies seen at lower redshifts. We find a tentative decrease in the Ly{alpha} escape fraction from z = 5.7 to 6.6, which may imply an increase in the intergalactic medium neutral fraction. From the minimum contribution of nebular emission required to fit the observed SEDs, we place an upper limit on the escape fraction of ionizing photons of f {sup ion}{sub esc} {approx} 0.6 at z = 5.7 and {approx}0.9 at z = 6.6. We also compare the stellar populations of our LAEs with those of stacked HST/WFC3 z-dropout galaxies.

  1. Blue straggler star populations in globular clusters. I. Dynamical properties of blue straggler stars in NGC 3201, NGC 6218, and ? Centauri

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simunovic, Mirko; Puzia, Thomas H. E-mail: tpuzia@astro.puc.cl

    2014-02-10

    We present the first dynamical study of blue straggler stars (BSSs) in three Galactic globular clusters, NGC 3201, NGC 5139 (? Cen), and NGC 6218, based on medium-resolution spectroscopy (R ? 10, 000) obtained with the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph mounted at the 6.5 m Baade Magellan telescope. Our BSS candidate selection technique uses HST/ACS and ESO/WFI photometric data out to >4.5 r{sub c} . We use radial velocity measurements to discard non-members and achieve a success rate of ?93%, which yields a sample of 116 confirmed BSSs. Using the penalized pixel-fitting method (pPXF), we measure the vsin (i) values of the sample BSSs and find their distribution functions peaked at slow velocities with a long tail toward fast velocities in each globular cluster. About 90% of the BSS population in NGC 3201 and NGC 6218 exhibits values in the range 10-50 km s{sup 1}, while about 80% of the BSSs in ? Cen show vsin (i) values between 20 and 70 km s{sup 1}. We find that the BSSs in NGC 3201 and NGC 6218 that show vsin (i) > 50 km s{sup 1} are all found in the central cluster regions, inside a projected 2r{sub c} , of their parent clusters. We find a similar result in ? Cen for BSSs with vsin (i) > 70 km s{sup 1}, which are all, except for two, concentrated inside 2r{sub c} . In all globular clusters, we find rapidly rotating BSSs that have relatively high differential radial velocities that likely put them on hyperbolic orbits, suggestive of strong dynamical interactions in the past. Based on stellar spin-down and dynamical crossing timescales, we estimate that all the observed rapidly rotating BSSs are likely to form in their central cluster regions no longer than ?300 Myr ago and may be subsequently ejected from their host globular clusters. Using dereddened V I colors of our photometric selection, we show that blue BSSs in ? Cen with (V I){sub 0} ? 0.25 mag show a significantly increased vsin (i) dispersion compared with their red counterparts and all other BSSs in our sample, therefore strongly implying that fast-rotating BSSs in ? Cen are preferentially bluer, i.e., more massive. This may indicate that this particular blue BSS population was formed in a unique formation event and/or through a unique mechanism.

  2. Effects of Mitigative Measures on Productivity of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia River Downstream from McNary Dam: Determine Status and Habitat Requirements of White Sturgeon Populations in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from McNary Dam, 1997-1998 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ward, David L.

    1999-02-01

    The authors report on their progress from April 1997 through March 1998 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. The study is a cooperative effort by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW; Report A), Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW; Report B), U.S. Geological Survey Biological Resources Division (USGS; Report C), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS; Report D), U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS; Report E), and Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC; Report F). This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete. Therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported. Highlights of results of the work from April 1997 through March 1998 listed.

  3. Time-resolved measurements of the hot-electron population in ignition-scale experiments on the National Ignition Facility (invited)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hohenberger, M. Stoeckl, C.; Albert, F.; Palmer, N. E.; Dppner, T.; Divol, L.; Dewald, E. L.; Bachmann, B.; MacPhee, A. G.; LaCaille, G.; Bradley, D. K.; Lee, J. J.

    2014-11-15

    In laser-driven inertial confinement fusion, hot electrons can preheat the fuel and prevent fusion-pellet compression to ignition conditions. Measuring the hot-electron population is key to designing an optimized ignition platform. The hot electrons in these high-intensity, laser-driven experiments, created via laser-plasma interactions, can be inferred from the bremsstrahlung generated by hot electrons interacting with the target. At the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [G. H. Miller, E. I. Moses, and C. R. Wuest, Opt. Eng. 43, 2841 (2004)], the filter-fluorescer x-ray (FFLEX) diagnostica multichannel, hard x-ray spectrometer operating in the 20500 keV rangehas been upgraded to provide fully time-resolved, absolute measurements of the bremsstrahlung spectrum with ?300 ps resolution. Initial time-resolved data exhibited significant background and low signal-to-noise ratio, leading to a redesign of the FFLEX housing and enhanced shielding around the detector. The FFLEX x-ray sensitivity was characterized with an absolutely calibrated, energy-dispersive high-purity germanium detector using the high-energy x-ray source at NSTec Livermore Operations over a range of K-shell fluorescence energies up to 111 keV (U K{sub ?}). The detectors impulse response function was measured in situ on NIF short-pulse (?90 ps) experiments, and in off-line tests.

  4. Evaluation of convection-permitting model simulations of cloud populations associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation using data collected during the AMIE/DYNAMO field campaign

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hagos, Samson M.; Feng, Zhe; Burleyson, Casey D.; Lim, Kyo-Sun; Long, Charles N.; Wu, Di; Thompson, Gregory

    2014-11-12

    Regional cloud permitting model simulations of cloud populations observed during the 2011 ARM Madden Julian Oscillation Investigation Experiment/ Dynamics of Madden-Julian Experiment (AMIE/DYNAMO) field campaign are evaluated against radar and ship-based measurements. Sensitivity of model simulated surface rain rate statistics to parameters and parameterization of hydrometeor sizes in five commonly used WRF microphysics schemes are examined. It is shown that at 2 km grid spacing, the model generally overestimates rain rate from large and deep convective cores. Sensitivity runs involving variation of parameters that affect rain drop or ice particle size distribution (more aggressive break-up process etc) generally reduce the bias in rain-rate and boundary layer temperature statistics as the smaller particles become more vulnerable to evaporation. Furthermore significant improvement in the convective rain-rate statistics is observed when the horizontal grid-spacing is reduced to 1 km and 0.5 km, while it is worsened when run at 4 km grid spacing as increased turbulence enhances evaporation. The results suggest modulation of evaporation processes, through parameterization of turbulent mixing and break-up of hydrometeors may provide a potential avenue for correcting cloud statistics and associated boundary layer temperature biases in regional and global cloud permitting model simulations.

  5. Scanning the landscape of genome architecture of non-O1 and non-O139 Vibrio cholerae by whole genome mapping reveals extensive population genetic diversity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Chapman, Carol; Henry, Matthew; Bishop-Lilly, Kimberly A.; Awosika, Joy; Briska, Adam; Ptashkin, Ryan N.; Wagner, Trevor; Rajanna, Chythanya; Tsang, Hsinyi; Johnson, Shannon L.; et al

    2015-03-20

    Historically, cholera outbreaks have been linked to V. cholerae O1 serogroup strains or its derivatives of the O37 and O139 serogroups. A genomic study on the 2010 Haiti cholera outbreak strains highlighted the putative role of non O1/non-O139 V. cholerae in causing cholera and the lack of genomic sequences of such strains from around the world. Here we address these gaps by scanning a global collection of V. cholerae strains as a first step towards understanding the population genetic diversity and epidemic potential of non O1/non-O139 strains. Whole Genome Mapping (Optical Mapping) based bar coding produces a high resolution, orderedmore » restriction map, depicting a complete view of the unique chromosomal architecture of an organism. To assess the genomic diversity of non-O1/non-O139 V. cholerae, we applied a Whole Genome Mapping strategy on a well-defined and geographically and temporally diverse strain collection, the Sakazaki serogroup type strains. Whole Genome Map data on 91 of the 206 serogroup type strains support the hypothesis that V. cholerae has an unprecedented genetic and genomic structural diversity. Interestingly, we discovered chromosomal fusions in two unusual strains that possess a single chromosome instead of the two chromosomes usually found in V. cholerae. We also found pervasive chromosomal rearrangements such as duplications and indels in many strains. The majority of Vibrio genome sequences currently in public databases are unfinished draft sequences. The Whole Genome Mapping approach presented here enables rapid screening of large strain collections to capture genomic complexities that would not have been otherwise revealed by unfinished draft genome sequencing and thus aids in assembling and finishing draft sequences of complex genomes. Furthermore, Whole Genome Mapping allows for prediction of novel V. cholerae non-O1/non-O139 strains that may have the potential to cause future cholera outbreaks.« less

  6. Association of genetic polymorphisms in GADD45A, MDM2, and p14{sup ARF} with the risk of chronic benzene poisoning in a Chinese occupational population

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sun Pin; Zhang Zhongbin; Wan Junxiang; Zhao Naiqing; Jin Xipeng; Xia Zhaolin

    2009-10-01

    Benzene reactive metabolites can lead to DNA damage and trigger the p53-dependent defense responses to maintain genomic stability. We hypothesized that the p53-dependent genes may play a role in the development of chronic benzene poisoning (CBP). In a case-control study of 303 patients with benzene poisoning and 295 workers occupationally exposed to benzene in south China, we investigated associations between the risk of CBP and polymorphisms in three p53-dependent genes. Potential interactions of these polymorphisms with lifestyle factors were also explored. We found p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 polymorphism was associated with risk of CBP (P = 0.014). Compared with those carrying the GG genotype, individuals carrying p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 GA+AA genotypes had a reduced risk of CBP ([adjusted odds ratio (OR{sub adj}) = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.36-0.89]. Further analysis showed p14{sup ARF} TGA/TAG diplotype was associated with an increased risk of CBP (P = 0.0006), whereas p14{sup ARF} TGG/TAA diplotype was associated with a decreased risk of CBP (P = 0.0000001). In addition, we found individuals carrying both MDM2 Del1518 WW genotype and p14{sup ARF} rs3731245 GA+AA genotypes had a lower risk of CBP (OR{sub adj} = 0.25; 95%CI = 0.10-0.62; P = 0.003). Although these results require confirmation and extension, our findings suggest that genetic polymorphisms in p14{sup ARF} may have an impact on the risk of CBP in the study population.

  7. TOWARD CHARACTERIZATION OF THE TYPEIIP SUPERNOVA PROGENITOR POPULATION: A STATISTICAL SAMPLE OF LIGHT CURVES FROM Pan-STARRS1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanders, N. E.; Soderberg, A. M.; Chornock, R.; Berger, E.; Challis, P.; Drout, M.; Kirshner, R. P.; Lunnan, R.; Marion, G. H.; Margutti, R.; McKinnon, R.; Milisavljevic, D.; Gezari, S.; Betancourt, M.; Foley, R. J.; Narayan, G.; Rest, A.; Kankare, E.; Mattila, S.; Smartt, S. J.; and others

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, wide-field sky surveys providing deep multiband imaging have presented a new path for indirectly characterizing the progenitor populations of core-collapse supernovae (SNe): systematic light-curve studies. We assemble a set of 76 grizy-band TypeIIP SN light curves from Pan-STARRS1, obtained over a constant survey program of 4yr and classified using both spectroscopy and machine-learning-based photometric techniques. We develop and apply a new Bayesian model for the full multiband evolution of each light curve in the sample. We find no evidence of a subpopulation of fast-declining explosions (historically referred to as ''TypeIIL'' SNe). However, we identify a highly significant relation between the plateau phase decay rate and peak luminosity among our SNeIIP. These results argue in favor of a single parameter, likely determined by initial stellar mass, predominantly controlling the explosions of red supergiants. This relation could also be applied for SN cosmology, offering a standardizable candle good to an intrinsic scatter of ? 0.2mag. We compare each light curve to physical models from hydrodynamic simulations to estimate progenitor initial masses and other properties of the Pan-STARRS1 TypeIIP SN sample. We show that correction of systematic discrepancies between modeled and observed SNIIP light-curve properties and an expanded grid of progenitor properties are needed to enable robust progenitor inferences from multiband light-curve samples of this kind. This work will serve as a pathfinder for photometric studies of core-collapse SNe to be conducted through future wide-field transient searches.

  8. Carbon-enhanced metal-poor stars in SDSS/Segue. II. Comparison of CEMP-star frequencies with binary population-synthesis models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Young Sun; Suda, Takuma; Beers, Timothy C.; Stancliffe, Richard J.

    2014-06-20

    We present a comparison of the frequencies of carbon-enhanced metal-poor (CEMP) giant and main-sequence turnoff (MSTO) stars with predictions from binary population-synthesis models involving asymptotic giant-branch (AGB) mass transfer. The giant and MSTO stars are selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the Sloan Extension for Galactic Understanding and Exploration. We consider two initial mass functions (IMFs)a Salpeter IMF, and a mass function with a characteristic mass of 10 M {sub ?}. For giant stars, the comparison indicates a good agreement between the observed CEMP frequencies and the AGB binary model using a Salpeter IMF for [Fe/H] > 1.5, and a characteristic mass of 10 M {sub ?} for [Fe/H] < 2.5. This result suggests that the IMF shifted from high- to low-mass dominated in the early history of the Milky Way, which appears to have occurred at a 'chemical time' between [Fe/H] =2.5 and [Fe/H] =1.5. The CEMP frequency for the turnoff stars with [Fe/H] < 3.0 is much higher than the AGB model prediction from the high-mass IMF, supporting the previous assertion that one or more additional mechanisms, not associated with AGB stars, are required for the production of carbon-rich material below [Fe/H] =3.0. We also discuss possible effects of first dredge-up and extra mixing in red giants and internal mixing in turnoff stars on the derived CEMP frequencies.

  9. Genetic Determinants for Enzymatic Digestion of Lignocellulosic Biomass Are Independent of Those for Lignin Abundance in a Maize Recombinant Inbred Population

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Penning, Bryan W.; Sykes, Robert W.; Babcock, Nicholas C.; Dugard, Christopher K.; Held, Michael A.; Klimek, John F.; Shreve, Jacob T.; Fowler, Matthew; Ziebell, Angela; Davis, Mark F.; et al

    2014-06-27

    Biotechnological approaches to reduce or modify lignin in biomass crops are predicated on the assumption that it is the principal determinant of the recalcitrance of biomass to enzymatic digestion for biofuels production. We defined quantitative trait loci (QTL) in the Intermated B73 x 3 Mo17 recombinant inbred maize (Zea mays) population using pyrolysis molecular-beam mass spectrometry to establish stem lignin content and an enzymatic hydrolysis assay to measure glucose and xylose yield. Among five multiyear QTL for lignin abundance, two for 4-vinylphenol abundance, and four for glucose and/or xylose yield, not a single QTL for aromatic abundance and sugar yieldmore » was shared. A genome-wide association study for lignin abundance and sugar yield of the 282- member maize association panel provided candidate genes in the 11 QTL of the B73 and Mo17 parents but showed that many other alleles impacting these traits exist among this broader pool of maize genetic diversity. B73 and Mo17 genotypes exhibited large differences in gene expression in developing stem tissues independent of allelic variation. Combining these complementary genetic approaches provides a narrowed list of candidate genes. A cluster of SCARECROW-LIKE9 and SCARECROW-LIKE14 transcription factor genes provides exceptionally strong candidate genes emerging from the genome-wide association study. In addition to these and genes associated with cell wall metabolism, candidates include several other transcription factors associated with vascularization and fiber formation and components of cellular signaling pathways. Finally, these results provide new insights and strategies beyond the modification of lignin to enhance yields of biofuels from genetically modified biomass.« less

  10. Prevalence and contribution of BRCA1 mutations in breast cancer and ovarian cancer: Results from three US population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Whittemore, A.S.; Gong, G.; Itnyre, J.

    1997-03-01

    We investigate the familial risks of cancers of the breast and ovary, using data pooled from three population-based case-control studies of ovarian cancer that were conducted in the United States. We base estimates of the frequency of mutations of BRCA1 (and possibly other genes) on the reported occurrence of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in the mothers and sisters of 922 women with incident ovarian cancer (cases) and in 922 women with no history of ovarian cancer (controls). Segregation analysis and goodness-of-fit testing of genetic models suggest that rare mutations (frequency .0014; 95% confidence interval .0002-.011) account for all the observed aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer in these families. The estimated risk of breast cancer by age 80 years is 73.5% in mutation carriers and 6.8% in noncarriers. The corresponding estimates for ovarian cancer are 27.8% in carriers and 1.8% in noncarriers. For cancer risk in carriers, these estimates are lower than those obtained from families selected for high cancer prevalence. The estimated proportion of all U.S. cancer diagnoses, by age 80 years, that are due to germ-line BRCA1 mutations is 3.0% for breast cancer and 4.4% for ovarian cancer. Aggregation of breast cancer and ovarian cancer was less evident in the families of 169 cases with borderline ovarian cancers than in the families of cases with invasive cancers. Familial aggregation did not differ by the ethnicity of the probands, although the number of non-White and Hispanic cases (N = 99) was sparse. 14 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. ARM - Field Campaign - ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    a distinctly different INP population in comparison to long range transported desert or urban and regional land-sourced INP, and that the layering of marine within other...

  12. Constraining sub-parsec binary supermassive black holes in quasars with multi-epoch spectroscopy. II. The population with kinematically offset broad Balmer emission lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Xin; Shen, Yue; Bian, Fuyan; Loeb, Abraham; Tremaine, Scott

    2014-07-10

    A small fraction of quasars have long been known to show bulk velocity offsets (of a few hundred to thousands of km s{sup 1}) in the broad Balmer lines with respect to the systemic redshift of the host galaxy. Models to explain these offsets usually invoke broad-line region gas kinematics/asymmetry around single black holes (BHs), orbital motion of massive (?sub-parsec (sub-pc)) binary black holes (BBHs), or recoil BHs, but single-epoch spectra are unable to distinguish between these scenarios. The line-of-sight (LOS) radial velocity (RV) shifts from long-term spectroscopic monitoring can be used to test the BBH hypothesis. We have selected a sample of 399 quasars with kinematically offset broad H? lines from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Seventh Data Release quasar catalog, and have conducted second-epoch optical spectroscopy for 50 of them. Combined with the existing SDSS spectra, the new observations enable us to constrain the LOS RV shifts of broad H? lines with a rest-frame baseline of a few years to nearly a decade. While previous work focused on objects with extreme velocity offset (>10{sup 3} km s{sup 1}), we explore the parameter space with smaller (a few hundred km s{sup 1}) yet significant offsets (99.7% confidence). Using cross-correlation analysis, we detect significant (99% confidence) radial accelerations in the broad H? lines in 24 of the 50 objects, of ?10-200 km s{sup 1} yr{sup 1} with a median measurement uncertainty of ?10 km s{sup 1} yr{sup 1}, implying a high fraction of variability of the broad-line velocity on multi-year timescales. We suggest that 9 of the 24 detections are sub-pc BBH candidates, which show consistent velocity shifts independently measured from a second broad line (either H? or Mg II) without significant changes in the broad-line profiles. Combining the results on the general quasar population studied in Paper I, we find a tentative anti-correlation between the velocity offset in the first-epoch spectrum and the average acceleration between two epochs, which could be explained by orbital phase modulation when the time separation between two epochs is a non-negligible fraction of the orbital period of the motion causing the line displacement. We discuss the implications of our results for the identification of sub-pc BBH candidates in offset-line quasars and for the constraints on their frequency and orbital parameters.

  13. Distinct Strains of Toxoplasma gondii Feature Divergent Transcriptomes Regardless of Developmental Stage

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Croken, Matthew; Ma, Yan Fen; Markillie, Lye Meng; Taylor, Ronald C.; Orr, Galya; Weiss, Louis M.; Kim, Kami

    2014-11-13

    Using high through-put RNA sequencing, we assayed the transcriptomes of three different strains of Toxoplasma gondii representing three common genotypes under both in vitro tachyzoite and in vitro bradyzoite-inducing alkaline stress culture conditions. Strikingly, the differences in transcriptional profiles between the strains, RH, PLK, and CTG, is much greater than differences between tachyzoites and alkaline stressed in vitro bradyzoites. With an FDR of 10%, we identify 241 genes differentially expressed between CTG tachyzoites and in vitro bradyzoites, including 5 putative AP2 transcription factors. We also observe close association between cell cycle regulated genes and differentiation. By Gene Set Enrichment Analysismore » (GSEA), there are a number of KEGG pathways associated with the in vitro bradyzoite transcriptomes of PLK and CTG, including pyrimidine metabolism and DNA replication. These functions are likely associated with cell-cycle arrest. When comparing mRNA levels between strains, we identify 1,526 genes that are differentially expressed regardless of culture-condition as well as 846 differentially expressed only in bradyzoites and 542 differentially expressed only in tachyzoites between at least two strains. Using GSEA, we identify ribosomal proteins as being expressed at significantly higher levels in the CTG strain than in either the RH or PLK strains. This association holds true regardless of life cycle stage.« less

  14. The fungus gardens of leaf-cutter ants undergo a distinct physiological transition during biomass degradation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Eric L.; Aylward, Frank O.; Kim, Young-Mo; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Nicora, Carrie D.; Hu, Zeping; Metz, Thomas O.; Lipton, Mary S.; Smith, Richard D.; Currie, Cameron R.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.

    2014-08-01

    Leaf-cutter ants are dominant herbivores in ecosystems throughout the Neotropics. Rather than directly consuming the fresh foliar biomass they harvest, these ants use it to cultivate specialized fungus gardens. Although recent investigations have shed light on how plant biomass is degraded in fungus gardens, the cycling of nutrients that takes place in these specialized microbial ecosystems is still not well understood. Here, using metametabolomics and metaproteomics techniques, we examine the dynamics of nutrient turnover and biosynthesis in these gardens. Our results reveal that numerous free amino acids and sugars are depleted throughout the process of biomass degradation, indicating that easily accessible nutrients from plant material are readily consumed by microbes in these ecosystems. Accumulation of cellobiose and lignin derivatives near the end of the degradation process is consistent with previous findings of cellulases and laccases produced by Leucoagaricus gongylophorus, the fungus cultivated by leaf-cutter ants. Our results also suggest that ureides may be an important source of nitrogen in fungus gardens, especially during nitrogen-limiting conditions. No free arginine was detected in our metametabolomics experiments despite evidence that the host ants cannot produce this amino acid, suggesting that biosynthesis of this metabolite may be tightly regulated in the fungus garden. These results provide new insights into the dynamics of nutrient cycling that underlie this important ant-fungus symbiosis.

  15. Identical phosphatase mechanisms achieved through distinct modes of binding phosphoprotein substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pazy, Y.; Motaleb, M.A.; Guarnieri, M.T.; Charon, N.W.; Zhao, R.; Silversmith, R.E.

    2010-04-05

    Two-component signal transduction systems are widespread in prokaryotes and control numerous cellular processes. Extensive investigation of sensor kinase and response regulator proteins from many two-component systems has established conserved sequence, structural, and mechanistic features within each family. In contrast, the phosphatases which catalyze hydrolysis of the response regulator phosphoryl group to terminate signal transduction are poorly understood. Here we present structural and functional characterization of a representative of the CheC/CheX/FliY phosphatase family. The X-ray crystal structure of Borrelia burgdorferi CheX complexed with its CheY3 substrate and the phosphoryl analogue BeF{sub 3}{sup -} reveals a binding orientation between a response regulator and an auxiliary protein different from that shared by every previously characterized example. The surface of CheY3 containing the phosphoryl group interacts directly with a long helix of CheX which bears the conserved (E - X{sub 2} - N) motif. Conserved CheX residues Glu96 and Asn99, separated by a single helical turn, insert into the CheY3 active site. Structural and functional data indicate that CheX Asn99 and CheY3 Thr81 orient a water molecule for hydrolytic attack. The catalytic residues of the CheX-CheY3 complex are virtually superimposable on those of the Escherichia coli CheZ phosphatase complexed with CheY, even though the active site helices of CheX and CheZ are oriented nearly perpendicular to one other. Thus, evolution has found two structural solutions to achieve the same catalytic mechanism through different helical spacing and side chain lengths of the conserved acid/amide residues in CheX and CheZ.

  16. EsxB, a secreted protein from Bacillus anthracis forms two distinct helical bundles

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fan, Yao; Tan, Kemin; Chhor, Gekleng; Butler, Emily K.; Jedrzejczak, Robert P.; Missiakas, Dominique; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2015-07-03

    The EsxB protein from Bacillus anthracis belongs to the WXG100 family, a group of proteins secreted by a specialized secretion system. We have determined the crystal structures of recombinant EsxB and discovered that the small protein (~10 kDa), comprised of a helix-loop-helix (HLH) hairpin, is capable of associating into two different helical bundles. The two basic quaternary assemblies of EsxB are an antiparallel (AP) dimer and a rarely observed bisecting U (BU) dimer. This structural duality of EsxB is believed to originate from the heptad repeat sequence diversity of the first helix of its HLH hairpin, which allows for twomore » alternative helix packing. The flexibility of EsxB and the ability to form alternative helical bundles underscore the possibility that this protein can serve as an adaptor in secretion and can form hetero-oligomeric helix bundle(s) with other secreted members of the WXG100 family, such as EsxW. The highly conserved WXG motif is located within the loop of the HLH hairpin and is mostly buried within the helix bundle suggesting that its role is mainly structural. The exact functions of the motif, including a proposed role as a secretion signal, remain unknown.« less

  17. Distinct exciton dissociation behavior of organolead trihalide perovskite and excitonic semiconductors studied in a same device

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hu, Miao; Bi, Cheng; Yuan, Yongbo; Xiao, Zhengguo; Dong, Qingfeng; Shao, Yuchuan; Huang, Jinsong

    2015-01-15

    The nonexcitonic character for organometal trihalide perovskites is demonstrated by examining the field-dependent exciton dissociation behavior. Moreover, it is found that photogenerated excitons can be effectively dissociated into free charges inside perovskite without the assistance of charge extraction layer or external field, which is a stark contrast to the charge-separation behavior in excitonic materials in the same photovoltaic operation system.

  18. How an mRNA capping enzyme reads distinct RNA polymerase II and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    codes Authors: Doamekpor, Selom K. ; Sanchez, Ana M. ; Schwer, Beate ; Shuman, Stewart ; Lima, Christopher D. 1 ; MSKCC) 2 + Show Author Affiliations (Weill-Med) ...

  19. Observation of breakup transfer process for the bound states of {sup 16}O populated from {sup 12}C({sup 6}Li,d) reaction at 20 MeV

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adhikari, S.; Basu, C.; Thompson, I. J.; Sugathan, P.; Jhinghan, A.; Golda, K. S.; Babu, A.; Singh, D.; Ray, S.; Mitra, A. K.

    2012-10-20

    The deuteron angular distribution for the {sup 12}C({sup 6}Li,d){sup 16}O* has been measured at 20 MeV populating bound and unbound states of {sup 16}O. Analysis shows a dominance of breakup induced alpha transfer in comparison to a direct alpha transfer process for the bound states. The effect increases as the excitation energy of {sup 16}O decreases, maximizing at the ground state.

  20. Poster Thur Eve 62: A Retrospective Assessment of the Prevalence and Dosimetric Effect of Lateral Electron Disequilibrium in a Population of Lung Cancer Patients Treated by Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Disher, Brandon; Wade, Laura; Hajdok, George; Gaede, Stewart; Battista, Jerry J.; Palma, David

    2014-08-15

    Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy (SBRT) is a treatment option for early stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). SBRT uses tightly conformed megavoltage (MV) x-ray beams to ablate the tumour. However, small MV x-ray fields may produce lateral electron disequilibrium (LED) within lung tissue, which can reduce the dose to tumour. The goal of this work is to estimate the prevalence of LED in NSCLC patients treated with SBRT, and determine dose effects for patients prone or averse to LED. Thirty NSCLC patients were randomly selected for analysis. 4-dimensional CT lung images were segmented into the right and left upper and lower lobes (RUL, RLL, LUL, LLL), and the right middle lobe. Dose calculations were performed using volume-modulated arc therapy in the Pinnacle{sup 3} TPS. Most tumours were located in the upper lobes (RUL 53%, LUL 27%) where density was significantly lower (RUL ?80846 HU vs. RLL ?74371 HU; LUL ?808 56 HU vs. LLL ?74670 HU; p<0.001). In general, the prevalence of LED increased with higher beam energy. Using 6MV photons, patients with a RUL tumour experienced moderate (81 %), and mild (19%) levels of LED. At 18MV, LED became more prominent with severe (50%) and moderate (50%) LED exhibited. Dosimetrically, for patients prone to LED, poorer target coverage (i.e. increased R100 by 20%) and improved lung sparing (i.e. reduced V20 by ?46%) was observed. The common location of lung cancers in the upper lobes, coupled with lower lung density, results in the potential occurrence of LED, which may underdose the tumour.