National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for distillation downstream charge

  1. The Charged Heavy Ion COunter (CHICO) is comprised of two equivalent halves referred to as the upstream and downstream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cline, Douglas

    to as the upstream and downstream detectors (as seen from the particle beam's point of view). Each half consists to wrap around the beampipe upstream of CHICO, and ten downstream to complete the entire system

  2. Neutrino Factory Downstream Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zisman, Michael S.

    2009-12-23

    We describe the Neutrino Factory accelerator systems downstream from the target and capture area. These include the bunching and phase rotation, cooling, acceleration, and decay ring systems. We also briefly discuss the R&D program under way to develop these systems, and indicate areas where help from CERN would be invaluable.

  3. Canonical Distillation of Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamoghna Das; Asutosh Kumar; Amit Kumar Pal; Namrata Shukla; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

    2015-02-10

    Distilling highly entangled quantum states from weaker ones is a process that is crucial for efficient and long-distance quantum communication, and has implications for several other quantum information protocols. We introduce the notion of distillation under limited resources, and specifically focus on the energy constraint. The corresponding protocol, which we call the canonical distillation of entanglement, naturally leads to the set of canonically distillable states. We show that for non-interacting Hamiltonians, almost no states are canonically distillable, while the situation can be drastically different for interacting ones. Several paradigmatic Hamiltonians are considered for bipartite as well as multipartite canonical distillability. The results have potential applications for practical quantum communication devices.

  4. Canonical Distillation of Entanglement

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tamoghna Das; Asutosh Kumar; Amit Kumar Pal; Namrata Shukla; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

    2015-09-08

    Distilling highly entangled quantum states from weaker ones is a process that is crucial for efficient and long-distance quantum communication, and has implications for several other quantum information protocols. We introduce the notion of distillation under limited resources, and specifically focus on the energy constraint. The corresponding protocol, which we call the canonical distillation of entanglement, naturally leads to the set of canonically distillable states. We show that for non-interacting Hamiltonians, almost no states are canonically distillable, while the situation can be drastically different for interacting ones. Several paradigmatic Hamiltonians are considered for bipartite as well as multipartite canonical distillability. The results have potential applications for practical quantum communication devices.

  5. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  6. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

  7. Hydrocracking distillate feedstocks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kurganov, V.M.; Gorshtein, A.B.; Shkol'nik, B.L.; Shtein, V.I.

    1987-05-01

    The main shortcoming of single-stage hydrocracking is the very high level of feedstock cracking. The authors discuss the development of multistage technology in which each stage can operate under optimal conditions at a moderate conversion level, better flexibility in process control, and better process indexes. The main feature of the multistage technology is the preliminary hydrogenation of the original feed. The composition of the original feed and the middle distillate cuts obtaining in two-stage hydrocracking of a vacuum distillate from West Siberian crude, using cobalt-molybdenum oxide catalyst in the first stage and a zeolitic catalyst in the second stage is presented. Data is provided on the influence of pressure on the hydrocracking indexes.

  8. Data acquisition, distillation,Data acquisition, distillation, and storageand storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ' to executeDetermines `best time' to execute a program based on weather,a program based on weather, arrayData acquisition, distillation,Data acquisition, distillation, and storageand storage · FASR will produce ~10 Tbyte/day at maturity · "Raw" data products include visibility data, M&C data, calibration

  9. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated...

  10. Optimal Control of Distillation Systems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

  11. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  12. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

  13. UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM INFLUENCE ON STBLI UNSTEADINESS Upstream and Downstream Influence on the Unsteadiness

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín, Pino

    UPSTREAM AND DOWNSTREAM INFLUENCE ON STBLI UNSTEADINESS 1 Upstream and Downstream Influence the upstream flow and downstream flow with the shock motions. In Section 6, we characterize the separa between the incoming flow and the shock motions, as well as the downstream flow and the shock unsteadiness

  14. U.S. Downstream Charge Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Dry NaturalPrices Global Crude Oil Generaldiesel fuel priceArea:

  15. Assisted distillation of quantum coherence

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Adesso, G; Lewenstein, M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other, an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication (LQICC). We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, a direct analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  16. Supply chain practices in the petroleum downstream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santos Manzano, Fidel

    2005-01-01

    This thesis studies current supply chain practices in the petroleum downstream industry, using ExxonMobil as a case study. Based on the analysis of the literature and the interaction with industry experts, this work describes ...

  17. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel...

  18. Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paul, D. B.

    1983-01-01

    Distillation processes are energy intensive separation processes which present attractive opportunities for energy conservation. Through the use of multistage vapor recompression, heat which is normally unavailable can be ...

  19. Downstream extent of the N Reactor plume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dauble, D.D.; Ecker, R.M.; Vail, L.W.; Neitzel, D.A.

    1987-09-01

    The downstream extent of the N Reactor thermal plume was studied to assess the potential for fisheries impacts downstream of N Reactor. The N Reactor plume, as defined by the 0.5/sup 0/F isotherm, will extend less than 10 miles downstream at river flows greater than or equal to annual average flows (120,000 cfs). Incremental temperature increases at the Oregon-Washington border are expected to be less than 0.5/sup 0/F during all Columbia River flows greater than the minimum regulated flows (36,000 cfs). The major physical factor affecting Columbia River temperatures in the Hanford Reach is solar radiation. Because the estimated temperature increase resulting from N Reactor operations is less than 0.3/sup 0/F under all flow scenarios, it is unlikely that Columbia River fish populations will be adversely impacted.

  20. Philippines' downstream sector poised for growth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-11

    This paper reports that the Philippines' downstream sector is poised for sharp growth. Despite a slip in refined products demand in recent years, Philippines products demand will rebound sharply by 2000, East-West Center (EWC), Honolulu, predicts. Philippines planned refinery expansions are expected to meet that added demand, EWC Director Fereidun Fesharaki says. Like the rest of the Asia-Pacific region, product specifications are changing, but major refiners in the area expect to meet the changes without major case outlays. At the same time, Fesharaki says, push toward deregulation will further bolster the outlook for the Philippines downstream sector.

  1. Analysis and Control of Heteroazeotropic Batch Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    , called an entrainer, has to be added to facilitate separation and enhance distillation. When a heavy entrainer is added continuously in the top section of the batch column the process is called extractive batch distillation. When an entrainer is added batchwise to the original mixture we simply call

  2. Downstream-based Scheduling for Energy Conservation in Green EPONs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shihada, Basem

    downstream and upstream ONU transmissions can maximize the ONU sleep time, it jeopardizes the quality is based on the upstream time slot. In this paper, we study the downstream traffic performance in green sleep time, setting identical upstream/downstream transmission cycle times based on a maximum downstream

  3. Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    condenser operates above ambient temperature, the rejected heat also contains unused availability. By incorporating an absorption heat pump (AHP) into the distillation process, these sources of unused availability can be tapped so as to recycle (and hence...

  4. An improved model for multiple effect distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mistry, Karan H.

    Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple ...

  5. Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Summers, Edward K

    2013-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

  6. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  7. Electric Driven Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, G. E.

    1983-01-01

    Radian Corporation, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has recently completed a study of the potential range of application for retrofitting electric driven heat pumps to existing distillation columns. ...

  8. Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio blog distillation by adding a link analysis phase to the standard retrieval-by-topicality phase, where in blog distillation. 1 Introduction Blog distillation is a subtask of blog search. It is defined

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND DEPLOYMENT OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.; Edwards, T.

    2010-10-28

    The Savannah River Site has a mission to dissolve fissile materials and disposition them. The primary fissile material is plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}). To support dissolution of these materials, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and demonstrated a vacuum salt distillation (VSD) apparatus using both representative radioactive samples and non-radioactive simulant materials. Vacuum salt distillation, through the removal of chloride salts, increases the quantity of materials suitable for processing in the site's HB-Line Facility. Small-scale non-radioactive experiments at 900-950 C show that >99.8 wt % of the initial charge of chloride salt distilled from the sample boat with recovery of >99.8 wt % of the ceric oxide (CeO{sub 2}) - the surrogate for PuO{sub 2} - as a non-chloride bearing 'product'. Small-scale radioactive testing in a glovebox demonstrated the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from 13 PuO{sub 2} samples. Chloride concentrations were distilled from a starting concentration of 1.8-10.8 wt % to a final concentration <500 mg/kg chloride. Initial testing of a non-radioactive, full-scale production prototype is complete. A designed experiment evaluated the impact of distillation temperature, time at temperature, vacuum, product depth, and presence of a boat cover. Significant effort has been devoted to mechanical considerations to facilitate simplified operation in a glovebox.

  10. Fast and Easy Sample Dialysis When downstream quality matters,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lebendiker, Mario

    Fast and Easy Sample Dialysis When downstream quality matters, make sure your upstream tools downstream applications · D-Tube Dialyzers give you a gentle way to concentrate intractable or sensitive

  11. COOPERATIVE GAME THEORY SOLUTION IN AN UPSTREAM-DOWNSTREAM RELATIONSHIP

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    COOPERATIVE GAME THEORY SOLUTION IN AN UPSTREAM-DOWNSTREAM RELATIONSHIP By Ezio Marchi Paula Andrea THEORY SOLUTION IN AN UPSTREAM-DOWNSTREAM RELATIONSHIP MARCHI, Ezio Instituto de Matemática Aplicada San; and second, an economic element, where we reconsider the upstream-downstream relationship under a cooperative

  12. Upstream vs. Downstream CO2 Trading: A Comparison for the Electricity Context

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hobbs, Benjamin F.; Bushnell, J.; Wolak, F. A.

    ; a charge paid by all California electricity consumers to fund cost- effective energy efficiency programs; the decoupling of utility revenues from sales; and rate-of-return incentives adopted by the CPUC in September 2007. With implementation of AB... In electricity, “downstream” CO2 regulation requires retail suppliers to buy energy from a mix of sources so that their weighted emissions satisfy a standard. It has been argued that such “load-based” regulation would solve emissions leakage, cost consumers...

  13. Entanglement distillation in optomechanics via unsharp measurements

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Víctor Montenegro; Alessandro Ferraro; Sougato Bose

    2015-03-15

    Quantum technologies based on optical Gaussian states have proven very promising in terms of scalability. However, their use in quantum networking is hindered by the fact that Gaussian entanglement cannot be distilled via Gaussian operations. We take advantage of hybrid optomechanical systems to address this problem, proposing a scheme to distill optical two-mode squeezed vacua via unsharp measurements. Here, one of the optical modes is injected into a single sided Fabry-P\\'{e}rot cavity and non-linearly coupled to a mechanical oscillator. Afterwards, the position of the oscillator is measured using pulsed optomechanics and homodyne detection. Our results show that this measurement can conditionally increase the initial entanglement under an optimal radiation-pressure interaction strength, which corresponds to an effective unsharp non-Gaussian measurement of the photon number inside the cavity. We show how the resulting entanglement distillation can be verified by using a standard quantum teleportation procedure.

  14. Integrated C3 Feedstock and Aggregated Distillation Model for

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    Zamarripa, Pablo A. Marchetti, Ignacio E. Grossmann Department of Chemical Engineering Carnegie Mellon Polypropylene Propane return Reactor effluent Distillation Polymerization FeedTank Propylene (91%) Goal: Select rates Constraints on composition of Propane Return, Distillation Overhead & Reactor Feed Limits

  15. INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopelain, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    homes in the United States use middle distillate as a primary energy source for heating. -homes in the United States use middle distillate as their primary energy source for heating. -

  16. Crude Distillation Unit Heat Recovery Study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John, P.

    1979-01-01

    Baytown's Pipe Still 3 is a 95,000 barrel per day crude distillation unit. A comprehensive heat recovery and energy utilization study was done on Pipe Still 3 after a preliminary cursory study had indicated that an overall look at the total picture...

  17. Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Santhanam, Srinivasan

    1993-01-01

    (disturbance) and the response of the top tray temperature(controlled variable). This thesis will also outline a simulation software to characterize a benzene-toluene binary distillation column and an X-window based Graphical User Interface to run the simulation....

  18. Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    of theoretical trays in any re boiled distillation column. Columns in which all of the required heat enters with the feed cannot achieve i I I ....e-.........c..._. I "

  19. Complex Distillation Arrangements : Extending the Petlyuk Ideas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    and Technology N--7034 Trondheim Norway Abstract The task of separating a multicomponent mixture into streams shell using dividing walls or vertical partitions. INTRODUCTION Industrial distillation processes is also known as the Petlyuk column, due to a theoretical study of Pet­ lyuk et al. (1965), or as a fully

  20. Complex Distillation Arrangements : Extending the Petlyuk Ideas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    and Technology N­7034 Trondheim Norway Abstract The task of separating a multicomponent mixture intostreams shell using dividing walls or vertical partitions. INTRODUCTION Industrial distillation processes is also known as the Petlyuk column, due to a theoretical study of Pet- lyuk et al. (1965), or as a fully

  1. Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woinsky, S. G.

    2001-01-01

    to the foremost practitioner of the Advanced Distillation art, due to a 30 year continuity in Ule area as both a consultant and a university professor. His consulting assignments lu1ve been long-ternl companies such as M, W, Kellogg... when a plgasoline have lead...

  2. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    multicomponent.pdf More Documents & Publications CX-100137 Categorical Exclusion Determination ITP Chemicals: Hybripd SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research Opportunities...

  3. CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Taber, Douglass

    . Distillation is used to isolate many of life's essentials such as gasoline from oil or brandy from wineCHEM­333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography: Prelab-Assignment: read Chapters 5 and 6. Distillation is one of the most powerful techniques for purifying volatile organic compounds

  4. Written Statement of Peggy Montana, Shell Downstream Quadrennial...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    April 11. 2014 Good Morning. I am Peggy Montana, Executive Vice President, Pipelines and Special Projects, for Shell Downstream Inc. My previous role was EVP Supply...

  5. Production of gasoline and distillate fuels from light cycle oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Owens, P.J.; Sarli, M.S.

    1991-01-15

    This patent describes a process for the co-production of high quality gasoline and distillate products from catalytically cracked feedstocks. It comprises: hydrocracking a substantially dealkylated feedstock with a hydrocracking catalyst at a hydrogen partial pressure not greater than 1200 psig and a conversion to gasoline boiling range products not more than 75 wt. percent; separating the products of hydrocracking into a gasoline boiling range fraction, a first distillate range fraction boiling immediately above the gasoline fraction with an end point in the range of 450{degrees} to 500{degrees} F. and a second distillate fraction boiling above the first distillate fraction; recycling at least a portion of the first distillate fraction to the hydrocracking step to effect saturation and partial cracking of aromatics in the recycled fraction to increase the paraffin content of the second distillate fraction; recovering the second distillate fraction.

  6. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  7. Production of gasoline and distillate fuels from light cycle oil

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Derr, W.R. Jr.; Owens, P.J.; Sarli, M.S.

    1991-02-05

    This patent describes a process for the co-production of high quality gasoline and distillate products from catalytically cracked feedstocks. It comprises catalytically cracking a hydrocarbon feedstock to produce a substantially dealkylated cracked product, hydrocracking the substantially dealkylated product with a hydrocracking catalyst at a hydrogen partial pressure not greater than 1200 psig and a conversion to gasoline boiling range products not more than 75 wt. percent; separating the products of hydrocracking into a gasoline boiling range fraction, a first distillate range fraction boiling immediately above the gasoline fraction with an end point in the range of 450{degrees} to 500{degrees} F and a second, higher boiling distillate fraction which is more paraffinic than the first distillate fraction; recycling at least a portion of the first, lower boiling distillate fraction to the catalytic cracking step, recovering the second, higher boiling distillate fraction.

  8. Unifying classical and quantum key distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Michal Horodecki; Pawel Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim; Renato Renner

    2007-02-28

    Assume that two distant parties, Alice and Bob, as well as an adversary, Eve, have access to (quantum) systems prepared jointly according to a tripartite state. In addition, Alice and Bob can use local operations and authenticated public classical communication. Their goal is to establish a key which is unknown to Eve. We initiate the study of this scenario as a unification of two standard scenarios: (i) key distillation (agreement) from classical correlations and (ii) key distillation from pure tripartite quantum states. Firstly, we obtain generalisations of fundamental results related to scenarios (i) and (ii), including upper bounds on the key rate. Moreover, based on an embedding of classical distributions into quantum states, we are able to find new connections between protocols and quantities in the standard scenarios (i) and (ii). Secondly, we study specific properties of key distillation protocols. In particular, we show that every protocol that makes use of pre-shared key can be transformed into an equally efficient protocol which needs no pre-shared key. This result is of practical significance as it applies to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, but it also implies that the key rate cannot be locked with information on Eve's side. Finally, we exhibit an arbitrarily large separation between the key rate in the standard setting where Eve is equipped with quantum memory and the key rate in a setting where Eve is only given classical memory. This shows that assumptions on the nature of Eve's memory are important in order to determine the correct security threshold in QKD.

  9. American Distillation Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on QA:QA J-E-1 SECTION JEnvironmental Jump to:EAand DaltonSolarOpen5AllEnergyAmeriPower LLC Jump to:Distillation Inc Jump

  10. Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Paper explores the potential for U.S. refiners to create more distillate and less gasoline without major additional investments beyond those already planned.

  11. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Greenberg, T

    2006-01-01

    emissions from vegetation pyrolysis Comprehensive laboratoryfrom the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation J. P.J. Anal. and Appl. Pyrolysis, 60, 123–130, 2000. Fall, R. :

  12. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1999 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  13. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1998 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  14. cPIES sites Q: Downstream of SFZ

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rhode Island, University of

    from PF core [km] North (downstream) South (upstream) 5958.55857.557 0 50 100 150 Latitude of max() N cPIES sites Q: Downstream of SFZ Neutraldensity[kg/m 3 ] Distance from PF core [km] -100-50050100 27.2 27.4 27.6 27.8 28 28.2 Q: Upstream of SFZ Distance from PF core [km] -100

  15. Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Blog Distillation via Sentiment-Sensitive Link Analysis Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio report a new approach to blog distillation, defined as the task in which, given a user query, the system ranks the blogs in descending order of relevance to the query topic. Our approach is based on the idea

  16. Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

    2006-10-30

    Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semipermeable membrane through the use of thermal energy to bring about...

  17. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  18. Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hill, J.H.

    1987-01-01

    "Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated ...

  19. Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    White, D. C.

    2010-01-01

    Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation is obviously very...

  20. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  1. Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

    1984-01-01

    of applications, embody characteristics that inherently make them economic candidates for absorption cycle heat upgrading. Practical applications to current U.S. distillations could save 30 trillion BTU per year, at payback periods ranging from 1 to 3 years. So...

  2. Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

    2002-01-01

    and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns Ketan Samant, Aspen Technology Ian Sinclair, Aspen Technology Ginger Keady, Aspen Technology This paper outlines the implementation of column thermal and hydraulic analysis in a simulation environment...

  3. Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Recovery System (ARS) is a patented process that uses the principle of distributed distillation to achieve energy efficiency in the olefins process. This paper describes the concept of ARS and how, by integrating the chill...

  4. ,"U.S. Downstream Charge Capacity of Operable Petroleum Refineries"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames City of",6,1,"Omaha Public PowerOECD/IEA - 2008Wellhead PriceConsumption by9"CoalbedGas,+ Lease Condensate Proved

  5. Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

    1986-01-01

    IN DISTILLATION BY MECHANICAL VAPOR RECOMPRESSION Frederick E. Becker and Alexandra I. Zakak Tecogen, Inc., A Subsidiary of Thermo Electron Corporation Waltham, Massachusetts ABSTRACT A significant reduction in distillation tower energy requirements can..., and then recompressing the low-pressure bottom vapors and injecting them directly into the column bottom. The choice of either scheme is a function of the physical properties of the vapors; i.e., the specific volume of the top or bottom vapors may dictate the most...

  6. Characterization and application of vortex flow adsorption for simplification of biochemical product downstream processing

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ma, Junfen, 1972-

    2003-01-01

    One strategy to reduce costs in manufacturing a biochemical product is simplification of downstream processing. Biochemical product recovery often starts from fermentation broth or cell culture. In conventional downstream ...

  7. DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    DOWNSTREAM PASSAGE FOR SALMON AT HYDROELECTRIC PROJECTS IN THE COLUMBIA RIVER BASIN: DEVELOPMENT ..........................................................................25 Division Barriers Upstream of the Powerhouse

  8. Distillation and Dehydro Reactors Advanced Process Conrol Freeport Texas PLant 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eisele, D.

    2014-01-01

    Reactors Advanced Process Control Freeport Texas Plant ESL-IE-14-05-16 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 G-KTI, Polyamide and Intermediates Distillation APC 6/2/2014 INTERNAL... Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20-23, 2014 G-KTI, Polyamide and Intermediates Distillation APC – Control Matrix 6/2/2014 INTERNAL; CONFIDENTIAL 3 ESL-IE-14-05-16 Proceedings of the Thrity-Sixth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 20...

  9. On downstream hydraulic geometry and optimal energy expenditure: case study of the Ashley and Taieri Rivers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramírez, Jorge A.

    On downstream hydraulic geometry and optimal energy expenditure: case study of the Ashley the network. We look at energy expenditure from two perspectives. (1) In the context of downstream hydraulic Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Downstream hydraulic geometry; River networks; Energy

  10. STEREO observations of upstream and downstream waves at low Mach number shocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    STEREO observations of upstream and downstream waves at low Mach number shocks C. T. Russell,1 L. K; published 13 February 2009. [1] Early theories of upstream and downstream wave formation at laminar (low, propagating upstream along the shock normal. Downstream waves were attributed to nearly perpendicular shocks

  11. Partial Crosstalk Precompensation in Downstream Raphael Cendrillon a,, George Ginis b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    the upstream signal of one modem couples into the downstream signal of another or vice versa. FEXT occurs whenPartial Crosstalk Precompensation in Downstream VDSL Raphael Cendrillon a,, George Ginis b , Marc than 52 Mbps in the downstream, to the mass consumer market. This is achieved by transmitting

  12. Downstream Hydraulic Geometry of Alluvial Channels Jong-Seok Lee, A.M.ASCE1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    Downstream Hydraulic Geometry of Alluvial Channels Jong-Seok Lee, A.M.ASCE1 ; and Pierre Y. Julien. A larger database for the downstream hydraulic geometry of alluvial channels is examined through with meandering to braided planform geometry. The five parameters describing downstream hydraulic geometry are

  13. Application of a Plantwide Control Design Procedure to a Distillation Column with Heat Pump

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    (Larsson & Skogestad 2001) to a distillation column heat-integrated by using a heatpump. Top-down analysis) and apply it to a distillation column with heatpump. Plantwide control design should start by formulating

  14. Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    thermal energy (e.g. Koschikowski et al, 2003): #12;Solar thermal powered desalination: reviewSolar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies G. Burgess and K considered to be the desalination technology most suited to integration with concentrating solar thermal

  15. Energy efficient distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen a,*, Sigurd Skogestad b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    savings in energy consumption and reduction of investment cost. In this paper we give an overview of some and calculate energy requirements and provide a basis for detailed design. Reduced CO2 emission is an additional, and to carry out this separation with a minimum cost and energy consumption. Distillation is the most widely

  16. Hydrocracking process with integrated distillate product hydrogenation reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hoehn, R.K.; Reno, M.E.

    1991-06-25

    This patent describes a hydrocracking process. It comprises passing a feed stream which comprises an admixture of hydrocarbons boiling above 240 degrees Centigrade and hydrogen through a hydrocracking reaction zone maintained at hydrocracking conditions and producing a mixed-phase hydrocracking reaction zone effluent stream; separating the mixed-phase hydrocracking reaction zone effluent stream into a first vapor stream, which comprises hydrogen, light hydrocarbons and distillate hydrocarbons, and a first liquid stream, which comprises distillate hydrocarbons; forming a second vapor stream and a second liquid, stream by partially condensing the first vapor stream, with the second liquid stream comprising distillate hydrocarbons and having a lower average boiling point than the first liquid stream; passing the second liquid stream and added hydrogen through a hydrogenation reaction zone maintained at hydrogenation conditions and producing a hydrogenation zone effluent stream; and, passing distillate hydrocarbons present in the hydrogenation zone effluent stream and the first liquid stream into a fractionation zone, and recovering a hydrocracking zone product stream.

  17. ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS. Twin- screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally balanced amounts of fish meal, fish oil, whole wheat flour, corn gluten meal, and vitamin and mineral premixes

  18. Solar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    . The daily desalinated water output per square metre of solar collector area is estimated for a number suited to integration with concentrating solar thermal concentrating collectors on a medium to largeSolar thermal powered desalination: membrane versus distillation technologies G. Burgess and K

  19. Improved Analysis and Understanding of the Petlyuk Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    of the energy consumption. When the column is oper­ ated optimally, the infinite staged Petlyuk column always Extended Abstract The Petlyuk (Petlyuk 1965) arrangement for separation of a ternary mixture into three pure product streams has the potential of 20­50% energy savings compared to conventional distillation

  20. Improved Analysis and Understanding of the Petlyuk Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    of the energy consumption. When the column is oper- ated optimally, the infinite staged Petlyuk column always Extended Abstract The Petlyuk (Petlyuk 1965) arrangement for separation of a ternary mixture into three pure product streams has the potential of 20-50% energy savings compared to conventional distillation

  1. Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaiswal, Namit

    2007-09-17

    the synthetic sample and experimental study previously carried out. (e) To correlate steam-propane distillation yields for some crude oils and synthetic hydrocarbons to generate steam-propane distillation data that could be used to develop the input data... there is need to develop a model to predict distillate yield under any set of conditions for any heavy oil, requiring only the simulated distillation (SIMDIS) trace (i.e. percent off vs. normal boiling temperature) of the oil. The expected deliverables from...

  2. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad Department. It is well known which variables to control in normal distillation columns. But for heat integrated for heat integrated distillation columns. We will use the concept of self­optimizing control (Skogestad et

  3. Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Control of a Industrial Heat Integrated Distillation Column T. Larsson and S. Skogestad Department. It is well known which variables to control in normal distillation columns. But for heat integrated for heat integrated distillation columns. We will use the concept of self-optimizing control (Skogestad et

  4. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  5. Enhanced Separation Efficiency in Olefin/Paraffin Distillation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is to develop technologies to enhance separation efficiencies by replacing the conventional packing materials with hollow fiber membranes, which have a high specific area and separated channels for both liquid and vapor phases. The use of hollow fibers in distillation columns can help refineries decrease operating costs, reduce greenhouse gas emissions through reduced heating costs, and help expand U.S. refining capacity through improvements to existing sites, without large scale capital investment.

  6. Entanglement cost and distillable entanglement of symmetric states

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keiji Matsumoto

    2007-08-23

    We compute entanglement cost and distillable entanglement of states supported on symmetric subspace. Not only giving general formula, we apply them to the output states of optimal cloning machines. Surprisingly, under some settings, the optimal n to m clone and true m copies are the same in entanglement measures. However, they differ in the error exponent of entanglement dilution. We also presented a general theory of entanglement dilution which is applicable to any non-i.i.d sequence of states.

  7. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

  8. The Downstream Geomorphic Effects of Dams: A Comprehensive and Comparative Approach

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Minear, Justin Toby

    2010-01-01

    from hydraulic mining detained by Englebright and small damsfrom hydraulic mining detained by Englebright and small damsdam to halt downstream progression of the hydraulic mining

  9. Influence of Headwater Streams on Downstream Reaches in Forested Lee H. MacDonald and Drew Coe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Lee

    it difficult to rigorously link upstream inputs and anthropogenic activities to the condition of downstreamInfluence of Headwater Streams on Downstream Reaches in Forested Areas Lee H. MacDonald and Drew of the streamflow in downstream areas. Headwater streams also provide other important constituents to downstream

  10. U.S. Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantityBonneville Power AdministrationRobust,Field-effectWorking With WIPP UPDATE: April 15,Gas ReserveOF6 AnnualWinners1Charge2009

  11. Interior Duct Wall Pressure Downstream of a Low-Speed Scott C. Morris

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alonso, Juan J.

    Interior Duct Wall Pressure Downstream of a Low-Speed Rotor Scott C. Morris , David B. Stephens The region downstream of a ducted rotor has been experimentally investigated in terms of its wake characteristics and the duct wall pressure fluctuations. The motivation for the measurements was to document

  12. Pickup Ions Upstream and Downstream of Shocks G. Gloeckler*,, L. A. Fisk and L. J. Lanzerotti**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pickup Ions Upstream and Downstream of Shocks G. Gloeckler*,, L. A. Fisk and L. J. Lanzerotti from upstream to downstream is relatively small in the case of Jupiter's bow shock. The presence of pre, the reverse shock of a Corotating Interaction Region, and the Jovian bow shock. Upstream ion velocity

  13. Waves upstream and downstream of interplanetary shocks driven by coronal mass ejections

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Berkeley, University of

    Waves upstream and downstream of interplanetary shocks driven by coronal mass ejections P. Kajdic,1) waves and higher-frequency (HF, 1 Hz) whistler precursors upstream of these shocks. Downstream of them as in the upstream case. We find that IP shocks with relatively small Mms can excite waves in large regions in front

  14. DOWNSTREAM CHANNEL CHANGES AFTER A SMALL DAM REMOVAL: USING AERIAL PHOTOS AND MEASUREMENT ERROR FOR CONTEXT;

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    DOWNSTREAM CHANNEL CHANGES AFTER A SMALL DAM REMOVAL: USING AERIAL PHOTOS AND MEASUREMENT ERROR and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA ABSTRACT Dam removal is often implemented to assess downstream channel changes associated with a small dam removal. The Brownsville Dam, a 2.1 m tall

  15. Brf1 posttranscriptionally regulates pluripotency and differentiation responses downstream of Erk

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elowitz, Michael

    Brf1 posttranscriptionally regulates pluripotency and differentiation responses downstream of Erk, operates downstream of FGF/Erk MAP kinase signaling to regulate pluripotency and cell fate decision making in mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). FGF/Erk MAP kinase signaling up-regulates Brf1, which disrupts

  16. Effect of Flow Pulses on Degradation Downstream of Hapcheon Dam, South Korea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Julien, Pierre Y.

    Effect of Flow Pulses on Degradation Downstream of Hapcheon Dam, South Korea Young Ho Shin1 and Pierre Y. Julien, M.ASCE2 Abstract: The changes in channel geometry downstream of Hapcheon Dam, South sluice gate operations affect the 45-km reach of the Hwang River between the Hapcheon Reregulation Dam

  17. TRIBUTE TO STANLEY DODSON Does the morphology of beaver ponds alter downstream

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McIntosh, Angus

    ratio of beaver dam height (which determines hydraulic head) to pond surface area and related to pond depended on pond morphology, increasing downstream of small ponds with high dams, but only during the low-limiting nutrients downstream. Both periphyton biomass and BOM decreased down- stream of small ponds with high dams

  18. Mild hydrocracking: a low cost route to more distillate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kalnes, T.N.; Lamb, P.R.; Pegg, D.R.; Tajbl, D.G.

    1984-03-01

    The UOP MHC Unibon process, a relatively new application of distillate hydrocracking technology, combines the features of desulfurization and hydrocracking to provide a useful tool to aid the refiner in meeting future product demand trends. Already commercialized in four locations, the process is particularly attractive to those refiners who do not have residual conversion capacity. Pay backs of less than one year are common. In addition, the process can provide the FCC refiner with added capability for adjusting the product slate to meet seasonal demands.

  19. An approach for solvent selection in extractive distillation systems including safety considerations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    of bioethanol, for which solvents that offer the best cost-safety compromise are identified. Keywords. Extractive distillation; Multiobjective optimization; Process safety; Solvents; Bioethanol 1. Introduction

  20. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AdministrationPetroleum Marketing Annual 1999 441 Table A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon...

  1. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  2. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  3. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  4. Endorsements and rebuttals in blog distillation q Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio Sebastiani

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sebastiani, Fabrizio

    Endorsements and rebuttals in blog distillation q Giacomo Berardi, Andrea Esuli, Fabrizio in revised form 10 May 2013 Accepted 30 May 2013 Available online 14 June 2013 Keywords: Blog distillation Blog search Link analysis Sentiment analysis a b s t r a c t In this paper we test a new approach

  5. Scaling control during membrane distillation of coal seam gas reverse osmosis brine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scaling control during membrane distillation of coal seam gas reverse osmosis brine Hung C. Duong during membrane distillation (MD) of brine from reverse osmosis (RO) treatment of coal seam gas (CSG. During CSG production, both gas and water are extracted to the surface. Gas is commonly separated from

  6. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process Q H columnPROMS. AIChE 1999 Annual meeting / 11.03.99 2 NTNU #12; T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat

  7. T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control of a industrial

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column Control. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat integrated distillation column The process QH columnE 1999 Annual meeting / 11.03.99 2 NTNU #12;T. Larsson, S. Skogestad Control of a industrial heat

  8. Integrated Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Skogestad, Sigurd

    Distillation Ivar J. Halvorsen1 and Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department Also at SINTEF Electronics and Cybernetics, 7465 Trondheim, Norway Prepared for presentation at the Topical conference on Separations Technology, Session 23 - Distillation Modeling and Processes II. 2001

  9. Optimization of Distillation Processes. Jos A. Caballero* and Ignacio E. Grossmann**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grossmann, Ignacio E.

    that handle more than 90% of separations and purifications. The capital investment for these distillation.87 million TJ) per year, or to a power consumption of 91 GW, or 54 million tons of crude oil. Distillation conditions to minimize the total investment and operating cost. Continuous decisions are related

  10. The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and condensation heat transfer in tubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Traviss, Donald P.

    1971-01-01

    The influence of return bends on the downstream pressure drop and heat transfer coefficient of condensing refrigerant R-12 was studied experimentally. Flow patterns in glass return bends of 1/2 to 1 in. radius and 0.315 ...

  11. Predictability of a Mediterranean Tropical-Like Storm Downstream of the Extratropical Transition of Hurricane Helene (2006)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chaboureau, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    northeastward by an upstream trough during ET and contributed to the building of a downstream ridge. A troughPredictability of a Mediterranean Tropical-Like Storm Downstream of the Extratropical Transition downstream. The present study focuses on the predictability of a Mediterranean tropical-like storm (Medicane

  12. Measurement of velocity deficit at the downstream of a 1:10 axial hydrokinetic turbine B. Gunawan1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siefert, Chris

    plane from upstream to downstream of the turbine at x/D = -10, -5, -3, -2, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10Measurement of velocity deficit at the downstream of a 1:10 axial hydrokinetic turbine model B, Minneapolis, MN 55414. ABSTRACT Wake recovery constrains the downstream spacing and density of turbines

  13. Low capital implementation of distributed distillation in ethylene recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung

    2006-10-31

    An apparatus for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon feed stream, where the apparatus is a single distillation column pressure shell encasing an upper region and a lower region. The upper region houses an ethylene distributor rectifying section and the lower region houses a C2 distributor section and an ethylene distributor stripping section. Vapor passes from the lower region into the upper region, and liquid passes from the upper region to the lower region. The process for recovering the ethylene is also disclosed. The hydrocarbon feed stream is introduced into the C2 distributor section, and after a series of stripping and refluxing steps, distinct hydrocarbon products are recovered from the C2 distributor section, the ethylene distributor stripping section, and the ethylene distributor rectifying section, respectively.

  14. Effects of system densities on distillation column performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fasesan, S.O.; Sanni, S.A.; Taiwo, E.A. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-06-01

    Distillation experiments were carried out on three binary systems (ethanol-butanol, ethanol-propan-2-ol, and propan-2-ol-butanol) in a 0.1-m internal diameter glass column packed with 8 mm diameter Raschig rings. The experiments were performed under total reflux conditions and at atmospheric pressure. The data collected on column performance showed that performance declined with increasing average bulk liquid density. The results also lend credence to earlier reports on the behavior of column performance with respect to component concentration in the feed mixtures. The system densities of the three binary systems were measured at four different temperatures, 30, 40, 50, and 60 C. The data were compared with the predicted data of Yen-Woods and Multifluid models. The accuracy of the predictions of the Yen-Woods model was rather poor while that of the Multifluid model was very encouraging.

  15. An experimental and mathematical investigation of hydrocarbon steam distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langhoff, John Allan

    1984-01-01

    I LIJ D D CO D CIC D P1a L), OOLQLI [ [ LQS LQ WP8Q$ ?7) I/I I?I hl m ~ III O I?I I/I O & P) ?I- 0 O nj (Z) 4J Q O E III ID Cl ?I ?I Q ?/ ??: PJ Cl C C I?l ICl E ?J ??I I III 0 az I? I W K Q3 Ctl IQ C) PV... decreases near the end of the run. Th1s occurs when the volume of hydrocarbon 1n the 11quid phase of the distillation cell becomes small and cannot support 1ts vapor pressure. 07 C5 0 III QI 5- I/I QI 5- 0- 5- 0 CL IQ ) 0 CQ Ol O 0 4J Itl...

  16. HPSS Charging

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room NewsInformation Current HABFESOpportunitiesNERSCGrid-based29 1.921HEPCharging HPSS Charging

  17. Refiner/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates. Two smaller refineries, one in Paulsboro, N.J., and one in Savannah, GA., have the capacity to process 40,000 b/d and 28,000 b/d of crude, respectively, for asphalt products. In the past two years, Citgo`s light oils refineries operated safely and reliably with a minimum of unscheduled shutdowns. An ongoing emphasis to increase reliability has resulted in extended run lengths at the refineries. Citgo has invested $314 million at its facilities in 1995, much of this toward environmental and regulatory projects, such as the new waste water treatment unit at the Lake Charles refinery. Over the next few years, Citgo expects to complete $1.5 billion in capital spending for major processing units such as a 60,000-b/d FCC feed hydrotreater unit at the Lake Charles refinery and crude expansion at the Corpus Christi refinery. Product exchanges and expanded transport agreements are allowing Citgo to extend its marketing reach.

  18. Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del )

    1993-12-06

    Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

  19. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  20. Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

    2007-12-25

    This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

  1. Recent hydrocarbon developments in Latin America: Key issues in the downstream oil sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wu, K.; Pezeshki, S.

    1995-03-01

    This report discusses the following: (1) An overview of major issues in the downstream oil sector, including oil demand and product export availability, the changing product consumption pattern, and refineries being due for major investment; (2) Recent upstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Venezuela; (3) Recent downstream developments in the oil and gas sector in Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Mexico, Peru, Cuba, and Venezuela; (4) Pipelines in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, and Mexico; and (5) Regional energy balance. 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  2. A heat & mass integration approach to reduce capital and operating costs of a distillation configuration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Madenoor Ramapriya, Gautham; Jiang, Zheyu; Tawarmalani, Mohit; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2015-11-11

    We propose a general method to consolidate distillation columns of a distillation configuration using heat and mass integration. The proposed method encompasses all heat and mass integrations known till date, and includes many more. Each heat and mass integration eliminates a distillation column, a condenser, a reboiler and the heat duty associated with a reboiler. Thus, heat and mass integration can potentially offer significant capital and operating cost benefits. In this talk, we will study the various possible heat and mass integrations in detail, and demonstrate their benefits using case studies. This work will lay out a framework to synthesize an entire new class of useful configurations based on heat and mass integration of distillation columns.

  3. DYNAMIC MODELING AND CONTROL OF REACTIVE DISTILLATION FOR HYDROGENATION OF BENZENE 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aluko, Obanifemi

    2010-01-16

    This work presents a modeling and control study of a reactive distillation column used for hydrogenation of benzene. A steady state and a dynamic model have been developed to investigate control structures for the column. ...

  4. Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mears, Kevin S

    2006-01-01

    To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

  5. High Performance Trays and Heat Exchangers in Heat Pumped Distillation Columns 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wisz, M. W.; Antonelli, R.; Ragi, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    exchangers and distillation trays permits additional energy savings by lower reboiler temperature differences, and reduced reflux requirements for a fixed column height, due to closer tray spacings. This paper surveys the heat pump systems currently...

  6. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  7. Characteristics of various methods for solving steady state and unsteady state distillation problems 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Coco, Vincent Joseph

    1965-01-01

    CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS METHODS FOR SOLVING STEADY STATE AND UNSTEADY STATE DISTILLATION PROBLEMS A Thesis By VINCENT JOSEPH COCO Submitted to the Graduate College of the Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1965 Major Subject: Chemical Engineering CHARACTERISTICS OF VARIOUS METHODS FOR SOLVING STEADY STATE AND UNSTEADY STATE DISTILLATION PROBLEMS A Thesis By VINCENT JOSEPH COCO Approved as to style and content by...

  8. The Products of the Destructive Distillation of Keratin in the Form of Leather

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rose, Reed Phillips

    1913-01-01

    are treated under the same conditions* Prom our knowledge of the de­ structive distillation of organic substances, the most common of which are coal, wood, bones, peat and lignite, it is reasonable to conclude also that the destructive distillation... the question as to what are the char­ acteristic properties of the two carbon residues 20 obtained from the decomposition of carbonaceous materials, termed coke and charcoal. Some author­ ities use the term coke for the carbon residue from coal and call all...

  9. PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

    2012-09-11

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

  10. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review the policy guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their program running safe and successfully.

  11. Molecular C dynamics downstream: The biochemical decomposition sequence and its impact on soil organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Neff, Jason

    Decomposition Carbon Pyrolysis-GC/MS Disturbance 1. Introduction Soil organic matter (SOM) is an importantMolecular C dynamics downstream: The biochemical decomposition sequence and its impact on soil in spectroscopic and other chemical methods have greatly enhanced our ability to characterize soil organic matter

  12. Optimizing turbine withdrawal from a tropical reservoir for improved water quality in downstream wetlands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    Optimizing turbine withdrawal from a tropical reservoir for improved water quality in downstream using Itezhi-Tezhi Reservoir (Zambia) as a model system aims at defining optimized turbine withdrawal. The water depth of turbine withdrawals was varied in a set of simulations to optimize outflow water quality

  13. DOWNSTREAM EFFECTS OF DIVERSION DAMS ON SEDIMENT AND HYDRAULIC CONDITIONS OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN STREAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poff, N. LeRoy

    DOWNSTREAM EFFECTS OF DIVERSION DAMS ON SEDIMENT AND HYDRAULIC CONDITIONS OF ROCKY MOUNTAIN STREAMS & Sons, Ltd. key words: flow diversion; dam; fine sediment; stream management; hydraulic alteration examined the effects of variable levels of flow diversion on fine-sediment deposition, hydraulic conditions

  14. Electric Vehicle Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or Twitter Attend local EV events Share your story Currently have 13 ChargePoint charging stations scattered throughout Vermont 2015 - 12 Freedom Stations & 10...

  15. Workplace Charging Challenge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, committing to install charging for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at their worksites. By taking on this Challenge, they are helping...

  16. Workplace Charging Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    Fact sheet about the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge which is to increase the number of American employers offering workplace charging by tenfold in the next five years.

  17. The Implications of Dam Deconstruction Methods on the Downstream Channel Bed Kristen M. Cannatelli (kmc7r@virginia.edu) and Joanna Crowe Curran (curran@virginia.edu)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Curran, Joanna C.

    increased to 77% with dam removal · % Sand on bed surface upstream and downstream of dam removal reducedThe Implications of Dam Deconstruction Methods on the Downstream Channel Bed Kristen M. Cannatelli it downstream. At the same time, the lack of sediment supply downstream leads to channel and bank erosion

  18. 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, January 710, 2008/Reno, NV Upstream and downstream influence on the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Martín, Pino

    08544 Statistical analysis of the upstream and downstream flow influence on shock unsteadiness in shock to further study the upstream and downstream flow influence on shock unsteadiness using direct numerical46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, January 7­10, 2008/Reno, NV Upstream

  19. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

  20. Sluiceway Operations for Adult Steelhead Downstream Passage at The Dalles Dam, Columbia River, USA

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khan, Fenton; Royer, Ida M.; Johnson, Gary E.; Tackley, Sean C.

    2013-10-01

    This study evaluated adult steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss; fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam in the Columbia River, USA, during the late fall, winter, and early spring months between 2008 and 2011. The purpose of the study was to determine the efficacy of operating the dam’s ice-and-trash sluiceway during non-spill months to provide a relatively safe, non-turbine, surface outlet for overwintering steelhead fallbacks and downstream migrating steelhead kelts. We applied the fixed-location hydroacoustic technique to estimate fish passage rates at the sluiceway and turbines of the dam. The spillway was closed during our sampling periods, which generally occurred in late fall, winter, and early spring. The sluiceway was highly used by adult steelhead (91–99% of total fish sampled passing the dam) during all sampling periods. Turbine passage was low when the sluiceway was not operated. This implies that lack of a sluiceway route did not result in increased turbine passage. However, when the sluiceway was open, adult steelhead used it to pass through the dam. The sluiceway may be operated during late fall, winter, and early spring to provide an optimal, non-turbine route for adult steelhead (fallbacks and kelts) downstream passage at The Dalles Dam.

  1. New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Agrawal, Rakesh

    2013-11-21

    This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

  2. Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

  3. Systems and methods for reactive distillation with recirculation of light components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stickney, Michael J. (Nassau Bay, TX); Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

    2011-07-26

    Systems and methods for producing gas-to-liquids products using reactive distillation are provided. The method for producing gas-to-liquids products can include reacting a feedstock in a column having a distillation zone and a reaction zone to provide a bottoms stream and an overhead stream. A first portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the top of the reaction zone and second portion of the overhead stream can be recycled to the column at the bottom of the reaction zone.

  4. Stratified charge injection for gas-fueled rotary engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, S.R.

    1992-03-10

    This patent describes a stratified charge injection for gas-fueled rotary engines having an air intake stroke, a compression stroke, a power stroke, and an exhaust stroke. It comprises a rotor housing, the housing including an air intake port and an exhaust port, and an outer perimeter, a rotor rotatable in the housing, a gaseous fuel injector supplying all of the fuel is connected to the housing between 270{degrees} and 360{degrees} of the rotor rotation after compression top dead center and downstream of the air intake port, the injector providing gaseous fuel at a pressure less than peak compression pressure, the injector located in the middle of the width of the outer perimeter of the housing, spark ignition means in the housing downstream of the injector, and means connected to the fuel injector responsive to the compression pressure for controlling the rate and duration of fuel injection.

  5. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  6. An Itegrated Approach to Water Treatment in Oil and Gas Industry via Thermal Membrane Distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Elsayed, Nesreen Ahmed Abdelmoez Mohamed

    2014-10-14

    This work is aimed at developing a systematic approach for designing treatment systems for wastewater streams resulting from upstream production and downstream processing of oil and gas systems. The approach will provide an optimum and integrated...

  7. Workplace Charging Challenge

    Alternative Fuels and Advanced Vehicles Data Center [Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)]

    corporate leadership and innovation, demonstrating a willingness to adopt advanced technology. Sustainability Providing PEV charging can enhance corporate sustainability efforts,...

  8. Charge exchange system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Oscar A. (Berkeley, CA)

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  9. Thermite charge - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Trademark Office Marketing Summary: Linear Thermite Charge Abstract: The present invention provides for cutting operations using linear thermite charges; the charges cut one...

  10. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01

    Management for Urban EV Charging Systems”, 2013 IEEEfor Large Scale Public EV Charging Facilities”, 2013 IEEESmart Electric Vehicle (EV) Charging and Grid Integration

  11. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01

    for Multiplexed Electric Vehicle Charging”, US20130154561A1,Chynoweth, ”Intelligent Electric Vehicle Charging System”,of RFID Mesh Network for Electric Vehicle Smart Charging

  12. Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, Scott J; Bunting, Bruce G; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Fairbridge, Craig

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

  13. Hybrid Separations/Distillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eldridge, R. Bruce; Seibert, A. Frank; Robinson, Sharon; Rogers, Jo

    2005-04-01

    This report focuses on improving the existing separations systems for the two largest energy-consuming sectors: the chemicals and petroleum refining industries. It identifies the technical challenges and research needs for improving the efficiency of distillation systems. Areas of growth are also highlighted.

  14. Hydrocracking process with improved distillate selectivity with high silica large pore zeolites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partridge, R.D.; LaPierre, R.B.

    1989-04-11

    A process is described for increasing the selectivity of the production of higher boiling distillate range product in hydrocracking reactions which can produce gasoline boiling range product and higher boiling distillate range product, which process comprises: contacting a feedstock to be hydrocracked in a hydrocracking, in the presence of hydrogen and under hydrocracking conditions, with a catalyst comprising a hydrogenation component and a zeolite which has a porous lattice structure having pores with a dimension greater than 6 Angstroms and a hydrocarbon sorption capacity for hexane of at least 6 percent and has a framework silica:alumina ratio of at least about 50:1, whereby the selectivity of the process for production of the higher boiling distillate range product is preferentially increased, wherein the distillate selectivity is defined by reference to the amounts of the 165/sup 0/C-343/sup 0/C (330 F-650/sup 0/F) fraction and the total 343/sup 0/C-fraction in the hydrocracker effluent.

  15. Evaluation of Intake Limiting Agents in a Self-fed Dried Distillers' Supplement 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sugg, Joel D

    2013-08-14

    Response to range supplementation is in part driven by level of supplement consumed and amount of associated variation. In order to evaluate intake limiting agents in a self-fed dried distillers’ grain supplement (DDG), heifers (n=59) in Trial 1...

  16. Hybrid magic state distillation for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wenqiang Zheng; Yafei Yu; Jian Pan; Jingfu Zhang; Jun Li; Zhaokai Li; Dieter Suter; Xianyi Zhou; Xinhua Peng; Jiangfeng Du

    2014-12-11

    A set of stabilizer operations augmented by some special initial states known as 'magic states', gives the possibility of universal fault-tolerant quantum computation. However, magic state preparation inevitably involves nonideal operations that introduce noise. The most common method to eliminate the noise is magic state distillation (MSD) by stabilizer operations. Here we propose a hybrid MSD protocol by connecting a four-qubit H-type MSD with a five-qubit T-type MSD, in order to overcome some disadvantages of the previous MSD protocols. The hybrid MSD protocol further integrates distillable ranges of different existing MSD protocols and extends the T-type distillable range to the stabilizer octahedron edges. And it provides considerable improvement in qubit cost for almost all of the distillable range. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate the four-qubit H-type MSD protocol using nuclear magnetic resonance technology, together with the previous five-qubit MSD experiment, to show the feasibility of the hybrid MSD protocol.

  17. HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Titov, Anatoly

    321 HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT I.A. Alekseev, E hydrogen gas (so- called protium) must be used. It is necessary to avoid transfers of - to impurities imposes strict and critical requirements on the hydrogen gas system supporting the detector. Desirable

  18. Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

    Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process, Dhahran, 31261, Saudi Arabia Abstract This paper studies the synthesis and the design of methanol recovery that methanol could be recovered completely from the hydrocarbon when 5 equilibrium trays in the extraction

  19. Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Salamon, Peter

    Optimal Allocation of Heat Exchanger Inventory in a Serial Type Diabatic Distillation Column Edward the column . We have previously shown (Jimenez et al. 2003) that optimaloperation of serial heat exchangers total heat exchanger area in different trays and calculate the optimal allocation of a given heat

  20. Black-Box Identification for PLC based MPC of a Binary Distillation Column

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Black-Box Identification for PLC based MPC of a Binary Distillation Column B. Huyck ,, F. Logist J is to upgrade the control system with a linear MPC running on a PLC. However, before a model based controller can be used on a PLC, an accurate (but simple) process model has to be constructed. Hence, the aim

  1. Downstream plasma transport and metal ionization in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meng, Liang; Szott, Matthew M.; McLain, Jake T.; Ruzic, David N.; Yu, He

    2014-06-14

    Downstream plasma transport and ionization processes in a high-powered pulsed-plasma magnetron were studied. The temporal evolution and spatial distribution of electron density (n{sub e}) and temperature (T{sub e}) were characterized with a 3D scanning triple Langmuir probe. Plasma expanded from the racetrack region into the downstream region, where a high n{sub e} peak was formed some time into the pulse-off period. The expansion speed and directionality towards the substrate increased with a stronger magnetic field (B), largely as a consequence of a larger potential drop in the bulk plasma region during a relatively slower sheath formation. The fraction of Cu ions in the deposition flux was measured on the substrate using a gridded energy analyzer. It increased with higher pulse voltage. With increased B field from 200 to 800 Gauss above racetrack, n{sub e} increased but the Cu ion fraction decreased from 42% to 16%. A comprehensive model was built, including the diffusion of as-sputtered Cu flux, the Cu ionization in the entire plasma region using the mapped n{sub e} and T{sub e} data, and ion extraction efficiency based on the measured plasma potential (V{sub p}) distribution. The calculations matched the measurements and indicated the main causes of lower Cu ion fractions in stronger B fields to be the lower T{sub e} and inefficient ion extraction in a larger pre-sheath potential.

  2. Cosmic ray diffusive acceleration at shock waves with finite upstream and downstream escape boundaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Ostrowski; R. Schlickeiser

    1996-04-18

    In the present paper we discuss the modifications introduced into the first-order Fermi shock acceleration process due to a finite extent of diffusive regions near the shock or due to boundary conditions leading to an increased particle escape upstream and/or downstream the shock. In the considered simple example of the planar shock wave we idealize the escape phenomenon by imposing a particle escape boundary at some distance from the shock. Presence of such a boundary (or boundaries) leads to coupled steepening of the accelerated particle spectrum and decreasing of the acceleration time scale. It allows for a semi-quantitative evaluation and, in some specific cases, also for modelling of the observed steep particle spectra as a result of the first-order Fermi shock acceleration. We also note that the particles close to the upper energy cut-off are younger than the estimate based on the respective acceleration time scale. In Appendix A we present a new time-dependent solution for infinite diffusive regions near the shock allowing for different constant diffusion coefficients upstream and downstream the shock.

  3. Electromagnetic energy conversion in downstream fronts from three dimensional kinetic reconnection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lapenta, Giovanni [Departement Wiskunde, KU Leuven, Universiteit Leuven (Belgium)] [Departement Wiskunde, KU Leuven, Universiteit Leuven (Belgium); Goldman, Martin; Newman, David [University of Colorado, Colorado 80309 (United States)] [University of Colorado, Colorado 80309 (United States); Markidis, Stefano [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden)] [High Performance Computing and Visualization (HPCViz) Department, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden); Divin, Andrey [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)] [Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala (Sweden)

    2014-05-15

    The electromagnetic energy equation is analyzed term by term in a 3D simulation of kinetic reconnection previously reported by Vapirev et al. [J. Geophys. Res.: Space Phys. 118, 1435 (2013)]. The evolution presents the usual 2D-like topological structures caused by an initial perturbation independent of the third dimension. However, downstream of the reconnection site, where the jetting plasma encounters the yet unperturbed pre-existing plasma, a downstream front is formed and made unstable by the strong density gradient and the unfavorable local acceleration field. The energy exchange between plasma and fields is most intense at the instability, reaching several pW/m{sup 3}, alternating between load (energy going from fields to particles) and generator (energy going from particles to fields) regions. Energy exchange is instead purely that of a load at the reconnection site itself in a region focused around the x-line and elongated along the separatrix surfaces. Poynting fluxes are generated at all energy exchange regions and travel away from the reconnection site transporting an energy signal of the order of about S?10{sup ?3}W/m{sup 2}.

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers Take Charge Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014: Employers Take Charge The Workplace Charging Challenge...

  5. Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Dali; Orler, Bruce; Tornga, Stephanie; Welch, Cindy

    2011-01-26

    Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

  6. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.

  7. Automakers and Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenge Initiative Arguably the most important infrastructure strategy to accelerate adoption of PEVs. Why are we doing Workplace Charging? * PEV Market Growth - Critical now...

  8. Upstream open loop control of the recirculation area downstream of a backward-facing step

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gautier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    The flow downstream a backward-facing step is controlled using a pulsed jet placed upstream of the step edge. Experimental velocity fields are computed and used to the recirculation area quantify. The effects of jet amplitude, frequency and duty cycle on this recirculation area are investigated for two Reynolds numbers (Re=2070 and Re=2900). The results of this experimental study demonstrate that upstream actuation can be as efficient as actuation at the step edge when exciting the shear layer at its natural frequency. Moreover it is shown that it is possible to minimize both jet amplitude and duty cycle and still achieve optimal efficiency. With minimal amplitude and a duty-cycle as low as 10\\% the recirculation area is nearly canceled.

  9. Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nelson, R. E.

    1982-01-01

    The low cost of steam combined with the maintenance free operation of steam ejectors has assured their unquestioned use in providing the necessary vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers. However, the cost of steam production has risen...

  10. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO (United States). Physical and Chemical Properties Division

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  11. taking charge : optimizing urban charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Subramani, Praveen

    2012-01-01

    This thesis analyses the opportunities and constraints of deploying charging infrastructure for shared electric vehicles in urban environments. Existing electric vehicle charging infrastructure for privately owned vehicles ...

  12. Photon: history, mass, charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    L. B. Okun

    2006-02-13

    The talk consists of three parts. ``History'' briefly describes the emergence and evolution of the concept of photon during the first two decades of the 20th century. ``Mass'' gives a short review of the literature on the upper limit of the photon's mass. ``Charge'' is a critical discussion of the existing interpretation of searches for photon charge. Schemes, in which all photons are charged, are grossly inconsistent. A model with three kinds of photons (positive, negative and neutral) seems at first sight to be more consistent, but turns out to have its own serious problems.

  13. International aeronautical user charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Odoni, Amedeo R.

    1985-01-01

    Introduction: 1.1 BACKGROUND AND MOTIVATION Very few issues relating to the international air transportation industry are today as divisive as those pertaining to user charges imposed at international airports and enroute ...

  14. Trends in Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Donofrio Ford Motor Company Trends in Workplace Charging Est EV NA NA approx 21 70-100 Miles: What Types of Chargers are Being Used? Considerations for Campus Installations *...

  15. Double layer in an expanding plasma: Simultaneous upstream and downstream measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Byhring, H. S.; Fredriksen, A. [Institute of Science and Technology, University of Tromsoe, NO-9037 Tromsoe (Norway); Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Group, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2008-10-15

    Ion energy measurements were taken simultaneously using one retarding field energy analyzer placed at the open end of the plasma source, and one in the plasma diffusion region of an expanding low pressure argon plasma. An electric double layer was found, which is well separated from the region of high magnetic field and which is downstream of the maximum in the magnetic field gradient. An axially movable analyzer was used to determine the position of the double layer. It appears to be more closely connected to the rapid change in diameter from the source to the diffusion chamber, but still has a radial dimension close to that of the source diameter. These results suggest that the double layer forms, not as much as a result of a magnetic nozzle, but rather as a reaction to a dramatic change in boundary conditions. Still, a magnetic field of at least a few tens of Gauss in the double layer region is necessary for its spontaneous formation.

  16. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Fast Charge - November 2012 WirelessInductive Charging Inductive charging, also known as wireless charging, uses an electromagnetic field to transfer electricity to a PEV without...

  17. Electrically charged targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Ronald K. (Livermore, CA); Hunt, Angus L. (Alamo, CA)

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  18. Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal-fired power plant

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hopkins, William A.

    Accumulation of trace elements and growth responses in Corbicula fluminea downstream of a coal 2009 Keywords: Corbicula fluminea Coal-fired power plant Selenium Mercury Glutathione Condition index Bioaccumulation a b s t r a c t Lentic organisms exposed to coal-fired power plant (CFPP) discharges can have

  19. Interaction between a flexible filament and a downstream rigid body Fang-Bao Tian,1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luo, Haoxiang

    Interaction between a flexible filament and a downstream rigid body Fang-Bao Tian,1,2 Haoxiang Luo, USA Received 11 February 2010; published 3 August 2010 A filament flapping in the bow wake of a rigid of the filament, and the drag force on both bodies is computed. It is shown that the results largely depend

  20. EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF DAM REMOVAL OUTCOMES: DOWNSTREAM GEOMORPHIC EFFECTS FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A SMALL, GRAVEL-FILLED DAM1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    EVOLVING EXPECTATIONS OF DAM REMOVAL OUTCOMES: DOWNSTREAM GEOMORPHIC EFFECTS FOLLOWING REMOVAL OF A SMALL, GRAVEL-FILLED DAM1 Kelly Kibler, Desiree Tullos, and Mathias Kondolf 2 ABSTRACT: Dam removal is a promising river restoration technique, particularly for the vast number of rivers impounded by small dams

  1. Vacuum Distillation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home PageMonthly","10/2015"4,"Ames5 Tables July 1996 Energy Information Administration Office of Coal,Demand Module of theCubicEstimation ResultsYear JanYearDay) Process: Vacuum

  2. Design, start up, and three years operating experience of an ammonia scrubbing, distillation, and destruction plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gambert, G.

    1996-12-31

    When the rebuilt Coke Plant started operations in November of 1992, it featured a completely new closed circuit secondary cooler, ammonia scrubbing, ammonia distillation, and ammonia destruction plants. This is the second plant of this type to be built in North America. To remove the ammonia from the gas, it is scrubbed with three liquids: Approximately 185 gallons/minute of cooled stripped liquor from the ammonia stills; Light oil plant condensate; and Optionally, excess flushing liquor. These scrubbers typically reduce ammonia content in the gas from 270 Grains/100 standard cubic feet to 0.2 Grains/100 standard cubic feet.

  3. ,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative FuelsMonthly","10/2015"Monthly","10/2015" ,"ReleaseMonthly","10/2015"Net Receipts byDistillate Fuel

  4. Synthesis of zeolite from Italian coal fly ash: Differences in crystallization temperature using seawater instead of distilled water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Belviso, Claudia; Cavalcante, Francesco; Fiore, Saverio

    2010-05-15

    In this study Italian coal fly ash was converted into several types of zeolite in laboratory experiments with temperatures of crystallization ranging from 35 up to 90 deg. C. Distilled and seawater were used during the hydrothermal synthesis process in separate experiments, after a pre-treatment fusion with NaOH. The results indicate that zeolites could be formed from different kind of Italian coal fly ash at low temperature of crystallization using both distilled and seawater. SEM data and the powder patterns of X-ray diffraction analysis show that faujasite, zeolite ZK-5 and sodalite were synthesized when using both distilled and seawater; zeolite A crystallized only using distilled water. In particular the experiments indicate that the synthesis of zeolite X and zeolite ZK-5 takes place at lower temperatures when using seawater (35 and 45 deg. C, respectively). The formation of sodalite is always competitive with zeolite X which shows a metastable behaviour at higher temperatures (70-90 deg. C). The chemical composition of the fly ash source could be responsible of the differences on the starting time of synthesized zeolite with distilled water, in any case our data show that the formation of specific zeolites takes place always at lower temperatures when using seawater.

  5. Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation System for Desalination Using Waste Heat fromGas Brayton Cycles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haihua Zhao; Per F. Peterson

    2012-10-01

    Generation IV high temperature reactor systems use closed gas Brayton Cycles to realize high thermal efficiency in the range of 40% to 60%. The waste heat is removed through coolers by water at substantially greater average temperature than in conventional Rankine steam cycles. This paper introduces an innovative Advanced Multi-Effect Distillation (AMED) design that can enable the production of substantial quantities of low-cost desalinated water using waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles. A reference AMED design configuration, optimization models, and simplified economics analysis are presented. By using an AMED distillation system the waste heat from closed gas Brayton cycles can be fully utilized to desalinate brackish water and seawater without affecting the cycle thermal efficiency. Analysis shows that cogeneration of electricity and desalinated water can increase net revenues for several Brayton cycles while generating large quantities of potable water. The AMED combining with closed gas Brayton cycles could significantly improve the sustainability and economics of Generation IV high temperature reactors.

  6. FCC Tail Gas olefins conversion to gasoline via catalytic distillation with aromatics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Partin, E.E. (Brown and Root U.S.A., Inc., Houston, TX (US))

    1988-01-01

    The goal of every refiner is to continually improve profitability by such means as increasing gasoline production, increasing gasoline octane pool and in cases where fuel balance becomes a problem, decreasing refinery fuel gas production. A new refinery process is currently being developed which accomplish these goals. Chemical Research and Licensing Company (CR and L) developed Catalytic Distillation technology in 1978 to produce MTBE. They have since used the Catalytic Distillation technique to produce cumene. CR and L has further developed this technology to convert olefin gases currently consumed as refinery fuel, to high octane gasoline components. The process, known as CATSTILL, alkylates olefin gases such as ethylene, propylene and butylene, present in FCC Tail Gas with light aromatics such as benzene, toluene and xylene, present in reformate, to produce additional quantities of high octane gasoline components. A portable CATSTILL demonstration plant has been constructed by Brown and Root U.S.A., under an agreement with CR and L, for placement in a refinery to further develop data necessary to design commercial plants. This paper presents current data relative to the CATSTILL development.

  7. Magic State Distillation and Gate Compilation in Quantum Algorithms for Quantum Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Colin J. Trout; Kenneth R. Brown

    2015-01-29

    Quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry map the dynamics of electrons in a molecule to the dynamics of a coupled spin system. To reach chemical accuracy for interesting molecules, a large number of quantum gates must be applied which implies the need for quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. Arbitrary fault-tolerant operations can be constructed from a small, universal set of fault-tolerant operations by gate compilation. Quantum chemistry algorithms are compiled by decomposing the dynamics of the coupled spin-system using a Trotter formula, synthesizing the decomposed dynamics using Clifford operations and single-qubit rotations, and finally approximating the single-qubit rotations by a sequence of fault-tolerant single-qubit gates. Certain fault-tolerant gates rely on the preparation of specific single-qubit states referred to as magic states. As a result, gate compilation and magic state distillation are critical for solving quantum chemistry problems on a quantum computer. We review recent progress that has improved the efficiency of gate compilation and magic state distillation by orders of magnitude.

  8. Charged Vacuum Bubble Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. R. Morris

    1998-10-20

    A type of scenario is considered where electrically charged vacuum bubbles, formed from degenerate or nearly degenerate vacuua separated by a thin domain wall, are cosmologically produced due to the breaking of a discrete symmetry, with the bubble charge arising from fermions residing within the domain wall. Stability issues associated with wall tension, fermion gas, and Coulombic effects for such configurations are examined. The stability of a bubble depends upon parameters such as the symmetry breaking scale and the fermion coupling. A dominance of either the Fermi gas or the Coulomb contribution may be realized under certain conditions, depending upon parameter values.

  9. The electrically charged universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Michael Düren

    2012-01-31

    The paper discusses the possibility of a universe that is not electrically neutral but has a net positive charge. It is claimed that such a universe contains a homogeneous distribution of protons that are not bound to galaxies and fill up the intergalactic space. This proton `gas' charges macroscopic objects like stars and planets, but it does not generate electrostatic or magnetic fields that affect the motion of these bodies significantly. However, the proton gas may contribute significantly to the total dark matter of the universe and its electrostatic potential may contribute to the dark energy and to the expansion of the universe.

  10. Downstream Fish Passage through Hydropower One of the most widespread environmental constraints to the development of hydropower in the U.S.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Downstream Fish Passage through Hydropower Turbines Background One of the most widespread environmental constraints to the development of hydropower in the U.S. is the provision of adequate fish passage at projects. Mortality of downstream migrating fish, particularly as a result of passing through hydropower

  11. Image Charge Differential

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weston, Ken

    Image Charge Differential Amplifier FT 0 Crude Oil Time (s) 543210 Frequency (kHz) m/z m q B f organic molecules such as heavy crude oils. Heavy crudes are some of the most complex organic mixtures found in nature. As the crude oil industry grows in size and demand for crude oil increases, techniques

  12. Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

    2002-01-01

    Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

  13. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry (Danville, CA)

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  14. AVTA: ChargePoint AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ChargePoint AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results AVTA: ChargePoint AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing...

  15. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review the agreement proposed by one municipality to register PEV drivers and inform staff of charging policy.

  16. Charge detection in semiconductor nanostructures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacLean, Kenneth (Kenneth MacLean, III)

    2010-01-01

    In this thesis nanometer scale charge sensors are used to study charge transport in two solid state systems: Lateral GaAs quantum dots and hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H). In both of these experiments we use ...

  17. Distillation efficiencies of an industrial-scale i-butane/n-butane fractionator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klemola, K.T.; Ilme, J.K.

    1996-12-01

    Rarely published industrial-scale distillation efficiency data are presented. The Murphree tray efficiencies are determined from the i-butane/n-butane fractionator performance data. Point efficiencies, numbers of overall vapor phase transfer units, numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units, and liquid phase resistances of mass transfer are backcalculated from the Murphree tray efficiencies. Various efficiency prediction and scale-up methods have been tested against experimental results. A new model for the prediction of the numbers of vapor and liquid phase transfer units has been developed. The model can be applied to hydrocarbon systems at high pressure. The influence of the mass-transfer coefficients, the interfacial area, and the vapor and liquid residence times on mass transfer has been analyzed separately, and as a result the NTU correlations for vapor and liquid phases are obtained. The constants of the model can be obtained by fitting the model to experimental efficiency data from a similar system.

  18. Colorimetric Determination of Nitrite in Foods Principle: The sample is extracted with distilled water and the aqueous extract clarified

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nazarenko, Alexander

    water and the aqueous extract clarified with zinc hydroxide. Sulfanilic acid is diazotisedColorimetric Determination of Nitrite in Foods Principle: The sample is extracted with distilled/50 mL. The absorbance range should extend from 0 to 0.6 approx. E. Extraction Procedure Weigh ca 100g

  19. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

    2011-11-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

  20. Automakers and Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:FinancingPetroleum Based Fuels Research atDepartmentAudits and6AuidtWorkplace Charging Summit

  1. On the Proton charge extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. Gluck

    2015-02-03

    It is shown that the recent determination of the various proton charge extensions is compatible with Standard Model expectations.

  2. Tools for charged Higgs bosons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oscar Stål

    2010-12-13

    We review the status of publicly available software tools applicable to charged Higgs physics. A selection of codes are highlighted in more detail, focusing on new developments that have taken place since the previous charged Higgs workshop in 2008. We conclude that phenomenologists now have the tools ready to face the LHC data. A new webpage collecting charged Higgs resources is presented.

  3. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Progress Update 2014: Employers Take Charge Available at energy.goveerevehiclesev-everywhere-workplace-charging-challenge Workplace Charging Challenge 5 Cumulative...

  4. Fractional charges and Misner-Wheeler charge without charge effect in metamaterials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Igor I. Smolyaninov

    2014-12-08

    Optical space in metamaterials may be engineered to emulate four dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory. Nonlinear optics of such metamaterials mimics interaction of quantized electric charges. An electromagnetic wormhole is designed, which connects two points of such an optical space and changes its effective topology. Electromagnetic field configurations which exhibit fractional charges appear as a result of such topology change. Moreover, such effects as Misner-Wheeler charge without charge may be replicated.

  5. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuffner, Francis K. (Richland, WA); Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W. (Richland, WA); Hammerstrom, Donald J. (West Richland, WA); Pratt, Richard M. (Richland, WA)

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  6. Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Efficiency Considerations of Diesel Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Combustion Poster...

  7. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of Maryland...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Maryland Baltimore Washington Medical Center Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of Maryland Baltimore Washington Medical Center Workplace Charging Challenge Partner:...

  8. EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    dreportoutcaci.pdf More Documents & Publications EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure Workshop: Charging Infrastructure Group E...

  9. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bosch Automotive Service...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Bosch Automotive Service Solutions, Inc. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bosch Automotive Service Solutions, Inc. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Bosch Automotive...

  10. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of California...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    California, Santa Barbara Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of California, Santa Barbara Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University of California, Santa...

  11. Pipeline charging of coke ovens with a preheated charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karpov, A.V.; Khadzhioglo, A.V.; Kuznichenko, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Work to test a pipeline charging method was conducted at the Konetsk Coke Works (a PK-2K coke oven system with a single gas main, oven width 407 mm, height 4300 mm, effective column 20.0 cm/sub 3/). This method consists of transporting the heated coal charge to the ovens through a pipe by means of steam. the charge is transported by high pressure chamber groups, and loaded by means of systems equipped with devices for separation, withdrawal and treatment of the spent steam. The principal goal of the present investigation was to test technical advances in the emission-free charging of preheated charges. The problem was, first, to create a reliable technology for separation of the steam from the charge immediately before loading it into the oven and, second, to provide a total elimination of emissions, thereby protecting the environment against toxic substances.

  12. Mercury in Fish Collected Upstream and Downstream of Los Alamos National Laboratory, New Mexico: 1991--2004.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P.R. Fresquez

    2004-10-15

    Small amounts of mercury (Hg) may exist in some canyon drainage systems within Los Alamos National Laboratory lands as a result of past discharges of untreated effluents. This paper reports on the concentrations of Hg in muscle (fillets) of various types of fish species collected downstream of LANL's influence from 1991 through 2004. The mean Hg concentration in fish from Cochiti reservoir (0.22 {micro}g/g wet weight), which is located downstream of LANL, was similar to fish collected from a reservoir upstream of LANL (Abiquiu) (0.26 {micro}g/g wet weight). Mercury concentrations in fish collected from both reservoirs exhibited significantly (Abiquiu = p < 0.05 and Cochiti = p < 0.10) decreasing trends over time. Predator fish like the northern pike (Esox lucius) contained significantly higher concentrations of Hg (0.39 {micro}g/g wet weight) than bottom-feeding fish like the white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) (0.10 {micro}g/g wet weight).

  13. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    in annual sales of plug-in electric vehicles by 2023, which may substantially increase electricity usage and peak demand in high adoption areas. Understanding customer charging...

  14. 12/11/2014 WATER POLLUTION: Mines can harm fish far downstream --federal study Manuel... https://plus.google.com/101473675488333674529/posts/Wcp1XY42QsF 1/3

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    12/11/2014 WATER POLLUTION: Mines can harm fish far downstream -- federal study Manuel... https Follow | WATER POLLUTION: Mines can harm fish far downstream -- federal study Manuel Quiñones, E;12/11/2014 WATER POLLUTION: Mines can harm fish far downstream -- federal study Manuel... https

  15. Charge, from EM fields only

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. L. Collins

    2007-03-04

    Consider the electric field E about an electron. Its source has been thought a substance called charge, enclosed within a small volume that defines the size of the electron. Scattering experiments find no size at all. Charge is useful, but mysterious. This study concludes that charge is not real. Useful, but not real. Absent real charge, the electric field must look to a different source. We know another electric field, vxB, not sourced by charge. A simple model of the electron, using EM fields only, has been found that generates an electric field vxB very like E. Gauss' law finds the model contains charge, but div vxB cannot find the charge density. The model contains a permanent magnetic flux quantum, configured as a dipole. The dipolar B fields spin around the symmetry axis, accounting for angular momentum. Spin stabilizes the magnetic flux quantum, and creates the vxB electric field. Stability in this model is dynamic. Energy is exchanged between the dipolar magnetic moment and an encircling toroidal displacement current, at the Compton frequency, mc^2/h = 1.24x10^20 Hz. The electric field undulates at this rate, instead of being static like E associated with charge. Absent any real charge, we have to abandon the notion that size of a charged particle is that of a small sack full of charge. The only electric field is vxB, and its source is not charge. What is the size of an electron? Coulomb scattering finds it point-like, but its spinning B fields extend to infinity.

  16. Entanglement distillation for continuous-variables under a thermal environment: Effectiveness of a non-Gaussian operation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jaehak Lee; Hyunchul Nha

    2013-03-31

    We study the task of distilling entanglement by a coherent superposition operation $t\\hat{a}+r\\hat{a}^\\dagger$ applied to a continuous-variable state under a thermal noise. In particular, we compare the performances of two different strategies, i.e., the non-Gaussian operation $t\\hat{a}+r\\hat{a}^\\dagger$ is applied before or after the noisy Gaussian channel. This is closely related to a fundamental problem of whether Gaussian or non-Gaussian entanglement can be more robust under a noisy channel and also provides a useful insight into the practical implementation of entanglement distribution for a long-distance quantum communication. We specifically look into two entanglement characteristics, the logarithmic negativity as a measure of entanglement and the teleportation fidelity as a usefulness of entanglement, for each distilled state. We find that the non-Gaussian operation after (before) the thermal noise becomes more effective in the low (high) temperature regime.

  17. Stable Charged Cosmic Strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weigel, H. [Physics Department, Stellenbosch University, Matieland 7602 (South Africa); Quandt, M. [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Tuebingen University, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Graham, N. [Department of Physics, Middlebury College , Middlebury, Vermont 05753 (United States)

    2011-03-11

    We study the quantum stabilization of a cosmic string by a heavy fermion doublet in a reduced version of the standard model. We show that charged strings, obtained by populating fermionic bound state levels, become stable if the electroweak bosons are coupled to a fermion that is less than twice as heavy as the top quark. This result suggests that extraordinarily large fermion masses or unrealistic couplings are not required to bind a cosmic string in the standard model. Numerically we find the most favorable string profile to be a simple trough in the Higgs vacuum expectation value of radius {approx_equal}10{sup -18} m. The vacuum remains stable in our model, because neutral strings are not energetically favored.

  18. Effects of Milan's Congestion Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carnovale, Maria; Gibson, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice 44.5 [20] Transport for London,London, and Milan have congestion charges. In the US, the Department of Transportation

  19. Electric Vehicle Smart Charging Infrastructure

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chung, Ching-Yen

    2014-01-01

    technology provides PEV chargers that simultaneously connectall types, from public fast chargers that will relieve rangeto home and garage chargers used for everyday charging. As a

  20. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  1. Assigning a Value to Dried Distillers' Grains as a Protein Supplement in Cattle Consuming Low-Quality Forage 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rambo, Zachary Joseph

    2011-08-08

    - product. Operations using dry grind attempt to maximize ethanol production per unit of energy. Basic steps in the dry grinding process include; grinding, cooking, liquefaction, simultaneous saccharification, fermentation, and distillation. 3... Grinding is accomplished through the use of hammermills or roller mills which reduce particle size and facilitate water penetration. Fines resulting from grinding are mixed with water to create a slurry which is cooked after liquefaction and the addition...

  2. Holographic thermalization of charged operators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Alejandro Giordano; Nicolas E. Grandi; Guillermo A. Silva

    2014-12-26

    We study a light-like charged collapsing shell in AdS-Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime, investigating whether the corresponding Vaidya metric is supported by matter that satisfies the null energy condition. We find that, if the absolute value of the charge decreases during the collapse, energy conditions are fulfilled everywhere in spacetime. On the other hand, if the absolute value of the charge increases, the metric does not satisfy energy conditions in the IR region. Therefore, from the gauge/gravity perspective, this last case is only useful to study the thermalization of the UV degrees of freedom. For all these geometries, we probe the thermalization process with two point correlators of charged operators, finding that the thermalization time grows with the charge of the operator, as well as with the dimension of space.

  3. Stratified charge internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skopil, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a main cylinder, a main piston within the main cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the main cylinder; a smaller idle cylinder, and idle piston within the idle cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the idle cylinder; an ignition passageway leading from the idle cylinder to the main cylinder; and an ignition device within the ignition passageway operable to ignite a compressed charge discharged by the idle cylinder into the ignition passageway. The passageway being positioned to discharge the ignited compressed charge from the idle cylinder into the main cylinder to ignite the compressed charge within the main cylinder.

  4. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  5. Charge-pump voltage converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brainard, John P. (Albuquerque, NM); Christenson, Todd R. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  6. Lubrication by charged polymers , Suzanne Giasson2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klein, Jacob

    .............................................................. Lubrication by charged polymers Uri lubricants between sliding charged surfaces8 . Here we show that brushes of charged polymers (polyelectro- lytes) attached to surfaces rubbing across an aqueous medium result in superior lubrication compared

  7. Efficient wireless charging with gallium nitride FETs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeh, Theresa (Theresa I.)

    2014-01-01

    Though wireless charging is more convenient than traditional wired charging methods, it is currently less efficient. This not only wastes power but can also result in a longer charging time. Improving the efficiency of ...

  8. Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakamura, K.

    2011-01-01

    electron spectrometer [24] before sending the e-beam to charge diagnostics,electron beams from the laser plasma accelerator, a comprehensive study of charge diagnosticselectron spectrom- eter was turned off to send e-beams to charge diagnostics.

  9. Sources of Mercury to East Fork Poplar Creek Downstream from the Y-12 National Security Complex: Inventories and Export Rates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Southworth, George R [ORNL; Greeley Jr, Mark Stephen [ORNL; Peterson, Mark J [ORNL; Lowe, Kenneth Alan [ORNL; Ketelle, Richard H [ORNL; Floyd, Stephanie B [ORNL

    2010-02-01

    East Fork Poplar Creek (EFPC) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, has been heavily contaminated with mercury (also referred to as Hg) since the 1950s as a result of historical activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Y-12 National Security Complex (formerly the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant and hereinafter referred to as Y-12). During the period from 1950 to 1963, spills and leaks of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) contaminated soil, building foundations, and subsurface drainage pathways at the site, while intentional discharges of mercury-laden wastewater added 100 metric tons of mercury directly to the creek (Turner and Southworth 1999). The inventory of mercury estimated to be lost to soil and rock within the facility was 194 metric tons, with another estimated 70 metric tons deposited in floodplain soils along the 25 km length of EFPC (Turner and Southworth 1999). Remedial actions within the facility reduced mercury concentrations in EFPC water at the Y-12 boundary from > 2500 ng/L to about 600 ng/L by 1999 (Southworth et al. 2000). Further actions have reduced average total mercury concentration at that site to {approx}300 ng/L (2009 RER). Additional source control measures planned for future implementation within the facility include sediment/soil removal, storm drain relining, and restriction of rainfall infiltration within mercury-contaminated areas. Recent plans to demolish contaminated buildings within the former mercury-use areas provide an opportunity to reconstruct the storm drain system to prevent the entry of mercury-contaminated water into the flow of EFPC. Such actions have the potential to reduce mercury inputs from the industrial complex by perhaps as much as another 80%. The transformation and bioaccumulation of mercury in the EFPC ecosystem has been a perplexing subject since intensive investigation of the issue began in the mid 1980s. Although EFPC was highly contaminated with mercury (waterborne mercury exceeded background levels by 1000-fold, mercury in sediments by more than 2000-fold) in the 1980s, mercury concentrations in EFPC fish exceeded those in fish from regional reference sites by only a little more than 10-fold. This apparent low bioavailability of mercury in EFPC, coupled with a downstream pattern of mercury in fish in which mercury decreased in proportion to dilution of the upstream source, lead to the assumption that mercury in fish would respond to decreased inputs of dissolved mercury to the stream's headwaters. However, during the past two decades when mercury inputs were decreasing, mercury concentrations in fish in Lower EFPC (LEFPC) downstream of Y-12 increased while those in Upper EFPC (UEFPC) decreased. The key assumption of the ongoing cleanup efforts, and concentration goal for waterborne mercury were both called into question by the long-term monitoring data. The large inventory of mercury within the watershed downstream presents a concern that the successful treatment of sources in the headwaters may not be sufficient to reduce mercury bioaccumulation within the system to desired levels. The relative importance of headwater versus floodplain mercury sources in contributing to mercury bioaccumulation in EFPC is unknown. A mercury transport study conducted by the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) in 1984 estimated that floodplain sources contributed about 80% of the total annual mercury export from the EFPC system (ORTF 1985). Most of the floodplain inputs were associated with wet weather, high flow events, while much of the headwater flux occurred under baseflow conditions. Thus, day-to-day exposure of biota to waterborne mercury was assumed to be primarily determined by the Y-12 source. The objective of this study was to evaluate the results of recent studies and monitoring within the EFPC drainage with a focus on discerning the magnitude of floodplain mercury sources and how long these sources might continue to contaminate the system after headwater sources are eliminated or greatly reduced.

  10. Clifford Residues and Charge Quantization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marcus S. Cohen

    2002-07-26

    We derive the quantization of action, particle number, and electric charge in a Lagrangian spin bundle over M equivalent M_# union D_J, Penrose's conformal compactification of Minkowsky space, with the world tubes of massive particles removed.

  11. Electrokinetic concentration of charged molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup K. (Berkeley, CA); Neyer, David W. (Castro Valley, CA); Schoeniger, Joseph S. (Oakland, CA); Garguilo, Michael G. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A method for separating and concentrating charged species from uncharged or neutral species regardless of size differential. The method uses reversible electric field induced retention of charged species, that can include molecules and molecular aggregates such as dimers, polymers, multimers, colloids, micelles, and liposomes, in volumes and on surfaces of porous materials. The retained charged species are subsequently quantitatively removed from the porous material by a pressure driven flow that passes through the retention volume and is independent of direction thus, a multi-directional flow field is not required. Uncharged species pass through the system unimpeded thus effecting a complete separation of charged and uncharged species and making possible concentration factors greater than 1000-fold.

  12. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    battery charging and discharging. Researchers first charged commercial-grade battery cells to 50% full in 30 minutes, mimicking real world conditions. Then, the battery cell...

  13. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Wednesday, 28 August 2013 00:00 Accentuating the...

  14. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design EV Everywhere Grand Challenge - Charging Infrastructure Enabling Flexible EV Design Presentation given at the EV Everywhere...

  15. EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    E Breakout Report EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure Workshop: Charging Infrastructure Group E Breakout Report Breakout session presentation for the EV...

  16. Bringing Your Workplace Charging Story to Life

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    charging workshops * Other community events 10 Shannon.shea@ee.doe.gov http:energy.goveerevehiclesvehicle-technologies-office-ev-everywhere- workplace-charging-challenge 11...

  17. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Vermont Energy Investment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    More Information VEIC's Mission Workplace Charging News June 23, 2014 VEIC now an EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge Partner The use of Electric Vehicles (EVs) is...

  18. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Purchase College, State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Purchase College, State University of New York Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Purchase College, State University of New York Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Purchase...

  19. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks...

  20. AVTA: Bidirectional Fast Charging Report

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report is an analysis of bi-directional fast charging, as informed by the AVTA's testing on plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  1. d upstream downstream disturbance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Massachusetts at Amherst, University of

    microphone Cm (s) C e (s) Controller (a) m Pmd (s) d Cm (s) Pmu (s) P ed (s) u P eu (s) e C e (s) (b) Figure) #12; y 2 =m Pmd (s) w 1 =d w 2 D 2 C m (s) Pmu (s) z 2 P ed (s) D 1 W 2 W 3 z 3 D 3 w 3 1 0 0005 1 0

  2. Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

    2011-10-06

    Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (<260 C boiling point). Carboxylic acid content of all of the high oxygen content fractions was likely too high for these materials to be considered as fuel blendstocks although potential for blending with crude oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

  3. "Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual

  4. "Table A2. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page|Monthly","10/2015","1/15/1981"0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and6.. Total

  5. Cumulative watershed effects (CWEs) result from the overlapping effects of management activities in time or space. The routing and downstream accumulation of sediment from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MacDonald, Lee

    activities in time or space. The routing and downstream accumulation of sediment from forest management range from the short-term variability of sediment transport rates to the variability in annual sediment data indicated that 13-95% of the variation in sediment transport rates could be explained by discharge

  6. Simulating dam removal with a 1D hydraulic model: Accuracy and techniques for reservoir erosion and downstream deposition at the Chiloquin Dam removal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tullos, Desiree

    Simulating dam removal with a 1D hydraulic model: Accuracy and techniques for reservoir erosion and downstream deposition at the Chiloquin Dam removal Desiree Tullos1 , Matt Cox1 , Cara Walter1 1 Department are often used to reduce uncertainty regarding the outcomes of dam removal, though the accuracy

  7. Equilibria of EV Charging Benny Lutati1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeoh, William

    Equilibria of EV Charging Benny Lutati1 , Vadim Levit1 , Tal Grinshpoun2 , and Amnon Meisels1 1 games · EV charging · V2G · Distributed search 1 Introduction Electric Vehicles (EVs) are an important to be charged daily. When parked during office hours, EVs are expected to charge in a well-balanced pattern

  8. Morphology and Charge Transport in Conjugated Polymers

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McGehee, Michael

    Morphology and Charge Transport in Conjugated Polymers R. J. KLINE AND M. D. McGEHEE Department charge transport and morphology is key to increasing the charge carrier mobility of conjugated polymers to provide insight into how the charge carriers move through a conjugated polymer film and provide a model

  9. Alternator control for battery charging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  10. Electric Charge in Interaction with Magnetically Charged Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. H. Kim; Sei-Hoon Moon

    2007-10-02

    We examine the angular momentum of an electric charge e placed at rest outside a dilaton black hole with magnetic charge Q. The electromagnetic angular momentum which is stored in the electromagnetic field outside the black hole shows several common features regardless of the dilaton coupling strength, though the dilaton black holes are drastically different in their spacetime structure depending on it. First, the electromagnetic angular momentum depends on the separation distance between the two objects and changes monotonically from eQ to 0 as the charge goes down from infinity to the horizon, if rotational effects of the black hole are discarded. Next, as the black hole approaches extremality, however, the electromagnetic angular momentum tends to be independent of the distance between the two objects. It is then precisely $eQ$ as in the electric charge and monopole system in flat spacetime. We discuss why these effects are exhibited and argue that the above features are to hold in widely generic settings including black hole solutions in theories with more complicated field contents, by addressing the no hair theorem for black holes and the phenomenon of field expulsion exhibited by extremal black holes.

  11. Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

    2012-12-03

    Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

  12. Stability of charged thin shells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Simeone, Claudio

    2011-05-15

    In this article we study the mechanical stability of spherically symmetric thin shells with charge, in Einstein-Maxwell and Einstein-Born-Infeld theories. We analyze linearized perturbations preserving the symmetry, for shells around vacuum and shells surrounding noncharged black holes.

  13. When Like Charges Attract: Interactions and Dynamics in Charge-Stabilized Colloidal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Grier, David

    When Like Charges Attract: Interactions and Dynamics in Charge-Stabilized Colloidal Suspensions as protein folding, DNA complexation, and the stability of industrial suspensions. Since the goal highly charged colloidal spheres dispersed in simple electrolytes yield several surprises. Isolated pairs

  14. AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act Charging Infrastructure Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports describe results of data collected through the Chargepoint America project, which deployed 4,600 public and home charging stations throughout the U.S. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  15. A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Galvin, David

    A blending problem (Taha, Example 2.3-7, almost) An oil refinery has three stages of production: a distillation tower, which takes in crude oil, up to a maximum of 650,000 barrels per day (bbl/day) and produces **" means "**% octane".) Once crude oil enters the system, it goes fully through the process. The refinery

  16. Dissolution and compaction of albite sand in distilled water and pH-buffered carboxylic acid solutions: experiments at 100 degrees and 160 degrees C 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carpenter, Thomas Doyle

    1995-01-01

    and compaction were monitored to quantify the effects of organic acids on time-dependent compaction rates of albite. The effects of stress and fluid chemistry on the dissolution kinetics were also examined. Compared to distilled water, Si-based dissolution rates...

  17. A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams The Kinetics of Coal Liquefaction Distillation Resid Conversion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D.Campbell; D.G. Nichols; D.J. Pazuchanics; H.Huang; M.T.Klein; R.A. Winschel; S.D. Brandes; S.Wang; W.H. Calkins

    1998-06-04

    Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc. (DOE Contract N o. DE- AC22- 94PC93054), the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. Th e program at Delaware was conducted be tween August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivit y toward hydrocracking of coal- derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An Introduction and Summary of th e project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here. INTRODUCTION Resid hydrocracking is a key reaction of modern (i. e., distillate- producing) coal liquefactio n processes. Coals are readily converted to resid a nd lighter products in the liquefaction process. The resid is combined with fr esh coal in a ratio often greater than 1: 1, and some vacuum gas oil and is recycled to be further converted. Understanding the chemistry of resids and resi d reactivity is important to improve direct liquefaction process design and to achieve economi c objectives for direct coal liquefaction. Computational models that predict resid conversion from the chemical characteristics of the resids and reaction conditions would be a cost- efficient way to explore process variables. Implementation of such models could aid in the design an d operation of liquefaction facilities.

  18. FADEC: Fast Authentication for Dynamic Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nahrstedt, Klara

    charging [1], [2] is a promising technol- ogy for charging electric vehicles (EV) while driving. The basic idea is to place charging coils under the charging pads on the road and attach charging coils to the EV the road and the coils in the EV can charge the EV battery. Dynamic charging is only possible with proper

  19. Performance and emissions of non-petroleum fuels in a direct-injection stratified charge Sl engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Freeman, L.E.; Chui, G.K.; Roby, R.J.

    1982-10-01

    Seven fuels derived from coal and shale resources were evaluated using a direct-injection stratified charge engine. The fuels were refined to different degrees which ranged from those typical of gasoline blending components to those similar to current gasoline. Results showed that fuels refined to have properties similar to gasoline performed like gasoline. The less refined fuels were limited in performance. The total carbon monoxide and the hydrocarbon emissions varied with the volatility of the fuels. Most fuels with a higher overall distillation curve generally gave higher hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions. The NOx emissions increased with the percent aromatics in the fuels. The hydrocarbon emissions were found to increase with fuel viscosity. Within the range of engine operation, nearly all the fuels evaluated gave satisfactory performance. With some modifications, even the less refined fuels can be potentially suitable for use in this engine.

  20. Methods for reduction of charging emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schuecker, F.J.; Schulte, H. [Krupp Uhde GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    1997-12-31

    One of the most critical subjects in coking plants are charging emissions. The paper reviews the systems that have been used over the years to reduce charging emissions. The advantages and disadvantages are summarized for the following systems: Double collecting main with aspiration on both oven sides; Single collecting main with/without aspiration via standpipe, and extraction and cleaning of charging gas on charging car; Single collecting main with aspiration via standpipe and pretreatment of charging gas on the charging car as well as additional stationary exhaust and cleaning of charging gas; Single collecting main with aspiration via single standpipe; and Single collecting main with simultaneous aspiration via two standpipes and a U-tube connecting the oven chamber with the neighboring oven. The paper then briefly discusses prerequisites for reduction of charging emissions.

  1. Fast Methods for Bimolecular Charge Optimization

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.

    We report a Hessian-implicit optimization method to quickly solve the charge optimization problem over protein molecules: given a ligand and its complex with a receptor, determine the ligand charge distribution that minimizes ...

  2. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as well as charge-is already...

  3. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Lawrence Berkeley National...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    even more to do so, Berkeley Lab has announced that it will start offering workplace EV charging. The workplace charging is just one of several initiatives Berkeley Lab is...

  4. A User Programmable Battery Charging System 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Amanor-Boadu, Judy M

    2013-05-07

    , have to be replenished or recharged once their energy is depleted. Battery charging systems must perform this replenishment by using very fast and efficient methods to extend battery life and to increase periods between charges. In this regard...

  5. SOCIALLY OPTIMAL CHARGING STRATEGIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciocan-Fontanine, Ionut

    SOCIALLY OPTIMAL CHARGING STRATEGIES FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES ELENA YUDOVINA AND GEORGE MICHAILIDIS Abstract. Electric vehicles represent a promising technology for reducing emissions and dependence. This pa- per studies decentralized policies that assign electric vehicles to a network of charging

  6. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 OutreachProductswsicloudwsiclouddenDVA N C E D BGene Network ShapingDate:Characterization ofArcticUncertainties1

  7. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMayARM-0501 Marine Stratus Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle

  8. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMayARM-0501 Marine Stratus Radiation, Aerosol, and

  9. Charge

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity ofkandz-cm11 Outreach Home Room News PublicationsAudits &BradburyMayARM-0501 Marine Stratus Radiation, Aerosol, and001 The

  10. Quarks with Integer Electric Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    J. LaChapelle

    2015-01-26

    Within the context of the Standard Model, quarks are placed in a $(\\mathbf{3},\\mathbf{2})\\oplus (\\mathbf{3},\\bar{\\mathbf{2}})$ matter field representation of $U_{EW}(2)$. Although the quarks carry unit intrinsic electric charge in this construction, anomaly cancellation constrains the Lagrangian in such a way that the quarks' associated currents couple to the photon with the usual 2/3 and 1/3 fractional electric charge associated with conventional quarks. The resulting model is identical to the Standard Model in the $SU_C(3)$ sector: However, in the $U_{EW}(2)$ sector it is similar but not necessarily equivalent. Off hand, the model appears to be phenomenologically equivalent to the conventional quark model in the electroweak sector for experimental conditions that preclude observation of individual constituent currents. On the other hand, it is conceivable that detailed analyses for electroweak reactions may reveal discrepancies with the Standard Model in high energy and/or large momentum transfer reactions. The possibility of quarks with integer electric charge strongly suggests the notion that leptons and quarks are merely different manifestations of the same underlying field. A speculative model is proposed in which a phase transition is assumed to occur between $SU_C(3)\\otimes U_{EM}(1)$ and $U_{EM}(1)$ regimes. This immediately; explains the equality of lepton/quark generations and lepton/hadron electric charge, relates neutrino oscillations to quark flavor mixing, reduces the free parameters of the Standard Model, and renders the issue of quark confinement moot.

  11. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  12. EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workshop Introduction EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure Workshop Introduction Presentation given at the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Consumer...

  13. Electrochemically controlled charging circuit for storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Onstott, E.I.

    1980-06-24

    An electrochemically controlled charging circuit for charging storage batteries is disclosed. The embodiments disclosed utilize dc amplification of battery control current to minimize total energy expended for charging storage batteries to a preset voltage level. The circuits allow for selection of Zener diodes having a wide range of reference voltage levels. Also, the preset voltage level to which the storage batteries are charged can be varied over a wide range.

  14. Securing the information infrastructure for EV charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Poll, Erik

    Securing the information infrastructure for EV charging Fabian van den Broek1 , Erik Poll1 , and B for the information exchanges in the infrastructure for EV charging being tri- alled in the Netherlands, which. Key words: EV charging, congestion management, end-to-end security, smart grids 1 Introduction

  15. When electric charge becomes also magnetic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tiago C. Adorno; Dmitry M. Gitman; Anatoly E. Shabad

    2015-07-08

    In nonlinear electrodynamics, QED included, we find a static solution to the field equations with an electric charge as its source, which is comprised of homogeneous parallel magnetic and electric fields, and a radial spherically-nonsymmetric long-range magnetic field, whose magnetic charge is proportional to the electric charge and also depends on the homogeneous component of the solution.

  16. Electron Beam Charge Diagnostics for Laser Plasma Accelerators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Kei

    2012-01-01

    Electron Beam Charge Diagnostics for Laser PlasmaElectron beams were sent to the various charge diagnosticselectron spectrometer [27] before sending the e-beam to charge diagnostics,

  17. Workplace Charging Challenge Summit 2014: Session 1, Track B...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Lessons Learned about Workplace Charging in The EV Project Workplace Charging Challenge Summit 2014: Session 3, Track A Workplace Charging...

  18. ENHANCED IGNITION FOR I.C. ENGINES WITH PREMIXED CHARGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Turkish, M. C. "3-Valve Stratified Charge Engines: Analysis741163, Evolvement, Stratified_ Charge Engines, I. Mech. E.Sonic Jet Ignition --A Stratified Charge Concept," Physics

  19. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Sierra Nevada Brewing Co...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Sierra Nevada Brewing Co. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Sierra Nevada...

  20. Tensor products of AC charges and AC Radon measures are not always AC charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buczolich, Zoltán

    Tensor products of AC #3; charges and AC Radon measures are not always AC #3; charges Zolt#19;an and an absolutely continuous Radon measure #22; on R such that F #22; is not an AC#3; charge on R 2 . 1 Introduction In [1] the tensor problem was stated for the tensor product of AC #3; charges and the Lebesgue

  1. Vacuum charge fractionlization re-examined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Y. Nogami

    2008-08-01

    We consider a model of a quantized fermion field that is based on the Dirac equation in one dimensional space and re-examine how the fermion number of the vacuum, or the vacuum charge, varies when an external potential is switched on. With this model, fractionization of the vacuum charge has been illustrated in the literature by showing that the external potential can change the vacuum charge from zero to a fractional number. Charge conservation then appears violated in this process. This is because the charge that has been examined in this context is only a part of the total charge of the vacuum. The total charge is conserved. It is not fractionalized unless the Dirac equation has a zero mode. Two other confusing aspects are discussed. One is concerned with the usage of the continuum limit and the other with the regularization of the current operator. Implications of these aspects of the vacuum problem are explored.

  2. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2013-11-26

    The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

  3. Outlook for Charged Higgs Physics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    John Ellis

    2009-01-15

    Almost all extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of charged Higgs bosons. This talk focuses on the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), which is relatively predictive. The outlook for detecting supersymmetric particles and Higgs bosons at the LHC are discussed, as are the prospects for finding indirect effects of supersymmetric Higgs bosons at low energies, e.g., in K decays. The outlook for discovering observable effects of CP-violating supersymmetric phases at high energies or in B decays is also mentioned.

  4. Wireless Charging | Department of Energy

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Homesum_a_epg0_fpd_mmcf_m.xls" ,"Available from WebQuantity of Natural GasAdjustmentsShirley Ann Jackson About1996HowFOAShowingFuelWeatherize » AirareAbout KeyofWireless Charging

  5. Numerical Simulation of Shock-Dispersed Fuel Charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bell, John B.; Day, Marcus; Beckner, Vincent; Rendleman, Charles; Kuhl, Allen L.; Neuwald, P.

    2005-01-01

    SDF charge in which a 0.5 g PETN booster charge is used toproducts from the composite (PETN/TNT) charge in the 6.6 lbehavior of a composite TNT/PETN charge in a calorimeter.

  6. Evaluation of the Biological Effects of the Northwest Power Conservation Council's Mainstem Amendment on the Fisheries Upstream and Downstream of Libby Dam, Montana, 2007-2008 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sylvester, Ryan; Stephens, Brian; Tohtz, Joel

    2009-04-03

    A new project began in 2005 to monitor the biological and physical effects of improved operations of Hungry Horse and Libby Dams, Montana, called for by the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC) Mainstem Amendment. This operating strategy was designed to benefit resident fish impacted by hydropower and flood control operations. Under the new operating guidelines, July through September reservoir drafts will be limited to 10 feet from full pool during the highest 80% of water supply years and 20 feet from full pool during the lowest 20% of water supply (drought) years. Limits were also established on how rapidly discharge from the dams can be increased or decreased depending on the season. The NPCC also directed the federal agencies that operate Libby and Hungry Horse Dams to implement a new flood control strategy (VARQ) and directed Montana Fish, Wildlife & Parks to evaluate biological responses to this operating strategy. The Mainstem Amendment operating strategy has not been fully implemented at the Montana dams as of June 2008 but the strategy will be implemented in 2009. This report highlights the monitoring methods used to monitor the effects of the Mainstem Amendment operations on fishes, habitat, and aquatic invertebrates upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. We also present initial assessments of data and the effects of various operating strategies on physical and biological components of the systems upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Annual electrofishing surveys in the Kootenai River and selected tributaries, along with gill net surveys in the reservoir, are being used to quantify the impacts of dam operations on fish populations upstream and downstream of Libby Dam. Scales and otoliths are being used to determine the age structure and growth of focal species. Annual population estimates and tagging experiments provide estimates of survival and growth in the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries. Radio telemetry will be used to validate an existing Instream Flow Incremental Methodology (IFIM) model developed for the Kootenai River and will also be used to assess the effect of changes in discharge on fish movements and habitat use downstream of Libby Dam. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags will be injected into rainbow, bull, and cutthroat trout throughout the mainstem Kootenai River and selected tributaries to provide information on growth, survival, and migration patterns in relation to abiotic and biotic variables. Model simulations (RIVBIO) are used to calculate the effects of dam operations on the wetted perimeter and benthic biomass in the Kootenai River below Libby Dam. Additional models (IFIM) will also be used to evaluate the impacts of dam operations on the amount of available habitat for different life stages of rainbow and bull trout in the Kootenai River.

  7. On the proton charge extensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jesse R. Stryker; Gerald A. Miller

    2015-08-26

    We examine how corrections to $S$-state energy levels, $ E_{nS}$, in hydrogenic atoms due to the finite proton size are affected by moments of the proton charge distribution. The corrections to $E_{nS}$ are computed moment by moment. The results demonstrate that the next-to-leading order term in the expansion is of order $r_p / a_B $ times the size of the leading order $ \\langle r_p^2 \\rangle $ term. Our analysis thus dispels any concern that the larger relative size of this term for muonic hydrogen versus electronic hydrogen might account for the outstanding discrepancy of proton radius measurements extracted from the two systems. Furthermore, the next-to-leading order term in powers of $r_p / a_B $ that we derive from a dipole proton form factor is proportional to $\\langle r_p^3 \\rangle $, rather than $\\langle r_p^4 \\rangle$ as would be expected from the scalar nature of the form factor. The dependence of the finite-size correction on $\\langle r_p^3 \\rangle $ and higher odd-power moments is shown to be a general result for any spherically symmetric proton charge distribution. A method for computing the moment expansion of the finite-size correction to arbitrary order is introduced and the results are tabulated for principal quantum numbers up to $n=7$.

  8. Review of Variable Generation Integration Charges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porter, K.; Fink, S.; Buckley, M.; Rogers, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2013-03-01

    The growth of wind and solar generation in the United States, and the expectation of continued growth of these technologies, dictates that the future power system will be operated in a somewhat different manner because of increased variability and uncertainty. A small number of balancing authorities have attempted to determine an 'integration cost' to account for these changes to their current operating practices. Some balancing authorities directly charge wind and solar generators for integration charges, whereas others add integration charges to projected costs of wind and solar in integrated resource plans or in competitive solicitations for generation. This report reviews the balancing authorities that have calculated variable generation integration charges and broadly compares and contrasts the methodologies they used to determine their specific integration charges. The report also profiles each balancing authority and how they derived wind and solar integration charges.

  9. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, Robert W. (Los Alamos, NM); Dobelbower, M. Christian (Toledo, OH)

    1995-01-01

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location.

  10. Circular, confined distribution for charged particle beams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garnett, R.W.; Dobelbower, M.C.

    1995-11-21

    A charged particle beam line is formed with magnetic optics that manipulate the charged particle beam to form the beam having a generally rectangular configuration to a circular beam cross-section having a uniform particle distribution at a predetermined location. First magnetic optics form a charged particle beam to a generally uniform particle distribution over a square planar area at a known first location. Second magnetic optics receive the charged particle beam with the generally square configuration and affect the charged particle beam to output the charged particle beam with a phase-space distribution effective to fold corner portions of the beam toward the core region of the beam. The beam forms a circular configuration having a generally uniform spatial particle distribution over a target area at a predetermined second location. 26 figs.

  11. Frictional cooling of positively charged particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniel Greenwald; Allen Caldwell

    2011-11-14

    One of the focuses of research and development towards the construction of a muon collider is muon beam preparation. Simulation of frictional cooling shows that it can achieve the desired emittance reduction to produce high-luminosity muon beams. We show that for positively charged particles, charge exchange interactions necessitate significant changes to schemes previously developed for negatively charged particles. We also demonstrate that foil-based schemes are not viable for positive particles.

  12. Charged rotating dilaton black strings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, M.H.; Farhangkhah, N.

    2005-02-15

    In this paper we, first, present a class of charged rotating solutions in four-dimensional Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton gravity with zero and Liouville-type potentials. We find that these solutions can present a black hole/string with two regular horizons, an extreme black hole or a naked singularity provided the parameters of the solutions are chosen suitable. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamic quantities, and show that they satisfy the first law of thermodynamics. Second, we obtain the (n+1)-dimensional rotating solutions in Einstein-dilaton gravity with Liouville-type potential. We find that these solutions can present black branes, naked singularities or spacetimes with cosmological horizon if one chooses the parameters of the solutions correctly. Again, we find that the thermodynamic quantities of these solutions satisfy the first law of thermodynamics.

  13. Computer Simulations of charged systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    C. Holm; K. Kremer

    2002-03-26

    In this brief contribution to the Proceedings of the NATO-ASI on ``Electrostatic Effects in Soft Matter and Biophysics'', which took place in Les Houches from Oct. 1-13, 2000, we summarize in short aspects of the simulations methods to study charged systems. After describing some basics of Monte Carlo and Molecular dynamics techniques, we describe a few methods to compute long range interactions in periodic systems. After a brief detour to mean-field models, we describe our results obtained for flexible polyelectrolytes in good and bad solvents. We follow with a description of the inhomogeneity of the counterion distribution around finite chains, and continue then with infinitely long, rodlike systems. The last part is devoted to the phenomenon of overcharging for colloidal particles and its explanation in terms of simple electrostatic arguments.

  14. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers Print Accentuating the Positive (or the Negative) Spintronics-a type of electronics that makes use of electron spin as...

  15. PRECISE CHARGE MEASUREMENT FOR LASER PLASMA ACCELERATORS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nakamura, Kei

    2012-01-01

    diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beamselectron spectrometer [17] before sending the e-beam to charge diagnostics,

  16. EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Backsplash for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure Workshop on July 30, 2012 held at the LAX Marriott, Los Angeles, CA...

  17. EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Consumer Acceptance and Public Policy Group C Breakout Report EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure Workshop: Consumer Acceptance and Public Policy Group C...

  18. EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Consumer Acceptance Group A Breakout Report EV Everywhere Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure Workshop: Consumer Acceptance Group A Breakout Report Breakout session...

  19. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of the porous electrode. Using the STXM lithium maps and the high-resolution TEM images, researchers found that LFP battery particles do not charge simultaneously....

  20. On the regimes of charge reversal

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felipe Jimenez-Angeles; Marcelo Lozada-Cassou

    2008-11-19

    Charge reversal of the planar electrical double layer is studied by means of a well known integral equations theory. By a numerical analysis, a diagram is constructed with the onset points of charge reversal in the space of the fundamental variables of the system. Within this diagram two regimes of charge reversal are identified, referred to as oscillatory and non oscillatory. We found that these two regimes can be distinguished through a simple formula. Furthermore, a symmetry between electrostatic and size correlations in charge reversal is exhibited. The agreement of our results with other theories and molecular simulations data is discussed.

  1. A Spintronic Semiconductor with Selectable Charge Carriers

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    using semiconductor materials like silicon and germanium that have the requisite properties to perform logical operations with both electrons (negative n-type charge carriers)...

  2. Charge oscillations and interaction between potassium adatoms...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Charge oscillations and interaction between potassium adatoms on graphene studied by first-principles calculations Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become...

  3. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone...

  4. High Efficiency, Low Emissions Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) Engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2011-01-31

    This is the final report of the High Efficiency Clean Combustion (HECC) Research Program for the U.S. Department of Energy. Work under this co-funded program began in August 2005 and finished in July 2010. The objective of this program was to develop and demonstrate a low emission, high thermal efficiency engine system that met 2010 EPA heavy-duty on-highway truck emissions requirements (0.2g/bhp-hr NOx, 0.14g/bhp-hr HC and 0.01g/bhp-hr PM) with a thermal efficiency of 46%. To achieve this goal, development of diesel homogenous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion was the chosen approach. This report summarizes the development of diesel HCCI combustion and associated enabling technologies that occurred during the HECC program between August 2005 and July 2010. This program showed that although diesel HCCI with conventional US diesel fuel was not a feasible means to achieve the program objectives, the HCCI load range could be increased with a higher volatility, lower cetane number fuel, such as gasoline, if the combustion rate could be moderated to avoid excessive cylinder pressure rise rates. Given the potential efficiency and emissions benefits, continued research of combustion with low cetane number fuels and the effects of fuel distillation are recommended. The operation of diesel HCCI was only feasible at part-load due to a limited fuel injection window. A 4% fuel consumption benefit versus conventional, low-temperature combustion was realized over the achievable operating range. Several enabling technologies were developed under this program that also benefited non-HCCI combustion. The development of a 300MPa fuel injector enabled the development of extended lifted flame combustion. A design methodology for minimizing the heat transfer to jacket water, known as precision cooling, will benefit conventional combustion engines, as well as HCCI engines. An advanced combustion control system based on cylinder pressure measurements was developed. A Well-to-wheels analysis of the energy flows in a mobile vehicle system and a 2nd Law thermodynamic analysis of the engine system were also completed under this program.

  5. A Research Into a New Method of Refrigeration Charging and the Effects of Improper Charging 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Houcek, J.; Thedford, M.

    1984-01-01

    . These variables can be broken down into at least four major categories: 1. The wide range of manufacturing design and perform- ance 2. The broad range of ambient working conditions 3. Generally recognized charging techniques 4. Maintenance-oriented charging... philosophies and charging techniques that the serviceman has to understand. Another variable to consider is the wide range oE ambient outdoor and indoor temperatures experienced during the charging process. Depending upon location and the time of year, a...

  6. Tensor products of AC* charges and AC Radon measures are not always AC* charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buczolich, Zoltán

    Tensor products of AC* charges and AC Radon measures are not always AC* charges] the tensor problem was stated for the tensor product of AC* charges and the Lebesgue measure. Later W: non-absolute integrals, variational measure, tensor product. 1

  7. Charged Higgs Bosons in the LHCHXSWG

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Heinemeyer

    2014-11-26

    Searches for charged Higgs bosons are an integral part of current and future investigations at the LHC. The LHC Higgs Cross Section Working Group (LHCHXSWG) was created to provide cross sections, branching ratios, analysis strategies etc. for Higgs boson searches at the LHC. We briefly review progress and results for charged Higgs bosons in and for the LHCHXSWG.

  8. INTRODUCTION The Electrical Charge and Relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    INTRODUCTION The Electrical Charge and Relativity This course starts with the introduction of concepts related to just electricity: charge, electric field, electric potential energy, conservation of electric energy, etc. Notice that latter terms sound already very familiar to what you have learned in PH

  9. Aalborg Universitet Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mahat, Pukar

    Aalborg Universitet Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging Mahat, Pukar; Handl, Martin; Kanstrup., Lozano, A., & Sleimovits, A. (2012). Price Based Electric Vehicle Charging. In Proceedings of the 2012 in the future will be electrical vehicles (EV). The storage capacity of these EVs has the potential

  10. PRECISE CHARGE MEASUREMENT FOR LASER PLASMA ACCELERATORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nakamura, Kei; Gonsalves, Anthony; Lin, Chen; Sokollik, Thomas; Shiraishi, Satomi; Tilborg, Jeroen van; Osterhoff, Jens; Donahue, Rich; Rodgers, David; Smith, Alan; Byrne, Warren; Leemans, Wim

    2011-07-19

    Cross-calibrations of charge diagnostics are conducted to verify their validity for measuring electron beams produced by laser plasma accelerators (LPAs). Employed diagnostics are a scintillating screen, activation based measurement, and integrating current transformer. The diagnostics agreed within {+-}8 %, showing that they can provide accurate charge measurements for LPAs provided they are used properly.

  11. Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wu, Jie

    1 Adaptive Battery Charge Scheduling with Bursty Workloads Dylan Lexie , Shan Lin, and Jie Wu.wu@temple.edu Abstract--Battery-powered wireless sensor devices need to be charged to provide the desired functionality after deployment. Task or even device failures can occur if the voltage of the battery is low

  12. Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

    2013-10-08

    A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

  13. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1986-01-07

    This self-charging solar battery consists of: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing (with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof), a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, and a diode means mounted in the battery housing and comprising an anode and a cathode. The solar battery also has: a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the anode and for connecting the cathode to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means, and cap means for closing each end of the battery housing.

  14. Self-charging solar battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Curiel, R.F.

    1987-03-03

    This patent describes a flashlight employing a self-charging solar battery assembly comprising: a flashlight housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, an open-ended cylindrical battery housing formed at least partially of a transparent material, a rechargeable battery cell means mounted in the battery housing with its transparent material positioned adjacent the transparent material of the flashlight housing and comprising positive and negative terminals, one at each end thereof, a solar electric panel comprising photo-voltaic cell means having positive and negative terminals, the panel being mounted within the battery housing with the photo-voltaic cell means juxtapositioned to the transparent material of the battery housing such that solar rays may pass through the transparent material of the flashlight housing and the battery housing and excite the photo-voltaic cell means, a first means for connecting the positive terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means to the positive terminal of the battery cell means, and a second means for connecting the negative terminal of the battery cell means to the negative terminal of the photo-voltaic cell means.

  15. The electric charge and magnetic moment of neutral fundamental particles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kaushik Bhattacharya

    2009-05-27

    The article focuses on the issue of the two definitions of charge, mainly the gauge charge and the effective charge of fundamental particles. Most textbooks on classical electromagnetism and quantum field theory only works with the gauge charges while the concept of the induced charge remains unattended. In this article it has been shown that for intrinsically charged particles both of the charges remain the same but there can be situations where an electrically neutral particle picks up some electrical charge from its plasma surrounding. The physical origin and the scope of application of the induced charge concept has been briefly discussed in the article.

  16. High performance charge breeder for HIE-ISOLDE and TSR@ISOLDE applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shornikov, Andrey Mertzig, Robert C.; Wenander, Fredrik J. C.; Beebe, Edward N.; Pikin, Alexander

    2015-01-09

    We report on the development of the HEC{sup 2} (High Energy Compression and Current) charge breeder, a possible high performance successor to REXEBIS at ISOLDE. The new breeder would match the performance of the HIE-ISOLDE linac upgrade and make full use of the possible installation of a storage ring at ISOLDE (the TSR@ISOLDE initiative [1]). Dictated by ion beam acceptance and capacity requirements, the breeder features a 2–3.5 A electron beam. In many cases very high charge states, including bare ions up to Z=70 and Li/Na-like up to Z=92 could be requested for experiments in the storage ring, therefore, electron beam energies up to 150 keV are required. The electron-beam current density needed for producing ions with such high charge states at an injection rate into TSR of 0.5–1 Hz is between 10 and 20 kA/cm{sup 2}, which agrees with the current density needed to produce A/q<4.5 ions for the HIE-ISOLDE linac with a maximum repetition rate of 100 Hz. The first operation of a prototype electron gun with a pulsed electron beam of 1.5 A and 30 keV was demonstrated in a joint experiment with BNL [2]. In addition, we report on further development aiming to achieve CW operation of an electron beam having a geometrical transverse ion-acceptance matching the injection of 1{sup +} ions (11.5 ?m), and an emittance/energy spread of the extracted ion beam matching the downstream mass separator and RFQ (0.08 ?m normalized / ± 1%)

  17. Optimal Decentralized Protocol for Electric Vehicle Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, LW; Topcu, U; Low, SH

    2013-05-01

    We propose a decentralized algorithm to optimally schedule electric vehicle (EV) charging. The algorithm exploits the elasticity of electric vehicle loads to fill the valleys in electric load profiles. We first formulate the EV charging scheduling problem as an optimal control problem, whose objective is to impose a generalized notion of valley-filling, and study properties of optimal charging profiles. We then give a decentralized algorithm to iteratively solve the optimal control problem. In each iteration, EVs update their charging profiles according to the control signal broadcast by the utility company, and the utility company alters the control signal to guide their updates. The algorithm converges to optimal charging profiles (that are as "flat" as they can possibly be) irrespective of the specifications (e.g., maximum charging rate and deadline) of EVs, even if EVs do not necessarily update their charging profiles in every iteration, and use potentially outdated control signal when they update. Moreover, the algorithm only requires each EV solving its local problem, hence its implementation requires low computation capability. We also extend the algorithm to track a given load profile and to real-time implementation.

  18. Theory of water and charged liquid bridges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Klaus Morawetz

    2012-05-29

    The phenomena of liquid bridge formation due to an applied electric field is investigated. A new solution for the charged catenary is presented which allows to determine the static and dynamical stability conditions where charged liquid bridges are possible. The creeping height, the bridge radius and length as well as the shape of the bridge is calculated showing an asymmetric profile in agreement with observations. The flow profile is calculated from the Navier Stokes equation leading to a mean velocity which combines charge transport with neutral mass flow and which describes recent experiments on water bridges.

  19. Lyapunov Exponent and Charged Myers Perry Spacetimes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Partha Pratim Pradhan

    2013-06-10

    We compute the proper time Lyapunov exponent for charged Myers Perry black hole spacetime and investigate the instability of the equatorial circular geodesics (both timelike and null) via this exponent. We also show that for more than four spacetime dimensions $(N \\geq 3)$, there are \\emph{no} Innermost Stable Circular Orbits (ISCOs) in charged Myers Perry black hole spacetime. We further show that among all possible circular orbits, timelike circular orbits have \\emph{longer} orbital periods than null circular orbits (photon spheres) as measured by asymptotic observers. Thus, timelike circular orbits provide the \\emph{slowest way} to orbit around the charged Myers Perry black hole.

  20. Multi-cylinder axial stratified charging studied

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    Charge stratification can be obtained inside a noncylindrical combustion chamber of a fuel injected multi-cylinder engine by properly timing the injection event, directing the fuel spray into the inlet port, and imparting swirl to the inlet charge. A production 1.8-liter engine modified to operate as an axially stratified-charge engine showed 50% improvement in combustion stability, 3.5% lower fuel consumption, five research octane number lower octane requirement, and increased tolerance to dilute mixtures when compared with an unmodified engine.

  1. ADVANCED WIRELESS CHARGING SYSTEM FOR PORTABLE ELECTRIC DEVICES 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Jianyang

    2012-04-19

    This paper presents a wireless charging system for portable electric devices. The important impacts of wireless charging systems on the global environment are first examined, and the two basic methods for wireless charging are then explained...

  2. Low Energy Distillation Schemes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Polley, G. T.

    2002-01-01

    .6 62.7 C/O 80.9 die 17.5 62.7 C/OE AlDC 57.5 5.3 5.3 Table 5. Cumulative Heat Load Table Component Mole Fraction Molal Flow kmol/hr A: Propane 0.05 45.36 B: iso-Butane 0.15 136.08 C: Butane 0.25 226.80 D: iso-Pentane 0.20 181.46 E: Pentane 0...

  3. Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1985-01-01

    ) then gives Efficiency tails off sharply as xl CD drops below 0.1 Maximum Embedded Work-(ln a)RT o (l+(a-l)Xll a-I (7) a ? 1.5 a . 2 a. 4 A second reason for the belief is that plant accounting ~stems normally place a value on utilities that is far... of separation 1.0 : Total embedded work 4.9 n = 1.0 0.2 D BUt most of the embedded work went for driving force losses: Losses for driving f.orces Reflux above the minimum 0.1 Exchanger 6T 2.1 6P in tower 0.5 6P in condenser and piping 0...

  4. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a...

  5. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    2013-10-08

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  6. Congestion control in charging of electric vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carvalho, Rui; Gibbens, Richard; Kelly, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The increasing penetration of electric vehicles over the coming decades, taken together with the high cost to upgrade local distribution networks, and consumer demand for home charging, suggest that managing congestion on low voltage networks will be a crucial component of the electric vehicle revolution and the move away from fossil fuels in transportation. Here, we model the max-flow and proportional fairness protocols for the control of congestion caused by a fleet of vehicles charging on distribution networks. We analyse the inequality in the charging times as the vehicle arrival rate increases, and show that charging times are considerably more uneven in max-flow than in proportional fairness. We also analyse the onset of instability, and find that the critical arrival rate is indistinguishable between the two protocols.

  7. High temperature charge amplifier for geothermal applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Henfling, Joseph A.

    2015-12-08

    An amplifier circuit in a multi-chip module includes a charge to voltage converter circuit, a voltage amplifier a low pass filter and a voltage to current converter. The charge to voltage converter receives a signal representing an electrical charge and generates a voltage signal proportional to the input signal. The voltage amplifier receives the voltage signal from the charge to voltage converter, then amplifies the voltage signal by the gain factor to output an amplified voltage signal. The lowpass filter passes low frequency components of the amplified voltage signal and attenuates frequency components greater than a cutoff frequency. The voltage to current converter receives the output signal of the lowpass filter and converts the output signal to a current output signal; wherein an amplifier circuit output is selectable between the output signal of the lowpass filter and the current output signal.

  8. Charging Up in King County, Washington

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Constantine, Dow; Oliver, LeAnn; Inslee, Jay; Sahandy, Sheida; Posthuma, Ron; Morrison, David;

    2013-05-29

    King County, Washington is spearheading a regional effort to develop a network of electric vehicle charging stations. It is also improving its vehicle fleet and made significant improvements to a low-income senior housing development.

  9. Charge and momentum in quantum electromechanical systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bennett, Steven D.

    Charge and momentum in quantum electromechanical systems Steven D. Bennett Deptartment of Physics properties of the dot. For weak electromechanical coupling, we find an effective temperature-dependent level

  10. Hopping charge transport in organic materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Novikov, S V

    2013-01-01

    General properties of the transport of charge carriers (electrons and holes) in disordered organic materials are discussed. It was demonstrated that the dominant part of the total energetic disorder in organic material is usually provided by the electrostatic disorder, generated by randomly located and oriented dipoles and quadrupoles. For this reason this disorder is strongly spatially correlated. Spatial correlation directly governs the field dependence of the carrier drift mobility. Shape of the current transients, which is of primary importance for a correct determination of the carrier mobility, is considered. A notable feature of the electrostatic disorder is its modification in the vicinity of the electrode, and this modification takes place without modification of the structure of the material. It is shown how this phenomenon affects characteristics of the charge injection. We consider also effect of inter-charge interaction on charge transport.

  11. Nuclear charge radius of $^8$He

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    P. Mueller; I. A. Sulai; A. C. C. Villari; J. A. Alcantara-Nunez; R. Alves-Conde; K. Bailey; G. W. F. Drake; M. Dubois; C. Eleon; G. Gaubert; R. J. Holt; R. V. F. Janssens; N. Lecesne; Z. -T. Lu; T. P. O'Connor; M. -G. Saint-Laurent; J. -C. Thomas; L. -B. Wang

    2008-01-03

    The root-mean-square (rms) nuclear charge radius of ^8He, the most neutron-rich of all particle-stable nuclei, has been determined for the first time to be 1.93(3) fm. In addition, the rms charge radius of ^6He was measured to be 2.068(11) fm, in excellent agreement with a previous result. The significant reduction in charge radius from ^6He to ^8He is an indication of the change in the correlations of the excess neutrons and is consistent with the ^8He neutron halo structure. The experiment was based on laser spectroscopy of individual helium atoms cooled and confined in a magneto-optical trap. Charge radii were extracted from the measured isotope shifts with the help of precision atomic theory calculations.

  12. New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines New Methodologies for Analysis of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Presentation given at...

  13. High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines High Fidelity Modeling of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Engines Most accurate and detailed chemical kinetic...

  14. Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport Print Wednesday, 27 April 2005 00:00 Layered...

  15. Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implication...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Charge Trapping in High Efficiency Alternating Copolymers: Implications in Organic Photovoltaic Device Efficiency Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > Charge Trapping in...

  16. First Measurement of Muon Neutrino Charged Current Quasielastic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Charged Current Quasielastic (CCQE) Double Differential Cross Section Using a high statistics sample of muon neutrino charged current quasielastic (CCQE) events, we report...

  17. Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage Mitigation of Vehicle Fast Charge Grid Impacts with Renewables and Energy Storage 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel...

  18. AVTA: EVSE Testing - NYSERDA Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2013 - data October - December 2013 - data More Documents & Publications AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act Charging Infrastructure Reports AVTA: 2013 Ford C-Max Energi...

  19. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Consumer Acceptance and Charging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Agenda EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure Workshop Agenda Agenda for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Consumer Acceptance and Charging...

  20. EV Everywhere Consumer/Charging Workshop: Target-Setting Framework...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ConsumerCharging Workshop: Target-Setting Framework and Consumer Behavior EV Everywhere ConsumerCharging Workshop: Target-Setting Framework and Consumer Behavior Presentation...

  1. EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Plug-in Electric Vehicles & Batteries EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge Join the...

  2. AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries AVTA: Battery Testing - DC Fast Charging's Effects on PEV Batteries The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle...

  3. AVTA: Hasdec DC Fast Charging Testing Results | Department of...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hasdec DC Fast Charging Testing Results AVTA: Hasdec DC Fast Charging Testing Results The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a...

  4. Non-contact Nondestructive Probing of Charge Carrier Conductivity...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    charge carrier transport processes at interfaces is one of the most important subjects in organic electronics. Charge carriers are injected or extracted through metal...

  5. Leading the Charge: Jana Ganion Advances Blue Lake Rancheria...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Leading the Charge: Jana Ganion Advances Blue Lake Rancheria's Climate Action Agenda Leading the Charge: Jana Ganion Advances Blue Lake Rancheria's Climate Action Agenda February...

  6. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University at Albany: State...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    at Albany: State University of New York Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University at Albany: State University of New York Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: University at...

  7. ENHANCED IGNITION FOR I.C. ENGINES WITH PREMIXED CHARGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dale, J.D.

    2013-01-01

    Stratified Charge Engines Flame Jet Igniters Combustion Jetand testing of jet igniters in engines was reported by Asikstratified charge engines; (6) flame jet igniters; (7)

  8. Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel Economy and Emissions Reduction over Transient Driving Cycles Effect of Premixed Charge Compression Ignition on Vehicle Fuel...

  9. An Intelligent Solar Powered Battery Buffered EV Charging Station with Solar Electricity Forecasting and EV Charging Load Projection Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    PV energy used for EV charging and reducing grid peak power7. Measured PV power and EV charging load Fig. 6. Chargingthe measured PV power and EV charging load. The actual grid

  10. Where do Nissan Leaf drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01

    This paper invesigates where Nissan Leaf drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at work, home, or some other location?

  11. Where do Chevrolet Volt drivers in The EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-03-01

    This paper investigates where Chevy Volt drivers in the EV Project charge when they have the opportunity to charge at work. Do they charge at home, work, or some other location.

  12. Primordial Helium Production in a Charged Universe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eduard Masso; Francesc Rota

    2002-09-10

    We use the constraints arising from primordial nucleosynthesis to bound a putative electric charge density $|e|n_q$ of the universe. We find $|n_q/n_\\gamma| \\lesssim 10^{-43}$, four orders of magnitude more stringent than previous limits. We also work out the bounds on $n_q$ in models with a photon mass, that allows to have a charge density without large-scale electric fields.

  13. Charging Capacitors According to Maxwell's Equations: Impossible

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Daniele Funaro

    2014-11-02

    The charge of an ideal parallel capacitor leads to the resolution of the wave equation for the electric field with prescribed initial conditions and boundary constraints. Independently of the capacitor's shape and the applied voltage, none of the corresponding solutions is compatible with the full set of Maxwell's equations. The paradoxical situation persists even by weakening boundary conditions, resulting in the impossibility to describe a trivial phenomenon such as the capacitor's charging process, by means of the standard Maxwellian theory.

  14. Charged Cylindrical Black Holes in Conformal Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson Levi Said; Joseph Sultana; Kristian Zarb Adami

    2013-01-04

    Considering cylindrical topology we present the static solution for a charged black hole in conformal gravity. We show that unlike the general relativistic case there are two different solutions, both including a factor that when set to zero recovers the familiar static charged black string solution in Einstein's theory. This factor gives rise to a linear term in the potential that also features in the neutral case and may have significant ramifications for particle trajectories.

  15. Hamiltonian surface charges using external sources

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Troessaert, Cedric

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we interpret part of the boundary conditions as external sources in order to solve the integrability problem present in the computation of surface charges associated to gauge symmetries in the hamiltonian formalism. We start by describing the hamiltonian structure of external symmetries preserving the action up to a transformation of the external sources of the theory. We then extend these results to the computation of surface charges for field theories with non-trivial boundary conditions.

  16. Battery charging in float vs. cycling environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    COREY,GARTH P.

    2000-04-20

    In lead-acid battery systems, cycling systems are often managed using float management strategies. There are many differences in battery management strategies for a float environment and battery management strategies for a cycling environment. To complicate matters further, in many cycling environments, such as off-grid domestic power systems, there is usually not an available charging source capable of efficiently equalizing a lead-acid battery let alone bring it to a full state of charge. Typically, rules for battery management which have worked quite well in a floating environment have been routinely applied to cycling batteries without full appreciation of what the cycling battery really needs to reach a full state of charge and to maintain a high state of health. For example, charge target voltages for batteries that are regularly deep cycled in off-grid power sources are the same as voltages applied to stand-by systems following a discharge event. In other charging operations equalization charge requirements are frequently ignored or incorrectly applied in cycled systems which frequently leads to premature capacity loss. The cause of this serious problem: the application of float battery management strategies to cycling battery systems. This paper describes the outcomes to be expected when managing cycling batteries with float strategies and discusses the techniques and benefits for the use of cycling battery management strategies.

  17. Search milli-charged particles at SLAC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langeveld, W.G.J. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Particles with electric charge q {triple_bond} Qe {le} 10{sup -3} e and masses in the range 1-1000 MeV/c{sup 2} are not excluded by present experiments or by astrophysical or cosmological arguments. A beam dump experiment uniquely suited to the detection of such {open_quotes}milli-charged{close_quotes} particles has been carried out at SLAC, utilizing the short-duration pulses of the SLC electron beam to establish a tight coincidence window for the signal. The detector, a large scintillation counter sensitive to very small energy depositions, provided much greater sensitivity than previous searches. Analysis of the data leads to the exclusion of a substantial portion of the charge-mass plane. In this report, a preliminary mass-dependent upper limit is presented for the charge of milli-charged particles, ranging from Q = 1.7 x 10{sup -5} at milli-charged particle mass 0.1 MeV/c{sup 2} to Q = 9.5 x 10{sup -4} at 100 MeV/c{sup 2}.

  18. Superradiant instablility of charged regular black holes under charged scalar perturbations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Yang; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the late-time behavior of charged scalar perturbations in the background of a charged regular black hole proposed by Ay\\'{o}n-Beato-Garc\\'{\\i}a. We find that, different from the neutral perturbations, the charged perturbation can lead to superradiance phenomenon, and moreover destabilize the charged regular black hole. By using careful time-domain analysis, we show that all the growing modes originate from superradiance mechanism, but not all the superradiant modes are unstable. Another interesting property of the instability is that, these unstable modes do not in the bound state and can escape to infinity which make the instability radically different from those reported previously.

  19. Greybody Factors of Massive Charged Fermionic Fields in a Charged Two-Dimensional Dilatonic Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ramon Becar; P. A. Gonzalez; Joel Saavedra; Yerko Vasquez

    2014-12-19

    We study massive charged fermionic perturbations in the background of a charged two-dimensional dilatonic black hole, and we solve the Dirac equation analytically. Then, we compute the reflection and transmission coefficients and the absorption cross section for massive charged fermionic fields, and we show that the absorption cross section vanishes at the low and high frequency limits. However, there is a range of frequencies where the absorption cross section is not null. Furthermore, we study the effect of the mass and electric charge of the fermionic field over the absorption cross section.

  20. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Process Based on Biomass-Derived Syngas – A Techno-Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dagle, Robert A.; Palo, Daniel R.

    2012-08-01

    This study reports the comparison of biomass gasification based syngas-to-distillate (S2D) systems using techno-economic analysis (TEA). Three cases, state of technology (SOT) case, goal case, and conventional case, were compared in terms of performance and cost. The SOT case and goal case represent technology being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a process starting with syngas using a single-step dual-catalyst reactor for distillate generation (S2D process). The conventional case mirrors the two-step S2D process previously utilized and reported by Mobil using natural gas feedstock and consisting of separate syngas-to-methanol and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) processes. Analysis of the three cases revealed that the goal case could indeed reduce fuel production cost over the conventional case, but that the SOT was still more expensive than the conventional. The SOT case suffers from low one-pass yield and high selectivity to light hydrocarbons, both of which drive up production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that light hydrocarbon yield, single pass conversion efficiency, and reactor space velocity are the key factors driving the high cost for the SOT case.

  1. Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Process Based on Biomass-Derived Syngas - A Techno-Economic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhu, Y.; Jones, S. B.; Biddy, M. J.; Dagle, R. A.; Palo, D. R.

    2012-08-01

    This study compared biomass gasification based syngas-to-distillate (S2D) systems using techno-economic analysis (TEA). Three cases, state of technology (SOT), goal, and conventional, were compared in terms of performance and cost. The SOT case represented the best available experimental results for a process starting with syngas using a single-step dual-catalyst reactor for distillate generation. The conventional case mirrored a conventional two-step S2D process consisting of separate syngas-to-methanol and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) processes. The goal case assumed the same performance as the conventional, but with a single-step S2D technology. TEA results revealed that the SOT was more expensive than the conventional and goal cases. The SOT case suffers from low one-pass yield and high selectivity to light hydrocarbons, both of which drive up production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that light hydrocarbon yield and single pass conversion efficiency were the key factors driving the high cost for the SOT case.

  2. The Charging-Scheduling Problem for Electric Vehicle Networks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    method to reduce the total charging time for EVs. We study the Electric Vehicle Charging-Scheduling (EVCS the classic greedy nearest scheduling algorithm: assign each EV to its nearest charging station, then choose]. The capacity of EV battery is limited, which requires frequent charging. EV battery swapping is well known

  3. When tensor products of AC charges and Radon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buczolich, Zoltán

    When tensor products of AC #3; charges and Radon measures are AC #3; charges Zolt#19;an Buczolich and Radon measures. We show that if F is a charge in R m which is AC#3; in a locally BV set E and #22; is an absolutely continuous Radon measure on R n with locally bounded Radon-Nikodym derivative then the charge F

  4. Jefferson Lab electron beam charges up (Inside Business) | Jefferson...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    https:www.jlab.orgnewsreleasesjefferson-lab-electron-beam-charges Submitted: Friday, October 24, 2008...

  5. Competitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Jianwei

    Competitive Charging Station Pricing for Plug-in Electric Vehicles Wei Yuan, Member, IEEE, Jianwei considers the problem of charging station pricing and station selection of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs). Every PEV needs to select a charging station by con- sidering the charging prices, waiting times

  6. Electrically charged black hole with scalar hair

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cristian Martinez; Ricardo Troncoso

    2006-06-16

    An electrically charged black hole solution with scalar hair in four dimensions is presented. The self-interacting scalar field is real and it is minimally coupled to gravity and electromagnetism. The event horizon is a surface of negative constant curvature and the asymptotic region is locally an AdS spacetime. The asymptotic fall-off of the fields is slower than the standard one. The scalar field is regular everywhere except at the origin, and is supported by the presence of electric charge which is bounded from above by the AdS radius. In turn, the presence of the real scalar field smooths the electromagnetic potential everywhere. Regardless the value of the electric charge, the black hole is massless and has a fixed temperature. The entropy follows the usual area law. It is shown that there is a nonvanishing probability for the decay of the hairy black hole into a charged black hole without scalar field. Furthermore, it is found that an extremal black hole without scalar field is likely to undergo a spontaneous dressing up with a nontrivial scalar field, provided the electric charge is below a critical value.

  7. Photovoltaic battery charging experience in the Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Navarro, S.T. Jr.

    1997-12-01

    With the turn of the century, people in remote areas still live without electricity. Conventional electrification will hardly reach the remaining 50% of the population of the Philippines in remote areas. With photovoltaic technology, the delivery of electricity to remote areas can be sustainable. Malalison island was chosen as a project site for electrification using photovoltaic technology. With the fragile balance of ecology and seasonal income in this island, the PV electrification proved to be a better option than conventional fossil based electrification. The Solar Battery Charging Station (SBCS) was used to suit the economic and geographical condition of the island. Results showed that the system can charge as many as three batteries in a day for an average fee of $0.54 per battery. Charging is measured by an ampere-hour counter to determine the exact amount of charge the battery received. The system was highly accepted by the local residents and the demand easily outgrew the system within four months. A technical, economic and social evaluation was done. A recovery period of seven years and five months is expected when competed with the conventional battery charging in the mainland. The technical, economic, institutional and social risks faced by the project were analyzed. Statistics showed that there is a potential of 920,000 households that can benefit from PV electrification in the Philippines. The data and experiences gained in this study are valuable in designing SBCS for remote unelectrified communities in the Philippines and other developing countries.

  8. Charged fermion tunnelling from electrically and magnetically charged rotating black hole in de Sitter space

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    M. M. Stetsko

    2013-06-10

    Thermal radiation of electrically charged fermions from rotating black hole with electric and magnetic charges in de Sitter space is considered. The tunnelling probabilities for outgoing and incoming particles are obtained and the Hawking temperature is calculated. The relation for the classical action for the particles in the black hole's background is also found.

  9. Driving and Charging Behavior of Nissan Leafs in The EV Project with Access to Workplace Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Don Scoffield; Shawn Salisbury; John Smart

    2014-11-01

    This paper documents findings from analysis of data collected from Nissan Leafs enrolled in The EV Project who parked and charged at workplaces with EV charging equipment. It will be published as a white paper on INL's website, accessible by the general public.

  10. Method for charging a hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C.E.; Keyser, M.A.; Benson, D.K.

    1998-09-15

    A method for charging a sample of either a permanent or reversible getter material with a high concentration of hydrogen while maintaining a base pressure below 10{sup {minus}4} torr at room temperature involves placing the sample of hydrogen getter material in a chamber, activating the sample of hydrogen getter material, overcharging the sample of getter material through conventional charging techniques to a high concentration of hydrogen, and then subjecting the sample of getter material to a low temperature vacuum bake-out process. Application of the method results in a reversible hydrogen getter which is highly charged to maximum capacities of hydrogen and which concurrently exhibits minimum hydrogen vapor pressures at room temperatures. 9 figs.

  11. Method for charging a hydrogen getter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO); Keyser, Matthew A. (Westminster, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method for charging a sample of either a permanent or reversible getter material with a high concentration of hydrogen while maintaining a base pressure below 10.sup.-4 torr at room temperature involves placing the sample of hydrogen getter material in a chamber, activating the sample of hydrogen getter material, overcharging the sample of getter material through conventional charging techniques to a high concentration of hydrogen, and then subjecting the sample of getter material to a low temperature vacuum bake-out process. Application of the method results in a reversible hydrogen getter which is highly charged to maximum capacities of hydrogen and which concurrently exhibits minimum hydrogen vapor pressures at room temperatures.

  12. Nonlinear effects in charge stabilized colloidal suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    T. Kreer; J. Horbach; A. Chatterji

    2006-02-10

    Molecular Dynamics simulations are used to study the effective interactions in charged stabilized colloidal suspensions. For not too high macroion charges and sufficiently large screening, the concept of the potential of mean force is known to work well. In the present work, we focus on highly charged macroions in the limit of low salt concentrations. Within this regime, nonlinear corrections to the celebrated DLVO theory [B. Derjaguin and L. Landau, Acta Physicochem. USSR {\\bf 14}, 633 (1941); E.J.W. Verwey and J.T.G. Overbeck, {\\em Theory of the Stability of Lyotropic Colloids} (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1948)] have to be considered. For non--bulklike systems, such as isolated pairs or triples of macroions, we show, that nonlinear effects can become relevant, which cannot be described by the charge renormalization concept [S. Alexander et al., J. Chem. Phys. {\\bf 80}, 5776 (1984)]. For an isolated pair of macroions, we find an almost perfect qualitative agreement between our simulation data and the primitive model. However, on a quantitative level, neither Debye-H\\"uckel theory nor the charge renormalization concept can be confirmed in detail. This seems mainly to be related to the fact, that for small ion concentrations, microionic layers can strongly overlap, whereas, simultaneously, excluded volume effects are less important. In the case of isolated triples, where we compare between coaxial and triangular geometries, we find attractive corrections to pairwise additivity in the limit of small macroion separations and salt concentrations. These triplet interactions arise if all three microionic layers around the macroions exhibit a significant overlap. In contrast to the case of two isolated colloids, the charge distribution around a macroion in a triple is found to be anisotropic.

  13. Quantacell: Powerful charging of quantum batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix C. Binder; Sai Vinjanampathy; Kavan Modi; John Goold

    2015-03-24

    We study the problem of charging a quantum battery in finite time. We demonstrate an analytical optimal protocol for the case of a single qubit. Extending this analysis to an array of N qubits, we demonstrate that an N-fold advantage in power per qubit can be achieved when global operations are permitted. The exemplary analytic argument for this quantum advantage in the charging power is backed up by numerical analysis using optimal control techniques. It is demonstrated that the quantum advantage for power holds when, with cyclic operation in mind, initial and final states are required to be separable.

  14. Static charged fluid spheres in general relativity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2001-09-04

    Interior perfect fluid solutions for the Reissner-Nordstrom metric are studied on the basis of a new classification scheme. It specifies which two of the fluid's characteristics are given functions and picks up accordingly one of the three main field equations, the other two being universal. General formulae are found for charged de Sitter solutions, the case of constant energy component of the energy-momentum tensor, the case of known pressure (including charged dust) and the case of linear equation of state. Explicit new global solutions, mainly in elementary functions, are given as illustrations. Known solutions are briefly reviewed and corrected.

  15. Quantacell: Powerful charging of quantum batteries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Felix C. Binder; Sai Vinjanampathy; Kavan Modi; John Goold

    2015-07-27

    We study the problem of charging a quantum battery in finite time. We demonstrate an analytical optimal protocol for the case of a single qubit. Extending this analysis to an array of N qubits, we demonstrate that an N-fold advantage in power per qubit can be achieved when global operations are permitted. The exemplary analytic argument for this quantum advantage in the charging power is backed up by numerical analysis using optimal control techniques. It is demonstrated that the quantum advantage for power holds when, with cyclic operation in mind, initial and final states are required to be separable.

  16. Exact soluble two-dimensional charged wormhole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ji Young Han; Won Tae Kim; Hee Ju Yee

    2003-08-01

    We present an exactly soluble charged wormhole model in two dimensions by adding infalling chiral fermions on the static wormhole. The infalling energy due to the infalling charged matter requires the classical back reaction of the geometry, which is solved by taking into account of the nontrivial nonchiral exotic energy. Finally, we obtain the exact expression for the size of the throat depending on the total amount of the infalling net energy and discuss the interesting transition from the AdS spacetime to the wormhole geometry.

  17. Pressure enhanced penetration with shaped charge perforators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glenn, Lewis A. (Danville, CA)

    2001-01-01

    A downhole tool, adapted to retain a shaped charge surrounded by a superatmospherically pressurized light gas, is employed in a method for perforating a casing and penetrating reservoir rock around a wellbore. Penetration of a shaped charge jet can be enhanced by at least 40% by imploding a liner in the high pressure, light gas atmosphere. The gas pressure helps confine the jet on the axis of penetration in the latter stages of formation. The light gas, such as helium or hydrogen, is employed to keep the gas density low enough so as not to inhibit liner collapse.

  18. New developments in pipeline charging preheated coal at Inland Steel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorensen, S.M. Jr.; Arsenault, A.A.; Rupp, P.A.

    1982-01-01

    The first commercial installation of a new pipeline oven charging system for preheated coal, designed by Dynamic Air, Inc., was made at Inland Steel's C Battery in October 1979. With the Dynamic Air charging sytem, production losses due to pipeline delays have been virtually eliminated, pipeline maintenance requirements have been reduced by 90%, conveying steam requirements have been significantly reduced, and oven charge weights have been increased by 500 kg (1000 lb). A test program was subsequently conducted during November and December 1980, to evaluate the use of nitrogen as a conveying medium for pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system. The test results clearly demonstrated that the same weight of preheated coal could be charged into an oven by using either steam or nitrogen as the conveying medium. Moreover, it was found that pipeline oven charging with the Dynamic Air system is a function of the mass flow rate of the conveying medium. With nitrogen charging, an average 9% increase in oven charge rates was obtained at comparable conveying gas mass flow rates and charging bin pressures. In addition, average oven pressure during charging was reduced by approximately 40% and solids carryover was reduced by 100 kg (220 lb) per oven charge with nitrogen charging. It was found that solids carryover during pipeline oven charging is a function of the average pressure generated in the oven during charging, but it was also found that a large oven pressure surge at the end of the charge can produce excessive carryover to completely mask the effect.

  19. Process for fabricating a charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  20. Three-dimensional charge coupled device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conder, Alan D. (Tracy, CA); Young, Bruce K. F. (Livermore, CA)

    1999-01-01

    A monolithic three dimensional charged coupled device (3D-CCD) which utilizes the entire bulk of the semiconductor for charge generation, storage, and transfer. The 3D-CCD provides a vast improvement of current CCD architectures that use only the surface of the semiconductor substrate. The 3D-CCD is capable of developing a strong E-field throughout the depth of the semiconductor by using deep (buried) parallel (bulk) electrodes in the substrate material. Using backside illumination, the 3D-CCD architecture enables a single device to image photon energies from the visible, to the ultra-violet and soft x-ray, and out to higher energy x-rays of 30 keV and beyond. The buried or bulk electrodes are electrically connected to the surface electrodes, and an E-field parallel to the surface is established with the pixel in which the bulk electrodes are located. This E-field attracts charge to the bulk electrodes independent of depth and confines it within the pixel in which it is generated. Charge diffusion is greatly reduced because the E-field is strong due to the proximity of the bulk electrodes.

  1. Quantum Entropy of Charged Rotating Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    R. B. Mann

    1996-07-10

    I discuss a method for obtaining the one-loop quantum corrections to the tree-level entropy for a charged Kerr black hole. Divergences which appear can be removed by renormalization of couplings in the tree-level gravitational action in a manner similar to that for a static black hole.

  2. Rigidly rotating cylinders of charged dust

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. V. Ivanov

    2002-07-02

    The gravitational field of a rigidly rotating cylinder of charged dust is found analytically. The general and all regular solutions are divided into three classes. The acceleration and the vorticity of the dust are given, as well as the conditions for the appearance of closed timelike curves.

  3. Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Cruz, University of

    Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

  4. Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Dekker, Cees

    Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,§ Sohail Chatoor, Jaan Ma¨nnik, Marcel A. G an experimental study of 1/f noise in liquid-gated graphene transistors. We show that the gate dependence to the graphene, while at high carrier density it is consistent with noise due to scattering in the channel

  5. CP and charge asymmetries at CDF

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morello, Michael; /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa

    2007-11-01

    We present CDF results on the branching fractions and time-integrated direct CP asymmetries for B0 and B0s decay modes into pairs of charmless charged hadrons (pions or kaons). We report also the first observation of B0s->DsK mode and the measurement of its branching fraction.

  6. Electric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , central plant solar and distributed solar resources. This IntElectric Vehicle Charging as an Enabling Technology Prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability Under Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-06NT42847

  7. The PHEV Charging Infrastructure Planning (PCIP) Problem

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dashora, Yogesh [University of Texas, Austin; Barnes, J. Wesley [University of Texas, Austin; Pillai, Rekha S [ORNL; Combs, Todd E [ORNL; Hilliard, Michael R [ORNL; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    Increasing debates over a gasoline independent future and the reduction of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has led to a surge in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) being developed around the world. The majority of PHEV related research has been directed at improving engine and battery operations, studying future PHEV impacts on the grid, and projecting future PHEV charging infrastructure requirements. Due to the limited all-electric range of PHEVs, a daytime PHEV charging infrastructure will be required for most PHEV daily usage. In this paper, for the first time, we present a mixed integer mathematical programming model to solve the PHEV charging infrastructure planning (PCIP) problem for organizations with thousands of people working within a defined geographic location and parking lots well suited to charging station installations. Our case study, based on the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) campus, produced encouraging results, indicates the viability of the modeling approach and substantiates the importance of considering both employee convenience and appropriate grid connections in the PCIP problem.

  8. Fractal index, central charge and fractons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wellington da Cruz; Rosevaldo de Oliveira

    2000-10-10

    We introduce the notion of fractal index associated with the universal class $h$ of particles or quasiparticles, termed fractons, which obey specific fractal statistics. A connection between fractons and conformal field theory(CFT)-quasiparticles is established taking into account the central charge $c[\

  9. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  10. Hybrid Pressure Retarded Osmosis-Membrane Distillation System for Power Generation from Low-Grade Heat: Thermodynamic Analysis and Energy Efficiency

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Yip, NY; Cath, TY; Osuji, CO; Elimelech, M

    2014-05-06

    We present a novel hybrid membrane system that operates as a heat engine capable of utilizing low-grade thermal energy, which is not readily recoverable with existing technologies. The closed-loop system combines membrane distillation (MD), which generates concentrated and pure water streams by thermal separation, and pressure retarded osmosis (PRO), which converts the energy of mixing to electricity by a hydro-turbine. The PRO-MD system was modeled by coupling the mass and energy flows between the thermal separation (MD) and power generation (PRO) stages for heat source temperatures ranging from 40 to 80 degrees C and working concentrations of 1.0, 2.0, and 4.0 mol/kg NaCl. The factors controlling the energy efficiency of the heat engine were evaluated for both limited and unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics in the thermal separation stage. In both cases, the relative flow rate between the MD permeate (distillate) and feed streams is identified as an important operation parameter. There is an optimal relative flow rate that maximizes the overall energy efficiency of the PRO-MD system for given working temperatures and concentration. In the case of unlimited mass and heat transfer kinetics, the energy efficiency of the system can be analytically determined based on thermodynamics. Our assessment indicates that the hybrid PRO-MD system can theoretically achieve an energy efficiency of 9.8% (81.6% of the Carnot efficiency) with hot and cold working temperatures of 60 and 20 degrees C, respectively, and a working solution of 1.0 M NaCl. When mass and heat transfer kinetics are limited, conditions that more closely represent actual operations, the practical energy efficiency will be lower than the theoretically achievable efficiency. In such practical operations, utilizing a higher working concentration will yield greater energy efficiency. Overall, our study demonstrates the theoretical viability of the PRO-MD system and identifies the key factors for performance optimization.

  11. A measurement of the top quark's charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Unalan, Zeynep Gunay; /Michigan State U.

    2007-11-01

    The top quark was discovered in 1995 at the Fermilab National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). One way to confirm if the observed top quark is really the top quark posited in the Standard Model (SM) is to measure its electric charge. In the Standard Model the top quark is the isospin partner of the bottom quark and is expected to have a charge of +2/3. However, an alternative 'exotic' model has been proposed with a fourth generation exotic quark that has the same characteristics, such as mass, as our observed top but with a charge of -4/3. This thesis presents the first CDF measurement of the top quark's charge via its decay products, a W boson and a bottom quark, using {approx} 1 fb{sup -1} of data. The data were collected by the CDF detector from proton anti-proton (p{bar p}) collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at Fermilab. We classify events depending on the charges of the bottom quark and associated W boson and count the number of events which appear 'SM-like' or 'exotic-like' with a SM-like event decaying as t {yields} W{sup +}b and an exotic event as t {yields} W{sup -}b. We find the p-value under the Standard Model hypothesis to be 0:35 which is consistent with the Standard Model. We exclude the exotic quark hypothesis at an 81% confidence level, for which we have chosen a priori that the probability of incorrectly rejecting the SM would be 1%. The calculated Bayes Factor (BF) is 2 x Ln(BF)=8.54 which is interpreted as the data strongly favors the Standard Model over the exotic quark hypothesis.

  12. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part II of II; Effects of Induced Turbulence on Behavior of Juvenile Salmon, 2001-2005 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perry, Russell W.; Farley, M. Jared; Hansen, Gabriel S.

    2005-07-01

    Passage through dams is a major source of mortality of anadromous juvenile salmonids because some populations must negotiate up to eight dams in Columbia and Snake rivers. Dams cause direct mortality when fish pass through turbines, but dams may also cause indirect mortality by altering migration conditions in rivers. Forebays immediately upstream of dams have decreased the water velocity of rivers and may contribute substantially to the total migration delay of juvenile salmonids. Recently, Coutant (2001a) suggested that in addition to low water velocities, lack of natural turbulence may contribute to migration delay by causing fish to lose directional cues. Coutant (2001a) further hypothesized that restoring turbulence in dam forebays may reduce migration delay by providing directional cues that allow fish to find passage routes more quickly (Coutant 2001a). Although field experiments have yielded proof of the concept of using induced turbulence to guide fish to safe passage routes, little is known about mechanisms actually causing behavioral changes. To test hypotheses about how turbulence influences movement and behavior of migrating juvenile salmonids, we conducted two types of controlled experiments at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. A common measure of migration delay is the elapsed time between arrival at, and passage through, a dam. Therefore, for the first set of experiments, we tested the effect of induced turbulence on the elapsed time needed for fish to traverse through a raceway and pass over a weir at its downstream end (time trial experiment). If turbulence helps guide fish to passage routes, then fish should pass through the raceway quicker in the presence of appropriately scaled and directed turbulent cues. Second, little is known about how the physical properties of water movement provide directional cues to migrating juvenile salmonids. To examine the feasibility of guiding fish with turbulence, we tested whether directed turbulence could guide fish into one of two channels in the raceway, and subsequently cause them to pass disproportionately over the weir where turbulent cues were aimed (guidance experiment). Last, we measured and mapped water velocity and turbulence during the experiments to understand water movement patterns and the spatial distribution of turbulence in the raceways.

  13. AVTA: Siemens-VersiCharge AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report describes results from testing done on the Siemens-VersiCharge Level 2 charging system for plug-in electric vehicles. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  14. AVTA: ChargePoint AC Level 2 Charging System Testing Results

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report describes results from testing done on the ChargePoint AC Level 2 charging system for plug-in electric vehicles. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  15. Experimental investigation of induced-charge electro-osmosis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Levitan, Jeremy Asher, 1977-

    2005-01-01

    We analyze the general phenomenon of induced-charge electro-osmosis (ICEO), nonlinear electro-osmotic slip generated when an electric field acts on its own induced charge around a polarizable surface, in the context of ...

  16. Improved Long-Distance Wireless Charging Technology September 26, 2013

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Langendoen, Koen

    Improved Long-Distance Wireless Charging Technology September 26, 2013 Project Overview Wireless charging of consumer devices at a long distance with RF technology, would eliminate wires and give freedom

  17. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Vehicle Charging for...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electric Vehicle Charging for Multi-Unit Dwellings to someone by E-mail Share Alternative Fuels Data Center: Electric Vehicle Charging for Multi-Unit Dwellings on Facebook Tweet...

  18. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: El Camino Real Charter...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    to lease a Chevy Volt when ECRCHS announced it installed 2 dual port stations from ChargePoint. The charging stations will also serve an academic purpose. ECRCHS plans to...

  19. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: State University of New...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    University of New York at New Paltz In Fall 2014, SUNY New Paltz installed three Level 2 charging stations creating six total charging spots. The college is in the process of...

  20. Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Dirac Charge Dynamcs in Graphene by Infrared Spectroscopy Print Wednesday, 29 October 2008 00:00 Graphene-a single layer...

  1. Workplace Charging Challenge Mid-Program Review: Promising Progress...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    in more than 600 workplaces with over 5,500 charging stations accessible to nearly 1 million employees. Today, more than 9,000 PEV-driving employees are charging at these...

  2. Economic feasibility of biochemical processes for the upgrading of crudes and the removal of sulfur, nitrogen, and trace metals from crude oil -- Benchmark cost establishment of biochemical processes on the basis of conventional downstream technologies. Final report FY95

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Premuzic, E.T.

    1996-08-01

    During the past several years, a considerable amount of work has been carried out showing that microbially enhanced oil recovery (MEOR) is promising and the resulting biotechnology may be deliverable. At Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), systematic studies have been conducted which dealt with the effects of thermophilic and thermoadapted bacteria on the chemical and physical properties of selected types of crude oils at elevated temperatures and pressures. Current studies indicate that during the biotreatment several chemical and physical properties of crude oils are affected. The oils are (1) emulsified; (2) acidified; (3) there is a qualitative and quantitative change in light and heavy fractions of the crudes; (4) there are chemical changes in fractions containing sulfur compounds; (5) there is an apparent reduction in the concentration of trace metals; and (6) the qualitative and quantitative changes appear to be microbial species dependent; and (7) there is a distinction between biodegraded and biotreated oils. The downstream biotechnological crude oil processing research performed thus far is of laboratory scale and has focused on demonstrating the technical feasibility of downstream processing with different types of biocatalysts under a variety of processing conditions. Quantitative economic analysis is the topic of the present project which investigates the economic feasibility of the various biochemical downstream processes which hold promise in upgrading of heavy crudes, such as those found in California, e.g., Monterey-type, Midway Sunset, Honda crudes, and others.

  3. Hovering Black Holes from Charged Defects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gary T. Horowitz; Nabil Iqbal; Jorge E. Santos; Benson Way

    2015-05-05

    We construct the holographic dual of an electrically charged, localised defect in a conformal field theory at strong coupling, by applying a spatially dependent chemical potential. We find that the IR behaviour of the spacetime depends on the spatial falloff of the potential. Moreover, for sufficiently localized defects with large amplitude, we find that a new gravitational phenomenon occurs: a spherical extremal charged black hole nucleates in the bulk: a hovering black hole. This is a second order quantum phase transition. We construct this new phase with several profiles for the chemical potential and study its properties. We find an apparently universal behaviour for the entropy of the defect as a function of its amplitude. We comment on the possible field theory implications of our results.

  4. Entanglement Entropy at Large Central Charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Thomas Hartman

    2013-03-27

    Two-dimensional conformal field theories with a large central charge and a small number of low-dimension operators are studied using the conformal block expansion. A universal formula is derived for the Renyi entropies of N disjoint intervals in the ground state, valid to all orders in a series expansion. This is possible because the full perturbative answer in this regime comes from the exchange of the stress tensor and other descendants of the vacuum state. Therefore, the Renyi entropy is related to the Virasoro vacuum block at large central charge. The entanglement entropy, computed from the Renyi entropy by an analytic continuation, decouples into a sum of single-interval entanglements. This field theory result agrees with the Ryu-Takayanagi formula for the holographic entanglement entropy of a 2d CFT, applied to any number of intervals, and thus can be interpreted as a microscopic calculation of the area of minimal surfaces in 3d gravity.

  5. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1996-11-26

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator includes an evacuated chamber having a gun for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam or ion beam. The beam is discharged through a beam exit in the chamber into a higher pressure region. A plasma interface is disposed at the beam exit and includes a plasma channel for bounding a plasma maintainable between a cathode and an anode disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel is coaxially aligned with the beam exit for propagating the beam from the chamber, through the plasma, and into the higher pressure region. The plasma is effective for pumping down the beam exit for preventing pressure increase in the chamber and provides magnetic focusing of the beam discharged into the higher pressure region 24. 7 figs.

  6. State of charge indicators for a battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rouhani, S. Zia (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to state of charge indicators for a battery. One aspect of the present invention utilizes expansion and contraction displacements of an electrode plate of a battery to gauge the state of charge in the battery. One embodiment of a battery of the present invention includes an anodic plate; a cathodic plate; an electrolyte in contact with the anodic and cathodic plates; plural terminals individually coupled with one of the anodic and cathodic plates; a separator intermediate the anodic and cathodic plates; an indicator configured to indicate an energy level of the battery responsive to movement of the separator; and a casing configured to house the anodic and cathodic plates, electrolyte, and separator.

  7. High gradient lens for charged particle beam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yu-Jiuan

    2014-04-29

    Methods and devices enable shaping of a charged particle beam. A dynamically adjustable electric lens includes a series of alternating a series of alternating layers of insulators and conductors with a hollow center. The series of alternating layers when stacked together form a high gradient insulator (HGI) tube to allow propagation of the charged particle beam through the hollow center of the HGI tube. A plurality of transmission lines are connected to a plurality of sections of the HGI tube, and one or more voltage sources are provided to supply an adjustable voltage value to each transmission line of the plurality of transmission lines. By changing the voltage values supplied to each section of the HGI tube, any desired electric field can be established across the HGI tube. This way various functionalities including focusing, defocusing, acceleration, deceleration, intensity modulation and others can be effectuated on a time varying basis.

  8. Provides Total Tuition Charge to Source Contribution

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kay, Mark A.

    6 5,946 4,816 1,130 35 14 7 6,937 5,619 1,318 40 16 * 7,928 6,422 1,506 50 20 8, 9, or 10 9,910 8 Tuition Charge to Source School Contribution 60 24 * 7,928 6,422 1,506 65 26 7 6,937 5,619 1,318 70 28 6 5

  9. Deconfinement of electric charges in hydrogen-bonded ferroelectrics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bo-Jie Huang; Chyh-Hong Chern

    2015-04-15

    In addition to the gauge charges, a new charge degree of freedom is found in the deconfined phase in the lattice Ising gauge theory. While applying to the hydrogen-bonded ferroelectrics, the new charge is essentially the electric charge, leading to the divergent dielectric susceptibility. The new degree of freedom paves an experimentally accessible way to identify the deconfined phase in the lattice Ising gauge theory.

  10. Workplace Charging Challenge Employer Workshop Best Practices Webinar

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about the experiences of four event hosts and how they planned, organized, and administered successful workplace charging events.

  11. Charge Prediction of Lipid Fragments in Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrom, Brian T.; Kangas, Lars J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Metz, Thomas O.; Miller, John H.

    2011-12-18

    An artificial neural network is developed for predicting which fragment is charged and which fragment is neutral for lipid fragment pairs produced from a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry simulation process. This charge predictor is integrated into software developed at PNNL for in silico spectra generation and identification of metabolites known as Met ISIS. To test the effect of including charge prediction in Met ISIS, 46 lipids are used which show a reduction in false positive identifications when the charge predictor is utilized.

  12. Charge Transport Across Insulating Self-Assembled Mono layers...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: catalysis (homogeneous), solar (photovoltaic), bio-inspired, charge transport, mesostructured materials, materials...

  13. Diplme Inter Universitaire TUDE et PRISE en CHARGE des

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brest, Université de

    services de Médecine et de Psychiatrie, amenés à participer à la prise en charge des suicidants (infirmiers

  14. Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Dischargin...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Discharging Technology available for licensing: Coating increases electrical conductivity of cathode materials Coating...

  15. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lal, Amit (Madison, WI); Li, Hui (Madison, WI); Blanchard, James P. (Madison, WI); Henderson, Douglass L. (Madison, WI)

    2002-01-01

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  16. ELECTRICALLY AND MAGNETICALLY CHARGED VORTICES IN THE CHERNSIMONSHIGGS THEORY

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Spirn, Daniel

    ELECTRICALLY AND MAGNETICALLY CHARGED VORTICES IN THE CHERN­SIMONS­HIGGS THEORY ROBIN MING CHEN explored the idea of Dirac and proposed the existence of both electrically and magnetically charged electric and magnetic charges of a dyon. In modern theoretical physics, dyons are consid- ered as excited

  17. Joachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Firestone, Jeremy

    Joachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC Master's Thesis, September 2013 #12;#12;Joachim Skov Johansen Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC Master's Thesis, September 2013 #12;#12;Fast-Charging Electric Vehicles using AC This report was prepared by Joachim Skov Johansen Contact

  18. Liquid-glass Transition in Charge-stabilized Colloidal Dispersions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liquid-glass Transition in Charge-stabilized Colloidal Dispersions S.K. Lai, G.F. Wang and W Abstract. We model the inter-colloidal interactions in a charge-stabilized col- loidal dispersion by a hard the loci of the liquid-glass transition phase boundary for a salt-free suspension of charged colloids

  19. Special Section on: Dynamic Charging of Electric Vehicles by Wireless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mi, Chunting "Chris"

    Special Section on: Dynamic Charging of Electric Vehicles by Wireless Power Transfer I N RECENT TIMES, wireless power charging of electric vehicles (EV) has gained huge attentions. Static wireless charging systems Mass transit electrification (electric trains, trams, and buses) us- ing dynamic wireless

  20. Critical Nuclear Charges for N-Electron Atoms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kais, Sabre

    Critical Nuclear Charges for N-Electron Atoms ALEXEI V. SERGEEV, SABRE KAIS Department of Chemistry is proposed to describe the motion of a loosely bound electron in a multielectron atom when the nuclear charge, which is treated as a continuous parameter, approaches its critical value. The critical nuclear charge

  1. The CATI Project: Charging and Accounting Technology for the Internet

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Braun, Torsten

    The CATI Project: Charging and Accounting Technology for the Internet Burkhard Stiller1, Torsten The objectives of the CATI project (Charging and Accounting Technology for the Internet) include the design, implementation, and evaluation of charging and accounting mechanisms for Internet services and Virtual Private

  2. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan R&D Manager Office of Technology and Innovations Phone: 847 768 0812

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  3. The New Charge for NonFusionEnergy

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The New Charge for NonFusionEnergy FES Applications James W. Van Dam on behalf of Fusion Energy of fusion energy sciences to scientific discovery and the development and deployment of new technologies beyond possible applications in fusion energy. 3 #12;Charge to FESAC · Charge letter to FESAC from

  4. Ionic colloidal crystals of oppositely charged Mirjam E. Leunissen1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Leunissen, Mirjam

    Ionic colloidal crystals of oppositely charged particles Mirjam E. Leunissen1 *, Christina G charged particles can be tuned such that large ionic colloidal crystals form readily, with our theory, the stoichio- metry of our colloidal crystals is not dictated by charge neutrality; this allows us to obtain

  5. An Intelligent Solar Powered Battery Buffered EV Charging Station with Solar Electricity Forecasting and EV Charging Load Projection Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    eliminate the charging station peak power demand for EVcan lower the station’s peak power demand and reduce thefor a workplace charging station, solar PV power cannot be

  6. A Study of Lead-Acid Battery Efficiency Near Top-of-Charge

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of charge for the specific battery under test. Specific charge versus state of charge information is particularly important for systems where a very large battery (that is, one...

  7. Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics: Charge migration and charge transfer initiated near a conical intersection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mendive-Tapia, David; Vacher, Morgane; Bearpark, Michael J.; Robb, Michael A.

    2013-07-28

    Coupled electron-nuclear dynamics, implemented using the Ehrenfest method, has been used to study charge migration with fixed nuclei, together with charge transfer when nuclei are allowed to move. Simulations were initiated at reference geometries of neutral benzene and 2-phenylethylamine (PEA), and at geometries close to potential energy surface crossings in the cations. Cationic eigenstates, and the so-called sudden approximation, involving removal of an electron from a correlated ground-state wavefunction for the neutral species, were used as initial conditions. Charge migration without coupled nuclear motion could be observed if the Ehrenfest simulation, using the sudden approximation, was started near a conical intersection where the states were both strongly coupled and quasi-degenerate. Further, the main features associated with charge migration were still recognizable when the nuclear motion was allowed to couple. In the benzene radical cation, starting from the reference neutral geometry with the sudden approximation, one could observe sub-femtosecond charge migration with a small amplitude, which results from weak interaction with higher electronic states. However, we were able to engineer large amplitude charge migration, with a period between 10 and 100 fs, corresponding to oscillation of the electronic structure between the quinoid and anti-quinoid cationic electronic configurations, by distorting the geometry along the derivative coupling vector from the D{sub 6h} Jahn-Teller crossing to lower symmetry where the states are not degenerate. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, the period changes only slightly. In PEA, in an Ehrenfest trajectory starting from the D{sub 2} eigenstate and reference geometry, a partial charge transfer occurs after about 12 fs near the first crossing between D{sub 1}, D{sub 2} (N{sup +}-Phenyl, N-Phenyl{sup +}). If the Ehrenfest propagation is started near this point, using the sudden approximation without coupled nuclear motion, one observes an oscillation of the spin density – charge migration – between the N atom and the phenyl ring with a period of 4 fs. When the nuclear motion becomes coupled, this oscillation persists in a damped form, followed by an effective charge transfer after 30 fs.

  8. Charge regulation and ionic screening of patchy surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niels Boon; René van Roij

    2010-09-30

    The properties of surfaces with charge-regulated patches are studied using non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann theory. Using a mode expansion to solve the non-linear problem efficiently, we reveal the charging behaviour of Debye-length sized patches. We find that patches charge up to higher charge densities if their size is relatively small and if the patches are well separated. The numerical results are used to construct a basic analytical model which predicts the average surface charge density on surfaces with patchy chargeable groups.

  9. Monte Carlo Tools for charged Higgs boson production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    K. Kovarik

    2014-12-18

    In this short review we discuss two implementations of the charged Higgs boson production process in association with a top quark in Monte Carlo event generators at next-to-leading order in QCD. We introduce the MC@NLO and the POWHEG method of matching next-to-leading order matrix elements with parton showers and compare both methods analyzing the charged Higgs boson production process in association with a top quark. We shortly discuss the case of a light charged Higgs boson where the associated charged Higgs production interferes with the charged Higgs production via t tbar-production and subsequent decay of the top quark.

  10. AVTA: ChargePoint America Recovery Act project map of charging units

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act supported a number of projects that together made up the largest ever deployment of plug-in electric vehicles and charging infrastructure in the U.S. The following reports describe the distribution of charging infrastructure through the Chargepoint America project, which deployed 4,600 public and home charging stations throughout the U.S. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  11. Collision integrals for charged-charged interaction in two-temperature non-equilibrium plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghorui, S.; Das, A. K.

    2013-09-15

    Choice of an appropriate form of shielding distance in the estimation of collision integrals under screened coulomb potential for two-temperature non-equilibrium plasma is addressed. Simple expressions for collision integrals for charged-charged interactions are derived. It is shown that while some of the formalisms used earlier completely ignore the presence of ions, the others incorporating it may result in negative collision integrals for the interactions involving particles at higher charged states. The parametric regimes of concern and impact of different formalisms on the computed transport properties are investigated with specific reference to nitrogen plasma. A revised definition of the shielding distance is proposed, which incorporates both electrons and ions, avoids the problem of negative collision integrals in all practical regimes of interest and results in calculated property values in close agreement with experimentally observed results.

  12. Integrated exhaust gas recirculation and charge cooling system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wu, Ko-Jen

    2013-12-10

    An intake system for an internal combustion engine comprises an exhaust driven turbocharger configured to deliver compressed intake charge, comprising exhaust gas from the exhaust system and ambient air, through an intake charge conduit and to cylinders of the internal combustion engine. An intake charge cooler is in fluid communication with the intake charge conduit. A cooling system, independent of the cooling system for the internal combustion engine, is in fluid communication with the intake charge cooler through a cooling system conduit. A coolant pump delivers a low temperature cooling medium from the cooling system to and through the intake charge cooler for the transfer of heat from the compressed intake charge thereto. A low temperature cooler receives the heated cooling medium through the cooling system conduit for the transfer or heat therefrom.

  13. Conserved charges of the extended Bondi-Metzner-Sachs group

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Flanagan, Eanna E

    2015-01-01

    Isolated objects in asymptotically flat spacetimes in general relativity are characterized by their conserved charges associated with the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group. These charges include total energy, linear momentum, intrinsic angular momentum and center-of-mass location, and in addition an infinite number of supermomentum charges associated with supertranslations. Recently it has been suggested that the BMS symmetry algebra should be enlarged to include an infinite number of additional symmetries known as superrotations. We compute the corresponding "super center-of-mass'' charges and show that they are finite and well defined. The supermomentum charges are associated with ordinary gravitational wave memory, and the super center-of-mass charges are associated with total (ordinary plus null) gravitational wave memory, in the terminology of Bieri and Garfinkle. Some of these charges can give rise to black hole hair, as described by Strominger and Zhiboedov. We clarify how this hair evades the no hair th...

  14. Conserved charges of the extended Bondi-Metzner-Sachs algebra

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Eanna E. Flanagan; David A. Nichols

    2015-10-28

    Isolated objects in asymptotically flat spacetimes in general relativity are characterized by their conserved charges associated with the Bondi-Metzner-Sachs (BMS) group. These charges include total energy, linear momentum, intrinsic angular momentum and center-of-mass location, and in addition an infinite number of supermomentum charges associated with supertranslations. Recently it has been suggested that the BMS symmetry algebra should be enlarged to include an infinite number of additional symmetries known as superrotations. We compute the corresponding "super center-of-mass" charges and show that they are finite and well defined. The supermomentum charges are associated with ordinary gravitational wave memory, and the super center-of-mass charges are associated with total (ordinary plus null) gravitational wave memory, in the terminology of Bieri and Garfinkle. Some of these charges can give rise to black hole hair, as described by Strominger and Zhiboedov. We clarify how this hair evades the no hair theorems.

  15. Charged particle rapidity distributions at relativistic energies 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, ZW; Pal, S.; Ko, Che Ming; Li, Ba; Zhang, B.

    2001-01-01

    in transverse momentum. Also, a suppression factor of 0.30 is used for strange quark-antiquark pair pro- duction relative to the light quark-antiquark pair production. Charged particle rapidity distribution Zi-wei Lin,1 Subrata Pal,1 C. M. 1Cyclotron... the experimental data from central Pb1Pb collisions at center-of-mass energy of 17A GeV @20#. Specifically, to ?2001 The American Physical Society1 RAPID COMMUNICATIONS LIN, PAL, KO, LI, AND ZHANG PHYSICAL REVIEW C 64 011902~R! Hadrons are then formed from...

  16. PV Charging System for Remote Area Operations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ilsemann, Frederick; Thompson, Roger

    2008-07-31

    The objective of this project is to provide the public with a study of new as well existing technology to recharge batteries used in the field. A new product(s) will also be built based upon the information ascertained. American Electric Vehicles, Inc. (AEV) developed systems and methods suitable for charging state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries in remote locations under both ideal and cloudy weather conditions. Conceptual designs are described for existing and next generation technology, particularly as regards solar cells, peak power trackers and batteries. Prototype system tests are reported.

  17. Fast Charging Electric Vehicle Research & Development Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heny, Michael

    2014-03-31

    The research and development project supported the engineering, design and implementation of on-road Electric Vehicle (“EV”) charging technologies. It included development of potential solutions for DC fast chargers (“DCFC”) capable of converting high voltage AC power to the DC power required by EVs. Additional development evaluated solutions related to the packaging of power electronic components and enclosure design, as well as for the design and evaluation of EV charging stations. Research compared different charging technologies to identify optimum applications in a municipal fleet. This project collected EV usage data and generated a report demonstrating that EVs, when supported by adequate charging infrastructure, are capable of replacing traditional internal combustion vehicles in many municipal applications. The project’s period of performance has demonstrated various methods of incorporating EVs into a municipal environment, and has identified three general categories for EV applications: - Short Commute: Defined as EVs performing in limited duration, routine commutes. - Long Commute: Defined as tasks that require EVs to operate in longer daily mileage patterns. - Critical Needs: Defined as the need for EVs to be ready at every moment for indefinite periods. Together, the City of Charlottesville, VA (the “City”) and Aker Wade Power Technologies, LLC (“Aker Wade”) concluded that the EV has a viable position in many municipal fleets but with limited recommendation for use in Critical Needs applications such as Police fleets. The report also documented that, compared to internal combustion vehicles, BEVs have lower vehicle-related greenhouse gas (“GHG”) emissions and contribute to a reduction of air pollution in urban areas. The enhanced integration of EVs in a municipal fleet can result in reduced demand for imported oil and reduced municipal operating costs. The conclusions indicated in the project’s Engineering Report (see Attachment A) are intended to assist future implementation of electric vehicle technology. They are based on the cited research and on the empirical data collected and presented. The report is not expected to represent the entire operating conditions of any of the equipment under consideration within this project, and tested equipment may operate differently under other conditions.

  18. Scalar Perturbations of Charged Dilaton Black Holes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sharmanthie Fernando; Keith Arnold

    2015-08-01

    We have studied the scalar perturbation of static charged dilaton black holes in 3+1 dimensions. The black hole considered here is a solution to the low-energy string theory in 3+1 dimensions. The quasinormal modes for the scalar perturbations are calculated using the third order WKB method. The dilaton coupling constant has a considerable effect on the values of quasi normal modes. It is also observed that there is a linear relation between the quasi normal modes and the temperature for large black holes.

  19. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady (Mount Sinai, NY)

    1996-11-26

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator 14,14b includes an evacuated chamber 16a,b having a gun 18,18b for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam 12 or ion beam 12b. The beam 12,12b is discharged through a beam exit 22 in the chamber 16a,b into a higher pressure region 24. A plasma interface 34 is disposed at the beam exit 22 and includes a plasma channel 38 for bounding a plasma 40 maintainable between a cathode 42 and an anode 44 disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel 38 is coaxially aligned with the beam exit 22 for propagating the beam 12,12b from the chamber 16a,b, through the plasma 40, and into the higher pressure region 24. The plasma 40 is effective for pumping down the beam exit 22 for preventing pressure increase in the chamber 16a,b, and provides magnetic focusing of the beam 12,12b discharged into the higher pressure region 24.

  20. Nucleon tensor charges and electric dipole moments

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mario Pitschmann; Chien-Yeah Seng; Craig D. Roberts; Sebastian M. Schmidt

    2014-12-22

    A symmetry-preserving Dyson-Schwinger equation treatment of a vector-vector contact interaction is used to compute dressed-quark-core contributions to the nucleon $\\sigma$-term and tensor charges. The latter enable one to directly determine the effect of dressed-quark electric dipole moments (EDMs) on neutron and proton EDMs. The presence of strong scalar and axial-vector diquark correlations within ground-state baryons is a prediction of this approach. These correlations are active participants in all scattering events and thereby modify the contribution of the singly-represented valence-quark relative to that of the doubly-represented quark. Regarding the proton $\\sigma$-term and that part of the proton mass which owes to explicit chiral symmetry breaking, with a realistic $d$-$u$ mass splitting the singly-represented $d$-quark contributes 37% more than the doubly-represented $u$-quark; and in connection with the proton's tensor charges, $\\delta_T u$, $\\delta_T d$, the ratio $\\delta_T d/\\delta_T u$ is 18% larger than anticipated from simple quark models. Of particular note, the size of $\\delta_T u$ is a sensitive measure of the strength of dynamical chiral symmetry breaking; and $\\delta_T d$ measures the amount of axial-vector diquark correlation within the proton, vanishing if such correlations are absent.

  1. Magnetic and charge ordering in nanosized manganites

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, T. Wang, X. P.; Fang, Q. F.; Li, X. G.

    2014-09-15

    Perovskite manganites exhibit a wide range of functional properties, such as colossal magneto-resistance, magnetocaloric effect, multiferroic property, and some interesting physical phenomena including spin, charge, and orbital ordering. Recent advances in science and technology associated with perovskite oxides have resulted in the feature sizes of microelectronic devices down-scaling into nanoscale dimensions. The nanoscale perovskite manganites display novel magnetic and electronic properties that are different from their bulk and film counterparts. Understanding the size effects of perovskite manganites at the nanoscale is of importance not only for the fundamental scientific research but also for developing next generation of electronic and magnetic nanodevices. In this paper, the current understanding and the fundamental issues related to the size effects on the magnetic properties and charge ordering in manganites are reviewed, which covers lattice structure, magnetic and electronic properties in both ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic based manganites. In addition to review the literatures, this article identifies the promising avenues for the future research in this area.

  2. Highly Charged Ion (HCI) Modified Tunnel Junctions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pomeroy, J. M.; Grube, H. [Atomic Physics Division, National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) 100 Bureau Dr., MS 8423, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8423 (United States)

    2009-03-10

    The neutralization energy carried by highly charged ions (HCIs) provides an alternative method for localizing energy on a target's surface, producing features and modifying surfaces with fluences and kinetic energy damage that are negligible compared to singly ionized atoms. Since each HCI can deposit an enormous amount of energy into a small volume of the surface (e.g., Xe{sup 44+} delivers 51 keV of neutralization energy per HCI), each individual HCI's interaction with the target can produce a nanoscale feature. Many studies of HCI-surface features have characterized some basic principles of this unique ion-surface interaction, but the activity reported here has been focused on studying ensembles of HCI features in ultra-thin insulating films by fabricating multi-layer tunnel junction devices. The ultra-thin insulating barriers allow current to flow by tunneling, providing a very sensitive means of detecting changes in the barrier due to highly charged ion irradiation and, conversely, HCI modification provides a method of finely tuning the transparency of the tunnel junctions that spans several orders of magnitude for devices produced from a single process recipe. Systematic variation of junction bias, temperature, magnetic field and other parameters provides determination of the transport mechanism, defect densities, and magnetic properties of these nano-features and this novel approach to device fabrication.

  3. Nanoscale Charge Transport in Excitonic Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Venkat Bommisetty, South Dakota State University

    2011-06-23

    Excitonic solar cells, including all-organic, hybrid organic-inorganic and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), offer strong potential for inexpensive and large-area solar energy conversion. Unlike traditional inorganic semiconductor solar cells, where all the charge generation and collection processes are well understood, these excitonic solar cells contain extremely disordered structures with complex interfaces which results in large variations in nanoscale electronic properties and has a strong influence on carrier generation, transport, dissociation and collection. Detailed understanding of these processes is important for fabrication of highly efficient solar cells. Efforts to improve efficiency are underway at a large number of research groups throughout the world focused on inorganic and organic semiconductors, photonics, photophysics, charge transport, nanoscience, ultrafast spectroscopy, photonics, semiconductor processing, device physics, device structures, interface structure etc. Rapid progress in this multidisciplinary area requires strong synergetic efforts among researchers from diverse backgrounds. Such effort can lead to novel methods for development of new materials with improved photon harvesting and interfacial treatments for improved carrier transport, process optimization to yield ordered nanoscale morphologies with well defined electronic structures.

  4. Bipolar charging of dust particles under ultraviolet radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Filippov, A. V. Babichev, V. N.; Fortov, V. E.; Gavrikov, A. V.; Pal', A. F.; Petrov, O. F.; Starostin, A. N.; Sarkarov, N. E.

    2011-05-15

    The photoemission charging of dust particles under ultraviolet radiation from a xenon lamp has been investigated. The velocities of yttrium dust particles with a work function of 3.3 eV and their charges have been determined experimentally; the latter are about 400-500 and about 100 elementary charges per micron of radius for the positively and negatively charged fractions, respectively. The dust particle charging and the dust cloud evolution in a photoemission cell after exposure to an ultraviolet radiation source under the applied voltage have been simulated numerically. The photoemission charging of dust particles has been calculated on the basis of nonlocal and local charging models. Only unipolar particle charging is shown to take place in a system of polydisperse dust particles with the same photoemission efficiency. It has been established that bipolar charging is possible in the case of monodisperse particles with different quantum efficiencies. Polydispersity in this case facilitates the appearance of oppositely charged particles in a photoemission plasma.

  5. Charge Transport in one Dimension:Dissipative and Non-Dissipative Space-Charge Limited Currents

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. R. Holcombe; E. R. Smith

    2012-04-06

    We consider charge transport in nanopores where the dielectric constant inside the nanopore is much greater than in the surrounding material, so that the flux of the electric fields due to the charges is almost entirely confined to the nanopore. That means that we may model the electric fields due to charge densities in the nanopore in terms of average properties across the nanopore as solutions of one dimensional Poisson equations. We develop basic equations for an M component system using equations of continuity to relate concentrations to currents, and flux equations relating currents to concentration gradients and conductivities. We then derive simplified scaled versions of the equations. We develop exact solutions for the one component case in a variety of boundary conditions using a Hopf-Cole transformation, Fourier series, and periodic solutions of the Burgers equation. These are compared with a simpler model in which the scaled diffusivity is zero so that all charge motion is driven by the electric field. In this non-dissipative case, recourse to an admissibility condition is utilised to obtain the physically relevant weak solution of a Riemann problem concerning the electric field. It is shown that the admissibility condition is Poynting's theorem.

  6. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies of Highly Charged Ions on Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draganic, Ilija N [ORNL; Seely, D. G. [Albion College; McCammon, D [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Havener, Charles C [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    Accurate studies of low energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H like, and He like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H like ions of C, N, O and fully stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV u 20 keV u) and compared to previous H oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV u 3.3 keV u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  7. Solar Wind Charge Exchange Studies Of Highly Charged Ions On Atomic Hydrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Draganic, I. N.; Havener, C. C. [Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Seely, D. G. [Department of Physics, Albion College, Albion, MI 49224 (United States); McCammon, D. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-06-01

    Accurate studies of low-energy charge exchange (CX) are critical to understanding underlying soft X-ray radiation processes in the interaction of highly charged ions from the solar wind with the neutral atoms and molecules in the heliosphere, cometary comas, planetary atmospheres, interstellar winds, etc.. Particularly important are the CX cross sections for bare, H-like, and He-like ions of C, N, O and Ne, which are the dominant charge states for these heavier elements in the solar wind. Absolute total cross sections for single electron capture by H-like ions of C, N, O and fully-stripped O ions from atomic hydrogen have been measured in an expanded range of relative collision energies (5 eV/u-20 keV/u) and compared to previous H-oven measurements. The present measurements are performed using a merged-beams technique with intense highly charged ion beams extracted from a 14.5 GHz ECR ion source installed on a high voltage platform at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. For the collision energy range of 0.3 keV/u-3.3 keV/u, which corresponds to typical ion velocities in the solar wind, the new measurements are in good agreement with previous H-oven measurements. The experimental results are discussed in detail and compared with theoretical calculations where available.

  8. Title of Document: STUDY OF LONGITUDINAL SPACE CHARGE WAVES IN SPACE-CHARGE DOMINATED BEAMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Anlage, Steven

    current electron beam with very low emittance and energy spread. Any density fluctuation in an intense perturbations. First, a single density #12;perturbation is introduced on a space-charge dominated electron beam-interceptive transverse beam diagnostics in UMER. Using time-resolved imaging techniques, we report the transverse effects

  9. PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLE CHARGING ONLY Must be ACTIVELY Charging

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bigelow, Stephen

    have a valid UCSB parking permit displayed on my vehicle. Purchase a Power-only permit for the amount of time required to charge your vehicle. I do not have a valid UCSB parking permit. Purchase a Power. Valid UCSB parking permit holders pay for power only. Non-UCSB permit holders pay for power and parking

  10. System and method for charging electrochemical cells in series

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    DeLuca, William H. (Naperville, IL); Hornstra, Jr, Fred (St. Charles, IL); Gelb, George H. (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Berman, Baruch (Rancho Palos Verdes, CA); Moede, Larry W. (Manhattan Beach, CA)

    1980-01-01

    A battery charging system capable of equalizing the charge of each individual cell at a selected full charge voltage includes means for regulating charger current to first increase current at a constant rate until a bulk charging level is achieved or until any cell reaches a safe reference voltage. A system controller then begins to decrease the charging rate as long as any cell exceeds the reference voltage until an equalization current level is reached. At this point, the system controller activates a plurality of shunt modules to permit shunting of current around any cell having a voltage exceeding the reference voltage. Leads extending between the battery of cells and shunt modules are time shared to permit alternate shunting of current and voltage monitoring without the voltage drop caused by the shunt current. After each cell has at one time exceeded the reference voltage, the charging current is terminated.

  11. Charging system and method for multicell storage batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cox, Jay A. (Rolling Hills Estates, CA)

    1978-01-01

    A battery-charging system includes a first charging circuit connected in series with a plurality of battery cells for controlled current charging. A second charging circuit applies a controlled voltage across each individual cell for equalization of the cells to the fully charged condition. This controlled voltage is determined at a level above the fully charged open-circuit voltage but at a sufficiently low level to prevent corrosion of cell components by electrochemical reaction. In this second circuit for cell equalization, a transformer primary receives closely regulated, square-wave voltage which is coupled to a plurality of equal secondary coil windings. Each secondary winding is connected in parallel to each cell of a series-connected pair of cells through half-wave rectifiers and a shared, intermediate conductor.

  12. Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-07-15

    The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

  13. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  14. Plug-In Electric Vehicle Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-08-01

    Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) have immense potential for increasing the country's energy, economic, and environmental security, and they will play a key role in the future of U.S. transportation. By providing PEV charging at the workplace, employers are perfectly positioned to contribute to and benefit from the electrification of transportation. This handbook answers basic questions about PEVs and charging equipment, helps employers assess whether to offer workplace charging for employees, and outlines important steps for implementation.

  15. Study of ?-charge correlation in heavy ion collisions, various approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Prithwish Tribedy; Subhasis Chattopadhyay; Aihong Tang

    2011-08-11

    Event-by-event \\gamma-charge correlation is used in studying systems going through QCD chiral phase transition. In this paper various methods for measuring \\gamma-charge correlation in heavy ion collisions have been discussed. Dynamical fluctuation due to formation of domains of DCC that can affect \\gamma-charge correlation has been discussed. We study known detector and statistical effects involved in these measurements and suggest suitable robust observables \\Delta\

  16. Covariant Noether Charge for Higher Dimensional Chern-Simons Terms

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tatsuo Azeyanagi; R. Loganayagam; Gim Seng Ng; Maria J. Rodriguez

    2015-07-13

    We construct a manifestly covariant differential Noether charge for theories with Chern-Simons terms in higher dimensional spacetimes. This is in contrast to Tachikawa's extension of the standard Lee-Iyer-Wald formalism which results in a non-covariant differential Noether charge for Chern-Simons terms. On a bifurcation surface, our differential Noether charge integrates to the Wald-like entropy formula proposed by Tachikawa in arXiv:hep-th/0611141.

  17. A particle accelerator employing transient space charge potentials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Post, R.F.

    1988-02-25

    The invention provides an accelerator for ions and charged particles. The plasma is generated and confined in a magnetic mirror field. The electrons of the plasma are heated to high temperatures. A series of local coils are placed along the axis of the magnetic mirror field. As an ion or particle beam is directed along the axis in sequence the coils are rapidly pulsed creating a space charge to accelerate and focus the beam of ions or charged particles. 3 figs.

  18. Charged black holes in generalized teleparallel gravity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rodrigues, M.E.; Houndjo, M.J.S.; Tossa, J.; Momeni, D.; Myrzakulov, R. E-mail: sthoundjo@yahoo.fr E-mail: d.momeni@yahoo.com

    2013-11-01

    In this paper we investigate charged static black holes in 4D for generalized teleparallel models of gravity, based on torsion as the geometric object for describing gravity according to the equivalence principle. As a motivated idea, we introduce a set of non-diagonal tetrads and derive the full system of non linear differential equations. We prove that the common Schwarzschild gauge is applicable only when we study linear f(T) case. We reobtain the Reissner-Nordstrom-de Sitter (or RN-AdS) solution for the linear case of f(T) and perform a parametric cosmological reconstruction for two nonlinear models. We also study in detail a type of the no-go theorem in the framework of this modified teleparallel gravity.

  19. Deciphering Deconfinement in Correlations of Conserved Charges

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Majumder

    2006-09-21

    Diagonal and off-diagonal flavor and conserved charge susceptibilities reveal the prevalent degrees of freedom of heated strongly interacting matter. Results obtained from lattice simulations are compared with various model estimates in an effort to weed down various possible pictures of a quark gluon plasma. We argue that the vanishing of the off-diagonal quark flavor susceptibilities and its derivatives with respect to chemical potential, at temperatures above 1.5Tc, can only be understood in a picture of a gas or liquid composed of quasi-particles which carry the same quantum numbers as quarks and antiquarks. A potential new observable, blind to neutral and non-strange particles, is introduced and related via isospin symmetry to the ratio of susceptibilities of baryonic strangeness to strangeness generated in the excited matter created at RHIC.

  20. A Charged Membrane Paradigm at Large D

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bhattacharyya, Sayantani; Minwalla, Shiraz; Thakur, Somyadip

    2015-01-01

    We study the effective dynamics of black hole horizons in Einstein-Maxwell theory in a large number of spacetime dimensions $D$. We demonstrate that horizon dynamics may be recast as a well posed initial value problem for the motion of a codimension one non gravitational membrane moving in flat space. The dynamical degrees of freedom of this membrane are its shape, charge density and a divergence free velocity field. We determine the equations that govern membrane dynamics at leading order in the large $D$ expansion. Our derivation of the membrane equations assumes that the solution preserves an SO$(D-p-2)$ isometry with $p$ held fixed as $D$ is taken to infinity. However we are able to cast our final membrane equations into a completely geometric form that makes no reference to this symmetry algebra.

  1. Covariant Symplectic Structure and Conserved Charges of Topologically Massive Gravity

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caner Nazaroglu; Yavuz Nutku; Bayram Tekin

    2011-06-07

    We present the covariant symplectic structure of the Topologically Massive Gravity and find a compact expression for the conserved charges of generic spacetimes with Killing symmetries.

  2. Visualizing the Behavior of Polar Domains and Screening Charges...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Visualizing the Behavior of Polar Domains and Screening Charges Under Electric and Mechanical Fields Event Sponsor: Mathematics and Computing Science - LANS Seminar Start Date: Sep...

  3. Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Influence of Topological Spin Fluctuations on Charge Transport Print Layered transition metal oxides are the focus of intense research efforts because they might clarify the...

  4. Permit for Charging Equipment Installation: Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Jurisdiction's can use this template to develop a standard permit for residential charging stations that allows for quick, safe installation of EVSE.

  5. Charge Correlations in the Cuprates and their Relation to Superconduct...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    12, 2015 - 3:00pm SLAC, Redtail Hawk Conference Room 108A Speaker: Vivek Thampy, Brookhaven National Laboratory Program Description Charges doped into the copper oxide planes...

  6. NREL: Awards and Honors - Current Interrupt Charging Algorithm...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Current Interrupt Charging Algorithm for Lead-Acid Batteries Developers: Matthew A. Keyser, Ahmad A. Pesaran, and Mark M. Mihalic, National Renewable Energy Laboratory; Robert F....

  7. Electrochemical Surface Potential due to Classical Point Charge...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Potential due to Classical Point Charge Models Drives Anion Adsorption to the Air-Water Interface Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Electrochemical Surface Potential...

  8. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Township High School District...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High School District 214's sustainability program by reducing its employees' carbon footprint in the community. The District currently has 8 charging stations with plans for an...

  9. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: DC Fast Charging Effects on Battery Life and EVSE Efficiency and Security Testing Presentation given by Idaho National Laboratory at 2014...

  10. Design and Charge-Transfer Properties of Bioinspired Electrets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bao, Duoduo

    2013-01-01

    2-3. Solvatochromism of Ph-ANI. ……. ………………………. ………………Fluorescence properties of Ph-ANI for dichloromethane with35 Reduction potential of Ph-ANI Implications for charge-

  11. Surface-charge-induced freezing of colloidal suspensions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    S. Grandner; S. H. L. Klapp

    2010-06-07

    Using grand-canonical Monte Carlo simulations we investigate the impact of charged walls on the crystallization properties of charged colloidal suspensions confined between these walls. The investigations are based on an effective model focussing on the colloids alone. Our results demonstrate that the fluid-wall interaction stemming from charged walls has a crucial impact on the fluid's high-density behavior as compared to the case of uncharged walls. In particular, based on an analysis of in-plane bond order parameters we find surface-charge-induced freezing and melting transitions.

  12. Now Available: Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    in annual sales of plug-in electric vehicles by 2023, which may substantially increase electricity usage and peak demand in high adoption areas. Understanding customer charging...

  13. ChargePoint is Helping Electrify America's Transportation | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs), the Energy Department supported the ChargePoint America project in 2009 under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act. At the...

  14. EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Consumer Acceptance and Charging...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Attnedance list for the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge: Consumer Acceptance and Charging Infrastructure Workshop on July 30, 2012 held at the LAX Marriott, Los Angeles, CA...

  15. Electrical charges in gravitational fields, and Einstein's equivalence principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerold Gründler

    2015-10-12

    According to Larmor's formula, accelerated electric charges radiate electromagnetic waves. Hence charges should radiate, if they are in free fall in gravitational fields, and they should not radiate if they are supported at rest in gravitational fields. But according to Einstein's equivalence principle, charges in free fall should not radiate, while charges supported at rest in gravitational fields should radiate. In this article we point out indirect experimental evidence, indicating that the equivalence principle is correct, while the traditional interpretation of Larmor's formula must be amended.

  16. Workplace Charging Challenge: Press Release template for Ambassadors

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An editable press release that Ambassador organizations can use to announce their and local Partners' participation in the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge

  17. Workplace Charging Challenge: Press Release template for Clean Cities coordinators

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    An editable press release that Clean Cities coordinators can use to announce local Partners' participation in the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge

  18. Charge Optimization Theory for Induced-Fit Ligands

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Yang

    The design of ligands with high affinity and specificity remains a fundamental challenge in understanding molecular recognition and developing therapeutic interventions. Charge optimization theory addresses this problem ...

  19. Microgrid V2G Charging Station Interconnection Testing (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Simpson, M.

    2013-07-01

    This presentation by Mike Simpson of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) describes NREL's microgrid vehicle-to-grid charging station interconnection testing.

  20. Control of charge migration in molecules by ultrashort laser pulses

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nikolay V. Golubev; Alexander I. Kuleff

    2015-02-19

    Due to electronic many-body effects, the ionization of a molecule can trigger ultrafast electron dynamics appearing as a migration of the created hole charge throughout the system. Here we propose a scheme for control of the charge migration dynamics with a single ultrashort laser pulse. We demonstrate by fully ab initio calculations on a molecule containing a chromophore and an amine moieties that simple pulses can be used for stopping the charge-migration oscillations and localizing the charge on the desired site of the system. We argue that this control may be used to predetermine the follow-up nuclear rearrangement and thus the molecular reactivity.

  1. Electrical charges in gravitational fields, and Einstein's equivalence principle

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gerold Gründler

    2015-10-06

    According to Larmor's formula, accelerated electric charges radiate electromagnetic waves. Hence charges should radiate, if they are in free fall in gravitational fields, and they should not radiate if they are supported at rest in gravitational fields. But according to Einstein's equivalence principle, charges in free fall should not radiate, while charges supported at rest in gravitational fields should radiate. In this article we point out indirect experimental evidence, indicating that the equivalence principle is correct, while Larmor's formula must be interpreted different than commonly accepted.

  2. AVTA: EVSE Testing- NYSERDA Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure Reports

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    These reports describe the charging patterns of drivers participating in the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority's (NYSERDA) electric vehicle (EV) infrastructure project.

  3. Enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges for antimony...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Enhanced separation efficiency of photoinduced charges for antimony-doped tin oxide (Sb-SnOsub 2)TiOsub 2 heterojunction semiconductors with varied Sb doping concentration...

  4. Neutron Electric Dipole Moment and Tensor Charges from Lattice...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Neutron Electric Dipole Moment and Tensor Charges from Lattice QCD Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on November 16, 2016 Title:...

  5. Energy Distribution of a Charged Regular Black Hole

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Irina Radinschi

    2000-11-20

    We calculate the energy distribution of a charged regular black hole by using the energy-momentum complexes of Einstein and M{\\o}ller.

  6. Dynamics of excitons and charges in organic materials and semiconducto...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The seminar will report studies on excitons and charge carriers in conjugated polymers, covalent organic frameworks and semiconductor nanocrystals. These materials have...

  7. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Washington Area New Automobile...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EV charging access for its workforce headquartered at 5301 Wisconsin Avenue, NW in DC. WANADA has committed to talk with building administrators to assess the feasibility of...

  8. Former Oak Ridge Bechtel Jacobs Employee Charged with Violating...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Atomic Energy Act Former Oak Ridge Bechtel Jacobs Employee Charged with Violating Atomic Energy Act Department of Justice press release announcing that a federal grand jury in the...

  9. Charge renormalization for effective interactions of colloids at water interfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    D. Frydel; S. Dietrich; M. Oettel

    2007-05-10

    We analyze theoretically the electrostatic interaction of surface-charged colloids at water interfaces with special attention to the experimentally relevant case of large charge densities on the colloid-water interface. Whereas linear theory predicts an effective dipole potential the strength of which is proportional to the square of the product of charge density and screening length, nonlinear charge renormalization effects change this dependence to a weakly logarithmic one. These results appear to be particularly relevant for structure formation at air-water interfaces with arbitrarily shaped colloids.

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: Wireless Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charging Presentation given by Oak Ridge National Laboratory at 2014 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation...

  11. Inclusive charged and neutral particle production and search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge at the CERN p$\\overline{p}$ collider

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banner, M; Bonaudi, Franco; Borer, K; Borghini, Michel; Chollet, J C; Clark, A G; Conta, C; Darriulat, Pierre; Di Lella, L; Dines-Hansen, J; Dorsaz, P A; Fayard, Louis; Fraternali, M; Froidevaux, Daniel; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Gildemeister, O; Goggi, Giorgio V; Grote, H; Hahn, B; Hänni, H; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P; Himel, Thomas M; Hungerbühler, V; Jenni, Peter; Kofoed-Hansen, Otto Møgens; Livan, M; Loucatos, Sotirios S; Madsen, B; Mani, P; Mansoulié, B; Mantovani, G C; Mapelli, Livio P; Merkel, B; Mermikides, Michael E; Møllerud, R; Nilsson, B; Onions, Christopher J; Parrour, G; Pastore, F; Plothow-Besch, Hartmute; Prévot, N; Repellin, J P; Rothenberg, A F; Roussarie, A; Sauvage, G; Schacher, J; Siegrist, J L; Stocker, F; Teiger, J; Vercesi, V; Williams, H H; Zaccone, Henri; Zeller, W; Zylberstejn, A

    1983-01-01

    Inclusive charged and neutral particle production and search for relativistic particles with fractional electric charge at the CERN p$\\overline{p}$ collider

  12. An Intelligent Solar Powered Battery Buffered EV Charging Station with Solar Electricity Forecasting and EV Charging Load Projection Functions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zhao, Hengbing; Burke, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    power source from inherent intermittent solar PV power.B. Solar PV Electricity Forecasting Fig. 1. Charging stationForecasting Power Output of Solar Photovoltaic System Using

  13. Workplace Charging Case Study: Charging Station Utilization at a Work Site with AC Level 1, AC Level 2, and DC Fast Charging Units

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    John Smart; Don Scoffield

    2014-06-01

    This paper describes the use of electric vehicle charging stations installed at a large corporate office complex. It will be published to the INL website for viewing by the general public.

  14. LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ruina, Andy L.

    LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT G. MICHAEL BARRAMEDA 1. Abstract This report introduces how. Battery Pack 1 · Cycle 1 : 2334 mAh · Cycle 2: 2312 mAh #12;LITHIUM-ION BATTERY CHARGING REPORT 3 · Cycle to handle the Powerizer Li-Ion rechargeable Battery Packs. It will bring reveal battery specifications

  15. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  16. Naked Singularities in the Charged Vaidya-deSitter Spacetime

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    A. Beesham; S. G. Ghosh

    2000-03-10

    We study the occurrence of naked singularities in the spherically symmetric collapse of a charged null fluid in an expanding deSitter background - a piece of charged Vaidya-deSitter spacetime. The necessary conditions for the formation of a naked singularity are found. The results for the uncharged solutions can be recovered from our analysis.

  17. Relativistic structure, stability, and gravitational collapse of charged neutron stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezzi, Cristian R.

    2005-11-15

    Charged stars have the potential of becoming charged black holes or even naked singularities. We present a set of numerical solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations that represents spherical charged compact stars in hydrostatic equilibrium. The stellar models obtained are evolved forward in time integrating the Einstein-Maxwell field equations. We assume an equation of state of a neutron gas at zero temperature. The charge distribution is taken as being proportional to the rest mass density distribution. The set of solutions present an unstable branch, even with charge-to-mass ratios arbitrarily close to the extremum case. We perform a direct check of the stability of the solutions under strong perturbations and for different values of the charge-to-mass ratio. The stars that are in the stable branch oscillate and do not collapse, while models in the unstable branch collapse directly to form black holes. Stars with a charge greater than or equal to the extreme value explode. When a charged star is suddenly discharged, it does not necessarily collapse to form a black hole. A nonlinear effect that gives rise to the formation of a shell of matter (in supermassive stars), is negligible in the present simulations. The results are in agreement with the third law of black hole thermodynamics and with the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  18. Vacuum polarization induced by a uniformly accelerated charge

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    B. Linet

    1995-03-30

    We consider a point charge fixed in the Rindler coordinates which describe a uniformly accelerated frame. We determine an integral expression of the induced charge density due to the vacuum polarization at the first order in the fine structure constant. In the case where the acceleration is weak, we give explicitly the induced electrostatic potential.

  19. Charged Higgs boson searches with the ATLAS detector

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gilles, Geoffrey; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    Charged Higgs bosons, H+, are predicted by many models with an extended Higgs sector. This presentation reports ATLAS studies and results of searches for charged Higgs bosons in various final states. Exclusion limits are given and interpreted in the context of the Minimal Supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model.

  20. An Approximate Dynamic Programming Approach for Coordinated Charging Control At

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wong, Vincent

    starts charging as soon as it is connected to the grid. I. INTRODUCTION Smart grid technologies can help. With the deployment of smart grid technologies, the control and schedule of V2G power flows (and thus bidirectional PHEV's compensation from frequency regulation against its charging cost. Sortomme et al. proposed smart