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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The freezing point of US Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large n-alkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how the n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30, and 32 ppM in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The freezing point of U.S. Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large nalkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how th n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30 and 32 ppm in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The low cost of steam combined with the maintenance free operation of steam ejectors has assured their unquestioned use in providing the necessary vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers. However, the cost of steam production has risen...

Nelson, R. E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

5

Overview of used antifreeze and industrial glycol recycling by vacuum distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A leading method of reclaiming ethylene glycol from both used automotive coolants and waste industrial glycol streams is vacuum distillation. Over 15 million gallons per year of total glycols are recovered by this technology, which are marketed for use in antifreeze and industrial chemicals. It is a robust technology, tolerant of many common feed contaminants, and producing minimum waste. This paper presents an overview of vacuum distillation as one part of a multistep process for recovering glycols from a wide variety of feedstreams. Described are industry practices for laboratory prescreening of feedstreams, process adjustments and pretreatments, distillation technologies and post-distillation polishing methods. In each section, information and data are presented from two independent facilities and for several streams processed at each facility. It is concluded that the facilities participating in this study can reliably produce ethylene glycol suitable for the production of ASTM specification engine coolants.

Frye, D.K. [Filter Recovery Services, Alexandria, VA (United States); Chan, K.; Pourhassanian, C. [DeMenno/Kerdoon, Inc., Compton, CA (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Catalytic Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

removing both will occur in the temperature range ne~ded high and low boilers to maintain the tower for reaction. One limitation may be .I the composition profile, exothermic reactions critical point of the system, above w~ich can be easily temperature... with significantly less energy. There are two primary reasons for energy reduction: 1. The heat of reaction for exothermic reactions is fully re covered as useful boilup for fractionation. 2. Fewer attendant distillations are normally required than for a...

Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Energy efficient distillation apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An energy efficient distillation method is provided which is particularly adapted for use on a dairy farm, and which comprises a distilland evaporating receptacle, a distillate condensing receptacle, and a conduit interconnecting the evaporating receptacle and the condensing receptacle. A vacuum pump is provided for drawing a partial vacuum within the evaporating receptacle, and a vapor compression refrigeration system is provided which includes condenser coils disposed to heat and vaporize the distilland while it is within the evaporating receptacle, and evaporator coils for cooling and condensing the vaporized distilland in the condensing receptacle. A cooling distribution system is also provided whereby a variable portion of the cooling potential of the refrigeration system may be selectively directed to each of the condensing receptacle, a distillate receiver tank, or to a bulk milk container as utilized on a dairy farm or the like.

Melton, J.D.

1982-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

8

APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.

Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

9

INNOVATION EDUCATION EXCELLENCE DISTILLATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INNOVATION · EDUCATION · EXCELLENCE DISTILLATIONS University of Toronto CHEMISTRY ALUMNI MAGAZINE.utoronto.ca / distillations 2012 MessagefromtheChair Our Department of Chemistry has one of the finest collection of peo- ple to a better, more sustain- able future. This issue of Distillations highlights the accomplishments last year

Chan, Hue Sun

10

Vacuum Distillation  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember1. Foreign sales of uraniumE. GreatVENTURADay)

11

Advanced Distillation Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

12

Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DISTILLATION: THE EFFICIENT WORKHORSE Dan Steinmeyer Monsanto Company St. Louis, Missouri Distillation is inherently highly efficient: phase separation is clean it is relatively easy to build a mUltistage countercurrent device equilibrium... of separation to the work pmbedded in the reboiler and condenser thermal flows. The right application is one where the streams ? separated both exceed la' of the feed, relative volatility exceeds 1.2, and separation is complete - i.e. pure products...

Steinmeyer, D.

13

Reflux for multifeed distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior investigations have shown ways to determine minimum reflux for multicomponent distillation. This work extends earlier concepts in order to handle multifeeds. Reflux calculations for each feed, as though it were the only feed, are factored with the reflux effects of the other feeds to give an overall minimum reflux. Each factor has a finite value depending on the composition and thermal quality of the feed it represents.

Chou, S.M.; Yaws, C.L.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Low Energy Distillation Schemes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an important means of reducing energy consumption in distillation processes. However, its conventional use requires the installation of piping (and pipes carrying vapour streams tend to be of large diameter and are consequently expensive). So, finally we.... However, its conventional use requires the installation of piping (and pipes carrying vapour streams tend to be of large diameter and are consequently expensive). In the late eighties engineers in Germany [e.g. Kaibel, 1987] looked at one way in which...

Polley, G. T.

15

Oil recovery from condensed corn distillers solubles.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) contains more oil than dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 20 vs. 12% (dry weight basis). Therefore, significant amount of… (more)

Majoni, Sandra

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

Optimal Control of Distillation Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Distilling entanglement from arbitrary resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We obtain the general formula for the optimal rate at which singlets can be distilled from any given noisy and arbitrarily correlated entanglement resource, by means of local operations and classical communication (LOCC). Our formula, obtained by employing the quantum information spectrum method, reduces to that derived by Devetak and Winter, in the special case of an i.i.d. resource. The proofs rely on a one-shot version of the so-called "hashing bound," which in turn provides bounds on the one-shot distillable entanglement under general LOCC.

Francesco Buscemi; Nilanjana Datta

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

18

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(temperature, pressure, etc.) define successive states in a sequence of equilibria. Fractional distillation [2Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen Ørsted Laboratory, University of a distillation column may be improved by permitting heat exchange on every tray rather than only in the reboiler

Salamon, Peter

20

Momentive Performance Materials Distillation Intercharger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Presenter: Nicki (Collins) Boucher Project Team: T. Baisley, C. Beers, R. Cameron, K. Holman, T. Kotkoskie, K. Norris Momentive Performance Materials Inc. Waterford, NY May 23, 2013 Industrial Energy Technology Conference ACC Responsible... Care? Energy Efficiency Program Momentive Performance Materials Distillation Interchanger ESL-IE-13-05-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 Copyright 2013 Momentive Performance...

Boucher, N.; Baisley, T.; Beers, C.; Cameron, R.; Holman, K.; Kotkoskie, T.; Norris, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Rank three bipartite entangled states are distillable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove that the bipartite entangled state of rank three is distillable. So there is no rank three bipartite bound entangled state. By using this fact, We present some families of rank four states that are distillable. We also analyze the relation between the low rank state and the Werner state.

Lin Chen; Yi-Xin Chen

2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

22

Locally Accessible Information and Distillation of Entanglement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

Sibasish Ghosh; Pramod Joag; Guruprasad Kar; Samir Kunkri; Anirban Roy

2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

23

Forpeerreview Synthesis of Complex Thermally Coupled Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

US energy consumption, which is equivalent to 2.87x10 18 J (2.87 million TJ) per year, or to a power; Divided Wall Column; Superstructure optimization; GDP. Introduction Distillation is one of the most limitations. Distillation columns use very large amounts of energy because the evaporation steps involved

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

24

Distillability of entanglement in accelerated frames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the entanglement distillability of bipartite mixed states of two modes of a free Dirac field as seen by two relatively accelerated parties. It is shown that there are states that will change from distillable into separable for a certain value of acceleration. We exemplify these criteria in the context of Werner states.

Shahpoor Moradi

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

25

New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes multicomponent.pdf More...

26

acrobat distiller job: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 September 1999 Distillation Theory. by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd, Norway 12;2 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . ....

27

Distillation: Still towering over other options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distillation dominates separations in the chemical process industries (CPI), at least for mixtures that normally are processed as liquids. The authors fully expect that distillation will continue to be the method of choice for many separations, and the method against which other options must be compared. So, in this article, they will put into some perspective just why distillation continues to reign as the king of separations, and what steps are being taken to improve its applicability and performance, as well as basic understanding of the technique.

Kunesh, J.G. [Fractionation Research, Inc., Stillwater, OK (United States); Kister, H.Z. [Brown and Root, Inc., Alhambra (Canada); Lockett, M.J. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Fair, J.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

Summers, Edward K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condenser operates above ambient temperature, the rejected heat also contains unused availability. By incorporating an absorption heat pump (AHP) into the distillation process, these sources of unused availability can be tapped so as to recycle (and hence...

Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

An improved model for multiple effect distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple ...

Mistry, Karan H.

32

Advancing Biorefining of Distillers Grain and Corn Stover Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

pretreatment process for distiller's grains and corn stover to convert residual starch, cellulose, and hemicellulose to ethanol and high- converting residual starch in order to...

33

Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a complex fluid is a graph of boiling temperature versus volume fraction distilled, a procedure embodied for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) trace chemical analysis of each distillate

34

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) Geographic Area Month Kerosene No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

35

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and MSF, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas...

Lubis, Mirna R.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

36

Complex Distillation Arrangements : Extending the Petlyuk Ideas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to distillation columns ac- count for roughly 3 of the total energy consumption in the U.S. (Ognisty 1995 to reduce energy consumption at least two alternative approaches have been proposed both in the literature is also known as the Petlyuk column, due to a theoretical study of Pet- lyuk et al. (1965), or as a fully

Skogestad, Sigurd

37

Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the energy use from this process accounts for an estimated 3% of the world energy consumption.1 With rising on the overall plant energy consumption. The use of heat integration combined with complex config- urations distillation ar- rangements. An easy form of comparison for energy consumption is the minimum vapor flow rate

Skogestad, Sigurd

38

Naphthenic acid corrosion in crude distillation units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes corrosion experience in crude distillation units processing highly naphthenic California crude oils. Correlations have been developed relating corrosion rates to temperature and total acid number. There is a threshold acid number in the range of 1.5 to 2 mg KOH/g below which corrosion is minimal. High concentrations of hydrogen sulfide may raise this threshold value.

Piehl, R.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-pressure steam as a heat source. The steam has, very likely, been sent through one or more users (turbi ne dri ves) before reaching the distillation reboiler. It seems almost characteristic of large chemical and refining complexes that there is a chronic...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Construction and operation of a flash distillation apparatus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Calibration Data of Orifioe ~, i, . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . ~ 13 III. Equilibrium Data of Ethanol-Eater Mixtures . ~ * ~ ~ , 17 IV, . Flash Vaporieation Data of Ethanol Hater hIlxtures& + , 18 VI ~ Hempel Distillation of Oklahoma City Crude ~ . . . Flash... Vaporiration of Oklahoma City Crude ~ . ~ 21 22 VII' Hempel Distillations of Flash Distillates of Oklahoma City Crude . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 24 VIII+ Hompel Distillations of Flash Residuums of Oklahoma City Crude ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ o...

Knezevich, Milan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Integrated C3 Feedstock and Aggregated Distillation Model for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polypropylene Propane return Reactor effluent Distillation Polymerization FeedTank Propylene (91%) Goal: Select rates Constraints on composition of Propane Return, Distillation Overhead & Reactor Feed Limits Distillation Model Relates overhead composition of propane with flowrate of propane feed to the splitter

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

42

Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol Erik Hostens,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to infinity. We call such protocols asymp- totic and the fraction of distilled Bell states per initial copy#12;#12;Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol Erik Hostens, Jeroen: July 13, 2006) We present a new asymptotic bipartite entanglement distillation protocol

43

DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS -A CRITICAL SURVEY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: 47-7-594080 Figure 1: Typical simple distillation column. zF, yD and xB are mole fractions. tureDYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS - A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad Chemical cation and Control, 18, 177-217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed

Skogestad, Sigurd

44

Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance Muhammad A. Al and rectifying sec- tions of a reacti®e distillation column can degrade performance. This effect, if true®e distillation columns cannot use conser®ati®e estimates of tray numbers, that is, we cannot simply add excess

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

45

DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS A CRITICAL SURVEY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distillation column. z F , yD and xB are mole fractions. ture review, but a few new ideas are also presentedDYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS ­ A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad \\Lambda Chemical, Identification and Control, 18, 177­217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed

Skogestad, Sigurd

46

Model Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages comparedModel Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column Martin Kvernland Ivar Halvorsen Sigurd only a single column shell. The distillation process is a multivariable process which leads

Skogestad, Sigurd

47

RIS0-M-2319 RISK ANALYSIS OF A DISTILLATION UNIT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RIS0-M-2319 RISK ANALYSIS OF A DISTILLATION UNIT J. R. Taylor**, 0. Hansen*, C. Jensen*, 0. F. A risk analysis of a batch distillation unit is de- scribed. The analysis has been carried out at several.2. Objectives and organisation 5 1.2.2. Philosophy and approach 6 1.3.1. The distillation unit 8 1

48

CHEM333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils;  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHEM­333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils; Experiments A, C, D and below. Reading: For this experiment read Chapter 10. This week you will get to use steam distillation to isolate may wait until you come to lab to find out which spice you get. Steam distillation is not a common

Taber, Douglass

49

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

50

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

51

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

54

Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~itroo.? ':!OD.e~tell.,..ot!.k1 .'k..,.-.ottNltlu'..,. II ""'I'JI ..... ~I_ """-.4008l1"OO I ~.z.,. 1 ,1'1 (-frl-.'....u_~ R.da at AC~Ofllftl\\,J'ftlit...." ? I 5 "'-tlnc&! Tt.,.. ? 21.' \\lip Gilil.In31 j TnyE.'tIc>Mcy .11.1'llo I ~~TI""'.'2.at... I There are many options available to the engi*eer seeking to reduce the energy requirements of a distil lation process. The technology for most of these I, options has been available for many years, but it has only recently become economically...

Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Use of computers for multicomponent distillation calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The corrected values for the b 's are best cal- i culated by multiplying (b. /d ) by (d. ) The compositions for each component in the vapor and liquid streams leaving plate j are calculated by use of the following equations. ('i/ i)ca ( i)co y. ji c Z (v... . . /b. ) (b. ) ji i ca i co i=1 , f a j x N+1 C (47-b) A temperature profile may be calculated by making either bubble or dew point calculations based on the compositions obtained by use of Equations (46) and (47). The specified distillate rate must...

Sullivan, Samuel Lane

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the foremost practitioner of the Advanced Distillation art, due to a 30 year continuity in Ule area as both a consultant and a university professor. His consulting assignments lu1ve been long-ternl

Woinsky, S. G.

58

advanced distillation control: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Morari California.Eng., Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH), N-7034 Trondheim, Norway Paper presented at Symposium Distillation Skogestad, Sigurd 14 CONTROL AND ENERGY...

59

azeotropic distillation columns: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S, Norway SCOPE OF THE PROJECT How can we separate ternary mixtures in closed batch...

60

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Marketing Annual 1998 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Marketing Annual 1999 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

62

Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Marketing Annual 1996 401 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

63

Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Marketing Annual 1997 401 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

64

Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

important. For many distillation columns there is a tradeoff in operation between energy usage and product recovery and setting the proper usage target involves a calculation of the economic tradeoff between these two factors. However, distillation is a non-linear...

White, D. C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

66

CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Distillation is used to isolate many of life's essentials such as gasoline from oil or brandy from wine much about the mathematics of Raoult's Law; you will see it again in physical chemistry. Pay particular

Taber, Douglass

67

Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

69

An experimental and mathematical investigation of hydrocarbon steam distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Committee) Dr. Pau B. Crawford (Member) r. William D. McCain Jr. r. A ber t T. Watson (Member) Dr. i l. iam D. on Gonten ead of Department) December 1984 ABSTRACT An Experimental and Mathematical Investigation of Hydrocarbon Steam Distillation... mechanism associated with steam flooding and in-situ combustion enhanced oil recovery projects. It also takes place in hydrocarbon recovery from deep volatile oil reservoirs. Nethods for predicting the recovery of hydrocarbons by steam distillation have...

Langhoff, John Allan

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Determination of plate efficiencies for conventional distillation columns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINATION OF PLATE EFFICIENCIES FOR CONVENTIONAL DISTILLATION COIUMNS A Thesis By Thomas Raymond Harris Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1962 Ma)or Sub)ect t Chemical Engineering DETERMINATION OF PLATE EFFICIENCIES FOR CONVENTIONAL DISTILLATION COLUMNS A Thesis Thomas Raymond Harris Approred as to style and content bye Chairman of ommittee Head...

Harris, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

71

Single-step distillation protocol with generalized beam splitters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop a distillation protocol for multilevel qubits (qudits) using generalized beam splitters like in the proposal of Pan et al. for ordinary qubits. We find an acceleration with respect to the scheme of Bennet et al. when extended to qudits. It is also possible to distill entangled pairs of photons carrying orbital angular momenta states that conserve the total angular momenta as those produced in recent experiments.

Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Navascues, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, (Spain)

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significant additional insights to help screen the options for distillation column revamps. Column Targeting Aspen Plus Column Targeting tool offers capabilities for thermal and hydraulic analysis of distillation columns. During design or retrofit analysis...). Aspen Plus Column Targeting Tool generates the CGCCs based on the Practical Near-Minimum Thermodynamic Condition (PNMTC) approximation (Dhole and Linnhoff). The enthalpies used in plotting the CGCCs are calculated at a given stage of the column...

Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

73

Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distillation as a technology that can be driven by thermal energy at low enthalpy, such as geothermal energy, by using a hybrid air gap membrane distillation- fluidized bed crystallization assembly for desalination. Tomaszewska (2000) has studied... of pre-pressurizing of the membrane pores and control of dissolved gas concentrations in the feed and recycled permeate in order to prevent pore penetration and wetting (Agashichev and Sivakov, 1993). Temperature polarization effects have been...

Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

74

Key Distillation and the Secret-Bit Fraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider distillation of secret bits from partially secret noisy correlations P_ABE, shared between two honest parties and an eavesdropper. The most studied distillation scenario consists of joint operations on a large number of copies of the distribution (P_ABE)^N, assisted with public communication. Here we consider distillation with only one copy of the distribution, and instead of rates, the 'quality' of the distilled secret bits is optimized, where the 'quality' is quantified by the secret-bit fraction of the result. The secret-bit fraction of a binary distribution is the proportion which constitutes a secret bit between Alice and Bob. With local operations and public communication the maximal extractable secret-bit fraction from a distribution P_ABE is found, and is denoted by Lambda[P_ABE]. This quantity is shown to be nonincreasing under local operations and public communication, and nondecreasing under eavesdropper's local operations: it is a secrecy monotone. It is shown that if Lambda[P_ABE]>1/2 then P_ABE is distillable, thus providing a sufficient condition for distillability. A simple expression for Lambda[P_ABE] is found when the eavesdropper is decoupled, and when the honest parties' information is binary and the local operations are reversible. Intriguingly, for general distributions the (optimal) operation requires local degradation of the data.

Nick S. Jones; Lluis Masanes

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

75

Process for removing naphthenic acids from petroleum distillates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid extraction process is described for removing naphthenic acids from naphthenic acid containing petroleum distillates boiling within the range of about 180/sup 0/-600/sup 0/C. and having an acid number of at least about 0.2 which process comprises the steps of: (a) intimately contacting the petroleum distillates with a solvent consisting essentially of methanol, water, and about from 2-20 wt. % ammonia and having a methanol: water ratio in the range of about from 0.2 to 3 parts by weight of methanol per part by weight of water and using an ammonia to petroleum distillate ratio of about 0.1-1 part by weight of ammonia per 100 parts by weight of the petroleum distillate. This selectively extracts the naphthenic acids into the solvent and yielding an immiscible two-phase liquid mixture, one of which is naphthenic acid-rich solvent phase and the other of which is a substantially napthenic acid-free petroleum distillate phase; and (b) separating and respectively recovering the naphtenic acid-rich solvent phase and petroleum distillate phase.

Danzik, M.

1987-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

76

Kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrotreating synthetic middle distillates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Middle distillates from the Tar Sands deposits in Alberta are an important component of diesel and jet fuels in the Canadian market. Commercial catalysts based on sulfided Ni-Mo and Ni-W are currently used to hydrogenate synthetic distillates to improve the cetane number and smoke point. In previous work {sup 13}C NMR was used to study the kinetics of overall hydrogenation of aromatics over sulfided Co-Mo, Ni-Mo and Ni-W catalysts. Arrhenius parameters were obtained for hydrogenation over sulfided Ni-W catalyst for a similar distillate feedstock. In the latter study, mass spectrometry was used to quantitate the three major aromatic hydrocarbon group types in the feed and products. In this study, liquid products from hydrotreating experiments with a hydrotreated distillate from delayed coking of Athabasca bitumen and sulfided Co-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. This completes a preliminary comparison of the kinetics of hydrogenation of alkylbenzenes, benzocycloparaffins and benzodicycloparaffins, the three major aromatic hydrocarbon types in these distillates.

Fisher, I.P. (Petro-Canada R and D Dept., Sheridan Park, Ontario (Canada)); Wilson, M.F. (CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

78

Application of a Plantwide Control Design Procedure to a Distillation Column with Heat Pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Larsson & Skogestad 2001) to a distillation column heat-integrated by using a heatpump. Top-down analysis) and apply it to a distillation column with heatpump. Plantwide control design should start by formulating

Skogestad, Sigurd

79

ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Physical properties . Protein . Twin-screw extruder Introduction As a consequence of changes in energyORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS. Twin- screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally balanced

80

Rigorous Synthesis and Simulation of Complex Distillation Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy-efficient distillation net- works. Complex column networks have substantial potential for energy- thesizing such complex energy-efficient networks. A robust feasibility criterion drives the selection foundations of se st in exploring energy-efficient distillatin exploring energy-efficient distillat ave

Linninger, Andreas A.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S to obtain a light and a heavy fraction simultaneously from the top and the bottom of the column, while an intermediate fraction may also be recovered in the middle vessel. Two modifications of the multivessel

Skogestad, Sigurd

82

Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requiring no energy input by conventional sources, with the potential to replace, or significantly reduce-harvesting nanoparticles that capture solar energy for direct liquid-vapor conversion, eliminating the energy O-9 Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3 Albert D. Neumann,2 Julius Müller,1

83

Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methanol recovery 1. Introduction A process of producing TAME via reactive distillation has been presented the bulk of the reaction between C5 and methanol to produce TAME and a reactive distillation. MethanolDesign of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

84

Improved Swing-Cut Modeling for Planning and Scheduling of Oil-Refinery Distillation Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Pennsylvania 15213, United States. Crude-oil assays, Distillation, Fractionation, Swing-cuts, Temperature cut with in the nonlinear optimization. 1. INTRODUCTION Distillation or fractionation models for planning and scheduling1 Improved Swing-Cut Modeling for Planning and Scheduling of Oil-Refinery Distillation Units Brenno

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

85

Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating Vidar the unexpected result that over-fractionating one of the product streams in a Petlyuk distillation column may is optimal in some cases. 1. Introduction The Petlyuk distillation column, see Figure 1(a), with a pre-fractionator

Skogestad, Sigurd

86

Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into a number of product fractions in a single batch column whereas, in continuous distillation several columnsIntegrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum-boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent

Skogestad, Sigurd

87

Model predictive control of a pilot-scale distillation column using a programmable automation controller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model predictive control of a pilot-scale distillation column using a programmable automation). The controller is tested on a pilot-scale binary distillation column to track reference temperatures. A majorRIO) to control a pilot-scale binary distillation col- umn. Both the PI-controllers and the supervising online MPC

88

Hydroconversion of heavy oils. [Residue of tar sand bitumen distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for hydroconversion of feedstocks consisting essentially of at least one heavy hydrocarbon oil selected from the group consisting of residue of petroleum oil distillation and the residue of tar sand bitumen distillation to enhance the recovery of 350/sup 0/-650/sup 0/F boiling product fraction. The method comprises treating such feed stock with hydrogen at superatmospheric pressure and in the presence of finely divided active hydrogenation catalyst in consecutive reaction stages. An initial reaction stage is carried out at a temperature in the range of 780/sup 0/-825/sup 0/F, and a subsequent reaction stage is directly carried out after the initial reaction stage at a higher temperature in the range of 800/sup 0/F-860/sup 0/F, the temperature of the subsequent reaction stage being at least 20/sup 0/F higher than that of the initial reaction stage.

Garg, D.

1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

89

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

90

Enhanced Separation Efficiency in Olefin/Paraffin Distillation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is to develop technologies to enhance separation efficiencies by replacing the conventional packing materials with hollow fiber membranes, which have a high specific area and separated channels for both liquid and vapor phases. The use of hollow fibers in distillation columns can help refineries decrease operating costs, reduce greenhouse gas emissions through reduced heating costs, and help expand U.S. refining capacity through improvements to existing sites, without large scale capital investment.

91

"Distillation, Absorption and Extraction" April 5-6, 2001 in Bamberg,, Halvorsen NTNU Department of Chemical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distillation · Underwood (1946, 1948a,b), Fractional distillation of multicomponent mixtures · Shiras (1950"Distillation, Absorption and Extraction" April 5-6, 2001 in Bamberg,, Halvorsen NTNU Department Distillation Arrangements by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science

Skogestad, Sigurd

92

An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs., 12 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

matc~ can be made between low-grade waste energy sourc~s and process uses, thereby improving plant energ~ efficiency. I A relatively high rate of return on invest-JI ment is expected in most cases. The optimum op, erating conditions are dictated...," Chem. Eng. Prog., Vol. 76:7, pp. 44-49, July 1980. I 2. Anon, "Di,stillation Prime Target for Energ~ Conservation," Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 76:~6, pp. 92-94, April 17, 1978. I 3. W. F. Kenne'y, "Reducing the Energy Demand o~ Separation Processes...

Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

94

Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced distillation curve Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

58 (2003) 26712680 www.elsevier.comlocateces Summary: distillation: Advanced simulation and experimental validation. Computers and Chemical Engineering, 22, S371-S......

96

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

97

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 337 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

98

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

99

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Marketing Annual 1999 441 Table A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

100

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric crude distillation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Problems Summary: and atmospheric distillations of crude-oil mixtures from charging tanks. The crude is then processed in order... of resources: crude marine vessels, storage...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Development of a Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Distillation Column using Rockwell Software .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis, an alternative control method based on Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) is proposed to keep the product composition of a distillation column constant.… (more)

Nizami, Muhammad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

102

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column how the minimum energy consumption is related to the feed-component distribution for all possible operating points in a two-product distillation column with a multicomponent feed. The classical Underwood

Skogestad, Sigurd

103

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products and Generalized Petlyuk Arrangements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products-component feed into M products has been derived. Interestingly, the minimum-energy solution in a complex solution of minimum energy for distillation of a multicomponent feed into multiple products has not been

Skogestad, Sigurd

104

Study of the Distillability of Werner States Using Entanglement Witnesses and Robust Semidefinite Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use Robust Semidefinite Programs and Entanglement Witnesses to study the distillability of Werner states. We perform exact numerical calculations which show 2-undistillability in a region of the state space which was previously conjectured to be undistillable. We also introduce bases which yield interesting expressions for the {\\em distillability witnesses} and for a tensor product of Werner states with arbitrary number of copies.

Reinaldo O. Vianna; Andrew C. Doherty

2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

105

Optimal operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionation · The Petlyuk distillation column, see Figure 1(a), with a pre-fractionator (C1) and a main column (C21 and C22) N-7465 Trondheim, Norway Abstract This work shows the unexpected result that over-fractionating one

Skogestad, Sigurd

106

Distillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Grak (Editors)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coupling 1. Introduction Separation by distillation is responsible for a large fraction of immense amountDistillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Górak (Editors) All rights reserved indicated that a 15 component aromatic's mixture can be separated very efficiently into four fractions

Skogestad, Sigurd

107

Optimization of Distillation Processes. Jos A. Caballero* and Ignacio E. Grossmann**  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that handle more than 90% of separations and purifications. The capital investment for these distillation.87 million TJ) per year, or to a power consumption of 91 GW, or 54 million tons of crude oil. Distillation conditions to minimize the total investment and operating cost. Continuous decisions are related

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

108

Fractionation studies on the unidentified growth factor(s) in distillers dried solubles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This was called "methyl aloohol soluble fraction of distillers dried solublesi The residue wss air drie4 and labeled "aetna 1 alcohol insoluble fraotion of distillers drie4 solubles". $. r fo m at nt ist e i o ubl s Five hundred gm of distillexs dried... fraction ox Ms- tillers Cried solubles (pH 1)"L "water soluole fr~ction of distillers dried solubles (PH '/)"L ~ "water soluble fxaction of dis~illers dried solubles (pH 11)". ur h r Pra tionatio f th Sate 8 lub e }raut of 9 still rs ed Soluo es a...

Dannenburg, Warren Nathaniel

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

110

Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del (Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico))

1993-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

111

Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

Mears, Kevin S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Ethanol, but sorghum grain is commonly either blended with corn before use or used as the sole grain for ethanol

113

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

132.9 1,418.3 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

114

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

115

The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fractionator was performed, it was necessary to inventory the column with feed and, under total reflux conditions, draw off distillate or bottoms product until the proper composition profile was achieved. To investigate various design options, both... stream by a factor of five. In summary, from the customer's point of view, the application of structured packing to the main fractionator in the SFP fractionation train is a cOOluercial success. NEW DISTILLATION DEVELOPMENT PILOT PLANT Since...

Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

116

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDIES OF HYDROCARBON YIELDS UNDER DRY-, STEAM-, AND STEAM-WITH- PROPANE DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...-WITH- PROPANE-DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved...

Jaiswal, Namit

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

117

The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

Reed, S.A.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

120

The Products of the Destructive Distillation of Keratin in the Form of Leather  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ure to the air. After this came a white crystal­ line solid, fourth a reddish fciquid, fifth a red­ dish crystalline compound and sixth the black oil spoken of abovd. A volume of the distillate, equaling about a liter was collected and the two... the material the temperature rose to 200° C. and then reduction started and the temperature fell rapidly. The tar or oil constitutes from 3 to 4 per cent of the weight of the leather used. The aqueous portion of the distillate was subjected to a fractional...

Rose, Reed Phillips

1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Efficient use of an intermediate reboiler or condenser in a binary distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of an intermediate reboiler or condenser on the distillation of ideal binary mixtures into pure product streams is studied using a simplified model. The advantage of heuristics derived from this study is that they can quickly tell a process engineer if an intermediate reboiler or condenser is going to be effective in improving the efficiency and, of the two options, which one would be more effective. The heuristics simply states that if the actual fraction of liquid in a given feed is less than that with the maximum thermodynamic efficiency for distillation with no intermediate reboiler or condenser, then an intermediate condenser not only substantially improves the thermodynamic efficiency but is also more effective than an intermediate reboiler. An analogous heuristics exists for the intermediate reboiler when the fraction of liquid in the feed is greater than the optimum. Quick identification of cases that can achieve a substantial improvement in efficiency provides an incentive to search for the proper utilities needed for the intermediate reboiler or condenser. When relatively pure feed streams (concentration of either component greater than 90%) are distilled, the extremely low efficiencies of distillation can be remarkably improved by using an intermediate reboiler or condenser.

Agrawal, R.; Herron, D.M. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Integrated Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prefer a process where the energy may be supplied at a low temperature and cooling may be supplied law). This leads us to the reversible Petlyuk arrangement. However the total required heat supply). A characteristic of the reversible distillation column is that some of the heat is supplied continuously along

Skogestad, Sigurd

124

Middle distillate hydrotreatment zeolite catalysts containing Pt/Pd or Ni  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A study on middle distillate hydrotreatment zeolite catalysts containing Pt/Pd and/or Ni was performed. The effect of the addition of the corresponding CoMo, CoMoPd, CoMoPtPd and CoMoNi in PdNiPt-zeolite, Pt-zeolite, Ni-zeolite, and Pd...

Marin-Rosas, Celia

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

125

UV Resonance Raman Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Liquid Distillates*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UV Resonance Raman Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Liquid Distillates samples, such as petroleum and coal, or for man-made samples, such as coal liquids, a major desire- nique for studying coal-liquid samples. 1-4 We demon- strated that the Raman spectra of polycyclic

Asher, Sanford A.

126

Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

Ushiba, K. K.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

127

Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements of this paper is to present a simple graphical method for obtaining the energy usage and to compare the energy of Chemical Engineering, 7491 Trondheim, Norway Abstract The minimum energy requirements of six different heat

Skogestad, Sigurd

128

Hybrid magic state distillation for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A set of stabilizer operations augmented by some special initial states known as 'magic states', gives the possibility of universal fault-tolerant quantum computation. However, magic state preparation inevitably involves nonideal operations that introduce noise. The most common method to eliminate the noise is magic state distillation (MSD) by stabilizer operations. Here we propose a hybrid MSD protocol by connecting a four-qubit H-type MSD with a five-qubit T-type MSD, in order to overcome some disadvantages of the previous MSD protocols. The hybrid MSD protocol further integrates distillable ranges of different existing MSD protocols and extends the T-type distillable range to the stabilizer octahedron edges. And it provides considerable improvement in qubit cost for almost all of the distillable range. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate the four-qubit H-type MSD protocol using nuclear magnetic resonance technology, together with the previous five-qubit MSD experiment, to show the feasibility of the hybrid MSD protocol.

Wenqiang Zheng; Yafei Yu; Jian Pan; Jingfu Zhang; Jun Li; Zhaokai Li; Dieter Suter; Xianyi Zhou; Xinhua Peng; Jiangfeng Du

2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

129

Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

Eaton, Scott J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Fairbridge, Craig [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Black-Box Identification for PLC based MPC of a Binary Distillation Column  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Black-Box Identification for PLC based MPC of a Binary Distillation Column B. Huyck ,, F. Logist J is to upgrade the control system with a linear MPC running on a PLC. However, before a model based controller can be used on a PLC, an accurate (but simple) process model has to be constructed. Hence, the aim

131

HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

321 HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT I.A. Alekseev, E hydrogen gas (so- called protium) must be used. It is necessary to avoid transfers of - to impurities imposes strict and critical requirements on the hydrogen gas system supporting the detector. Desirable

Titov, Anatoly

132

Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

Andile B. Mzinyati [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

133

Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

134

Interactive chemical effects and instability of shale derived middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a study of instability of shale-derived fuels. Changes in fuel properties with time have been a continuing problem in the use of middle distillate fuels. The authors define instability as the formation of insoluble sediments and gums as well as the production of peroxides and color bodies. Nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles have long been implicated in fuel degradation, but present knowledge is limited regarding the chemistry of their autoxidation reactions in the complex fuel media. Based on the GC/MS identification of nitrogen heterocyclic constituents in several shale-derived middle distillate fuels, the authors have conducted gravimetric instability tests employing three model nitrogen heterocycles in shale-derived diesel fuels. Model sulfur compound dopant studies on shale-derived jet fuels were conducted by monitoring hydroperoxide formation/decomposition and the decreased quantity of sulfur compound. Potential interactive effects have been defined for these model dopants.

Mushrush, G.W.; Beal, E.J.; Watkins, J.M.; Morris, R.E.; Hardy, D.R. (Fuels Section, Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

The distribution of n-alkanes in partially frozen middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work on partially frozen fuels is one of a continuing series of studies on the effect of composition on the freezing properties of hydrocarbon fuels. The method used for this purpose was reported previously. By means of this method the authors were able to determine the composition of the liquid and solid phases in partially frozen mixtures consisting of liquid and of solid crystals plus entrapped liquid. This paper presents the results of this study on five different middle distillate fuels.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Affens, W.A.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.; Guzman, J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Hydrogenation of aromatics in synthetic crude distillates catalyzed by platinum supported in molecular sieves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic hydrogenation of synthetic crude distillates from Canadian oil sands was carried out over platinum metal supported in pillared interlayered clay (PILC) and Y-zeolite. The molecular sieve supports were employed to modify the properties of dispersed platinum particles and improve their resistance to poisoning by sulfur. The objective was to reduce the distillate aromatic content to meet diesel emission control standards and cetane number requirements. Catalysts were prepared in a series of steps, and metal precursor was loaded using ion-exchange procedures. Characterization was done using X-ray diffraction, hydrogen chemisorption, and proton-induced X-ray emission elemental analysis. Catalytic hydrogenation reactions were carried out by processing distillate feedstocks both high (>100 ppm) and low (<10 ppm) in sulfur using a continuous-flow automated microreactor system. Experimental runs were performed to determine the reaction kinetics and Arrhenius parameters as a means of evaluating and comparing catalyst performance. Significant differences in catalyst activity were found. The Pt/Y-zeolite-alumina catalyst showed a much superior hydrogenation performance under conditions of high sulfur content. The extent of cracking and ring opening was also evaluated and was shown to be minimal under the operating conditions employed.

Kimbara, N.; Charland, J.P. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Wilson, M.F. [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada)] [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

Magnetocaloric properties of distilled gadolinium: Effects of structural inhomogeneity and hydrogen impurity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-purity Gd prepared by distillation is a structurally inhomogeneous system consisting of needle-shaped crystals of cross section 0.5–2.5??m with near-c-axis orientation embedded in a matrix of nanosized (30–100?nm) grains. By measuring the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) directly, we find that the MCE values differ markedly for the plate-shaped samples cut out of a distillate along and perpendicular to the crystals. The effect of small controlled amounts of impurity (hydrogen) on the properties of distilled Gd is further studied. We observe opposite trends in the MCE response to hydrogen charging with respect to the crystal's orientation within the samples and discuss mechanisms interrelating the unique structural morphology with the impurity behavior. As an overall assessment, the Curie temperatures of ?-GdH{sub x} solid solutions increase from 291?K up to 294?K when increasing hydrogen concentration x from 0 to 0.15. Hydrogenation is found to broaden the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase transition. Hydrogen-containing specimens demonstrate reversibility of MCE at these temperatures.

Burkhanov, G. S.; Kolchugina, N. B.; Chzhan, V. B.; Chistyakov, O. D. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tereshina, E. A. [Institute of Physics ASCR, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Tereshina, I. S. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures PAS, 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Politova, G. A. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures PAS, 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Badurski, D.; Drulis, H. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAS, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Paukov, M.; Havela, L. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

138

A novel proportional--integral-derivative control configuration with application to the control of batch distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to propose a novel proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control configuration based on an observer structure. Batch distillation is used as the base case study where the regulated output is the distillate composition. The proposed PID control law is derived in the framework of robust nonlinear control with modeling error compensation techniques. A reduced-order observer is proposed to estimate both the derivative of the regulated output and the underlying modeling error. These observations are subsequently used in a control loop to feedback variations of distillate composition (derivative feedback) and to counteract the effects of modeling errors. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the resulting control law is equivalent to a classical PID controller with an antireset windup scheme. Moreover, the tuning of the controller is performed very easily in terms of a prescribed closed-loop time constant and an estimation time constant. Numerical results are provided for binary and multicomponent separations. Sampled/delayed measurements and several sources of uncertainties are considered in order to provide a realistic test scenario for the proposed control design procedure.

Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Monroy-Loperena, R.; Cervantes, I.; Morales, A.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Copolymers useful as additives for lowering the cloud point of middle hydrocarbon distillates, and compositions of middle hydrocarbon distillates comprising them  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Products useful as additives for lowering the cloud point of middle distillates have a molecular weight from 1,000 to 50,000, and are obtained by reacting a compound of the formula R-Z((CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ NH) /SUB m/ H or HO-CH/sub 2/-R'-NH/sub 2/ where R is a monovalent saturated aliphatic radical of 1-30 carbon atoms, Z is -NH- or oxygen, n is 2 to 4, m is zero or 1 to 4 and R' is a saturated divalent aliphatic radical of 1-18 carbon atoms, with a copolymer comprising recurrent units (A) from an alkyl ester of an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid and/or a vinyl ester of a saturated monocarboxylic acid, recurrent units (B) from diisobutylene and recurrent units (C) from an unsaturated a,b-dicarboxylic compound.

Durand, J. P.; Damin, B.; Dawans, F.; Leger, R.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

140

Design, start up, and three years operating experience of an ammonia scrubbing, distillation, and destruction plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When the rebuilt Coke Plant started operations in November of 1992, it featured a completely new closed circuit secondary cooler, ammonia scrubbing, ammonia distillation, and ammonia destruction plants. This is the second plant of this type to be built in North America. To remove the ammonia from the gas, it is scrubbed with three liquids: Approximately 185 gallons/minute of cooled stripped liquor from the ammonia stills; Light oil plant condensate; and Optionally, excess flushing liquor. These scrubbers typically reduce ammonia content in the gas from 270 Grains/100 standard cubic feet to 0.2 Grains/100 standard cubic feet.

Gambert, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"Brunei (Dollars perReserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"+ LeaseDistillate

142

Method and apparatus for assessing distillate-fuel stability by oxygen overpressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactions leading to insoluble sediments formation in distillate fuel are accelerated by forcing oxygen into solution in the fuel at pressures of between about 90 and 110 psig and then stressing the fuel under conditions of accelerated storage at temperatures of between about 40 C to 100 C. The method then makes use of gravimetric determination of the total insoubles formed. The stability of the fuel over a period of time as well as its comparitive stability to other fuels can then be predicted from the amount of insolubles formed. The method can be carried out by using a specialized pressure vessel.

Hardy, D.R.; Beal, E.J.; Burnett, J.C.

1989-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

143

Magic State Distillation and Gate Compilation in Quantum Algorithms for Quantum Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry map the dynamics of electrons in a molecule to the dynamics of a coupled spin system. To reach chemical accuracy for interesting molecules, a large number of quantum gates must be applied which implies the need for quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. Arbitrary fault-tolerant operations can be constructed from a small, universal set of fault-tolerant operations by gate compilation. Quantum chemistry algorithms are compiled by decomposing the dynamics of the coupled spin-system using a Trotter formula, synthesizing the decomposed dynamics using Clifford operations and single-qubit rotations, and finally approximating the single-qubit rotations by a sequence of fault-tolerant single-qubit gates. Certain fault-tolerant gates rely on the preparation of specific single-qubit states referred to as magic states. As a result, gate compilation and magic state distillation are critical for solving quantum chemistry problems on a quantum computer. We review recent progress that has improved the efficiency of gate compilation and magic state distillation by orders of magnitude.

Colin J. Trout; Kenneth R. Brown

2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

144

Magic State Distillation and Gate Compilation in Quantum Algorithms for Quantum Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry map the dynamics of electrons in a molecule to the dynamics of a coupled spin system. To reach chemical accuracy for interesting molecules, a large number of quantum gates must be applied which implies the need for quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. Arbitrary fault-tolerant operations can be constructed from a small, universal set of fault-tolerant operations by gate compilation. Quantum chemistry algorithms are compiled by decomposing the dynamics of the coupled spin-system using a Trotter formula, synthesizing the decomposed dynamics using Clifford operations and single-qubit rotations, and finally approximating the single-qubit rotations by a sequence of fault-tolerant single-qubit gates. Certain fault-tolerant gates rely on the preparation of specific single-qubit states referred to as magic states. As a result, gate compilation and magic state distillation are critical for solving quantum chemistry problems on a quantum computer. We review recent progress that has improved the efficiency of gate compilation and magic state distillation by orders of magnitude.

Colin J. Trout; Kenneth R. Brown

2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

145

Optimum Requirements for the Synthesis of Biodiesel Using Fatty Acid Distillates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The optimum requirements of temperature, retention time, mole ratio of reactants and catalyst for the direct synthesis of biodiesel from fatty acid distillates of palm kernel oil using tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid as catalyst was studied. The following parameters were used for the efficient and economic production of biodiesel: eight (8) moles of methanol per mole of fatty acid, 0.06 mole of tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid per mole of fatty acid, a retention time of sixty (60) minutes and reaction temperature of 65 OC. And this gave a maximum percentage yield of 98.4. Other parameters obtained include: an acid value of 0.1683 mg KOH/g, iodine value of 15.3549, flash point of 209 OC, viscosity of 3.7957 mm2s-1, density of 0.8776 g cm-3, water content of 400.05 mg kg-1, soap content of 2.30 mg/kg, and ester content of 98.804 %. From the obtained parameters, the biodiesel produced from fatty acid distillates of palm kernel oil reaches prescribed international standards for biodiesel production.

Akunna E. Ejele

146

Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Theoretical Analysis of an Ideal Noiseless Linear Amplifier for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the operational regime of a noiseless linear amplifier based on quantum scissors that can nondeterministically amplify the one photon component of a quantum state with weak excitation. It has been shown that an arbitrarily large quantum state can be amplified by first splitting it into weak excitation states using a network of beamsplitters. The output states of the network can then be coherently recombined. In this paper, we analyse the performance of such a device for distilling entanglement after transmission through a lossy quantum channel, and look at two measures to determine the efficacy of the noiseless linear amplifier. The measures used are the amount of entanglement achievable and the final purity of the output amplified entangled state. We study the performances of both a single and a two-element noiseless linear amplifier for amplifying weakly excited states. Practically, we show that it may be advantageous to work with a limited number of stages.

J. Bernu; S. Armstrong; T. Symul; T. C. Ralph; P. K. Lam

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

148

Upgrading of middle distillate fractions of syncrudes from athabasca oil sands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Middle distillate fractions of syncrudes from Athabasca Oil Sands were evaluated for suitability as feedstocks in the catalytic conversion to diesel fuel meeting cetane number specifications. Hydrogenation of aromatic components to napthenes under severe conditions (380 to 400/sup 0/C, 2500 psig) using sulfided CoO/MoO/sub 3/ and NiO/WO/sub 3/ over ..cap alpha.. . Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in a previously described catalyst testing system. Reaction products were analyzed for aromatic carbon content using C/sup 13/ NMR spectroscopy and pseudo first order rate constants and activation energies (15.0 and 14.2 kcal 1 g-mole, respectively) were determined by regression analysis. At optimum conditions 97% aromatic conversion was obtained with the Ni-W catalyst. Product diesel fuel cetane number (42) was within specifications. Co-Mo catalyst was significantly less active.

Wilson, M.F.; Kriz, J.F.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Dynamics and control of a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation column: Conventional control approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, bifurcation analysis and dynamic simulation were used to investigate the optimum conventional control strategy of an isopropyl alcohol (IPA), cyclohexane (CyH), and water (H{sub 2}O) heterogeneous azeotropic column. Steady-state process analysis shows that the optimal operation point should be located at a critical reflux, a transition point at which the distillation path switches from a route that passes through the IPA + H{sub 2}O azeotrope to one that passes through the IPA + CyH azeotrope. A good control strategy must be able to maintain a steady column temperature profile that shows a plateau near 70 C to ensure passage around the IPA + CyH azeotrope. An inverse double-loop control strategy is proposed based on principal component analysis. This scheme is capable of maintaining the desired column temperature profile given all kinds of feed disturbances, thus keeping the product IPA purity at the desired level.

Chien, I.L. [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wang, C.J.; Wong, D.S.H. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

150

Re-refining of Waste Oil Solvent Is Used in Treatment/Distillation Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. A combination solvent treatment/distillation process has been designed for re-refining industrial waste oil (such as equipment lubricants, metal-working oil, and process oil) and used automotive lubricants (engine oil, hydraulic oil, and gear oil) for reuse. WASTE ENERGY RECOVERY. Recycling of waste oil in the United States has the potential to save the energy equivalent of 7-12 million bbl of crude oil annually.1 WASTE OIL RECOVERY. Prior to 1960, a significant portion of the demand for automotive lubricating oil was met by re-relined used oil. At the time, 150 re-refineries produced 300 million gal of motor oil annually. Since 1960, however, the production of re-refined oil has steadily declined. In 1981, for example, out of about 1.2 billion gal of automobile lubricating oil and 1.6 billion gal of industrial lubricating oils purchased, 25 U.S. rerefineries

unknown authors

151

On local indistinguishability of orthogonal pure states by using a bound on distillable entanglement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the four states a|00>+b|11>, b^*|00>-a^*|11>, c|01>+d|10> and d^*|01>-c^*|10> cannot be discriminated with certainty if only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed and if only a single copy is provided, except in the case when they are simply |00>, |11>, |01> and |10> (in which case they are trivially distinguishable with LOCC). We go on to show that there exists a continuous range of values of a, b, c and d such that even three states among the above four are not locally distinguishable, if only a single copy is provided. The proof follows from the fact that logarithmic negativity is an upper bound of distillable entanglement.

Sibasish Ghosh; Guruprasad Kar; Anirban Roy; Debasis Sarkar; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

2001-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

152

Why methyl tert-butyl ether production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an explanation of why methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions. Widely different composition profiles and conversions may, as already reported by Krishna and others, results with identical column specifications, depending on the initial estimates provided. A hypothesis yielding a qualitative understanding of this phenomenon has been developed. The inert n-butene plays a key role in the proposed explanation: As the reaction mixture is diluted with n-butene, the activity coefficient of methanol increases substantially and the temperature decreases. This dilution has a profound effect on the equilibrium conversion, enabling MTBE to escape from the reactive zone without decomposition. When methanol is fed below or in the lower part of the reactive zone of the column, the ``lifting capacity`` of the minimum boiling point MTBE-methanol azeotrope will also be important.

Hauan, S.; Hertzberg, T.; Lien, K.M. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Assigning a Value to Dried Distillers' Grains as a Protein Supplement in Cattle Consuming Low-Quality Forage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cattle consuming low-quality forage may have decreased forage organic matter intake as a result of decreased nitrogen (N) intake. To date, a value has not been assigned to dried distillers' grains as a protein supplement to cattle consuming low...

Rambo, Zachary Joseph

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

154

Kinetics of hydrogenation of aromatics determined by carbon-13 NMR for Athabasca bitumen-derived middle distillates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High aromatics content in middle distillates is detrimental to fuel quality, as shown in such properties as smoke point of jet fuel and cetane number of diesel fuel. In the petroleum and petrochemical industries the yields from fluid catalytic cracking or steam cracking units are adversely affected by high aromatics content in the feedstock. Distillates obtained from oil sand bitumen, heavy oils, or coal liquefaction products are particularly high in aromatics. Reducing the concentration of this class of compounds is important. Aromatics hydrogenation (AHYD) is one option to achieve this result. In the current Syncrude operation a primary objective of hydrotreating is to reduce product sulfur and nitrogen contents; reducing aromatics content is an incidental result. However, the expansion plan currently under study by Syncrude includes further AHYD to improve cetane number. Predicting the product aromatics content is an important issue for this study. In the present study, hydrotreating of five Athabasca-bitumen-derived gas oils was conducted in pilot scale trickle-bed reactors using alumina-based commercial NiMo catalysts. Feedstocks originated from the distillation of virgin bitumen, and from distillates derived from treating bitumen in a fluid coker and hydrocracking pilot plant. Aromatics content was determined by the {sup 13}C NMR method. The previously developed rate equation for AHYD was modified by including power terms for space velocity and hydrogen partial pressure. The data were analyzed using the modified equation.

Yui, S.M.; Sanford, E.C. (Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to ?nd out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syn- gas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5–50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5–62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy con- tent of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650 oC and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heat- ing value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Ruan, Roger

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume I. Technical discussion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). The first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 referenvces and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2. 18 figures, 4 tables.

Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (<260 C boiling point). Carboxylic acid content of all of the high oxygen content fractions was likely too high for these materials to be considered as fuel blendstocks although potential for blending with crude oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

160

Two-stage hydrotreating of a bitumen-derived middle distillate to produce diesel and jet fuels, and kinetics of aromatics hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The middle distillate from a synthetic crude oil derived from Athabasca bitumen was further hydrotreated in a downflow pilot unit over a typical NiMo catalyst at 330 to 400 C, 7 to 11 MPa and 0.63 to 1.39 h{sup {minus}1} LHSV. Feed and liquid products were characterized for aromatics, cetane index (CI) and other diesel specification items. Aromatics were determined by a supercritical fluid chromatography method, while CI was determined using the correlation developed at Syncrude Canada Ltd. Also feed and selected products were distilled into a jet fuel cut (150/260 C) by spinning band distillation for the determination of smoke point and other jet fuel specification items. A good relationship between aromatics content and CI was obtained. Kinetics of aromatics hydrogenation were investigated, employing a simple-first order reversible reaction model.

Yui, S.M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

162

Distillation of Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Double-Well Potential Y. Shin, M. Saba, A. Schirotzek, T. A. Pasquini, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distillation of Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Double-Well Potential Y. Shin, M. Saba, A-Einstein condensates of sodium atoms, prepared in an optical dipole trap, were distilled into a second empty dipole the potential barrier separating the two wells and then forming a new condensate. This process serves as a model

163

A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. The kinetics of coal liquefaction distillation resid conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc., the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. The program at Delaware was conducted between August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivity toward hydrocracking of coal-derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An introduction and Summary of the project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here.

Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, H.; Wang, S.; Campbell, D.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

BlackBerry advisory describes a security issue that the BlackBerry Attachment Service component of the BlackBerry Enterprise Server is susceptible to. The issue relates to a known vulnerability in the PDF distiller component of the BlackBerry Attachment Service that affects how the BlackBerry Attachment Service processes PDF files.

165

Distillation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential The characteristic feature of Bose-Einstein condensation is the accumulation of a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distillation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential The characteristic feature of Bose-Einstein condensation is the accumulation of a macroscopic number of particles in the lowest quantum state. Condensate fragmentation, the macroscopic occupation of two or more quantum states

166

Distillation 29 Chem 355 Jasperse DISTILLATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vaporize. The vapors produced are subsequently passed through a water-cooled condenser. Upon cooling liquid doesn't change, only the rate of vaporization. The energy supplied by heating is used

Jasperse, Craig P.

167

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

168

Distribution of higher n-alkanes in partially frozen middle-distillate fuels. Final report, October 1982-September 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In conjunction with continuing studies on the effect of composition on the freezing points of middle distillate fuels, attention was directed to partially frozen fuels. The crystals and residual liquid from partially frozen JP-5 and DFM fuel samples derived from both petroleum and shale were separated from each other and collected by means of the NRL liquid-solid separator apparatus (LSS) at several temperatures below the freezing points of the original samples. The original fuel samples, the solid material (precipitate), and liquid (filtrate) were characterized by gas chromatography (GC). The filtrate data were straightforward. As expected, Van't Hoff plot of the n-alkanes concentrations (log concentrations vs reciprocal absolute temperature) formed straight lines, and their slopes demonstrated the importance of the higher n-alkanes in fuel crystallization at cold temperatures. The precipitate data presented some problems of interpretation since it was observed that the waxy crystal precipitate matrix entrapped significant amounts of liquid (filtrate). The data on solid which were obtained by these methods demonstrated that the higher n-alkanes play the key role in fuel crystallization at low temperatures, concentrating as much as tenfold in the crystallized solids compared to the liquid. Also, it was clearly shown that the n-alkanes form the major part, up to least 95% by weight in some fuels, of the solid crystals formed.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Affens, W.A.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.; DeGuzman, J.

1985-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

169

INNOVATION EDUCATION EXCELLENCE DISTILLATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Our Department is a powerhouse in the area of chem- istry applied to medicine. Andrei Yudin and his

Chan, Hue Sun

170

(distillation) (Le Chatelier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acetate(methyl-, ethyl-, butyl-) , methanol isobutene MTBE , ethanol isobutene ETBE , methanol 2-methyl-1% MTBE 3 DMC . 2% 1990 MTBE 1999 3 2002 MTBE . [ 1-1 ] Phosgene process polycarbonate(PC) 50/ . DMC DMC MTBE / . ( : Amoco, "Review of DMC Manufacture and its

Hong, Deog Ki

171

A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams. Results of Inspection Tests on Nine Coal-Derived Distillation Cuts in the Jet Fuel Boiling Range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the assessment of the physical and chemical properties of the jet fuel (180-300 C) distillation fraction of nine direct coal liquefaction products and compares those properties to the corresponding specifications for aviation turbine fuels. These crude coal liquids were compared with finished fuel specifications specifically to learn what the refining requirements for these crudes will be to make them into finished fuels. The properties of the jet fuel fractions were shown in this work to require extensive hydrotreating to meet Jet A-1 specifications. However, these materials have a number of desirable qualities as feedstocks for the production of high energy-density jet fuels.

S. D. Brandes; R. A. Winschel

1999-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

Dissolution and compaction of albite sand in distilled water and pH-buffered carboxylic acid solutions: experiments at 100 degrees and 160 degrees C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The confining fluid was either distilled water or a mixture of 3 parts Kerosene and 1 part SAE-30 non-detergent motor oil; confining pressure was controlled by an air- operated Sprague? pump. Inside the pressure vessel, the reaction cell (10 cm x 4. 4 cm O. D... sand. Fluid flows in and out of the reaction cell through Hastelloy C-276? lines. Slow flow rates (0. 08 ml/hr) and pore fluid pressures were controlled by an Isco? micro-processor syringe pump and a manually operated HiP? synnge pump. Rapid flow...

Carpenter, Thomas Doyle

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Prediction of middle-distillate fuel properties using liquid chromatography-proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy data. Final report, 1987-1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research was initiated to support the Army's capability to identify the components of fuels that contribute to low-temperature performance of fuels. It was discovered that various physical properties of middle-distillate fuels can be predicted. The LC-{sup 1}HNMR technique was developed to predict physical properties based on chemical structures present in the fuels. The prediction of properties is approached from a 'group property' point of view. In the group property approach, the structure of the molecule is examined for structural features that dictate the physical properties of the compounds. In other words, the physical properties of a molecule or compound are determined by the number of types of chemical groups, i.e., methyl, methylene, methine, etc., present. These LC-{sup 1}H NMR predicted property measurements were compared to measurements obtained by the ASTM fuel tests. Most measurements were found to be within experimental error. The research has demonstrated that the LC-{sup 1}H NMR approach for measuring various middle-distillate fuel properties can be used as an alternative to the ASTM methods of fuel property measurement.

Swann, M.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

174

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Process Based on Biomass-Derived Syngas – A Techno-Economic Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study reports the comparison of biomass gasification based syngas-to-distillate (S2D) systems using techno-economic analysis (TEA). Three cases, state of technology (SOT) case, goal case, and conventional case, were compared in terms of performance and cost. The SOT case and goal case represent technology being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a process starting with syngas using a single-step dual-catalyst reactor for distillate generation (S2D process). The conventional case mirrors the two-step S2D process previously utilized and reported by Mobil using natural gas feedstock and consisting of separate syngas-to-methanol and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) processes. Analysis of the three cases revealed that the goal case could indeed reduce fuel production cost over the conventional case, but that the SOT was still more expensive than the conventional. The SOT case suffers from low one-pass yield and high selectivity to light hydrocarbons, both of which drive up production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that light hydrocarbon yield, single pass conversion efficiency, and reactor space velocity are the key factors driving the high cost for the SOT case.

Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dagle, Robert A.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Process Based on Biomass-Derived Syngas - A Techno-Economic Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study compared biomass gasification based syngas-to-distillate (S2D) systems using techno-economic analysis (TEA). Three cases, state of technology (SOT), goal, and conventional, were compared in terms of performance and cost. The SOT case represented the best available experimental results for a process starting with syngas using a single-step dual-catalyst reactor for distillate generation. The conventional case mirrored a conventional two-step S2D process consisting of separate syngas-to-methanol and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) processes. The goal case assumed the same performance as the conventional, but with a single-step S2D technology. TEA results revealed that the SOT was more expensive than the conventional and goal cases. The SOT case suffers from low one-pass yield and high selectivity to light hydrocarbons, both of which drive up production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that light hydrocarbon yield and single pass conversion efficiency were the key factors driving the high cost for the SOT case.

Zhu, Y.; Jones, S. B.; Biddy, M. J.; Dagle, R. A.; Palo, D. R.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Rapid prediction of various physical properties for middle distillate fuel utilizing directly coupled liquid chromatography//sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A group property approach has been developed to predict 17 physical properties of middle distillate (e.g., jet and diesel) fuels from experimentally derived liquid chromatography//sup 1/H nuclear magnetic resonance (LC//sup 1/H NMR) data. In the LC//sup 1/H NMR technique, the fuel is separated according to chemical class and the average molecular structure for each chemical class is then calculated. These average molecular structures form a basis set to predict the physical properties of the fuel. The physical properties that can be obtained in this manner are cetane number, cetane index, density, specific gravity, pour point, flash point, viscosity, filterability, heat of combustion, cloud point, volume percent aromatics, residual carbon content, and the initial, 10%, 50%, 90%, and end boiling points. Fourteen of the correlation coefficients for the predictions are better than 0.90 with 11 of the predictions falling either within or approximately equal to the ASTM method reproducibility for the measurement of the fuel property. The present method also provides chemical insight concerning the influence of chemical structural changes on the physical properties of the fuel as well as requiring much less analysis time and sample volume than corresponding ASTM methods.

Caswell, K.A.; Glass, T.E.; Swann, M.; Dorn, H.C.

1989-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

A method for the rapid, accurate prediction of the physical properties of middle distillate fuels from LC- sup 1 H NMR derived data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method has been developed whereby various physical properties of middle distillate fuels may be rapidly and accurately calculated by a group property approach from data obtained from a directly coupled Liquid Chromatograph - {sup 1}H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectrometer (LC-{sup 1}H NMR). The physical properties include cetane number, cetane index, density, specific gravity, pour point, flash point, viscosity, filterability, heat of combustion, cloud point, volume percent aromatics, residual carbon content, and initial, 10%, 50%, 90%, and end boiling points. These property predictions have accuracies approaching the error for measurement of the experimental physical property and require less than two hours analysis time per fuel. An interface was developed between the NMR spectrometer and a personal computer to aid in automation of the LC-{sup 1}H NMR data collection and to perform off-line analysis of the LC-{sup 1}H NMR data. This interface and all associated software is described. Also presented is a series of model compounds studies in which the physical properties of pure hydrocarbons (i.e., alkanes, monocyclic and dicyclic aromatics) were predicted by a similar group property approach.

Caswell, K.A.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requiring either compressors or expanders. function of feed composition. The simple column has a single reboiler, single condenser, and is idealized to the extent that column pressure differential and heat exchanger temperature differential are set... Separation Z. Nested Enrichment Cascade For separating liquid mixtures above ambient temperature, both full 'cascade~ and also enrichment cascades have been used. They reduce the heat throughput by about 40% but do not decrease the energy consumption...

Erickson, D. C.

179

DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Distillation Theory.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 The Energy Balance and the Assumption of Constant Molar flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Assumption about Constant Molar Flows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Minimum Number of Stages -- Infinite Energy

Skogestad, Sigurd

180

No. 2 Distillate Prices - Residential  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

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181

Imports of Distillate Fuel Oil  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0, 1997Environment >7,992000Implications ofU.S.270 300

182

No. 2 Distillate Prices - Industrial  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReserves (Billion Cubic1.878 2.358 - -

183

No. 2 Distillate Prices - Residential  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReserves (Billion Cubic1.878 2.358 -

184

Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781 2,328AdministrationRelease ScheduleU.S. Energy(EIA)

185

Combined electron beam and vacuum ARC melting for barrier tube shell material  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes a process of the type wherein zirconium tetrachloride is reduced to produce a metallic zirconium sponge. The sponge is distilled to generally remove residual magnesium and magnesium chloride, and the distilled sponge is melted to produce an ingot, the improvement for making a non-crystal bar material for use in lining the interior of zirconium alloy fuel element cladding which comprises: a. forming the distilled sponge into a consumable electrode; b. melting the consumable electrode in a multiple swept beam electron furnace with a feed rate between 1 and 20 inches per hour to form an intermediate ingot; and c. vacuum arc melting the intermediate ingot to produce a homogeneous final ingot, having 50-500 ppm iron.

Worcester, S.A.; Woods, C.R.

1989-07-18T23:59:59.000Z

186

Hydrogenation of individual components isolated from Athabasca bitumen vacuum resid  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The ability to produce synthetic fuels from heavy oils and vacuum resids depends on a number of factors, among them being geological origin, thermal history and type of upgrading process. In general, the properties of resids are sufficiently different that for each a unique set of processing conditions can be found to optimize its conversion to distillate. Ideally, one would like to predict a resid's upgradability and the optimum processing conditions from a few simple analytical lab tests. Unfortunately, properties of vacuum resids determined by conventional analytical methods correlate only loosely with upgradability. The pitch conversion and distillate yield most commonly used to monitor processes provide little insight into the upgrading chemistry. The same can be said for global parameters such as sulfur and nitrogen conversions. At present there is no recourse but to process each feedstock on a suitable large scale. This is expensive and time consuming. The objective of the present study is to establish a good model of upgrading chemistry that explains which components in a feedstock cause problems, which are most reactive, which interact with catalysts, and which convert to distillate or residue. Such knowledge should lead to analytical methods sensitive to the chemical changes occurring during upgrading. This paper reports the modified chromatographic separation procedures and some initial results for the hydroprocessing of Athabasca bitumen vacuum resid (ABVB) and its maltene and asphaltene components using a newly designed bubbling microautoclave.

Dawson, W.H. (CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)); Chornet, E.; Tiwari, P.; Heitz, M. (Sherbrooke Univ., Quebec (Canada))

1989-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

187

Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the economics of the entire unit. An optimization program has been initia ed to develop the necessary information in the field. It is planned to make small, design d changes in the variable of interest and mon'tor the process response. This information wou...

Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

188

Distillation of Ap. 27 Topics Crop Yeilds  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and aggregate emissions from various sectors and provide industry-specific recommendations. Geoengineering What are the effects of geoengineering the atmosphere to increase its reflectivity? Look at literature that studies

Lotko, William

189

Electric Driven Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PROCESSES The first candidate process evaluated was the propane-propylene splitter. The vapor recompression cycle appropriate for that column was previously given in Figure 2. The equipment specifications and operating conditions are given in Table I..., the estimates of cost are given in Table II, and an example of the revenue calculations are given in Table III. PROPANE/PRopn~E SPLlrrEA SPECIFICATIONS ColWZln: C",paei ty = 38,300 Ib/hr (eqoiv. to 200 J: 10' Ib/yr propylene) AT ~ 10?F Reflex Ratio. 16...

Harris, G. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as the ratio of heat delivered to process divided by the work supplied or COP = heat delivered work supplied Centrifugal compressor technology offers several advantages for use in vapor recompression systems, including high pressure ratios per stage... on of ~ seven-stage horizontally split centrifugal compressor manufactured by General Electric Company*. Pressure ratios greater than 10:1 ar~ possible with this design. Each compression stage of the mUltistag~ centri fugal compressor consi sts of a shaft...

Paul, D. B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Crude Distillation Unit Heat Recovery Study  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to 426?F. There is no preheat of tower bottoms. All heat beyond the prefractionator comes from fired furnaces. But there is steam generation at 25 pounds pressure from hot oil and an approved project to generate ISO-pound steam from flue gas. Pipe Still... Sinks Sources Difference Disposition Sinks 110 (110) (213) Furnace Duty 400/690 430/720 255 152 (103) l50-Pound Steam Production 365/400 395/430 25 44 19 50-Pound Steam Production 300/365 330/395 47 80 33 29 25-Pound Steam...

John, P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Yeast Genomic DNA Prep Sterile distilled water  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

TE Protocol: 1. Grow 25 ml of yeast cells in YPD to 5x107 cells/ml. 2. Spin down cells in 50-ml: 1 M sorbitol, 0.1 M sodium citrate (pH 5.8), 0.01 M EDTA (pH 8.0) Saline-EDTA Buffer: 0.15 M NaCl, 0% incubate another 30 minutes). 10.Spin down spheroplasts for 3 minutes at 3,000 rpms and remove supernatant

Auble, David

193

Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

each type of exchanger in turn. Heat exchanger size is minimised if the temperature driving force is maximised. The design should therefore seek to minimise the temperature changes during phase change. So, streams that are being condensed are kept... Reboiler not always possible (e.g. one part of a unit may be running at reduced load). Result: installed steam driven unit required to ensure integrity or heat recovery not used. Low temperature driving force Operation at low temperature driving force...

Polley, G. T.

194

Distillate Fuel Oil Days of Supply  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation oftheAmperometric Detectioneffect of pH andCO in

195

This Week In Petroleum Distillate Section  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassiveSubmittedStatus TomAboutManusScienceThe43068 -Vanadium and chromiumResidential

196

Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOil and Natural8U.S.NA (Barrels per Calendar

197

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title:DOBEIA-0202(83/4Q) Short-Term2Q) Energy1Q)k(STEO)End Use/

198

Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26, 2008 (Next1, 20126,6,4,7,Top 100End Use:

199

Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26, 2008 (Next1,Product:Country:

200

No. 2 Distillate Prices - Commercial/Institutional  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReserves (Billion Cubic1.878 2.358 - - -

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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201

No. 2 Distillate Prices - Through Retail Outlets  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReserves (Billion Cubic1.878 2.358 -53

202

Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for dynamically adapting the models to achieve tight composition control. Simple control techniques do not exist for model adaptation in MIMO systems. This thesis will outline a fuzzy supervisory controller based on fuzzy logic and show that control performance...

Santhanam, Srinivasan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

203

Utilization of waste heat stream in distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Cost of separation can be reduced by utilizing all available energy streams at various temperature levels. In the simplest case a waste energy heat stream can be used to partially vaporize a liquid feed stream. A more beneficial process involves an entire evaporation of a portion of the feed and introducing it into a column below the liquid portion of the feed. One can also use the waste energy stream as a heating medium in an intermediate reboiler in the column. There is, however, a limit to the amount of the waste energy that can be utilized in each case, beyond which this approach is no longer beneficial. Detailed analysis of the waste heat utilization enables one to determine this limit and compare each of these flowsheet options.

Fidkowski, Z.T.; Agrawal, R. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1995-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Product Supplied for Distillate Fuel Oil  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S.Feet) Year JanProduct Guide

205

Product Supplied for Distillate Fuel Oil  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousand Cubic Feet) OmanThousand36,610.05 Kerosene refiners .

206

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Commercial Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0 0 00/03)%YearD

207

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Farm Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0 0 00/03)%YearD3,744,936

208

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Industrial Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0 0

209

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Military Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0 0270,975 243,728 243,242

210

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Railroad Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0 0270,975

211

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0 0270,9755,568,066 4,103,881

212

American Distillation Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home5b9fcbce19 NoPublic Utilities Address: 160 East 300Algoil JumpAltergy Systems Place:AlwitraAmberley,AmerecoAmerican

213

Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICEAmesApplication2ArgonneAssemblyDemandPlasma4 (Barrels per

214

Advancing Biorefining of Distiller’s Grain and Corn Stover Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This fact sheet summarizes a U.S. Department of Energy Biomass Program research and development project.

215

Solvent refined coal (SRC) process. Flashing of SRC-II slurry in the vacuum column on Process Development Unit P-99. Interim report, February-June 1980  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents the results of 73 tests on the vacuum flash system of Process Development Unit P-99 performed during processing of three different coals; the second batch, fourth shipment (low ash batch) of Powhatan No. 5 Mine (LR-27383), Powhatan No. 6 Mine (LR-27596) and Ireland Mine (LR-27987). The objective of this work was to obtain experimental data for use in confirming and improving the design of the vacuum distillation column for the 6000 ton/day SRC-II Demonstration Plant. The 900/sup 0/F distillate content of the bottoms and the percent of feed flashed overhead were correlated with flash zone operating conditions for each coal, and the observed differences in performance were attributed to differences in the feed compositions. Retrogressive reactions appeared to be occurring in the 900/sup 0/F+ pyridine soluble material leading to an increase in the quantity of pyridine insoluble organic matter. Stream physical properties determined include specific gravity, viscosity and melting point. Elemental, distillation and solvent analyses were used to calculate component material balances. The Technology and Materials Department has used these results in a separate study comparing experimental K-values and vapor/liquid split with CHAMP computer program design predictions.

Gray, J. A.; Mathias, S. T.

1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

amount of No. 2 hoatin9 oil in inventory and its unit cmt onWhen :10me heating_ oil is inventory profits and costs cif2 heating oil Beginning monthly inventory of No. 2 heating

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flow directly from the refinery to wholesaler, to retailer,of No. 2 heating oil for the refinery, wholesale and retailfirst system monitored refinery, wholesale and retail price

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

stream was fractionated by NCUT into a boiling point range that corresponded to a Carbon Number range to minimize the viscosity effect on lubricity. 10 Lubricity High...

219

Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, in terms of the volume of water produced for the energy consumed. The two most commonly encountered. The daily desalinated water output per square metre of solar collector area is estimated for a number in remediation of dryland salinity, a critical review of the literature on medium to large scale solar driven (or

220

Multiple Steady States in Ideal Two-Product Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

not explain why the multiplicity was predicted only by the NRTL and UNIQUAC activity coefficient models

Skogestad, Sigurd

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

NONLINEAR MPC BASED ON MULTI-MODEL FOR DISTILLATION COLUMNS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-estimation and prediction in a MPC scheme. The controller has been applied to quality control of a FCCU fractionator IFAC Keywords: Nonlinear Model Predictive Control, Multi-Model, FCCU fractionator 1. INTRDUCTION Model is investigated through simulation of a rigorous model of a typical refining unit, a FCCU (Fluidized Catalytic

Foss, Bjarne A.

222

Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

difference across the column. VRC uses hot compressed overhead vapors, instead of steam, to heat the reboiler. Cost savings are highest when the pressure ratio for the compressor is low. The pressure ratio depends on the boiling point difference of top...

Hill, J.H.

223

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Ibid. Federal-Energy Administration. - "F1ndings and ViewsEstablished: Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 (P.L.OfficerofFederal Energy Administration, to Elmer B. Staats,

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an overall scheme of crude oil price regulation that met thebegan increasing crude oil prices in 1973 but the incomeselling price minus the average costs of crude oil and

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

engaged in the production of crude oil and to ensure thatgas plant production by integrated firms that have crude oilcrude oil and nonproduct costs are allocated to different types of regulated products in the following way: Production

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

226

Distillation and Dehydro Reactors Advanced Process Conrol Freeport Texas PLant  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Input Screen 6/2/2014 INTERNAL; CONFIDENTIAL 18 • External Targets such as desired dehydro reactor feed rates are inputs to the APC screen with dependent variables. • There are only six external targets. • The upper and lower limits are shown... – Results July and August 2013 6/2/2014 INTERNAL; CONFIDENTIAL 30 Cost of the Dehydro Reactors APC Project - $273,000 Initial Project Targets for the APC Project Feed Increase of 232 lb/hr. One Percent Decrease in Steam Usage Measured Results for the APC...

Eisele, D.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Practical Application of Distillation Column Energy Control Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Closed loop computer control of an ethylene column has been shown to save $350/day in improved ethylene recovery and $150/day in reduced energy consumption. These savings are achieved through material balance optimization and energy balance...

Matthews, S. A.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the price of home heating oil may also be obtained byincluding kerosene, home heating oil, range oil, stove oil,to most marketers of home heating oil. Consequently, during

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Local cloning of Bell states and distillable entanglement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The necessary and sufficient amount of entanglement required for cloning of orthogonal Bell states by local operation and classical communication is derived, and using this result, we provide here some additional examples of reversible, as well as irreversible states.

Sibasish Ghosh; Guruprasad Kar; Anirban Roy

2004-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

230

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

IV. v. Retail Marketers . . Wholesale Marketers Explanationof Supportive Data Wholesale and Retail Fuel Oil MarketPRICES II-1 II-3 II-3 Wholesale Prices to Wholesalers and

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1977-1978 HEATING OIL PRICES II-1 II-3 II-3 Wholesale PricesMonthly U.S. Heating Oil Prices, 1970 - 1978 . . A-16 .H-3 .continuous No. 2 heating oil price information from 1970 to

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

biomass used in this study . . . 1-2 Approxitnate annual production and spot selling price of various carboxylic acids. 1-3 Names used for biomass feedstocks. . 1-4 2-1 Sample processing. Rinsing scheme for precipitated solids. 12 3-1 Concentration... fermentation broth derived trom various wastes. Table 1-4 describes the studies performed for each fermentation broth, as well as reagent-grade chemicals. Table 1-3. Names used for biomass feedstocks. Sample Name MSW1 MSW2 MSW3 MSW4 MSWS PF/Biol PF...

Williamson, Shelly Ann

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

233

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

unit (consolidated or unconsolidated) Various address andunit (consolidated or unconsolidated), and certain addressthe consolidated and unconsolidated entities (:~ any) which

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

General teleportation channel, singlet fraction and quasi-distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove a theorem on direct relation between the optimal fidelity $f_{max}$ of teleportation and the maximal singlet fraction $F_{max}$ attainable by means of trace-preserving LQCC action (local quantum and classical communication). For a given bipartite state acting on $C^d\\otimes C^d$ we have $f_{max}= {F_{max}d+1\\over d+1}$. We assume completely general teleportation scheme (trace preserving LQCC action over the pair and the third particle in unknown state). The proof involves the isomorphism between quantum channels and a class of bipartite states. We also exploit the technique of $U\\otimes U^*$ twirling states (random application of unitary transformation of the above form) and the introduced analogous twirling of channels. We illustrate the power of the theorem by showing that {\\it any} bound entangled state does not provide better fidelity of teleportation than for the purely classical channel. Subsequently, we apply our tools to the problem of the so-called conclusive teleportation, then reduced to the question of optimal conclusive increasing of singlet fraction. We provide an example of state for which Alice and Bob have no chance to obtain perfect singlet by LQCC action, but still singlet fraction arbitrarily close to unity can be obtained with nonzero probability. We show that a slight modification of the state has a threshold for singlet fraction which cannot be exceeded anymore.

Pawel Horodecki; Michal Horodecki; Ryszard Horodecki

1999-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

235

General teleportation channel, singlet fraction and quasi-distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove a theorem on direct relation between the optimal fidelity $f_{max}$ of teleportation and the maximal singlet fraction $F_{max}$ attainable by means of trace-preserving LQCC action (local quantum and classical communication). For a given bipartite state acting on $C^d\\otimes C^d$ we have $f_{max}= {F_{max}d+1\\over d+1}$. We assume completely arbitrary teleportation schemes (trace preserving LQCC action over the pair and the third particle in unknown state). The proof involves the isomorphism between quantum channels and a class of bipartite states. We also exploit the technique of $U\\otimes U^*$ twirling states (random application of unitary transformation of the above form) and the introduced analogous twirling of channels. We illustrate the power of the theorem by showing that {\\it any} bound entangled state does not provide better fidelity of teleportation than for the purely classical channel. Subsequently, we apply our tools to the problem of the so-called conclusive teleportation, then reduced t...

Horodecki, M; Horodecki, R; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Ryszard

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Optimal Control of a Continuous Distillation Process under Probabilistic Constraints  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The aim is to find a control (feed rate, heat supply, reflux rate) which is optimal with respect to energy

Henrion, René

237

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in FEA's "Monthly Energy Review," "Monthly PetroleumEIA 0031). Monthly Energy Review. (EIA 0035) MonthlyEIA-0031) e Monthly Energy Review (EIA 0035) Monthly

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

ITP Chemicals: Hybripd Separations/Distillation Technology. Research  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) "ofEarly Career Scientists'Montana.ProgramJulietip sheetK-4InFindingIR-2003-Transmission &

239

No. 2 Distillate Prices - Sales to End Users  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-18 2.415 - - - - 1994-2014 East364

240

No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-18 2.415 - - - - 1994-2014

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Prices of Refiner No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar Home DesignPresentations Presentations926 2.804 2.705 2.197 1.823 1.984

242

Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Total Distillate and Kerosene  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas ConchasPassive Solar Home DesignPresentations Presentations926 2.804 2.705345,832.2

243

Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of No. 2 Distillate  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 10 MECS Survey Data 2010Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar

244

No. 2 Distillate Prices - Sales to End Users  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn CyberNeutronsNewNewsNickNiriConnecticut - - - -

245

No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLas Conchas recoveryLaboratory | NationalJohn CyberNeutronsNewNewsNickNiriConnecticut - - -

246

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation InInformation In closing,--SpeedingSpeedingSpeeding access to scienceSpeedingReactive

247

SciTech Connect: Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systems controllerAdditiveBetatronAerogelDistances from

248

Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquids Reserve3.Revenue3 Oil and(Million

249

New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:Year in3.pdfEnergy HealthCommentsAugustNationalMarkets with Wind PowerProcesses | Department of

250

Gross Input to Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Units  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs U.S.WyomingExpansion 5Wellhead99.6Year Jan6 441Day)

251

Prices of Refiner No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998throughThousand CubicWashington Natural Gas Exports (Dollars per1.840

252

Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of No. 2 Distillate  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998throughThousand CubicWashington Natural Gas Exports (Dollars145,896.4

253

Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S.Feet) YearInformationData

254

Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil 15 ppm Sulfur and Under  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael Schaal Director, Oil and10:InformationSteam Coal109,433

255

Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil Greater Than 500 ppm Sulfur  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael Schaal Director, Oil and10:InformationSteam

256

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for All Other Uses  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0 0 00/03)%YearD eDiscussion0

257

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Off-Highway Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0 0270,975 243,728

258

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Oil Company Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0 0270,975 243,7281,066,688

259

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Vessel Bunkering Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96 4.87CBECS Public Use Data0 0 0270,9755,568,0661,983,422

260

East Coast (PADD 1) Distillate Fuel Oil Imports  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import96Nebraska Nuclear ProfileReportSep-14 Oct-14 Nov-14 Dec-14

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-down and cryogenic fractionation steps, the technology can significantly reduce refrigeration power requirements. ARS technology can be applied to revamps of existing plants as well as new plant designs. Additional applications are now being considered...

Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

262

Extraction of tocopherols from deodorizer distillates: laboratory-scale evaluations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be developed. For this purpose, an analytical method for the determination of both tocopherols and tocopherol succinates simultaneously was developed. Crystallization, flat-sheet membrane separation, and a combined process were evaluated. Individual steps...

Zhang, Xiaoyan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

263

Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

directly to reduction in CO2 emissions. In addition, more energy efficient configurations that reduce and calculate energy requirements and provide a basis for detailed design. Reduced CO2 emission is an additional and operation and maintenance costs, has lead to rethinking how the separation should be carried out. As CO2

Skogestad, Sigurd

264

Effects of Ruminally Degradable Nitrogen in Diets Containing Wet Distiller’s Grains with Solubles and Steam-flaked Corn on Feedlot Cattle Performance and Carcass Characteristics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ethanol (i.e., 100% alcohol or 200 proof). Ethanol has been introduced in reformulated gasoline as an alternative, renewable fuel source. Reformulated gasoline, used in vehicles, is a blend of gasoline and oxygenates. Oxygenates produce maximum... 10% blend of ethanol to comply with the Energy Policy Act of 2005. Ethanol-based fuel needs to be less expensive than gasoline in order to be competitive with traditional gasoline, due to the lower energy value of 100% ethanol (30% less than...

Ponce, Christian

2010-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

265

Vacuum Technology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The environmental condition called vacuum is created any time the pressure of a gas is reduced compared to atmospheric pressure. On earth we typically create a vacuum by connecting a pump capable of moving gas to a relatively leak free vessel. Through operation of the gas pump the number of gas molecules per unit volume is decreased within the vessel. As soon as one creates a vacuum natural forces (in this case entropy) work to restore equilibrium pressure; the practical effect of this is that gas molecules attempt to enter the evacuated space by any means possible. It is useful to think of vacuum in terms of a gas at a pressure below atmospheric pressure. In even the best vacuum vessels ever created there are approximately 3,500,000 molecules of gas per cubic meter of volume remaining inside the vessel. The lowest pressure environment known is in interstellar space where there are approximately four molecules of gas per cubic meter. Researchers are currently developing vacuum technology components (pumps, gauges, valves, etc.) using micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS) technology. Miniature vacuum components and systems will open the possibility for significant savings in energy cost and will open the doors to advances in electronics, manufacturing and semiconductor fabrication. In conclusion, an understanding of the basic principles of vacuum technology as presented in this summary is essential for the successful execution of all projects that involve vacuum technology. Using the principles described above, a practitioner of vacuum technology can design a vacuum system that will achieve the project requirements.

Biltoft, P J

2004-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

266

Vacuum Waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

As an example of the unification of gravitation and particle physics, an exact solution of the five-dimensional field equations is studied which describes waves in the classical Einstein vacuum. While the solution is essentially 5D in nature, the waves exist in ordinary 3D space, and may provide a way to test for an extra dimension.

Paul S. Wesson

2012-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

267

Corrosion inhibition when distilling coal liquids by adding cresols or phenols  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Fractionation apparatus material corrosion in a coal liquefaction system is reduced by addition of compounds having a pK.sub.b <6 to tower feed streams or to the tower itself.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

A comparison of various calculational methods for constant volatility ratio, constant reflux multicomponent distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for Figures 17, 18, nd 19. . . 83 XIV. Tabulation of Empirical Correlation (Equation 48). 85 ZIQUR S Page l. Operating Data for the Depropanization of a Light Naphtha. 26 2. Composition of Vapor Rising from Plates in a Column Containi. ng an Infinite... for lg constant- doublet separation systems in which the molal liquid and vapor flows remain constant within each section of the column. An empirical correlation (Equation 48) relating the error of the "apcroximate" method to process variables...

Hurst, James William

1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Evaluation of Intake Limiting Agents in a Self-fed Dried Distillers' Supplement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and initial rates consisted of sodium chloride (NACL, 10%), urea (UREA, 2%), sodium bicarbonate (LIME, 1.68%), DL-malic acid (MLAC, 3%), calcium propionate (CAPR, 3%), and sodium bicarbonate plus urea (LIUR, 1.68% + 2%). Supplement intake was recorded daily...

Sugg, Joel D

2013-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

270

Control Study of Ethyl tert-Butyl Ether Reactive Distillation Muhammad A. Al-Arfaj  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-butyl ether (ETBE) for gasoline blending as a replacement for methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) because and be blended with ETBE in the gasoline pool. Even for neat operation, if the conversion is low, the unconverted

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

271

Author's personal copy A scaling mitigation approach during direct contact membrane distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is not new, it has only recently been recognized as a low cost, energy saving alternative to conventional has several advantages compared to other desalination processes for the treatment of saline water of MD to utilize low grade heat from industrial sources (which may otherwise be wasted) or solar thermal

272

A solar powered distillation plant and pump station for use in ocean side desert areas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

There are thousands of miles of ocean shoreline which could sustain a productive human existence if sufficient fresh water were available for human consumption and for irrigation of crops. While solar stills can be built to produce fresh water at or close to sea level, raising water to a height sufficient to irrigate crops, even with minimum water usage crops, requires a significant amount of energy. This paper describes a ``no-external power`` process by which seawater can be purified and raised to a height above sea level sufficient to carry on a productive living in certain areas of the world. This device, the Solar Evaporation and Pumping System (SEAPS) is described as to function and areas of use.

Dearien, J.A.; Priebe, S.J.

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

273

Characteristics of various methods for solving steady state and unsteady state distillation problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-1. 2. Implicit Method, n = 0. 3. Comparison of Multi-6-Method and Mah's Method 4. Comparison of Single-6-Method and Mah's Method. Page 40 41 42 43 5. Comparison of Ei. genvalues and Series Evaluation of E(At) in the Solution of Example 3-1. 6.... Comparison of Single-6-Method and Sargent's Method. 7. Comparison of Multi-6-Method and Sargent's Method 8. Computati. on Times 9. Statement of Example 4-1. 10. Solution of Example 4-1 11. Solution of Example 4-2 45 48 50 LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1...

Coco, Vincent Joseph

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Distillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Grak (Editors)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-liquid (NRTL) equation fitted to data to model liquid behavior and assume ideal or non-ideal vapor behavior

Lucia, Angelo

275

T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mixed phases in equilibrium. #15; Thermodynamics is based on NRTL. #15; Pressure is below 10 bar, vapor

Skogestad, Sigurd

276

T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in equilibrium. ¯ Thermodynamics is based on NRTL. ¯ Pressure is below 10 bar, vapor hold-up of is neglected

Skogestad, Sigurd

277

Development of dynamic models of reactive distillation columns for simulation and determination of control  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

are numbered from bottom to top. Hydrogen is required for the reaction and is fed as a separate stream above tray 25. There are three products coming out of the column. The vapor stream leaving the condenser mainly contains the unreacted hydrogen. The top... liquid product contains a roughly 30% of cyclohexane produced from the hydrogenation of benzene. The bottom product is also liquid and constitutes the main product stream as it has the desired octane properties due to the high percentage of toluene...

Chakrabarty, Arnab

2005-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

278

Application of functional transformations in the solution of steady-state distillation problems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Criteria Calculational Procedure and Discussion 117 118 121 B QUADRATIC CONVERGENCE OF ITERATES USING FUNCTIONIAL TRANSFORMATION IMBEDDED IN NEWTON"S MLTHOD 127 C FORMULATION OF MATHEMATICAL MODELS USED IN THE EXAMPI. E PROBLEMS Problem 1 ? A... 7). Comparison of initial (iterate) vapor rate of nCcH?at each stage ivith the steady-state solution vapor rate of nCcHis at each stage for Lx =50 lb-moles/min (Examp)e 7). 30 54 55 10. ]2. 13. Comparison of initial (iterate) temperature...

McLaughlin, Blaise Edward

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

279

Optimal Synthesis of Thermally Coupled Distillation Sequences Using a Novel MILP Approach.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

used in the chemical and petroleum refining industries (DOE, 2005). To this end, the thermally coupled the mixing of streams at the feed, top, and bottom of the column. This remixing is inherent to any separation

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

280

DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROL OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION FOR HYDROGENATION OF BENZENE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Otherwise, a rate-based mechanism is employed to describe the material and enrgy transfer between the liquid and vapor phases. The chemical reactions also introduce a structural difference between the models. Indeed, the chemical reactions can be either...

Aluko, Obanifemi

2010-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Quantifying Variability in Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Inventories of Alternative Middle Distillate Transportation Fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The presence of variability in life cycle analysis (LCA) is inherent due to both inexact LCA procedures and variation of numerical inputs. Variability in LCA needs to be clearly distinguished from uncertainty. This paper ...

Stratton, Russell William

282

Numerical and experimental investigation of membrane distillation flux and energy efficiency  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

While the field of desalination has matured for seawater desalination and similar applications, other markets such as the treatment of high salinity feed streams require novel technological innovations. This thesis considers ...

Swaminathan, Jaichander

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

283

Application of the theta method to distillation columns where one or more reactions occur per stage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

per Stage Theta Method of Convergence K Method Calculation of Enthalpies of Mixtures Enthalpy Balances. Calculational Procedure 14 16 I7 20 25 28 38 44 Numerical Examples Example 1 Example 2 COLUMNS AT TOTAL REFLUX 44 45 51 64... OF TABLES TABLE Page Expressions for the Reaction Function R for Various Types of Reactions 29 Calculation of the Partial Derivatives 32 Statement of Example l. Solution of Example 1 Statement of Example 2. Solution of Example 2 46 53 59...

Izarraraz, Alicia

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

284

SIMULATION BASED OPTIMIZATION OF A DIABATIC DISTILLATION Edward Steven Jimenez and Peter Salamon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

temperature Ti = temperature on tray i K = number of trays Cs = coexistence heat capacity m = flow rate exchanger Cp = constant pressure heat capacity DSu = total entropy production per minute Qexcess n of liquid leaving tray i per minute F = moles of feed per minute x = mole fraction light component xF = x

Salamon, Peter

285

Effects of petroleum distillate on viscosity, density and surface tension of intermediate and heavy crude oils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to better understand the effects of additives on viscosity, density and surface tension of intermediate and heavy crude oils. The studies have been conducted for the following oil samples...

Abdullayev, Azer

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

286

High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND LIQUID now PATHS fOA IltO TltAYS I A number of engineering contractors and 1 operating companies have employed Union Carbide'\\s High Flux and Multiple Downcomer tray technolog~es to improve performance, decrease utilities and I lower operating costs... ? Fi,?'d as nll\\ximum within hf'l~ht n'!:-;tl'ie-tlon. The control scheme for a heat pump can be de signed to be no more complex than a conventional steam/cooling water system which relies on flow and level controllers to set the various column flow...

Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

An approach for solvent selection in extractive distillation systems including safety considerations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Chemical Engineering Department, Instituto Tecnológico de Celaya, Celaya, GTO 38060 México 2 Chemical Engineering, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843 and The Mary Kay O'Connor Process Safety Center implications that a given solvent generates for the process, are generally left for their consideration after

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

288

Further fractionation studies on unidentified growth factors in distillers dried solubles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

J. ?ro:&th f:&c oro. 'ev. ". ~1 labor. tor. i. ;. . ucv", utt . n?te. ' to 1. &cia:. o &'J m g' a ?. , uniko'&. '1 & iel "r3, i & f ' 0 "o . . r . & & n & ural eources ~ '&ovM . ZQ1 . Iau;9, . -'3) le . c &. '3, ? ' t 1e;r3 &9rt &. oo?f & f 3 'tor 1... "txzul . . te I '. : ?oro h of calo'wo Ci. N'' '. ' " ucott ( p r) o . . - ve ' Lh t orotic . cid lro. . ;c. e' chick -" i&. . &to in the ?'re. ence of:. .d ed aethio ine. ". wha, ua1 . :l . u e ( ' ) ro- : o'tod a ?o . "ibl: rcl:it ienahit& oi o-. ot...

Rozacky, Eugene Emil

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (IMP), Dr. Fernando Rodriguez de la Garza, and Dr. Jose Luis Sanchez Bujanos from Petróleos Mexicanos (PEMEX), and Lawyer Rolando Rueda de Leon from Diario de Mexico, for their help and valuable advice. I would...

Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

290

Bounds on entanglement distillation and secret key agreement for quantum broadcast channels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The squashed entanglement of a quantum channel is an additive function of quantum channels, which finds application as an upper bound on the rate at which secret key and entanglement can be generated when using a quantum channel a large number of times in addition to unlimited classical communication. This quantity has led to an upper bound of $\\log((1+\\eta )/(1-\\eta))$ on the capacity of an optical communication channel for such a task, where $\\eta$ is the average fraction of photons that make it from the input to the output of the channel. The purpose of the present paper is to extend these results beyond the single-sender single-receiver setting to the more general case of a single sender and multiple receivers (a quantum broadcast channel). We employ multipartite generalizations of the squashed entanglement to constrain the rates at which secret key and entanglement can be generated between any subset of the users of such a channel, along the way developing several new properties of these measures. We apply our results to the case of an optical broadcast channel with one sender and two receivers.

Kaushik P. Seshadreesan; Masahiro Takeoka; Mark M. Wilde

2015-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

291

Utilization of Structured Packing for Energy Savings in Distillation and Absorption Columns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structured packings are the product of choice in such diverse applications as petroluem refining, gas processing, ethylene plants, and styrene fractionation trains....

Berven, O. J.; Howard, W. E.

292

Finding limiting flows of batch extractive distillation with interval Erika R. Fritsa,b*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

., Hungary, e-mail: ufo@mail.bme.hu b HAS ­ BUTE Research Group of Technical Chemistry, H-1521 Budapest, P

Csendes, Tibor

293

Development of a calculational procedure for distillation systems with internal recycle streams  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

be restated o 1' in functional notation as follows. c g (8, , 8, )- z (v?) -vl (22) c gl (8 Ql)= 7 (wli) -wl 1 o' 1 1 li co 1 (23) The desired values of 8 and 8 are those positive numbers for which 0 g = g = 0. These values were found by use... with minimum round-off error for each component were selected. 34 35 6. After the calculated values for 4 1, /v, and wl /vl had been N+1, i li li 1i computed, the 8-method was used to obtain 8, 01, and the corrected values of 4 1, vl, and wli. N+1, i ' 7...

Srygley, James Marshal

1963-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Complex Distillation Arrangements 23.May 2001 by I.Halvorsen NTNU Department of Chemical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Engineering 4 Minimum Energy Definition: The minimum external heat supply required to achieve a given set

Skogestad, Sigurd

295

T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

process termination, the PDF rendering process will restart automatically but will not resume processing the same PDF file. Successful exploitation of this vulnerability requires a...

296

Use of computers for making multicomponent distillation calculations for reboiler-absorbers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

/vli are those which are in material balance and in agreement with the specifications. The relationship may be stated as follows. (20) In a similar manner, the quantity 01 is used to express the relationship between the calculated and corrected values of wli... calculation and the minimum rate to I/1. 2 times the value used to make the calculation. At the end of the twentieth trial, p was further reduced to 0. 025 and at the end of the thirtieth trial, p was reduced to 0. 01. For other problems presented herein...

Canik, Leebert J

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Calculational procedure for multicomponent distillation columns with side-stream-strippers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Based u ion tne Ji composition calculated by direct-iter;ition, the coi i icte. . te. . i, erature , irofilo ives ca' culated using iiewton's nethod. The above c. . lcul itio ial procedure w. - found to diver "e if the calcul. i ed i iate c&m csitions...M point calculations based on these oalculatcd cccqxositions, iXthsr Hex&ton&s mthod ca' ths . uxthcxx of interpolation ~ ~) ~ as dsscnibed by Sorolnikof' (27)& may be employed, Thc difference either in the m3culctod tempera5xres frcm trial to trix...

Dickey, Billy Ray

1962-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Fractional distillation of natural gasoline by means of a modified Podbielniak apparatus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UTION Natural gasoline has long fulfilled a great need as a blending agent with heavier aotor fuels? However its use hae been linite4 to inoreasing the volatility of the heavier fuel. If a arne eaapleto knowledge of tho oheaieal constitution of natuxal 6...)aster is seoond to its anti knock inportenoo It is doubtful that is~a, whish has a C. F. R. xating of 100~ and whish is uee4 as a referenoe fuel 1 for neasurenont of anti-hnocdc values of other fuels, ie present in laxge Ruantities in natuxal gnsoiines...

Toombs, Alfred John Lawrence

1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Distillate Fuel Oil Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation oftheAmperometric Detectioneffect of pH andCO

300

U.S. Total No. 2 Distillate Prices by Sales Type  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsrucLasDelivered energy consumption by sector Transportation EnergyGlossary7,148.4NA NA

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

SciTech Connect: Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinan antagonist Journal Article:Biasi, A.long baseline neutrino experiment" Find +SearchUsOrganic

302

U.S. Product Supplied of Distillate Fuel Oil (Thousand Barrels per Day)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYear Jan Feb MarRevision2009 20102009Product

303

Table 45. Refiner Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, No. 1 Distillate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.2572,177.84,707.0 35,821.0

304

Table 45. Refiner Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, No. 1 Distillate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.2572,177.84,707.0 35,821.034.7 428.4

305

Table 45. Refiner Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, No. 1 Distillate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.2572,177.84,707.0 35,821.034.7

306

Table 45. Refiner Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, No. 1 Distillate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.2572,177.84,707.0 35,821.034.78.5

307

Table 45. Refiner Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, No. 1 Distillate,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.2572,177.84,707.0 35,821.034.78.55.6

308

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.2572,177.84,707.0

309

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.2572,177.84,707.03,186.1 57,015.7

310

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.2572,177.84,707.03,186.1

311

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.2572,177.84,707.03,186.1872.2

312

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic Feet)5.2572,177.84,707.03,186.1872.2956.0

313

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2 10,037.24. U.S. Vehicle Fuel7.8.

314

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2 10,037.24. U.S. Vehicle Fuel7.8.048.9

315

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2 10,037.24. U.S. Vehicle

316

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2 10,037.24. U.S. VehicleFoot,EffectiveA3.

317

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils,  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2 10,037.24. U.S. VehicleFoot,EffectiveA3.

318

Countries Distillate Heating Oil (No. 2 Heating Oil and Gasoil) Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOilCompanyexcluding taxes) Date

319

Countries Distillate Heating Oil (No. 2 Heating Oil and Gasoil) Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOilCompanyexcluding taxes) Dateexcluding

320

Countries Distillate Heating Oil (No. 2 Heating Oil and Gasoil) Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOilCompanyexcluding taxes)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Table 10.24 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYear Jan FebThousand Cubicin North Dakota6,979 Administration ADVANCE04

322

The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion |Energy Usage »of EnergyThe Energy Department Feeds11, 2008 ThePerformancePMof|

323

Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End Users -a168,630.07,583.7

324

Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in NonproducingAdditions to Capacity on theThousand7.End Users

325

Composition and structure of resins in lube distillates from West Siberian crudes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the lower contents of lube components in the crudes being processed today, along with a steady increase of demand for high-quality oils and solid hydrocarbons, as well as the trend toward processing crudes with unregulated composition, it has become necessary to develop new technology for the manufacture of lube stocks, along with the use of additives for various purposes. The effectiveness of additives is determined by their properties and also by the chemical composition of the raw material in each stage of oil production. Resins are important components of raw lube stocks. These resins are complex in composition, and vary in the nature and number of heteroatoms in the molecule and in the structure of the hydrocarbon part of the molecule. The hydrocarbon radicals may include aromatic and naphthenic rings, as well as chains with various configurations. Depending on the structural features of the resin molecules, they may vary in their effects on processes of selective solvent treating, dewaxing, and deoiling with the use of additives. The authors have investigated the resins present in the intermediate and final products of lube oil production.

Kazakova, L.P.; Gundyrev, A.A.; Litvin, N.I.; Shubina, E.S.; Mukhin, M.L.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

A techno-economic and environmental assessment of hydroprocessed renewable distillate fuels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis presents a model to quantify the economic costs and environmental impacts of producing fuels from hydroprocessed renewable oils (HRO) process. Aspen Plus was used to model bio-refinery operations and supporting ...

Pearlson, Matthew Noah

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

,"U.S. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"Brunei (Dollars per ThousandPriceDryCoalbedCrude OilShale Proved

328

,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"Brunei (Dollars per ThousandPriceDryCoalbedCrude OilShale

329

U.S. Total No. 2 Distillate Prices by Sales Type  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand28 198 18Biomass GasPropane, No.1SalesConsumption

330

Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil 15 ppm Sulfur and  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S.Feet) YearInformationDataUnder

331

Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil > 15 pmm to 500  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S.Feet) YearInformationDataUnderppm

332

Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil > 500 ppm Sulfur  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecember 2005 (Thousand9,0,InformationU.S.Feet) YearInformationDataUnderppm

333

Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil Greater Than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael Schaal Director, Oil and10:InformationSteam Coal109,4334,538

334

U.S. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone: FAX: Last Name: Email:EIA's Today0.5 hoursArea:

335

U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone: FAX: Last Name: Email:EIA's Today0.5

336

U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone: FAX: Last Name:4, 2014 U.S. diesel

337

U.S. Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone: FAX:9,152 8,905 8,967Sep-14Area: U.S. East

338

,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2. World9, 2014 International PetroleumFuelAnnual Energy* jCitySales

339

New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious RankCombustion | Department ofT ib l L d F S i DOETowardExecutiveRate principlesPierpontNewNewWellsDesign

340

,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQProved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tabUpcoming U.S.78

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQProved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tabUpcoming U.S.780.9

342

,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQProved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tabUpcoming U.S.780.99

343

,,,,"Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQProved Reserves, Reserves Changes, and Production" ,"Click worksheet name or tabUpcoming8.10.3534

344

An improved methodology on information distillation by mining program source code  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

data mining to support semi- automated software maintenance and comprehension and provide practical- hension and maintenance incorporating data mining techniques. A fundamental underlying assumption to populate a database with elements extracted from source code, the application of a selection of data mining

Tjortjis, Christos

345

Determination of liquid and solid phase composition in partially frozen middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the tasks of the United States Navy Mobility Fuels program at the Naval Research Laboratory is to determine the effect of composition on the freezing properties of liquid fuels. The combination of requirements for ship and jet aircraft fuels of a low freezing point (to permit cold temperature operations around the world) and a flash point minimum (to reduce the hazard of storage and transport of liquid fuels on board ship) leads to opposing compositional needs. This is because many components of a fuel that tend to lower the freezing point (small hydrocarbons with higher vapor pressures) will also reduce the flash point. Because of these constraints, it is not always practical to produce fuels meeting these requirements from available crudes. This limits the amount of crudes and hence the amount of JP-5, the Navy fuel for carrier based aircraft, which can be produced from ''a barrel of crude.'' With increased knowledge and understanding of the components that first crystallize out of a cold fuel, it may be possible to modify refining techniques to increase the yield of Navy liquid fuels per barrel of crude without compromising either the freezing point or the flash point restrictions. This paper deals with the method used to separate the liquid filtrate from the precipitate in fuels cooled to predetermined temperatures below their freezing points, the method of analyzing the fuel and fuel fractions, and the results obtained from a study of one particular jet fuel.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Affens, W.A.; Beal, E.J.; Mushrush, G.W.; Hazlett, R.N.; DeGuzman, J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

BIO-ORGANIC CHEMISTRY QUARTERLY REPORT - MARCH THROUGH MAY 1961  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that has been purified by fractional distillation dissolvesand by fractional distillation under reduced pressure (purified by double fractional distillation (triethylamine,

Various

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

1980-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

348

ultrahigh vacuum | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ultrahigh vacuum ultrahigh vacuum Leads No leads are available at this time. Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. Abstract: As a...

349

--No Title--  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

| | | | No. 1 Distillate |No. 2 Distillate(1)| No. 4 Fuel(2) Geographic Area ||| Month | | | | | | |...

350

Bioorthogonal Chemistries for Labeling Living Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

purified by fractional distillation at ambient temperaturewas purified by fractional distillation to yield ~12 g of

Sletten, Ellen

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Enthalpy and entropy in chemical reactivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was purified by fractional distillation at atmosphericpurified by fractional distillation under atmospheric

Flach, Agnes

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

KINETIC EVIDENCE FOR THE FORMATION OF DISCRETE 1,4-DEHYDROBENZENE INTERMEDIATES. TRAPPING BY INTER- AND INTRAMOLECULAR HYDROGEN ATOM TRANSFER AND OBSERVATION OF HIGH-TEMPERATURE CIDNP  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

purified by repeated fractional distillation through a glasswas isolated by fractional distillation throug a Ta wire

Lockhart, Thomas P.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

MULTIPHOTON DISSOCIATION AND THERMAL UNIMOLECULAR REACTIONS INDUCED BY INFRARED LASERS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

R) was purified by fractional distillation. Its purity waswere purified by fractional distillation. The purity of

Dai, H-L.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

354

Physical Vacuum in Superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Although experiments carried out by Jain et al. showed that the Cooper pairs obey the strong equivalence principle, The measurement of the Cooper pairs inertial mass by Tate et al. revealed an anomalous excess of mass. In the present paper we interpret these experimental results in the framework of an electromagnetic model of dark energy for the superconductors' vacuum. We argue that this physical vacuum is associated with a preferred frame. Ultimately from the conservation of energy for Cooper pairs we derive a model for a variable vacuum speed of light in the superconductors physical vacuum in relation with a possible breaking of the weak equivalence principle for Cooper pairs.

Clovis Jacinto de Matos

2009-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

355

EMSL - ultrahigh vacuum  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

ultrahigh-vacuum en Magnesium behavior and structural defects in Mg+ ion implanted silicon carbide. http:www.emsl.pnl.govemslwebpublicationsmagnesium-behavior-and-structural-d...

356

Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 1996,34, 4395-4405 4396 Multiple Steady States and Instability in Distillation. Implications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-KTH, S-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden Sigurd Skogestad Chemical Engineering, University of Trondheim-NTH, N, the column may settle in sustained oscillations (stable limit cycle). Finally, the impact of open Conference. become singular, resulting in multiple steady-state solutions. Furthermore, if the energy balance

Skogestad, Sigurd

357

Method and apparatus for converting and removing organosulfur and other oxidizable compounds from distillate fuels, and compositions obtained thereby  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present disclosure is directed to a multi-stage system and a process utilizing said system with the design of reducing the sulfur-content in a liquid comprising hydrocarbons and organosulfur compounds. The process comprising at least one of the following states: (1) an oxidation stage; (2) an extraction state; (3) a raffinate washing stage; (4) a raffinate polishing stage; (5) a solvent recovery stage; (6) a solvent purification stage; and (7) a hydrocarbon recovery stage. The process for removing sulfur-containing hydrocarbons from gas oil, which comprises oxidizing gas oil comprising hydrocarbons and organosulfur compounds to obtain a product gas oil.

D'Alessandro, Robert N. (Spanish Fort, AL); Tarabocchia, John (Parsippany, NJ); Jones, Jerald Andrew (Frankfurt am Main, DE); Bonde, Steven E. (West Richard, WA); Leininger, Stefan (Langenselbold, DE)

2010-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

358

Can the Operating Leaves of a Distillation Column Really Be Tshepo S. Modise, Michaela Tapp, Diane Hildebrandt,* and David Glasser  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to infinity. All column profiles shown in this paper have been generated using the NRTL model at a system

Skogestad, Sigurd

359

A detailed and unified treatment of spin-orbit systems using tools distilled from the theory of bundles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We return to our study \\cite{BEH} of invariant spin fields and spin tunes for polarized beams in storage rings but in contrast to the continuous-time treatment in \\cite{BEH}, we now employ a discrete-time formalism, beginning with the $\\rm{Poincar\\acute{e}}$ maps of the continuous time formalism. We then substantially extend our toolset and generalize the notions of invariant spin field and invariant frame field. We revisit some old theorems and prove several theorems believed to be new. In particular we study two transformation rules, one of them known and the other new, where the former turns out to be an $SO(3)$-gauge transformation rule. We then apply the theory to the dynamics of spin-$1/2$ and spin-$1$ particle bunches and their density matrix functions, describing semiclassically the particle-spin content of bunches. Our approach thus unifies the spin-vector dynamics from the T-BMT equation with the spin-tensor dynamics and other dynamics. This unifying aspect of our approach relates the examples elega...

Heinemann, Klaus; Ellison, James A; Vogt, Mathias

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Structure of middle distillate fuels on the atomic carbon and hydrogen to carbon ratio at alpha position to aromatic rings  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The alkyl, naphthenic, or total carbon atoms of the functional groups at alpha position to aromatic rings and their hydrogen to carbon ratio are some of the important parameters for structural analysis of fossil fuel products. In this paper, the authors present a number of novel formula-structure relationships for precise determination of different carbon atom types at alpha position to aromatic rings and the average number of hydrogens per alpha-carbon.

Glavincevski, B.; Gulder, O.L.; Gardner, L

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

"Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 103. Relative Standard Errors for Table N8.3;"0. Total

362

"Table A2. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ <Information Administration (EIA) 103. Relative Standard Errors for Table N8.3;"0. Total1.6.7..

363

Vacuum Energy Decay  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The problem of the vacuum energy decay is studied through the analysis of the vacuum survival amplitude ${\\mathcal A}(z, z')$. Transition amplitudes are computed for finite time-span, $Z\\equiv z^\\prime-z$, and their {\\em late time} behavior is discussed up to first order in the coupling constant, $\\l$.

Enrique Álvarez; Roberto Vidal

2011-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

364

Vacuum Vessel Remote Handling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Remote Handling 4 Vacuum vessel functions · Plasma vacuum environment · Primary tritium confinement, incl ports 65 tonnes - Weight of torus shielding 100 tonnes · Coolant - Normal Operation Water, Handling 12 Vessel octant subassembly fab. (3) · Octant-to-octant splice joint requires double wall weld

365

Microfabricated triggered vacuum switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A microfabricated vacuum switch is disclosed which includes a substrate upon which an anode, cathode and trigger electrode are located. A cover is sealed over the substrate under vacuum to complete the vacuum switch. In some embodiments of the present invention, a metal cover can be used in place of the trigger electrode on the substrate. Materials used for the vacuum switch are compatible with high vacuum, relatively high temperature processing. These materials include molybdenum, niobium, copper, tungsten, aluminum and alloys thereof for the anode and cathode. Carbon in the form of graphitic carbon, a diamond-like material, or carbon nanotubes can be used in the trigger electrode. Channels can be optionally formed in the substrate to mitigate against surface breakdown.

Roesler, Alexander W. (Tijeras, NM); Schare, Joshua M. (Albuquerque, NM); Bunch, Kyle (Albuquerque, NM)

2010-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

366

Foam Control using a Fluidized Bed of Hydrophobic Particles by Clara Mata*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distillation and Delay-Coker reactors. However, foaming and defoaming are not yet understood. Foams trap gas in oil reservoirs, insulation, construction and refining processes such as Vacuum distillation and Delay gas fraction than the bubbly mixture from which it comes. The high gas hold-up in foams is undesirable

Joseph, Daniel D.

367

Evading death by vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the Standard Model, the Higgs potential allows only one minimum at tree-level. But the open possibility that there might be two scalar doublets enriches the vacuum structure, allowing for the risk that we might now be in a metastable state, which we dub the panic vacuum. Current experiments at the LHC are probing the Higgs particle predicted as a result of the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Remarkably, in the two Higgs model with a softly broken U(1) symmetry, the LHC experiments already preclude panic vacuum solutions.

A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; I. P. Ivanov; Rui Santos; João P. Silva

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott (San Ramon, CA); Rader, Daniel John (Lafayette, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

Thermophoretic vacuum wand  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A thermophoretic vacuum wand that is particularly suited for transporting articles in a cleanroom environment so that potential particle contaminants in the air do not become adhered to the surface of the article is described. The wand includes a housing having a platen with a front surface with suction port(s) through the platen; a vacuum source for applying a negative pressure to the suction port(s); and heating device for the object. Heating the article when it is held by the vacuum wand affords thermophoretic protection that effectively prevents particles in the air from depositing onto the article.

Klebanoff, L.E.; Rader, D.J.

2000-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

371

Biomimicry using Nano-Engineered Enhanced Condensing Surfaces for Sustainable Fresh Water Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

flash distillation (MSF) and reverse osmosis (RO). The 2009flash distillation and reverse osmosis are shown in TableStage Flash Distillation Reverse Osmosis Typical unit size [

Al-Beaini, Sara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

absorbed fraction estimates: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Distillation Performance Muhammad A. Al and rectifying sec- tions of a reactie distillation column can degrade performance. This effect, if truee distillation columns...

373

Vacuum arc deposition devices  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The vacuum arc is a high-current, low-voltage electrical discharge which produces a plasma consisting of vaporized and ionized electrode material. In the most common cathodic arc deposition systems, the arc concentrates at minute cathode spots on the cathode surface and the plasma is emitted as a hypersonic jet, with some degree of contamination by molten droplets [known as macroparticles (MPs)] of the cathode material. In vacuum arc deposition systems, the location and motion of the cathode spots are confined to desired surfaces by an applied magnetic field and shields around undesired surfaces. Substrates are mounted on a holder so that they intercept some portion of the plasma jet. The substrate often provides for negative bias to control the energy of depositing ions and heating or cooling to control the substrate temperature. In some systems, a magnetic field is used to guide the plasma around an obstacle which blocks the MPs. These elements are integrated with a deposition chamber, cooling, vacuum gauges and pumps, and power supplies to produce a vacuum arc deposition system.

Boxman, R.L.; Zhitomirsky, V.N. [Electrical Discharge and Plasma Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering, Tel Aviv University, P.O. Box 39040, Tel Aviv 69978 (Israel)

2006-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Safety of Minkowski Vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a simple argument suggesting that in a consistent quantum field theory tunneling from Minkowski to a lower energy vacuum must be impossible. Theories that allow for such a tunneling also allow for localized states of negative mass, and therefore, should be inconsistent.

Gia Dvali

2011-07-05T23:59:59.000Z

375

Langmuir vacuum and superconductivity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

It is shown that, in the 'jelly' model of cold electron-ion plasma, the interaction between electrons and the quantum electromagnetic vacuum of Langmuir waves involves plasma superconductivity with an energy gap proportional to the energy of the Langmuir quantum.

Veklenko, B. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Joint Institute for High Temperatures (Russian Federation)

2012-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

The vacuum conservation theorem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A version of the vacuum conservation theorem is proved which does not assume the existence of a time function nor demands stronger properties than the dominant energy condition. However, it is shown that a stronger stable version plays a role in the study of compact Cauchy horizons.

E. Minguzzi

2015-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

377

ISAC target vacuum system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Isotope Separator and Accelerator (ISAC) facility at TRIUMF has been in full operation since 1999. The ISAC east and west targets use proton beam from the cyclotron to produce various radioactive isotopes, which are then ionized and extracted. The ions are then passed through the mass separator and selected ions are transferred to the low energy experiments or injected into a radio frequency quadrupole accelerator. The accompanying radioactive contamination from the production of radioactive ions requires a complex vacuum system. The main target vacuum space consists of two semiseparate (primary and secondary) volumes pumped by turbo-molecular pumps. The primary volume uses four pumps while the secondary volume uses two pumps. Two hermetic rotary vane pumps are used as backing pumps. The nominal vacuum in both volumes is about 1.33x10{sup -4} Pa (1.0x10{sup -6} Torr). The pressure is monitored by two cold cathode and two hot filament ion gauges. The cold cathode gauges are used to interlock the system, which is critical during the bake out of the target and beam production. The exhaust gas from the vacuum pumps can be radioactive. Three gas storage tanks (decay tanks) are used for temporary storage of the radioactive exhaust and its controlled release to the atmosphere. Gas-species insensitive membrane gauges are used for monitoring the pressure in the storage tanks. This article describes the details of the ISAC target vacuum system as well as some procedures related to the handling of the exhaust gas with traces of radioactive contamination produced by the targets.

Yosifov, Dimo; Sekachev, Igor [TRIUMF, Canada's National Laboratory for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 2A3 (Canada)

2006-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

378

Level 2 2013/14 Chemical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

separations, differential distillation, flash distillation; fractionating column, continuous column, Mc problems using specific key design parameters for a range of separation processes (Distillation, absorption problem sheets and includes distillation problems, absorption problems, solvent extraction problems

Harman, Neal.A.

379

Minnesota State University Moorhead Department of Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-19 29 Simple and Fractional Distillation of an Ethanol-Water Mixture; Distillation of an Unknown Mixture of an Unknown Sept 17-19 29 Simple and Fractional Distillation of an Ethanol-Water Mixture; Distillation

Jasperse, Craig P.

380
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Identifying Opportunities for Industrial Energy Conservation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Cement Making 5. Vacuum Distillation 4. Cooking 6. Hydrocracking 5. Glass Melting 7. Hydrogen Production 6. Copper Smelting 8. Hydrorefining/Hydrotreating 7. Miscellaneous 9. Visbreaking 10. Petroleum Coking 11. Desulfurization C. Iron and Steel I...

Hoffman, A. R.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Energy Conservation and the Environment - Designing for Cost Savings and Minimum Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

!' completed for a large West Coast refin r. The units evaluated included Crude and Vacuum, Gas Plant, Naphtha Hydrotreati g, Reforming, Distillate Hydrotreating, Hydrocracking, Hydrogen Plant, and cok~ng. A total of 80 energy conservation proj...

Johnnie, D. H., Jr.; Klooster, H. J.; Nagy, J. F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

A radiation hard vacuum switch  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vacuum switch with an isolated trigger probe which is not directly connected to the switching electrodes. The vacuum switch within the plasmatron is triggered by plasma expansion initiated by the trigger probe which travels through an opening to reach the vacuum switch elements. The plasma arc created is directed by the opening to the space between the anode and cathode of the vacuum switch to cause conduction. 3 figs.

Boettcher, G.E.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

384

Surge-damping vacuum valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A valve having a mechanism for damping out flow surges in a vacuum system which utilizes a slotted spring-loaded disk positioned adjacent the valve's vacuum port. Under flow surge conditions, the differential pressure forces the disk into sealing engagement with the vacuum port, thereby restricting the flow path to the slots in the disk damping out the flow surge.

Bullock, Jack C. (Pleasanton, CA); Kelly, Benjamin E. (Tracy, CA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Compact vacuum insulation embodiments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially "point" or "line" contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form "line" contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively "point" contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

Compact vacuum insulation embodiments  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ultra-thin compact vacuum insulation panel is comprised of two hard, but bendable metal wall sheets closely spaced apart from each other and welded around the edges to enclose a vacuum chamber. Glass or ceramic spacers hold the wall sheets apart. The spacers can be discrete spherical beads or monolithic sheets of glass or ceramic webs with nodules protruding therefrom to form essentially point' or line' contacts with the metal wall sheets. In the case of monolithic spacers that form line' contacts, two such spacers with the line contacts running perpendicular to each other form effectively point' contacts at the intersections. Corrugations accommodate bending and expansion, tubular insulated pipes and conduits, and preferred applications are also included. 26 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

388

Vacuum tool manipulator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus for manipulating a vacuum hose in a reactor vessel comprises a housing with two opposing openings, an arm carried by the housing and deployable from a stowed position essentially completely within the housing to an extended position where the arm extends through the two openings in a generally horizontal position. The arm preferably has a two-fingered gripping device for gripping the vacuum hose but may carry a different end effector such as a grinding wheel. The fingers are opened and closed by one air cylinder. A second air cylinder extends the device. A third air cylinder within the housing pivotally pulls the opposing end of the arm into the housing via a pivoting member pivotally connected between the third air cylinder shaft and the arm. 6 figures.

Zollinger, W.T.

1993-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

389

--No Title--  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

| | | | No. 2 Distillate | | || | | | | | Total Geographic Area | No. 2 | | No. 4 |Distillate Month | Diesel | | Fuel(1) | and | Fuel | No. 2 | |...

390

Synthesis, properties, and asymmetric catalysis of chiral cyclophanes and their metal complexes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

was dried by fractional distillation in CaH 2 . Bisphenol Awas purified by fractional distillation and stored with

Choi, So-Young Amy

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

ENERGY & ENVIRONMENT DIVISION. ANNUAL REPORT FY 1980  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 ml or less by fractional distillation. Experimental 20 ml1 ml or less by fractional distillation. OCCIDENTAL'S BOILER

Authors, Various

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Avoiding Death by Vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The two-Higgs doublet model (2HDM) can have two electroweak breaking, CP-conserving, minima. The possibility arises that the minimum which corresponds to the known elementary particle spectrum is metastable, a possibility we call the "panic vacuum". We present analytical bounds on the parameters of the softly broken Peccei-Quinn 2HDM which are necessary and sufficient conditions to avoid this possibility. We also show that, for this particular model, the current LHC data already tell us that we are necessarily in the global minimum of the theory, regardless of any cosmological considerations about the lifetime of the false vacua.

A. Barroso; P. M. Ferreira; I. Ivanov; R. Santos; Joao P. Silva

2013-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

393

Polymers in a Vacuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In a variety of situations, isolated polymer molecules are found in a vacuum, and here we examine their properties. Angular momentum conservation is shown to significantly alter the average size of a chain and its conservation is only broken slowly by thermal radiation. For an ideal chain, the time autocorrelation for monomer position oscillates with a period proportional to chain length. The oscillations and damping are analyzed in detail. Short-range repulsive interactions suppress oscillations and speed up relaxation, but stretched chains still show damped oscillatory correlations.

Deutsch, J. M. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, California 95064 (United States)

2007-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

394

Thermal insulations using vacuum panels  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thermal insulation vacuum panels are formed of an inner core of compressed low thermal conductivity powders enclosed by a ceramic/glass envelope evaluated to a low pressure.

Glicksman, Leon R. (Lynnfield, MA); Burke, Melissa S. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1991-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

395

III. Vacuum PumpsIII. Vacuum Pumps Gas transfer  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

III. Vacuum PumpsIII. Vacuum Pumps Mechanism Gas transfer Gas capture FunctionFunction Roughing (backing, mechanical pumps) Rotary vane Sorption Rotary lobe Scroll ScrewSorption, Rotary lobe, Scroll Phy250-1, 2011, NanoFab16 #12;IIIIII--A. Roughing: Rotary Vane PumpA. Roughing: Rotary Vane Pump (Gas

Liu, Kai

396

Control Dewar Secondary Vacuum Container  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This engineering note provides background information regarding the control dewar secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container has it's origin with the CDP control dewar design. The name secondary vacuum container replaced the CDP term 'Watt can' which was named after Bob Watt (SLAC), a PAC/DOE review committee member who participated in a review of CDP and recommended a secondary vacuum enclosure. One of the most fragile parts of the control dewar design is the ceramic electrical feed throughs located in the secondary vacuum container. The secondary vacuum container is provided to guard against potential leaks in these ceramic insulating feed throughs. The secondary vacuum container has a pumping line separate from the main solenoid/control dewar insulating vacuum. This pumping line is connected to the inlet of the turbo pump for initial pumpdown. Under normal operation the container is isolated. Should a feedthrough develop a small leak, alternate pumping arrangements for the secondary vacuum container could be arranged. The pressure in the secondary vacuum container should be kept in a range that the breakdown voltage is kept at a maximum. The breakdown voltage is known to be a function of pressure and is described by a Paschen curve. I cannot find a copy of the curve at this time, but from what I remember, the breakdown voltage is a minimum somewhere around 10-3 torr. Ideally the pressure in the secondary vacuum can should be kept very low, around 10 E-6 or 10 E-7 torr for maximum breakdown voltage. If however a leak developed and this was not possible, then one could operate at a pressure higher than the minima point.

Rucinski, R.; /Fermilab

1993-10-04T23:59:59.000Z

397

Vacuum Technology for Superconducting Devices  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The basic notions of vacuum technology for superconducting applications are presented, with an emphasis on mass and heat transport in free molecular regimes. The working principles and practical details of turbomolecular pumps and cryopumps are introduced. The specific case of the Large Hadron Collider’s cryogenic vacuum system is briefly reviewed.

Chiggiato, P

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Vacuum flash evaporated polymer composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for fabrication of polymer composite layers in a vacuum is disclosed. More specifically, the method of dissolving salts in a monomer solution, vacuum flash evaporating the solution, condensing the flash evaporated solution as a liquid film, and forming the condensed liquid film into a polymer composite layer on a substrate is disclosed.

Affinito, J.D.; Gross, M.E.

1997-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

399

Vacuum energy and cosmological evolution  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An expanding universe is not expected to have a static vacuum energy density. The so-called cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ should be an approximation, certainly a good one for a fraction of a Hubble time, but it is most likely a temporary description of a true dynamical vacuum energy variable that is evolving from the inflationary epoch to the present day. We can compare the evolving vacuum energy with a Casimir device where the parallel plates slowly move apart ("expand"). The total vacuum energy density cannot be measured, only the effect associated to the presence of the plates, and then also their increasing separation with time. In the universe there is a nonvanishing spacetime curvature $R$ as compared to Minkowskian spacetime that is changing with the expansion. The vacuum energy density must change accordingly, and we naturally expect $\\delta\\Lambda\\sim R\\sim H^2$. A class of dynamical vacuum models that trace such rate of change can be constructed. They are compatible with the current cosmological data, and conveniently extended can account for the complete cosmic evolution from the inflationary epoch till the present days. These models are very close to the $\\Lambda$CDM model for the late universe, but very different from it at the early times. Traces of the inherent vacuum dynamics could be detectable in our recent past.

Joan Sola

2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

400

Precooler Ring Vacuum System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The precooler vacuum system, as proposed by FNAL, is based on a suitable modification of the existing Electron Cooling Ring System. Because of the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets, distributed ion pumping, as exists in the Electron Cooling Ring, is not applicable. Instead, the proposed pumping will be done with commercial appendage ion pumps mounted approximately every two meters around the circumference of the ring. The loss of effective pumping speed and non-uniformity of system pressure with appendage pumps may not be major considerations but the large number required does effect experimental and analytical equipment placement considerations. There is a distributed pumping technique available which: (1) is not affected by the magnetic cycle of the bending magnets; (2) will provide a minimum of four times the hydrogen pumping speed of the proposed appendage ion pumps; (3) will require no power during pumping after the strip is activated; (4) will provide the heat source for bakeout; (5) is easily replaceable; and (6) can be purchased, installed, and operated at a generous economic advantage over the presently proposed ion pumped system. The pumping technique referred to is non-evaporable gettering with ST101 Zr/Al pumping strip. A technical description of this pumping strip is given on Data Sheet 1 and 2 attached to this report.

Moenich, J.

1980-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases there between are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and various laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels. 35 figs.

Benson, D.K.; Potter, T.F.

1992-10-27T23:59:59.000Z

402

Compact vacuum insulation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Improved compact insulation panel is provided which is comprised of two adjacent metal sheets spaced close together with a plurality of spherical, or other discretely shaped, glass or ceramic beads optimally positioned between the sheets to provide support and maintain the spacing between the metal sheets when the gases therebetween are evacuated to form a vacuum. These spherical glass beads provide the maximum support while minimizing thermal conductance. In its preferred embodiment; these two metal sheets are textured with ribs or concave protrusions in conjunction with the glass beads to maximize the structural integrity of the panels while increasing the spacing between beads, thereby reducing the number of beads and the number of thermal conduction paths. Glass or porcelain-enameled liners in combination with the glass spacers and metal sidewalls effectively decrease thermal conductivity, and variious laminates, including wood, porcelain-enameled metal, and others effectively increase the strength and insulation capabilities of the panels. Also, a metal web is provided to hold the spacers in place, and strategic grooves are shown to accommodate expansion and contraction or shaping of the panels.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Potter, Thomas F. (Denver, CO)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

403

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

404

Coal liquefaction process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

Wright, C.H.

1986-02-11T23:59:59.000Z

405

A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production **" means "**% octane".) Once crude oil enters the system, it goes fully through the process. The refinery

Galvin, David

406

Minimum Ultraviolet Light Dose Determination and Characterization of Stress Responses that Affect Dose for Listeria monocytogenes Suspended in Distilled Water, Fresh Brine, and Spent Brine.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Foodborne illnesses caused by Listeria monocytogenes have long been associated with ready-to-eat (RTE) meats contaminated after the primary thermal process has been applied. It is… (more)

McKinney, Julie

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

An extension of the multi-theta method to distillation columns and an almost band solution of the equilibrium stage problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, . . . , c k = 1, 2, . . . , N+1 (47) av. ? I BTk -1 -A. I BA. v. BT. ? i J i = 1, 2, . . . , c k = 1, 2, . . . , N+1 (48) The derivatives of the total and the component flow rates with respect to 6 and T can be obtained by differentiating...(k, j) BTk J BTk K. . BT. J I J 1, 2, . . . , c (52) 1, 2. . . , , N+1 1, 2, . . . , N+1 Solution Procedures The original multipie-theta method as presented by Pendon et al (1973) considered only the temperatures to be independent variables. A...

Gallun, Steven Eugene

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

408

Further studies on the properties of organic and inorganic growth promoting substances in distillers dried solubles for the chick and poult  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efiaited the sama growth response as did the d1stillcrs dried sol'ubles contx ol, Combs et. ~, (1950) obtained four unidentified, , substances which promoted x. apid gxowth in chicks ~ These fractiCQ were separated from ref1ned liver paste dialysate.... 6, HC s tract oi dls 11 s ubas a x Dis? tillars dried solublaa ash was prepared by ignition over an open flame followed by aching in a muffle furnace at 600 C ~ un til a constant weight vas obtained, The distillsrs dx iad sol ublas ash...

Svacha, Richard Lincoln

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"Sales Volumes of

410

,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia, Virginia:FAQ < RAPID Jump to:SeadovCooperativeA2.Reformulated, Average Refiner Gasoline Prices"SalesSales Volumes

411

Probability distribution of the vacuum energy density  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As the vacuum state of a quantum field is not an eigenstate of the Hamiltonian density, the vacuum energy density can be represented as a random variable. We present an analytical calculation of the probability distribution of the vacuum energy density for real and complex massless scalar fields in Minkowski space. The obtained probability distributions are broad and the vacuum expectation value of the Hamiltonian density is not fully representative of the vacuum energy density.

Duplancic, Goran; Stefancic, Hrvoje [Theoretical Physics Division, Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Glavan, Drazen [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Zagreb, P.O. Box 331, HR-10002 Zagreb (Croatia)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

412

Method for vacuum fusion bonding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved vacuum fusion bonding structure and process for aligned bonding of large area glass plates, patterned with microchannels and access holes and slots, for elevated glass fusion temperatures. Vacuum pumpout of all components is through the bottom platform which yields an untouched, defect free top surface which greatly improves optical access through this smooth surface. Also, a completely non-adherent interlayer, such as graphite, with alignment and location features is located between the main steel platform and the glass plate pair, which makes large improvements in quality, yield, and ease of use, and enables aligned bonding of very large glass structures.

Ackler, Harold D. (Sunnyvale, CA); Swierkowski, Stefan P. (Livermore, CA); Tarte, Lisa A. (Livermore, CA); Hicks, Randall K. (Stockton, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

413

Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships. 3 figs.

Anderson, R.P.; Schmalzer, D.K.; Wright, C.H.

1982-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

414

Method for controlling boiling point distribution of coal liquefaction oil product  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The relative ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate produced in a coal liquefaction process is continuously controlled by automatically and continuously controlling the ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in a liquid solvent used to form the feed slurry to the coal liquefaction zone, and varying the weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the liquid solvent inversely with respect to the desired weight ratio of heavy distillate to light distillate in the distillate fuel oil product. The concentration of light distillate and heavy distillate in the liquid solvent is controlled by recycling predetermined amounts of light distillate and heavy distillate for admixture with feed coal to the process in accordance with the foregoing relationships.

Anderson, Raymond P. (Overland Park, KS); Schmalzer, David K. (Englewood, CO); Wright, Charles H. (Overland Park, KS)

1982-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

415

Quantum Vacuum Structure and Cosmology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Contemporary physics faces three great riddles that lie at the intersection of quantum theory, particle physics and cosmology. They are: (1) The expansion of the universe is accelerating - an extra factor of two appears in the size; (2) Zero-point fluctuations do not gravitate - a matter of 120 orders of magnitude; and (3) The 'True' quantum vacuum state does not gravitate. The latter two are explicitly problems related to the interpretation and the physical role and relation of the quantum vacuum with and in general relativity. Their resolution may require a major advance in our formulation and understanding of a common unified approach to quantum physics and gravity. To achieve this goal we must develop an experimental basis and much of the discussion we present is devoted to this task. In the following, we examine the observations and the theory contributing to the current framework comprising these riddles. We consider an interpretation of the first riddle within the context of the universe's quantum vacuum state, and propose an experimental concept to probe the vacuum state of the universe.

Rafelski, Johann; Labun, Lance; Hadad, Yaron; /Arizona U. /Munich U.; Chen, Pisin; /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U. /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

2011-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

416

Vacuum-insulated catalytic converter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A catalytic converter has an inner canister that contains catalyst-coated substrates and an outer canister that encloses an annular, variable vacuum insulation chamber surrounding the inner canister. An annular tank containing phase-change material for heat storage and release is positioned in the variable vacuum insulation chamber a distance spaced part from the inner canister. A reversible hydrogen getter in the variable vacuum insulation chamber, preferably on a surface of the heat storage tank, releases hydrogen into the variable vacuum insulation chamber to conduct heat when the phase-change material is hot and absorbs the hydrogen to limit heat transfer to radiation when the phase-change material is cool. A porous zeolite trap in the inner canister absorbs and retains hydrocarbons from the exhaust gases when the catalyst-coated substrates and zeolite trap are cold and releases the hydrocarbons for reaction on the catalyst-coated substrate when the zeolite trap and catalyst-coated substrate get hot.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Plates for vacuum thermal fusion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for effectively bonding arbitrary size or shape substrates. The process incorporates vacuum pull down techniques to ensure uniform surface contact during the bonding process. The essence of the process for bonding substrates, such as glass, plastic, or alloys, etc., which have a moderate melting point with a gradual softening point curve, involves the application of an active vacuum source to evacuate interstices between the substrates while at the same time providing a positive force to hold the parts to be bonded in contact. This enables increasing the temperature of the bonding process to ensure that the softening point has been reached and small void areas are filled and come in contact with the opposing substrate. The process is most effective where at least one of the two plates or substrates contain channels or grooves that can be used to apply vacuum between the plates or substrates during the thermal bonding cycle. Also, it is beneficial to provide a vacuum groove or channel near the perimeter of the plates or substrates to ensure bonding of the perimeter of the plates or substrates and reduce the unbonded regions inside the interior region of the plates or substrates.

Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Vacuum barrier for excimer lasers  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A barrier for separating the vacuum area of a diode from the pressurized gas area of an excimer laser. The barrier is a composite material comprising layers of a metal such as copper, along with layers of polyimide, and a matrix of graphite fiber yarns impregnated with epoxy. The barrier is stronger than conventional foil barriers, and allows greater electron throughput. 3 figs.

Shurter, R.P.

1992-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

419

HIGH PRODUCTIVITY VACUUM BLASTING SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of the project is to increase the productivity and economics of existing vacuum blasting technology. This technology is used to remove radioactive contamination, PCB's and lead-base paint and provides worker and environmental protection by continuously recycling the blast media and the full containment of the dust generated in the process.

Dr. M.A. Ebadian

2000-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

420

Cosmological and Astrophysical Probes of Vacuum Energy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Vacuum energy changes during cosmological phase transitions and becomes relatively important at epochs just before phase transitions. For a viable cosmology the vacuum energy just after a phase transition must be set by the critical temperature of the next phase transition, which exposes the cosmological constant problem from a different angle. Here we propose to experimentally test the properties of vacuum energy under circumstances different from our current vacuum. One promising avenue is to consider the effect of high density phases of QCD in neutron stars. Such phases have different vacuum expectation values and a different vacuum energy from the normal phase, which can contribute an order one fraction to the mass of neutron stars. Precise observations of the mass of neutron stars can potentially yield information about the gravitational properties of vacuum energy, which can significantly affect their mass-radius relation. A more direct test of cosmic evolution of vacuum energy could be inferred from a ...

Bellazzini, Brando; Hubisz, Jay; Serra, Javi; Terning, John

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Inflation in a Symmetric Vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

If in a finite universe, the tree-level vacuum is a symmetric superposition of coherent states, in each of which the inflaton field assumes a different, energy-minimizing mean value (vev), then the resulting energy is positive and decreases exponentially as the volume of the universe increases. This effect can drive inflation when that volume is small and explain part of dark energy when it is big, but the effect is exceedingly tiny except at very early times.

Kevin Cahill

2007-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

422

Use of ammonia to reduce the viscosity of bottoms streams produced in hydroconversion processes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Coal, petroleum residuum and similar carbonaceous feed materials are subjected to hydroconversion in the presence of molecular hydrogen to produce a hydroconversion effluent which is then subjected to one or more separation steps to remove lower molecular weight liquids and produce a heavy bottoms stream containing high molecular weight liquids and unconverted carbonaceous material. The viscosity of the bottoms streams produced in the separation step or steps is prevented from increasing rapidly by treating the feed to the separation step or steps with ammonia gas prior to or during the separation step or steps. The viscosity of the heavy bottoms stream produced in the final separation step is also controlled by treating these bottoms with ammonia gas. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the effluent from the hydroconversion reactor is subjected to an atmospheric distillation followed by a vacuum distillation and the feeds to these distillations are contacted with ammonia during the distillations.

Zaczepinski, Sioma (Houston, TX); Billimoria, Rustom M. (Houston, TX); Tao, Frank (Baytown, TX); Lington, Christopher G. (Houston, TX); Plumlee, Karl W. (Baytown, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Manufacture of naphthenic type lubricating oils  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A process for making naphthenic type lubricating oils from a low viscosity waxy crude which comprises distilling said low viscosity waxy crude to 500 to 650/sup 0/F. At atmospheric pressure to separate distillable fractions therefrom, subjecting the residue to a vacuum distillation at about 25 to about 125 mm Hg absolute pressure to obtain one or more gas oil fractions, optionally hydrotreating said gas oil fractions in the presence of a Ni/Mo catalyst at 550 to 650/sup 0/F, 0.25 to 1.0 lhsv, and 700-1500 psig, and catalytically dewaxing said distillates in the presence of a H+ form mordenite catalyst containing a group VI or group VIII metal at 550 to 750/sup 0/F, 500 to 1500 psig and 0.25 to 5.0 lhsv, to obtain said naphthenic type oils having pour points of from about -60 to +20/sup 0/F.

Reynolds, R.W.

1981-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

424

Biomimicry using Nano-Engineered Enhanced Condensing Surfaces for Sustainable Fresh Water Technology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gun. • A: Rinse with acetone, IPA, distilled water and thenMicrolab). • B: Rinse with IPA, distilled water and then dryC: Rinse with acetone, IPA, distilled water, dry o? with dry

Al-Beaini, Sara

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Physical Chemist Harold Clayton Urey (1893-1981) Columbia Chemistry Professor Harold Urey experimentally discovered deuterium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for concentration of a possible heavy hydrogen isotope by distillation of liquid hydrogen. Fractional distillation hydrogen was distilled down to 1 cc. Urey detected deuterium by its predicted spectrum in a discharge

426

flSRERliS 1lES"E~fC'l BUR U ~~~~~:=;';';';;;;"~-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Methanolysis and fractional distillation indicated 19.6 percent methyl myristate, 62.0 percent methyl palmitate distillation. The fractions obta in the manufacture of chemical products, Embree (6) has reported that molecular distillation of menhaden oil yields

427

MSW Effects in Vacuum Oscillations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We point out that for solar neutrino oscillations with the mass-squared difference of Delta m^2 ~ 10^-10 - 10^-9 eV^2, traditionally known as ``vacuum oscillation'' range, the solar matter effects are non-negligible, particularly for the low energy pp neutrinos. One consequence of this is that the values of the mixing angle theta and pi/2-theta are not equivalent, leading to the need to consider the entire physical range of the mixing angle 0<=theta<=pi/2 when determining the allowed values of the neutrino oscillation parameters.

Alexander Friedland

2000-05-18T23:59:59.000Z

428

Vacuum friction in rotating particles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the frictional torque acting on particles rotating in empty space. At zero temperature, vacuum friction transforms mechanical energy into light emission and produces particle heating. However, particle cooling relative to the environment occurs at finite temperatures and low rotation velocities. Radiation emission is boosted and its spectrum significantly departed from a hot-body emission profile as the velocity increases. Stopping times ranging from hours to billions of years are predicted for materials, particle sizes, and temperatures accessible to experiment. Implications for the behavior of cosmic dust are discussed.

A. Manjavacas; F. J. García de Abajo

2010-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

429

Shielding vacuum fluctuations with graphene  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Casimir-Polder interaction of ground-state and excited atoms with graphene is investigated with the aim to establish whether graphene systems can be used as a shield for vacuum fluctuations of an underlying substrate. We calculate the zero-temperature Casimir-Polder potential from the reflection coefficients of graphene within the framework of the Dirac model. For both doped and undoped graphene we show limits at which graphene could be used effectively as a shield. Additional results are given for AB-stacked bilayer graphene.

Sofia Ribeiro; Stefan Scheel

2014-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

430

The thermodynamics of a gravitating vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In the present days of modern cosmology it is assumed that the main ingredient to cosmic energy presently is vacuum energy with an energy density $\\epsilon_\\mathrm{vac}$ that is constant over the cosmic evolution. In this paper here we show, however, that this assumption of constant vacuum energy density is unphysical, since it conflicts with the requirements of cosmic thermodynamics. We start from the total vacuum energy including the negatively valued gravitational binding energy and show that cosmic thermodynamics then requires that the cosmic vacuum energy density can only vary with cosmic scale $R=R(t)$ according to $\\epsilon _\\mathrm{vac}\\sim R^{-\

M. Heyl; H. J. Fahr; M. Siewert

2014-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

431

Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

IRWIN, J.J.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Gravitation and vacuum entanglement entropy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The vacuum of quantum fields contains correlated fluctuations. When restricted to one side of a surface these have a huge entropy of entanglement that scales with the surface area. If UV physics renders this entropy finite, then a thermodynamic argument implies the existence of gravity. That is, the causal structure of spacetime must be dynamical and governed by the Einstein equation with Newton's constant inversely proportional to the entropy density. Conversely, the existence of gravity makes the entanglement entropy finite. This thermodynamic reasoning is powerful despite the lack of a detailed description of the dynamics at the cutoff scale, but it has its limitations. In particular, we should not expect to understand corrections to Einstein gravity in this way.

Ted Jacobson

2012-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

433

Laser sealed vacuum insulating window  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the galss panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

1985-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

434

Laser sealed vacuum insulation window  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A laser sealed evacuated window panel is comprised of two glass panes held spaced apart in relation to each other by a plurality of spherical glass beads and glass welded around the edges to provide an evacuated space between the glass panes that is completely glass sealed from the exterior. The glass welded edge seal is obtained by welding the edges of the glass panes together with a laser beam while the glass panes and bead spacers are positioned in a vacuum furnace and heated to the annealing point of the glass to avoid stress fracture in the area of the glass weld. The laser welding in the furnace can be directed around the perimeter of the glass panel by a combination of rotating the glass panel and linearly translating or aiming the laser with a relay mirror.

Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

3, 271283, 2006 Footprints of climate  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distillation process (Dansgaard, 1964; Clark and Fritz, 1997) describing the fractionation that differentiates the heavy and light molecules as to be strongly dependent on temperature. Although simple distillation

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

436

OCEAN THERMAL ENERGY CONVERSION (OTEC) PROGRAMMATIC ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

by liquifaction and fractional distillation of air (EPA, Thefractional elements nitrogen pure form. Nitrogen \\'lill be extracted from the atmosphere by means of liquefaction and distillation,

Sands, M. D.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

437

affinity column mediated: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 323 Active constraint...

438

antigen-specific immunoadsorption columns: Topics by E-print...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 78 Active constraint...

439

accident prediction models: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 136 Title: Development of...

440

animal models predictive: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 222 Title: Development of...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

acid profiles hematology: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jun Yamashita; Minoru Hirayama 2006-10-19 164 EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS Engineering Websites Summary: EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION...

442

antisocial profile deception: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jun Yamashita; Minoru Hirayama 2006-10-19 173 EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS Engineering Websites Summary: EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION...

443

accident prediction model: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

a Kaibel distillation column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages compared Skogestad, Sigurd 136 Title: Development of...

444

application au controle: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Websites Summary: . The method is illustrated on a Petlyuk (Divided wall) distillation column. Keywords: Self-optimizing control, Control structure design, Distillation columns 1....

445

acylcarnitine profiling assay: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Jun Yamashita; Minoru Hirayama 2006-10-19 160 EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION COLUMN PROFILE MAPS Engineering Websites Summary: EXPERIMENTAL SIMULATION OF DISTILLATION...

446

Quality Management of CERN Vacuum Controls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The vacuum controls Section (TE-VSC-ICM) is in charge of the monitoring, maintenance and consolidation of the control systems of all accelerators and detectors in CERN; this represents 6 000 instruments distributed along 128 km of vacuum chambers, often of heterogeneous architectures and of diverse

Antoniotti, F; Fortescue-Beck, E; Gama, J; Gomes, P; Le Roux, P; Pereira, H F; Pigny, G

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

On the Vacuum Propagation of Gravitational Waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that, for any local, causal quantum field theory which couples covariantly to gravity, and which admits Minkowski spacetime vacuum(a) invariant under the inhomogeneous proper orthochronous Lorentz group, plane gravitational waves propagating in such Minkowski vacuum(a) do not dissipate energy or momentum via quantum field theoretic effects.

Xiao Liu

2007-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

448

Measuring Vacuum Polarization with Josephson Junctions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We argue that the vacuum polarization by the virtual electron-positron pairs can be measured by studying a Josephson junction in a strong magnetic field. The vacuum polarization results in a weak dependence of the Josephson constant on the magnetic field strength which is within the reach of the existing experimental techniques.

Penin, Alexander A. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2J1 (Canada) and Institute for Nuclear Research of Russian Academy of Sciences, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2010-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

449

Process for producing low-sulfur boiler fuel by hydrotreatment of solvent deashed SRC  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In this invention, a process is disclosed characterized by heating a slurry of coal in the presence of a process-derived recycle solvent and passing same to a dissolver zone, separating the resultant gases and liquid/solid products therefrom, vacuum distilling the liquid/solids products, separating the portions of the liquid/solids vacuum distillation effluent into a solid ash, unconverted coal particles and SRC material having a boiling point above 850.degree. F. and subjecting same to a critical solvent deashing step to provide an ash-free SRC product. The lighter liquid products from the vacuum distillation possess a boiling point below 850.degree. F. and are passed through a distillation tower, from which recycled solvent is recovered in addition to light distillate boiling below 400.degree. F. (overhead). The ash-free SRC product in accompanyment with at least a portion of the process derived solvent is passed in combination to a hydrotreating zone containing a hydrogenation catalyst and in the presence of hydrogen is hydroprocessed to produce a desulfurized and denitrogenized low-sulfur, low-ash boiler fuel and a process derived recycle solvent which is recycled to slurry the coal in the beginning of the process before heating.

Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Tao, John C. (Perkiomenville, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Catalytic multi-stage process for hydroconversion and refining hydrocarbon feeds  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A multi-stage catalytic hydrogenation and hydroconversion process for heavy hydrocarbon feed materials such as coal, heavy petroleum fractions, and plastic waste materials. In the process, the feedstock is reacted in a first-stage, back-mixed catalytic reactor with a highly dispersed iron-based catalyst having a powder, gel or liquid form. The reactor effluent is pressure-reduced, vapors and light distillate fractions are removed overhead, and the heavier liquid fraction is fed to a second stage back-mixed catalytic reactor. The first and second stage catalytic reactors are operated at 700-850.degree. F. temperature, 1000-3500 psig hydrogen partial pressure and 20-80 lb./hr per ft.sup.3 reactor space velocity. The vapor and light distillates liquid fractions removed from both the first and second stage reactor effluent streams are combined and passed to an in-line, fixed-bed catalytic hydrotreater for heteroatom removal and for producing high quality naphtha and mid-distillate or a full-range distillate product. The remaining separator bottoms liquid fractions are distilled at successive atmospheric and vacuum pressures, low and intermediate-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products are withdrawn, and heavier distillate fractions are recycled and further upgraded to provide additional low-boiling hydrocarbon liquid products. This catalytic multistage hydrogenation process provides improved flexibility for hydroprocessing the various carbonaceous feedstocks and adjusting to desired product structures and for improved economy of operations.

Comolli, Alfred G. (Yardley, PA); Lee, Lap-Keung (Cranbury, NJ)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

Vacuum control subsystem for the Fermilab Tevatron  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The CAMAC 170 module and CIA crate provide a convenient, cost effective method of interfacing any system requiring a large number of simple devices to be multiplexed into the Accelerator Control System. The system is ideal for relatively slowly changing systems where ten bit analog to digital conversions are sufficiently accurate. Together with vacuum interface CIA cards and prom-based software resident in the 170, this system is used to provide intelligent local monitoring and control for the Tevatron vacuum subsystems. Although not implemented in the vacuum interface, digital to analog converters could be included on the plug in modules as well, providing a total digital and analog multiplexing scheme. 2 refs.

Zagel, J.R.; Chapman, L.J.

1981-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Vacuum fluctuations for spherical gravitational impulsive waves  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We propose a method for calculating vacuum fluctuations on the background of a spherical impulsive gravitational wave which results in a finite expression for the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor. The method is based on first including a cosmological constant as an auxiliary constant. We show that the result for the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor in second-order perturbation theory is finite if both the cosmological constant and the infrared parameter tend to zero at the same rate.

M. Hortaçsu

1998-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

453

Vacuum breaks of the doubler magnet system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energy doubler system contains two vacuum systems; the cold beam tube vacuum and the insulating vacuum system. These two systems are independent of each other. Both have connections to the outside world through pumpouts. This report attempts to make an estimate of the effect of a massive failure (large rupture of a connection to the outside world) upon the magnets and the contained helium in the magnet system. It is assumed that the event takes place with magnets full of helium, at steady state cryogenic conditions, but without magnetic field. Quenching of the magnets is therefore not a part of this analysis.

Not Available

1980-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

454

Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - August 2012 Independent Oversight Review, Hanford K Basin and Cold Vacuum Drying Facility - August 2012 August 2012 Review of Hanford K...

455

SHINE Vacuum Pump Test Verification  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Normetex pumps used world-wide for tritium service are no longer available. DOE and other researchers worldwide have spent significant funds characterizing this pump. Identification of alternate pumps is required for performance and compatibility with tritium gas. Many of the pumps that could be used to meet the functional performance requirements (e.g. pressure and flow conditions) of the Normetex pump have features that include the use of polymers or oils and greases that are not directly compatible with tritium service. This study assembles a test system to determine the flow characteristics for candidate alternate pumps. These tests are critical to the movement of tritium through the SHINE Tritium Purification System (TPS). The purpose of the pump testing is two-fold: (1) obtain baseline vacuum pump characteristics for an alternate (i.e. ''Normetex replacement'') pump intended for use in tritium service; and (2) verify that low pressure hydrogen gas can be transported over distances up to 300 feet by the candidate pumps. Flow rates and nominal system pressures have been identified for the SHINE Mo-99 production process Tritium Purification System (TPS). To minimize the line sizes for the transfer of low pressure tritium from the Neutron Driver Accelerator System (NDAS) to the primary processing systems in the TPS, a ''booster'' pump has been located near the accelerator in the design. A series of pump tests were performed at various configurations using hydrogen gas (no tritium) to ensure that this concept is practical and maintains adequate flow rates and required pressures. This report summarizes the results of the tests that have been performed using various pump configurations. The current design of the Tritium Purification System requires the ''booster'' pump to discharge to or to be backed by another vacuum pump. Since Normetex pumps are no longer manufactured, a commercially available Edwards scroll pump will be used to back the booster pump. In this case the ''booster pump'' is an Adixen Molecular Drag Pump (MDP 5011) and the backing pump is an Edwards (nXDS15iC) scroll pump. Various configurations of the two pumps and associated lengths of 3/4 inch tubing (0 feet to 300 feet) were used in combination with hydrogen and nitrogen flow rates ranging from 25-400 standard cubic centimeters per minute (sccm) to determine whether the proposed pump configuration meets the design criteria for SHINE. The results of this study indicate that even under the most severe conditions (300 feet of tubing and 400 sccm flow rate) the Adixen 5011 MDP can serve as a booster pump to transport gases from the accelerator (NDAS) to the TPS. The Target Gas Receiving System pump (Edwards nXDS15iC) located approximately 300 feet from the accelerator can effectively back the Adixen MDP. The molecular drag pump was able to maintain its full rotational speed even when the flow rate was 400 sccm hydrogen or nitrogen and 300 feet of tubing was installed between the drag pump and the Edwards scroll pump. In addition to maintaining adequate rotation, the pressure in the system was maintained below the target pressure of 30 torr for all flow rates, lengths of tubing, and process gases. This configuration is therefore adequate to meet the SHINE design requirements in terms of flow and pressure.

Morgan, Gregg A; Peters, Brent

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

456

Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vacuum housing and pumping system for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof.

Coutts, Gerald W. (Livermore, CA); Bushman, John F. (Oakley, CA); Alger, Terry W. (Tracy, CA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

SLAC All Access: Vacuum Microwave Device Department  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

The Vacuum Microwave Device Department (VMDD) builds the devices that make SLAC's particle accelerators go. These devices, called klystrons, generate intense waves of microwave energy that rocket subatomic particles up to nearly the speed of light.

Haase, Andy

2014-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

458

Source replenishment device for vacuum deposition  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A material source replenishment device for use with a vacuum deposition apparatus is described. The source replenishment device comprises an intermittent motion producing gear arrangement disposed within the vacuum deposition chamber. An elongated rod having one end operably connected to the gearing arrangement is provided with a multiarmed head at the opposite end disposed adjacent the heating element of the vacuum deposition apparatus. An inverted U-shaped source material element is releasably attached to the outer end of each arm member whereby said multiarmed head is moved to locate a first of said material elements above said heating element, whereupon said multiarmed head is lowered to engage said material element with the heating element and further lowered to release said material element on the heating element. After vaporization of said material element, second and subsequent material elements may be provided to the heating element without the need for opening the vacuum deposition apparatus to the atmosphere.

Hill, R.A.

1986-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

459

Mass spectrometer vacuum housing and pumping system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A vacuum housing and pumping system is described for a portable gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS). The vacuum housing section of the system has minimum weight for portability while designed and constructed to utilize metal gasket sealed stainless steel to be compatible with high vacuum operation. The vacuum pumping section of the system consists of a sorption (getter) pump to remove atmospheric leakage and outgassing contaminants as well as the gas chromatograph carrier gas (hydrogen) and an ion pump to remove the argon from atmospheric leaks. The overall GC/MS system has broad application to contaminants, hazardous materials, illegal drugs, pollution monitoring, etc., as well as for use by chemical weapon treaty verification teams, due to the light weight and portability thereof. 7 figs.

Coutts, G.W.; Bushman, J.F.; Alger, T.W.

1996-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

460

Electrospray emitters For diffusion vacuum pumps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Following similar principles as regular diffusion vacuum pumps, an electrospray emitter is set to produce a jet of charged particles that will drag air molecules out of a volume. To be a feasible concept, the emitted ...

Diaz Gómez Maqueo, Pablo (Pablo Ly)

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

Irwin, J.J.

1997-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

462

Mixed MSW and Vacuum Solutions of Solar Neutrino Problem  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Assuming three flavour neutrino mixing takes place in vacuum, we investigate the possibility that the solar $\

Qiu-Yu Liu

1997-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

463

Quality Management of CERN Vacuum Controls  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The vacuum controls Section (TE-VSC-ICM) is in charge of the monitoring, maintenance and consolidation of the control systems of all accelerators and detectors in CERN; this represents 6 000 instruments distributed along 128 km of vacuum chambers, often of heterogeneous architectures and of diverse technical generations. In order to improve the efficiency of the services provided by ICM, to vacuum experts and to accelerator operators, a Quality Management Plan is being put into place. The first step was the standardization of the naming convention across different accelerators. The traceability of problems, requests, repairs, and other actions, has also been put into place (VTL). This was combined with the effort to identify each individual device by a coded label, and register it in a central database (MTF). Occurring in parallel, was the gathering of old documents and the centralization of information concerning architectures, procedures, equipment and settings (EDMS). To describe the topology of control c...

Antoniotti, F; Fortescue-Beck, E; Gama, J; Gomes, P; Le Roux, P; Pereira, H; Pigny, G

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

464

A Road Map to Extreme High Vacuum  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ultimate pressure of a well-designed vacuum system very much depends on pretreatments, processing and the procedures [1,2]. Until now much attention has been paid in minimizing hydrogen outgassing from the chamber material. However, procedures and processing deserves further scrutiny than hitherto given so far. For reducing the gas load, high sensitivity helium leak detection techniques with sensitivities better than 1× 10-12 Torr l/sec need to be used. Effects that are induced by vacuum instrumentation need to be reduced in order to obtain accurate pressure measurements. This presentation will discuss: clean assembly procedures, metal sponges for cryosorption pumping of hydrogen to extreme high vacuum, low cost surface diffusion barriers for reducing the hydrogen gas load, cascade pumping, sensitive helium leak detection techniques and the use of modified extractor and residual gas analyzers. Further, alternative back up pumping systems based on active NEG’s [3] for turbo molecular pumps will be presented.

Ganapati Rao Myneni

2007-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

465

Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals (vdW) and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry, and in emerging technologies involving, e.g. micro-electromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum-modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension (1d), we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free-space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems, and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line.

Ephraim Shahmoon; Igor Mazets; Gershon Kurizki

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

466

Phosphine Catalysis using Allenoates with pro-Nucleophiles or Arylidenes; Development of an Asymetric Phosphine Catalyst; and Allenes as ?-Ligands in Copper-Mediated Cross-Coupling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air. 7 Furthermore, argon replenishment following evaporation of the tetrahydrofuran solvent, oxygen-free fractional distillation,

Martin, Tioga Jarrett

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Optimal Model-Based Production Planning  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Hydrotreatment Gasoline blending Distillate blending Gas oil blending Cat Crack CDU crude1 crude2 butane Fuel gas Premium Reg. Distillate GO Treated Residuum SR Fuel gas SR Naphtha SR Gasoline SR Distillate SR GO SR Gasoline SR Distillate SR GO SR Residuum backoutletCDUfrontoutletCDUfeedfeedCDUoutlet bbFaF ,,,,, * ++= #12

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

468

Supporting Information Wiley-VCH 2011  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, iodoethane, acrylonitrile, and acrolein were distilled prior to use. Purified water was obtained using

Stoltz, Brian M.

469

Palladium-Catalyzed Asymmetric Alkylation in the Synthesis of Cyclopentanoid and Cycloheptanoid Core Structures Bearing All-  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, iodoethane, acrylonitrile, methyl vinyl ketone, and acrolein were distilled prior to use. Purified water

Stoltz, Brian M.

470

COMPARING DETECTION METHODS OF AFLATOXIN AND EXPLORING AFLATOXIN DECONTAMINATION METHODS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DECONTAMINATION METHODS Pages in Study: 81 Candidate for Degree of Master of Science Ethanol fermentation if aflatoxin concentrated in the distilled ethanol and/or dry distillers grain end-products. Alliquots of fermented mash, distilled ethanol, stillage, and dry distillers grain (DDG) were analyzed via LC

Ray, David

471

Asphalt Pavement Aging and Temperature Dependent Properties through a Functionally Graded Viscoelastic Model, Part-II: Applications  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

products obtained through fractional distillation of crude oil or petroleum. Due to its organic nature

Paulino, Glaucio H.

472

AMINO ACID AND SUGAR CONTENT OF THE NECTAR EXUDATE FROM LIMODORUM ABORTIVUM (ORCHIDACEAE).  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Darmstadt) and purified by fractional distillation after appropriate drying. Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

473

Computational and experimental study of JP-8, a surrogate, and its components in counterflow  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fractional distillation. Temperature profiles and extinction limits are measured in all flames and compared

Utah, University of

474

This major provides students with core instruction and excellent research opportunities, including the opportunity to engage in a research project with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and practice in chemical analysis, emphasizing instrumental techniques; error analysis, fractional distillation

Rohs, Remo

475

Particle segregation by Stokes number for small neutrally buoyant spheres in a fluid Phanindra Tallapragada* and Shane D. Ross  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the separation of flexible biological particles and the fractional distillation of blood 10,11 . Innovative

Ross, Shane

476

Transactions of the ASABE Vol. 49(6): 167-174 E 2006 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers ISSN 0001-2351 167  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

@uidaho.edu. by fractional distillation. High energy consumption, expen- sive splitting facilities, and degradation

He, Brian

477

Energy Efficiency Improvement in the Petroleum Refining Industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

i.e. crude distillation, hydrotreating, reforming, vacuumthe severity and in hydrotreating the treated feed may

Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

478

Flash Photolysis Studies of Roussin's Black Salt Anion: Fe4S3(NO)7 James Bourassa, Brian Lee, Stefan Bernard, Jon Schoonover, and Peter C. Ford*,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 ReceiVed NoVember 5, 1998 A time-resolved optical (UV. Water for spectroscopic studies was purified using a Millipore system. Methanol was distilled under (Air Liquide) for vacuum manifold manipulation was chromato- graphic grade and was first passed through

Bernhard, Stefan

479

INTRODUCTION CURRENT METHODS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

membrane, leaving salt and contaminants behind. Another common method of desalination is vacuum distillation, in which water is separated from salt and other contaminants based on the fact that water and leave behind the brine from the salt water, thereby purifying potable water. Presently, the major

Auerbach, Scott M.

480

New Mexico Water Resources Research Institute, New Mexico State University http://wrri.nmsu.edu Sustainable Recovery of Potable Water from Saline Waters  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

collectors, absorption refrigeration system, vacuum distillation, thermal energy storage tank and process a modification to that process, whereby it can be run round the clock using a thermal energy storage (TES) system modeling Problem and research objectives Due to increasing energy costs and declining energy sources

Johnson, Eric E.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation vacuum distillation" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

ECCM15 -15TH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON COMPOSITE MATERIALS, Venice, Italy, 24-28 June 2012  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industries are expanding, notably in the automotive industry. Furthermore, natural fibres have the intrinsic® and Terralin® ) must be characterized. Vacuum moulded Flax/PLA and Flax/PP samples were made, and samples based on sisal, flax, hemp fibres associated to either PLA, PP or epoxy matrix and exposed to distilled

Boyer, Edmond

482

Applied Engineering in Agriculture Vol. 22(2): 261-265 E 2006 American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers ISSN 0883-8542 261  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

this alcohol for reuse. Further refining of the crude glycerol will depend on the economy of production scale and/or the availability of a glycerol purification facility. Larger scale biodiesel producers refine@uidaho.edu. It is generally treated and refined through filtration, chemical additions, and fractional vacuum distillation

He, Brian

483

Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut.

Coyne, Martin J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Fiscus, Gregory M. (McMurray, PA); Sammel, Alfred G. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Remote vacuum compaction of compressible hazardous waste  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system is described for remote vacuum compaction and containment of low-level radioactive or hazardous waste comprising a vacuum source, a sealable first flexible container, and a sealable outer flexible container for receiving one or more first flexible containers. A method for compacting low level radioactive or hazardous waste materials at the point of generation comprising the steps of sealing the waste in a first flexible container, sealing one or more first containers within an outer flexible container, breaching the integrity of the first containers, evacuating the air from the inner and outer containers, and sealing the outer container shut. 8 figs.

Coyne, M.J.; Fiscus, G.M.; Sammel, A.G.

1998-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

485

Wave guides: vacuum w/ tube of conductor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Wave guides: vacuum w/ tube of conductor boundary conditions for conductor Properties: non-transverse waves except TEM mode in coaxial cable speed normal modes (from Liouville problem) TE or TM TEM for coaxial cable cuto frequency otherwise evanescent waves separation into and components with 1 #12;B

Hart, Gus

486

Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Vacuum fusion bonding of glass plates  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved apparatus and method for vacuum fusion bonding of large, patterned glass plates. One or both glass plates are patterned with etched features such as microstructure capillaries and a vacuum pumpout moat, with one plate having at least one hole therethrough for communication with a vacuum pumpout fixture. High accuracy alignment of the plates is accomplished by a temporary clamping fixture until the start of the fusion bonding heat cycle. A complete, void-free fusion bond of seamless, full-strength quality is obtained through the plates; because the glass is heated well into its softening point and because of a large, distributed force that is developed that presses the two plates together from the difference in pressure between the furnace ambient (high pressure) and the channeling and microstructures in the plates (low pressure) due to the vacuum drawn. The apparatus and method may be used to fabricate microcapillary arrays for chemical electrophoresis; for example, any apparatus using a network of microfluidic channels embedded between plates of glass or similar moderate melting point substrates with a gradual softening point curve, or for assembly of glass-based substrates onto larger substrates, such as in flat panel display systems.

Swierkowski, Steve P. (Livermore, CA); Davidson, James C. (Livermore, CA); Balch, Joseph W. (Livermore, CA)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

488

Design of the EBIS vacuum system  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

At Brookhaven National Laboratory the Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) is presently being commissioned. The EBIS will be a new heavy ion pre-injector for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The new preinjector has the potential for significant future intensity increases and can produce heavy ion beams of all species including uranium. The background pressure in the ionization region of the EBIS required to be low enough that it does not produce a significant number of ions from background gas. The pressure in the regions of the electron gun and electron collector can be higher than in the ionization region provided there is efficient vacuum separation between the sections. For injection the ions must be accelerated to 100KV by pulsing the EBIS platform. All associated equipment including the vacuum equipment on the platform is at a 100KV potential. The vacuum system design and the vacuum controls for the EBIS platform and transport system will be presented as well as the interface with the Booster Ring which has a pressure 10-11 Torr.

Mapes, M.; Smart, L.; Weiss, D.

2011-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

489

Fractal Threshold Behavior in Vacuum Gravitational Collapse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present the numerical evidence for fractal threshold behavior in the five dimensional vacuum Einstein equations satisfying the cohomogeneity-two triaxial Bianchi type-IX ansatz. In other words, we show that a flip of the wings of a butterfly may influence the process of the black hole formation.

Sebastian J. Szybka; Tadeusz Chmaj

2008-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

490

2nd IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

2nd IEEE International Vacuum Electronics Conference Huis ter Duin, Noordwijk, The Netherlands) model based on Eulerian electron beam equations. We identify and illustrate with preliminary exam- ples. With such multifrequency input signals, the inherent nonlinear behavior of the electron beam produces unwanted frequencies

Dobson, Ian

491

Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility vacuum and purge system design description  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Vacuum and Purge System (VPS) . The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-O02, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), The HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-002, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the VPS equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved.

IRWIN, J.J.

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

492

Energy Comparison Vacuum Producing Equipment - Mechanical Vacuum Pumps vs. Steam Ejectors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vacuum on condensers, process reactors, or equipment and processes requiring subatmospheric conditions, has been to utilize steam ejectors. Due to the inherent operating inefficiency and wastefulness of the steam ejector, coupled with the rapidly...

Foisy, E. C.; Munkittrick, M. T.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Vacuum insulation tandem accelerator for B. Bayanov1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

273 Vacuum insulation tandem accelerator for NCT B. Bayanov1 , Yu. Belchenko1 , V. Belov1 , G of high current hydrogen negative ions by special geometry of potential electrodes with vacuum insulation. Fig. 1 shows the construction of vacuum insulation tandem accelerator developed at BINP, as a base

Taskaev, Sergey Yur'evich

494

Spontaneous Emission from a Fractal Vacuum  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Spontaneous emission of a quantum emitter coupled to a QED vacuum with a deterministic fractal structure of its spectrum is considered. We show that the decay probability does not follow a Wigner-Weisskopf exponential decrease but rather an overall power law behavior with a rich oscillatory structure, both depending on the local fractal properties of the vacuum spectrum. These results are obtained by giving first a general perturbative derivation for short times. Then we propose a simplified model which retains the main features of a fractal spectrum to establish analytic expressions valid for all time scales. Finally, we discuss the case of a Fibonacci cavity and its experimental relevance to observe these results.

Eric Akkermans; Evgeni Gurevich

2012-10-25T23:59:59.000Z

495

Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required.

Schmitt, Edward H. (Livermore, CA); Tuckerman, David B. (Livermore, CA)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Interacting vacuum energy in the dark sector  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analyse three cosmological scenarios with interaction in the dark sector, which are particular cases of a general expression for the energy flux from vacuum to matter. In the first case the interaction leads to a transition from an unstable de Sitter phase to a radiation dominated universe, avoiding in this way the initial singularity. In the second case the interaction gives rise to a slow-roll power-law inflation. Finally, the third scenario is a concordance model for the late-time universe, with the vacuum term decaying into cold dark matter. We identify the physics behind these forms of interaction and show that they can be described as particular types of the modified Chaplygin gas.

L. P. Chimento; S. Carneiro

2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

497

Vacuum die attach for integrated circuits  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A thin film eutectic bond for attaching an integrated circuit die to a circuit substrate is formed by coating at least one bonding surface on the die and substrate with an alloying metal, assembling the die and substrate under compression loading, and heating the assembly to an alloying temperature in a vacuum. A very thin bond, 10 microns or less, which is substantially void free, is produced. These bonds have high reliability, good heat and electrical conduction, and high temperature tolerance. The bonds are formed in a vacuum chamber, using a positioning and loading fixture to compression load the die, and an IR lamp or other heat source. For bonding a silicon die to a silicon substrate, a gold silicon alloy bond is used. Multiple dies can be bonded simultaneously. No scrubbing is required. 1 figure.

Schmitt, E.H.; Tuckerman, D.B.

1991-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

498

Flat Spacetime Vacuum in Loop Quantum Gravity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct a state in the loop quantum gravity theory with zero cosmological constant, which should correspond to the flat spacetime vacuum solution. This is done by defining the loop transform coefficients of a flat connection wavefunction in the holomorphic representation which satisfies all the constraints of quantum General Relativity and it is peaked around the flat space triads. The loop transform coefficients are defined as spin foam state sum invariants of the spin networks embedded in the spatial manifold for the SU(2) quantum group. We also obtain an expression for the vacuum wavefunction in the triad represntation, by defining the corresponding spin networks functional integrals as SU(2) quantum group state sums.

A. Mikovic

2004-04-06T23:59:59.000Z

499

Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. The trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyze realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement.

D. E. Chang; K. Sinha; J. M. Taylor; H. J. Kimble

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

500

Representing the vacuum polarization on de Sitter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Previous studies of the vacuum polarization on de Sitter have demonstrated that there is a simple, noncovariant representation of it in which the physics is transparent. There is also a cumbersome, covariant representation in which the physics is obscure. Despite being unwieldy, the latter form has a powerful appeal for those who are concerned about de Sitter invariance. We show that nothing is lost by employing the simple, noncovariant representation because there is a closed form procedure for converting its structure functions to those of the covariant representation. We also present a vastly improved technique for reading off the noncovariant structure functions from the primitive diagrams. And we discuss the issue of representing the vacuum polarization for a general metric background.

Leonard, Katie E.; Woodard, Richard P. [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)] [Department of Physics, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Prokopec, Tomislav [Institute of Theoretical Physics (ITP) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)] [Institute of Theoretical Physics (ITP) and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Postbus 80195, 3508 TD Utrecht (Netherlands)

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z