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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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1

Year/PAD District Distillation Crude Oil Atmospheric Distillation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Distillation Crude Oil Atmospheric Distillation Vacuum Cracking Thermal Catalytic Cracking Fresh Recycled Catalytic Hydro- Cracking Catalytic Reforming Desulfurization...

2

Vacuum Distillation  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Day) Process: Vacuum Distillation Thermal Cracking Thermal Cracking: Coking Thermal Cracking: Delayed Coking Thermal Cracking: Fluid Coking Thermal Cracking: Visbreaking Thermal...

3

Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

(Barrels per Calendar Day) (Barrels per Calendar Day) Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Delayed Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD Thermal Cracking Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Visbreaking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Other/Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Recycle Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Low Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming High Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating/Desulfurization Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Naphtha/Reformer Feed Charge Cap (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Gasoline Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Heavy Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Kerosene/Jet Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Diesel Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual/Other Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Oils Charge Capacity (B/SD) Fuels Solvent Deasphalting Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Period:

4

Review of Novel Catalysts for Biomass Tar Cracking and Methane Reforming  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A review of the literature was conducted to examine the performance of catalysts other than conventional nickel catalysts, and alkaline earth and olivine based catalysts for treating hot raw product gas from a biomass gasifier to convert methane and tars into synthesis gas. Metal catalysts other than Ni included precious metals Rh, Ru, Ir, Pt, and Pd, as well as Cu, Co, and Fe in limited testing. Nickel catalysts promoted with Rh, Zr, Mn, Mo, Ti, Ag, or Sn were also examined, as were Ni catalysts on Ce2O3, TiO2, ZrO2, SiO2, and La2O3. In general, Rh stood out as a consistently superior metal catalyst for methane reforming, tar cracking, and minimizing carbon buildup on the catalyst. Ru and Ir also showed significant improvement over Ni for methane reforming. Ceria stood out as good support material and particularly good promoter material when added in small quantities to another support material such as alumina, zirconia, or olivine. Other promising supports were lanthana, zirconia, and titania.

Gerber, Mark A.

2007-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

5

Catalytic cracking. (Latest citations from the Compendex database). Published Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of catalytic cracking processes in fluidized bed systems, moving beds, refineries, vacuum distillations, and reformers. Design aspects, modeling, control systems, and operating procedures are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 149 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

Catalytic cracking. (Latest citations from the NTIS Bibliographic database). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of catalytic cracking in fluidized beds, moving beds, refineries, vacuum distillation, and reformers. Design criteria, models, controls, and operating procedures are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Catalytic cracking. (Latest citations from the NTIS data base). Published Search  

SciTech Connect

The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of catalytic cracking in fluidized beds, moving beds, refineries, vacuum distillation, and reformers. Design criteria, models, controls, and operating procedures are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

Catalytic cracking. (Latest citations from the NTIS bibliographic database). Published Search  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The bibliography contains citations concerning applications of catalytic cracking in fluidized beds, moving beds, refineries, vacuum distillation, and reformers. Design criteria, models, controls, and operating procedures are also discussed. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst - Energy ...  

A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and ...

10

Catalytic Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Catalytic Distillation' refers to a chemical process which performs both a catalyzed reaction and primary fractionation of the reaction components simultaneously. A structured catalyst which also is an effective distillation component has been patented by Chemical Research & Licensing Co., Houston, Texas, and developed in a joint venture with Neochem Corp., Houston, Texas, and the Department of Energy. The catalytic distillation packing has been commercially demonstrated successfully with nearly three years continuous service for an acid catalyzed reaction in a carbon steel distillation tower.

Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Winter Distillate  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Throughout the summer, gasoline prices have drawn most of the public's attention, but EIA has been concerned over winter heating fuels as well. q Distillate inventories are likely to begin the winter heating season at low levels, which increases the chances of price volatility such as that seen last winter. q Natural gas does not look much better. q Winter Distillate http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/presentati...00/winter_distillate_and_natural_gas_outlook/sld001.htm [8/10/2000 4:35:57 PM] Slide 2 of 25 Notes: Residential heating oil prices on the East Coast (PADD 1) were 39 cents per gallon higher this June than last year (120 v 81 cents per gallon). As many of you already know, the increase is due mainly to increased crude oil prices.

12

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Complementarity, distillable secret key, and distillable entanglement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider controllability of two conjugate observables Z and X by two parties with classical communication. The ability is specified by two alternative tasks, (i) agreement on Z and (ii) preparation of an eigenstate of X with use of an extra communication channel. We prove that their feasibility is equivalent to that of key distillation if the extra channel is quantum, and to that of entanglement distillation if it is classical. This clarifies the distinction between two entanglement measures, distillable key and distillable entanglement.

Masato Koashi

2007-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

14

Catalytic dewaxing of middle distillates  

SciTech Connect

The fractionation and stripping equipment of a middle distillate catalytic dewaxing unit may be eliminated by integrating the catalytic dewaxing unit with a catalytic cracking unit. The light cycle oil sidestream from the cat cracker fractionator, bypasses the sidestream stripper and serves as the feed to the catalytic dewaxing unit. The dewaxed product is separated into a gasoline fraction which is recycled for fractionation in the cat cracker fractionator and a fuel oil fraction which is recycled to the cat cracker sidestream stripper for removal of light materials to produce a low pour fuel oil meeting product specifications.

Antal, M.J.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

15

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Retail distillate prices follow the spot distillate markets, and crude oil prices have been the main driver behind distillate spot price increases until recently.

16

Catalytic distillation structure  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1984-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

17

Catalytic Reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Don Little's Catalytic Reforming deals exclusively with reforming. With the increasing need for unleaded gasoline, the importance of this volume has escalated since it combines various related aspects of reforming technology into a single publication. For those with no practical knowledge of catalytic reforming, the chemical reactions, flow schemes and how the cat reformer fits into the overall refinery process will be of interest. Contents include: Catalytic reforming in refinery processing: How catalytic reformers work - chemical reactions; Process design; The catalyst, process variables and unit operation; Commercial processes; BTX operation; Feed preparation; naphtha hydrotreating and catalytic reforming; Index.

Little, D.M.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Effect of reformer conditions on catalytic reforming of biomass-gasification tars  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Parametric tests on catalytic reforming of tars produced in biomass gasification are performed using a bench-scale, fluid-bed catalytic reformer containing a commercial nickel-based catalyst. The product gas composition and yield vary with reformer temperature, space time, and steam: biomass ratio. Under certain catalytic tar reforming conditions, the gas yield increases by 70%; 97% of the tars are cracked into gases; and benzene and naphthalene, the predominant tar species, are virtually eliminated from the product gas.

Kinoshita, C.M.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, J. [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)

1995-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Random multiparty entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe various results related to the random distillation of multiparty entangled states - that is, conversion of such states into entangled states shared between fewer parties, where those parties are not predetermined. In previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 260501 (2007)] we showed that certain output states (namely Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs) could be reliably acquired from a prescribed initial multipartite state (namely the W state) via random distillation that could not be reliably created between predetermined parties. Here we provide a more rigorous definition of what constitutes ``advantageous'' random distillation. We show that random distillation is always advantageous for W-class three-qubit states (but only sometimes for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-class states). We show that the general class of multiparty states known as symmetric Dicke states can be readily converted to many other states in the class via random distillation. Finally we show that random distillation is provab...

Fortescue, Ben

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Multipartite nonlocality distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The stronger nonlocality than that allowed in quantum theory can provide an advantage in information processing and computation. Since quantum entanglement is distillable, can nonlocality be distilled in the nonsignalling condition? The answer is positive in the bipartite case. In this article the distillability of the multipartite nonlocality is investigated. We propose a distillation protocol solely exploiting xor operations on output bits. The probability-distribution vectors and matrix are introduced to tackle the correlators. It is shown that only the correlators with extreme values can survive the distillation process. As the main result, the amplified nonlocality cannot maximally violate any Bell-type inequality. Accordingly, a distillability criterion in the postquantum region is proposed.

Hsu, Li-Yi; Wu, Keng-Shuo [Department of Physics, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chungli 32023, Taiwan (China)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Eclipse Distilled (Eclipse)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Eclipse DistilledDavid CarlsonForeword by Grady BoochSeries EditorsErich Gamma Lee Nackman John WiegandA Concise Introduction to Eclipse for the Productive ProgrammerOrganized for rapid access, focused on productivity, Eclipse Distilled brings together ...

David Carlson

2005-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

Catalytic distillation process  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

Smith, L.A. Jr.

1982-06-22T23:59:59.000Z

24

Advanced Distillation Final Report  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

25

Distillate Stocks Expected  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: So let's get to what you want to know. What do we expect this upcoming winter? When EIA's demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain towards the lower end of the normal range. We are forecasting about an 11 million barrel build between the end of July 2001 and the end of November 2001, slightly more than the average over the past 5 years (10 million barrels), but less than the average of the last 10 years (15 ½ million barrels). If, however, economic incentives are high enough, distillate stocks could build more, resulting in a higher distillate stock level heading into the winter. Of course, the reverse is true as well, if for example, the distillate fuel refining spread declines substantially. Since 1994,

26

Random multiparty entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We describe various results related to the random distillation of multiparty entangled states - that is, conversion of such states into entangled states shared between fewer parties, where those parties are not predetermined. In previous work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 260501 (2007)] we showed that certain output states (namely Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) pairs) could be reliably acquired from a prescribed initial multipartite state (namely the W state) via random distillation that could not be reliably created between predetermined parties. Here we provide a more rigorous definition of what constitutes ``advantageous'' random distillation. We show that random distillation is always advantageous for W-class three-qubit states (but only sometimes for Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-class states). We show that the general class of multiparty states known as symmetric Dicke states can be readily converted to many other states in the class via random distillation. Finally we show that random distillation is provably not advantageous in the limit of multiple copies of pure states.

Ben Fortescue; Hoi-Kwong Lo

2007-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

27

DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

Barton, J.

1954-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

28

3:2:1 Crack Spread  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

:2:1 Crack Spread :2:1 Crack Spread Figure 1 Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, based on Thomson Reuters. A crack spread measures the difference between the purchase price of crude oil and the selling price of finished products, such as gasoline and distillate fuel, that a refinery produces from the crude oil. Crack spreads are an indicator of the short-term profit margin of oil refineries because they compare the cost of the crude oil inputs to the wholesale, or spot, prices of the outputs (although they do not include other variable costs or any fixed costs). The 3:2:1 crack spread approximates the product yield at a typical U.S. refinery: for every three barrels of crude oil the refinery processes, it makes two barrels of gasoline and one barrel of distillate

29

Winter Distillate and Natural Gas Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table of Contents. Winter Distillate and Natural Gas Outlook. Distillate Prices Increasing With Crude Oil. Distillate Outlook. When Will Crude Oil Prices Fall?

30

Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use  

Annual Energy Outlook 2012 (EIA)

End Use Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate...

31

Topological Quantum Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct a class of topological quantum codes to perform quantum entanglement distillation. These codes implement the whole Clifford group of unitary operations in a fully topological manner and without selective addressing of qubits. This allows us to extend their application also to quantum teleportation, dense coding and computation with magic states.

H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2006-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

32

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Are Important Part of Northeast Winter Supply Distillate Imports Surged to Meet SupplyDemand Imbalance Forecast U.S. Distillate Stocks Forecast Prices (U.S. Monthly Average)...

33

Winter Distillate .and Propane Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Winter Distillate .and Propane Outlook. Joanne Shore Energy Information Administration State Heating Oil and Propane Program August 2000

34

Attrition resistant fluidizable reforming catalyst  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method of preparing a steam reforming catalyst characterized by improved resistance to attrition loss when used for cracking, reforming, water gas shift and gasification reactions on feedstock in a fluidized bed reactor, comprising: fabricating the ceramic support particle, coating a ceramic support by adding an aqueous solution of a precursor salt of a metal selected from the group consisting of Ni, Pt, Pd, Ru, Rh, Cr, Co, Mn, Mg, K, La and Fe and mixtures thereof to the ceramic support and calcining the coated ceramic in air to convert the metal salts to metal oxides.

Parent, Yves O. (Golden, CO); Magrini, Kim (Golden, CO); Landin, Steven M. (Conifer, CO); Ritland, Marcus A. (Palm Beach Shores, FL)

2011-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

35

On bound entanglement assisted distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate asymptotic distillation of entanglement in the presence of an unlimited amount of bound entanglement for bi-partite systems. We show that the distillability is still bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement. This offers a strong support to the fact that bound entanglement does not improve distillation of entanglement.

V. Vedral

1999-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

36

Catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of a feedstock which contains at least one reformable organic compound. The process consists of contacting the feedstock under suitable reforming conditions with a catalyst composition selected from the group consisting of a catalyst. The catalyst essentially consists of zinc oxide and a spinel structure alumina. Another catalyst consists essentially of a physical mixture of zinc titanate and a spinel structure alumina in the presence of sufficient added hydrogen to substantially prevent the formation of coke. Insufficient zinc is present in the catalyst composition for the formation of a bulk zinc aluminate.

Aldag, A.W. Jr.

1986-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

37

Gulf Coast Distillate Production  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 of 15 4 of 15 Notes: PADD 3 is a major source of supply for the East Coast. This graph shows how during the winter of 1997-1998 when distillate stocks were very high, production fell back. In contrast, we entered the winter of 1996-1997 with very low stocks, and refineries reached record production levels as they tried to build stocks late in the season. Notice that production is normally reduced in January as distillate stocks are used to meet demand and as refineries begin maintenance and turnovers, which continue into February. This January is no different. There is room for some production increases in January and February, if refineries postpone maintenance. But postponing maintenance and turnarounds can create problems when the gasoline production season begins in March and April.

38

Simplified distillation column controls  

SciTech Connect

A simple, energy efficient method of controlling single or double distillation columns for the production of ethyl alcohol is described. The control system is based on a material balance scheme centered around a thermostat actuated control valve to regulate reflux rate and product purity. Column bottom's levels are automatically regulated by vented suction lines on the pump inlets. Methods of minimizing control input variations are used including column insulation, stillage-to-beer heat exchanger, and a steam pressure regulator.

Badger, P.; Pile, R.; Lightsey, G.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Low Energy Distillation Schemes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we look at various options available for the reduction of energy consumption in distillation systems. For binary systems, we look at how heat pumps can be used. With multi-component systems, process integration offers a means of reducing energy consumption. We look at how the better integrated distillation schemes can be quickly identified. It is found that the design of integrated schemes is quicker than that of non-integrated schemes. We then look at how the use of heat pumps, non-isobaric operation and divided wall columns may be incorporated into the synthesis of multi-component separation schemes. It will be seen that process integration provides an important means of reducing energy consumption in distillation processes. However, its conventional use requires the installation of piping (and pipes carrying vapor streams tend to be of large diameter and are consequently expensive). So, finally we examine a way in which the capital cost of such systems can be reduced: the divided wall column.

Polley, G. T.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Catalytic distillation : design and application of a catalytic distillation column.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation (CD) is a hybrid technology that utilizes the dynamics of si- multaneous reaction and separation in a single process unit to achieve a… (more)

Nieuwoudt, Josias Jakobus (Jako)

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

On bound entanglement assisted distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate asymptotic distillation of entanglement in the presence of an unlimited amount of bound entanglement for bi-partite systems. We show that the distillability is still bounded by the relative entropy of entanglement. This offers a strong support to the fact that bound entanglement does not improve distillation of entanglement. PACS number(s): 03.65.Bz, 89.70.+c,89.80.+h

Vlatko Vedral

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Optimization approach to entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We put forward a method for optimized distillation of partly entangled pairs of qubits into a smaller number of more entangled pairs by recurrent local unitary operations and projections. Optimized distillation is achieved by minimization of a cost function with up to 30 real parameters, which is chosen to be sensitive to the fidelity and the projection probability at each step. We show that in many cases this approach can significantly improve the distillation efficiency in comparison to the present methods.

T. Opatrny; G. Kurizki

1998-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

43

U.S. Distillate Inventories  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

average, but 18 percent above last year. The stability of distillate stocks through the heart of this winter, when they usually decline, has virtually eliminated concerns about...

44

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Market Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices Retail Diesel Fuel Oil Prices Crude Oil Price Cycles Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices.(Prices through March 3, 2000) Low...

45

A Parametric Reactive Distillation Study: Economic Feasibility and Design Heuristics.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The integration of reaction and distillation into a single column is called reactive distillation or catalytic distillation. Reactive distillation provides many benefits such as reduced… (more)

Hoyme, Craig Alan

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Both new and retrofit heat pump installations are often economically justifiable for distillation columns with a temperature differential of 50 degrees F or less. However, this study reveals that the near-term demand for electric heat pumps in petroleum and chemical distillation processes appears very limited.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Simulation and Optimization of the Stabilizer Tower Operation at Catalytic Reforming of Esfahan Oil Refining Company  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Production of gasoline with low RVP specifications have made the operators of the catalytic reforming unit of Esfahan Oil refining company in Iran to apply new operating conditions. RVP is an abbreviation for Reid Vapor Pressure which is the vapor pressure ... Keywords: RVP, platformate, initial boiling point, catalytic reforming, distillation curve

Ali Izadyar; Bahram Hashemi Shahraki; Ahmad Shariati

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

Oil recovery from condensed corn distillers solubles.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) contains more oil than dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 20 vs. 12% (dry weight basis). Therefore, significant amount of… (more)

Majoni, Sandra

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

EIA Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Table 36)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

(Important Note on Sources of Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Estimates) Table 3.6 World Crude Oil Distillation Capacity, January 1, 1970 - January 1, 2009

50

Theoretical and experimental investigation of membrane distillation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Invented in the 1960s, membrane distillation is an emerging technology for water treatment attracting more attention since 1980s. There are four configurations of membrane distillations… (more)

Zhang, Jianhua

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Membrane distillation : module design and modeling.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for seawater desalination that is traditionally accomplished by conventional separation processes such as thermal distillation or reverse osmosis.… (more)

Yang, Xing.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

American Distillation Inc | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Distillation Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name American Distillation Inc. Place Leland, North Carolina Zip 28451 Product Biodiesel producer in North Carolina. References...

53

Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed DOE Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) Meeting Investigation of Bio-Ethanol Steam Reforming over Cobalt-based Catalysts Hua Song Lingzhi Zhang Umit S. Ozkan* November 6 th , 2007 Heterogeneous Catalysis Research Group Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering The Ohio State University Columbus, OH 43210 *Ozkan.1@osu.edu Biomass to Hydrogen (Environmentally Friendly) Plant cultivation Plant cultivation Saccharification Saccharification / / Fermentation Fermentation Anaerobic digestion Anaerobic digestion Residues of Residues of agroindustries agroindustries and cultivations and cultivations Municipal Solid Waste Municipal Solid Waste (organic fraction) (organic fraction) Distillation Distillation Reformation of ethanol

54

Distillate Demand Strong Last Winter  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 Notes: Well, distillate fuel demand wasn't the reason that stocks increased in January 2001 and kept prices from going higher. As you will hear shortly, natural gas prices spiked...

55

About distillability of depolarized states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Reduction criteria for distillability is applied to general depolarized states and an explicit condition is found in terms of a characteristic polynomial of the density matrix. 3 × 3 bipartite systems are analyzed in some details. 1

Andrea R. Rossi; Matteo G. A. Paris

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Distillation process using microchannel technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

Tonkovich, Anna Lee (Dublin, OH); Simmons, Wayne W. (Dublin, OH); Silva, Laura J. (Dublin, OH); Qiu, Dongming (Carbondale, IL); Perry, Steven T. (Galloway, OH); Yuschak, Thomas (Dublin, OH); Hickey, Thomas P. (Dublin, OH); Arora, Ravi (Dublin, OH); Smith, Amanda (Galloway, OH); Litt, Robert Dwayne (Westerville, OH); Neagle, Paul (Westerville, OH)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

57

Distillation Column Flooding Predictor  

SciTech Connect

The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid/vapor traffic that produce increased contact area and lead to substantial increases in separation efficiency – which translates to a 10% increase in energy efficiency on a BTU/bbl basis. The Flooding Predictor™ operates on the principle that between five to sixty minutes in advance of a flooding event, certain column variables experience an oscillation, a pre-flood pattern. The pattern recognition system of the Flooding Predictor™ utilizes the mathematical first derivative of certain column variables to identify the column’s pre-flood pattern(s). This pattern is a very brief, highly repeatable, simultaneous movement among the derivative values of certain column variables. While all column variables experience negligible random noise generated from the natural frequency of the process, subtle pre-flood patterns are revealed among sub-sets of the derivative values of column variables as the column approaches its hydraulic limit. The sub-set of column variables that comprise the pre-flood pattern is identified empirically through in a two-step process. First, 2ndpoint’s proprietary off-line analysis tool is used to mine historical data for pre-flood patterns. Second, the column is flood-tested to fine-tune the pattern recognition for commissioning. Then the Flooding Predictor™ is implemented as closed-loop advanced control strategy on the plant’s distributed control system (DCS), thus automating control of the column at its hydraulic limit.

George E. Dzyacky

2010-11-23T23:59:59.000Z

58

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Home > Petroleum > Analysis > Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) ...

59

Oklahoma Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Oklahoma Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

60

Isotropic non-locality cannot be distilled  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate non-locality distillation protocols for isotropic correlations. These correlations are the hardest instances which respect to distillability and only partial results are known about their behaviour under non-locality distillation protocols. We completely resolve this issue by proving that non-locality distillation is impossible for all non-local isotropic correlations.

Dejan D. Dukaric

2011-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Mississippi Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

62

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) Impacts

63

PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook PPMCSA Presentation on Winter Distillate Outlook 09/15/2000 Click here to start Table of Contents Winter Distillate Outlook Distillate Prices Increasing With Crude Oil Factors Driving Prices & Forecast First Factor Impacting Distillate Prices: Crude Oil Prices High Crude Prices Go With Low Inventories Second Price Component: Spread Impacted by Distillate Supply/Demand Balance Distillate Stocks are Low – Especially on the East Coast Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply Winter Demand Impacted by Weather Warm Winters Held Heating Oil Demand Down While Diesel Grew Distillate Demand Strong in December 1999 Dec 1999 & Jan 2000 Production Fell, But Rebounded with Price Higher Yields Can Be Achieved Unusual Net Imports May Only Be Available at a High Price

64

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

diesel and heating fuel prices diesel and heating fuel prices surged. The largest increases occurred in the distillate-based fuels (heating oil and diesel) in the Northeast. The main factors driving up these prices were low stocks leading into January, followed by a bout of severe weather that impacted both supply and demand. Warmer weather and the arrival of new supply, mainly imports, relieved the supply/demand imbalance and brought prices back down. The spike is now behind us, but high crude prices are keeping prices above year-ago levels. The low stock situation that set the stage for the distillate price spike was not unique to the United States, Low stocks exist worldwide and are not limited to distillate. The low stock situation stems from what is happening in the crude oil markets. A crude oil supply shortage drove crude

65

Collocation Methods For Distillation Design  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this third paper on collocation methods for distillation design, we explore the use of the collocation models for design of simple distillation columns as well as flexible columns. Solvent recovery plants must deal with a wide range of feeds and still return pure solvents. The design problem we address is a single flexible column within the overall solvent recovery plant. We have developed the models and algorithms in the ASCEND system. We discuss the attributes and use of the ASCEND system. With ASCEND we can create complex models with simple building blocks and interactively learn to solve them. We found the collocation model an excellent tool for distillation design, allowing us to develop new concepts in design strategies. We designed a single column as would exist in a flexible solvent recovery plant for an azeotropic system. It was designed to handle three possible feeds, each with a distinct separation task. For each possible feed to a column, we approximate the operation of ...

Flexible Column; Robert S. Huss; Arthur W. Westerberg

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Optimal protocols for nonlocality distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Forster et al. recently showed that weak nonlocality can be amplified by giving the first protocol that distills a class of nonlocal boxes (NLBs) [Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 120401 (2009)] We first show that their protocol is optimal among all nonadaptive protocols. We next consider adaptive protocols. We show that the depth-2 protocol of Allcock et al. [Phys. Rev. A 80, 062107 (2009)] performs better than previously known adaptive depth-2 protocols for all symmetric NLBs. We present a depth-3 protocol that extends the known region of distillable NLBs. We give examples of NLBs for which each of the Forster et al., the Allcock et al., and our protocols perform best. The understanding we develop is that there is no single optimal protocol for NLB distillation. The choice of which protocol to use depends on the noise parameters for the NLB.

Hoeyer, Peter; Rashid, Jibran [Department of Computer Science, University of Calgary, 2500 University Drive N.W., Calgary, Alberta, 2N 1N4 (Canada)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

67

Bounds for nonlocality distillation protocols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nonlocality can be quantified by the violation of a Bell inequality. Since this violation may be amplified by local operations, an alternative measure has been proposed--distillable nonlocality. The alternative measure is difficult to calculate exactly due to the double exponential growth of the parameter space. In this paper, we give a way to bound the distillable nonlocality of a resource by the solutions to a related optimization problem. Our upper bounds are exponentially easier to compute than the exact value and are shown to be meaningful in general and tight in some cases.

Forster, Manuel [Computer Science Department, ETH Zuerich, CH-8092 Zuerich (Switzerland)

2011-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

68

Purification of reformer streams by catalytic hydrogenation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic Reforming is one of the most important processes to produce high grade motor gasolines. Feedstocks are mainly gasoline and naphtha streams from the crude oil distillation boiling in the range of 212 F to 350 F. By catalytic reforming the octane number of these gasoline components is increased from 40--60 RON to 95--100 RON. Besides isomerization and dehydrocyclization reactions mainly formation of aromatics by dehydrogenation of naphthenes occur. Thus, catalytic reformers within refineries are an important source of BTX--aromatics (benzene, toluene, xylenes). Frequently, high purity aromatics are recovered from these streams using modern extractive distillation or liquid extraction processes, e.g. the Krupp-Koppers MORPHYLANE{reg_sign} process. Aromatics product specifications, notably bromine index and acid wash color, have obligated producers to utilize clay treatment to remove trace impurities of diolefins and/or olefins. The conventional clay treatment is a multiple vessel batch process which periodically requires disposal of the spent clay in a suitable environmental manner. BASF, in close cooperation with Krupp-Koppers, has developed a continuous Selective Catalytic Hydrogenation Process (SCHP) as an alternative to clay treatment which is very efficient, cost effective and environmentally compatible. In the following the main process aspects including the process scheme catalyst and operating conditions is described.

Polanek, P.J. [BASF Corp., Geismar, LA (United States); Hooper, H.M. [Krupp Wilputte Corp., Bridgeville, PA (United States); Mueller, J.; Walter, M. [BASF AG, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Emmrich, G. [Krupp Koppers GmbH, Essen (Germany)

1996-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Cracking knuckles  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cracking knuckles Cracking knuckles Name: Renee Knuckles Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Does cracking your joints especially the knuckles cause arthritis? What are some of the results of doing so? Replies: Cracking knuckles has NEVER been associated with causing arthritis. This concept is as wrong as saying weight lifting makes you short, or playing basketball makes you tall. The "popping" of the knuckles results from forcing joint fluid to very rapidly pass from one side of the joint to the other, where the "sides" are partitioned off by the main bones of the joint. Let me rephrase that: a joint is an area where two or more separate and distinct bones meet. The joint fluid provides a cushioning between the joints so that they don't grate into each other. Cracking your knuckles forces the joint fluid from one part of the joint to another, and the popping sound is just the result of the high pressured rushing of fluid.

70

Olefin production via reactive distillation based Olefin metathesis.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Reactive distillation is a combination of a traditional multi-stage distillation column with a chemical reaction. The primary benefits of a reactive distillation process are reduced… (more)

Morrison, Ryan Frederick

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Purification of Indium by Vacuum Distillation - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The two-step vacuum distillation were carried out to study the influence of distillation temperature, distillation time on the impurities. At the first step the content of ...

72

Entanglement preservation by continuous distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We study the two-qubit entanglement preservation for a system in the presence of independent thermal baths. We use a combination of filtering operations and distillation protocols as a series of frequent measurements on the system. It is shown that a small fraction of the total amount of available copies of the system preserves or even improves its initial entanglement during the evolution.

Mundarain, D. [Departmento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Orszag, M. [Facultad de Fisica, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

73

Optimal Control of Distillation Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control system should include accurate instrumentation, closed loop purity control, and a computer system to execute direct digital control with appropriate feed-forward algorithms.

Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Distillate Prices Increasing With Crude Oil  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 Notes: This slide shows the strong influence crude oil prices have on retail distillate prices. Distillate tracks the crude price increases seen in 1996 and the subsequent fall...

76

Binary distillation column design using mathematica  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The accurate design of distillation columns is a very important topic in chemical industry. In this paper, we describe a Mathematica program for the design of distillation columns for binary mixtures. For simplicity, it is assumed that the columns are ...

Akemi Gálvez; Andrés Iglesias

2003-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

77

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

When EIA's demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year. - Distillate fuel...

78

Hydrogen Assisted Cracking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmentally Assisted Cracking (EAC): Laboratory Research and Field Experiences: Hydrogen Assisted Cracking Program Organizers: Suresh Divi, TIMET

79

Intermediate Vapor Expansion Distillation and Nested Enrichment Cascade Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Although it is known that incorporating an intermediate reboiler or reflux condenser in a distillation column will improve column efficiency by 15 to 100%, there has been little use of this technique to date." Intermediate vapor compression heat pumping was recently introduced as one practical means of achieving this benefit. Introduced in this paper are two new means having added advantages over compression: intermediate vapor expansion heat pumping, and nested enrichment cascades. In both cases the efficiency advantage is obtained without requiring import of shaft work. With intermediate vapor expansion, the expander is more efficient and less costly than the compressor which achieves comparable improvement in distillation efficiency. With the "nested enrichment" technique, the increased efficiency is obtained without requiring either compressors or expanders.

Erickson, D. C.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

Multiple Steady States in Azeotropic and Reactive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction . Motivation Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions . The Starting Point . Consolidation . Industrial Applications . Incorporating Reactions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation . Prediction Method . MTBE Process Conclusions Outline Multiple Steady States (MSS) Overview on the Contributions MSS in Reactive Distillation Conclusions Distillation Overview . Ideal binary / multicomponent distillation . Homogeneous azeotropic distillation -- Heavy entrainer (extractive distillation) -- Intermediate entrainer -- "Boundary scheme" (ligh

Thomas E. Güttinger

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Slide 1 of 11 Notes: During the second half of January, diesel and heating fuel prices surged. The largest increases occurred in the distillate-based fuels (heating oil and diesel) in the Northeast. From January 17, New England residential heating oil prices rose over 78 cents per gallon to average $1.97 February 7; diesel increased 68 cents per gallon, averaging $2.12 February 7, but fell back to $1.93 by February 14 as new supplies are arriving. The main factors driving up these prices were low stocks leading into January, followed by a bout of severe weather that impacted both supply and demand. Demand: Cold weather increases core heating customer demand. In addition, it was reported that utilities were buying distillate both for peaking power and, along with industrial and commercial users, to

82

U.S. Distillate Market  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. diesel and heating fuel U.S. diesel and heating fuel prices surged. The largest increases occurred in the distillate-based fuels (heating oil and diesel) in the Northeast. From January 17, New England residential heating oil prices rose over 78 cents per gallon to average $1.97 February 7; diesel increased 68 cents per gallon, averaging $2.12 February 7. Prices for both fuels began to fall back by February 14 as new supplies were arriving, and have continued to decline since. The main factors driving up these prices were low stocks leading into January, followed by a bout of severe weather that impacted both supply and demand. Demand: Cold weather increases core heating customer demand. In addition, it was reported that utilities were buying distillate both for peaking power and, along with industrial and commercial users, to

83

Distillate Market Model documentation report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this report is to define the objectives of the Distillate Market Model (DMM), describe its basic approach, and to provide details on model functions. This report is intended as a reference document for model analysts, users, and the general public. Documentation of the model is in accordance with EIA`s legal obligation to provide adequate documentation in support of its models. The DMM performs a short-term (6- to 9-month) forecast of demand and retail price for distillate fuel oil in the national US market; it also calculates the end-of-month stock level during the term of the forecast. The model is used to analyze certain market behavior assumptions or shocks and to determine the effect on retail market price, demand, and stock level.

1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Catalytic partial oxidation reforming of hydrocarbon fuels.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) is the primary candidate as the power source for light-duty transportation systems. On-board conversion of fuels (reforming) to supply the required hydrogen has the potential to provide the driving range that is typical of today's automobiles. Petroleum-derived fuels, gasoline or some distillate similar to it, are attractive because of their existing production, distribution, and retailing infrastructure. The fuel may be either petroleum-derived or other alternative fuels such as methanol, ethanol, natural gas, etc. [1]. The ability to use a variety of fuels is also attractive for stationary distributed power generation [2], such as in buildings, or for portable power in remote locations. Argonne National Laboratory has developed a catalytic reactor based on partial oxidation reforming that is suitable for use in light-duty vehicles powered by fuel cells. The reactor has shown the ability to convert a wide variety of fuels to a hydrogen-rich gas at less than 800 C, temperatures that are several hundreds of degrees lower than alternative noncatalytic processes. The fuel may be methanol, ethanol, natural gas, or petroleum-derived fuels that are blends of various hydrocarbons such as paraffins, olefins, aromatics, etc., as in gasoline. This paper will discuss the results obtained from a bench-scale (3-kWe) reactor., where the reforming of gasoline and natural gas generated a product gas that contained 38% and 42% hydrogen on a dry basis at the reformer exit, respectively.

Ahmed, S.

1998-09-21T23:59:59.000Z

85

AMMONIA DISTILLATION FOR DEUTERIUM SEPARATION  

SciTech Connect

The relative volatility or separation factor for deuterium enrichment in ammonia distillation was measured at several pressures and deuterium concentrations. The knowledge of this ingormation is very helpful in predicting costs of heawy water production by the ammonia distillation process. It hss been stated by others, that the ammonia distillation process of heawy water production would be competitive with other developed methods only if the actusl separation factor was at least 1.062 at low deuterium concentration. Ungortunately, the measurements do not indicate that the separation factor at low deuterium composition differs greatly from the vapor pressure pre diction ( alpha = 1.042). Deutero-ammonia was synthesized by isotopic exchange between natural ammonia and heavy water. Equilibrium determinations were made using an Othmer still, modified for low temperature operation, and a concentric tube fractionating column. The arnmonia samples were analyzed for deuterium content by converting them to water by flow torough hot copper oxide, followed by a differential density determination using the falling drop method. ( auth)

Petersen, G.T.; Benedict, M.

1960-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

86

Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology  

SciTech Connect

The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology â?? 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

Arora, Ravi

2013-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

87

Entanglement distillation from quasifree Fermions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a scheme to distill entanglement from bipartite Fermionic systems in an arbitrary quasifree state. It can be applied if either one system containing infinite one-copy entanglement is available or if an arbitrary amount of equally prepared systems can be used. We show that the efficiency of the proposed scheme is in general very good and in some cases even optimal. Furthermore we apply it to Fermions hopping on an infinite lattice and demonstrate in this context that an efficient numerical analysis is possible for more then 10^6 lattice sites.

Zoltan Kadar; Michael Keyl; Dirk Schlingemann

2010-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

88

Distillation of Bell states in open systems.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we review the entire classification of 2 × 2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement. 1

E. Isasi; D. Mundarain

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this work we review the entire classification of 2x2 distillable states for protocols with a finite numbers of copies. We show a distillation protocol that allows to distill Bell states with non zero probability at any time for an initial singlet in vacuum. It is shown that the same protocol used in non zero thermal baths yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

E. Isasi; D. Mundarain

2009-08-14T23:59:59.000Z

90

Separating lignite hydrogenation sludge by vacuum distillation  

SciTech Connect

Vacuum distillation was studied as a means to separate coal hydrogenation sludge. Additives containing mainly aromatic hydrocarbons intensified the process. 4 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

Gorlov, E.G.; Grobanova, L.T.; Belyavtseva, N.V. [Rossiskaya Akademiya, Nauk (Russian Federation)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

91

Distillate Demand Strong in December 1999  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total distillate demand includes both diesel and heating oil. These are similar products. Physically, diesel can be used in the heating oil market, but low sulfur ...

92

Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity Former ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (bbl/cd)a New Corporation/Refiner Date of Sale Table 14. Refinery Sales During 2005

93

Total Organic Carbon Rejection in Osmotic Distillation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? The osmotic distillation (OD) system is a spacecraft wastewater recycling system designed to produce potable water from human urine and humidity condensate. The OD… (more)

Shaw, Hali Laraelizabeth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

Conceptual Design for Pressure Swing Distillation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??The separation of homogenous azeotropic mixtures is a common task in the chemical industry. In the literature, pressure swing distillation is often mentioned as an… (more)

Bozzacco, Carmen

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Intelligent fuzzy supervisory control for distillation columns.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Distillation as a separation technique is widely used in the chemical and petroleum industries. With the growth of these industries and the availability of cheap… (more)

Santhanam, Srinivasan

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Tritium Removal Facility High Tritium Distillation Simulation.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A dynamic model was developed for the distillation mechanism of the Darlington Tritium Removal Facility. The model was created using the commercial software package MATLAB/Simulink.… (more)

Zahedi, Polad

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Vacuum Distillation Refining of Crude Tin - Thermodynamics ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vacuum Distillation Refining of Crude Tin - Thermodynamics Analysis and Experiments on the Removal of Arsenic from the Crude Tin.

98

Distillation of liquid fuels by thermogravimetry  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper, design and operation of a custom-built thermogravimetric apparatus for the distillation of liquid fuels are reported. Using a sensitive balance with scale of 0.001 g and ASTM distillation glassware, several petroleum and petroleum-derived samples have been analyzed by the thermogravimetric distillation method. When the ASTM distillation glassware is replaced by a micro-scale unit, sample size could be reduced from 100 g to 5-10 g. A computer program has been developed to transfer the data into a distillation plot, e.g. Weight Percent Distilled vs. Boiling Point. It also generates a report on the characteristic distillation parameters, such as, IBP (Initial Boiling Point), FBP (Final Boiling Point), and boiling point at 50 wt% distilled. Comparison of the boiling point distributions determined by TG (thermogravimetry) with those by SimDis GC (Simulated-Distillation Gas Chromatography) on two liquid fuel samples (i.e. a decanted oil and a filtered crude oil) are also discussed in this paper.

Huang, He; Wang, Keyu; Wang, Shaojie; Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Catalytic hydroprocessing of shale oil to produce distillate fuels  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Results are presented of a Chevron Research Company study sponsored by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) to demonstrate the feasibility of converting whole shale oil to a synthetic crude resembling a typical petroleum distillate. The synthetic crude thus produced can then be processed, in conventional petroleum-refining facilities, to transportation fuels such as high octane gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel. The raw shale oil feed used is a typical Colorado shale oil produced in a surface retort in the so-called indirectly heated mode. It is shown that whole shale oil can be catalytically hydrodenitrified to reduce the nitrogen to levels as low as one part per million in a single catalytic stage. However, for economic reasons, it appears preferable to denitrify to about 0.05 wt % nitrogen. The resulting synthetic crude resembles a petroleum distillate that can be fractionated and further processed as necessary in conventional petroleum refining facilities. Shale oil contains about 0.6% sulfur. Sulfur is more easily removed by hydrofining than is nitrogen; therefore, only a few parts per million of sulfur remain at a product nitrogen of 0.05 wt %. Oxygen contained in the shale oil is also reduced to low levels during hydrodenitrification. The shale oil contains appreciable quantities of iron and arsenic which are also potential catalyst poisons. These metals are removed by a guard bed placed upstream from the hydrofining catalyst. Based on correlations, the naphthas from the shale oil hydrofiner can readily be upgraded to high octane gasolines by catalytic reforming. The middle distillate fractions may require some additional hydrofining to produce salable diesel or jet fuel. The technology is available, and pilot plant studies are scheduled to verify diesel hydrofiner performance.

Sullivan, R.F.; Stangeland, B.E.

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Creep Crack Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Creep crack growth constants b and m for various ferritic steels...and Banerji, â??Creep Crack Growth Behavior

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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101

Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

End Use/ Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Distillate Commercial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Commercial - Ultra Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - Low Sulfur Diesel Commercial - High Sulfur Diesel Commercial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Commercial - Residual Fuel Oil Commercial - Kerosene Industrial - Distillate Fuel Oil Industrial - No. 1 Distillate Industrial - No. 2 Distillate Industrial - No. 2 Fuel Oil Industrial - Low Sulfur Diesel Industrial - High Sulfur Diesel Industrial - No. 4 Fuel Oil Industrial - Residual Fuel Oil Industrial - Kerosene Farm - Distillate Fuel Oil Farm - Diesel Farm - Other Distillate Farm - Kerosene Electric Power - Distillate Fuel Oil Electric Power - Residual Fuel Oil Oil Company Use - Distillate Fuel Oil Oil Company Use - Residual Fuel Oil Total Transportation - Distillate Fuel Oil Total Transportation - Residual Fuel Oil Railroad Use - Distillate Fuel Oil Vessel Bunkering - Distillate Fuel Oil Vessel Bunkering - Residual Fuel Oil On-Highway - No. 2 Diesel Military - Distillate Fuel Oil Military - Diesel Military - Other Distillate Military - Residual Fuel Oil Off-Highway - Distillate Fuel Oil Off-Highway - Distillate F.O., Construction Off-Highway - Distillate F.O., Non-Construction All Other - Distillate Fuel Oil All Other - Residual Fuel Oil All Other - Kerosene Period:

102

Fractionation of reformate: A new variant of gasoline production technology  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Novo-Ufa Petroleum Refinery is the largest domestic producer of the unique high-octane unleaded automotive gasolines AI-93 and AI-95 and the aviation gasolines B-91/115 and B-92. The base component for these gasolines is obtained by catalytic reforming of wide-cut naphtha; this basic component is usually blended with certain other components that are expensive and in short supply: toluene, xylenes, and alkylate. For example, the unleaded gasoline AI-93 has been prepared by blending reformate, alkylate, and toluene in a 65:20:15 weight ratio; AI-95 gasoline by blending alkylate and xylenes in an 80:20 weight ratio; and B-91/115 gasoline by compounding a reformate obtained with light straight-run feed, plus alkylate and toluene, in a 55:35:10 weight ratio. Toluene and xylenes have been obtained by process schemes that include the following consecutive processes: redistillation of straight-run naphtha cuts to segregate the required narrow fraction; catalytic reforming (Platforming) of the narrow toluene-xylene straight-run fraction; azeotropic distillation of the reformate to recover toluene and xylenes. A new technology based on the use of reformate fractions is proposed.

Karakuts, V.N.; Tanatarov, M.A.; Telyashev, G.G. [and others

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Process for catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved catalytic reforming process is disclosed wherein hydrogen and light hydrocarbons generated in the catalytic reaction zone are passed to a hydrogen production/purification zone and and reacted and processed therein to produce substantially pure hydrogen. A portion of the hydrogen is then admixed with the charge stock to the catalytic reforming zone to provide the hydrogen requirements of the catalytic reforming reaction zone.

James, R. B. Jr.

1984-11-20T23:59:59.000Z

104

Systemic Reform Bibliography  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(5) support local initiatives and model sites; (6) align state policy; (7) reform higher education and teacher preparation; and (8) mobilize public and professional...

105

Plasma—Methane Reformation  

INL thermal plasma methane reformation process produces hydrogen and elemental carbon from natural gas and other hydrocarbons, such as natural gas or ...

106

Catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalytic reforming process is disclosed in which substantially all of the heat requirements of the product stabilizer column is supplied by multiple indirect heat exchange.

Peters, K.D.

1983-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

107

Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200, 250, and 300°C at slightly superheated conditions. A propane:steam mass ratio of 5:100 was used for the steam-propane distillation runs. For the 34.2°API crude oil, weight yields are very similar for steam and steam-propane distillation, about 54% weight of original oil. However for the 25.1°API crude oil, weight yield for steam-propane distillation, 63%, is significantly higher than for steam distillation, 42% weight of original oil. The results indicate that propane has a stronger distillation effect on the intermediate oil than on the light oil. This is possibly due to the following reasons: (1) lesser amount of light fractions in the intermediate oil that enhance the separation of components in the oil caused by the concentration gradient, (2) the solvent effect of the propane on paraffinic fractions, these being more abundant in the intermediate than in the light oil, and (3) the propane is inducing a cracking of the oil at the higher temperatures and pressure. The positive effect of propane on distillation of the intermediate oil is also evident from the fact that the residual oil is highly viscous (due most likely to asphaltene precipitation), while lighter fractions have been distilled off.

Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Locally Accessible Information and Distillation of Entanglement  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

Sibasish Ghosh; Pramod Joag; Guruprasad Kar; Samir Kunkri; Anirban Roy

2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

109

Distillation of Bell states in open systems  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work we show that the distillation protocol proposed by P. Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 54, 3824 (1996)] allows one to distill Bell states at any time for a system evolving in vacuum and prepared in an initial singlet. It is also shown that the same protocol, applied in nonzero temperature thermal baths, yields a considerable recovering of entanglement.

Isasi, E.; Mundarain, D. [Departamento de Fisica, Seccion de Fenomenos Opticos, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

110

Rank three bipartite entangled states are distillable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We prove that the bipartite entangled state of rank three is distillable. So there is no rank three bipartite bound entangled state. By using this fact, We present some families of rank four states that are distillable. We also analyze the relation between the low rank state and the Werner state.

Lin Chen; Yi-Xin Chen

2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

111

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Notes: Total distillate stocks rose only marginally in November, to about 117 million barrels from about 115 million barrels at the end of October. The "normal" or average inventory level at end November is 146 million barrels. Thus, by the end of November, instead of seeing an improvement, US distillate inventories were 30 million barrels less than normal rather than the 26 million barrels less as of the end of October, indicating greater tightness in markets for heating oil and diesel fuel. If the currently depressed level of distillate stocks continues, the result could be strong upward pressure on prices for the distillate fuels through the winter. In fact, the tightness in distillate markets, particularly in the Northeast, has worsened and left the heating oil market more vulnerable

112

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

As of December 29, distillate fuel oil stocks were about 116 million As of December 29, distillate fuel oil stocks were about 116 million barrels, which is over 14 percent below their 5 year average for this time of year. Heating oil stocks were at 47.4 million barrels, or about 28 percent lower than their seasonal 5-year average. If the currently depressed level of distillate stocks continues, the result could be strong upward pressure on prices for the distillate fuels through the winter. Recently, the tightness in distillate markets, particularly in the Northeast, has worsened and left the heating oil market more vulnerable to near-term shocks from potential cold weather events or disruptions in the logistical system than was expected earlier this fall. Unless the second half of the winter in the Northeast is unusually

113

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Notes: At the end of December, distillate fuel oil stocks were about 116 million barrels, which is more than 14 percent below their 5-year average for this time of year, and about 7 percent less than last year's low levels. As of January 19, the most recent weekly data, distillate stocks remained at about that level, which is slightly higher than a year ago. If the currently depressed level of distillate stocks continues, the result could be strong upward pressure on prices for the distillate fuels through the winter. Recently, the tightness in distillate markets, particularly in the Northeast, has worsened and left the heating oil market more vulnerable to near-term shocks from potential cold weather events or disruptions in the logistical system than was expected earlier this fall.

114

Low Distillate Stocks Set Stage for Price Volatility  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

This distillate price spike is a classic response to a local supply and demand imbalance that began as a result of low distillate stocks. Low distillate stocks in the ...

115

Security and Suitability Process Reform  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Security and Suitability Process Reform December 2008 Provided by the Joint Security and Suitability Reform Team EXECUTIVE OFFICE OF THE PRESIDENT OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET...

116

Copyright reform step zero  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

'A reasonable person might well think it's a fool's errand to contemplate a [copyright] reform project of any sort.' The US Copyright Act of 1976 and its subsequent amendments is contained in over 200 pages of incomprehensible, sometimes inconsistent, ... Keywords: US copyright law, administrative law, copyright reform, institutional frameworks

Terry Hart

2010-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A catalytic reforming process is disclosed wherein the reboiler heat requirements of the stabilizer column are supplied by means of indirect heat exchange with hot combustion gases in the reforming reactants fired heater convection heating section. Heat in excess of the reboiler requirements is passed to the stabilizer column with control being effected by removal of excess heat from the column.

James, R.B. Jr.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

118

GeneDistiller—Distilling Candidate Genes from Linkage Intervals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Background: Linkage studies often yield intervals containing several hundred positional candidate genes. Different manual or automatic approaches exist for the determination of the gene most likely to cause the disease. While the manual search is very flexible and takes advantage of the researchers ’ background knowledge and intuition, it may be very cumbersome to collect and study the relevant data. Automatic solutions on the other hand usually focus on certain models, remain ‘‘black boxes’ ’ and do not offer the same degree of flexibility. Methodology: We have developed a web-based application that combines the advantages of both approaches. Information from various data sources such as gene-phenotype associations, gene expression patterns and protein-protein interactions was integrated into a central database. Researchers can select which information for the genes within a candidate interval or for single genes shall be displayed. Genes can also interactively be filtered, sorted and prioritised according to criteria derived from the background knowledge and preconception of the disease under scrutiny. Conclusions: GeneDistiller provides knowledge-driven, fully interactive and intuitive access to multiple data sources. It displays maximum relevant information, while saving the user from drowning in the flood of data. A typical query takes less than two seconds, thus allowing an interactive and explorative approach to the hunt for the candidate gene.

Dominik Seelow; Jana Marie Schwarz; Markus Schuelke

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes  

SciTech Connect

This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

120

Predicting the products of crude oil distillation columns.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Crude oil distillation systems, consisting of crude oil distillation columns and the associated heat recovery systems, are highly energy intensive. Heat-integrated design of crude oil… (more)

Liu, Jing

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Vacuum distillation is a key part of the petroleum refining ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

About 80% of the refineries operating in the United States have a vacuum distillation unit (VDU), a secondary processing unit consisting of vacuum distillation columns.

122

Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distillation will undoubtedly continue to be the most-used method for separating liquid mixtures, at any scale of operation. For this reason, and also because of its recognized energy intensiveness, distillation commands continued scrutiny with respect to cost-effective improvements. In this paper, the authors suggest fruitful areas of research that can lead to lower cost distillation separations. The areas of research are classified under the headings of phase equilibrium, material and energy balances, mass transfer efficiencies, equipment design, and system energy consumption. For each of the categories, a summary is given of the present status of the technology as well as directions that improvement-type investigations might take.

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

On two-distillable Werner states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider bipartite mixed states in a d x d quantum system with d at least 3. We say that such a state is PPT if its partial transpose is positive semidefinite, and otherwise that it is NPT. The well-known Werner states are partitioned into three types: a) the separable states (same as the PPT states), b) the 1-distillable states (necessarily NPT), and c) the NPT states which are not 1-distillable. We give several different formulations and provide further evidence for validity of the conjecture that the type c) Werner states are not 2-distillable.

Dragomir Z. Djokovic

2010-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

124

Catalytic reforming methods  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A catalytic reforming method is disclosed herein. The method includes sequentially supplying a plurality of feedstocks of variable compositions to a reformer. The method further includes adding a respective predetermined co-reactant to each of the plurality of feedstocks to obtain a substantially constant output from the reformer for the plurality of feedstocks. The respective predetermined co-reactant is based on a C/H/O atomic composition for a respective one of the plurality of feedstocks and a predetermined C/H/O atomic composition for the substantially constant output.

Tadd, Andrew R; Schwank, Johannes

2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

125

Distillate and Spot Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: This slide shows the strong influence crude oil prices have on retail distillate prices. The price for distillate fuel oil tracks the crude price increases seen in 1996 and the subsequent fall in 1997 and 1998. Distillate prices have also followed crude oil prices up since the beginning of 1999. Actual data show heating oil prices on the East Coast in June at $1.20 per gallon, up 39 cents over last June. However, if heating oil prices are following diesel, they may be up another 5 cents in August. That would put heating oil prices about 40 cents over last August prices. Crude oil prices are only up about 25 cents in August over year ago levels. The extra 15 cents represents improved refiner margins due in part to the very low distillate inventory level.

126

U.S. Distillate Market Testimony  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 Notes: The Northeast distillate market is experiencing some difficulties that are being reflected in prices. Residential heating oil prices on January 24 were up 35-60 cents per...

127

Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 Notes: When EIA's demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year. - Stocks...

128

Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

When EIA’s demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year.

129

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Distillers Grains: Production, Properties, and Utilization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the past several years, distillers dried grains with solubles (known as DDGS) has become a major feed ingredient in North America, and its use is increasing globally. This book provides a comprehensive summary of the research conducted to determine

131

Forecast U.S. Distillate Stocks  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

EIA is not projecting a large recovery over the summer, but because refineries are forecast to run at high utilization rates, they may produce more distillate than expected and...

132

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

These low inventories will put upward pressure on distillate fuel prices and set the stage for price sun-ups should there be an extended period of cold weather or a ...

133

Entanglement of Distillation and Conditional Mutual Information  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In previous papers, we expressed the Entanglement of Formation in terms of Conditional Mutual Information (CMI). In this brief paper, we express the Entanglement of Distillation in terms of CMI.

Robert R. Tucci

2002-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

134

Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

Summers, Edward K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Energy Recovery in Industrial Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distillation processes are energy intensive separation processes which present attractive opportunities for energy conservation. Through the use of multistage vapor recompression, heat which is normally unavailable can be delivered at suitably high temperatures resulting in significant energy savings. The distillation process will be reviewed as it relates to both vapor recompression and heat pumping techniques and case study examples of these energy recovery methods will be discussed.

Paul, D. B.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Multipartite secret key distillation and bound entanglement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Recently it has been shown that quantum cryptography beyond pure entanglement distillation is possible and a paradigm for the associated protocols has been established. Here we systematically generalize the whole paradigm to the multipartite scenario. We provide constructions of new classes of multipartite bound entangled states, i.e., those with underlying twisted Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) structure and nonzero distillable cryptographic key. We quantitatively estimate the key from below with the help of the privacy squeezing technique.

Augusiak, Remigiusz; Horodecki, Pawel [Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland) and ICFO-Institute Ciencies Fotoniques, Mediterranean Technology Park, 08860 Castelldefels (Barcelona) (Spain); Faculty of Applied Physics and Mathematics, Gdansk University of Technology, Narutowicza 11/12, 80-952 Gdansk (Poland)

2009-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Ohio Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Ohio Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels)

138

INTERIM VALIDATION REPORT MIDDLE DISTILLATE PRICE MONITORING SYSTEM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

GLOSSARY. • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .for LBL by EIA staff. V. GLOSSARY "Middle distillate" means

Hopelain, D.G.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Guam Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

140

Weekly Rocky Mountains (PADD 4) Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly Rocky Mountains (PADD 4) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Weekly West Coast (PADD 5) Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly West Coast (PADD 5) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

142

Texas Inland Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Texas Inland Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

143

Weekly East Coast (PADD 1) Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly East Coast (PADD 1) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

144

East Coast Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast Refining District Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day)

145

South Dakota Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks at Refineries, Bulk ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

South Dakota Distillate Fuel Oil Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels)

146

Multizone naphtha reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a catalytic reforming process for conversion of a naphtha hydrocarbon at reforming conditions having at least two segregated catalyst zones. The improvement comprises contacting the hydrocarbon in a first zone with a first catalyst comprising tin and at least one platinum group metal deposited on a solid catalyst support followed by contacting in a second zone with a second catalyst comprising at least one metal selected from the group consisting of platinum group metals deposited on a solid catalyst support.

Fleming, B.

1987-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

147

Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Nuclear  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Symposium. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2014. Symposium, Environmentally Assisted Cracking: Nuclear. Sponsorship. Organizer(s) ...

148

Local purity distillation with bounded classical communication  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Local pure states are an important resource for quantum computing. The problem of distilling local pure states from mixed ones can be cast in an information theoretic paradigm. The bipartite version of this problem where local purity must be distilled from an arbitrary quantum state shared between two parties, Alice and Bob, is closely related to the problem of separating quantum and classical correlations in the state and in particular, to a measure of classical correlations called the one-way distillable common randomness. In Phys. Rev. A 71, 062303 (2005), the optimal rate of local purity distillation is derived when many copies of a bipartite quantum state are shared between Alice and Bob, and the parties are allowed unlimited use of a unidirectional dephasing channel. In the present paper, we extend this result to the setting in which the use of the channel is bounded. We demonstrate that in the case of a classical-quantum system, the expression for the local purity distilled is efficiently computable and provide examples with their tradeoff curves.

Hari Krovi; Igor Devetak

2007-05-28T23:59:59.000Z

149

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Retail distillate prices follow the spot distillate markets, and crude oil prices have been the main driver behind distillate spot price increases until recently. Crude oil rose about 36 cents per gallon from its low point in mid February 1999 to the middle of January 2000. Over this same time period, New York Harbor spot heating oil had risen about 42 cents per gallon, reflecting both the crude price rise and a return to a more usual seasonal spread over the price of crude oil. The week ending January 21, heating oil spot prices in the Northeast spiked dramatically to record levels, closing on Friday at $1.26 per gallon -- up 50 cents from the prior week. Gulf Coast prices were not spiking, but were probably pulled slightly higher as the New York Harbor market began to

150

Distillation of local purity from quantum states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently Horodecki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 100402 (2003)] introduced an important quantum information processing paradigm, in which two parties sharing many copies of the same bipartite quantum state distill local pure states, by means of local unitary operations assisted by a one-way (two-way) completely dephasing channel. Local pure states are a valuable resource from a thermodynamical point of view, since they allow thermal energy to be converted into work by local quantum heat engines. We give a simple information-theoretical characterization of the one-way distillable local purity, which turns out to be closely related to a previously known operational measure of classical correlations, the one-way distillable common randomness.

I. Devetak

2004-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

151

Entanglement Distillation Protocols and Number Theory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We show that the analysis of entanglement distillation protocols for qudits of arbitrary dimension $D$ benefits from applying basic concepts from number theory, since the set $\\zdn$ associated to Bell diagonal states is a module rather than a vector space. We find that a partition of $\\zdn$ into divisor classes characterizes the invariant properties of mixed Bell diagonal states under local permutations. We construct a very general class of recursion protocols by means of unitary operations implementing these local permutations. We study these distillation protocols depending on whether we use twirling operations in the intermediate steps or not, and we study them both analitically and numerically with Monte Carlo methods. In the absence of twirling operations, we construct extensions of the quantum privacy algorithms valid for secure communications with qudits of any dimension $D$. When $D$ is a prime number, we show that distillation protocols are optimal both qualitatively and quantitatively.

H. Bombin; M. A. Martin-Delgado

2005-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EPRI has provided proposal preparation assistance and offered cost share funding assistance for two projects proposed in 2000. EPRI is highly interested, since this technology is applicable in all distillation systems, and since it will increase electric load in capacity increase revamps, probably the best economic targets in the U.S., since capital savings are best here. The approach can typically reduce energy use requirements, cooling (water) requirements, and environmental emissions per pound of distillate by 50%, while substantially reducing capital requirements for capacity increase revamps and new construction. If just 20% of all U.S. distillation were revamped by this approach as apposed to conventional, about 5x10^14 BTUs per year in energy use could be avoided, while increasing production by about 20%. Both the proposed petroleum refining (not awarded) and chemical industry programs and participants are described. As of this writing (1/31/01), chemical industry award selections have not yet been made.

Woinsky, S. G.

2001-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Electric Driven Heat Pumps in Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radian Corporation, under contract to the Electric Power Research Institute, has recently completed a study of the potential range of application for retrofitting electric driven heat pumps to existing distillation columns. A computerized evaluation program was developed, consisting of simulation, cost estimation, and economics analysis. The simulations were done using the PROCESS simulation package, while the cost and economics analysis routines were developed by Radian. This paper summarizes the results of the evaluations of retrofits to four generic distillation processes. In addition, the bases of the evaluation programs and the results of several peripheral tasks are described briefly.

Harris, G. E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a catalytic reforming process which comprises contacting a naphtha range feed with a low acidity extrudate comprising an intermediate and/or a large pore acidic zeolite bound with a low acidity refractory oxide under reforming conditions to provide a reaction product of increased aromatic content, the extrudate having been prepared with at least an extrusion-facilitating amount of a low acidity refractory oxide in colloidal form and containing at least one metal species selected from the platinum group metals.

Absil, R.P.; Huss, A. Jr.; McHale, W.D.; Partridge, R.D.

1989-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

155

Heat integrated distillation in a plate-packing HIDiC.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Distillation is an energy intensive separation method. To improve the exergetic efficiency of a distillation column, it can be designed as a heat integrated distillation… (more)

Krikken, T.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

Cracks Cleave Crystals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The problem of finding what direction cracks should move is not completely solved. A commonly accepted way to predict crack directions is by computing the density of elastic potential energy stored well away from the crack tip, and finding a direction of crack motion to maximize the consumption of this energy. I provide here a specific case where this rule fails. The example is of a crack in a crystal. It fractures along a crystal plane, rather than in the direction normally predicted to release the most energy. Thus, a correct equation of motion for brittle cracks must take into account both energy flows that are described in conventional continuum theories and details of the environment near the tip that are not.

Michael Marder

2004-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

157

Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper summarizes the results of a survey of energy conservation options applicable to distillation processes. Over twenty such options were identified, and eight of these were selected for detailed presentation. These options were chosen on the basis of good economics, applicability to retrofit situations, and/or the use of novel technology.

Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Lower Atlantic (PADD 1C) Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 300,889: 274,739: 263,252: 232,429: 230,287: 254,322: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 275,489: ...

159

California Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 309,249: 232,151: 190,082: 225,123: 257,297: 241,967: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 101,932: ...

160

Rocky Mountain (PADD4) Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 262,644: 222,054: 212,571: 228,200: 245,446: 214,160: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 27: 26: 19: ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Kentucky Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 170,042: 94,124: 48,002: 42,101: 67,347: 61,840: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 91,516: 104,387: ...

162

Pennsylvania Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 118,670: 113,851: 90,800: 124,258: 146,291: 140,663: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 25,735: ...

163

Georgia Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 78,927: 69,710: 62,072: 63,770: 71,374: 63,902: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 14,016: 10,831: ...

164

Illinois Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 40,116: 51,287: 55,322: 72,188: 58,526: 63,808: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 71,805: 101,851: ...

165

Ohio Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 333,069: 316,926: 206,134: 179,048: 203,135: 175,258: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 12,122: ...

166

Weekly U.S. Exports of Total Distillate (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Weekly U.S. Exports of Total Distillate (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year-Month Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 ... Exports of Distillate Fuel Oil ; U.S. Imports ...

167

U.S. Distillate Stocks - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Slide 5 of 27. Distillate Stocks. This slide shows the average U.S. distillate stock pattern -- building in the summer and fall, then being drawn down through the ...

168

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) Geographic Area Month Kerosene No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

169

Distillate in Depth – The Supply, Demand, and Price Picture  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Distillate in Depth – The Supply, Demand, and Price Picture John Hackworth Joanne Shore Energy Information Administration ... In Response to Price, ...

170

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook. Sources: History: EIA; Projections: Short-Term Energy Outlook, January 2001.

171

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook - Energy Information Administration  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Distillate Inventory Outlook. Sources: History: EIA; Projections: Short-Term Energy Outlook, December 2000

172

Distilling one-qubit magic states into Toffoli states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For certain quantum architectures and algorithms, most of the required resources are consumed during the distillation of one-qubit magic states for use in performing Toffoli gates. I show that the overhead for magic-state distillation can be reduced by merging distillation with the implementation of Toffoli gates. The resulting routine distills 8 one-qubit magic states directly to a Toffoli state, which can be used without further magic to perform a Toffoli gate.

Bryan Eastin

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

173

East Coast (PADD 1) Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

East Coast (PADD 1) Refinery Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

174

Puerto Rico Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

175

Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct new entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method how entanglement-assisted distillation protocols can be converted into non-entanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

Karl Gerd H. Vollbrecht; Frank Verstraete

2004-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

176

U.S. Refinery Operating Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Operating Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

177

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Calendar Day)

178

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U.S. Refinery Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

179

Interpolation of recurrence and hashing entanglement distillation protocols  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We construct interesting entanglement distillation protocols by interpolating between the recurrence and hashing protocols. This leads to asymptotic two-way distillation protocols, resulting in an improvement of the distillation rate for all mixed Bell diagonal entangled states, even for the ones with very high fidelity. We also present a method for how entanglement-assisted distillation protocol can be converted into nonentanglement-assisted protocols with the same yield.

Vollbrecht, Karl Gerd H.; Verstraete, Frank [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Hans-Kopfermann-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2005-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

180

Bellona rapport nr. 6 -2002 Bjrnar Kruse Sondre Grinna Cato Buch  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distillation High Vacuum Distillation Hydrotreating Isomerisation Catalytic Reforming Alkylation Polymerisation Atmospheric Distillation High Vacuum Distillation Hydrotreating Isomerisation Catalytic Reforming Alkylation

Krothapalli, Anjaneyulu

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Multiple copy distillation and purification of phase diffused squeezed states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple copy purification and distillation protocols for phase diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semi-analytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

Petr Marek; Jaromir Fiurasek; Boris Hage; Alexander Franzen; James DiGugliemo; Roman Schnabel

2007-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

182

Control of binary distillation column using fuzzy PI controllers  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this paper the automatic control of a binary distillation column is described. This control is done with fuzzy logic controllers. After a short explanation of the function and dynamic of a binary distillation column, it's operating and control strategies ... Keywords: binary distillation column, fuzzy inference system, simulation

Shahram Javadi; Jabber Hosseini

2009-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Application for testing control configurations of binary distillation columns  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper addresses the problem of testing various control configurations for binary distillation columns. Analyzing from plantwide control point of view the place of distillation column within the plant, the result will be the best control configuration. ... Keywords: composition control, distillation columns, dynamic simulations, plantwide control

Sanda Mihalache; Marian Popescu

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

Andile B. Mzinyati [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

185

Multifuel reformer R D  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The on-board fuel for fuel cell powered vehicles may be one or more of hydrogen, methanol, ethanol, natural gas, propane, or other liquified petroleum gases. To use hydrogen as the fuel, suitable means of storing, and subsequently delivering, adequate quantities of the gas must be developed. For all other fuels suitable reformers must be developed to convert the fuel to hydrogen or a hydrogen-rich gas mixture at rates corresponding to the varying power demand rates of the automotive system; this is especially true for the lower temperature fuel cells, such as the polymer electrolyte fuel cell which operates at 80{degrees}C and the phosphoric acid fuel cell which operates at 190{degrees}C. This paper discusses the key design and performance characteristics of such hydrogen storage and fuel reformer systems for use in stand-alone fuel cell automotive applications.

Kumar, R.; Ahmed, S.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

187

Methanol partial oxidation reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A partial oxidation reformer is described comprising a longitudinally extending chamber having a methanol, water and an air inlet and an outlet. An igniter mechanism is near the inlets for igniting a mixture of methanol and air, while a partial oxidation catalyst in the chamber is spaced from the inlets and converts methanol and oxygen to carbon dioxide and hydrogen. Controlling the oxygen to methanol mole ratio provides continuous slightly exothermic partial oxidation reactions of methanol and air producing hydrogen gas. The liquid is preferably injected in droplets having diameters less than 100 micrometers. The reformer is useful in a propulsion system for a vehicle which supplies a hydrogen-containing gas to the negative electrode of a fuel cell. 7 figs.

Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.; Krumpelt, M.

1999-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

188

Distillate Stocks Expected to Remain Low  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: When EIA's demand forecast is combined with its outlook for production and net imports, distillate stocks are projected to remain low for the rest of the year. - Stocks are beginning at very low levels. The September 1 distillate fuel stock level (112 million barrels) is nearly 20% less than last year, and about 15% below the 10 year average for end of August levels. - But stocks on the East Coast, at 39.8 million barrels, are 39% behind year-ago levels, and about a similar percentage below end-of-August 10-year average levels. Over the last 10 years, the average stock build from the end of August through the end of November has been about 10 million barrels. We are forecasting about a 12 million barrel build, which does not reach the normal band. Forecast stocks peak at the end of November at 127 million

189

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

191

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

192

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

193

Catalytic reforming catalyst  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An improved catalyst, having a reduced fouling rate when used in a catalytic reforming process, said catalyst comprising platinum disposed on an alumina support wherein the alumina support is obtained by removing water from aluminum hydroxide produced as a by-product from a ziegler higher alcohol synthesis reaction, and wherein the alumina is calcined at a temperature of 1100-1400/sup 0/F so as to have a surface area of 165 to 215 square meters per gram.

Buss, W.C.; Kluksdahl, H.E.

1980-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

194

Iterative entanglement distillation for finite resources  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss a specific entanglement distillation scheme under the constraint of finite samples of entangled qubit pairs. It is shown that an iterative process can be explicitly formulated. The average fidelity of this process can be enhanced by introducing conditional storing of entangled qubit pairs in each step of the iteration. We investigate the corresponding limitations on the size and the initial fidelity of the sample.

Stefan Probst-Schendzielorz; Thorsten Bschorr; Matthias Freyberger

2005-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

195

Distillation of vacuum entanglement to EPR pairs  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is shown that by means of local interactions between a quantized relativistic field and a pair of non-entangled atoms, entanglement can be extracted from the vacuum and delivered to the atoms. The resulting mixed state of the atoms can be further distilled to EPR pairs. Therefore, in principle, teleportation and other entanglement assisted quantum communication tasks can rely on the vacuum alone as a resource for entanglement.

Benni Reznik

2000-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

196

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Bae, Joonwoo [School of Computational Sciences, Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of)

2010-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

197

Secret key distillation from shielded two-qubit states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The quantum states corresponding to a secret key are characterized using the so-called private states, where the key part consisting of a secret key is shielded by the additional systems. Based on the construction, it was shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states. In this work, I consider the shielded two-qubit states in a key-distillation scenario and derive the conditions under which a secret key can be distilled using the recurrence protocol or the two-way classical distillation, advantage distillation together with one-way postprocessing. From the security conditions, it is shown that a secret key can be distilled from bound entangled states in a much wider range. In addition, I consider the case that in which white noise is added to quantum states and show that the classical distillation protocol still works despite a certain amount of noise although the recurrence protocol does not.

Joonwoo Bae

2008-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

198

The attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In a recent paper it has been shown that for double extremal static spherically symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of GHZ-type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a GHZ state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Péter Lévay; Szilárd Szalay

2010-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

199

Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When the heat source available to a distillation process is at a significantly higher temperature than the reboiler temperature, there is unused availability (ability to perform work) in the heat supplied to the reboiler. Similarly, if the reflux condenser operates above ambient temperature, the rejected heat also contains unused availability. By incorporating an absorption heat pump (AHP) into the distillation process, these sources of unused availability can be tapped so as to recycle (and hence, conserve) up to 50% of the required distillation energy. In contrast to compressor driven heat pumps, this savings is accomplished without need for a separate substantial input of mechanical power. A different AHP configuration is used depending on whether the excess availability is in the source heat or reject heat. In the excessive source temperature case, the higher temperature source heat is applied to the AHP, which then supplies the total reboiler requirement and recycles half the reject heat, with the remainder being rejected conventionally. In the excessive reject temperature case, all the reject heat is supplied to a reverse absorption heat pump (HAHP) which recycles half to reboiler temperature while reducing the remainder to ambient temperature.

Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In a recent paper it was shown that for double extremal static spherical symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges, the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macroscopic black hole entropy. A systematic study of such attractor states shows that their properties reflect the structure of the fake superpotential. We also demonstrate that when starting with the very special values for the moduli corresponding to flat directions the uniform structure at the horizon deteriorates due to errors generalizing the usual bit flips acting on the qubits of the attractor states.

Levay, Peter; Szalay, Szilard [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, H-1521 Budapest (Hungary)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Sulfur distribution in the oil fractions obtained by thermal cracking of Jordanian El-Lajjun oil Shale  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by the thermal cracking process of the El-Lujjan oil shale showed that the yield of oil was around 12 wt of the boiling point for different distillate fractions. Sulfur in Jordanian oil shale was found to be mainly the dominant phases in these fractions. q 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. 1. Introduction Oil shale

Shawabkeh, Reyad A.

202

Steam reformer with catalytic combustor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam reformer is disclosed having an annular steam reforming catalyst bed formed by concentric cylinders and having a catalytic combustor located at the center of the innermost cylinder. Fuel is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and air is directed at the top of the combustor, creating a catalytic reaction which provides sufficient heat so as to maintain the catalytic reaction in the steam reforming catalyst bed. Alternatively, air is fed into the interior of the catalytic combustor and a fuel mixture is directed at the top. The catalytic combustor provides enhanced radiant and convective heat transfer to the reformer catalyst bed.

Voecks, Gerald E. (La Crescenta, CA)

1990-03-20T23:59:59.000Z

203

LPG storage vessel cracking experience  

SciTech Connect

In order to evaluate liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) handling and storage hazards, Caltex Petroleum Corp. (Dallas) surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one-third of the storage vessels. In most cases, the cracking appeared to be due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems found were due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. This article's recommendations concern minimizing cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

Cantwell, J.E. (Caltex Petroleum Corp., P.O. Box 619500, Dallas, TX (US))

1988-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

LPG storage vessel cracking experience  

SciTech Connect

As part of an overall company program to evaluate LPG handling and storage hazards the authors surveyed several installations for storage vessel cracking problems. Cracking was found in approximately one third of the storage vessels. In most cases the cracking appeared due to original fabrication problems and could be removed without compromising the pressure containment. Several in-service cracking problems due to exposure to wet hydrogen sulfide were found. Various procedures were tried in order to minimize the in-service cracking potential. One sphere was condemned because of extensive subsurface cracking. Recommendations are made to minimize cracking on new and existing LPG storage vessels.

Cantwell, J.E.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Crude oil steam distillation in steam flooding. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation yields of sixteen crude oils from various parts of the United States have been determined at a saturated steam pressure of 200 psig. Study made to investigate the effect of steam pressure (200 to 500 psig) on steam distillation yields indicates that the maximum yields of a crude oil may be obtained at 200 psig. At a steam distillation correlation factor (V/sub w//V/sub oi/) of 15, the determined steam distillation yields range from 12 to 56% of initial oil volume for the sixteen crude oils with gravity ranging from 12 to 40/sup 0/API. Regression analysis of experimental steam distillation yields shows that the boiling temperature (simulated distillation temperature) at 20% simulated distillation yield can predict the steam distillation yields reasonably well: the standard error ranges from 2.8 to 3.5% (in yield) for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ < 5 and from 3.5 to 4.5% for V/sub w//V/sub oi/ > 5. The oil viscosity (cs) at 100/sup 0/F can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 3.1 to 4.3%. The API gravity can predict the steam distillation yields with standard error from 4.4 to 5.7%. Characterization factor is an unsatisfactory correlation independent variable for correlation purpose.

Wu, C.H.; Elder, R.B.

1980-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

207

Novel Reforming Catalysts  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Aqueous phase reforming is useful for processing oxygenated hydrocarbons to hydrogen and other more useful products. Current processing is hampered by the fact that oxide based catalysts are not stable under high temperature hydrothermal conditions. Silica in the form of structured MCM-41 is thermally a more stable support for Co and Ni than conventional high surface area amorphous silica but hydrothermal stability is not demonstrated. Carbon nanotube supports, in contrast, are highly stable under hydrothermal reaction conditions. In this project we show that carbon nanotubes are stable high activity/selectivity supports for the conversion of ethylene glycol to hydrogen.

Pfefferle, Lisa D; Haller, Gary L

2012-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

208

NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

defining early what contractors should accomplish < establishing contracts ahead of time < minimizing cost while maintaining quality by * maximizing competition and use of incentives * using past performance information in awarding work * managing the NEPA process as a project This guidance provides: < model statements of work < information on contract types and incentives < direction on effective NEPA contract management by the NEPA Document Manager < a system for measuring NEPA process costs < NEPA contractor evaluation procedures < details on the DOE NEPA Web site U.S. Department of Energy, Office of NEPA Policy and Assistance, December 1996 NEPA CONTRACTING REFORM GUIDANCE Table of Contents 1. INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

209

Multizone catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbon feed in two sequential catalyst zones. It comprises: a first catalyst zone contains a first catalytic composite consisting essentially of a platinum component, a germanium component, a refractory inorganic oxide, and a halogen component; and a second catalyst zone contains a second catalytic composite comprising a platinum component, a germanium component, a refractory inorganic oxide, a halogen component, and catalytically effective amounts of a metal promoter selected from rhenium, rhodium, ruthenium, cobalt, nickel, and iridium, and mixtures thereof.

Moser, M.C.; Lawson, R.J.; Antos, G.J.; Wang, L.; Parulekar, V.N.

1990-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

210

Patent Counsel - Patent Reform | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Patent Counsel - Patent Reform Patent Counsel - Patent Reform America invents Act 20112.pdf More Documents & Publications PETITION FOR ADVANCE WAIVER OF PATENT RIGHTS Office of...

211

Unifying classical and quantum key distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assume that two distant parties, Alice and Bob, as well as an adversary, Eve, have access to (quantum) systems prepared jointly according to a tripartite state. In addition, Alice and Bob can use local operations and authenticated public classical communication. Their goal is to establish a key which is unknown to Eve. We initiate the study of this scenario as a unification of two standard scenarios: (i) key distillation (agreement) from classical correlations and (ii) key distillation from pure tripartite quantum states. Firstly, we obtain generalisations of fundamental results related to scenarios (i) and (ii), including upper bounds on the key rate. Moreover, based on an embedding of classical distributions into quantum states, we are able to find new connections between protocols and quantities in the standard scenarios (i) and (ii). Secondly, we study specific properties of key distillation protocols. In particular, we show that every protocol that makes use of pre-shared key can be transformed into an equally efficient protocol which needs no pre-shared key. This result is of practical significance as it applies to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, but it also implies that the key rate cannot be locked with information on Eve's side. Finally, we exhibit an arbitrarily large separation between the key rate in the standard setting where Eve is equipped with quantum memory and the key rate in a setting where Eve is only given classical memory. This shows that assumptions on the nature of Eve's memory are important in order to determine the correct security threshold in QKD.

Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Michal Horodecki; Pawel Horodecki; Jonathan Oppenheim; Renato Renner

2006-08-25T23:59:59.000Z

212

Unifying classical and quantum key distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Assume that two distant parties, Alice and Bob, as well as an adversary, Eve, have access to (quantum) systems prepared jointly according to a tripartite state ?ABE. In addition, Alice and Bob can use local operations and authenticated public classical communication. Their goal is to establish a key which is unknown to Eve. We initiate the study of this scenario as a unification of two standard scenarios: (i) key distillation (agreement) from classical correlations and (ii) key distillation from pure tripartite quantum states. Firstly, we obtain generalisations of fundamental results related to scenarios (i) and (ii), including upper bounds on the key rate, i.e., the number of key bits that can be extracted per copy of ?ABE. Moreover, based on an embedding of classical distributions into quantum states, we are able to find new connections between protocols and quantities in the standard scenarios (i) and (ii). Secondly, we study specific properties of key distillation protocols. In particular, we show that every protocol that makes use of pre-shared key can be transformed into an equally efficient protocol which needs no pre-shared key. This result is of practical significance as it applies to quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols, but it also implies that the key rate cannot be locked with information on Eve’s side. Finally, we exhibit an arbitrarily large separation between the key rate in the standard setting where Eve is equipped with quantum memory and the key rate in a setting where Eve is only given classical memory. This shows that assumptions on the nature of Eve’s memory are important in order to determine the correct security threshold in QKD. 1

Matthias Christ; Renato Renner

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Heat Exchanger Technologies for Distillation Columns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper we look at the challenges that improvements in energy efficiency of distillation systems presents the heat exchanger designer. We examine each type of exchanger in turn. Heat exchanger size is minimized if the temperature driving force is maximized. The design should therefore seek to minimize the temperature changes during phase change. So, streams that are being condensed are kept as hot as possible. Streams that are being vaporized are kept as cool as possible. With one noted exception, this also leads to maximization of the thermodynamic efficiency and maximizes the scope for use of these streams in integrated systems.

Polley, G. T.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Distillation by repeated measurements: Continuous spectrum case  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Repeated measurements on one part of a bipartite system strongly affect the other part that is not measured, the dynamics of which is regulated by an effective contracted evolution operator. When the spectrum of this operator is discrete, the nonmeasured system is driven into a pure state, irrespective of the initial state, provided that the spectrum satisfies certain conditions. We show here that, even in the case of continuous spectrum, an effective distillation can occur under rather general conditions. We confirm it by applying our formalism to a simple model.

Bellomo, Bruno; Compagno, Giuseppe [CNISM and Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche ed Astronomiche, Universita di Palermo, via Archirafi 36, IT-90123 Palermo (Italy); Nakazato, Hiromichi [Department of Physics, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Yuasa, Kazuya [Waseda Institute for Advanced Study, Waseda University, Tokyo 169-8050 (Japan)

2010-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

215

Low Distillate Stocks Set Stage for Price Volatility  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Along with the recent rise in crude oil prices, low stocks of Along with the recent rise in crude oil prices, low stocks of distillate fuels left markets in a vulnerable position. As we went into our two biggest distillate demand months, January and February, U.S. distillate stocks were very low -- particularly on the East and Gulf Coasts. The East Coast is the primary heating oil region, and it depends heavily on production from the Gulf Coast as well. Distillate stocks in the U.S. and Europe were in surplus supply as recently as October, but distillate stocks did not build as they usually do during the late fall, and declined more sharply than usual in December. December stocks closed well below the normal range. The unusual drawdown, in contrast to the more normal building pattern, resulted in distillate inventory levels about 3 million barrels lower than the very low

216

Surface code implementation of block code state distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states |A>=(|0>+e^{i\\pi/4}|1>)/\\sqrt{2} produced a single improved |A> state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A> states given 3k+8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three.

Austin G. Fowler; Simon J. Devitt; Cody Jones

2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

217

Tritium Isotope Separation Using Adsorption-Distillation Column  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In order to miniaturize the height of a distillation tower for the detritiation of waste water from fusion reactors, two experiments were conducted: (1) liquid frontal chromatography of tritium water eluting through an adsorption column and (2) water distillation using a column packed with adsorbent particles. The height of the distillation tower depends on the height equivalent to a theoretical plate, HETP, and the equilibrium isotope separation factor, {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. The adsorption action improved not only HETP but also {alpha}{sub H-T}{sup equi}. Since the adsorption-distillation method proposed here can shorten the tower height with keeping advantages of the distillation, it may bring an excellent way for miniaturizing the distillation tower to detritiate a large amount of waste water from fusion reactors.

Fukada, Satoshi [Kyushu University (Japan)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

218

Iterative Entanglement Distillation: Approaching full Elimination of Decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distribution and processing of quantum entanglement form the basis of quantum communication and quantum computing. The realization of the two is difficult because quantum information inherently has a high susceptibility to decoherence, i.e. to uncontrollable information loss to the environment. For entanglement distribution, a proposed solution to this problem is capable of fully eliminating decoherence; namely iterative entanglement distillation. This approach builds on a large number of distillation steps each of which extracts a number of weakly decohered entangled states from a larger number of strongly decohered states. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate iterative distillation of entanglement. Already distilled entangled states were further improved in a second distillation step and also made available for subsequent steps.Our experiment displays the realization of the building blocks required for an entanglement distillation scheme that can fully eliminate decoherence.

Boris Hage; Aiko Samblowski; James DiGuglielmo; Jaromír Fiurášek; Roman Schnabel

2010-07-09T23:59:59.000Z

219

Catalytic reforming optimization  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The authors have previously examined correlations between catalytic reforming parameters for an L-35-6 unit at the Gor'knefteorgsintez Industrial Association. Experimental design was used to derive polynomial equations describing the correlations for each reactor. Further research on optimizing the reforming has been based on these results. They adopted the following strategy to define the best working parameters: they define a temperature that would provide the maximum target-product yield while maintaining a given working life. Most of the aromatic hydrocarbons are formed by the naphthene dehydrogenation, which is endothermic, so the greater the temperature drop over the height, the more rapid the process. The temperature difference thus indicates the current catalyst activity. To increase the target-product yield, one must raise the inlet temperature and ensure the largest drop across the catalyst. They examined an algorithm with fixed inlet conditions as regards flow rate and raw material composition. This algorithm provides the basis of software for the automatic control of the L-35-6 reactor unit at the Gor'knefteorgsintez Industrial Association. The system has been checked out and put into experimental operation.

Mazina, S.G.; Rybtsov, V.V.; Priss-Titarenko, T.A.

1988-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

220

Characterization of distillability of entanglement in terms of positive maps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A necessary and sufficient condition for 1-distillability is formulated in terms of decomposable positive maps. As an application we provide insight into why all states violating the reduction criterion map are distillable and demonstrate how to construct such maps in a systematic way. We establish a connection between a number of existing results, which leads to an elementary proof for the characterisation of distillability in terms of 2-positive maps.

Lieven Clarisse

2004-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Quantum states representing perfectly secure bits are always distillable  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is proven that recently introduced states with perfectly secure bits of cryptographic key (private states representing secure bit) [K. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 160502 (2005)] as well as its multipartite and higher dimension generalizations always represent distillable entanglement. The corresponding lower bounds on distillable entanglement are provided. We also present a simple alternative proof that for any bipartite quantum state entanglement cost is an upper bound on distillable cryptographic key in bipartite scenario.

Pawel Horodecki; Remigiusz Augusiak

2006-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

222

W-like bound entangled states and secure key distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We construct multipartite entangled states with underlying W-type structure satisfying positive partial transpose (PPT) condition under any (N-1)|1 partition. Then we show how to distill N-partite secure key form the states using two different methods: direct application of local filtering and novel random key distillation scheme in which we adopt the idea form recent results on entanglement distillation. Open problems and possible implications are also discussed.

Remigiusz Augusiak; Pawel Horodecki

2008-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

223

Key distillation from Gaussian states by Gaussian operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study the secrecy properties of Gaussian states under Gaussian operations. Although such operations are useless for quantum distillation, we prove that it is possible to distill a secret key secure against any attack from sufficiently entangled Gaussian states with non-positive partial transposition. Moreover, all such states allow for key distillation, when Eve is assumed to perform finite-size coherent attacks before the reconciliation process.

M. Navascues; J. Bae; J. I. Cirac; M. Lewenstein; A. Sanpera; A. Acin

2004-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

224

,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","...

225

,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.8;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)" ,,,"Coal Coke" "NAICS"," ","Total","...

226

New Jersey No 1 Distillate Wholesale/Resale Volume by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Referring Pages: New Jersey No. 1 Distillate Refiner Sales Volumes; New Jersey Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, ...

227

Distillate in Depth - The Supply, Demand, and Price Picture  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The presentation provides background on distillate supply and demand, and then focuses on how hurricanes Katrina and Rita impact on refining capacity might affect winter fuels.

Information Center

2005-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

228

DiSTiL: a Transformation Library for Data Structures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DiSTiL is a software generator that implements a declarative domain-specific language (DSL) for container data structures. DiSTiL is a representative of a new approach to domain-specific language implementation. Instead of being the usual one-of-a-kind standalone compiler, DiSTiL is an extension library for the Intentional Programming (IP) transformation system (currently under development by Microsoft Research). DiSTiL relies on several reusable, general-purpose infrastructure tools offered by IP that substantially simplify DSL implementation.

Yannis Smaragdakis; Don Batory

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Combination process for the conversion of heavy distillates to LPG  

SciTech Connect

Maximum conversion of heavy distillates to LPG is achieved through a combination process involving two-stage hydrocracking. 9 claims, no drawings.

Hilfman, L.

1976-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Vacuum distillation is a key part of the petroleum refining ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

EIA Survey Forms › Facebook Twitter ... To increase the production of high-value petroleum products, these bottoms are run through a vacuum distillation column to ...

231

Distillation of GHZ states by selective information manipulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Methods for distilling maximally entangled tripartite (GHZ) states from arbitrary entangled tripartite pure states are described. These techniques work for virtually any input state. Each technique has two stages which we call primary and secondary distillation. Primary distillation produces a GHZ state with some probability, so that when applied to an ensemble of systems, a certain percentage is discarded. Secondary distillation produces further GHZs from the discarded systems. These protocols are developed with the help of an approach to quantum information theory based on absolutely selective information, which has other potential applications.

Oliver Cohen; Todd A. Brun

2000-01-23T23:59:59.000Z

232

Tomographic Quantum Cryptography: Equivalence of Quantum and Classical Key Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The security of a cryptographic key that is generated by communication through a noisy quantum channel relies on the ability to distill a shorter secure key sequence from a longer insecure one. For an important class of protocols, which exploit tomographically complete measurements on entangled pairs of any dimension, we show that the noise threshold for classical advantage distillation is identical with the threshold for quantum entanglement distillation. As a consequence, the two distillation procedures are equivalent: neither offers a security advantage over the other.

Dagmar Bruss; Matthias Christandl; Artur Ekert; Berthold-Georg Englert; Dagomir Kaszlikowski; Chiara Macchiavello

2003-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

233

Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We find that such an enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries can be obtained even when the initially shared Gaussian entangled states are mixed, as, for instance, after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

Zhang Shengli; Loock, Peter van [Optical Quantum Information Theory Group, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light, Guenther-Scharowsky-Strasse 1/Bau 26, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany); Institute of Theoretical Physics I, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Staudtstrasse 7/B2, DE-91058 Erlangen (Germany)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

234

Catalytic distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Catalytic Distillation for the synthesis of tertiary butyl alcohol (TBA) is investigated in this thesis. The solvent, ethylene glycol, is proposed as a means of… (more)

Safinski, Tomasz

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Table 40. Refiners’ Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Table 40. Refiners’ Operable Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity as of January 1, 1997 Refiner Barrels per Calendar Day Refiner Barrels per

236

Development of an energy efficient direct contact membrane distillation system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was investigated for its performance abilities and capability to concentrate aqueous solutions with high solid contents at low temperatures. The… (more)

Bui, Anh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Midwest Gasoline and Distillate Fuel Near-Term Outlook  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Additionally, the August shutdown of the crude oil distillation unit at the Citgo refinery in Lemont, Illinois due to fire has reduced local production capacity, ...

238

Vacuum Distillation of Aluminum and Silicon via Carbothermal ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Vacuum Distillation of Aluminum and Silicon via Carbothermal Reduction of Their Oxides with Concentrated Solar Energy. Author(s), Peter G.

239

Model predictive control of a Kaibel distillation column.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

?? Model predictive control (MPC) of a Kaibel distillation column is the main focus of this thesis. A model description together with a model extension… (more)

Kvernland, Martin Krister

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

Barometric distillation and the problem of non-condensable gases.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Barometric distillation is an alternative method of producing fresh water by desalination. This proposed process evaporates saline water at low pressure and consequently low temperature;… (more)

Martinson, Eiki.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Engineering-Scale Distillation of Cadmium for Actinide Recovery  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

During the recovery of actinide products from spent nuclear fuel, cadmium is separated from the actinide products by a distillation process. Distillation occurs in an induction-heated furnace called a cathode processor capable of processing kilogram quantities of cadmium. Operating parameters have been established for sufficient recovery of the cadmium based on mass balance and product purity. A cadmium distillation rate similar to previous investigators has also been determined. The development of cadmium distillation for spent fuel treatment enhances the capabilities for actinide recovery processes.

J.C. Price; D. Vaden; R.W. Benedict

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Local Gaussian operations can enhance continuous-variable entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Entanglement distillation is a fundamental building block in long-distance quantum communication. Though known to be useless on their own for distilling Gaussian entangled states, local Gaussian operations may still help to improve non-Gaussian entanglement distillation schemes. Here we show that by applying local squeezing operations, both the performance and the efficiency of existing distillation protocols can be enhanced. We derive the optimal enhancement through local Gaussian unitaries, which can be obtained even in the most natural scenario when Gaussian mixed entangled states are shared after their distribution through a lossy-fiber communication channel.

ShengLi Zhang; Peter van Loock

2011-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

243

Ethanol production by vapor compression distillation  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate a one gallon per hour vapor compression distillation unit for fuel ethanol production that can be profitably manufactured and economically operated by individual family units. Vapor compression distillation is already an industrially accepted process and this project's goal is to demonstrate that it can be done economically on a small scale. Theoretically, the process is independent of absolute pressure. It is only necessary that the condenser be at higher pressure than the evaporator. By reducing the entire process to a pressure of approximately 0.1 atmosphere, the evaporation and condensation can occur at near ambient temperature. Even though this approach requires a vacuum pump, and thus will not represent the final cost effective design, it does not require preheaters, high temperature materials, or as much insulation as if it were to operate a near ambient pressure. Therefore, the operation of the ambient temperature unit constitutes the first phase of this project. Presently, the ambient temperature unit is fully assembled and has begun testing. So far it has successfully separated ethanol from a nine to one diluted input solution. However the production rate has been very low.

Ellis, G.S.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth and Stress-Corrosion Cracking in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, The high stress ratio (R=0.85) corrosion fatigue crack growth kinetics and stress-corrosion cracking resistance of sensitized (70-175 °C up to ...

245

High severity catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

A high-severity catalytic reforming process is described comprising: (a) passing a mixture comprising a catalytic reforming feed stream and a recycle stream into a catalytic reforming reaction zone which is maintained at high-severity reforming conditions; (b) cooling an effluent stream comprising hydrogen and hydrocarbonaceous catalytic reforming reaction products which is withdrawn from the reaction zone; (c) passing the cooled effluent stream into a vapor-liquid separation zone and recovering therefrom a liquid stream comprising hydrocarbons and a hydrogen-rich gas stream; (d) passing the hydrogen-rich gas stream through an adsorption zone wherein the gas is contacted with a treating material which removes polycyclic aromatic compounds from the gas stream, the compounds remaining in the adsorption zone; (e) mixing a portion of the hydrogen-rich gas stream, which is the recycle stream, with the feed stream to form the charge stock mixture and withdrawing the balance of the hydrogen-rich gas stream, which is denoted as net hydrogen, from the catalytic reforming area, all of the hydrogen-rich gas stream being substantially free of polycyclic aromatic compounds; and (f) fractionating the liquid stream and recovering an overhead product comprising light hydrocarbons and a bottoms product comprising reformate.

Bennett, R.W.; Cottrell, P.R.; Gilsdorf, N.L.; Winfield, M.D.

1988-03-22T23:59:59.000Z

246

Liquid fuel reformer development.  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

At Argonne National Laboratory we are developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to a clean hydrogen feed for a fuel cell. The process incorporates a partial oxidation/steam reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. We have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, low-sulfur diesel fuel, and a regular diesel fuel. We achieved complete conversion of the feed to products. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 800 C. For the two diesel fuels, higher temperatures, >850 C, were required to approach similar levels of hydrogen in the product stream. At 800 C, hydrogen yield of the low sulfur diesel was 32%, while that of the regular diesel was 52%. Residual products in both cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, ethylene, and methane.

Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.; Pereira, C.; Wilkenhoener, R.

1999-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

247

Multizone catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This patent describes a process for the catalytic reforming of hydrocarbons comprising contacting the hydrocarbon feed in two sequential catalyst zones. It comprises: an initial catalyst zone which is a fixed-bed system and contains an initial catalytic composite comprising a platinum component, a germanium component, a refractory inorganic oxide, and a halogen component; and a terminal catalyst zone which is a moving-bed system with associated continuous catalyst regeneration and contains a terminal catalytic composite having the essential absence of germanium and comprising a platinum component, a refractory inorganic oxide, a halogen component, and catalytically effective amounts of a metal promoter selected from one or more of the rhenium, tin, indium, rhodium, ruthenium, cobalt, nickel, and iridium.

Moser, M.; Lawson, R.J.; Wang, L.; Parulekar, V.; Peer, R.L.; Hamlin, C.R.

1991-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

248

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Puerto Rico Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

249

Mississippi Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Mississippi Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

250

Louisiana Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Louisiana Refinery Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

251

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO) and multi-stage flash (MSF) cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. As an alternative to RO and MSF, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K (331oF) and 722 kPa (105 psia) for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K (1.73oF), the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3 (7.53 kWh/kgal). At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 ($1.48/kgal) achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K (0.80oF), the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 (15.0 kWh/kgal) and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3 ($2.31/kgal). Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. The following table shows the improvement of a series flow arrangement compared to parallel: ?T (K) Improvement (%)*1.111 2.222 3.333 15.21 10.80 8.37 * Incoming salt concentration: 3.5% Outgoing salt concentration: 7% Temperature: 450 K (350oF) Pressure: 928 kPa (120 psig) Stages: 4

Lubis, Mirna R.

2009-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Catalytic Reforming Downstream Processing of Fresh Feed Input  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Process: Catalytic Reforming Catalytic Cracking Catalytic Hydrocracking Delayed and Fluid Coking Period-Unit: Monthly-Thousand Barrels per Day Annual-Thousand Barrels per Day Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Process Area Apr-13 May-13 Jun-13 Jul-13 Aug-13 Sep-13 View History U.S. 2,563 2,667 2,739 2,807 2,705 2,609 2010-2013 PADD 1 176 178 180 173 156 167 2010-2013 East Coast 166 164 163 161 140 153 2010-2013 Appalachian No. 1 9 14 16 12 15 14 2010-2013 PADD 2 642 638 668 695 677 615 2010-2013 Ind., Ill. and Ky. 426 411 426 460 450 399 2010-2013 Minn., Wis., N. Dak., S. Dak. 67 62 70 72 72 57 2010-2013 Okla., Kans., Mo.

253

Process control interface system for a distillation plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper presents the development of a process control interface system (PCIS) for a distillation pilot plant that is based on the communication protocol called MODBUS. MODBUS communicates the computer (used as a control unit) with the process because ... Keywords: Communication protocol, Distillation column, Interface system, Process control

A. Téllez-Anguiano; F. Rivas-Cruz; C. -M. Astorga-Zaragoza; E. Alcorta-García; D. Juárez-Romero

2009-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Web Information Organization Using Keyword Distillation Based Clustering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This paper describes a system that conducts search result clustering for several thousands of Web pages, and elaborates cluster labels through keyword distillation. Keyword distillation is a method that properly handles spelling variations, transliterations, ... Keywords: clustering, open search engine, keyword unification

Tomohide Shibata; Yasuo Bamba; Keiji Shinzato; Sadao Kurohashi

2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

255

Distillation purification and radon assay of liquid xenon  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We succeeded to reduce the Kr contamination in liquid xenon by a factor of 1/1000 with a distillation system in Kamioka mine. Then, the remaining radioactivities (Radon and Kr) in purified liquid xenon were measured with the XMASS prototype detector. In this talk, the distillation system and the remaining internal radioactivity levels are reported.

Takeuchi, Yasuo [Kamioka Observatory, ICRR, Univ. of Tokyo, Kamioka-cho, Hida-shi, Gifu 506-1205 (Japan)

2005-09-08T23:59:59.000Z

256

Crude Distillation Unit Heat Recovery Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Baytown's Pipe Still 3 is a 95,000 barrel per day crude distillation unit. A comprehensive heat recovery and energy utilization study was done on Pipe Still 3 after a preliminary cursory study had indicated that an overall look at the total picture could produce much better results than a series of improvements done piecemeal. The study did meet its objective by identifying the maximum heat recovery that is technically and economically feasible. It showed a potential for dramatic improvement - a 39 percent reduction in fuel, plus a 43 percent increase in the quantity of process steam generated, equivalent to a 48 percent reduction in net energy consumed. Techniques employed included a Source/Sink Profile (which is described later); a combining of oil heating, steam generation, and air preheat to best advantage; and a computer program to design the required heat exchanger trains.

John, P.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

257

Improved magic states distillation for quantum universality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given stabilizer operations and the ability to repeatedly prepare a single-qubit mixed state rho, can we do universal quantum computation? As motivation for this question, "magic state" distillation procedures can reduce the general fault-tolerance problem to that of performing fault-tolerant stabilizer circuits. We improve the procedures of Bravyi and Kitaev in the Hadamard "magic" direction of the Bloch sphere to achieve a sharp threshold between those rho allowing universal quantum computation, and those for which any calculation can be efficiently classically simulated. As a corollary, the ability to repeatedly prepare any pure state which is not a stabilizer state (e.g., any single-qubit pure state which is not a Pauli eigenstate), together with stabilizer operations, gives quantum universality. It remains open whether there is also a tight separation in the so-called T direction.

Reichardt, B W

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

258

Improved magic states distillation for quantum universality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Given stabilizer operations and the ability to repeatedly prepare a single-qubit mixed state rho, can we do universal quantum computation? As motivation for this question, "magic state" distillation procedures can reduce the general fault-tolerance problem to that of performing fault-tolerant stabilizer circuits. We improve the procedures of Bravyi and Kitaev in the Hadamard "magic" direction of the Bloch sphere to achieve a sharp threshold between those rho allowing universal quantum computation, and those for which any calculation can be efficiently classically simulated. As a corollary, the ability to repeatedly prepare any pure state which is not a stabilizer state (e.g., any single-qubit pure state which is not a Pauli eigenstate), together with stabilizer operations, gives quantum universality. It remains open whether there is also a tight separation in the so-called T direction.

Ben W. Reichardt

2004-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

259

Non-Gaussian entanglement distillation for continuous variables  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Entanglement distillation is an essential ingredient for long distance quantum communications. In the continuous variable setting, Gaussian states play major roles in quantum teleportation, quantum cloning and quantum cryptography. However, entanglement distillation from Gaussian states has not yet been demonstrated. It is made difficult by the no-go theorem stating that no Gaussian operation can distill Gaussian states. Here we demonstrate the entanglement distillation from Gaussian states by using measurement-induced non-Gaussian operations, circumventing the fundamental restriction of the no-go theorem. We observed a gain of entanglement as a result of conditional local subtraction of a single photon or two photons from a two-mode Gaussian state. Furthermore we confirmed that two-photon subtraction also improves Gaussian-like entanglement as specified by the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation. This distilled entanglement can be further employed to downstream applications such as high fidelity quantum teleportation and a loophole-free Bell test.

Hiroki Takahashi; Jonas S. Neergaard-Nielsen; Makoto Takeuchi; Masahiro Takeoka; Kazuhiro Hayasaka; Akira Furusawa; Masahide Sasaki

2009-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

260

Catalytic cracking process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Processes and apparatus for providing improved catalytic cracking, specifically improved recovery of olefins, LPG or hydrogen from catalytic crackers. The improvement is achieved by passing part of the wet gas stream across membranes selective in favor of light hydrocarbons over hydrogen.

Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A. (Union City, CA); Baker, Richard W. (Palo Alto, CA)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

Analysis of Cracked Pipe Weldments  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

EPRI estimation formulas for predicting loads necessary for crack initiation and instability can facilitate leak-before-break analysis of cracked nuclear piping. Finite-element calculations carried out in this study verified the accuracy of these formulas for analyzing through-the-wall cracks in bimetallic weldments.

1987-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

262

Hiring Reform | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Hiring Reform Hiring Reform Hiring Reform President Obama's Memorandum dated May 11, 2010, Improving the Federal Recruitment and Hiring Process, is Phase I of the Administration's comprehensive initiative to address major, long-standing impediments to recruiting and hiring the best and the brightest into the Federal civilian workforce. The Memorandum is based on issues that DOE and others brought to the attention of OPM, and it is designed to help Agencies build the workforce you need to achieve your goals. The Presidential Memorandum launches the Obama Administration's flagship personnel policy reform initiative. It builds on a nearly year-long collaboration between OPM and Agencies aimed at streamlining the hiring process and recruiting top talent, especially for mission-critical jobs.

263

Applications of solar reforming technology  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Research in recent years has demonstrated the efficient use of solar thermal energy for driving endothermic chemical reforming reactions in which hydrocarbons are reacted to form synthesis gas (syngas). Closed-loop reforming/methanation systems can be used for storage and transport of process heat and for short-term storage for peaking power generation. Open-loop systems can be used for direct fuel production; for production of syngas feedstock for further processing to specialty chemicals and plastics and bulk ammonia, hydrogen, and liquid fuels; and directly for industrial processes such as iron ore reduction. In addition, reforming of organic chemical wastes and hazardous materials can be accomplished using the high-efficiency destruction capabilities of steam reforming. To help identify the most promising areas for future development of this technology, we discuss in this paper the economics and market potential of these applications.

Spiewak, I. [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovoth (Israel); Tyner, C.E. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Langnickel, U. [Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Koeln (Germany)

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Partial oxidation reforming of methanol  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Methanol is an attractive fuel for fuel cell-powered vehicles because it has a fairly high energy density, can be pumped into the tank of a vehicle mush like gasoline, and is relatively easy to reform. For on-board reforming, the reformer must be compact and lightweight, and have rapid start-up and good dynamic response. Steam reforming reactors with the tube-and-shell geometry that was used on the prototype fuel cell-powered buses are heat transfer limited. To reach their normal operating temperature, these types of reactors need 45 minutes from ambient temperature start-up. The dynamic response is poor due to temperature control problems. To overcome the limitations of steam reforming, ANL explored the partial oxidation concept used in the petroleum industry to process crude oils. In contrast to the endothermic steam reforming reaction, partial oxidations is exothermic. Fuel and air are passed together over a catalyst or reacted thermally, yielding a hydrogen-rich gas. Since the operating temperature of such a reactor can be controlled by the oxygen-to- methanol ratio, the rates of reaction are not heat transfer limited. Start-up and transient response should be rapid, and the mass and volume are expected to be small by comparison.

Krumpelt, M.; Ahmed, S.; Kumar, R.

1996-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

265

Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform By: Secretary...

266

Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oversight and Government Reform Before the House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Before the Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, U.S. House of Representatives...

267

Steam distillation effect and oil quality change during steam injection  

SciTech Connect

Steam distillation is an important mechanism which reduces residual oil saturation during steam injection. It may be the main recovery mechanism in steamflooding of light oil reservoirs. As light components are distilled the residual (initial) oil, the residuum becomes heavier. Mixing the distilled components with the initial oil results in a lighter produced oil. A general method has been developed to compute steam distillation yield and to quantify oil quality changes during steam injection. The quantitative results are specific because the California crude data bank was used. But general principles were followed and calculations were based on information extracted from the DOE crude oil assay data bank. It was found that steam distillation data from the literature can be correlated with the steam distillation yield obtained from the DOE crude oil assays. The common basis for comparison was the equivalent normal boiling point. Blending of distilled components with the initial oil results in API gravity changes similar to those observed in several laboratory and field operations.

Lim, K.T.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.; Brigham, W.E.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mixed quantum state ? shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only local quantum operations and classical communication, the two parties can transform some number of copies of ? into a single shared pair of qubits having high fidelity with the maximally entangled state |? + ? = (|00 ? + |11?) / ? 2. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable, but for which an arbitrarily large number of copies is required before any distillation procedure can produce a shared pair of qubits with even a small amount of entanglement. Specifically, for every positive integer n there exists a state ? that is distillable, but given n or fewer copies of ? every distillation procedure outputting a single shared pair of qubits will output those qubits in a separable (i.e., unentangled) state. Essentially all previous examples of states proved to be distillable were such that some distillation procedure could output an entangled pair of qubits given a single copy of the state in question. 1

John Watrous

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Many copies may be required for entanglement distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A mixed quantum state shared between two parties is said to be distillable if, by means of a protocol involving only local quantum operations and classical communication, the two parties can transform some number of copies of that state into a single shared pair of qubits having high fidelity with a maximally entangled state state. In this paper it is proved that there exist states that are distillable, but for which an arbitrarily large number of copies is required before any distillation procedure can produce a shared pair of qubits with even a small amount of entanglement. Specifically, for every positive integer n there exists a state that is distillable, but given n or fewer copies of that state every distillation procedure outputting a single shared pair of qubits will output those qubits in a separable state. Essentially all previous examples of states proved to be distillable were such that some distillation procedure could output an entangled pair of qubits given a single copy of the state in question.

John Watrous

2003-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

270

Multilevel distillation of magic states for quantum computing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We develop a procedure for distilling magic states used in universal quantum computing that requires substantially fewer initial resources than prior schemes. Our distillation circuit is based on a family of concatenated quantum codes that possess a transversal Hadamard operation, enabling each of these codes to distill the eigenstate of the Hadamard operator. A crucial result of this design is that low-fidelity magic states can be consumed to purify other high-fidelity magic states to even higher fidelity, which we call "multilevel distillation." When distilling in the asymptotic regime of infidelity $\\epsilon \\rightarrow 0$ for each input magic state, the number of input magic states consumed on average to yield an output state with infidelity $O(\\epsilon^{2^r})$ approaches $2^r+1$, which comes close to saturating the conjectured bound in [Phys. Rev. A 86, 052329]. We show numerically that there exist multilevel protocols such that the average number of magic states consumed to distill from error rate $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{in}} = 0.01$ to $\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{out}}$ in the range $10^{-5}$ to $10^{-40}$ is about $14\\log_{10}(1/\\epsilon_{\\mathrm{out}}) - 40$; the efficiency of multilevel distillation dominates all other reported protocols when distilling Hadamard magic states from initial infidelity 0.01 to any final infidelity below $10^{-7}$. These methods are an important advance for magic-state distillation circuits in high-performance quantum computing, and they provide insight into the limitations of nearly resource-optimal quantum error correction.

Cody Jones

2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

271

Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

mid-January, 2000. WTI crude oil price rose about $17 per mid-January, 2000. WTI crude oil price rose about $17 per barrel or 40 cents per gallon from its low point in mid February 1999 to January 17, 2000. Over this same time period, New York Harbor spot heating oil had risen about 42 cents per gallon, reflecting both the crude price rise and the beginning of a return to a more usual seasonal spread over the price of crude oil. The week ending January 21, distillate spot prices in the Northeast spiked dramatically to record levels, closing on Friday at $1.26 per gallon -- up 50 cents from the prior week. Gulf Coast prices were not spiking, but were probably pulled higher as the New York Harbor market began to draw on product from other areas. They closed at 83 cents per gallon, an increase of 11 cents from the prior Friday. Crude oil had risen about 4 cents from

272

Reducing Energy Usage in Extractive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Butadiene 1:3 is separated from other C4-hydrocarbons by extractive distillation in a sieve plate tower. Prior to the development work to be described, the pressure in the extraction tower was controlled at a fixed value. The tower pressure-boilup control loop did not behave satisfactorily in the presence of non-condensables which entered with the feed. The capacity of the flooded reflux drum condenser for the tower was limiting production during summer months. The tower pressure control loop was put on manual. The pressure was allowed to drop to its lowest attainable value for the existing conditions of boilup and condenser cooling capability. This manner of operation is known as floating pressure control. By taking advantage of the higher relative volatility at the lower tower pressure, energy usage was reduced and there was an increase in production capacity. The tower operation at a lower temperature reduced tower and reboiler fouling. Substantial savings have resulted from these improvements. The annual energy consumption has been reduced by 25% and maximum productive capacity is higher by 15%. The rate of tower and reboiler fouling has not been fully quantified but is greatly reduced. A more stable tower operation has also contributed to higher productivity and reduced energy usage. Venting of non-condensables does not affect tower stability and the operators have adapted well to the new control strategy.

Saxena, A. C.; Bhandari, V. A.

1985-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy,...

274

Distillate Supply/Demand Balance Reflected in Spreads  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: The price spike that initiated the flood of distillate imports last winter can be easily seen in this chart. The distillate supply/demand balance influences the spread between spot distillate and spot crude oil prices. For example, when stocks are higher than normal, the spread will be lower than usual. This spread is the price incentive that encourages or discourages changes in supply. The January/February 2000 price spike was shorter than the one last winter, largely due to the timing. Since last winter's price spike occurred early in the season, it took some time before prices receded substantially. Currently, the distillate fuel refining spread (the difference between the spot heating oil price and the WTI price) is more "typical". But as was

275

Connecticut Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 314,674: 301,591: 272,255: 271,852: 274,578: 274,507: 1984-2012: ...

276

South Carolina Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 751,994: 695,077: 654,296: 726,647: 725,148: 655,638: 1984-2012: ...

277

Maryland Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 606,247: 548,583: 540,590: 579,203: 540,843: 531,683: 1984-2012: ...

278

Nebraska Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 446,825: 433,745: 461,938: 639,618: 603,268: 584,362: 1984-2012: ...

279

Massachusetts Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 487,861: 463,886: 443,620: 445,626: 460,154: 444,532: 1984-2012: ...

280

Michigan Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 970,806: 891,487: 819,086: 864,049: 854,644: 877,692: 1984-2012: ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Minnesota Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 804,699: 761,187: 633,806: 665,652: 704,971: 746,974: 1984-2012: ...

282

District of Columbia Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 10,721: 15,894: 11,949: 13,216: 15,149: 15,321: 1984-2012: Residual ...

283

Minnesota Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 817,786: 767,218: 640,572: 678,530: 713,572: 763,303: 1984-2012: ...

284

New Jersey Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 1,088,505: 978,515: 760,035: 831,955: 952,930: 837,191: 1984-2012: ...

285

Wisconsin Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 788,665: 798,348: 703,583: 738,953: 719,417: 780,145: 1984-2012: ...

286

Connecticut Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 314,309: 300,255: 272,598: 271,767: 274,640: 273,827: 1984-2012: ...

287

Kansas Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 581,898: 610,088: 588,362: 554,334: 548,183: 573,992: 1984-2012: ...

288

Michigan Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 964,966: 888,432: 814,460: 855,592: 850,681: 871,756: 1984-2012: ...

289

Delaware Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 68,223: 61,302: 57,382: 56,676: 57,720: 57,230: 1984-2012: Residual ...

290

Nebraska Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 448,098: 435,444: 472,303: 689,579: 627,110: 613,232: 1984-2012: ...

291

Utah Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Total Transportation (Railroad, Vessel Bunkering, On-Highway) Distillate Fuel Oil: 525,714: 470,714: 420,706: 426,584: 508,266: 486,456: 1984-2012: ...

292

Colorado Total Distillate Adj Sales/Deliveries to Military ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Colorado Total Distillate Adj Sales/Deliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 ...

293

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1985: 7,172 ...

294

Unlike particle correlations and the strange quark matter distillation process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new technique for observing the strange quark matter distillation process based on unlike particle correlations. A simulation is presented based on the scenario of a two-phase thermodynamical evolution model.

D. Ardouin; Sven Soff; C. Spieles; S. A. Bass; H. Stocker; D. Gourio; S. Schramm; C. Greiner; R. Lednicky; V. L. Lyuboshits; J. P. Coffin; C. Kuhn

2002-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

295

U. S. Operating Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U. S. Operating Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1985: 14,361: 14,293: 14,268: 14,605 ...

296

U. S. Operating Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U. S. Operating Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Day) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9; 1980's ...

297

Magic-state distillation with the four-qubit code  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The distillation of magic states is an often-cited technique for enabling universal quantum computing once the error probability for a special subset of gates has been made negligible by other means. We present a routine for magic-state distillation that reduces the required overhead for a range of parameters of practical interest. Each iteration of the routine uses a four-qubit error-detecting code to distill the +1 eigenstate of the Hadamard gate at a cost of ten input states per two improved output states. Use of this routine in combination with the 15-to-1 distillation routine described by Bravyi and Kitaev allows for further improvements in overhead.

Adam M. Meier; Bryan Eastin; Emanuel Knill

2012-04-18T23:59:59.000Z

298

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

299

The essence of steam technology and its link to distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The essence of steam technology, as Simon Schaffer explains in Faraday’s laboratory, is to understand the behaviour of fire, water and steam. The role of glass in manipulating these is absolutely fundamental, as is the role of distilling....

Dugan, David

2004-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

300

U. S. Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

U. S. Operable Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (Thousand Barrels per Calendar Day) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec; 1985: 15,659: 15,559: 15,582 ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Kinetic Method for Hydrogen-Deuterium-Tritium Mixture Distillation Simulation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Simulation of hydrogen distillation plants requires mathematical procedures suitable for multicomponent systems. In most of the present-day simulation methods a distillation column is assumed to be composed of theoretical stages, or plates. However, in the case of a multicomponent mixture theoretical plate does not exist.An alternative kinetic method of simulation is depicted in the work. According to this method a system of mass-transfer differential equations is solved numerically. Mass-transfer coefficients are estimated with using experimental results and empirical equations.Developed method allows calculating the steady state of a distillation column as well as its any non-steady state when initial conditions are given. The results for steady states are compared with ones obtained via Thiele-Geddes theoretical stage technique and the necessity of using kinetic method is demonstrated. Examples of a column startup period and periodic distillation simulations are shown as well.

Sazonov, A.B.; Kagramanov, Z.G.; Magomedbekov, E.P. [Mendeleyev University of Chemical Technology of Russia (Russian Federation)

2005-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

302

Safety and Security Directives Reform  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Reforming a "Mountain" of Policy Reforming a "Mountain" of Policy Beginning with his confirmation hearings in January 2009, Energy Secretary Steven Chu challenged the Department of Energy to take a fresh look at how we conduct business. This challenge provided the opportunity for DOE to put in place the most effective and efficient strategies to accomplish the Department's missions safely and securely. In response to the Secretary's challenge and building on the results of Deputy Secretary Poneman's Safety and Security Reform studies, the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) broadened its directives review activities during 2009. By November 2009 HSS had initiated a disciplined review of all health, safety, and security directives, which included a systematic review of the Department's safety and security regulatory model.

303

Evaluate reformer performance at a glance  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Catalytic reforming is becoming increasingly important in replacing octane lost as the removal of lead from worldwide gasoline pools continues. A method has been developed that can quickly evaluate the performance of any catalytic reformer. The catalytic naphtha reforming process primarily involves three well-known reactions. These are aromatization of naphthenes, cyclization of paraffins and hydrocracking of paraffins. Hydrogen is produced in the process of aromatization and dehydrocyclization of paraffins. Reformer performance is normally evaluated with a reformate analysis (PONA) and yield of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate. This method of quick evaluation of reformer performance is based upon the main assumption that the increase in hydrocarbon moles in the process is equal to the number of C{single_bond}C bond ruptures and one mole of hydrogen is absorbed to saturate the same. This new method calculates aromatization efficiency, paraffin conversion, aromatic selectivity and finally the paraffin, naphthene and aromatic content of C{sub 5{sup +}} reformate.

Nag, A. [Indian Oil Corporation Ltd., Gujarat (India)

1996-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

Bringing electricity reform to the Philippines  

SciTech Connect

Electricity reforms will not translate to competition overnight. But reforms are inching their way forward in institutions and stakeholders of the Philippine electricity industry, through regulatory and competition frameworks, processes, and systems promulgated and implemented. (author)

Fe Villamejor-Mendoza, Maria

2008-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

305

Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S. [Department of Physics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A significant reduction in distillation tower energy requirements can be achieved by mechanical vapor recompression. Three design approaches for heating a distillation tower reboiler by mechanical vapor recompression are presented. The advantages of using a screw compressor are discussed in detail. An example of a xylene extraction tower is sited, illustrating the economic attractiveness in which a simple payback period of less than two years is achievable.

Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

1986-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Technology Overview  

Coal added as reductant and for energy • What happens inside the reformer? Water evaporates Nitrates reduced to nitrogen gas

308

Method of steam reforming methanol to hydrogen  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The production of hydrogen by the catalyzed steam reforming of methanol is accomplished using a reformer of greatly reduced size and cost wherein a mixture of water and methanol is superheated to the gaseous state at temperatures of about 800.degree. to about 1,100.degree. F. and then fed to a reformer in direct contact with the catalyst bed contained therein, whereby the heat for the endothermic steam reforming reaction is derived directly from the superheated steam/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Olefins from High Yield Autothermal Reforming Process ...  

Isobutylene is used to produce fuel additives. The autothermal reforming process can produce isobutylene and requires no external energy input ...

310

Accelerated Weathering of Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Sep 16, 2007 ... Accelerated Weathering of Fluidized Bed Steam Reformation Material Under Hydraulically Unsaturated Conditions by E.M. Pierce ...

311

Continuing Management Reform | National Nuclear Security Administratio...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Continuing Management Reform | National Nuclear Security Administration Our Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing Proliferation Powering the Nuclear Navy Emergency Response...

312

Energy Saving in Distillation Using Structured Packing and Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Distillation is a big consumer of energy in process plant operations. A first step to energy cost savings is the use of high efficiency structured packing in place of trays or dumped packings in conventionally operated distillation columns. Larger savings, as much as 80%, may be obtained by using a direct vapor recompression (VRC) heat pump instead of the conventional column operation with a steam heated reboiler. A main criterion of the suitability of a distillation for VRC is a low temperature difference across the column. VRC uses hot compressed overhead vapors, instead of steam, to heat the reboiler. Cost savings are highest when the pressure ratio for the compressor is low. The pressure ratio depends on the boiling point difference of top and bottom products, the reboiler-condenser driving force temperature and the column pressure drop. Structured packing has a low pressure drop; thus increasing the savings obtained with VRC - for retrofits or new columns - and increasing the range of applications where VRC is suitable for distillations. For low pressure distillation application, a column with a small pressure drop is especially important. An example of a vacuum distillation which is made suitable for VRC with use of structured packing is separation of styrene and ethyl benzene. "

Hill, J.H.

1987-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Hydrocarbon Processing`s refining processes `96  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The paper compiles information on the following refining processes: alkylation, benzene reduction, benzene saturation, catalytic cracking, catalytic reforming, coking, crude distillation, deasphalting, deep catalytic cracking, electrical desalting, ethers, fluid catalytic cracking, hydrocracking, hydrogenation, hydrotreating, isomerization, resid catalytic cracking, treating, and visbreaking. The application, products, a description of the process, yield, economics, installation, and licensor are given for each entry.

NONE

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Analysis of Crack Growth Data  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Methods for calculating crack growth rates...the derivative at the midpoint of a data set. These methods use

315

Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Development of Alternating Current Potential Drop (ACPD) method for the detection of Primary Water Stress Corrosion Cracking initiation in Stainless Steels and ...

316

Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Materials  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In-Situ Repairs of Oil Industry Pipelines, Tanks and Vessels by Welding Using Metal Arc Welding Under Oil (MAW-UO) · Interpretation of Crack Initiation and ...

317

PICEP: Pipe Crack Evaluation Program  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We describe a computer program that calculates the crack-opening area, the critical (stable) crack length and the two-phase flow rate through cracks in ductile stainless steel pipes and steam generator tubes. The program is useful in performing leak-before-break calculations in order to demonstrate detectable leak rates prior to a through-wall flaw reaching critical size. Necessary input to the code includes a definition of material properties, loads, thermal-hydraulic conditions, pipe geometry, and crack orientation. User information is provided in the report.

Norris, D.; Okamoto, A.; Chexal, B.; Griesbach, T.

1984-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Shale oil cracking. 1. Kinetics  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Experiments were conducted to determine kinetics for thermal cracking of shale oil vapor over shale. Cracking temperatures of 504 to 610/sup 0/C and residence times of 2 to 11 seconds were used. A first-order Arrhenius rate expression and stoichiometry were obtained. Also observed were changes in the oil quality. Cracking decreased the H/C ratio, increased the nitrogen content, and decreased the pour point of the oil. Gas-phase oil cracking is contrasted to liquid-phase oil coking as a loss mechanism in oil-shale retorting.

Burnham, A.K.; Taylor, J.R.

1979-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE Prepared For: California Energy REPORT (FAR) INTEGRAL CATALYTIC COMBUSTION/FUEL REFORMING FOR GAS TURBINE CYCLES EISG AWARDEE University://www.energy.ca.gov/research/index.html. #12;Page 1 Integral Catalytic Combustion/Fuel Reforming for Gas Turbine Cycles EISG Grant # 99

320

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation | Department  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation The Department of Energy (DOE) today publishes a final statement of policy on intergovernmental consultation under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. The policy reflects the guidelines and instructions that the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provided to each agency to develop, with input from State, local, and tribal officials, an intergovernmental consultation process with regard to significant intergovernmental mandates contained in a notice of proposed rulemaking. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation More Documents & Publications TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Key Documents

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Contracting Reform Guidance Contracting Reform Guidance NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance This documents provides guidance on NEPA contracting strategy, including: defining the work of the contractor; establishing contracts ahead of time; minimizing cost while maintaining quality. Guidance also provides: model statements of work, direction on NEPA contract management by NEPA Document Manager; a system for measuring NEPA costs and for evaluating contractor procedures; details on the DOE NEPA website. NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance More Documents & Publications NEPA Contracting Reform Guidance (December 1996) Statement of Work-National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Support Services Acquisition: Preparation and Review of Environmental Impact Statements, Environmental Assessments, Environmental Reports, and other Environmental

322

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation | Department  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation The Department of Energy (DOE) today publishes a final statement of policy on intergovernmental consultation under the Unfunded Mandates Reform Act of 1995. The policy reflects the guidelines and instructions that the Director of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) provided to each agency to develop, with input from State, local, and tribal officials, an intergovernmental consultation process with regard to significant intergovernmental mandates contained in a notice of proposed rulemaking. Unfunded Mandates Reform Act; Intergovernmental Consultation More Documents & Publications TEC Working Group Topic Groups Tribal Key Documents

323

Effect of Thermomechanical Processing on Fatigue Crack ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

gechanical driving force such as crack opening distance (COD) . However, at hold time loading, the crack growth rate is drastically decreased with an increase of ...

324

FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

Cunningham, B.B.

1957-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

325

Non-Locality Distillation is Impossible for Isotropic Quantum Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Non-locality is a powerful resource for various communication and information theoretic tasks, e.g., to establish a secret key between two parties, or to reduce the communication complexity of distributed computing. Typically, the more non-local a system is, the more useful it is as a resource for such tasks. We address the issue of non-locality distillation, i.e., whether it is possible to create a strongly non-local system by local operations on several weakly non-local ones. More specifically, we consider a setting where non-local systems can be realized via measurements on underlying shared quantum states. The hardest instances for non-locality distillation are the isotropic quantum systems: if a certain isotropic system can be distilled, then all systems of the same non-locality can be distilled as well. The main result of this paper is that non-locality cannot be distilled from such isotropic quantum systems. Our results are based on the theory of cross norms defined over the tensor product of certain Banach spaces. In particular, we introduce a single-parameter family of cross norms, which is used to construct a hierarchy of convex sets that are closed under local operations. This hierarchy interpolates between the set of local systems and an approximation to the set of quantum systems.

Dejan D. Dukaric

2011-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

326

Distillate Imports Surged to Meet Supply/Demand Imbalance  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

receded when weather moderated and new supply began to receded when weather moderated and new supply began to arrive. Imports were the largest source of new supply that arrived to relieve the imbalance that was behind the price spike. This graph shows the dramatic increase on a calendar monthly average basis. During the three weeks ending February 25, distillate fuel oil imports averaged 566 thousand barrels per day. During the prior four weeks, imports only averaged 162 thousand barrels per day. Refinery production on the East Coast also increased. For the three weeks ending February 25, East Coast distillate production averaged 478 thousand barrels per day, which was an increase of about 91 thousand barrels per day or 24% over the prior four weeks. (During the same time period, national distillate production only rose 7 percent.)

327

Extraction of tocopherols from deodorizer distillates: laboratory-scale evaluations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The tocopherols are valuable components of deodorizer distillate. Due to the limitations in the existing extraction methods, it is imperative that new processing parameters for extraction and concentration of tocopherols from deodorizer distillate be developed. For this purpose, an analytical method for the determination of both tocopherols and tocopherol succinates simultaneously was developed. Crystallization, flat-sheet membrane separation, and a combined process were evaluated. Individual steps of the combined process were defined. They were: 1). Crystallization of deodorizer distillate; 2). Succination; 3). Membrane separation; and 4). Second stage membrane separation. The succination process converted over 90% of the tocopherols to tocopherol succinates. Crystallization and flat-sheet membrane separations increased tocopherols concentration about 2% and 6%, respectively. The final tocopherols concentration in the combined process was twice that of the original tocopherol sample.

Zhang, Xiaoyan

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Distillation operations are major consumers of energy, by some estimates comprising forty percent of the energy usage in the refining and chemicals industry. Obtaining the maximum energy efficiency from this unit operation is obviously very important. For many distillation columns there is a tradeoff in operation between energy usage and product recovery and setting the proper usage target involves a calculation of the economic tradeoff between these two factors. However, distillation is a non-linear process and normal economic evaluations add more non-linearities to the economic objective functions. In addition, the normal product quality variability observed leads to requirements for statistical evaluation. Hence, calculation of the correct target can be complicated. In this paper, these non-linear economic effects are reviewed and techniques to calculate the correct usage targets presented.

White, D. C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Plasma-catalyzed fuel reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A reformer is disclosed that includes a plasma zone to receive a pre-heated mixture of reactants and ionize the reactants by applying an electrical potential thereto. A first thermally conductive surface surrounds the plasma zone and is configured to transfer heat from an external heat source into the plasma zone. The reformer further includes a reaction zone to chemically transform the ionized reactants into synthesis gas comprising hydrogen and carbon monoxide. A second thermally conductive surface surrounds the reaction zone and is configured to transfer heat from the external heat source into the reaction zone. The first thermally conductive surface and second thermally conductive surface are both directly exposed to the external heat source. A corresponding method and system are also disclosed and claimed herein.

Hartvigsen, Joseph J.; Elangovan, S.; Czernichowski, Piotr; Hollist, Michele

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

330

Fuel Reformation: Microchannel Reactor Design  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Fuel processing is used to extract hydrogen from conventional vehicle fuel and allow fuel cell powered vehicles to use the existing petroleum fuel infrastructure. Kilowatt scale micro-channel steam reforming, water-gas shift and preferential oxida-tion reactors have been developed capable of achieving DOE required system performance metrics. Use of a microchannel design effectively supplies heat to the highly endothermic steam reforming reactor to maintain high conversions, controls the temperature profile for the exothermic water gas shift reactor, which optimizes the overall reaction conversion, and removes heat to prevent the unwanted hydrogen oxidation in the prefer-ential oxidation reactor. The reactors combined with micro-channel heat exchangers, when scaled to a full sized 50 kWe automotive system, will be less than 21 L in volume and 52 kg in weight.

Brooks, Kriston P.; Davis, James M.; Fischer, Christopher M.; King, David L.; Pederson, Larry R.; Rawlings, Gregg C.; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Wegeng, Robert S.; Whyatt, Greg A.

2005-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Thermochemical Fuel Reformer Development Project  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Thermochemical Fuel Reforming (TCFR) is the recovery of internal combustion engine exhaust heat to chemically convert natural gas into a higher calorific flow fuel stream containing a significant concentration of hydrogen. This technique of recycling the engine exhaust heat can reduce fuel use (heat rate). In addition, the hydrogen enhanced combustion also allows stable engine operation at a higher air-fuel ratio (leaner combustion) which results in very low NOx production. This interim report covers two...

2006-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

332

Hydrogen isotope distillation for the Tritium Systems Test Assembly  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A system of four, interlinked, cryogenic fractional distillation columns has been designed as a prototype for fuel processing for fusion power reactors. The distillation system will continuously separate a feedstream of 360 g moles/day of roughly 50-50 deuterium-tritium containing approximately 1% H into four product streams: (1) a tritium-free stream of HD for waste disposal; (2) a stream of high-purity D/sub 2/ for simulated neutral beam injection; (3) a stream of DT for simulated reactor refueling; and (4) a stream of high purity T/sub 2/ for refueling and studies on properties of tritium and effects of tritium on materials.

Bartlit, J.R.; Denton, W.H.; Sherman, R.H.

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

Human versus machine in the topic distillation task  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper reports on and discusses a set of user experiments using the TREC 2003 Web interactive track protocol. The focus is on comparing humans and machine algorithms in terms of performance in a topic distillation task. We also investigated the effect of the search results layout in supporting the users ’ effort. We have demonstrated that machines can perform nearly as well as people on the topic distillation task. Given a system tailored to the task there is significant performance improvement and finally, given a presentation that supports the task, there is strong user satisfaction.

Mingfang Wu; Gheorghe Muresan; Alistair Mclean; Muh-chyun (morris Tang; Ross Wilkinson; Yuelin Li; Hyuk-jin Lee; Nichloas J. Belkin

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Two-particle Correlation Functions with Distilled Propagators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Correlation functions of the simplest multi-particle state will be presented using distilled quark propagators. The I=2 pi-pi state can be simulated without computing disconnected diagrams and thus is the simplest two-particle state that can be studied with quark sources placed on a single time-slice. We study the quality of the signals of this pi-pi correlation function using the quark-smearing guided distillation method. Results will be presented for pi-pi correlation functions computed on dynamical, anisotropic lattices.

Bulava, J; Morningstar, C J; Peardon, M J; Wong, C H

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Two-particle Correlation Functions with Distilled Propagators  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Correlation functions of the simplest multi-particle state will be presented using distilled quark propagators. The I=2 pi-pi state can be simulated without computing disconnected diagrams and thus is the simplest two-particle state that can be studied with quark sources placed on a single time-slice. We study the quality of the signals of this pi-pi correlation function using the quark-smearing guided distillation method. Results will be presented for pi-pi correlation functions computed on dynamical, anisotropic lattices.

J. Bulava; K. J. Juge; C. J. Morningstar; M. J. Peardon; C. H. Wong

2009-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

336

Alcohol production with solar distillation. Final report, March 31, 1982-June 30, 1982  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to determine it an absorber in a solar distillation unit that would provide a more efficient and effective way to produce fuel grade ethanol. Four tests of distilling ethanol were made. Numerous other tests were conducted distiling water, drying an assortment at materials, cooking food, and heating various liquids. The absorber in the solar distillation unit creates much heat on the glazing. The mixture in the solar distillation unit, does not have to reach temperatures that boil water to produce distillate.

Wuestenberg, D.

1982-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary Name: Environmental fiscal reform (EFR) Agency/Company /Organization: Global Subsidies Initiative (GSI), International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD), World Bank Phase: Develop Goals, Prepare a Plan, Develop Finance and Implement Projects Topics: Co-benefits assessment, Finance, Market analysis, Policies/deployment programs References: Environmental fiscal reform - What should be done and how to achieve it[1] Reforming fiscal policies to close the gap between economic and ecological efficiencies[2] Overview "The term environmental fiscal reform (EFR) refers to: a range of taxation or pricing instruments that can raise revenue, while simultaneously furthering environmental goals. This is achieved by providing economic

338

Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) Mechanism of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

About this Abstract. Meeting, Materials Science & Technology 2012. Symposium, Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Materials. Presentation Title ...

339

Weldability Tests for Evaluating Cracking Susceptibility  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 2   Weldability tests used to evaluate susceptibility to cracking...used to evaluate susceptibility to cracking Test Fields of use Controllable variables Type of data Specialized equipment Relative cost Lehigh restraint test Weld metal hot and cold cracking, root cracking,

340

Distributed Bio-Oil Reforming (Presentation)  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation by Bob Evans at the 2007 DOE Hydrogen Program Annual Merit Review Meeting provides information about NREL's distributed bio-oil reforming efforts.

Evans, R. J.; Czernik, S.; French, R.; Ratcliff, M.; Marda, J.; Dean, A. M.

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Palm fatty acid distillate biodiesel: Next-generation palm biodiesel  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The promise of alternative low-cost non-food feedstocks such as jatropha has yet to materialize, and there seems to be, at the current moment, no light at the end of the tunnel in the search for low-cost feedstock alternatives. Palm fatty acid distillate b

342

Conversion of carboxylate salts to carboxylic acids via reactive distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The purpose of this study is to convert carboxylate salts (e.g. calcium acetate, propionate, and butyrate) into carboxylic acids (e.g., acetic, propionic, and butyric acids). The carboxylate salts can be produced from wastes, such as paper fines, municipal solid wastes, sewage sludge, and industrial biosludge. Using a proprietary technology owned by Texas A&M University the wastes are first treated with lime to enhance reactivity. Then they are converted to calcium carboxylate salts using a mixed culture of microorganisms derived from cattle rumen or anaerobic waste treatment facilities. The paper fines and municipal solid waste provide energy, whereas the industrial biosludge and sewage sludge provide nutrients for the microorganisms. The calcium carboxylate salts are concentrated and reacted with a low-molecular-weight tertiary amine and carbon dioxide to precipitate calcium carbonate. In a distillation column, the low-molecular-weight amine carboxylate reacts with a high-molecular-weight tertiary amine allowing the low-molecular-weight amine to be recovered from the top of the column. The resulting high-molecular-weight amine carboxylate is converted to amine and carboxylic acid in a reactive distillation column. This project focuses on the conversion of the carboxylate salts produced via fermentation into their corresponding acids via reactive distillation. The primary objective is to determine the optimal operating conditions of the distillation. A secondary objective is to optimize the precipitation step in the recovery process.

Williamson, Shelly Ann

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the flask. Heaters are controlled by a model predictive proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controllerComplex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach Thomas J. Bruno, Lisa S. Ott of petroleomics, as asserted by Marshall and Rodgers, include quantitation of species, modeling, and informatics

344

Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper outlines the implementation of column thermal and hydraulic analysis in a simulation environment. The methodology is described using a separations example. Column Thermal Analysis has been discussed in the literature extensively. The paper outlines how bringing together the column thermal and hydraulics analysis provides significant additional insights to help screen the options for distillation column revamps.

Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

2002-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Some of the asymmetric three-qubit W states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding, and quantum-information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric W states from a single copy of any three-qubit W class pure state.

Yildiz, Ali [Department of Physics, Istanbul Technical University, Maslak 34469, Istanbul (Turkey)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

346

Subsite Retrieval: A Novel Concept for Topic Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Abstract. Topic distillation is one of the main information needs when users search the Web. In previous approaches to topic distillation, the single page was treated as the basic searching unit. This strategy is inherited from general information retrieval, which has not fully utilized the structure information of the Web. In this paper, we propose a novel concept for topic distillation, named subsite retrieval, in which the basic searching unit is the subsite instead of the single page. As indicated by the name, the subsite is a subset of website, consisting of a structural collection of pages. The key of subsite retrieval is to extract effective features to represent a subsite by utilizing both the content in each page and the structural information in the subsite. Specifically, we propose a so-called PI algorithm for this purpose, which is based on the modeling of website growth. Testing on the topic distillation task of TREC 2003 and TREC 2004, subsite retrieval gets significant improvement of retrieval performance over the previous single page based methods. 1

Tao Qin; Tie-yan Liu; Xu-dong Zhang; Guang Feng

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Optimal distillation of three-qubit W states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Some of the asymmetric three qubit $W$ states are used for perfect teleportation, superdense coding and quantum information splitting. We present the protocols for the optimal distillation of the asymmetric as well as the symmetric $W$ states from a single copy of any three qubit $W$ class pure state.

Ali Yildiz

2010-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

348

Unlike Particle Correlations and the Strange Quark Matter Distillation Process  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new technique for observing the strange quark matter distillation process based on unlike particle correlations. A simulation is presented based on the scenario of a two-phase thermodynamical evolution model. on leave from University of Nantes, U.M.R. Subatech

D. Ardouin; Sven Soff; C. Spieles; S. A. Bass; H. Stöcker; D. Gourio; S. Schramm; C. Greiner; R. Lednicky; V. L. Lyuboshitz; J. -p. Coffin; C. Kuhn

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

TransForum v4n2 - Diesel Reformer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 ARGONNE SCIENTISTS TEAM UP TO DEVELOP NEW DIESEL REFORMER Liu tests diesel reformer Argonne's Di-Jia Liu conducted extensive testing of the diesel reformer; his experiments are...

350

Gulf Coast (PADD 3) Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 699,882: 631,796: 542,036: 573,037: 694,053: 729,109: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 613,864: ...

351

New York Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 63,226: 44,510: 35,307: 33,709: 42,254: 35,237: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 12,339: 10,814: ...

352

Florida Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 71,962: 55,219: 35,537: 41,430: 47,283: 61,059: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 140,493: 153,438: ...

353

West Virginia Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Railroad : Distillate Fuel Oil: 15,766: 15,416: 10,143: 11,650: 12,711: 10,456: 1984-2012: Vessel Bunkering : Distillate Fuel Oil: 45,429: 28,568: 99: ...

354

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2 Distillate a No. 4 Fuel b Residual Fuel Oil Sales to End...

355

Second Price Component: Spread Impacted by Distillate Supply/Demand Balance  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: While crude oil prices will be a major factor impacting distillate prices this winter, another important factor is the U.S. distillate supply/demand balance, as measured by distillate stocks. The distillate supply/demand balance influences the spread between spot distillate and spot crude oil prices. For example, when stocks are higher than normal, the spread will be lower than usual. This spread is the price incentive that encourages or discourages changes in supply. While high stocks in the distillate market are good news for consumers, an excess is bad news for refiners. Distillate spreads during the winter of 1998-99 and throughout most of 1999 were well below average. Distillate stocks were very high during this period, partially as a result of warm weather keeping demand down.

356

Nutritionally Enhanced Edible Oil and Oilseed ProcessingChapter 10 Vacuum Distillation of Edible Oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Nutritionally Enhanced Edible Oil and Oilseed Processing Chapter 10 Vacuum Distillation of Edible Oils Processing eChapters Processing Press Downloadable pdf of Chapter 10 Vacuum Distillation of Edible Oils from t

357

Modelling and optimisation of batch distillation involving esterification and hydrolysis reaction systems. Modelling and optimisation of conventional and unconventional batch distillation process: Application to esterification of methanol and ethanol using acetic acid and hydrolysis of methyl lactate system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Batch distillation with chemical reaction when takes place in the same unit is referred to as batch reactive distillation process. The combination reduces the capital… (more)

Edreder, Elmahboub A.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Stable crack growth estimates based on effective crack length and crack-opening displacements  

SciTech Connect

A method was developed for estimating the amount of stable crack growth that has occurred in a fracture toughness specimen that were loaded into the plastic range and for which only a monotonically increasing load-displacement curve was measured. The method was applied to data from several pressure vessel steels. The resulting J vs ..delta..a values compare favorably with a resistance curve obtained by the multiple specimen heat-tinting technique for A533, Grade B, Class 1 steel. The method for estimating stable crack growth uses several existing concepts heretofore mainly used separately. These concepts include an approximate expression for J for the compact specimen proposed by Andrews, the effective crack length concept of McCabe and Landes, the UK representation of the crack profile as a pair of straight lines intersecting at a hinge point, and Well's expression, J = m sigma/sub y/delta, for relating the crack-opening displacement to the value of J. The value of the constraint factor, m, at the advancing crack tip is estimated by means of a relation between ductility and fracture toughness. When calculated with respect to the COD at the original fatigue crack tip, the constraint factor, m/sub o/, is found to have a value consistently close to 2.0 for compact and precracked Charpy specimens. The method of estimation requires no auxiliary load-deflection measurements or calculations, and so permits single specimen estimates of stable crack growth to be made without the necessity of making high precision unloading compliance measurements.

Merkle, J.G.; Hudson, C.E.

1979-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Aspects of Stress Corrosion Cracking Relevant to Irradiation-Assisted Stress Corrosion Cracking (IASCC)  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report provides a comprehensive survey of crack initiation issues in irradiation-assisted stress corrosion cracking (IASCC). It considers microcracking on smooth specimens and the transition from microcracking to stable crack propagation.

2002-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

360

An update on catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The UOP Platforming process is a catalytic reforming process in widespread use throughout the petroleum and petrochemical industries. Since the first unit went onstream in 1949, the process has become a standard feature in refineries worldwide. Over the years, significant improvements have been made in process catalysts and process design. The most recent improvement is the combination of a catalyst called R-72 with a new patented flow scheme, R-72 staged loading, which gives significantly higher yields and provides increased catalyst stability. In this article, the authors describe two types of Platforming processes and the new R-72 staged loading scheme.

Wei, D.H.; Moser, M.D.; Haizmann, R.S.

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform | Department...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Oversight and Government Reform Before House Committee on Oversight and Government Reform Testimony of Daniel Poneman, Deputy Secretary of Energy Before House Committee on...

362

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Group includes individuals from DOE, the national laboratories, industry, and academia. Corn Stover Harvest Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming Distributed reforming of biomass derived...

363

Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommenda...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy: Recommendations to the NRC Committee on Research Universities Regulatory and Financial Reform of Federal Research Policy:...

364

Guidance_Application_Federal_Vacancies_Reform_Act_1998.pdf |...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

nceApplicationFederalVacanciesReformAct1998.pdf More Documents & Publications Intelligence Reform and Terroroism Prevention Act - December 17, 2004 Bond Amendment, Security...

365

Diesel Reforming for Fuel Cell Auxiliary Power Units  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This objective of this project was to develop technology suitable for onboard reforming of diesel. The approach was to examine catalytic partial oxidation and steam reforming.

Borup, R.; Parkinson, W. J.; Inbody, M.; Brosha, E.L.; Guidry, D.R.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

366

A Study on Biogas from Anaerobic Digestion with the Distiller's Grains via Lactic Acid Fermentation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The methane production of the distiller’s grains via lactic acid fermentation (shorter for the fermentation residue) was investigated, and the variable trend of pH values, alkali concentration and volatile fatty acids were examined. The results ... Keywords: the residue of distillers' grains via lactic acid fermentation, biomass wastes, anaerobic digestion, volatile fatty acids, biogas production

Li-Hong Wang; Wang Qunhui; Sun Xiaohong; Xin Zhao

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Multiple-copy distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We provide a detailed theoretical analysis of multiple-copy purification and distillation protocols for phase-diffused squeezed states of light. The standard iterative distillation protocol is generalized to a collective purification of an arbitrary number of N copies. We also derive a semianalytical expression for the asymptotic limit of the iterative distillation and purification protocol and discuss its properties.

Marek, Petr [School of Mathematics and Physics, The Queen's University, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom); Fiurasek, Jaromir [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 50, 77200 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Hage, Boris; Franzen, Alexander; DiGugliemo, James; Schnabel, Roman [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut) and Leibniz Universitaet Hannover, Callinstr. 38, 30167 Hannover (Germany)

2007-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Adapting to Network and Client Variability via On-Demand Dynamic Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

distillation curve (ADC), is a significant improvement, featuring (1) a composition-explicit data channel to the comparison of the distillation curve data grid of two aviation turbine fuels, JP-8 and S-8.10,18-20 JP-8 classifications to the data grid, the distillation curve becomes more information rich. In Figure 3, we present

Brewer, Eric A.

369

Fuel cell integrated with steam reformer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A H.sub.2 -air fuel cell integrated with a steam reformer is disclosed wherein a superheated water/methanol mixture is fed to a catalytic reformer to provide a continuous supply of hydrogen to the fuel cell, the gases exhausted from the anode of the fuel cell providing the thermal energy, via combustion, for superheating the water/methanol mixture.

Beshty, Bahjat S. (Lower Makefield, PA); Whelan, James A. (Bricktown, NJ)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

370

School Finance Reform: Assessing General Equilibrium Effects  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In 1994 the state of Michigan implemented one of the most comprehensive school finance reforms undertaken to date in any of the states. Understanding the effects of the reform is thus of value in informing other potential reform initiatives. In addition, the reform and associated changes in the economic environment provide an opportunity to assess whether a simple general equilibrium model can be of value in framing the study of such reform initiatives. In this paper, we present and use such a model to derive predictions about the effects of the reform on housing prices and neighborhood demographic compositions. Broadly, our analysis implies that the effects of the reform and changes in the economic environment are likely to have been reflected primarily in housing prices and only modestly on neighborhood demographics. We find that evidence for the Detroit metropolitan area from the decade encompassing the reform is largely consistent with the predictions of the model (JEL codes: H42, H71, H73, I22).

Maria Marta Ferreyra

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Octane Number Prediction in a Reforming Plant  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work a neural network for the prediction of the complex and non-linear behavior of a Catalytic Reforming of a refinery has been developed. In a fuel, refinery reforming is a conversion process to increase octane number (RON) of the desulphurated ...

E. Chibaro

2000-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

372

Methanol Steam Reformer on a Silicon Wafer  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A study of the reforming rates, heat transfer and flow through a methanol reforming catalytic microreactor fabricated on a silicon wafer are presented. Comparison of computed and measured conversion efficiencies are shown to be favorable. Concepts for insulating the reactor while maintaining small overall size and starting operation from ambient temperature are analyzed.

Park, H; Malen, J; Piggott, T; Morse, J; Sopchak, D; Greif, R; Grigoropoulos, C; Havstad, M; Upadhye, R

2004-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

373

Predicting the Behavior of Small Fatigue Cracks - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

are effective at providing crack propagation resistance in many materials and composites, these mechanisms result in a crack size dependence (i.e., “small crack ...

374

New model accurately predicts reformate composition  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Although naphtha reforming is a well-known process, the evolution of catalyst formulation, as well as new trends in gasoline specifications, have led to rapid evolution of the process, including: reactor design, regeneration mode, and operating conditions. Mathematical modeling of the reforming process is an increasingly important tool. It is fundamental to the proper design of new reactors and revamp of existing ones. Modeling can be used to optimize operating conditions, analyze the effects of process variables, and enhance unit performance. Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo has developed a model of the catalytic reforming process that accurately predicts reformate composition at the higher-severity conditions at which new reformers are being designed. The new AA model is more accurate than previous proposals because it takes into account the effects of temperature and pressure on the rate constants of each chemical reaction.

Ancheyta-Juarez, J.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E. (Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico))

1994-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

375

Etude du comportement de mousse céramique comme contacteur Gaz/Liquide à contre courant : application à la distillation et à la distillation réactive.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Ces travaux de thèse abordent la problématique du développement d'internes destinés à la distillation réactive. La méthodologie à suivre est appliquée dans le cas des… (more)

Lévêque, Julien

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1995-1996  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization U.S. Refining Capacity Utilization by Tancred Lidderdale, Nancy Masterson, and Nicholas Dazzo* U.S. crude oil refinery utilization rates have steadily increased since oil price and allocation decontrol in 1981. The annual average atmospheric distillation utilization rate has increased from 68.6 percent of operable capacity in 1981 to 92.6 percent in 1994. The distillation utilization rate reached a peak of 96.4 percent in August 1994, the highest one-month average rate in over 20 years. This dramatic increase in refining capacity utilization has stimulated a growing interest in the ability of U.S. refineries to supply domestic requirements for finished petroleum products. This article briefly reviews recent trends in domestic refining capacity utilization and examines in detail the differences in

377

Both Distillate Supply and Demand Reached Extraordinary Levels This Winter  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: This chart shows some critical differences in distillate supply and demand during this winter heating season, in comparison to the past two winters. Typically, distillate demand peaks during the winter months, but "new supply" (refinery production and net imports) cannot increase as much, so the remaining supply needed is drawn from inventories. This pattern is evident in each of the past two winter heating seasons. This winter, however, the pattern was very different, for several reasons: With inventories entering the season at extremely low levels, a "typical" winter stockdraw would have been nearly impossible, particularly in the Northeast, the region most dependent on heating oil. Demand reached near-record levels in December, as colder-than-normal

378

Distillate Stocks are Low - Especially on the East Coast  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: Distillate stocks are normally built during the summer for use during the winter as shown by the normal band. Currently, stocks are very low for this time of year. This graph shows East Coast inventories, which at the end of August, were well below the normal band (over 9 million barrels or 19% below the low end of the band). The East Coast is about 31% lower than its 10-year average level for this time of year. We focus on the East Coast (PADD 1 ) because this a region in which heating oil is a major winter fuel. Furthermore, the East Coast consumes almost 2/3 of the nation's heating oil (high sulfur distillate). December 1999 was the turning point. Stocks were well within the normal range through November 1999, but in December, they dropped below the

379

Distillation and purification of symmetric entangled Gaussian states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose an entanglement distillation and purification scheme for symmetric two-mode entangled Gaussian states that allows to asymptotically extract a pure entangled Gaussian state from any input entangled symmetric Gaussian state. The proposed scheme is a modified and extended version of the entanglement distillation protocol originally developed by Browne et al. [Phys. Rev. A 67, 062320 (2003)]. A key feature of the present protocol is that it utilizes a two-copy degaussification procedure that involves a Mach-Zehnder interferometer with single-mode non-Gaussian filters inserted in its two arms. The required non-Gaussian filtering operations can be implemented by coherently combining two sequences of single-photon addition and subtraction operations.

Fiurasek, Jaromir [Department of Optics, Palacky University, 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

380

Distillability and PPT entanglement of low-rank quantum states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It is known that he bipartite quantum states, with rank strictly smaller than the maximum of the ranks of its two reduced states, are distillable by local operations and classical communication. Our first main result is that this is also true for NPT states with rank equal to this maximum. (A state is PPT if the partial transpose of its density matrix is positive semidefinite, and otherwise it is NPT.) This was conjectured first in 1999 in the special case when the two local ranks are equal. Our second main result provides a complete solution of the separability problem for bipartite states of rank 4. Namely, we show that such a state is separable if and only if it is PPT and its range contains at least one product state. We also prove that the so called checkerboard states are distillable if and only if they are NPT.

Lin Chen; Dragomir Z. Djokovic

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Continuous variable entanglement distillation of Non-Gaussian Mixed States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many different quantum information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding and entanglement based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is however hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order non-linearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne mea...

Dong, Ruifang; Heersink, Joel; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd; Andersen, Ulrik L

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Collocation Methods for Distillation Design I: Model Description and Testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Fast and accurate distillation design requires a model that significantly reduces the problem size while accurately approximating a full order distillation column model. Variable number of trays and variable feed tray location make optimization possible. This collocation model builds on the concepts of past collocation models for design of complex real-world separation systems. Two variable transformations make this method unique. Polynomials cannot accurately fit trajectories which flatten out. In columns, flat sections occur in the middle of large column sections, or where concentrations go to zero or one. With an exponential transformation of the tray number which maps zero to an infinite number of trays onto the range zero to one, two collocation trays can accurately simulate a large column section. With a hyperbolic tangent transformation of the mole fractions, the model can simulate columns which reach high purities. Furthermore, this model uses multiple collocation elements for ...

Robert S. Huss; Arthur W. Westerberg

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Entanglement cost and distillable entanglement of symmetric states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We compute entanglement cost and distillable entanglement of states supported on symmetric subspace. Not only giving general formula, we apply them to the output states of optimal cloning machines. Surprisingly, under some settings, the optimal n to m clone and true m copies are the same in entanglement measures. However, they differ in the error exponent of entanglement dilution. We also presented a general theory of entanglement dilution which is applicable to any non-i.i.d sequence of states.

Keiji Matsumoto

2007-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

384

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

385

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is an indicator of the distillator performances, is obtained as 37.2$\\pm$0.6. This value is in reasonable agreement with a designed value of 37.9. The HD target is expected to be efficiently polarized under a well-controlled condition by doping an optimal amount of ortho-H$_2$ to the purified HD gas.

T. Ohta; S. Bouchigny; J. -P. Didelez; M. Fujiwara; K. Fukuda; H. Kohri; T. Kunimatsu; C. Morisaki; S. Ono; G. Rouill'; M. Tanaka; K. Ueda; M. Uraki; M. Utsuro; S. Y. Wang; M. Yosoi

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

386

Nonlinear structural crack growth monitoring  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus are provided for the detection, through nonlinear manipulation of data, of an indicator of imminent failure due to crack growth in structural elements. The method is a process of determining energy consumption due to crack growth and correlating the energy consumption with physical phenomena indicative of a failure event. The apparatus includes sensors for sensing physical data factors, processors or the like for computing a relationship between the physical data factors and phenomena indicative of the failure event, and apparatus for providing notification of the characteristics and extent of such phenomena.

Welch, Donald E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hively, Lee M. (Philadelphia, TN); Holdaway, Ray F. (Clinton, TN)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

U.S. Distillate Market Testimony for New York Assembly Hearing  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Market Testimony for New York Assembly Hearing Market Testimony for New York Assembly Hearing 2/4/2000 Click here to start Table of Contents U.S. Distillate Market Testimony for New York Assembly Hearing U.S. Residential Heating Oil Prices Regional Residential Heating Oil Prices Selected State Residential Heating Oil Prices Spot Distillate & Crude Oil Prices (Prices thru Jan 31, 2000) Low Distillate Stocks Set Stage for Price Volatility PADD 1 (East Coast) Heating Oil Stocks Low New England & Mid-Atlantic Weekly Total Distillate Stocks Low World Crude Production Not Keeping Pace with Demand OECD Stocks Reflect S/D Imbalance Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of Northeast Winter Supply Distillate Problem Likely to be Resolved Soon, But Recurrence Possible East Coast Distillate Production

388

Distillation of hydrogen isotopes for polarized HD target  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We have developed a cryogenic distillation system to purify Hydrogen-Deuteride (HD) gas for a polarized HD target in LEPS experiments at SPring-8. A small amount of ortho-H$_2$ ($\\sim$0.01%) in the HD gas plays an important role in efficiently polarizing the HD target. Since there are 1$\\sim$5% impurities of H$_2$ and D$_2$ in commercially available HD gases, it is inevitable that the HD gas is purified up to $\\sim$99.99%. The distillation system has a cryogenic pot (17$\\sim$21 K) containing many small stainless steel cells called Heli-pack. Commercial HD gas with an amount of 5.2 mol is fed into the pot. We carried out three distillation runs by changing temperatures (17.5 K and 20.5 K) and gas extraction speeds (1.3 ml/min and 5.2 ml/min). The extracted gas was analyzed by using a gas analyzer system combining a quadrupole mass spectrometer with a gas chromatograph. The HD gas of 1 mol with a purity better than 99.99% has been successfully obtained. The effective NTS (Number of Theoretical Stages), which is...

Ohta, T; Didelez, J -P; Fujiwara, M; Fukuda, K; Kohri, H; Kunimatsu, T; Morisaki, C; Ono, S; Rouill', G; Tanaka, M; Ueda, K; Uraki, M; Utsuro, M; Wang, S Y; Yosoi, M

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

Continuous variable entanglement distillation of Non-Gaussian Mixed States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Many different quantum information communication protocols such as teleportation, dense coding and entanglement based quantum key distribution are based on the faithful transmission of entanglement between distant location in an optical network. The distribution of entanglement in such a network is however hampered by loss and noise that is inherent in all practical quantum channels. Thus, to enable faithful transmission one must resort to the protocol of entanglement distillation. In this paper we present a detailed theoretical analysis and an experimental realization of continuous variable entanglement distillation in a channel that is inflicted by different kinds of non-Gaussian noise. The continuous variable entangled states are generated by exploiting the third order non-linearity in optical fibers, and the states are sent through a free-space laboratory channel in which the losses are altered to simulate a free-space atmospheric channel with varying losses. We use linear optical components, homodyne measurements and classical communication to distill the entanglement, and we find that by using this method the entanglement can be probabilistically increased for some specific non-Gaussian noise channels.

Ruifang Dong; Mikael Lassen; Joel Heersink; Christoph Marquardt; Radim Filip; Gerd Leuchs; Ulrik L. Andersen

2010-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

390

Optimization of reactive distillation processes with simulated annealing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A simulated annealing-based algorithm (MSIMPSA) suitable for the optimization of mixed integer non-linear programming (MINLP) problems was applied to the synthesis of a non-equilibrium reactive distillation column. A simulation model based on an extension of conventional distillation is proposed for the simulation step of the optimization problem. In the case of ideal vapor}liquid equilibrium, the simulation results are similar to those obtained by Ciric and Gu (1994, AIChE Journal, 40(9), 1479) using the GAMS environment and to those obtained with the AspenPlus modular simulator. The optimization results are also similar to those previously reported and similar to those using an adaptive random search algorithm (MSGA). The optimizations were also performed with non-ideal vapor}liquid equilibrium, considering either distributed feed and reaction trays or single feed and reaction tray. The results show that the optimized objective function values are very similar, and mostly independent of the number of trays and of the reaction distribution. It is shown that the proposed simulation/optimization equation-oriented environments are capable of providing optimized solutions which are close to the global optimum, and reveal its adequacy for the optimization of reactive distillation

M. F. Cardoso; R. L. Salcedo; S. Feyo De Azevedo; D. Barbosa

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

Unification of methods for determining distillation curve of oils  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

For the determination of the distillation curve of oils, various types of flask are recommended by industry-branch standards (OST) and specifications (TU). For example, TU 6-02-1072-86 for PEF fluid and TU 6-02-921-74 for the chlorofluorocarbon oil UF specify a Claisen flask (GOST 25336-82); the standard OST 38.01402-86 for mineral-base vacuum oils specifies a specially designed flask; TU 6-01-26-54-85 for Alkarene type vacuum oils specifies a Bogdanov flask. The latter two flasks are not included in any State (GOST) standards for chemical laboratory ware and hence are not in regular production. The accuracy in determining the distillation curve depends on the separating ability of the flask. Flasks designed as shown do not allow return of part of the condensate to the still section, so that it is impossible to regulate the reflux rate and hence impossible to obtain any reliable data on the fractional composition of the product and the distillation temperature. The Claisen and Bogdanov flasks, which have a developed surface, are more suitable for fractionation of oils.

Khitrik, A.A.; Vagapova, N.Kh.; Shagiakhmetov, R.A.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Autothermal Cyclic Reforming Based H2 Generating & Dispensing System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Pressure Reforming Comp- ressor 100 psig 100 psig Reformer H2 PSA SyngasNatural Gas Low Pressure Reforming CMP Syngas 5 psig5 psig Reformer CMP 100 psig H2 PSA Natural Gas Syngas CMP HX CMP HX Thermal Reliability (Eliminates Syngas Compressor) Advantages 70-80%70-80%Thermal Efficiency (Excludes Electricity

393

Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Electricity reform in developing and transition countries: A reappraisal J.H. Williams, R. Ghanadan-oriented reforms in their electric power sectors. Despite the widespread adoption of a standard policy model features of non-OECD electricity reform and reappraises reform policies and underlying assumptions

Kammen, Daniel M.

394

Diesel Reforming for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Application  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

This presentation discusses the development of a diesel reforming catalyst and catalytic system development.

Liu, D-J.; Sheen, S-H.; Krumpelt, M.

2005-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

395

Intergranular Cracking of Brass Sprinkler Heads  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Charles R. Morin Memorial Symposium on Failure Analysis and Prevention. Presentation Title, Intergranular Cracking of Brass Sprinkler Heads.

396

Stress Corrosion Cracking of Brass: A Comparative Study on ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Carbon Steel in High Temperature Geothermal Well · Evaluation of the Susceptibility to Hydrogen Assisted Cracking in ...

397

On the Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of Superalloys at ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

ON THE FATIGUE CRACK PROPAGATION BEHAVIOR. OF SUPERALLOYS AT ... the FCP resistance of superalloys ... lead to poor crack propagation behavior.

398

Environmental Effects on Fatigue Crack Growth Rates in Sour ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Carbon Steel in High Temperature Geothermal Well · Evaluation of the Susceptibility to Hydrogen Assisted Cracking in ...

399

Environmental Cracking Resistance of High Nickel Alloys (CRAs  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Carbon Steel in High Temperature Geothermal Well · Evaluation of the Susceptibility to Hydrogen Assisted Cracking in ...

400

On Modeling Hydrogen-Induced Intergranular Cracking under ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Carbon Steel in High Temperature Geothermal Well · Evaluation of the Susceptibility to Hydrogen Assisted Cracking in ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Corrosion and Cracking of Carbon Steel in Fuel Grade Ethanol  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Carbon Steel in High Temperature Geothermal Well · Evaluation of the Susceptibility to Hydrogen Assisted Cracking in ...

402

Evaluation of the Susceptibility to Hydrogen Assisted Cracking in ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Environmentally Assisted Cracking of Carbon Steel in High Temperature Geothermal Well · Evaluation of the Susceptibility to Hydrogen Assisted Cracking in ...

403

Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations, and Procurement Reform Before the Subcommittee on Technology, Information Policy, Intergovernmental Relations and Procurement Reform, Committee on Oversight and Government Reform, United States House of Representatives Written Statement By: Owen Barwell, Acting Chief Financial Officer, United States Department of Energy Subject: DOE Financial Information Systems Final_Testimony_for_Owen_Barwell.pdf More Documents & Publications AL2010-03.pdf Request for Information - Operations and Maintenance (O & M) Support

404

Internal reforming fuel cell assembly with simplified fuel feed  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel cell assembly in which fuel cells adapted to internally reform fuel and fuel reformers for reforming fuel are arranged in a fuel cell stack. The fuel inlet ports of the fuel cells and the fuel inlet ports and reformed fuel outlet ports of the fuel reformers are arranged on one face of the fuel cell stack. A manifold sealing encloses this face of the stack and a reformer fuel delivery system is arranged entirely within the region between the manifold and the one face of the stack. The fuel reformer has a foil wrapping and a cover member forming with the foil wrapping an enclosed structure.

Farooque, Mohammad (Huntington, CT); Novacco, Lawrence J. (Brookfield, CT); Allen, Jeffrey P. (Naugatuck, CT)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulation of Steam Reforming and Autothermal Reforming for Fuel Cell Applications.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??With the increasing demand for fuel cell applications in transportation, the performance of reformers using gasoline or diesel as the fuel needs to be optimized.… (more)

Shi, Liming

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

406

Bank Regulation and Mortgage Market Reform  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

America’s Housing Finance Market: A Report To Congress”,Subordinated Debt: A Capital Markets Approach to BankBank Regulation and Mortgage Market Reform Dwight M. Jaffee

Jaffee, Dwight M.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Electricity reform abroad and US investment  

SciTech Connect

This report reviews and analyzes the recent electricity reforms in Argentina, Australia, and the United Kingdom (UK) to illustrate how different models of privatization and reform have worked in practice. This report also analyzes the motivations of the U.S. companies who have invested in the electricity industries in these countries, which have become the largest targets of U.S. foreign investment in electricity. Two calculations of foreign investment are used. One is the foreign direct investment series produced by the U.S. Department of Commerce. The other is based on transactions in electric utilities of the three countries. The electricity reform and privatization experiences reviewed may offer some insight as to how the U.S. electricity industry might develop as a result of recent domestic reform efforts and deregulation at the state and national levels. 126 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

Distributed Reforming of Biomass Pyrolysis Oils (Presentation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

gas (0.5% H 2 ) System Definition (1500 kgday station used for H2A analysis) Capital Costs Bio-Oil Reforming H2A Analysis Bio-Oil Case (Ethanol Case) Bio-oil Storage Tank...

409

Device for cooling and humidifying reformate  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Devices for cooling and humidifying a reformate stream from a reforming reactor as well as related methods, modules and systems includes a heat exchanger and a sprayer. The heat exchanger has an inlet, an outlet, and a conduit between the inlet and the outlet. The heat exchanger is adapted to allow a flow of a first fluid (e.g. water) inside the conduit and to establish a heat exchange relationship between the first fluid and a second fluid (e.g. reformate from a reforming reactor) flowing outside the conduit. The sprayer is coupled to the outlet of the heat exchanger for spraying the first fluid exiting the heat exchanger into the second fluid.

Zhao, Jian Lian (Belmont, MA); Northrop, William F. (Ann Arbor, MI)

2008-04-08T23:59:59.000Z

410

"Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" 0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day)" ,,,," Inputs for Heat",,," Primary Consumption" " "," Primary Consumption for all Purposes",,," Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," for Nonfuel Purposes",,,"RSE" ," ------------------------------------",,," ------------------------------------",,," -------------------------------",,,"Row" "Economic Characteristics(a)","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","LPG","Distillate(b)","Residual","Factors"

411

Liquid fuel reformer development: Autothermal reforming of Diesel fuel  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Argonne National Laboratory is developing a process to convert hydrocarbon fuels to clean hydrogen feeds for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The process incorporates an autothermal reforming catalyst that can process hydrocarbon feeds at lower temperatures than existing commercial catalysts. The authors have tested the catalyst with three diesel-type fuels: hexadecane, certified low-sulfur grade 1 diesel, and a standard grade 2 diesel. Hexadecane yielded products containing 60% hydrogen on a dry, nitrogen-free basis at 850 C, while maximum hydrogen product yields for the two diesel fuels were near 50%. Residual products in all cases included CO, CO{sub 2}, ethane, and methane. Further studies with grade 1 diesel showed improved conversion as the water:fuel ratio was increased from 1 to 2 at 850 C. Soot formation was reduced when the oxygen:carbon ratio was maintained at 1 at 850 C. There were no significant changes in hydrogen yield as the space velocity and the oxygen:fuel ratio were varied. Tests with a microchannel monolithic catalyst yielded similar or improved hydrogen levels at higher space velocities than with extruded pellets in a packed bed.

Pereira, C.; Bae, J-M.; Ahmed, S.; Krumpelt, M.

2000-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

412

Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream 1 and spent fuel stream 2. Spent fuel stream 1 is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream 1 and exhaust stream 2, and exhaust stream 1 is vented. Exhaust stream 2 is mixed with spent fuel stream 2 to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells. 1 fig.

Grimble, R.E.

1988-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

413

Reforming of fuel inside fuel cell generator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Disclosed is an improved method of reforming a gaseous reformable fuel within a solid oxide fuel cell generator, wherein the solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plurality of individual fuel cells in a refractory container, the fuel cells generating a partially spent fuel stream and a partially spent oxidant stream. The partially spent fuel stream is divided into two streams, spent fuel stream I and spent fuel stream II. Spent fuel stream I is burned with the partially spent oxidant stream inside the refractory container to produce an exhaust stream. The exhaust stream is divided into two streams, exhaust stream I and exhaust stream II, and exhaust stream I is vented. Exhaust stream II is mixed with spent fuel stream II to form a recycle stream. The recycle stream is mixed with the gaseous reformable fuel within the refractory container to form a fuel stream which is supplied to the fuel cells. Also disclosed is an improved apparatus which permits the reforming of a reformable gaseous fuel within such a solid oxide fuel cell generator. The apparatus comprises a mixing chamber within the refractory container, means for diverting a portion of the partially spent fuel stream to the mixing chamber, means for diverting a portion of exhaust gas to the mixing chamber where it is mixed with the portion of the partially spent fuel stream to form a recycle stream, means for injecting the reformable gaseous fuel into the recycle stream, and means for circulating the recycle stream back to the fuel cells.

Grimble, Ralph E. (Finleyville, PA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Heat Transfer Limitations in Hydrogen Production Via Steam Reformation: The Effect of Reactor Geometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ratio Parameters in Steam-Reforming Hydrogen productionan Insufficient Parameter in the Steam-Reforming Process,”Impurities on the Methanol Steam-Reforming Process for Fuel

Vernon, David R.; Davieau, David D.; Dudgeon, Bryce A.; Erickson, Paul A.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Distilling single-photon entanglement from photon loss and decoherence  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Single-photon entanglement may be the simplest type of entanglement but it is of vice importance in quantum communication. Here we present a practical protocol for distilling the single-photon entanglement from both photon loss and decoherence. With the help of some local single photons, the probability of single photon loss can be decreased and the less-entangled state can also be recovered to maximally entangled state simultaneously. It only requires some linear optical elements which makes it feasible in current experiment condition. This protocol might find applications in current quantum communications based on the quantum repeaters.

Yu-Bo Sheng; Lan Zhou

2013-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

416

Energy Efficiency in Cryogenic Fractionation Through Distributive Distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Advanced Recovery System (ARS) is a patented process that uses the principle of distributed distillation to achieve energy efficiency in the olefins process. This paper describes the concept of ARS and how, by integrating the chill-down and cryogenic fractionation steps, the technology can significantly reduce refrigeration power requirements. ARS technology can be applied to revamps of existing plants as well as new plant designs. Additional applications are now being considered in the integration of refinery off-gas streams with other olefins process.

Carradine, C. R.; McCue, R. H.

1992-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Distilling quantum entanglement via mode-matched filtering  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We propose an avenue toward distillation of quantum entanglement that is implemented by directly passing the entangled qubits through a mode-matched filter. This approach can be applied to a common class of entanglement impurities appearing in photonic systems, where the impurities inherently occupy different spatiotemporal modes than the entangled qubits. As a specific application, we show that our method can be used to significantly purify the telecom-band entanglement generated via the Kerr nonlinearity in single-mode fibers where a substantial amount of Raman-scattering noise is concomitantly produced.

Huang Yuping; Kumar, Prem [Center for Photonic Communication and Computing, EECS Department, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Road, Evanston, Illinois 60208-3118 (United States)

2011-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

418

Distillation Protocols for Mixed States of Multilevel Qubits and the Quantum Renormalization Group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We study several properties of distillation protocols to purify multilevel qubit states (qudits) when applied to a certain family of initial mixed bipartite states. We find that it is possible to use qudits states to increase the stability region obtained with the flow equations to distill qubits. In particular, for qutrits we get the phase diagram of the distillation process with a rich structure of fixed points. We investigate the large-$D$ limit of qudits protocols and find an analytical solution in the continuum limit. The general solution of the distillation recursion relations is presented in an appendix. We stress the notion of weight amplification for distillation protocols as opposed to the quantum amplitude amplification that appears in the Grover algorithm. Likewise, we investigate the relations between quantum distillation and quantum renormalization processes.

M. A. Martin-Delgado; M. Navascues

2003-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

419

Bound States for Magic State Distillation in Fault-Tolerant Quantum Computation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Magic state distillation is an important primitive in fault-tolerant quantum computation. The magic states are pure non-stabilizer states which can be distilled from certain mixed non-stabilizer states via Clifford group operations alone. Because of the Gottesman-Knill theorem, mixtures of Pauli eigenstates are not expected to be magic state distillable, but it has been an open question whether all mixed states outside this set may be distilled. In this Letter we show that, when resources are finitely limited, non-distillable states exist outside the stabilizer octahedron. In analogy with the bound entangled states, which arise in entanglement theory, we call such states bound states for magic state distillation.

Earl T. Campbell; Dan E. Browne

2009-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

420

April 2012 sets U.S. monthly record for distillate net exports ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

The lower demand combined with higher distillate production led to significantly reduced levels of imports, which through April 2012 were down 41% year-over-year.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Utah Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Stocks ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Utah Distillate Fuel Oil, Greater than 15 to 500 ppm Sulfur Stocks at Refineries, Bulk Terminals, and Natural Gas Plants (Thousand Barrels)

422

Figure HL1. U.S. Sales of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils by ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Sales of Fuel Oil and Kerosene in 2009 . ... the need for electric utilities to consume distillate fuel to meet peak summer generation loads remained ...

423

April 2012 sets U.S. monthly record for distillate net exports ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

In response to global demand growth, wholesale prices for distillate fuels have generally been high in recent years compared to prices for other fuels.

424

Table 4. Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use, 1999 and 2000 ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Energy Information Administration 13 Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 2000 Table 4. Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use, 1999 and 2000 (Thousand Gallons)

425

Petroleum Gasoline & Distillate Needs Including the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) Impacts  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

This presentation describes the projections for petroleum-based gasoline and distillate in the Update AEO 2008, which includes the impacts of the Energy Independence and Security Act.

Information Center

2008-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

426

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Simulation study has shown oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand this phenomenon, distillation experiments were performed using San Ardo crude oil (12oAPI). For comparison purposes, three distillation processes were investigated: dry-, steam-, and steam-propanedistillation, the latter at the propane-to-steam mass ratio of 0.05 at steam injection rate 0.5 g/min. Two sets of the distillation experiments were carried out. In the first set of experiments, the distillation temperatures ranged from 115ºC to 300ºC. Distillation pressures ranged from 0 psig to 998 psig for steam- and steam-propane distillation. The temperature-pressure combination used represented 15ºC superheated steam conditions. In the second set of experiments, the distillation temperatures ranged from 220oC to 300oC at 260 psig. The temperature pressure combination used represented field conditions for crude oil. For both conditions, the cell was kept at each temperature plateau (cut) until no increase occurs in distillation yields. Distillation yields were collected at each cut, and the volume and weight of water and hydrocarbon measured. Based on these experiments, a thermodynamic modeling framework was developed that describes distillation effect and oil production for steam distillation experiments. The model is based on composition of crude oil, molecular weight of heavy fraction. The analytical model results are compared against the experimental data for synthetic crude and crude oil to verify the validity of the model. Main results of the study may be summarized as follows. The yields for steam distillation for saturated conditions of Tsat+15 o C and Psat is 10 % and with addition of 5% of propane to steam no significant increase occurs in distillation yields. The yields for steam distillation for field conditions of 260 psig and temperature range (220 ~300oC) is 18 % and with addition of 5% of propane to steam no significant increase in distillation yields. The results indicate that propane has minimal distillation effect on the heavy oil. This occurs possibly because of lesser amount of light fractions in the heavy oil that enhance the separation of components in the oil caused by the concentration gradient.

Jaiswal, Namit

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Microchannel Distillation of JP-8 Jet Fuel for Sulfur Content Reduction  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In microchannel based distillation processes, thin vapor and liquid films are contacted in small channels where mass transfer is diffusion-limited. The microchannel architecture enables improvements in distillation processes. A shorter height equivalent of a theoretical plate (HETP) and therefore a more compact distillation unit can be achieved. A microchannel distillation unit was used to produce a light fraction of JP-8 fuel with reduced sulfur content for use as feed to produce fuel-cell grade hydrogen. The HETP of the microchannel unit is discussed, as well as the effects of process conditions such as feed temperature, flow rate, and reflux ratio.

Zheng, Feng; Stenkamp, Victoria S.; TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.; Huang, Xiwen; King, David L.

2006-09-16T23:59:59.000Z

428

Development of a Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Distillation Column using Rockwell Software.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??In this thesis, an alternative control method based on Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) is proposed to keep the product composition of a distillation column constant.… (more)

Nizami, Muhammad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Copper-Based Multi-Component Alloys by Vacuum Distillation to ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The result of experiment indicated the practicability of vacuum distillation dealing with copper base complex multi-component alloy to separating lead and silver, ...

430

Generation and distillation of non-Gaussian entanglement from nonclassical photon statistics  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

With a product state of the form $${{\\rho}_{\\rm ... Keywords: Beam splitter, Distillation of entanglement, Non-Gaussian entanglement, Partial transpose, Photon number distribution

J. Solomon Ivan; N. Mukunda; R. Simon

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

431

Development of a bench-scale metal distillation furnace  

SciTech Connect

Design of an inductively heated bench-scale distillation furnace (retort) capable of processing actinides is described. The apparatus consists of a vacuum/inert gas bell jar, a bell-jar lift, a nonwater-cooled induction coil, the induction tank circuit, and a series of components designed to contain the metal melts and vapors. The apparatus is located within a nitrogen glovebox and is designed to process plutonium-containing feeds. The electrical parameters of the induction coil and tank circuit necessary for design were determined by two different methods; one is based solely on calculated impedance values, and the other used high-frequency impedance measurements on a mock-up of the induction coil/susceptor arrangement. During the design state, the two methods of determining electrical parameters gave similar results. With the as-built system, the impedance meter did detect some efficiency loss to the metal bell jar and coil support that the calculational method did not predict. These losses were not significant enough to cause operating problems, and thus, both methods were shown to be adequate for the intended purpose. Zinc and magnesium were distilled, and uranium was melted in a successful series of shake-down runs.

Vest, M.A.; Lewandowski, E.F.; Pierce, R.D.; Smith, J.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Chemical Technology Div.

1997-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Investigation related to hydrogen isotopes separation by cryogenic distillation  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Research conducted in the last fifty years has shown that one of the most efficient techniques of removing tritium from the heavy water used as moderator and coolant in CANDU reactors (as that operated at Cernavoda (Romania)) is hydrogen cryogenic distillation. Designing and implementing the concept of cryogenic distillation columns require experiments to be conducted as well as computer simulations. Particularly, computer simulations are of great importance when designing and evaluating the performances of a column or a series of columns. Experimental data collected from laboratory work will be used as input for computer simulations run at larger scale (for The Pilot Plant for Tritium and Deuterium Separation) in order to increase the confidence in the simulated results. Studies carried out were focused on the following: - Quantitative analyses of important parameters such as the number of theoretical plates, inlet area, reflux flow, flow-rates extraction, working pressure, etc. - Columns connected in series in such a way to fulfil the separation requirements. Experiments were carried out on a laboratory-scale installation to investigate the performance of contact elements with continuous packing. The packing was manufactured in our institute. (authors)

Bornea, A.; Zamfirache, M.; Stefanescu, I.; Preda, A.; Balteanu, O.; Stefan, I. [INC-DTCI-ICSI Rm. Valcea, str.Uzinei, Nr.4, 240050 (Romania)

2008-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

433

Hydrogen generation utilizing integrated CO2 removal with steam reforming  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A steam reformer may comprise fluid inlet and outlet connections and have a substantially cylindrical geometry divided into reforming segments and reforming compartments extending longitudinally within the reformer, each being in fluid communication. With the fluid inlets and outlets. Further, methods for generating hydrogen may comprise steam reformation and material adsorption in one operation followed by regeneration of adsorbers in another operation. Cathode off-gas from a fuel cell may be used to regenerate and sweep the adsorbers, and the operations may cycle among a plurality of adsorption enhanced reformers to provide a continuous flow of hydrogen.

Duraiswamy, Kandaswamy; Chellappa, Anand S

2013-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

434

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam with propane-distillation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent experimental and simulation studies -conducted at the Department of Petroleum Engineering at Texas A&M University - confirm oil production is accelerated when propane is used as an additive during steam injection. To better understand this phenomenon, distillation experiments were performed using seven-component synthetic oil consisting of equal weights of the following alkanes: n-C5, n-C6, n-C7, n-C8, n-C9, nC10, and n-C15. For comparison purposes, three distillation processes were investigated: dry-, steam-, and steam-propane-distillation, the latter at a propane:steam mass ratio of 0.05. The injection rate of nitrogen during dry-and steam-distillation was the same as that of propane during steam-propane distillation, 0.025 g/min, with steam injection rate kept at 0.5 g/min. The distillation temperatures ranged from 115°C to 300°C and were increased in steps of 10°C. The cell was kept at each temperature plateau (cut) for 30 minutes. Distillation pressures ranged from 0 psig for dry distillation to 998 psig for steam-and steam-propane distillation. The temperature-pressure combination used represented 15°C superheated steam conditions. Distillate samples were collected at each cut, and the volume and weight of water and hydrocarbon measured. In addition, the composition of the hydrocarbon distillate was measured using a gas chromatograph. Main results of the study may be summarized as follows. First, the hydrocarbon yield at 125°C is highest with steam-propane distillation (74 wt%) compared to steam distillation (58 wt%), and lowest with dry distillation (36 wt%). This explains in part the oil production acceleration observed in steam-propane displacement experiments. Second, the final hydrocarbon yield at 300°C however is the same for the three distillation processes. This observation is in line with the fact that oil recoveries were very similar in steam- and steam-propane displacement experiments. Third, based on the yields of individual hydrocarbon components, steam-propane distillation lowers the apparent boiling points of the hydrocarbons significantly. This phenomenon may be the most fundamental effect of propane on hydrocarbon distillation, which results in a higher yield during steam-propane distillation and oil production acceleration during steam-propane displacement. Fourth, experimental K-values are higher in distillations with steam-propane for the components n-hexane, n-heptane, n-octane, and n-nonane. Fifth, vapor fugacity coefficients for each component are higher in distillations with steam-propane than with steam. Finally, Gibbs excess energy is overall lower in distillations with steam-propane than with steam. The experimental results clearly indicate the importance of distillation on oil recovery during steam-or steam-propane injection. The experimental procedure and method of analysis developed in this study (for synthetic oil) will be beneficial to future researchers in understanding the effect of propane as steam additive on actual crude oils.

Ramirez Garnica, Marco Antonio

2003-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

435

The influence of cracks in rotating shafts  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In this paper, the influence of transverse cracks in a rotating shaft is analysed. The paper addresses the two distinct issues of the changes in modal properties and the influence of crack breathing on dynamic response during operation. Moreover, the evolution of the orbit of a cracked rotor near half of the first resonance frequency is investigated. The results provide a possible basis for an on-line monitoring system. In order to conduct this study, the dynamic response of a rotor with a breathing crack is evaluated by using the alternate frequency/time domain approach. It is shown that this method evaluates the nonlinear behaviour of the rotor system rapidly and efficiently by modelling the breathing crack with a truncated Fourier series. The dynamic response obtained by applying this method is compared with that evaluated through numerical integration. The resulting orbit during transient operation is presented and some distinguishing features of a cracked rotor are examined.

Jean-Jacques Sinou; A. W. Lees

2008-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

436

Stress Corrosion Cracking - Programmaster.org  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Oct 28, 2013 ... Atomic Ordering in Alloy 690 and Its Effect on Long-term Structural Stability and Stress Corrosion Cracking Susceptibility: Michael Kaufman1; ...

437

Creep Crack Growth Behaviour of Alloy 718  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

its creep crack growth is controlled by stress intensity factor regardless of load level .... energy. Since vacancies diffuse from a low strain energy position to a high ...

438

Quench Cracking Characterization of Superalloys Using Fracture ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

When the on-cooling thermal stress. (load) accumulated to a certain point, quench cracking happened abruptly. Based on the precrack length, the thermal stress ...

439

Evaluation of Stress-Corrosion Cracking  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Table 3   Stress-corrosion cracking of selected material systems...chlorides, seawater Oil/gas production and transmission, oil refining,

440

Crystallographic Orientation Dependence of Fatigue Crack ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In the present study, fatigue crack propagation behavior of rolled AZ31B magnesium ... Alloy Design for Enhancing the Fracture Resistance of Heat Treated High ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Sulfide Stress Cracking in Steels - A Review  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Symposium, Corrosion and Corrosion Protection of Materials in the Oil and Gas Industry. Presentation Title, Sulfide Stress Cracking in Steels - A Review.

442

Environmentally Assisted Cracking Susceptibility Assessment of AP ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Presentation Title, Environmentally Assisted Cracking Susceptibility Assessment of AP 1000 Reactor Coolant Pump Flywheel Retainer Ring A289 18Cr-18Mn ...

443

Status Review of Initiation of Environmentally Assisted Cracking and Short Crack Growth  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

This report reviews current knowledge of environmentally assisted cracking EAC initiation and short crack growth by stress corrosion cracking, strain-induced corrosion cracking, and, to a lesser extent, corrosion fatigue in nickel base alloys, austenitic stainless steels, and carbon and low-alloy steels exposed to typical pressurized water reactor PWR and boiling water reactor BWR aqueous environments. The document identifies key gaps in knowledge and recommends areas where additional experimental work i...

2005-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

444

Thermally integrated staged methanol reformer and method  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

A thermally integrated two-stage methanol reformer including a heat exchanger and first and second reactors colocated in a common housing in which a gaseous heat transfer medium circulates to carry heat from the heat exchanger into the reactors. The heat transfer medium comprises principally hydrogen, carbon dioxide, methanol vapor and water vapor formed in a first stage reforming reaction. A small portion of the circulating heat transfer medium is drawn off and reacted in a second stage reforming reaction which substantially completes the reaction of the methanol and water remaining in the drawn-off portion. Preferably, a PrOx reactor will be included in the housing upstream of the heat exchanger to supplement the heat provided by the heat exchanger.

Skala, Glenn William (Churchville, NY); Hart-Predmore, David James (Rochester, NY); Pettit, William Henry (Rochester, NY); Borup, Rodney Lynn (East Rochester, NY)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Fundamental kinetic modeling of the catalytic reforming process  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

In this work, a fundamental kinetic model for the catalytic reforming process has been developed. The complex network of elementary steps and molecular reactions occurring in catalytic reforming has been generated through a computer algorithm characterizing ...

Rogelio Sotelo-Boyas / Gilbert F. Froment; Rayford G. Anthony

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Electricity reform in Chile : lessons for developing countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chile was the first country in the world to implement a comprehensive reform of its electricity sector in the recent period. Among developing countries only Argentina has had a comparably comprehensive and successful reform. ...

Pollitt, Michael G.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

447

Investigation of carbon-formation mechanisms and fuel-conversion rates in the adiabatic reformer. Annual report, March 19, 1980-March 19, 1981  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Fuel cell power plants may be required to use coal derived liquid fuels or heavy petroleum distillates as fuels. Among the fuel processor candidates, the adiabatic reformer is at the most advanced state of development. The objective of the present program is to establish a reactor model for the adiabatic reformer which will predict process stream compositions and include carbon formation processes. Four subordinate tasks were proposed to achieve the objective. These are: 1) to determine on selected catalysts rate expressions for catalytic reactions occurring in the entrance section of the adiabatic reformer; 2) to determine with microbalance experiments critical conditions for carbon formation on selected catalysts; 3) to establish a reactor model to predict process stream compositions in the adiabatic reformer using data from Task 1 for catalytic reactions and data from the literature for homogeneous gas phase reactions; and 4) to establish a model to predict carbon formation by combination of the model for process stream composition from Task 3 and data for carbon formation from Task 2. Progress is reported. (WHK)

Not Available

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

448

REFORMING PROCESSES FOR MICRO COMBINED HEAT AND POWER SYSTEM BASED ON SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELL  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and energy balance, different types of fuel reforming including steam reforming, autothermal reforming technologies. Steam reforming, partial oxidation and autothermal reforming are the three major fuel of an activated carbon bed. Prior to enter the SOFC stack, the fuel is pre-reformed (methane is partially

Liso, Vincenzo

449

Effects of Ruminally Degradable Nitrogen in Diets Containing Wet Distiller’s Grains with Solubles and Steam-flaked Corn on Feedlot Cattle Performance and Carcass Characteristics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Wet distiller’s grains with solubles are the most common feedstuff generated by the ethanol industry, and this feedstuff has been utilized by the feedlot industry. Exploration of the effect of dietary distiller’s inclusion on the form and quantity of protein or nitrogen (N) has received little attention. Assessment of degradable N needs in diets containing wet distiller’s grains with solubles (WDGS) is needed to aid the cattle feeding industry in managing feed costs and potential environmental issues. In Exp. 1, 525 yearling steers (initial weight = 373 ±13 kg) received treatments in a 2 × 3 1 factorial. Factors included corn WDGS (15 or 30 percent of DM) and non-protein N (NPN; 0, 1.5, or 3.0 percent of DM) from urea. The control diet without corn WDGS contained 3.0 percent NPN (1.06 percent urea) and cottonseed meal. Overall gain efficiency among steers fed 15 percent corn WDGS was greatest for 1.5 percent NPN and least for 0 percent NPN (P = 0.07, quadratic), whereas gain efficiency decreased linearly (P 0.15). Dietary NPN concentration did not influence growth performance (P > 0.21). Results suggest that optimum performance for cattle fed 15 percent WDGS occurred when the diet contained between 1.5 percent and 2.25 percent NPN. However, removing all supplemental NPN was necessary to support optimum performance in diets containing 30 percent WCDG.

Ponce, Christian

2010-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

The Effect of Temperature on the Absolute Permeability to Distilled Water of Unconsolidated Sand Cores  

SciTech Connect

The work presented herein is a study of the effect of temperature on the absolute permeability to distilled water of unconsolidated sandstones at one confining pressure. The absolute permeability to distilled water of Ottawa silica sand was not dependent on the temperature level.

Sageev, A.; Gobran, B.D.; Brigham, W.E.; Ramey, H.J. Jr.

1980-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

451

Analysis of Heat Exchanger Network in Atmosphere-Vacuum Distillation of Crude Oil  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Heat exchanger network (HEN) is constructed by hot streams which need cooling and some cold streams which need heating in the atmosphere-vacuum distillation process of crude oil. HEN synthesis technology of atmosphere-vacuum distillation of crude oil ... Keywords: energy saving, heat exchanger network, synthesis

Ge Yu-lin; Wang Ping; Shen Sheng-qiang

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

452

Topic Exploration and Distillation for Web Search by a Similarity-Based Analysis  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Topic distillation is the process of finding representative pages relevant to a given query. Well-known topic distillation approaches such as the HITS algorithm have shown to be useful in identifying high quality pages. In this paper, we attempt to revisit ...

Xiaoyu Wang; Zhiguo Lu; Aoying Zhou

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on the same initial data set. Distillation Line \\ Tangent to \\ p i d u e EUWB Residue Curve Figure 14. Residue experimental data, we need to know more about the characteristics of residue curves (RCs). 3.2. Nodes and azeotropic data, using simple distillation experiments in the neighborhoodsof binary azeotropes. They require

Skogestad, Sigurd

454

Discontinuous surface cracks during stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel single crystal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Discontinuous surface cracks during stress corrosion cracking of stainless steel single crystal L Keywords: A. Stainless steel B. SEM C. Stress corrosion a b s t r a c t Single crystal 321 stainless steel, and the river-markings exhibited microshear facets along the {1 1 1} plane. Interaction between the main crack

Volinsky, Alex A.

455

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

5 5 Notes: Stocks are important in the Northeast because they are the nearest source of supply when anything unexpected occurs, and they supply a significant portion of demand during the peak heating season. Stocks are normally an important part of East Coast winter distillate supply. Over the last 10 years, they provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. One of the biggest stock draws we have seen was in January 1994, when a prolonged severe cold spell required 666,000 barrels per day of stocks, covering almost 36% of demand for that month. On average, stocks supply the East Coast with about 260,000 barrels per day on average in January and 280,000 barrels per day in February. Those supplies represent draws of about 8 million barrels in one month.

456

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

8 8 Notes: Why do stocks matter in the Northeast? They are the nearest source of supply when anything unexpected occurs, and they supply a significant portion of demand during the peak heating season. Stocks are normally an important part of PADD 1 winter distillate supply. Over the last 10 years, they provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. One of the biggest stock draws we have seen was in January 1994, when a prolonged severe cold spell required 666 MB/D of stocks, covering almost 36% of demand for that month. Stocks supply the East Coast with about 260 MB/D on average in January and 280 MB/D in February. Those supplies represent draws of about 8 million barrels in one month. PADD 1 refineries meet about 25% of demand during January and

457

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of Northeast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

The weather alone was not enough to cause the price spike. The low The weather alone was not enough to cause the price spike. The low stocks left the area vulnerable to sudden changes in the market, such as the weather change. Why do stocks matter in the Northeast? Stocks are normally an important part of PADD 1 winter distillate supply. Over the last 5 years, PADD 1 stocks provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. They are the closest source of supply to the consumer. PADD 1 depends on about 60% of its supply from distant sources such as the Gulf Coast or imports, which can take several weeks to travel to the Northeast. Even product from East Coast refineries, if capacity is available, may take a week before it is produced and delivered to the regions needing new supply. Thus, stocks must be able

458

Distillate Problem Likely to be Resolved Soon, But Recurrence Possible  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

2 of 15 2 of 15 Notes: The current high prices in the Northeast should prompt increased production. Regional stocks will shift to areas of highest need, production from East Coast and Gulf Coast refineries will increase (capacity is available as the utilization indicates), and if the problem persists, imports from Europe might be drawn to U.S. But there are several caveats as to the quickness of the price response: Colder weather would quickly use up additional supply moving into the area, postponing relief for the price spike Further refinery problems and/or long delays in current East Coast refinery recoveries would slow new supply from arriving. As of January 31, distillate spot prices had dropped back to 82 cents, which still provides attractive refinery margins, but illustrates

459

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Stocks are normally an important part of East Coast winter Stocks are normally an important part of East Coast winter distillate supply, since they are the nearest source when anything unexpected occurs, and they supply a significant portion of demand during the peak heating season. Over the last 10 years, stocks have provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. On average, stocks supply the East Coast with about 260 thousand barrels per day in January and 280 in February. Those supplies represent draws of about 8 million barrels in one month. In addition, East Coast refineries meet about 25% of demand during January and February, and other regions -- mostly the Gulf Coast -- supply 40-50% of the region's needs. Imports generally supply about as much as stocks during the peak

460

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

7 7 Notes: Stocks are normally an important part of East Coast winter distillate supply, since they are the nearest source when anything unexpected occurs, and they supply a significant portion of demand during the peak heating season. Over the last 10 years, stocks have provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. On average, stocks supply the East Coast with about 260 MB/D in January and 280 MB/D in February. Those supplies represent draws of about 8 million barrels in one month. In addition, East Coast refineries meet about 25% of demand during January and February, and other regions -- mostly the Gulf Coast -- supply 40-50% of the region's needs. Imports generally supply about as much as stocks during the peak months,

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

following Energy Information Administration sources: Weekly following Energy Information Administration sources: Weekly Petroleum Status Report, DOE/EIA-0208(96-39); Petroleum Supply Monthly, September 1996, DOE/EIA-0109(96/09); Petroleum Supply Annual 1995, DOE/EIA-0340(95); Petroleum Marketing Monthly, September 1996, DOE/EIA-0380(96/09); Short-Term Energy Outlook, DOE/EIA-0202(96/4Q) and 4th Quarter 1996 Short-Term Integrated Forecasting System; and an address by EIA Administrator Jay E. Hakes on the Fall 1996 Heating Fuel Assessment before the National Association of State Energy Officials, September 16, 1996. Table FE1. Distillate Fuel Oil Demand and Supply Factors, Winter (October - March) 1993-94 Through 1996-97 History STEO Mid Case Factor Winter Winter Winter Winter 1993-94

462

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

6 6 Notes: Stocks are normally an important part of East Coast winter distillate supply, since they are the nearest source when anything unexpected occurs, and they supply a significant portion of demand during the peak heating season. Over the last 10 years, stocks have provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. On average, stocks supply the East Coast with about 260 thousand barrels per day in January and 280 in February. Those supplies represent draws of about 8 million barrels in one month. In addition, East Coast refineries meet about 25% of demand during January and February, and other regions -- mostly the Gulf Coast -- supply 40-50% of the region's needs. Imports generally supply about as much as stocks during the peak

463

Distillate Fuel Oil Imports Could Be Available - For A Price  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

4 4 Notes: So it wasn't demand and production explains only part of the reason we got through last winter with enough stocks. The mystery is solved when you look at net imports of distillate fuel last winter. As we found out, while imports are a small contributor to supply, they are sometimes crucial. Last winter, imports were the main source of supply increase following the price spike. Previous record levels were shattered as imports came pouring into the country. The fact that Europe was enjoying a warmer-than-normal winter also encouraged exports to the United States. It was massive amounts of imports, particularly from Russia, that helped us get through last winter in as good a shape as we did. Imports are expected to be relatively normal this winter. Added imports

464

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of Northeast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

1 of 15 1 of 15 Notes: Why do stocks matter in the Northeast? Stocks are normally an important part of PADD 1 winter distillate supply. Over the last 5 years, they provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. One of the biggest stock draws we have seen was in January 1994, when a prolonged severe cold spell required 666 MB/D of stocks, covering almost 36% of demand for that month. PADD 1 refineries meet about 25% of demand during January and February, and other PADDs -- mostly PADD 3 -- supply 45-50% of the regionÂ’s needs. Imports generally supply about as much as stocks during the peak months, with most of the product coming from Canada, the Virgin Islands and Venezuela. Percentages do not tell the whole story. Stocks supply close to 300

465

Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Thermal membrane distillation is one of the novel separation methods in the process industry. It involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semipermeable membrane through the use of thermal energy to bring about the separation of a feed mixture into two streams- a permeate and a retentate stream. Traditionally, studies on this technology have focused on the performance of individual modules as a function of material of the membrane and also configuration of the membrane. However, an investigation into the performance of a network of these modules has not been conducted in the past. A hierarchical parametric programming technique for synthesis of an optimal network of these modules is presented. A global mass allocation representation involving sources and sinks was used to solve the problem and derive criteria for optimality in specific regions of the parametric space. Two case studies have been presented to illustrate the applicability of the presented methodology.

Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Canonical Strangeness and Distillation Effects in Hadron Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Strangeness canonical ensemble for Maxwell-Boltzmann statistics is reconsidered for excited nuclear systems with non-vanishing net strangeness. A new recurrence relation method is applied to find the partition function. The method is first generalized to the case of quantum strangeness canonical ensemble. Uncertainties in calculation of the K+/pi+ excitation function are discussed. A new scenario based on the strangeness distillation effect is put forward for a possible explanation of anomalous strangeness production observed at the bombarding energy near 30 AGeV. The peaked maximum in the K+/pi+ ratio is considered as a sign of the critical end-point reached in evolution of the system rather than a latent heat jump emerging from the onset of the first order deconfinement phase transition.

V. D. Toneev; A. S. Parvan

2004-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

467

Distillate Stocks Are Important Part of East Coast Winter Supply  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

9 9 Notes: Stocks are normally an important part of East Coast winter distillate supply, since they are the nearest source when anything unexpected occurs, and they supply a significant portion of demand during the peak heating season. Over the last 10 years, stocks have provided about 15% of supply during the peak winter months of January and February. On average, stocks supply the East Coast with about 260 thousand barrels per day in January and 280 in February. Those supplies represent draws of about 8 million barrels in one month. In addition, East Coast refineries meet about 25% of demand during January and February, and other regions -- mostly the Gulf Coast -- supply 40-50% of the region's needs. Imports generally supply about as much as stocks during the peak

468

Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Government Management, Organization, and Procurement Before the House Oversight and Government Reform Subcommittee on Government Management, Organization, and Procurement Before...

469

Cost Analysis of Bio-Derived Liquids Reforming  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

) steam reforming C2H5OH + H2O Ã? 2CO + 4H2 6) Water gas shift 7) Methanation 8) Coking from CH4 (methane Ethanol Reforming Options Gas Phase Liquid Phase Virent Steam Partial Oxidation Reforming GE (SCPO) decomposition C2H5OH Ã? CH4 + CO + H2 steam reforming CH4 + 2H2O Ã? 4H2 + CO2 3) C2H5OH dehydrogenation

470

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

New Jersey Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

471

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Arkansas Refinery Catalytic Reforming/High Pressure Downstream Charge Capacity as of January 1 (Barrels per Stream Day)

472

Simulation of terrace wall methane-steam reforming reactors  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Terrace wall arrangement is one of the most common arrangements for methane-steam reforming reactor furnaces. In this work, a mathematical model of heat transfer in terrace wall furnaces has been developed. The model has been coupled with a reliable ... Keywords: heat transfer modeling, methane-steam reforming, reformer simulation, terrace wall furnace

J. S. Soltan Mohammadzadeh; A. Zamaniyan

2002-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Integrated autothermal reactor concepts for oxidative coupling and reforming of  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.3 Oxidative coupling and steam reforming of methane . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.4 This thesis of methane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.4 Only steam reforming of methane#12;Integrated autothermal reactor concepts for oxidative coupling and reforming of methane #12

Twente, Universiteit

474

Total Number of Operable Refineries  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum Distillation Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Delayed Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD Thermal Cracking Fluid Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Visbreaking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/SD) Thermal Cracking Other/Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Cracking Recycle Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Low Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming High Pressure Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating/Desulfurization Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Naphtha/Reformer Feed Charge Cap (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Gasoline Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Heavy Gas Oil Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Kerosene/Jet Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Diesel Fuel Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Distillate Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual/Other Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Residual Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Hydrotreating Other Oils Charge Capacity (B/SD) Fuels Solvent Deasphalting Charge Capacity (B/SD) Catalytic Reforming Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Total Coking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Cracking Fresh Feed Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Catalytic Hydro-Cracking Downstream Charge Capacity (B/CD) Period:

475

Distillate yields at U.S. refineries are rising - Today in ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)

Refinery processing gain results from some refining processes, such as fluid catalytic cracking and hydrocracking, where volumes can increase when ...

476

Legal aspects of Internet governance reform  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The Internet has moved on from its early almost lawless nature. There are now multiple organisations and legal aspects associated with Internet governance. Whether the issue on the Internet is network security, intellectual property rights (IPRs), e-commerce, ... Keywords: ICANN, WGIG, WSIS, cybercrime, framework, governance, internet, law, reform, treaty

David Satola

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

March 16, 2010, Safety and Security Reform Roundtable - Agenda  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Safety and Security Reform Roundtable Safety and Security Reform Roundtable Forrestal Building, Washington, DC March 16 th , 2010 1:00 PM (EST) AGENDA * Introduction of Union Leaders Glenn Podonsky, Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer * Welcome/Introductory Remarks on Reform Goals Dan Poneman, Deputy Secretary * Reform Status and Approach - Oversight, Directives, Mission Support Glenn Podonsky, Chief Health, Safety and Security Officer * Discussion Forum - Union Feedback - Feedback on oversight reform initiatives - Priority safety issues - Experience in collaborative focus group efforts - Recommendations for a path forward * Operating Organization Perspectives 1. Tom D'Agostino Administrator, National Nuclear Security Administration 2. Steven Koonin Under Secretary for Science

478

Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Targets (Presentation)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Distributed Reforming Targets Arlene F. Anderson Technology Development Manager, U.S. DOE Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group and Hydrogen Production Technical Team Review November 6, 2007 Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG) The Bio-Derived Liquids to Hydrogen Distributed Reforming Working Group (BILIWG), launched in October 2006, provides a forum for effective communication and collaboration among participants in DOE Hydrogen, Fuel Cells, and Infrastructure Technologies Program (HFCIT) cost-shared research directed at distributed bio-liquid reforming. The Working Group includes

479

Synergize fuel and petrochemical processing plans with catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Depending on the market, refiner`s plans to produce clean fuels and higher value petrochemicals will weigh heavily on the catalytic reformer`s flexibility. It seems that as soon as a timely article related to catalytic reforming operations is published, a new {open_quotes}boutique{close_quotes} gasoline fuel specification is slapped on to existing fuel standards, affecting reformer operations and processing objectives. Just as importantly, the petrochemical market (such as aromatics) that refiners are targeting, can be very fickle. That`s why process engineers have endeavored to maintain an awareness of the flexibility that technology suppliers are building into modern catalytic reformers.

NONE

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Effect of reaction pressure on octane number and reformate and hydrogen yields in catalytic reforming  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

The effect of reaction pressure in catalytic reforming was studied in a pilot reactor with a commercial Pt-Re/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} reforming catalyst and a hydrotreated naphtha from a North Sea crude. Reformate and hydrogen yields, research octane numbers (RON), and reformate composition at reactor pressures in the range of 12--25 bar were measured as a function of temperature in the range of 95--105 RON. Reformate and hydrogen yields increased as the pressure range. For the lower reaction pressures the hydrogen yields increased with increasing severity, but for the higher pressures the hydrogen yields started to decline above certain severities. RON was linearly dependent on the concentration of aromatics in the reformate, although the selectivity toward aromatics depends on both pressure and temperature. Less hydro dealkylation of C{sub 8} and heavier aromatics to benzene and toluene resulted in a shift toward xylenes and heavier aromatic components when pressure was lowered. Variations in the degree of paraffin isomerization did not influence RON significantly at those severities.

Moljord, K.; Hellenes, H.G.; Hoff, A.; Tanem, I. [SINTEF Applied Chemistry, Trondheim (Norway); Grande, K. [Statoil Research Centre, Trondheim (Norway); Holmen, A. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway). Dept. Industrial Chemistry

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillation cracking reforming" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
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481

Characterization of Environment-Dependent Fatigue Crack Growth ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

at high frequency levels to fully environment-dependent at very low frequency ... environment-dependent crack growth process, crack increment per cycle is ...

482

Computational Weld Mechanics of Hot Crack Nucleation in Nickel ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Abstract Scope, Computational weld mechanics (CWM) is used to estimate the likelihood of hot crack nucleation in a welded joint. A hot crack nucleates when ...

483

The Effect of Microstructure on the Fatigue Crack Growth Resistance ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

GROWTH RESISTANCE OF NICKEL BASE SUF'RRALLOYS. Randy Bowman ... damage are most resistant to crack growth. ... crack propagation. (FCP) was ...

484

High cycle fatigue and fatigue crack propagation behavior of ...  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

And fatigue crack propagation rates of modified A7075 showed slightly lower. Those superior fatigue strength and resistance of fatigue crack propagation of ...

485

Characterization of Elevated Temperature Fatigue Crack Growth Rates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

temperature fatigue and the crack growth rates may be adequately correlated with the ... During creep crack growth the use of rate dependent elastic/plastic frac-.

486

The evaluation of sorghum dried distiller's grains with solubles in nursery pig diets, on finishing pig performance and meat quality, and on lactating sow performance.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Five experiments were conducted to determine the effects of sorghum dried distiller’s grains with solubles (DDGS) on nursery pig performance, finishing pig performance and meat… (more)

Sotak, Kelly Marie

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall. 5 figs.

Singh, P.; Shockling, L.A.; George, R.A.; Basel, R.A.

1996-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

488

Hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material and configuration of the same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A hydrocarbon reforming catalyst material comprising a catalyst support impregnated with catalyst is provided for reforming hydrocarbon fuel gases in an electrochemical generator. Elongated electrochemical cells convert the fuel to electrical power in the presence of an oxidant, after which the spent fuel is recirculated and combined with a fresh hydrocarbon feed fuel forming the reformable gas mixture which is fed to a reforming chamber containing a reforming catalyst material, where the reforming catalyst material includes discrete passageways integrally formed along the length of the catalyst support in the direction of reformable gas flow. The spent fuel and/or combusted exhaust gases discharged from the generator chamber transfer heat to the catalyst support, which in turn transfers heat to the reformable gas and to the catalyst, preferably via a number of discrete passageways disposed adjacent one another in the reforming catalyst support. The passageways can be slots extending inwardly from an outer surface of the support body, which slots are partly defined by an exterior confining wall. According to a preferred embodiment, the catalyst support is non-rigid, porous, fibrous alumina, wherein the fibers are substantially unsintered and compressible, and the reforming catalyst support is impregnated, at least in the discrete passageways with Ni and MgO, and has a number of internal slot passageways for reformable gas, the slot passageways being partly closed by a containing outer wall.

Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Basel, Richard A. (Plub Borough, PA)

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Effects of petroleum distillate on viscosity, density and surface tension of intermediate and heavy crude oils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental and analytical studies have been carried out to better understand the effects of additives on viscosity, density and surface tension of intermediate and heavy crude oils. The studies have been conducted for the following oil samples: San Francisco oil from Columbia with specific gravity of 28o-29o API, Duri oil with gravity of 19o-21o API, Jobo oil with gravity of 8o-9o API and San Ardo oil gravity of 11o-13o API. The additive used in all of the experiments is petroleum distillate. The experiments consist of using petroleum distillate as an additive for different samples of heavy crude oils. The experiments include making a mixture by adding petroleum distillate to oil samples and measuring surface tension, viscosity and density of pure oil samples and mixtures at different temperatures. The petroleum distillate/oil ratios are the following ratios: 1:100, 2:100, 3:100, 4:100 and 5:100. Experimental results showed that use of petroleum distillate as an additive increases API gravity and leads to reduction in viscosity and surface tension for all the samples. Results showed for all petroleum distillate/oil ratios viscosity and interfacial tension decreases with temperature. As petroleum distillate/oil ratio increases, oil viscosity and surface tension decrease more significantly at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. After all experiments were completed an analytical correlation was done based on the experiment results to develop “mixing rules”. Using this correlation viscosity, density and surface tension of different petroleum distillate/oil mixtures were obtained (output).These had properties of pure oil and petroleum distillate, mixture ratios and temperatures at which measurement is supposed to be done (output). Using this correlation a good match was achieved. For all of the cases (viscosity, density and surface tension), correlation coefficient (R²) was more than 0.9 which proved to be optimum for a really good match.

Abdullayev, Azer

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Chemical and biological effects of heavy distillate recycle in the SRC-II process  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

Recent work from the Merriam Laboratory continuous coal liquefaction units shows that heavy distillate from the SRC-II process can be recycled to extinction, and hence a distillate product boiling entirely below 310/sup 0/C (590/sup 0/F) (or other selected boiling points) is feasible. In these runs distillate yield was not reduced; gas make was unaffected; and hydrogen consumption was increased only slightly, in keeping with the generally higher hydrogen content of lighter end products. Total distillate yield (C/sub 5/-590/sup 0/F) was 56 wt %, MAF coal in runs with subbituminous coal from the Amax Belle Ayr mine. Product endpoint is well below 371/sup 0/C (700/sup 0/F), the temperature above which coal distillates appear to become genotoxic; and the product was shown to be free of mutagenic activity in the Ames test. Chemical analyses showed both the < 270/sup 0/C (< 518/sup 0/F) and the < 310/sup 0/C (< 590/sup 0/F) distillates to be essentially devoid of several reference polycyclic compounds known to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Tests for tumorigenic or carcinogenic activity were not carried out on these materials. However, a comparison of chemical data from the Merriam heavy distillate samples with data on the other SRC-II distillates where carcinogenesis or tumorigenesis data is available leads to the expectation that < 371/sup 0/C (< 700/sup 0/F) materials from the Merriam Laboratory will have greatly reduced tumorigenic and carcinogenic activity in skin painting tests. Other studies suggest the product should be more readily upgraded than full-range (C/sub 5/-900/sup 0/F) distillate.

Wilson, B.W.; Pelroy, R.A.; Anderson, R.P.; Freel, J.

1983-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Quantum repeaters and quantum key distribution: the impact of entanglement distillation on the secret key rate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate quantum repeaters in the context of quantum key distribution. We optimize the secret key rate per memory per second with respect to different distillation protocols and distillation strategies. For this purpose, we also derive an analytical expression for the average number of entangled pairs created by the quantum repeater, including classical communication times for entanglement swapping and entanglement distillation. We investigate the impact of this classical communication time on the secret key rate. We finally study the effect of the detector efficiency on the secret key rate.

Sylvia Bratzik; Silvestre Abruzzo; Hermann Kampermann; Dagmar Bruß

2013-03-14T23:59:59.000Z

492

On the distillation and purification of phase-diffused squeezed states  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recently it was discovered that non-Gaussian decoherence processes, such as phase-diffusion, can be counteracted by purification and distillation protocols that are solely built on Gaussian operations. Here, we make use of this experimentally highly accessible regime, and provide a detailed experimental and theoretical analysis of several strategies for purification/distillation protocols on phase-diffused squeezed states. Our results provide valuable information for the optimization of such protocols with respect to the choice of the trigger quadrature, the trigger threshold value and the probability of generating a distilled state.

B. Hage; A. Franzen; J. DiGuglielmo; P. Marek; J. Fiurášek; R. Schnabel

2007-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

493

Lower bound on concurrence and distillation for arbitrary-dimensional bipartite quantum states  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

We present a lower bound of concurrence for arbitrary-dimensional bipartite quantum states. This lower bound may be used to improve all the known lower bounds of concurrence. Moreover, the lower bound gives rise to an operational sufficient criterion of distillability of quantum entanglement. The significance of our result is illustrated by quantitative evaluation of entanglement for entangled states that fail to be identified by the usual concurrence estimation method and by showing the distillability of mixed states that cannot be recognized by other distillability criteria.

Zhao, Ming-Jing; Li-Jost, Xianqing [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); Zhu, Xue-Na [Department of Mathematics, School of Science, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Fei, Shao-Ming [Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences, D-04103 Leipzig (Germany); School of Mathematical Sciences, Capital Normal University, Beijing 100048 (China)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

494

Lower Bound of Concurrence and Distillation for Arbitrary Dimensional Bipartite Quantum States  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a lower bound of concurrence for arbitrary dimensional bipartite quantum states. This lower bound may be used to improve all the known lower bounds of concurrence. Moreover, the lower bound gives rise to an operational sufficient criterion of distillability of quantum entanglement. The significance of our result is illustrated by quantitative evaluation of entanglement for entangled states that fail to be identified by the usual concurrence estimation method, and by showing the distillability of mixed states that can not be recognized by other distillability criteria.

Ming-Jing Zhao; Xue-Na Zhu; Shao-Ming Fei; Xianqing Li-Jost

2011-12-23T23:59:59.000Z

495

An Adaptive Entanglement Distillation Scheme Using Quantum Low Density Parity Check Codes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Quantum low density parity check (QLDPC) codes are useful primitives for quantum information processing because they can be encoded and decoded efficiently. Besides, the error correcting capability of a few QLDPC codes exceeds the quantum Gilbert-Varshamov bound. Here, we report a numerical performance analysis of an adaptive entanglement distillation scheme using QLDPC codes. In particular, we find that the expected yield of our adaptive distillation scheme to combat depolarization errors exceed that of Leung and Shor whenever the error probability is less than about 0.07 or greater than about 0.28. This finding illustrates the effectiveness of using QLDPC codes in entanglement distillation.

K. H. Ho; H. F. Chau

2008-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

496

Stable Isotope Enrichment by Thermal Diffusion, Chemical Exchange, and Distillation  

SciTech Connect

Applications of stable isotopes in medicine are becoming more widespread. This has resulted from the increased availability and reduced cost of these isotopes and the improved reliability and sensitivity of detection techniques such as carbon-13 nuclear magnetic resonance. Isotopes are used in compounds labeled with either the stable isotope itself, such as carbon-13 and oxygen-18, or with the radioactive isotope that can be produced by irradiating the stable isotope, such as the irradiation of xenon-124 to produce iodine-125. As the demand for stable isotopes increases, larger scale production facilities will be justifiable. The increased size of production facilities should result in yet lower unit selling prices. A large number of methods has been suggested for the separation of stable isotopes. This paper concerns itself with four methods which have proven extremely useful for the separation of the isotopes of low and medium atomic weight elements. The four processes discussed are gas phase thermal diffusion, liquid phase thermal diffusion, chemical exchange, and distillation.

Schwind, Dr. Roger A.; Rutherford, Dr. William M.

1973-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Former Corporation/Refiner Former Corporation/Refiner Total Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Capacity (bbl/cd) New Corporation/Refiner Date of Sale Table 12. Refinery Sales During 2012 Antelope Refining LLC Garco Energy LLC 3/12 Douglas, WY 3,800 Delta Air Lines/Monroe Energy LLC ConocoPhillips Company 4/12 Trainer, PA 185,000 Phillips 66 Company ConocoPhillips Company 5/12 Belle Chasse, LA 252,000 Billings, MT 59,000 Ferndale, WA 101,000 Linden, NJ 238,000 Ponca City, OK 198,400 Rodeo, CA 120,200 Sweeny, TX 247,000 Westlake, LA 239,400 Wilmington, CA 139,000 Nustar Asphalt LLC (50% Nustar Energy LP and 50% Lindsay Goldberg LLC) Nustar Energy LP/Nustar Asphalt Refining LLC 9/12 Paulsboro, NJ 70,000 Savannah, GA 28,000 Carlyle Group/Philadelphia Energy Solutions Refining and Marketing LLC Sunoco Inc./Sunoco Inc. R&M

498

Refiner/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates  

Science Conference Proceedings (OSTI)

Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates. Two smaller refineries, one in Paulsboro, N.J., and one in Savannah, GA., have the capacity to process 40,000 b/d and 28,000 b/d of crude, respectively, for asphalt products. In the past two years, Citgo`s light oils refineries operated safely and reliably with a minimum of unscheduled shutdowns. An ongoing emphasis to increase reliability has resulted in extended run lengths at the refineries. Citgo has invested $314 million at its facilities in 1995, much of this toward environmental and regulatory projects, such as the new waste water treatment unit at the Lake Charles refinery. Over the next few years, Citgo expects to complete $1.5 billion in capital spending for major processing units such as a 60,000-b/d FCC feed hydrotreater unit at the Lake Charles refinery and crude expansion at the Corpus Christi refinery. Product exchanges and expanded transport agreements are allowing Citgo to extend its marketing reach.

Thompson, J.E.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

Model predictive control of a Kaibel distillation column  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A Kaibel distillation column separates a feed into four products with significant lower energy consumption than a conventional sequence of binary columns. Optimal operation and control of such systems is an important task in order to obtain the potential energy savings. A laboratory column has been built at NTNU, Department of Chemical Engineering. At the time of the diploma work the laboratory column has unfortunately not been available for MPC experiments. In practical operation a control structure based on temperature measurements is chosen for the given case. This structure gives a four-by-four multivariable system. The candidate shall base his work on a model developed by Jens Strandberg. Tasks: 1. Describe the model and extend it to include an efficiency parameter describing insufficient mixing at stages 2. Describe a general linear MPC approach for the system 3. Analyze sensitivity of model errors 4. Evaluate alternative MPC approaches 5. Implement the MPC in MATLAB and illustrate the performance by simulations 6. Prepare a setup for connecting the MPC to the actual laboratory column

Martin Krister Kvernland; Supervisor Ole; Morten Aamo; Co-supervisor Ivar Halvorsen; Sigurd Skogestad Ikp; Jim Morrison Vii

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Solar reforming of methane in a direct absorption catalytic reactor on a parabolic dish  

DOE Green Energy (OSTI)

The concept of solar driven chemical reactions in a commercial-scale volumetric receiver/reactor on a parabolic concentrator was successfully demonstrated in the CAtalytically Enhanced Solar Absorption Receiver (CAESAR) test. Solar reforming of methane (CH{sub 4}) with carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was achieved in a 64-cm diameter direct absorption reactor on a parabolic dish capable of 150 kW solar power. The reactor was a catalytic volumetric absorber consisting of a multi-layered, porous alumina foam disk coated with rhodium (Rh) catalyst. The system was operated during both steady-state and solar transient (cloud passage) conditions. The total solar power absorbed reached values up to 97 kW and the maximum methane conversion was 70%. Receiver thermal efficiencies ranged up to 85% and chemical efficiencies peaked at 54%. The absorber performed satisfactorily in promoting the reforming reaction during the tests without carbon formation. However, problems of cracking and degradation of the porous matrix, nonuniform dispersion of the Rh through the absorber, and catalyst deactivation due to sintering and possible encapsulation, must be resolved to achieve long-term operation and eventual commercialization. 17 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

Muir, J.F.; Hogan, R.E. Jr.; Skocypec, R.D. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Buck, R. (Deutsche Forschungsanstalt fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DLR), Stuttgart (Germany, F.R.). Inst. fuer Technische Thermodynamik)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z