Powered by Deep Web Technologies
Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Viscosities of natural gases at high pressures and high temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Estimation of viscosities of naturally occurring petroleum gases provides the information needed to accurately work out reservoir-engineering problems. Existing models for viscosity prediction are limited by data, especially at high pressures...

Viswanathan, Anup

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

2

Nature of superfluidity in ultracold Fermi gases near Feshbach resonances  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the superfluid state of atomic Fermi gases using a BCS-Bose-Einstein-condensation crossover theory. Our approach emphasizes noncondensed fermion pairs which strongly hybridize with their (Feshbach-induced) molecular boson counterparts. These pairs lead to pseudogap effects above T{sub c} and non-BCS characteristics below. We discuss how these effects influence the experimental signatures of superfluidity.

Stajic, Jelena; Levin, K. [James Franck Institute and Department of Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois 60637 (United States); Milstein, J.N.; Holland, M.J. [JILA, University of Colorado and National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Chen Qijin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Chiofalo, M.L. [Classe di Scienze and INFM, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavelieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy)

2004-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

3

West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008 2009 2010from Same Month

4

West Virginia Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008 2009 2010from Same MonthFeet) Year

5

Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008Sep-14 Oct-14YearYearYearDecade Year-0

6

Wyoming Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousandExtensions (Billion2008Sep-14 Oct-14YearYearYearDecade

7

Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0Month Previous Year (MillionDecade

8

Kansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15 0Month Previous Year (MillionDecadeYear

9

Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15IndustrialVehicle FuelBaseDecade Year-0

10

Kentucky Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14 15IndustrialVehicle FuelBaseDecade

11

Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289 011,816Feet)Feet)

12

Louisiana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343 342 3289

13

Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343Decade Year-0ThousandYearYear

14

Maryland Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 14343Decade Year-0ThousandYearYearYear Jan Feb

15

Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15 15 15 3YearDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

16

Michigan Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15 15 15 3YearDecade Year-0 Year-1

17

Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15Year Jan FebFeet)Feet) Decade

18

Mississippi Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15Year Jan FebFeet)Feet)

19

Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15YearThousandDecade Year-0Same

20

Missouri Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19 15YearThousandDecade Year-0SameYear Jan

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384FuelYear JanDecade Year-0 Year-1

22

Montana Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 04 19343 369 384FuelYear JanDecade Year-0

23

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 46 (MillionDecade

24

Colorado Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623 46 (MillionDecadeColorado

25

Florida Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 0 0 1979-2013Fuel2009VentedDecade Year-0

26

Florida Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0 0 0 1979-2013Fuel2009VentedDecade

27

Illinois Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 6330 0 1 0DecadeWithdrawalsDecadeBase

28

Fractional distillation of natural gasoline by means of a modified Podbielniak apparatus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UTION Natural gasoline has long fulfilled a great need as a blending agent with heavier aotor fuels? However its use hae been linite4 to inoreasing the volatility of the heavier fuel. If a arne eaapleto knowledge of tho oheaieal constitution of natuxal 6...)aster is seoond to its anti knock inportenoo It is doubtful that is~a, whish has a C. F. R. xating of 100~ and whish is uee4 as a referenoe fuel 1 for neasurenont of anti-hnocdc values of other fuels, ie present in laxge Ruantities in natuxal gnsoiines...

Toombs, Alfred John Lawrence

1939-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

29

Catalytic Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

removing both will occur in the temperature range ne~ded high and low boilers to maintain the tower for reaction. One limitation may be .I the composition profile, exothermic reactions critical point of the system, above w~ich can be easily temperature... with significantly less energy. There are two primary reasons for energy reduction: 1. The heat of reaction for exothermic reactions is fully re covered as useful boilup for fractionation. 2. Fewer attendant distillations are normally required than for a...

Smith, L. A., Jr.; Hearn, D.; Wynegar, D. P.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1): an extended and updated framework for modeling biogenic emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Model of Emissions of Gases and Aerosols from Nature version 2.1 (MEGAN2.1) is a modeling framework for estimating fluxes of biogenic compounds between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere using simple mechanistic ...

Guenther, A. B.

31

Vacuum Distillation  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember1. Foreign sales of uraniumE. GreatVENTURADay)

32

INNOVATION EDUCATION EXCELLENCE DISTILLATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INNOVATION · EDUCATION · EXCELLENCE DISTILLATIONS University of Toronto CHEMISTRY ALUMNI MAGAZINE.utoronto.ca / distillations 2012 MessagefromtheChair Our Department of Chemistry has one of the finest collection of peo- ple to a better, more sustain- able future. This issue of Distillations highlights the accomplishments last year

Chan, Hue Sun

33

U.S. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26,8,Coal Stocks255,035YearMonthYear Jan Feb

34

Federal Offshore--Gulf of Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 6221,2372003ofDec. 31 705 740(MillionCubicGas

35

Adsorption of sulfur dioxide from coal combustion gases on natural zeolite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this study, better efficiency of SO{sub 2} removal in flue gas from lignite coal combustion by adding of NZ in the gas phase was achieved. Natural zeolite was exposed to flue gas containing sulfur dioxide at varying conditions of relative humidity and temperature. It was found that the amount of sulfate on the zeolite increased with increasing relative humidity and temperature. The percents of adsorbed sulfur dioxide were 86, 74, 56, and 35, while the values of relative humidity (RH) were 75, 60, 45, and 30% for 40 minutes, respectively. The percents of adsorbed sulfur dioxide sharply increased within the first 40 min for the values of RH were 75 and 60, and after 40 min, slightly increased, then reached a plateau. In general, as increasing the RH increased the amount of sulfur dioxide adsorbed by natural zeolite. The amounts of adsorbed sulfur dioxide increased with exposure time. It increased and reached 30.2 mg/g for 40 min. After 40 min, it slightly increased and then reached a plateau. The NZ adsorbs 35.1 mg SO{sub 2} per gram adsorbent with 75% RH at 298 K from a simulated coal combustion flue gas. The amounts of adsorbed sulfur dioxide increased with increasing temperature. The NZ adsorbs 71.5 mg SO{sub 2} per gram adsorbent with 75% RH for 100 min exposure time from the flue gas mixture.

Demirbas, A. [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. for Chemical Engineering

2006-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Advanced Distillation Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were performed with the targeted mixture, ethane-ethylene, as well as with analogous low relative volatility systems: cyclohexane-hexane and cyclopentane-pentane. Devices and test stands were specifically designed for these efforts. Development progressed from experiments and models considering sections of a full scale device to the design, fabrication, and operation of a single-channel distillation unit with integrated heat transfer. Throughout the project, analytical and numerical models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were validated with experiments in the process of developing this platform technology. Experimental trials demonstrated steady and controllable distillation for a variety of process conditions. Values of Height-to-an-Equivalent Theoretical Plate (HETP) ranging from less than 0.5 inch to a few inches were experimentally proven, demonstrating a ten-fold performance enhancement relative to conventional distillation. This improvement, while substantial, is not sufficient for MPT distillation to displace very large scale distillation trains. Fortunately, parallel efforts in the area of business development have yielded other applications for MPT distillation, including smaller scale separations that benefit from the flowsheet flexibility offered by the technology. Talks with multiple potential partners are underway. Their outcome will also help determine the path ahead for MPT distillation.

Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

2010-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

37

Distillation: The Efficient Workhorse  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DISTILLATION: THE EFFICIENT WORKHORSE Dan Steinmeyer Monsanto Company St. Louis, Missouri Distillation is inherently highly efficient: phase separation is clean it is relatively easy to build a mUltistage countercurrent device equilibrium... of separation to the work pmbedded in the reboiler and condenser thermal flows. The right application is one where the streams ? separated both exceed la' of the feed, relative volatility exceeds 1.2, and separation is complete - i.e. pure products...

Steinmeyer, D.

38

Energy efficient distillation apparatus  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An energy efficient distillation method is provided which is particularly adapted for use on a dairy farm, and which comprises a distilland evaporating receptacle, a distillate condensing receptacle, and a conduit interconnecting the evaporating receptacle and the condensing receptacle. A vacuum pump is provided for drawing a partial vacuum within the evaporating receptacle, and a vapor compression refrigeration system is provided which includes condenser coils disposed to heat and vaporize the distilland while it is within the evaporating receptacle, and evaporator coils for cooling and condensing the vaporized distilland in the condensing receptacle. A cooling distribution system is also provided whereby a variable portion of the cooling potential of the refrigeration system may be selectively directed to each of the condensing receptacle, a distillate receiver tank, or to a bulk milk container as utilized on a dairy farm or the like.

Melton, J.D.

1982-08-17T23:59:59.000Z

39

Reflux for multifeed distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Prior investigations have shown ways to determine minimum reflux for multicomponent distillation. This work extends earlier concepts in order to handle multifeeds. Reflux calculations for each feed, as though it were the only feed, are factored with the reflux effects of the other feeds to give an overall minimum reflux. Each factor has a finite value depending on the composition and thermal quality of the feed it represents.

Chou, S.M.; Yaws, C.L.

1986-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Low Energy Distillation Schemes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an important means of reducing energy consumption in distillation processes. However, its conventional use requires the installation of piping (and pipes carrying vapour streams tend to be of large diameter and are consequently expensive). So, finally we.... However, its conventional use requires the installation of piping (and pipes carrying vapour streams tend to be of large diameter and are consequently expensive). In the late eighties engineers in Germany [e.g. Kaibel, 1987] looked at one way in which...

Polley, G. T.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Oil recovery from condensed corn distillers solubles.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Condensed corn distillers solubles (CCDS) contains more oil than dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), 20 vs. 12% (dry weight basis). Therefore, significant amount of… (more)

Majoni, Sandra

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Optimal Control of Distillation Systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The optimum performance of a distillation system can be evaluated by examining the product purities, the product recoveries, and the system's capability to respond to small or large, expected or unexpected, plant disturbances. An optimal control...

Chatterjee, N.; Suchdeo, S. R.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

THE FUTURE OF ENERGY GASES David G. Howell, Editor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

totally independent of oil. Methane is found in association with coal; it is a byproduct of metabolic the term "energy gases" to distinguish those natural gases, primarily methane, that have utility for energy consequences associated with an expanded role of energy gases? Energy gases, particularly methane, are commonly

44

Distilling entanglement from arbitrary resources  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We obtain the general formula for the optimal rate at which singlets can be distilled from any given noisy and arbitrarily correlated entanglement resource, by means of local operations and classical communication (LOCC). Our formula, obtained by employing the quantum information spectrum method, reduces to that derived by Devetak and Winter, in the special case of an i.i.d. resource. The proofs rely on a one-shot version of the so-called "hashing bound," which in turn provides bounds on the one-shot distillable entanglement under general LOCC.

Francesco Buscemi; Nilanjana Datta

2010-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

45

Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY); Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(temperature, pressure, etc.) define successive states in a sequence of equilibria. Fractional distillation [2Optimal distillation using thermodynamic geometry Bjarne Andresen Ørsted Laboratory, University of a distillation column may be improved by permitting heat exchange on every tray rather than only in the reboiler

Salamon, Peter

47

Momentive Performance Materials Distillation Intercharger  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Presenter: Nicki (Collins) Boucher Project Team: T. Baisley, C. Beers, R. Cameron, K. Holman, T. Kotkoskie, K. Norris Momentive Performance Materials Inc. Waterford, NY May 23, 2013 Industrial Energy Technology Conference ACC Responsible... Care? Energy Efficiency Program Momentive Performance Materials Distillation Interchanger ESL-IE-13-05-20 Proceedings of the Thrity-Fifth Industrial Energy Technology Conference New Orleans, LA. May 21-24, 2013 Copyright 2013 Momentive Performance...

Boucher, N.; Baisley, T.; Beers, C.; Cameron, R.; Holman, K.; Kotkoskie, T.; Norris, K.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

48

adjacente dos gases: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

nature Le Roy, Robert J. 437 Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials Chemistry Websites Summary: Classical disordered...

49

Distillate fuel-oil processing for phosphoric acid fuel-cell power plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current efforts to develop distillate oil-steam reforming processes are reviewed, and the applicability of these processes for integration with the fuel cell are discussed. The development efforts can be grouped into the following processing approaches: high-temperature steam reforming (HTSR); autothermal reforming (ATR); autothermal gasification (AG); and ultra desulfurization followed by steam reforming. Sulfur in the feed is a key problem in the process development. A majority of the developers consider sulfur as an unavoidable contaminant of distillate fuel and are aiming to cope with it by making the process sulfur-tolerant. In the HTSR development, the calcium aluminate catalyst developed by Toyo Engineering represents the state of the art. United Technology (UTC), Engelhard, and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are also involved in the HTSR research. The ATR of distillate fuel is investigated by UTC and JPL. The autothermal gasification (AG) of distillate fuel is being investigated by Engelhard and Siemens AG. As in the ATR, the fuel is catalytically gasified utilizing the heat generated by in situ partial combustion of feed, however, the goal of the AG is to accomplish the initial breakdown of the feed into light gases and not to achieve complete conversion to CO and H/sub 2/. For the fuel-cell integration, a secondary reforming of the light gases from the AG step is required. Engelhard is currently testing a system in which the effluent from the AG section enters the steam-reforming section, all housed in a single vessel. (WHK)

Ushiba, K. K.

1980-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, S.; Kulkarni, S.S.

1986-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

51

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polar gases such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide and ammonia may be separated from nonpolar gases such as methane, nitrogen, hydrogen or carbon dioxide by passing a mixture of polar and nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The use of such membranes as exemplified by polyethylene glycol and silicon rubber composited on polysulfone will permit greater selectivity accompanied by a high flux rate in the separation process.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL); Kulkarni, Sudhir S. (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

Kulprathipanja, S.

1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

53

Separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The separation of polar gases from nonpolar gases may be effected by passing a mixture of nonpolar gases over the face of a multicomponent membrane at separation conditions. The multicomponent membrane which is used to effect the separation will comprise a mixture of a glycol plasticizer having a molecular weight of from about 200 to about 600 and an organic polymer cast on a porous support. The porous support is pretreated prior to casting of the mixture thereon by contact with a polyhydric alcohol whereby the pores of the support are altered, thus adding to the increased permeability of the polar gas.

Kulprathipanja, Santi (Hoffman Estates, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Rank three bipartite entangled states are distillable  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove that the bipartite entangled state of rank three is distillable. So there is no rank three bipartite bound entangled state. By using this fact, We present some families of rank four states that are distillable. We also analyze the relation between the low rank state and the Werner state.

Lin Chen; Yi-Xin Chen

2008-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

55

Locally Accessible Information and Distillation of Entanglement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new type of complementary relation is found between locally accessible information and final average entanglement for given ensemble. It is also shown that in some well known distillation protocol, this complementary relation is optimally satisfied. We discuss the interesting trade-off between locally accessible information and distillable entanglement for some states.

Sibasish Ghosh; Pramod Joag; Guruprasad Kar; Samir Kunkri; Anirban Roy

2004-03-18T23:59:59.000Z

56

Forpeerreview Synthesis of Complex Thermally Coupled Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

US energy consumption, which is equivalent to 2.87x10 18 J (2.87 million TJ) per year, or to a power; Divided Wall Column; Superstructure optimization; GDP. Introduction Distillation is one of the most limitations. Distillation columns use very large amounts of energy because the evaporation steps involved

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

57

Distillability of entanglement in accelerated frames  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the entanglement distillability of bipartite mixed states of two modes of a free Dirac field as seen by two relatively accelerated parties. It is shown that there are states that will change from distillable into separable for a certain value of acceleration. We exemplify these criteria in the context of Werner states.

Shahpoor Moradi

2012-01-02T23:59:59.000Z

58

New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes multicomponent.pdf More...

59

acrobat distiller job: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

2 September 1999 Distillation Theory. by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd, Norway 12;2 DistillationTheory.fm 2 September 1999 Table of Contents Introduction . . . . ....

60

Distillation: Still towering over other options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distillation dominates separations in the chemical process industries (CPI), at least for mixtures that normally are processed as liquids. The authors fully expect that distillation will continue to be the method of choice for many separations, and the method against which other options must be compared. So, in this article, they will put into some perspective just why distillation continues to reign as the king of separations, and what steps are being taken to improve its applicability and performance, as well as basic understanding of the technique.

Kunesh, J.G. [Fractionation Research, Inc., Stillwater, OK (United States); Kister, H.Z. [Brown and Root, Inc., Alhambra (Canada); Lockett, M.J. [Praxair, Inc., Tonawanda, NY (United States); Fair, J.R. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

1995-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Development of energy efficient membrane distillation systems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Membrane distillation (MD) has shown potential as a means of desalination and water purification. As a thermally driven membrane technology which runs at relatively low pressure, which can withstand high salinity feed ...

Summers, Edward K

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

Baumert, Kenneth L. (Emmaus, PA); Sagues, Alberto A. (Lexington, KY); Davis, Burtron H. (Georgetown, KY)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Absorptive Recycle of Distillation Waste Heat  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

condenser operates above ambient temperature, the rejected heat also contains unused availability. By incorporating an absorption heat pump (AHP) into the distillation process, these sources of unused availability can be tapped so as to recycle (and hence...

Erickson, D. C.; Lutz, E. J., Jr.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

An improved model for multiple effect distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Increasing global demand for fresh water is driving research and development of advanced desalination technologies. As a result, a detailed model of multiple effect distillation (MED) is developed that is flexible, simple ...

Mistry, Karan H.

65

Advancing Biorefining of Distillers Grain and Corn Stover Blends  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

pretreatment process for distiller's grains and corn stover to convert residual starch, cellulose, and hemicellulose to ethanol and high- converting residual starch in order to...

66

Complex Fluid Analysis with the Advanced Distillation Curve Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a complex fluid is a graph of boiling temperature versus volume fraction distilled, a procedure embodied for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) trace chemical analysis of each distillate

67

Dampers for Natural Draft Heaters: Technical Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Excess Air Natural Gas Combustion Air Figure 3: Schematic oftemperature of air and combustion gases from the flue andby the buoyancy of the combustion gases rising through the

Lutz, James D.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Greenhouse Gases Greenhouse Gases Executive Order 13514 requires Federal agencies to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate...

69

Strongly interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strongly interacting gases of ultracold fermions have become an amazingly rich test-bed for many-body theories of fermionic matter. Here we present our recent experiments on these systems. Firstly, we discuss high-precision ...

Bakr, W.

70

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) Geographic Area Month Kerosene No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

71

Desalination Using Vapor-Compression Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and MSF, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas...

Lubis, Mirna R.

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

72

Complex Distillation Arrangements : Extending the Petlyuk Ideas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to distillation columns ac- count for roughly 3 of the total energy consumption in the U.S. (Ognisty 1995 to reduce energy consumption at least two alternative approaches have been proposed both in the literature is also known as the Petlyuk column, due to a theoretical study of Pet- lyuk et al. (1965), or as a fully

Skogestad, Sigurd

73

Minimum Energy Diagrams for Multieffect Distillation Arrangements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and the energy use from this process accounts for an estimated 3% of the world energy consumption.1 With rising on the overall plant energy consumption. The use of heat integration combined with complex config- urations distillation ar- rangements. An easy form of comparison for energy consumption is the minimum vapor flow rate

Skogestad, Sigurd

74

Naphthenic acid corrosion in crude distillation units  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper summarizes corrosion experience in crude distillation units processing highly naphthenic California crude oils. Correlations have been developed relating corrosion rates to temperature and total acid number. There is a threshold acid number in the range of 1.5 to 2 mg KOH/g below which corrosion is minimal. High concentrations of hydrogen sulfide may raise this threshold value.

Piehl, R.L.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Distillation: Present Status and Future Directions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-pressure steam as a heat source. The steam has, very likely, been sent through one or more users (turbi ne dri ves) before reaching the distillation reboiler. It seems almost characteristic of large chemical and refining complexes that there is a chronic...

Fair, J. R.; Humphrey, J. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

Construction and operation of a flash distillation apparatus  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Calibration Data of Orifioe ~, i, . ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ . ~ 13 III. Equilibrium Data of Ethanol-Eater Mixtures . ~ * ~ ~ , 17 IV, . Flash Vaporieation Data of Ethanol Hater hIlxtures& + , 18 VI ~ Hempel Distillation of Oklahoma City Crude ~ . . . Flash... Vaporiration of Oklahoma City Crude ~ . ~ 21 22 VII' Hempel Distillations of Flash Distillates of Oklahoma City Crude . ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 24 VIII+ Hompel Distillations of Flash Residuums of Oklahoma City Crude ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ i ~ ~ o...

Knezevich, Milan

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

77

Clostridium strain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 4 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1997-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

78

Clostridium stain which produces acetic acid from waste gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (2207 Tall Oaks Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72703)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

79

Integrated C3 Feedstock and Aggregated Distillation Model for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Polypropylene Propane return Reactor effluent Distillation Polymerization FeedTank Propylene (91%) Goal: Select rates Constraints on composition of Propane Return, Distillation Overhead & Reactor Feed Limits Distillation Model Relates overhead composition of propane with flowrate of propane feed to the splitter

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

80

Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol Erik Hostens,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to infinity. We call such protocols asymp- totic and the fraction of distilled Bell states per initial copy#12;#12;Asymptotic adaptive bipartite entanglement distillation protocol Erik Hostens, Jeroen: July 13, 2006) We present a new asymptotic bipartite entanglement distillation protocol

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS -A CRITICAL SURVEY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: 47-7-594080 Figure 1: Typical simple distillation column. zF, yD and xB are mole fractions. tureDYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS - A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad Chemical cation and Control, 18, 177-217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed

Skogestad, Sigurd

82

Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effect of Number of Fractionating Trays on Reactive Distillation Performance Muhammad A. Al and rectifying sec- tions of a reacti®e distillation column can degrade performance. This effect, if true®e distillation columns cannot use conser®ati®e estimates of tray numbers, that is, we cannot simply add excess

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

83

DYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS A CRITICAL SURVEY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distillation column. z F , yD and xB are mole fractions. ture review, but a few new ideas are also presentedDYNAMICS AND CONTROL OF DISTILLATION COLUMNS ­ A CRITICAL SURVEY Sigurd Skogestad \\Lambda Chemical, Identification and Control, 18, 177­217, 1997. Abstract Distillation column dynamics and control has been viewed

Skogestad, Sigurd

84

Model Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

column with model predictive control (MPC). A Kaibel distillation column has several advantages comparedModel Predictive Control of a Kaibel Distillation Column Martin Kvernland Ivar Halvorsen Sigurd only a single column shell. The distillation process is a multivariable process which leads

Skogestad, Sigurd

85

RIS0-M-2319 RISK ANALYSIS OF A DISTILLATION UNIT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RIS0-M-2319 RISK ANALYSIS OF A DISTILLATION UNIT J. R. Taylor**, 0. Hansen*, C. Jensen*, 0. F. A risk analysis of a batch distillation unit is de- scribed. The analysis has been carried out at several.2. Objectives and organisation 5 1.2.2. Philosophy and approach 6 1.3.1. The distillation unit 8 1

86

CHEM333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils;  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CHEM­333: Experiment 4: Steam Distillation of Essential Oils; Experiments A, C, D and below. Reading: For this experiment read Chapter 10. This week you will get to use steam distillation to isolate may wait until you come to lab to find out which spice you get. Steam distillation is not a common

Taber, Douglass

87

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1984-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

88

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

Jones, E.M. Jr.

1985-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

89

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

Jones, Jr., Edward M. (Friendswood, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-18 2.415 - - -Cubic

92

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-18 2.415 - - -Cubic8 2009 2010

93

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReserves (Billion Cubic1.878 2.358

94

Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Summary)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data CenterFranconia,(Million Barrels) Crude Oil Reserves in Nonproducing ReservoirsYear-Month WeekReserves (Billion Cubic1.878 2.358NA NA

95

New Design Methods And Algorithms For High Energy-Efficient And Low-cost Distillation Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project sought and successfully answered two big challenges facing the creation of low-energy, cost-effective, zeotropic multi-component distillation processes: first, identification of an efficient search space that includes all the useful distillation configurations and no undesired configurations; second, development of an algorithm to search the space efficiently and generate an array of low-energy options for industrial multi-component mixtures. Such mixtures are found in large-scale chemical and petroleum plants. Commercialization of our results was addressed by building a user interface allowing practical application of our methods for industrial problems by anyone with basic knowledge of distillation for a given problem. We also provided our algorithm to a major U.S. Chemical Company for use by the practitioners. The successful execution of this program has provided methods and algorithms at the disposal of process engineers to readily generate low-energy solutions for a large class of multicomponent distillation problems in a typical chemical and petrochemical plant. In a petrochemical complex, the distillation trains within crude oil processing, hydrotreating units containing alkylation, isomerization, reformer, LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) and NGL (natural gas liquids) processing units can benefit from our results. Effluents from naphtha crackers and ethane-propane crackers typically contain mixtures of methane, ethylene, ethane, propylene, propane, butane and heavier hydrocarbons. We have shown that our systematic search method with a more complete search space, along with the optimization algorithm, has a potential to yield low-energy distillation configurations for all such applications with energy savings up to 50%.

Agrawal, Rakesh

2013-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

96

Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

1984-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

97

Energy conservation in distillation: a technology applications manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Distillation is the most widely practiced technique for separating mixtures of chemical species, but it is an energy intensive process. A 10% reduction in distillation energy consumption would effect a significant savings. On a national basis this would be an annual savings of 200 trillion Btu, or the equivalent of 36.5 million barrels of oil per year. Technology to achieve these savings in distillation energy is available and measures are presented to assist process engineers in technical and economic analysis of the energy conservation measures most suitable for particular distillation applications. The manual catalogs all of the energy conservation options applicable to distillation and the options by the investment required; describes in detail the options having a significant potential to reduce distillation energy requirements economically; provides guidelines that will allow the plant engineer to quickly screen each option for his application; and provides short-cut calculation procedures for use in a preliminary economic analysis of promising options.

Not Available

1980-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

98

Energy Conservation Options in Distillation Processes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

~itroo.? ':!OD.e~tell.,..ot!.k1 .'k..,.-.ottNltlu'..,. II ""'I'JI ..... ~I_ """-.4008l1"OO I ~.z.,. 1 ,1'1 (-frl-.'....u_~ R.da at AC~Ofllftl\\,J'ftlit...." ? I 5 "'-tlnc&! Tt.,.. ? 21.' \\lip Gilil.In31 j TnyE.'tIc>Mcy .11.1'llo I ~~TI""'.'2.at... I There are many options available to the engi*eer seeking to reduce the energy requirements of a distil lation process. The technology for most of these I, options has been available for many years, but it has only recently become economically...

Harris, G. E.; Hearn, W. R.; Blythe, G. M.; Stuart, J. M.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

99

Use of computers for multicomponent distillation calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The corrected values for the b 's are best cal- i culated by multiplying (b. /d ) by (d. ) The compositions for each component in the vapor and liquid streams leaving plate j are calculated by use of the following equations. ('i/ i)ca ( i)co y. ji c Z (v... . . /b. ) (b. ) ji i ca i co i=1 , f a j x N+1 C (47-b) A temperature profile may be calculated by making either bubble or dew point calculations based on the compositions obtained by use of Equations (46) and (47). The specified distillate rate must...

Sullivan, Samuel Lane

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Advanced Distillation: Programs Proposed to DOE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to the foremost practitioner of the Advanced Distillation art, due to a 30 year continuity in Ule area as both a consultant and a university professor. His consulting assignments lu1ve been long-ternl

Woinsky, S. G.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Greenhouse Gases | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

to inventory and manage greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions to meet Federal goals and mitigate climate change. Learn about: Basics: Read an overview of greenhouse gases Federal...

102

advanced distillation control: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Morari California.Eng., Norwegian Institute of Technology (NTH), N-7034 Trondheim, Norway Paper presented at Symposium Distillation Skogestad, Sigurd 14 CONTROL AND ENERGY...

103

azeotropic distillation columns: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S, Norway SCOPE OF THE PROJECT How can we separate ternary mixtures in closed batch...

104

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Marketing Annual 1998 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

105

Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Marketing Annual 1999 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

106

Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Marketing Annual 1996 401 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

107

Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Marketing Annual 1997 401 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

108

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Zevenhoven, Ron

109

Control of pollutants in flue gases and fuel gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and gasification technologies for heat and power . . . . . . . . 2-3 2.4 Waste incineration and waste . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2.2 Flue gases and fuel gases: combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, incineration and other . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 3.3 Formation of sulphur compounds during combustion and gasification . 3-5 3.4 Emission

Laughlin, Robert B.

110

Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program was suspended May 2011. It was a mechanism by which corporations, government agencies, individuals, voluntary organizations, etc., could report to the Energy Information Administration, any actions taken that have or are expected to reduce/avoid emissions of greenhouse gases or sequester carbon.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

111

Energy Use in Distillation Operation: Nonlinear Economic Effects  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

important. For many distillation columns there is a tradeoff in operation between energy usage and product recovery and setting the proper usage target involves a calculation of the economic tradeoff between these two factors. However, distillation is a non-linear...

White, D. C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The freezing point of US Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large n-alkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how the n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30, and 32 ppM in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Pyrolysis of shale oil vacuum distillate fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The freezing point of U.S. Navy jet fuel (JP-5) has been related to the amounts of large nalkanes present in the fuel. This behavior applies to jet fuels derived from alternate fossil fuel resources, such as shale oil, coal, and tar sands, as well as those derived from petroleum. In general, jet fuels from shale oil have the highest and those from coal the lowest n-alkane content. The origin of these n-alkanes in the amounts observed, especially in shale-derived fuels, is not readily explained on the basis of literature information. Studies of the processes, particularly the ones involving thermal stress, used to produce these fuels are needed to define how th n-alkanes form from larger molecules. The information developed will significantly contribute to the selection of processes and refining techniques for future fuel production from shale oil. Carbon-13 nmr studies indicate that oil shale rock contains many long unbranched straight chain hydrocarbon groups. The shale oil derived from the rock also gives indication of considerable straight chain material with large peaks at 14, 23, 30 and 32 ppm in the C-13 nmr spectrum. Previous pyrolysis studies stressed fractions of shale crude oil residua, measured the yields of JP-5, and determined the content of potential n-alkanes in the JP-5 distillation range (4). In this work, a shale crude oil vacuum distillate (Paraho) was separated into three chemical fractions. The fractions were then subjected to nmr analysis to estimate the potential for n-alkane production and to pyrolysis studies to determine an experimental n-alkane yield.

Hazlett, R.N.; Beal, E.

1983-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

Guidance Document CompressedGases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

electricity. Oxygen by itself does not burn, but it will support or accelerate combustion of flammable the regulator is completely closed. 3. When possible use flammable and reactive gases in a fume hood. Certain

115

Degenerate quantum gases of strontium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Degenerate quantum gases of alkaline-earth-like elements open new opportunities in research areas ranging from molecular physics to the study of strongly correlated systems. These experiments exploit the rich electronic structure of these elements, which is markedly different from the one of other species for which quantum degeneracy has been attained. Specifically, alkaline-earth-like atoms, such as strontium, feature metastable triplet states, narrow intercombination lines, and a non-magnetic, closed-shell ground state. This review covers the creation of quantum degenerate gases of strontium and the first experiments performed with this new system. It focuses on laser-cooling and evaporation schemes, which enable the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases of all strontium isotopes, and shows how they are used for the investigation of optical Feshbach resonances, the study of degenerate gases loaded into an optical lattice, as well as the coherent creation of Sr_2 molecules.

Stellmer, Simon; Killian, Thomas C

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

116

Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Simple rules help select best hydrocarbon distillation scheme  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Separation economics depend mainly on investment for major equipment and energy consumption. This relationship, together with the fact that, in most cases, many alternative schemes will be proposed, make it essential to find an optimum scheme that minimizes overall costs. Practical solutions are found by applying heuristics -- exploratory problem-solving techniques that eliminate alternatives without applying rigorous mathematical procedures. These techniques have been applied to a case study. In the case study, a hydrocarbon mixture will be transported through a pipeline to a fractionation plant, where it will be separated into commercial products for distribution. The fractionation will consist of a simple train of distillation columns, the sequence of which will be defined by applying heuristic rules and determining the required thermal duties for each column. The facility must separate ethane, propane and mixed butanes, natural gasoline (light straight-run, or LSR, gasoline), and condensate (heavy naphtha). The ethane will be delivered to an ethylene plant as a gaseous stream, the propane and butanes will be stored in cryogenic tanks, and the gasoline and heavy naphtha also will be stored.

Sanchezllanes, M.T.; Perez, A.L.; Martinez, M.P.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Rosal, R. del (Inst. Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico City (Mexico))

1993-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

118

Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

119

CHEM333: Lab Experiment 3: Distillation and Gas Chromatography  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Distillation is used to isolate many of life's essentials such as gasoline from oil or brandy from wine much about the mathematics of Raoult's Law; you will see it again in physical chemistry. Pay particular

Taber, Douglass

120

Absorption Cycle Fundamentals and Applications Guidelines for Distillation Energy Savings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The absorption cycle offers one of the most economic and widely applicable technologies for waste heat upgrading. It can use off-the-shelf hardware that is available now, at any required capacity rating. Fractional distillations, as a class...

Erickson, D. C.; Davidson, W. F.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

122

An experimental and mathematical investigation of hydrocarbon steam distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Committee) Dr. Pau B. Crawford (Member) r. William D. McCain Jr. r. A ber t T. Watson (Member) Dr. i l. iam D. on Gonten ead of Department) December 1984 ABSTRACT An Experimental and Mathematical Investigation of Hydrocarbon Steam Distillation... mechanism associated with steam flooding and in-situ combustion enhanced oil recovery projects. It also takes place in hydrocarbon recovery from deep volatile oil reservoirs. Nethods for predicting the recovery of hydrocarbons by steam distillation have...

Langhoff, John Allan

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

123

Determination of plate efficiencies for conventional distillation columns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

DETERMINATION OF PLATE EFFICIENCIES FOR CONVENTIONAL DISTILLATION COIUMNS A Thesis By Thomas Raymond Harris Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements... for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1962 Ma)or Sub)ect t Chemical Engineering DETERMINATION OF PLATE EFFICIENCIES FOR CONVENTIONAL DISTILLATION COLUMNS A Thesis Thomas Raymond Harris Approred as to style and content bye Chairman of ommittee Head...

Harris, Thomas Raymond

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

124

Single-step distillation protocol with generalized beam splitters  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We develop a distillation protocol for multilevel qubits (qudits) using generalized beam splitters like in the proposal of Pan et al. for ordinary qubits. We find an acceleration with respect to the scheme of Bennet et al. when extended to qudits. It is also possible to distill entangled pairs of photons carrying orbital angular momenta states that conserve the total angular momenta as those produced in recent experiments.

Martin-Delgado, M. A.; Navascues, M. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica I, Universidad Complutense, 28040 Madrid, (Spain)

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Integrated Thermal and Hydraulic Analysis of Distillation Columns  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

significant additional insights to help screen the options for distillation column revamps. Column Targeting Aspen Plus Column Targeting tool offers capabilities for thermal and hydraulic analysis of distillation columns. During design or retrofit analysis...). Aspen Plus Column Targeting Tool generates the CGCCs based on the Practical Near-Minimum Thermodynamic Condition (PNMTC) approximation (Dhole and Linnhoff). The enthalpies used in plotting the CGCCs are calculated at a given stage of the column...

Samant, K.; Sinclair, I.; Keady, G.

126

Synthesis and design of optimal thermal membrane distillation networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distillation as a technology that can be driven by thermal energy at low enthalpy, such as geothermal energy, by using a hybrid air gap membrane distillation- fluidized bed crystallization assembly for desalination. Tomaszewska (2000) has studied... of pre-pressurizing of the membrane pores and control of dissolved gas concentrations in the feed and recycled permeate in order to prevent pore penetration and wetting (Agashichev and Sivakov, 1993). Temperature polarization effects have been...

Nyapathi Seshu, Madhav

2006-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

127

Key Distillation and the Secret-Bit Fraction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider distillation of secret bits from partially secret noisy correlations P_ABE, shared between two honest parties and an eavesdropper. The most studied distillation scenario consists of joint operations on a large number of copies of the distribution (P_ABE)^N, assisted with public communication. Here we consider distillation with only one copy of the distribution, and instead of rates, the 'quality' of the distilled secret bits is optimized, where the 'quality' is quantified by the secret-bit fraction of the result. The secret-bit fraction of a binary distribution is the proportion which constitutes a secret bit between Alice and Bob. With local operations and public communication the maximal extractable secret-bit fraction from a distribution P_ABE is found, and is denoted by Lambda[P_ABE]. This quantity is shown to be nonincreasing under local operations and public communication, and nondecreasing under eavesdropper's local operations: it is a secrecy monotone. It is shown that if Lambda[P_ABE]>1/2 then P_ABE is distillable, thus providing a sufficient condition for distillability. A simple expression for Lambda[P_ABE] is found when the eavesdropper is decoupled, and when the honest parties' information is binary and the local operations are reversible. Intriguingly, for general distributions the (optimal) operation requires local degradation of the data.

Nick S. Jones; Lluis Masanes

2008-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

128

Process for removing naphthenic acids from petroleum distillates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A liquid extraction process is described for removing naphthenic acids from naphthenic acid containing petroleum distillates boiling within the range of about 180/sup 0/-600/sup 0/C. and having an acid number of at least about 0.2 which process comprises the steps of: (a) intimately contacting the petroleum distillates with a solvent consisting essentially of methanol, water, and about from 2-20 wt. % ammonia and having a methanol: water ratio in the range of about from 0.2 to 3 parts by weight of methanol per part by weight of water and using an ammonia to petroleum distillate ratio of about 0.1-1 part by weight of ammonia per 100 parts by weight of the petroleum distillate. This selectively extracts the naphthenic acids into the solvent and yielding an immiscible two-phase liquid mixture, one of which is naphthenic acid-rich solvent phase and the other of which is a substantially napthenic acid-free petroleum distillate phase; and (b) separating and respectively recovering the naphtenic acid-rich solvent phase and petroleum distillate phase.

Danzik, M.

1987-01-06T23:59:59.000Z

129

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are disclosed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration. 5 figs.

Gaddy, J.L.

1998-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

130

Biological production of acetic acid from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various organic acids or alcohols by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified. In an exemplary recovery process, the bioreactor raffinate is passed through an extraction chamber into which one or more non-inhibitory solvents are simultaneously introduced to extract the product. Then, the product is separated from the solvent by distillation. Gas conversion rates can be maximized by use of centrifuges, hollow fiber membranes, or other means of ultrafiltration to return entrained anaerobic bacteria from the bioreactor raffinate to the bioreactor itself, thus insuring the highest possible cell concentration.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

131

Kinetics and thermodynamics of hydrotreating synthetic middle distillates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Middle distillates from the Tar Sands deposits in Alberta are an important component of diesel and jet fuels in the Canadian market. Commercial catalysts based on sulfided Ni-Mo and Ni-W are currently used to hydrogenate synthetic distillates to improve the cetane number and smoke point. In previous work {sup 13}C NMR was used to study the kinetics of overall hydrogenation of aromatics over sulfided Co-Mo, Ni-Mo and Ni-W catalysts. Arrhenius parameters were obtained for hydrogenation over sulfided Ni-W catalyst for a similar distillate feedstock. In the latter study, mass spectrometry was used to quantitate the three major aromatic hydrocarbon group types in the feed and products. In this study, liquid products from hydrotreating experiments with a hydrotreated distillate from delayed coking of Athabasca bitumen and sulfided Co-Mo and Ni-Mo catalysts have been analyzed by mass spectrometry. This completes a preliminary comparison of the kinetics of hydrogenation of alkylbenzenes, benzocycloparaffins and benzodicycloparaffins, the three major aromatic hydrocarbon types in these distillates.

Fisher, I.P. (Petro-Canada R and D Dept., Sheridan Park, Ontario (Canada)); Wilson, M.F. (CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada))

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

132

Industrial Gases as a Vehicle for Competitiveness  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the diversity and options available to enable cost savings and environmentally driven process improvements. Industrial gases have come of age during the last fifteen years. Engineers and scientists have looked beyond the paradigms of their operations...INDUSTRIAL GASES AS A VEHICLE FOR COMPETITIVENESS James R. Dale, Director, Technology Programs, Airco Industrial Gases Division, The BOC Group, Inc., Murray Hill, New Jersey ABSTRACT Industrial gases are produced using compressed air...

Dale, J. R.

133

Realization of effective super Tonks-Girardeau gases via strongly attractive one-dimensional Fermi gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A significant feature of the one-dimensional super Tonks-Girardeau gas is its metastable gas-like state with a stronger Fermi-like pressure than for free fermions which prevents a collapse of atoms. This naturally suggests a way to search for such strongly correlated behavior in systems of interacting fermions in one dimension. We thus show that the strongly attractive Fermi gas without polarization can be effectively described by a super Tonks-Girardeau gas composed of bosonic Fermi pairs with attractive pair-pair interaction. A natural description of such super Tonks-Girardeau gases is provided by Haldane generalized exclusion statistics. In particular, they are equivalent to ideal particles obeying more exclusive statistics than Fermi-Dirac statistics.

Chen Shu; Yin Xiangguo; Guan Liming [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guan Xiwen [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Batchelor, M. T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

134

Ignition Delay Times of Natural Gas/Hydrogen Blends at Elevated Pressures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Applications of natural gases that contain high levels of hydrogen have become a primary interest in the gas turbine market. For reheat gas turbines, understanding of the ignition delay times of high-hydrogen natural gases is important for two...

Brower, Marissa

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

135

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

136

Application of a Plantwide Control Design Procedure to a Distillation Column with Heat Pump  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

(Larsson & Skogestad 2001) to a distillation column heat-integrated by using a heatpump. Top-down analysis) and apply it to a distillation column with heatpump. Plantwide control design should start by formulating

Skogestad, Sigurd

137

ORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Physical properties . Protein . Twin-screw extruder Introduction As a consequence of changes in energyORIGINAL PAPER Twin-Screw Extrusion Processing of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS. Twin- screw extrusion studies were performed to investigate the production of nutritionally balanced

138

Rigorous Synthesis and Simulation of Complex Distillation Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

energy-efficient distillation net- works. Complex column networks have substantial potential for energy- thesizing such complex energy-efficient networks. A robust feasibility criterion drives the selection foundations of se st in exploring energy-efficient distillatin exploring energy-efficient distillat ave

Linninger, Andreas A.

139

Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Separation of Azeotropic Mixtures in Closed Batch Distillation Arrangements S. Skouras and S to obtain a light and a heavy fraction simultaneously from the top and the bottom of the column, while an intermediate fraction may also be recovered in the middle vessel. Two modifications of the multivessel

Skogestad, Sigurd

140

Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

requiring no energy input by conventional sources, with the potential to replace, or significantly reduce-harvesting nanoparticles that capture solar energy for direct liquid-vapor conversion, eliminating the energy O-9 Solar Ethanol Distillation Oara Neumann,1,3 Albert D. Neumann,2 Julius Müller,1

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"Click worksheet9,1,50022,3,,,,6,1,,781Title: Telephone:shortOil and Natural8U.S.NA (Barrels per Calendar

142

Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26, 2008 (Next1, 20126,6,4,7,Top 100End Use:

143

Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael SchaalNovember 26, 2008 (Next1,Product:Country:

144

Product Supplied for Distillate Fuel Oil  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30NaturalThousand Cubic Feet) OmanThousand36,610.05 Kerosene refiners .

145

Design of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methanol recovery 1. Introduction A process of producing TAME via reactive distillation has been presented the bulk of the reaction between C5 and methanol to produce TAME and a reactive distillation. MethanolDesign of Extraction Column Methanol Recovery System for the TAME Reactive Distillation Process

Al-Arfaj, Muhammad A.

146

Improved Swing-Cut Modeling for Planning and Scheduling of Oil-Refinery Distillation Units  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Pennsylvania 15213, United States. Crude-oil assays, Distillation, Fractionation, Swing-cuts, Temperature cut with in the nonlinear optimization. 1. INTRODUCTION Distillation or fractionation models for planning and scheduling1 Improved Swing-Cut Modeling for Planning and Scheduling of Oil-Refinery Distillation Units Brenno

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

147

Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal Operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionating Vidar the unexpected result that over-fractionating one of the product streams in a Petlyuk distillation column may is optimal in some cases. 1. Introduction The Petlyuk distillation column, see Figure 1(a), with a pre-fractionator

Skogestad, Sigurd

148

Integrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

into a number of product fractions in a single batch column whereas, in continuous distillation several columnsIntegrated Design, Operation and Control of Batch Extractive Distillation with a Middle Vessel E. K distillation for separating homogeneous minimum-boiling azeotropic mixtures, where the extractive agent

Skogestad, Sigurd

149

Model predictive control of a pilot-scale distillation column using a programmable automation controller  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Model predictive control of a pilot-scale distillation column using a programmable automation). The controller is tested on a pilot-scale binary distillation column to track reference temperatures. A majorRIO) to control a pilot-scale binary distillation col- umn. Both the PI-controllers and the supervising online MPC

150

Hydroconversion of heavy oils. [Residue of tar sand bitumen distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A method is described for hydroconversion of feedstocks consisting essentially of at least one heavy hydrocarbon oil selected from the group consisting of residue of petroleum oil distillation and the residue of tar sand bitumen distillation to enhance the recovery of 350/sup 0/-650/sup 0/F boiling product fraction. The method comprises treating such feed stock with hydrogen at superatmospheric pressure and in the presence of finely divided active hydrogenation catalyst in consecutive reaction stages. An initial reaction stage is carried out at a temperature in the range of 780/sup 0/-825/sup 0/F, and a subsequent reaction stage is directly carried out after the initial reaction stage at a higher temperature in the range of 800/sup 0/F-860/sup 0/F, the temperature of the subsequent reaction stage being at least 20/sup 0/F higher than that of the initial reaction stage.

Garg, D.

1986-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

151

Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential Equilibrium and Dynamics) method.

Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

2008-09-23T23:59:59.000Z

152

Enhanced Separation Efficiency in Olefin/Paraffin Distillation  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is to develop technologies to enhance separation efficiencies by replacing the conventional packing materials with hollow fiber membranes, which have a high specific area and separated channels for both liquid and vapor phases. The use of hollow fibers in distillation columns can help refineries decrease operating costs, reduce greenhouse gas emissions through reduced heating costs, and help expand U.S. refining capacity through improvements to existing sites, without large scale capital investment.

153

Particle entanglement in rotating gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the particle entanglement in two-dimensional (2D) weakly interacting rotating Bose and Fermi gases. We find that both particle localization and vortex localization can be indicated by particle entanglement. We also use particle entanglement to show the occurrence of edge reconstruction of rotating fermions. The different properties of condensate phase and vortex liquid phase of bosons can be reflected by particle entanglement and in vortex liquid phase we construct the same trial wave function with that in [Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 120405 (2001)] from the viewpoint of entanglement to relate the ground state with quantum Hall state. Finally, the relation between particle entanglement and interaction strength is studied.

Liu Zhao; Fan Heng [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

"Distillation, Absorption and Extraction" April 5-6, 2001 in Bamberg,, Halvorsen NTNU Department of Chemical Engineering  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

distillation · Underwood (1946, 1948a,b), Fractional distillation of multicomponent mixtures · Shiras (1950"Distillation, Absorption and Extraction" April 5-6, 2001 in Bamberg,, Halvorsen NTNU Department Distillation Arrangements by Ivar J. Halvorsen and Sigurd Skogestad Norwegian University of Science

Skogestad, Sigurd

155

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

natural gas+ condensing flue gas heat recovery+ water creation+ CO2 reduction+ cool exhaust gases+ Energy efficiency+ commercial building energy efficiency+ industrial energy...

156

Chemical production from industrial by-product gases: Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The potential for conservation of natural gas is studied and the technical and economic feasibility and the implementation of ventures to produce such chemicals using carbon monoxide and hydrogen from byproduct gases are determined. A survey was performed of potential chemical products and byproduct gas sources. Byproduct gases from the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries were selected for detailed study. Gas sampling, preliminary design, market surveys, and economic analyses were performed for specific sources in the selected industries. The study showed that production of methanol or ammonia from byproduct gas at the sites studied in the elemental phosphorus and the iron and steel industries is technically feasible but not economically viable under current conditions. Several other applications are identified as having the potential for better economics. The survey performed identified a need for an improved method of recovering carbon monoxide from dilute gases. A modest experimental program was directed toward the development of a permselective membrane to fulfill that need. A practical membrane was not developed but further investigation along the same lines is recommended. (MCW)

Lyke, S.E.; Moore, R.H.

1981-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Light Collection in Liquid Noble Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Liquid noble gases are increasingly used as active detector materials in particle and nuclear physics. Applications include calorimeters and neutrino oscillation experiments as well as searches for neutrinoless double beta decay, direct dark matter, muon electron conversion, and the neutron electric dipole moment. One of the great advantages of liquid noble gases is their copious production of ultraviolet scintillation light, which contains information about event energy and particle type. I will review the scintillation properties of the various liquid noble gases and the means used to collect their scintillation light, including recent advances in photomultiplier technology and wavelength shifters.

McKinsey, Dan [Yale University

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

158

aerosol precursor gases: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

sunlight 11 GREENHOUSE GASES GREENHOUSE GASES BACKGROUND CiteSeer Summary: The Earths climate depends on the amount of solar radiation received and the atmospheric abundance of...

159

An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. An Infrared Spectral Database for Detection of Gases Emitted by Biomass Burning. Abstract: We report the construction of...

160

Heat Recovery in Distillation by Mechanical Vapor Recompression  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

matc~ can be made between low-grade waste energy sourc~s and process uses, thereby improving plant energ~ efficiency. I A relatively high rate of return on invest-JI ment is expected in most cases. The optimum op, erating conditions are dictated...," Chem. Eng. Prog., Vol. 76:7, pp. 44-49, July 1980. I 2. Anon, "Di,stillation Prime Target for Energ~ Conservation," Oil & Gas Journal, Vol. 76:~6, pp. 92-94, April 17, 1978. I 3. W. F. Kenne'y, "Reducing the Energy Demand o~ Separation Processes...

Becker, F. E.; Zakak, A. I.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Multiple steady states during reactive distillation of methyl tert-butyl ether  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents results of computer simulations of the synthesis of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) in a fixed-bed reactor and in a reactive distillation column. These calculations clearly showed the advantages of MTBE synthesis in a catalytic distillation tower. Furthermore, the computer simulations showed that multiple steady states may occur in the reactive distillation column during MTBE synthesis in a broad range of operating conditions. An analysis of some sensitivity studies is presented.

Nijhuis, S.A. (Univ. of Amsterdam (Netherlands). Chemical Engineering Dept.); Kerkhof, F.P.J.M.; Mak, A.N.S. (Comprimo Engineers and Contractors, Amsterdam (Netherlands))

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

162

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

163

E-Print Network 3.0 - advanced distillation curve Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

58 (2003) 26712680 www.elsevier.comlocateces Summary: distillation: Advanced simulation and experimental validation. Computers and Chemical Engineering, 22, S371-S......

164

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1998 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

165

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1995 337 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

166

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

167

Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

Marketing Annual 1999 441 Table A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) - Continued...

168

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric crude distillation Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Problems Summary: and atmospheric distillations of crude-oil mixtures from charging tanks. The crude is then processed in order... of resources: crude marine vessels, storage...

169

Development of a Fuzzy Logic Controller for a Distillation Column using Rockwell Software .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??In this thesis, an alternative control method based on Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) is proposed to keep the product composition of a distillation column constant.… (more)

Nizami, Muhammad

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) in KansasYear Jan Feb

171

Nevada Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) in KansasYear Jan FebYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul

172

New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) in KansasYearDecadeYear Jan Feb MarSameFeet) Decade

173

New Mexico Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) in KansasYearDecadeYear Jan Feb MarSameFeet)

174

North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2DecadeFeet)

175

North Dakota Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecade Year-0 Year-1

176

Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecadeFeet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2

177

Oklahoma Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecadeDecadeFeet)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Year

178

Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet) WorkingDecade

179

Oregon Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2Feet) WorkingDecadeYear

180

Other States Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996)Decade Year-0 Year-1Cubic Feet)Feet)Vented

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2perSep-14Base Gas) (Million74,284

182

Texas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand Cubic4,630.2perSep-14Base Gas) (Million74,284Year Jan

183

Alabama Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan Feb Mar AprDecade

184

Alabama Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear Jan Feb Mar AprDecadeYear Jan Feb Mar Apr

185

Alaska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDecade

186

Alaska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYear Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDecadeYear

187

Arizona Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYearVented and Flared

188

Arizona Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYear JanYearVented and FlaredYear Jan Feb Mar

189

Arkansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion Cubic Feet)Decade

190

Arkansas Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteam Coal Import CostsLiquidsYearReserves (Billion Cubic

191

California Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,998 10,643 10,998DecadeFeet) BaseFeet)

192

California Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,643 10,998 10,998 10,643 10,998DecadeFeet)

193

Utah Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand28 198Separation 321Working Gas)Decade Year-0

194

Utah Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet)per Thousand28 198Separation 321Working Gas)Decade Year-0Year

195

Nebraska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year Jan Feb MarthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MaySameDecade Year-0

196

Nebraska Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year Jan Feb MarthroughYear Jan Feb Mar Apr MaySameDecade

197

Denitrification of combustion gases. [Patent application  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for treating waste combustion gas to remove the nitrogen oxygen gases therefrom is disclosed wherein the waste gas is first contacted with calcium oxide which absorbs and chemically reacts with the nitrogen oxide gases therein at a temperature from about 100/sup 0/ to 430/sup 0/C. The thus reacted calcium oxide (now calcium nitrate) is then heated at a temperature range between about 430/sup 0/ and 900/sup 0/C, resulting in regeneration of the calcium oxide and production of the decomposition gas composed of nitrogen and nitrogen oxide gas. The decomposition gases can be recycled to the calcium oxide contacting step to minimize the amount of nitrogen oxide gases in the final product gas.

Yang, R.T.

1980-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

198

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

NONE

1996-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

199

Biological production of products from waste gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus are designed for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, and carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various products, such as organic acids, alcohols, hydrogen, single cell protein, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2002-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

200

Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 3. Engineering development. Annual report, April 1, 1995--May 15, 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Refineries discharge large volumes of H2, CO, and CO 2 from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This R&D program seeks to develop, demonstrate, and commercialize a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol for blending with gasoline. A 200,000 BPD refinery could produce up to 38 million gallons ethanol per year. The program is being conducted in 3 phases: II, technology development; III, engineering development; and IV, demonstration. Phase I, exploratory development, has been completed. The research effort has yielded two strains (Isolates O-52 and C-01) which are to be used in the pilot studies to produce ethanol from CO, CO2, and H2 in petroleum waste gas. Results from single continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) laboratory tests have shown that 20-25 g/L ethanol can be produced with < 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Laboratory studies with two CSTRs in series have yielded ethanol concentrations of 30-35 g/L with 2-4 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Water recycle from distillation back to the fermenter shows that filtration of the water before distillation eliminates the recycle of toxic materials back to the fermenter. Product recovery in the process will use direct distillation to the azeotrope, followed by adsorption to produce neat ethanol. This is less energy intensive than e.g. solvent extraction, azeotropic distillation, or pervaporation. Economic projections are quite attractive; the economics are refinery stream dependent and thus vary depending on refinery location and operation.

Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C; Gaddy, J.L.

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

noble gases. #12;Exploring the Solar Wind94 Light solar wind noble gases were directly measured by mass of the light gases are known to vary with energy, so none of these provided solar isotopic and elemental5 Measuring the Isotopic Composition of Solar Wind Noble Gases Alex Meshik, Charles Hohenberg, Olga

202

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 1. Vmin Diagram for a Two-Product Column how the minimum energy consumption is related to the feed-component distribution for all possible operating points in a two-product distillation column with a multicomponent feed. The classical Underwood

Skogestad, Sigurd

203

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products and Generalized Petlyuk Arrangements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Minimum Energy Consumption in Multicomponent Distillation. 3. More Than Three Products-component feed into M products has been derived. Interestingly, the minimum-energy solution in a complex solution of minimum energy for distillation of a multicomponent feed into multiple products has not been

Skogestad, Sigurd

204

Study of the Distillability of Werner States Using Entanglement Witnesses and Robust Semidefinite Programs  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use Robust Semidefinite Programs and Entanglement Witnesses to study the distillability of Werner states. We perform exact numerical calculations which show 2-undistillability in a region of the state space which was previously conjectured to be undistillable. We also introduce bases which yield interesting expressions for the {\\em distillability witnesses} and for a tensor product of Werner states with arbitrary number of copies.

Reinaldo O. Vianna; Andrew C. Doherty

2006-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

205

Optimal operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optimal operation of a Petlyuk Distillation Column: Energy Savings by Over-fractionation · The Petlyuk distillation column, see Figure 1(a), with a pre-fractionator (C1) and a main column (C21 and C22) N-7465 Trondheim, Norway Abstract This work shows the unexpected result that over-fractionating one

Skogestad, Sigurd

206

Distillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Grak (Editors)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

coupling 1. Introduction Separation by distillation is responsible for a large fraction of immense amountDistillation Absorption 2010 A.B. de Haan, H. Kooijman and A. Górak (Editors) All rights reserved indicated that a 15 component aromatic's mixture can be separated very efficiently into four fractions

Skogestad, Sigurd

207

Optimization of Distillation Processes. Jos A. Caballero* and Ignacio E. Grossmann**  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that handle more than 90% of separations and purifications. The capital investment for these distillation.87 million TJ) per year, or to a power consumption of 91 GW, or 54 million tons of crude oil. Distillation conditions to minimize the total investment and operating cost. Continuous decisions are related

Grossmann, Ignacio E.

208

HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Greenhouse gases andGreenhouse gases and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in gas turbinecombustion in gas turbine HELSINKI UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY ENE-47.153 Effect of COEffect-depleting gases ·· COCO22 removal for gas purificationremoval for gas purification ·· COCO22 removal for greenhouse gas emissions reductionremoval for greenhouse gas emissions reduction ·· Other greenhouse gases

Zevenhoven, Ron

209

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 2: Appendixes A--S  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This volume contains the appendices to the report on Emission of Greenhouse Gases from the Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity. Emissions of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon monoxide, and other greenhouse gases are discussed. Sources of emission including vehicles, natural gas operations, oil production, coal mines, and power plants are covered. The various energy industries are examined in terms of greenhouse gas production and emissions. Those industries include electricity generation, transport of goods via trains, trucks, ships and pipelines, coal, natural gas and natural gas liquids, petroleum, nuclear energy, and biofuels.

DeLuchi, M.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States). Inst. of Transportation Studies

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

Fischer, Marc

2013-05-29T23:59:59.000Z

211

Spin noise spectroscopy to probe quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We theoretically demonstrate that optical measurements of electron spin noise can be a spectroscopic probe of the entangled quantum states of ultracold fermionic atom gases and unambiguously reveal the detailed nature of the underlying interatomic correlations. Different models of the effective interatomic interactions predict entirely new sets of resonances in the spin noise spectrum. Once the correct effective interatomic interaction model is identified, the detailed noise line shapes of the spin noise can be used to constrain this model. We estimate the magnitude of spin noise signals expected in ultracold fermionic atom gases via noise measurements in classical alkali vapors, which demonstrate the feasibility of this approach.

Mihaila, Bogdan; Blagoev, Krastan B.; Smith, Darryl L. [Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Crooker, Scott A.; Rickel, Dwight G. [National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Littlewood, Peter B. [Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2006-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

Fractionation studies on the unidentified growth factor(s) in distillers dried solubles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. This was called "methyl aloohol soluble fraction of distillers dried solublesi The residue wss air drie4 and labeled "aetna 1 alcohol insoluble fraotion of distillers drie4 solubles". $. r fo m at nt ist e i o ubl s Five hundred gm of distillexs dried... fraction ox Ms- tillers Cried solubles (pH 1)"L "water soluole fr~ction of distillers dried solubles (PH '/)"L ~ "water soluble fxaction of dis~illers dried solubles (pH 11)". ur h r Pra tionatio f th Sate 8 lub e }raut of 9 still rs ed Soluo es a...

Dannenburg, Warren Nathaniel

1955-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Distillation sequence for the purification and recovery of hydrocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention is an improved distillation sequence for the separation and purification of ethylene from a cracked gas. A hydrocarbon feed enters a C2 distributor column. The top of the C2 distributor column is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the bottoms liquid of a C2 distributor column feeds a deethanizer column. The C2 distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor feeds a C2 splitter column. The ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The deethanizer and C2 splitter columns are also thermally coupled and operated at a substantially lower pressure than the C2 distributor column, the ethylene distributor column, and the demethanizer column. Alternatively, a hydrocarbon feed enters a deethanizer column. The top of the deethanizer is thermally coupled to an ethylene distributor column, and the ethylene distributor column utilizes a conventional reboiler. The top of the ethylene distributor column is thermally coupled with a demethanizer column, and the bottoms liquid of the ethylene distributor column feeds a C2 splitter column. The C2 splitter column operates at a pressure substantially lower than the ethylene distributor column, the demethanizer column, and the deethanizer column.

Reyneke, Rian (Katy, TX); Foral, Michael (Aurora, IL); Papadopoulos, Christos G. (Naperville, IL); Logsdon, Jeffrey S. (Naperville, IL); Eng, Wayne W. Y. (League City, TX); Lee, Guang-Chung (Houston, TX); Sinclair, Ian (Warrington, GB)

2007-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

214

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity | Department of Energy  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity Perdido LF-Gase to Electricity This presentation was given at the July 17, 2012, Community Renewable Energy Deployment webinar on successful landfill...

215

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases.

Turick, Charles E. (Idaho Falls, ID)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Method for enhancing microbial utilization rates of gases using perfluorocarbons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of enhancing the bacterial reduction of industrial gases using perfluorocarbons (PFCs) is disclosed. Because perfluorocarbons (PFCs) allow for a much greater solubility of gases than water does, PFCs have the potential to deliver gases in higher concentrations to microorganisms when used as an additive to microbial growth media thereby increasing the rate of the industrial gas conversion to economically viable chemicals and gases. 3 figs.

Turick, C.E.

1997-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

217

Water distillation using waste engine heat from an internal combustion engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To meet the needs of forward deployed soldiers and disaster relief personnel, a mobile water distillation system was designed and tested. This system uses waste engine heat from the exhaust flow of an internal combustion ...

Mears, Kevin S

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

218

Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Feeding Value of Wet Sorghum Distillers Grains for Growing and Finishing Beef Cattle Ethanol, but sorghum grain is commonly either blended with corn before use or used as the sole grain for ethanol

219

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

132.9 1,418.3 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

220

Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Overview of used antifreeze and industrial glycol recycling by vacuum distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A leading method of reclaiming ethylene glycol from both used automotive coolants and waste industrial glycol streams is vacuum distillation. Over 15 million gallons per year of total glycols are recovered by this technology, which are marketed for use in antifreeze and industrial chemicals. It is a robust technology, tolerant of many common feed contaminants, and producing minimum waste. This paper presents an overview of vacuum distillation as one part of a multistep process for recovering glycols from a wide variety of feedstreams. Described are industry practices for laboratory prescreening of feedstreams, process adjustments and pretreatments, distillation technologies and post-distillation polishing methods. In each section, information and data are presented from two independent facilities and for several streams processed at each facility. It is concluded that the facilities participating in this study can reliably produce ethylene glycol suitable for the production of ASTM specification engine coolants.

Frye, D.K. [Filter Recovery Services, Alexandria, VA (United States); Chan, K.; Pourhassanian, C. [DeMenno/Kerdoon, Inc., Compton, CA (United States)

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

222

The Scaleup of Structured Packing from Distillation Pilot Plant Testing to Commercial Application  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

fractionator was performed, it was necessary to inventory the column with feed and, under total reflux conditions, draw off distillate or bottoms product until the proper composition profile was achieved. To investigate various design options, both... stream by a factor of five. In summary, from the customer's point of view, the application of structured packing to the main fractionator in the SFP fractionation train is a cOOluercial success. NEW DISTILLATION DEVELOPMENT PILOT PLANT Since...

Berven, O. J.; Ulowetz, M. A.

223

Experimental and analytical studies of hydrocarbon yields under dry-, steam-, and steam-with-propane distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL STUDIES OF HYDROCARBON YIELDS UNDER DRY-, STEAM-, AND STEAM-WITH- PROPANE DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University...-WITH- PROPANE-DISTILLATION A Dissertation by NAMIT JAISWAL Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY Approved...

Jaiswal, Namit

2007-09-17T23:59:59.000Z

224

Performance of a spark ignition, lean burn, natural gas internal combustion engine .  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Relative to gasoline and diesel, use of natural gas as a transport fuel can produce significantly lower emissions of particulate matter and greenhouse gases. Future… (more)

ABBASI ATIBEH, PAYMAN

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

PILOT-SCALE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE FROM LEGACY PLUTONIUM MATERIALS USING VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. In 2011, SRNL adapted the technology for the removal of fluoride from fluoride-bearing salts. The method involved an in situ reaction between potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the fluoride salt to yield potassium fluoride (KF) and the corresponding oxide. The KF and excess KOH can be distilled below 1000{deg}C using vacuum salt distillation (VSD). The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated by a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attaned, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile material in the feed boat. Studies discussed in this report were performed involving the use of non-radioactive simulants in small-scale and pilot-scale systems as well as radioactive testing of a small-scale system with plutonium-bearing materials. Aspects of interest include removable liner design considerations, boat materials, in-line moisture absorption, and salt deposition.

Pierce, R. A.; Pak, D. J.

2012-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

226

Thermodynamic formalism for field driven Lorentz gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We analytically determine the dynamical properties of two dimensional field driven Lorentz gases within the thermodynamic formalism. For dilute gases subjected to an iso-kinetic thermostat, we calculate the topological pressure as a function of a temperature-like parameter $\\ba$ up to second order in the strength of the applied field. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy and the topological entropy can be extracted from a dynamical entropy defined as a Legendre transform of the topological pressure. Our calculations of the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy exactly agree with previous calculations based on a Lorentz-Boltzmann equation approach. We give analytic results for the topological entropy and calculate the dimension spectrum from the dynamical entropy function.

Oliver Muelken; Henk van Beijeren

2003-12-22T23:59:59.000Z

227

Distillate Fuel Oil Refinery, Bulk Terminal, and Natural Gas Plant Stocks  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesDataTranslocation oftheAmperometric Detectioneffect of pH andCO

228

Emissions Of Greenhouse Gases From Rice Agriculture  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This project produced detailed data on the processes that affect methane and nitrous oxide emissions from rice agriculture and their inter-relationships. It defines the shifting roles and potential future of these gases in causing global warming and the benefits and tradeoffs of reducing emissions. The major results include: 1). Mechanisms and Processes Leading to Methane Emissions are Delineated. Our experiments have tested the standard model of methane emissions from rice fields and found new results on the processes that control the flux. A mathematical mass balance model was used to unravel the production, oxidation and transport of methane from rice. The results suggested that when large amounts of organic matter are applied, the additional flux that is observed is due to both greater production and reduced oxidation of methane. 2). Methane Emissions From China Have Been Decreasing Over the Last Two Decades. We have calculated that methane emissions from rice fields have been falling in recent decades. This decrease is particularly large in China. While some of this is due to reduced area of rice agriculture, the bigger effect is from the reduction in the emission factor which is the annual amount of methane emitted per hectare of rice. The two most important changes that cause this decreasing emission from China are the reduced use of organic amendments which have been replaced by commercial nitrogen fertilizers, and the increased practice of intermittent flooding as greater demands are placed on water resources. 3). Global Methane Emissions Have Been Constant For More Than 20 Years. While the concentrations of methane in the atmosphere have been leveling off in recent years, our studies show that this is caused by a near constant total global source of methane for the last 20 years or more. This is probably because as some anthropogenic sources have increased, others, such as the rice agriculture source, have fallen. Changes in natural emissions appear small. 4). Nitrous Oxide Emissions From Rice Fields Increase as Methane Emissions Drop. Inundated conditions favor anaerobic methane production with high emission rates and de-nitrification resulting in modest nitrous oxide emissions. Under drier conditions such as intermittent flooding, methane emissions fall and nitrous oxide emissions increase. Increased nitrogen fertilizer use increases nitrous oxide emissions and is usually accompanied by reduced organic matter applications which decreases methane emissions. These mechanisms cause a generally inverse relationship between methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Reduction of methane from rice agriculture to control global warming comes with tradeoffs with increased nitrous oxide emissions. 5). High Spatial Resolution Maps of Emissions Produced. Maps of methane and nitrous oxide emissions at a resolution of 5 min × 5 min have been produced based on the composite results of this research. These maps are necessary for both scientific and policy uses.

M. Aslam K. Khalil

2009-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

229

Glass Membrane For Controlled Diffusion Of Gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A glass structure for controlled permeability of gases includes a glass vessel. The glass vessel has walls and a hollow center for receiving a gas. The glass vessel contains a metal oxide dopant formed with at least one metal selected from the group consisting of transition metals and rare earth metals for controlling diffusion of the gas through the walls of the glass vessel. The vessel releases the gas through its walls upon exposure to a radiation source.

Shelby, James E. (Alfred Station, NY); Kenyon, Brian E. (Pittsburgh, PA)

2001-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

230

Method for introduction of gases into microspheres  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for producing small hollow glass spheres filled with a gas by introduction of the gas during formation of the hollow glass spheres. Hollow glass microspheres having a diameter up to about 500.mu. with both thin walls (0.5 to 4.mu.) and thick walls (5 to 20.mu.) that contain various fill gases, such as Ar, Kr, Xe, Br, DT, H.sub.2, D.sub.2, He, N.sub.2, Ne, CO.sub.2, etc. in the interior thereof, can be produced by the diffusion of the fill gas or gases into the microsphere during the formation thereof from a liquid droplet of glass-forming solution. This is accomplished by filling at least a portion of the multiple-zone drop-furnace used in producing hollow microspheres with the gas or gases of interest, and then taking advantage of the high rate of gaseous diffusion of the fill gas through the wall of the gel membrane before it transforms into a glass microsphere as it is processed in the multiple-zone furnace. Almost any gas can be introduced into the inner cavity of a glass microsphere by this method during the formation of the microsphere provided that the gas is diffused into the gel membrane or microsphere prior to its transformation into glass. The process of this invention provides a significant savings of time and related expense of filling glass microspheres with various gases. For example, the time for filling a glass microballoon with 1 atmosphere of DT is reduced from about two hours to a few seconds.

Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA); Koo, Jackson C. (San Ramon, CA); Rosencwaig, Allan (Danville, CA)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Plasmon mass and Drude weight in strongly spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) spin- orbit-coupled 2D electron and hole gases, which are promising candidates for semiconductor spintronics,1 (ii) graphene2 (a monolayer of carbon atoms arranged in a 2D honeycomb lattice), which has attracted a great deal of interest because..., in the case of graphene) degree of freedom. This coupling, being of relativistic origin,12 naturally breaks Galilean invariance and is thus the basic reason for a quite sensitive dependence of several observables on electron-electron interactions, even...

Agarwal, Amit; Chesi, Stefano; Jungwirth, T.; Sinova, Jairo; Vignale, G.; Polini, Marco.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

232

Waste Heat Recovery and Recycling in Thermal Separation Processes: Distillation, Multi-Effect Evaporation (MEE) and Crystallization Processes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Evaporation and crystallization are key thermal separation processes for concentrating and purifying inorganic and organic products with energy consumption over 1,000 trillion Btu/yr. This project focused on a challenging task of recovering low-temperature latent heat that can have a paradigm shift in the way thermal process units will be designed and operated to achieve high-energy efficiency and significantly reduce the carbon footprint as well as water footprint. Moreover, this project has evaluated the technical merits of waste-heat powered thermal heat pumps for recovery of latent heat from distillation, multi-effect evaporation (MEE), and crystallization processes and recycling into the process. The Project Team has estimated the potential energy, economics and environmental benefits with the focus on reduction in CO2 emissions that can be realized by 2020, assuming successful development and commercialization of the technology being developed. Specifically, with aggressive industry-wide applications of heat recovery and recycling with absorption heat pumps, energy savings of about 26.7 trillion Btu/yr have been estimated for distillation process. The direct environmental benefits of this project are the reduced emissions of combustible products. The estimated major reduction in environmental pollutants in the distillation processes is in CO2 emission equivalent to 3.5 billion lbs/year. Energy consumption associated with water supply and treatments can vary between 1,900 kWh and 23,700 kWh per million-gallon water depending on sources of natural waters [US DOE, 2006]. Successful implementation of this technology would significantly reduce the demand for cooling-tower waters, and thereby the use and discharge of water treatment chemicals. The Project Team has also identified and characterized working fluid pairs for the moderate-temperature heat pump. For an MEE process, the two promising fluids are LiNO3+KNO3+NANO3 (53:28:19 ) and LiNO3+KNO3+NANO2(53:35:12). And for an H2O2 distillation process, the two promising fluids are Trifluoroethanol (TFE) + Triethylene Glycol Dimethyl ether (DMETEG) and Ammonia+ Water. Thermo-physical properties calculated by Aspen+ are reasonably accurate. Documentation of the installation of pilot-plants or full commercial units were not found in the literature for validating thermo-physical properties in an operating unit. Therefore, it is essential to install a pilot-scale unit to verify thermo-physical properties of working fluid pairs and validate the overall efficiency of the thermal heat pump at temperatures typical of distillation processes. For an HO2 process, the ammonia-water heat pump system is more compact and preferable than the TFE-DMETEG heat pump. The ammonia-water heat pump is therefore recommended for the H2O2 process. Based on the complex nature of the heat recovery system, we anticipated that capital costs could make investments financially unattractive where steam costs are low, especially where co-generation is involved. We believe that the enhanced heat transfer equipment has the potential to significantly improve the performance of TEE crystallizers, independent of the absorption heat-pump recovery system. Where steam costs are high, more detailed design/cost engineering will be required to verify the economic viability of the technology. Due to the long payback period estimated for the TEE open system, further studies on the TEE system are not warranted unless there are significant future improvements to heat pump technology. For the H2O2 distillation cycle heat pump waste heat recovery system, there were no significant process constraints and the estimated 5 years payback period is encouraging. We therefore recommend further developments of application of the thermal heat pump in the H2O2 distillation process with the focus on the technical and economic viability of heat exchangers equipped with the state-of-the-art enhancements. This will require additional funding for a prototype unit to validate enhanced thermal performances of heat transfer equipment, evaluat

Emmanuel A. Dada; Chandrakant B. Panchal; Luke K. Achenie; Aaron Reichl; Chris C. Thomas

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

233

The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

1989-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Final report, April 1994--July 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this program was to develop a commercial process for producing ethanol from refinery waste gases. this report presents results from the development phases. The major focus of this work was the preparation of the prototype design which will demonstrate this technology in a 2.5 lb/hr ethanol production facility. Additional areas of focus included efforts in obtaining an industrial partner to help finance the prototype, and advanced engineering experiments concentrating on process optimization in various areas needing future development and optimization. The advanced engineering experiments were performed in the laboratory in these areas: treatment and use of recycle water from distillation back to fermentation; alternative methods of removing cells from the fermentation broth; the fermentation of streams containing CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} alone, with little to no CO present; dealing with methanogen contaminants that are capable of fermenting CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} to methane; and acetate tolerance by the culture. Results from the design, industrial partner search and the laboratory R&D efforts are discussed in this report.

Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Breshears, F.S.; Gaines, L.D.; Hays, K.S.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

1997-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Asia-wide emissions of greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Emissions of principal greenhouse gases (GHGs) from Asia are increasing faster than those from any other continent. This is a result of rapid economic growth, as well as the fact that almost half of the world`s population lives in Asian countries. In this paper, the author provides estimates of emissions of the two principal greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}), from individual countries and areas. Recent literature has been reviewed for emission estimates for individual sources, such as carbon dioxide from cement manufacture, and methane from rice fields. There are very large uncertainties in many of these estimates, so several estimates are provided, where available. The largest anthropogenic source of CO{sub 2} emissions is the use of fossil fuels. Energy consumption data from 1992 have been used to calculate estimated emissions of CO{sub 2} from this source. In view of the ongoing negotiations to limit future greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of projected CO{sub 2} emissions from the developing countries of Asia are also provided. These are likely to be 3 times their 1986 levels by 2010, under business as usual scenarios. Even with the implementation of energy efficiency measures and fuel switching where feasible, the emissions of CO{sub 2} are likely to double within the same time period.

Siddiqi, T.A. [East-West Center, Honolulu, HI (United States). Program on Environment

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

236

Theory of ultracold atomic Fermi gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The physics of quantum degenerate atomic Fermi gases in uniform as well as in harmonically trapped configurations is reviewed from a theoretical perspective. Emphasis is given to the effect of interactions that play a crucial role, bringing the gas into a superfluid phase at low temperature. In these dilute systems, interactions are characterized by a single parameter, the s-wave scattering length, whose value can be tuned using an external magnetic field near a broad Feshbach resonance. The BCS limit of ordinary Fermi superfluidity, the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of dimers, and the unitary limit of large scattering length are important regimes exhibited by interacting Fermi gases. In particular, the BEC and the unitary regimes are characterized by a high value of the superfluid critical temperature, on the order of the Fermi temperature. Different physical properties are discussed, including the density profiles and the energy of the ground-state configurations, the momentum distribution, the fraction of condensed pairs, collective oscillations and pair-breaking effects, the expansion of the gas, the main thermodynamic properties, the behavior in the presence of optical lattices, and the signatures of superfluidity, such as the existence of quantized vortices, the quenching of the moment of inertia, and the consequences of spin polarization. Various theoretical approaches are considered, ranging from the mean-field description of the BCS-BEC crossover to nonperturbative methods based on quantum Monte Carlo techniques. A major goal of the review is to compare theoretical predictions with available experimental results.

Giorgini, Stefano; Pitaevskii, Lev P.; Stringari, Sandro [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento, Italy and Kapitza Institute for Physical Problems, ul. Kosygina 2, 117334 Moscow (Russian Federation); Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Trento and CNR-INFM BEC Center, I-38050 Povo, Trento (Italy)

2008-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

237

Source book for planning nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A source book on nuclear dual-purpose electric/distillation desalination plants was prepared to assist government and other planners in preparing broad evaluations of proposed applications of dual-purpose plants. The document is divided into five major sections. Section 1 presents general discussions relating to the benefits of dual-purpose plants, and spectrum for water-to-power ratios. Section 2 presents information on commercial nuclear plants manufactured by US manufacturers. Section 3 gives information on distillation desalting processes and equipment. Section 4 presents a discussion on feedwater pretreatment and scale control. Section 5 deals with methods for coupling the distillation and electrical generating plants to operate in the dual mode.

Reed, S.A.

1981-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs Danish consumption and emissions, 2007  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The greenhouse gases HFCs, PFCs and SF6 Danish consumption and emissions, 2007 Tomas Sander Poulsen AND EMISSION OF F-GASES 7 1.1.1 Consumption 7 1.1.2 Emission 7 1.1.3 Trends in total GWP contribution from F 21 4 EMISSION OF F-GASES 23 4.1.1 Emissions of HFCs from refrigerants 23 4.1.2 Emissions of HFCs from

239

Suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report on the fabrication of fully suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases in III-V heterostructures. Low temperature transport measurements verify that the properties of the suspended gases are only slightly degraded with respect to the non-suspended gases. Focused ion beam technology is used to pattern suspended nanostructures with minimum damage from the ion beam, due to the small width of the suspended membrane.

Kazazis, D.; Bourhis, E.; Gierak, J.; Gennser, U. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis (France); Bourgeois, O. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Antoni, T. [Laboratoire de Photonique et de Nanostructures, CNRS-LPN, Route de Nozay, 91460 Marcoussis, France and Laboratoire Kastler Brossel, Université Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France)

2013-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

240

Method for controlling corrosion in thermal vapor injection gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improvement in the method for producing high pressure thermal vapor streams from combustion gases for injection into subterranean oil producing formations to stimulate the production of viscous minerals is described. The improvement involves controlling corrosion in such thermal vapor gases by injecting water near the flame in the combustion zone and injecting ammonia into a vapor producing vessel to contact the combustion gases exiting the combustion chamber.

Sperry, John S. (Houston, TX); Krajicek, Richard W. (Houston, TX)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Finalize Historic National Program to Reduce Greenhouse Gases and Improve Fuel Economy for Cars and Trucks Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Finalize...

242

The Products of the Destructive Distillation of Keratin in the Form of Leather  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ure to the air. After this came a white crystal­ line solid, fourth a reddish fciquid, fifth a red­ dish crystalline compound and sixth the black oil spoken of abovd. A volume of the distillate, equaling about a liter was collected and the two... the material the temperature rose to 200° C. and then reduction started and the temperature fell rapidly. The tar or oil constitutes from 3 to 4 per cent of the weight of the leather used. The aqueous portion of the distillate was subjected to a fractional...

Rose, Reed Phillips

1913-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

243

Process for converting heavy oil deposited on coal to distillable oil in a low severity process  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A process for removing oil from coal fines that have been agglomerated or blended with heavy oil comprises the steps of heating the coal fines to temperatures over 350.degree. C. up to 450.degree. C. in an inert atmosphere, such as steam or nitrogen, to convert some of the heavy oil to lighter, and distilling and collecting the lighter oils. The pressure at which the process is carried out can be from atmospheric to 100 atmospheres. A hydrogen donor can be added to the oil prior to deposition on the coal surface to increase the yield of distillable oil.

Ignasiak, Teresa (417 Heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Strausz, Otto (13119 Grand View Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Ignasiak, Boleslaw (417 heffernan Drive, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Janiak, Jerzy (17820 - 76 Ave., Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Pawlak, Wanda (3046 - 11465 - 41 Avenue, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Szymocha, Kazimierz (3125 - 109 Street, Edmonton, Alberta, CA); Turak, Ali A. (Edmonton, CA)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Quantum criticality and universal scaling of strongly attractive spin-imbalanced Fermi gases in a one-dimensional harmonic trap  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate quantum criticality and universal scaling of strongly attractive Fermi gases confined in a one-dimensional harmonic trap. We demonstrate from the power-law scaling of the thermodynamic properties that current experiments on this system are capable of measuring universal features at quantum criticality, such as universal scaling and Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid physics. The results also provide insights on recent measurements of key features of the phase diagram of a spin-imbalanced atomic Fermi gas [Y. Liao et al., Nature (London) 467, 567 (2010)] and point to further study of quantum critical phenomena in ultracold atomic Fermi gases.

Yin Xiangguo; Chen Shu [Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Guan Xiwen [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Batchelor, Murray T. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Mathematical Sciences Institute, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

245

Shortcuts to adiabaticity for trapped ultracold gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium sta...

Schaff, Jean-François; Labeyrie, Guillaume; Vignolo, Patrizia

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Shortcuts to adiabaticity for trapped ultracold gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study, experimentally and theoretically, the controlled transfer of harmonically trapped ultracold gases between different quantum states. In particular we experimentally demonstrate a fast decompression and displacement of both a non-interacting gas and an interacting Bose-Einstein condensate which are initially at equilibrium. The decompression parameters are engineered such that the final state is identical to that obtained after a perfectly adiabatic transformation despite the fact that the fast decompression is performed in the strongly non-adiabatic regime. During the transfer the atomic sample goes through strongly out-of-equilibrium states while the external confinement is modified until the system reaches the desired stationary state. The scheme is theoretically based on the invariants of motion and scaling equations techniques and can be generalized to decompression trajectories including an arbitrary deformation of the trap. It is also directly applicable to arbitrary initial non-equilibrium states.

Jean-François Schaff; Pablo Capuzzi; Guillaume Labeyrie; Patrizia Vignolo

2011-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

247

Finite Temperature Gases of Fermionic Strings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that in the absence of a Ramond-Ramond sector both the type IIA and type IIB free string gases have a thermal instability due to low temperature tachyon modes. The gas of free IIA strings undergoes a thermal duality transition into a gas of free IIB strings at the self-dual temperature. The free heterotic string gas is a tachyon-free ensemble with gauge symmetry SO(16)$\\times$SO(16) in the presence of a timelike Wilson line background. It exhibits a holographic duality relation undergoing a self-dual phase transition with positive free energy and positive specific heat. The type IB open and closed string ensemble is related by thermal duality to the type I' string ensemble. We identify the order parameter for the Kosterlitz-Thouless phase transition from a low temperature gas of short open strings to a high temperature long string phase at or below T_C. Note Added (Sep 2005).

Shyamoli Chaudhuri

2005-09-12T23:59:59.000Z

248

Bogoliubov spectrum of interacting Bose gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the large-N limit of a system of N bosons interacting with a potential of intensity 1/N. When the ground state energy is to the first order given by Hartree's theory, we study the next order, predicted by Bogoliubov's theory. We show the convergence of the lower eigenvalues and eigenfunctions towards that of the Bogoliubov Hamiltonian (up to a convenient unitary transform). We also prove the convergence of the free energy when the system is sufficiently trapped. Our results are valid in an abstract setting, our main assumptions being that the Hartree ground state is unique and non-degenerate, and that there is complete Bose-Einstein condensation on this state. Using our method we then treat two applications: atoms with ''bosonic'' electrons on one hand, and trapped 2D and 3D Coulomb gases on the other hand.

Mathieu Lewin; Phan Thành Nam; Sylvia Serfaty; Jan Philip Solovej

2014-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

249

Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

NONE

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

250

Liquid absorbent solutions for separating nitrogen from natural gas  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Nitrogen-absorbing and -desorbing compositions, novel ligands and transition metal complexes, and methods of using the same, which are useful for the selective separation of nitrogen from other gases, especially natural gas.

Friesen, Dwayne T. (Bend, OR); Babcock, Walter C. (Bend, OR); Edlund, David J. (Redmond, OR); Lyon, David K. (Bend, OR); Miller, Warren K. (Bend, OR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Method of converting environmentally pollutant waste gases to methanol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A continuous flow method is described of converting environmentally pollutant by-product gases emitted during the manufacture of silicon carbide to methanol comprising: (a) operating a plurality of batch furnaces of a silicon carbide manufacturing plant thereby producing silicon carbide and emitting by-product gases during the operation of the furnaces; (b) staggering the operation of the batch furnaces to achieve a continuous emission of the by-product gases; (c) continuously flowing the by-product gases as emitted from the batch furnaces directly to a methanol manufacturing plant; (d) cleansing the by-product gases of particulate matter, including removing the element sulfur from the by-product gases, as they are flowed to the methanol manufacturing plant, sufficiently for use of the by-product gases in producing methanol; and (e) immediately producing methanol from the by-product gases at the methanol manufacturing plant whereby the producing of silicon carbide is joined with the producing of methanol as a unified process.

Pfingstl, H.; Martyniuk, W.; Hennepin, A. Ill; McNally, T.; Myers, R.; Eberle, L.

1993-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

252

Continuous cryopump with a method for removal of solidified gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved cryopump for the removal of gases from a high vacuum, comprising a cryopanel incorporating honeycomb structure, refrigerant means thermally connected to the cryopanel, and a rotatable channel moving azimuthally around an axis located near the center of the cryopanel, removing gases adsorbed within the honeycomb structure by subliming them and conducting them outside the vacuum vessel. 4 figs.

Carlson, L.W.; Herman, H.

1988-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

253

Efficient use of an intermediate reboiler or condenser in a binary distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The impact of an intermediate reboiler or condenser on the distillation of ideal binary mixtures into pure product streams is studied using a simplified model. The advantage of heuristics derived from this study is that they can quickly tell a process engineer if an intermediate reboiler or condenser is going to be effective in improving the efficiency and, of the two options, which one would be more effective. The heuristics simply states that if the actual fraction of liquid in a given feed is less than that with the maximum thermodynamic efficiency for distillation with no intermediate reboiler or condenser, then an intermediate condenser not only substantially improves the thermodynamic efficiency but is also more effective than an intermediate reboiler. An analogous heuristics exists for the intermediate reboiler when the fraction of liquid in the feed is greater than the optimum. Quick identification of cases that can achieve a substantial improvement in efficiency provides an incentive to search for the proper utilities needed for the intermediate reboiler or condenser. When relatively pure feed streams (concentration of either component greater than 90%) are distilled, the extremely low efficiencies of distillation can be remarkably improved by using an intermediate reboiler or condenser.

Agrawal, R.; Herron, D.M. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)] [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

254

Integrated Column Designs for Minimum Energy and Entropy Requirements in Multicomponent Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

prefer a process where the energy may be supplied at a low temperature and cooling may be supplied law). This leads us to the reversible Petlyuk arrangement. However the total required heat supply). A characteristic of the reversible distillation column is that some of the heat is supplied continuously along

Skogestad, Sigurd

255

Middle distillate hydrotreatment zeolite catalysts containing Pt/Pd or Ni  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A study on middle distillate hydrotreatment zeolite catalysts containing Pt/Pd and/or Ni was performed. The effect of the addition of the corresponding CoMo, CoMoPd, CoMoPtPd and CoMoNi in PdNiPt-zeolite, Pt-zeolite, Ni-zeolite, and Pd...

Marin-Rosas, Celia

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

256

UV Resonance Raman Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Liquid Distillates*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UV Resonance Raman Characterization of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Coal Liquid Distillates samples, such as petroleum and coal, or for man-made samples, such as coal liquids, a major desire- nique for studying coal-liquid samples. 1-4 We demon- strated that the Raman spectra of polycyclic

Asher, Sanford A.

257

Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Graphical Visualisation of Minimum Energy Requirements for Multi-Effect Distillation Arrangements of this paper is to present a simple graphical method for obtaining the energy usage and to compare the energy of Chemical Engineering, 7491 Trondheim, Norway Abstract The minimum energy requirements of six different heat

Skogestad, Sigurd

258

Hybrid magic state distillation for universal fault-tolerant quantum computation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A set of stabilizer operations augmented by some special initial states known as 'magic states', gives the possibility of universal fault-tolerant quantum computation. However, magic state preparation inevitably involves nonideal operations that introduce noise. The most common method to eliminate the noise is magic state distillation (MSD) by stabilizer operations. Here we propose a hybrid MSD protocol by connecting a four-qubit H-type MSD with a five-qubit T-type MSD, in order to overcome some disadvantages of the previous MSD protocols. The hybrid MSD protocol further integrates distillable ranges of different existing MSD protocols and extends the T-type distillable range to the stabilizer octahedron edges. And it provides considerable improvement in qubit cost for almost all of the distillable range. Moreover, we experimentally demonstrate the four-qubit H-type MSD protocol using nuclear magnetic resonance technology, together with the previous five-qubit MSD experiment, to show the feasibility of the hybrid MSD protocol.

Wenqiang Zheng; Yafei Yu; Jian Pan; Jingfu Zhang; Jun Li; Zhaokai Li; Dieter Suter; Xianyi Zhou; Xinhua Peng; Jiangfeng Du

2014-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

259

Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

Eaton, Scott J [ORNL; Bunting, Bruce G [ORNL; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur [ORNL; Fairbridge, Craig [National Centre for Upgrading Technology, Canada

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Black-Box Identification for PLC based MPC of a Binary Distillation Column  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Black-Box Identification for PLC based MPC of a Binary Distillation Column B. Huyck ,, F. Logist J is to upgrade the control system with a linear MPC running on a PLC. However, before a model based controller can be used on a PLC, an accurate (but simple) process model has to be constructed. Hence, the aim

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

321 HYDROGEN DISTILLATION AT THE DEUTERIUM REMOVAL UNIT OF MuCap EXPERIMENT I.A. Alekseev, E hydrogen gas (so- called protium) must be used. It is necessary to avoid transfers of - to impurities imposes strict and critical requirements on the hydrogen gas system supporting the detector. Desirable

Titov, Anatoly

262

In-Situ Microbial Conversion of Sequestered Greenhouse Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objectives of the project are to use microbiological in situ bioconversion technology to convert sequestered or naturally-occurring greenhouse gases, including carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide, into methane and other useful organic compounds. The key factors affecting coal bioconversion identified in this research include (1) coal properties, (2) thermal maturation and coalification process, (3) microbial population dynamics, (4) hydrodynamics (5) reservoir conditions, and (6) the methodology of getting the nutrients into the coal seams. While nearly all cultures produced methane, we were unable to confirm sustained methane production from the enrichments. We believe that the methane generation may have been derived from readily metabolized organic matter in the coal samples and/or biosoluble organic material in the coal formation water. This raises the intriguing possibility that pretreatment of the coal in the subsurface to bioactivate the coal prior to the injection of microbes and nutrients might be possible. We determined that it would be more cost effective to inject nutrients into coal seams to stimulate indigenous microbes in the coal seams, than to grow microbes in fermentation vats and transport them to the well site. If the coal bioconversion process can be developed on a larger scale, then the cost to generate methane could be less than $1 per Mcf

Scott, A R; Mukhopadhyay, M; Balin, D F

2012-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

263

Prices of Refiner No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998throughThousand CubicWashington Natural Gas Exports (Dollars per1.840

264

Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of No. 2 Distillate  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998throughThousand CubicWashington Natural Gas Exports (Dollars145,896.4

265

Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil 15 ppm Sulfur and Under  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael Schaal Director, Oil and10:InformationSteam Coal109,433

266

Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil Greater Than 500 ppm Sulfur  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael Schaal Director, Oil and10:InformationSteam

267

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Process Based on Biomass-Derived Syngas – A Techno-Economic Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study reports the comparison of biomass gasification based syngas-to-distillate (S2D) systems using techno-economic analysis (TEA). Three cases, state of technology (SOT) case, goal case, and conventional case, were compared in terms of performance and cost. The SOT case and goal case represent technology being developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for a process starting with syngas using a single-step dual-catalyst reactor for distillate generation (S2D process). The conventional case mirrors the two-step S2D process previously utilized and reported by Mobil using natural gas feedstock and consisting of separate syngas-to-methanol and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) processes. Analysis of the three cases revealed that the goal case could indeed reduce fuel production cost over the conventional case, but that the SOT was still more expensive than the conventional. The SOT case suffers from low one-pass yield and high selectivity to light hydrocarbons, both of which drive up production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that light hydrocarbon yield, single pass conversion efficiency, and reactor space velocity are the key factors driving the high cost for the SOT case.

Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Dagle, Robert A.; Palo, Daniel R.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

268

Measuring non-condensable gases in steam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In surgery, medical devices that are used should be sterilized. To obtain surface steam sterilization conditions, not only in the sterilizer chamber itself but also in the loads to be sterilized, the amount of non-condensable gases (NCGs), for instance air, should be very low. Even rather small fractions of NCGs (below 1 %) seriously hamper steam penetration in porous materials or devices with hollow channels (e.g., endoscopes). A recently developed instrument which might detect the presence of residual NCGs in a reliable and reproducible way is the 3M{sup TM} Electronic Test System (ETS). In this paper, a physical model is presented that describes the behavior of this instrument. This model has been validated by experiments in which known fractions of NCGs were introduced in a sterilizer chamber in which an ETS was placed. Despite several approximations made in the model, a good agreement is found between the model predictions and the experimental results. The basic principle of the ETS, measuring the heat transfer by condensation on a cooled surface, permits a very sensitive detection of NCGs in harsh environments like water vapor at high temperatures and pressures. Our model may serve to develop adapted and optimized versions of this instrument for use outside the field of sterilization, e.g., in heat exchangers based on steam condensation.

Doornmalen, J. P. C. M. van; Kopinga, K., E-mail: k.kopinga@tue.nl [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2013-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

269

Cryogenic method for measuring nuclides and fission gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A cryogenic method is provided for determining airborne gases and particulates from which gamma rays are emitted. A special dewar counting vessel is filled with the contents of the sampling flask which is immersed in liquid nitrogen. A vertically placed sodium-iodide or germanium-lithium gamma-ray detector is used. The device and method are of particular use in measuring and identifying the radioactive noble gases including emissions from coal-fired power plants, as well as fission gases released or escaping from nuclear power plants.

Perdue, P.T.; Haywood, F.F.

1980-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

270

Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

Andile B. Mzinyati [Sasol Technology Research and Development, Sasolburg (South Africa). Fischer-Tropsch Refinery Catalysis

2007-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

271

APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current activities are concerned with the removal of the halide ions associated with plutonium trifluoride (PuF{sub 3}), plutonium tetrafluoride (PuF{sub 4}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}). This report discusses non-radioactive testing of small-scale and pilot-scale systems and radioactive testing of a small-scale system. Experiments focused on demonstrating the chemistry for halide removal and addressing the primary engineering questions associated with a change in the process chemistry.

Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

2011-08-10T23:59:59.000Z

272

Future perspectives of using hollow fibers as structured packings in light hydrocarbon distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Olefin and paraffin are the largest chemical commodities. Furthermore, they are major building blocks for the petrochemical industry. Each year, petroleum refining, consumes 4,500 TBtu/yr in separation energy, making it one of the most energy-intensive industries in the United States). Just considering liquefied petroleum gas (ethane/propane/butane) and olefins (ethylene and propylene) alone, the distillation energy consumption is about 400 TBtu/yr in the US. Since petroleum distillation is a mature technology, incremental improvements in column/tray design will only provide a few percent improvements in the performance. However, each percent saving in net energy use amounts to savings of 10 TBtu/yr and reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 0.2 MTon/yr. In practice, distillation columns require 100 to 200 trays to achieve the desired separation. The height of a transfer unit (HTU) of conventional packings is typical in the range of 36-60 inch. Since 2006, we had explored using several non-selective membranes as the structured packings to replace the conventional packing materials used in propane and propylene distillation. We obtained the lowest HTU of < 8 inch for the hollow fiber column, which was >5 times shorter than that of the conventional packing materials. In 2008, we also investigated this type of packing materials in iso-/n-butane distillation. Because of a slightly larger relative volatility of iso-/n-butane than that of propane/propylene, a wider and a more stable operational range was obtained for the iso-/n-butane pair. However, all of the experiments were conducted on a small scale with flowrate of < 25 gram/min. Recently, we demonstrated this technology on a larger scale (<250 gram/min). Within the loading range of F-factor < 2.2 Pa{sup 0.5}, a pressure drop on the vapor side is below 50 mbar/m, which suggests that the pressure drop of hollow fibers packings is not an engineering barrier for the applications in distillations. The thermal stability study suggests that polypropylene hollow fibers are stable after a long time exposure to C{sub 2} - C{sub 4} mixtures. The effects of packing density on the separation efficiency will be discussed.

Yang, Dali [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Orler, Bruce [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tornga, Stephanie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Welch, Cindy [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2011-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

273

Separation of rare gases and chiral molecules by selective binding in porous organic cages  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Abstract: The rare gases krypton, xenon, and radon pose both an economic opportunity and a potential environmental hazard. Xenon is used in commercial lighting, medical imaging, and anesthesia, and can sell for $5,000 per kilogram. Radon, by contrast, Is naturally radioactive and the second largest cause of lung cancer, and radioactive xenon, 133Xe, was a major pollutant released In the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant disaster. We describe an organic cage molecule that can capture xenon and radon with unprecedented selectivity, suggesting new technologies for environmental monitoring, removal of pollutants, or the recovery of rare, valuable elements from air.

Chen, Linjiang; Reiss, Paul S.; Chong, Samantha Y.; Holden, Daniel; Jelfs, Kim E.; Hasell, Tom; Little, Marc A.; Kewley, Adam; Briggs, Michael E.; Stephenson, Andrew; Thomas, K. M.; Armstrong, Jayne A.; Bell, Jon; Busto, Jose; Noel, Raymond; Liu, Jian; Strachan, Denis M.; Thallapally, Praveen K.; Cooper, Andrew I.

2014-10-31T23:59:59.000Z

274

Direct conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuel. Final report No. 33  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Amoco oil Company, has investigated the direct, non-catalytic conversion of light hydrocarbon gases to liquid fuels (particularly methanol) via partial oxidation. The primary hydrocarbon feed used in these studies was natural gas. This report describes work completed in the course of our two-year project. In general we determined that the methanol yields delivered by this system were not high enough to make it economically attractive. Process variables studied included hydrocarbon feed composition, oxygen concentration, temperature and pressure effects, residence time, reactor design, and reactor recycle.

Kaplan, R.D.; Foral, M.J.

1992-05-16T23:59:59.000Z

275

Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

Benkovitz, C.M.

1992-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50 C is attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2], alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO[sub x] and SO[sub 2] can be removed in an economic fashion. 9 figs.

Chang, S.G.; Liu, D.K.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

277

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorus preferably in a wet scrubber. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. are attractive. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, 100% of the by-products created are usable, and close to 100% of the NO or NO and SO.sub.2 can be removed in an economic fashion.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Interactive chemical effects and instability of shale derived middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents a study of instability of shale-derived fuels. Changes in fuel properties with time have been a continuing problem in the use of middle distillate fuels. The authors define instability as the formation of insoluble sediments and gums as well as the production of peroxides and color bodies. Nitrogen and sulfur heterocycles have long been implicated in fuel degradation, but present knowledge is limited regarding the chemistry of their autoxidation reactions in the complex fuel media. Based on the GC/MS identification of nitrogen heterocyclic constituents in several shale-derived middle distillate fuels, the authors have conducted gravimetric instability tests employing three model nitrogen heterocycles in shale-derived diesel fuels. Model sulfur compound dopant studies on shale-derived jet fuels were conducted by monitoring hydroperoxide formation/decomposition and the decreased quantity of sulfur compound. Potential interactive effects have been defined for these model dopants.

Mushrush, G.W.; Beal, E.J.; Watkins, J.M.; Morris, R.E.; Hardy, D.R. (Fuels Section, Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (US))

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Report: Geochemical Data on Waters, Gases, Scales, and Rocks from the Dixie Valley Region, Nevada (1996-1999)...

280

Method of producing pyrolysis gases from carbon-containing materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A gasification process of improved efficiency is disclosed. A dual bed reactor system is used in which carbon-containing feedstock materials are first treated in a gasification reactor to form pyrolysis gases. The pyrolysis gases are then directed into a catalytic reactor for the destruction of residual tars/oils in the gases. Temperatures are maintained within the catalytic reactor at a level sufficient to crack the tars/oils in the gases, while avoiding thermal breakdown of the catalysts. In order to minimize problems associated with the deposition of carbon-containing materials on the catalysts during cracking, a gaseous oxidizing agent preferably consisting of air, oxygen, steam, and/or mixtures thereof is introduced into the catalytic reactor at a high flow rate in a direction perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the reactor. This oxidizes any carbon deposits on the catalysts, which would normally cause catalyst deactivation.

Mudge, Lyle K. (Richland, WA); Brown, Michael D. (West Richland, WA); Wilcox, Wayne A. (Kennewick, WA); Baker, Eddie G. (Richland, WA)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of a gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases.

Beverly, Claude R. (Paducah, KY); Ernstberger, Harold G. (Paducah, KY)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

Low-Value Waste Gases as an Energy Source  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Waste gases with potentially useful fuel value are generated at any number of points in refineries, chemical plants and other industrial and commercial sites. The higher quality streams have been utilized successfully in fuel systems for years...

Waibel, R. T.

283

Method for monitoring stack gases for uranium activity  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for monitoring the stack gases of a purge cascade of gaseous diffusion plant for uranium activity. A sample stream is taken from the stack gases and contacted with a volume of moisture-laden air for converting trace levels of uranium hexafluoride, if any, in the stack gases into particulate uranyl fluoride. A continuous strip of filter paper from a supply roll is passed through this sampling stream to intercept and gather any uranyl fluoride in the sampling stream. This filter paper is then passed by an alpha scintillation counting device where any radioactivity on the filter paper is sensed so as to provide a continuous monitoring of the gas stream for activity indicative of the uranium content in the stack gases. 1 fig.

Beverly, C.R.; Ernstberger, E.G.

1985-07-03T23:59:59.000Z

284

Studying coherence in ultra-cold atomic gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis will discuss the study of coherence properties of ultra-cold atomic gases. The atomic systems investigated include a thermal cloud of atoms, a Bose-Einstein condensate and a fermion pair condensate. In each ...

Miller, Daniel E. (Daniel Edward)

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

An evaluation of the potential end uses of a Utah tar sand bitumen. [Tar sand distillate  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

To date the commercial application of tar sand deposits in the United States has been limited to their use as paving materials for county roads, parking lots, and driveways because the material, as obtained from the quarries, does not meet federal highway specifications. The bitumen in these deposits has also been the subject of upgrading and refining studies to produce transportation fuels, but the results have not been encouraging from an economic standpoint. The conversion of tar sand bitumen to transportation fuels cannot compete with crude oil refining. The purposes of this study were two-fold. The first was to produce vacuum distillation residues and determine if their properties met ASTM asphalt specifications. The second was to determine if the distillates could serve as potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. The bitumen used for this study was the oil produced during an in situ steamflood project at the Northwest Asphalt Ridge (Utah) tar sand deposit. Two distillation residues were produced, one at +316/sup 0/C and one at +399/sup 0/C. However, only the lower boiling residue met ASTM specifications, in this case as an AC-30 asphalt. The original oil sample met specifications as an AC-5 asphalt. These residue samples showed some unique properties in the area of aging; however, these properties need to be investigated further to determine the implications. It was also suggested that the low aging indexes and high flow properties of the asphalts may be beneficial for pavements that require good low-temperature performance. Two distillate samples were produced, one at IBP-316/sup 0/C and one at IBP-399/sup 0/C. The chemical and physical properties of these samples were determined, and it was concluded that both samples appear to be potential feedstocks for the production of aviation turbine fuels. However, hydrogenation studies need to be conducted and the properties of the finished fuels determined to verify the prediction. 14 refs., 12 tabs.

Thomas, K.P.; Harnsberger, P.M.; Guffey, F.D.

1986-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

The distribution of n-alkanes in partially frozen middle distillate fuels  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work on partially frozen fuels is one of a continuing series of studies on the effect of composition on the freezing properties of hydrocarbon fuels. The method used for this purpose was reported previously. By means of this method the authors were able to determine the composition of the liquid and solid phases in partially frozen mixtures consisting of liquid and of solid crystals plus entrapped liquid. This paper presents the results of this study on five different middle distillate fuels.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Affens, W.A.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.; Guzman, J.

1986-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Chapter 4 The Gaseous State Chemistry of Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.15 V = V0[1+(t/273.15oC)] Kelvin T = 273.15 + t(Celsius) #12;Boyle's Law · The stirling engine, a heatChapter 4 The Gaseous State NO2 #12;AIR #12;Chemistry of Gases SO3 .. corrosive gas SO2...burning) ~1760 Charle The definition of the Temperature All gases expand with increasing temperature by the same

Ihee, Hyotcherl

288

Biological production of ethanol from waste gases with Clostridium ljungdahlii  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method and apparatus for converting waste gases from industrial processes such as oil refining, carbon black, coke, ammonia, and methanol production, into useful products is disclosed. The method includes introducing the waste gases into a bioreactor where they are fermented to various product, such as organic acids, alcohols H.sub.2, SCP, and salts of organic acids by anaerobic bacteria within the bioreactor. These valuable end products are then recovered, separated and purified.

Gaddy, James L. (Fayetteville, AR)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Energy Savings Accomplished by Replacing Steam Ejectors with Electric Driven Vacuum Pumps in Crude Distillation Vacuum Towers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The low cost of steam combined with the maintenance free operation of steam ejectors has assured their unquestioned use in providing the necessary vacuum for crude distillation vacuum towers. However, the cost of steam production has risen...

Nelson, R. E.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Hydrogenation of aromatics in synthetic crude distillates catalyzed by platinum supported in molecular sieves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Catalytic hydrogenation of synthetic crude distillates from Canadian oil sands was carried out over platinum metal supported in pillared interlayered clay (PILC) and Y-zeolite. The molecular sieve supports were employed to modify the properties of dispersed platinum particles and improve their resistance to poisoning by sulfur. The objective was to reduce the distillate aromatic content to meet diesel emission control standards and cetane number requirements. Catalysts were prepared in a series of steps, and metal precursor was loaded using ion-exchange procedures. Characterization was done using X-ray diffraction, hydrogen chemisorption, and proton-induced X-ray emission elemental analysis. Catalytic hydrogenation reactions were carried out by processing distillate feedstocks both high (>100 ppm) and low (<10 ppm) in sulfur using a continuous-flow automated microreactor system. Experimental runs were performed to determine the reaction kinetics and Arrhenius parameters as a means of evaluating and comparing catalyst performance. Significant differences in catalyst activity were found. The Pt/Y-zeolite-alumina catalyst showed a much superior hydrogenation performance under conditions of high sulfur content. The extent of cracking and ring opening was also evaluated and was shown to be minimal under the operating conditions employed.

Kimbara, N.; Charland, J.P. [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada)] [CANMET, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Wilson, M.F. [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada)] [CANMET, Devon, Alberta (Canada)

1996-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

Magnetocaloric properties of distilled gadolinium: Effects of structural inhomogeneity and hydrogen impurity  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High-purity Gd prepared by distillation is a structurally inhomogeneous system consisting of needle-shaped crystals of cross section 0.5–2.5??m with near-c-axis orientation embedded in a matrix of nanosized (30–100?nm) grains. By measuring the magnetocaloric effect (MCE) directly, we find that the MCE values differ markedly for the plate-shaped samples cut out of a distillate along and perpendicular to the crystals. The effect of small controlled amounts of impurity (hydrogen) on the properties of distilled Gd is further studied. We observe opposite trends in the MCE response to hydrogen charging with respect to the crystal's orientation within the samples and discuss mechanisms interrelating the unique structural morphology with the impurity behavior. As an overall assessment, the Curie temperatures of ?-GdH{sub x} solid solutions increase from 291?K up to 294?K when increasing hydrogen concentration x from 0 to 0.15. Hydrogenation is found to broaden the ferromagnetic-to-paramagnetic phase transition. Hydrogen-containing specimens demonstrate reversibility of MCE at these temperatures.

Burkhanov, G. S.; Kolchugina, N. B.; Chzhan, V. B.; Chistyakov, O. D. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Tereshina, E. A. [Institute of Physics ASCR, 18221 Prague (Czech Republic); Tereshina, I. S. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures PAS, 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Politova, G. A. [Baikov Institute of Metallurgy and Materials Science RAS, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); International Laboratory of High Magnetic Fields and Low Temperatures PAS, 53-421 Wroclaw (Poland); Badurski, D.; Drulis, H. [Institute of Low Temperature and Structure Research PAS, 50-950 Wroclaw (Poland); Paukov, M.; Havela, L. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, 12116 Prague (Czech Republic)

2014-06-16T23:59:59.000Z

292

A novel proportional--integral-derivative control configuration with application to the control of batch distillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The aim of this paper is to propose a novel proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control configuration based on an observer structure. Batch distillation is used as the base case study where the regulated output is the distillate composition. The proposed PID control law is derived in the framework of robust nonlinear control with modeling error compensation techniques. A reduced-order observer is proposed to estimate both the derivative of the regulated output and the underlying modeling error. These observations are subsequently used in a control loop to feedback variations of distillate composition (derivative feedback) and to counteract the effects of modeling errors. It is shown that, under certain conditions, the resulting control law is equivalent to a classical PID controller with an antireset windup scheme. Moreover, the tuning of the controller is performed very easily in terms of a prescribed closed-loop time constant and an estimation time constant. Numerical results are provided for binary and multicomponent separations. Sampled/delayed measurements and several sources of uncertainties are considered in order to provide a realistic test scenario for the proposed control design procedure.

Alvarez-Ramirez, J.; Monroy-Loperena, R.; Cervantes, I.; Morales, A.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Process for removing sulfur dioxide from flue gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This patent describes an improvement in a dry process for the removal of sulfur dioxide from flue gases by the addition thereto of hydrated lime containing sugar in a coal combustion unit, wherein the flue gases result from the combustion of a coal in a combustion chamber, and the flue gases are treated in an electrostatic precipitator prior to discharge to the atmosphere the improvement comprising: passing the flue gases, after the addition of the hydrated lime is of fine particles of a specific surface of 7 to 25 square meters per gram, through a conduit towards the electrostatic precipitator; and adding an aqueous media to the flue gases in the conduit in an amount to increase the water content of the flue gases and cool the same by evaporative cooling to a temperature no lower than 20{sup 0}F. about the dew point of the gas, so as to avoid forming water droplets in the gas, so as to prevent condensation of water therefrom.

Robinson, M.W. Jr.

1989-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

294

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Energy loss characteristics of heavy ions in nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon, hydrocarbon gases and tradescantia tissue

Dennis, J A

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir.

Gross, Kenneth C. (Bolingbrook, IL); Markun, Francis (Joliet, IL); Zawadzki, Mary T. (South Bend, IN)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Fluid clathrate system for continuous removal of heavy noble gases from mixtures of lighter gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus and method are disclosed for separation of heavy noble gas in a gas volume. An apparatus and method have been devised which includes a reservoir containing an oil exhibiting a clathrate effect for heavy noble gases with a reservoir input port and the reservoir is designed to enable the input gas volume to bubble through the oil with the heavy noble gas being absorbed by the oil exhibiting a clathrate effect. The gas having reduced amounts of heavy noble gas is output from the oil reservoir, and the oil having absorbed heavy noble gas can be treated by mechanical agitation and/or heating to desorb the heavy noble gas for analysis and/or containment and allow recycling of the oil to the reservoir. 6 figs.

Gross, K.C.; Markun, F.; Zawadzki, M.T.

1998-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

297

Process for the removal of acid forming gases from exhaust gases and production of phosphoric acid  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Exhaust gases are treated to remove NO or NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2 by contacting the gases with an aqueous emulsion or suspension of yellow phosphorous preferably in a wet scrubber. The addition of yellow phosphorous in the system induces the production of O.sub.3 which subsequently oxidizes NO to NO.sub.2. The resulting NO.sub.2 dissolves readily and can be reduced to form ammonium ions by dissolved SO.sub.2 under appropriate conditions. In a 20 acfm system, yellow phosphorous is oxidized to yield P.sub.2 O.sub.5 which picks up water to form H.sub.3 PO.sub.4 mists and can be collected as a valuable product. The pressure is not critical, and ambient pressures are used. Hot water temperatures are best, but economics suggest about 50.degree. C. The amount of yellow phosphorus used will vary with the composition of the exhaust gas, less than 3% for small concentrations of NO, and 10% or higher for concentrations above say 1000 ppm. Similarly, the pH will vary with the composition being treated, and it is adjusted with a suitable alkali. For mixtures of NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, alkalis that are used for flue gas desulfurization are preferred. With this process, better than 90% of SO.sub.2 and NO in simulated flue gas can be removed. Stoichiometric ratios (P/NO) ranging between 0.6 and 1.5 were obtained.

Chang, Shih-Ger (El Cerrito, CA); Liu, David K. (San Pablo, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Removal of carbon monoxide. Physical adsorption on natural and synthetic zeolites  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The utilization of natural zeolite materials in the elimination of polluting gases is investigated. Carbon monoxide pollution is emphasized because its concentration may reach dangerous levels in places such as vehicle tunnels, underground parking lots, etc. The elimination of carbon monoxide is also of interest in some industrial processes relating to the production of pure gases.

Alfani, F.; Greco, G. Jr.; Iroio, G.

1982-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Emissions of greenhouse gases from the use of transportation fuels and electricity. Volume 1, Main text  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report presents estimates of full fuel-cycle emissions of greenhouse gases from using transportation fuels and electricity. The data cover emissions of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane, carbon monoxide, nitrous oxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane organic compounds resulting from the end use of fuels, compression or liquefaction of gaseous transportation fuels, fuel distribution, fuel production, feedstock transport, feedstock recovery, manufacture of motor vehicles, maintenance of transportation systems, manufacture of materials used in major energy facilities, and changes in land use that result from using biomass-derived fuels. The results for electricity use are in grams of CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions per kilowatt-hour of electricity delivered to end users and cover generating plants powered by coal, oil, natural gas, methanol, biomass, and nuclear energy. The transportation analysis compares CO{sub 2}-equivalent emissions, in grams per mile, from base-case gasoline and diesel fuel cycles with emissions from these alternative- fuel cycles: methanol from coal, natural gas, or wood; compressed or liquefied natural gas; synthetic natural gas from wood; ethanol from corn or wood; liquefied petroleum gas from oil or natural gas; hydrogen from nuclear or solar power; electricity from coal, uranium, oil, natural gas, biomass, or solar energy, used in battery-powered electric vehicles; and hydrogen and methanol used in fuel-cell vehicles.

DeLuchi, M.A. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States)

1991-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Copolymers useful as additives for lowering the cloud point of middle hydrocarbon distillates, and compositions of middle hydrocarbon distillates comprising them  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Products useful as additives for lowering the cloud point of middle distillates have a molecular weight from 1,000 to 50,000, and are obtained by reacting a compound of the formula R-Z((CH/sub 2/) /SUB n/ NH) /SUB m/ H or HO-CH/sub 2/-R'-NH/sub 2/ where R is a monovalent saturated aliphatic radical of 1-30 carbon atoms, Z is -NH- or oxygen, n is 2 to 4, m is zero or 1 to 4 and R' is a saturated divalent aliphatic radical of 1-18 carbon atoms, with a copolymer comprising recurrent units (A) from an alkyl ester of an unsaturated monocarboxylic acid and/or a vinyl ester of a saturated monocarboxylic acid, recurrent units (B) from diisobutylene and recurrent units (C) from an unsaturated a,b-dicarboxylic compound.

Durand, J. P.; Damin, B.; Dawans, F.; Leger, R.

1985-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Evaluation of exposures of hospital employees to anesthetic gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Hospital employees who work in hospital operating and recovery rooms are often exposed to a number of anesthetic gases. There is evidence to support the belief that such exposures have led to higher rates of miscarriages and spontaneous abortions of pregnancies among women directly exposed to these gases than among women not exposed. Most of the studies assessing exposure levels were conducted prior to the widespread use of scavenging systems. Air sampling was conducted in hospital operatories and recovery rooms of three large hospitals to assess the current exposure levels in these areas and determine the effectiveness of these systems in reducing exposures to fluoride-containing anesthetic gases. It was determined that recovery-room personnel are exposed to levels of anesthesia gases that often approach and exceed the recommended Threshold Limit Value-Time Weighted Average (TLV-TWA) of 2.0 ppm. Recovery-room personnel do not have the protection from exposure provided by scavenging systems in operating rooms. Operating-room personnel were exposed to anesthesia gas levels above the TLV-TWA only when patients were masked, or connected and disconnected from the scavenging systems. Recovery-room personnel also need to be protected from exposure to anesthesia gases by a scavenging system.

Lambeth, J.D.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

The Extraction of Gasoline from Natural Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

for the quantitative estimation of the condensable gasoline consti- tuents of so-called rtwetn natural gas» Three general lines of experimentation suggested themselves after a preliminary study of the problem. These were the separation of a liqui- fied sample... fractionation of a mixture of natural gases are, however, not available in the ordinary laboratory, so this method altho successful and accurate is hardly practical. Even after the fractionation of the gas has ^lebeau and Damiens in Chen. Abstr. 7, 1356...

Schroeder, J. P.

1914-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

303

“Hard probes” of strongly-interacting atomic gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We investigate properties of an energetic atom propagating through strongly interacting atomic gases. The operator product expansion is used to systematically compute a quasiparticle energy and its scattering rate both in a spin-1/2 Fermi gas and in a spinless Bose gas. Reasonable agreement with recent quantum Monte Carlo simulations even at a relatively small momentum k/kF > 1.5 indicates that our large-momentum expansions are valid in a wide range of momentum. We also study a differential scattering rate when a probe atom is shot into atomic gases. Because the number density and current density of the target atomic gas contribute to the forward scattering only, its contact density (measure of short-range pair correlation) gives the leading contribution to the backward scattering. Therefore, such an experiment can be used to measure the contact density and thus provides a new local probe of strongly interacting atomic gases.

Nishida, Yusuke [Los Alamos National Laboratory

2012-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

304

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1997  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the sixth annual report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases. It covers emissions over the period 1990--1996, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1997. Chapter one summarizes some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect. Important recent developments in global climate change activities are discussed, especially the third Conference of the Parties to the Framework Convention on Climate Change, which was held in December of 1997 in Kyoto, Japan. Chapters two through five cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons and related gases, respectively. Chapter six describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Six appendices are included in the report. 96 refs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Separating hydrogen from coal gasification gases with alumina membranes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synthesis gas produced in coal gasification processes contains hydrogen, along with carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide, water, nitrogen, and other gases, depending on the particular gasification process. Development of membrane technology to separate the hydrogen from the raw gas at the high operating temperatures and pressures near exit gas conditions would improve the efficiency of the process. Tubular porous alumina membranes with mean pore radii ranging from about 9 to 22 {Angstrom} have been fabricated and characterized. Based on hydrostatic tests, the burst strength of the membranes ranged from 800 to 1600 psig, with a mean value of about 1300 psig. These membranes were evaluated for separating hydrogen and other gases. Tests of membrane permeabilities were made with helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide. Measurements were made at room temperature in the pressure range of 15 to 589 psi. Selected membranes were tested further with mixed gases simulating a coal gasification product gas. 5 refs., 7 figs.

Egan, B.Z. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Fain, D.E.; Roettger, G.E.; White, D.E. (Oak Ridge K-25 Site, TN (USA))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

306

Lattice vibrations of pure and doped GaSe  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Bridgman method is used to grow especially undoped and doped single crystals of GaSe. Composition and impurity content of the grown crystals were determined using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) method. X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering, photoluminescence (PL), and IR transmission measurements were performed at room temperature. The long wavelength lattice vibrations of four modifications of GaSe were described in the framework of modified one-layer linear-chain model which also takes into consideration the interaction of the selenium (Se) atom with the second nearest neighbor gallium (Ga) atom in the same layer. The existence of an eight-layer modification of GaSe is suggested and the vibrational frequencies of this modification are explained in the framework of a lattice dynamical model considered in the present work. Frequencies and the type of vibrations (gap, local, or resonance) for the impurity atoms were calculated and compared with the experimental results.

Allakhverdiev, K. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey) and Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan)]. E-mail: kerim.allahverdi@mam.gov.tr; Baykara, T. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Ellialtioglu, S. [Department of Physics, Middle East Technical University, Ankara 06531 (Turkey); Hashimzade, F. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Huseinova, D. [Institute of Physics, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku AZ1143 (Azerbaijan); Kawamura, K. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Kaya, A.A. [Materials Institute, Marmara Research Center, TUBITAK, Gebze/Kocaeli 41470 (Turkey); Kulibekov, A.M. [Department of Physics, Mugla University, Mugla 48000 (Turkey); Onari, S. [Institute of Materials Science, University of Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan)

2006-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

307

Design, start up, and three years operating experience of an ammonia scrubbing, distillation, and destruction plant  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When the rebuilt Coke Plant started operations in November of 1992, it featured a completely new closed circuit secondary cooler, ammonia scrubbing, ammonia distillation, and ammonia destruction plants. This is the second plant of this type to be built in North America. To remove the ammonia from the gas, it is scrubbed with three liquids: Approximately 185 gallons/minute of cooled stripped liquor from the ammonia stills; Light oil plant condensate; and Optionally, excess flushing liquor. These scrubbers typically reduce ammonia content in the gas from 270 Grains/100 standard cubic feet to 0.2 Grains/100 standard cubic feet.

Gambert, G.

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

308

,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: EnergyShale ProvedTexas"Brunei (Dollars perReserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"+ LeaseDistillate

309

Method and apparatus for assessing distillate-fuel stability by oxygen overpressure  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Reactions leading to insoluble sediments formation in distillate fuel are accelerated by forcing oxygen into solution in the fuel at pressures of between about 90 and 110 psig and then stressing the fuel under conditions of accelerated storage at temperatures of between about 40 C to 100 C. The method then makes use of gravimetric determination of the total insoubles formed. The stability of the fuel over a period of time as well as its comparitive stability to other fuels can then be predicted from the amount of insolubles formed. The method can be carried out by using a specialized pressure vessel.

Hardy, D.R.; Beal, E.J.; Burnett, J.C.

1989-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

310

Removal of sulfur and nitrogen containing pollutants from discharge gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Oxides of sulfur and of nitrogen are removed from waste gases by reaction with an unsupported copper oxide powder to form copper sulfate. The resulting copper sulfate is dissolved in water to effect separation from insoluble mineral ash and dried to form solid copper sulfate pentahydrate. This solid sulfate is thermally decomposed to finely divided copper oxide powder with high specific surface area. The copper oxide powder is recycled into contact with the waste gases requiring cleanup. A reducing gas can be introduced to convert the oxide of nitrogen pollutants to nitrogen.

Joubert, James I. (Pittsburgh, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

311

Methods, systems, and devices for deep desulfurization of fuel gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A highly effective and regenerable method, system and device that enables the desulfurization of warm fuel gases by passing these warm gasses over metal-based sorbents arranged in a mesoporous substrate. This technology will protect Fischer-Tropsch synthesis catalysts and other sulfur sensitive catalysts, without drastic cooling of the fuel gases. This invention can be utilized in a process either alone or alongside other separation processes, and allows the total sulfur in such a gas to be reduced to less than 500 ppb and in some instances as low as 50 ppb.

Li, Liyu (Richland, WA); King, David L. (Richland, WA); Liu, Jun (Richland, WA); Huo, Qisheng (Richland, WA)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

312

Welcome to Greenhouse Gases: Science and Technology: Editorial  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This editorial introduces readers and contributors to a new online journal. Through the publication of articles ranging from peer-reviewed research papers and short communications, to editorials and interviews on greenhouse gas emissions science and technology, this journal will disseminate research results and information that address the global crisis of anthropogenic climate change. The scope of the journal includes the full spectrum of research areas from capture and separation of greenhouse gases from flue gases and ambient air, to beneficial utilization, and to sequestration in deep geologic formations and terrestrial (plant and soil) systems, as well as policy and technoeconomic analyses of these approaches.

Oldenburg, C.M.; Maroto-Valer, M.M.

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in the Bose gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in Bose gases is considered within the framework of the model of a tunneling Hamiltonian. The effective action that describes the dynamics of the phase difference across the junction is derived using the functional integration method. The dynamic equation obtained for the phase difference across the junction is analyzed for the finite temperatures in the low-frequency limit involving the radiation terms. The asymmetric case of the Bose gases with the different order parameters is calculated as well.

Barankov, R.A. [Department of Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Burmistrov, S.N. [RRC 'Kurchatov Institute', Kurchatov Sq.1, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

Senum, Gunnar I. (Patchogue, NY); Dietz, Russell N. (Patchogue, NY)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

315

Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

1994-04-05T23:59:59.000Z

316

Magic State Distillation and Gate Compilation in Quantum Algorithms for Quantum Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry map the dynamics of electrons in a molecule to the dynamics of a coupled spin system. To reach chemical accuracy for interesting molecules, a large number of quantum gates must be applied which implies the need for quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. Arbitrary fault-tolerant operations can be constructed from a small, universal set of fault-tolerant operations by gate compilation. Quantum chemistry algorithms are compiled by decomposing the dynamics of the coupled spin-system using a Trotter formula, synthesizing the decomposed dynamics using Clifford operations and single-qubit rotations, and finally approximating the single-qubit rotations by a sequence of fault-tolerant single-qubit gates. Certain fault-tolerant gates rely on the preparation of specific single-qubit states referred to as magic states. As a result, gate compilation and magic state distillation are critical for solving quantum chemistry problems on a quantum computer. We review recent progress that has improved the efficiency of gate compilation and magic state distillation by orders of magnitude.

Colin J. Trout; Kenneth R. Brown

2015-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

317

Magic State Distillation and Gate Compilation in Quantum Algorithms for Quantum Chemistry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum algorithms for quantum chemistry map the dynamics of electrons in a molecule to the dynamics of a coupled spin system. To reach chemical accuracy for interesting molecules, a large number of quantum gates must be applied which implies the need for quantum error correction and fault-tolerant quantum computation. Arbitrary fault-tolerant operations can be constructed from a small, universal set of fault-tolerant operations by gate compilation. Quantum chemistry algorithms are compiled by decomposing the dynamics of the coupled spin-system using a Trotter formula, synthesizing the decomposed dynamics using Clifford operations and single-qubit rotations, and finally approximating the single-qubit rotations by a sequence of fault-tolerant single-qubit gates. Certain fault-tolerant gates rely on the preparation of specific single-qubit states referred to as magic states. As a result, gate compilation and magic state distillation are critical for solving quantum chemistry problems on a quantum computer. We review recent progress that has improved the efficiency of gate compilation and magic state distillation by orders of magnitude.

Colin J. Trout; Kenneth R. Brown

2015-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

318

Optimum Requirements for the Synthesis of Biodiesel Using Fatty Acid Distillates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The optimum requirements of temperature, retention time, mole ratio of reactants and catalyst for the direct synthesis of biodiesel from fatty acid distillates of palm kernel oil using tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid as catalyst was studied. The following parameters were used for the efficient and economic production of biodiesel: eight (8) moles of methanol per mole of fatty acid, 0.06 mole of tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid per mole of fatty acid, a retention time of sixty (60) minutes and reaction temperature of 65 OC. And this gave a maximum percentage yield of 98.4. Other parameters obtained include: an acid value of 0.1683 mg KOH/g, iodine value of 15.3549, flash point of 209 OC, viscosity of 3.7957 mm2s-1, density of 0.8776 g cm-3, water content of 400.05 mg kg-1, soap content of 2.30 mg/kg, and ester content of 98.804 %. From the obtained parameters, the biodiesel produced from fatty acid distillates of palm kernel oil reaches prescribed international standards for biodiesel production.

Akunna E. Ejele

319

THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT RISING GREENHOUSE GASES AND CLIMATE CHANGE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, methane, and nitrous oxides. The sun's energy passes through these gases, like light passing through risen by almost 40 percent. This is attributed primarily to the burning of fossil fuels (coal, oil, gasoline). Methane and nitrous oxides are also increasing rapidly, due in part to the expansion

320

Use of low temperature blowers for recirculation of hot gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus is described for maintaining motors at low operating temperatures during recirculation of hot gases in fuel cell operations and chemical processes such as fluidized bed coal gasification. The apparatus includes a means for separating the hot process gas from the motor using a secondary lower temperature gas, thereby minimizing the temperature increase of the motor and associated accessories.

Maru, H.C.; Forooque, M.

1982-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function of the z coordinate #27; Ã? is a constant. 3. Show that if the potential function, U(r), varies as 1=r 4

Groth, Clinton P. T.

322

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AER1301: KINETIC THEORY OF GASES Assignment #2 1. Using the formalism of the text book the particle number density and temperature are both slowly varying functions of the z coordinate of the previous problem is as follows. Assume that the particle number density is a slowly varying function

Groth, Clinton P. T.

323

Mitigation options for accidental releases of hazardous gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this paper is to review and compare technologies available for mitigation of unconfined releases of toxic and flammable gases. These technologies include: secondary confinement, deinventory, vapor barriers, foam spraying, and water sprays/monitors. Guidelines for the design and/or operation of effective post-release mitigation systems and case studies involving actual industrial mitigation systems are also presented.

Fthenakis, V.M.

1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

324

INTRODUCTION Insects exchange respiratory gases through a complex network of  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

3409 INTRODUCTION Insects exchange respiratory gases through a complex network of tracheal tubes through the tracheal system using diffusion alone (Krogh, 1920a; Weis-Fogh, 1964), many species are known to augment gas exchange using convection (Buck, 1962; Miller, 1966a). Two general mechanisms are recognized

Socha, Jake

325

Atmospheric Modelling of Greenhouse Gases and Air Quality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Increase in mixing height (h) entrains (draws in) air from above the box #12Atmospheric Modelling of Greenhouse Gases and Air Quality John C. Lin Courtenay Strong University of Utah: February 20th, 2013 Department of Atmospheric Sciences University of Utah #12;Outline ·CO2 ó Air

Tipple, Brett

326

How are greenhouse gases related to agriculture? Greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide occur  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

levels are causing Earth's average global temperature to rise. Consequently, we experience changes States. How will climate change affect Michigan field crop agriculture? Global warming is likely to bring naturally in the atmosphere and keep the Earth warm, allowing us to survive on Earth. Over the last 200

327

Strongly interacting Fermi gases : non-equilibrium dynamics and dimensional crossover  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Experiments using ultracold atomic gases address fundamental problems in many-body physics. This thesis describes experiments on strongly-interacting gases of fermionic atoms, with a focus on non-equilibrium physics and ...

Sommer, Ariel T. (Ariel Tjodolv)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

328

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric gases final Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

on Climate and Planets http:icp.giss.nasa.gov The Role of the Atmosphere and Greenhouse Effect in Summary: gases, and scenario 3 - an atmosphere and greenhouse gases. Use...

329

Experimental study of oil yields and properties of light and medium Venezuelan crude oils under steam and steam-propane distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Six experimental runs were carried out to study the yields for a light crude oil (34.2°API) and an intermediate crude oil (25.1°API) under steam distillation and steam-propane distillation. Yields, were measured at five temperatures, 110, 150, 200...

Plazas Garcia, Joyce Vivia

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

System for trapping and storing gases for subsequent chemical reduction to solids  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for quantitatively reducing oxide gases. A pre-selected amount of zinc is provided in a vial. A tube is provided in the vial. The zinc and the tube are separated. A pre-selected amount of a catalyst is provided in the tube. Oxide gases are injected into the vial. The vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and the oxide gases are cryogenically cooled. At least a portion of the vial, tube, zinc, catalyst, and oxide gases are heated.

Vogel, John S. (San Jose, CA); Ognibene, Ted J. (Oakland, CA); Bench, Graham S. (Livermore, CA); Peaslee, Graham F. (Holland, MI)

2009-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

331

E-Print Network 3.0 - atmospheric greenhouse gases Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

to longwave radiation 12;Greenhouse Gases Polyatomic molecules... the greenhouse effect ... Source: Frierson, Dargan - Department of Atmospheric Sciences, University of...

332

Theoretical Analysis of an Ideal Noiseless Linear Amplifier for Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen Entanglement Distillation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the operational regime of a noiseless linear amplifier based on quantum scissors that can nondeterministically amplify the one photon component of a quantum state with weak excitation. It has been shown that an arbitrarily large quantum state can be amplified by first splitting it into weak excitation states using a network of beamsplitters. The output states of the network can then be coherently recombined. In this paper, we analyse the performance of such a device for distilling entanglement after transmission through a lossy quantum channel, and look at two measures to determine the efficacy of the noiseless linear amplifier. The measures used are the amount of entanglement achievable and the final purity of the output amplified entangled state. We study the performances of both a single and a two-element noiseless linear amplifier for amplifying weakly excited states. Practically, we show that it may be advantageous to work with a limited number of stages.

J. Bernu; S. Armstrong; T. Symul; T. C. Ralph; P. K. Lam

2014-11-03T23:59:59.000Z

333

Upgrading of middle distillate fractions of syncrudes from athabasca oil sands  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Middle distillate fractions of syncrudes from Athabasca Oil Sands were evaluated for suitability as feedstocks in the catalytic conversion to diesel fuel meeting cetane number specifications. Hydrogenation of aromatic components to napthenes under severe conditions (380 to 400/sup 0/C, 2500 psig) using sulfided CoO/MoO/sub 3/ and NiO/WO/sub 3/ over ..cap alpha.. . Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ in a previously described catalyst testing system. Reaction products were analyzed for aromatic carbon content using C/sup 13/ NMR spectroscopy and pseudo first order rate constants and activation energies (15.0 and 14.2 kcal 1 g-mole, respectively) were determined by regression analysis. At optimum conditions 97% aromatic conversion was obtained with the Ni-W catalyst. Product diesel fuel cetane number (42) was within specifications. Co-Mo catalyst was significantly less active.

Wilson, M.F.; Kriz, J.F.

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Dynamics and control of a heterogeneous azeotropic distillation column: Conventional control approach  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this work, bifurcation analysis and dynamic simulation were used to investigate the optimum conventional control strategy of an isopropyl alcohol (IPA), cyclohexane (CyH), and water (H{sub 2}O) heterogeneous azeotropic column. Steady-state process analysis shows that the optimal operation point should be located at a critical reflux, a transition point at which the distillation path switches from a route that passes through the IPA + H{sub 2}O azeotrope to one that passes through the IPA + CyH azeotrope. A good control strategy must be able to maintain a steady column temperature profile that shows a plateau near 70 C to ensure passage around the IPA + CyH azeotrope. An inverse double-loop control strategy is proposed based on principal component analysis. This scheme is capable of maintaining the desired column temperature profile given all kinds of feed disturbances, thus keeping the product IPA purity at the desired level.

Chien, I.L. [National Taiwan Univ. of Science and Technology, Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Wang, C.J.; Wong, D.S.H. [National Tsing Hua Univ., Hsinchu (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

335

Re-refining of Waste Oil Solvent Is Used in Treatment/Distillation Process  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATION. A combination solvent treatment/distillation process has been designed for re-refining industrial waste oil (such as equipment lubricants, metal-working oil, and process oil) and used automotive lubricants (engine oil, hydraulic oil, and gear oil) for reuse. WASTE ENERGY RECOVERY. Recycling of waste oil in the United States has the potential to save the energy equivalent of 7-12 million bbl of crude oil annually.1 WASTE OIL RECOVERY. Prior to 1960, a significant portion of the demand for automotive lubricating oil was met by re-relined used oil. At the time, 150 re-refineries produced 300 million gal of motor oil annually. Since 1960, however, the production of re-refined oil has steadily declined. In 1981, for example, out of about 1.2 billion gal of automobile lubricating oil and 1.6 billion gal of industrial lubricating oils purchased, 25 U.S. rerefineries

unknown authors

336

On local indistinguishability of orthogonal pure states by using a bound on distillable entanglement  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We show that the four states a|00>+b|11>, b^*|00>-a^*|11>, c|01>+d|10> and d^*|01>-c^*|10> cannot be discriminated with certainty if only local operations and classical communication (LOCC) are allowed and if only a single copy is provided, except in the case when they are simply |00>, |11>, |01> and |10> (in which case they are trivially distinguishable with LOCC). We go on to show that there exists a continuous range of values of a, b, c and d such that even three states among the above four are not locally distinguishable, if only a single copy is provided. The proof follows from the fact that logarithmic negativity is an upper bound of distillable entanglement.

Sibasish Ghosh; Guruprasad Kar; Anirban Roy; Debasis Sarkar; Aditi Sen De; Ujjwal Sen

2001-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

337

Why methyl tert-butyl ether production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper presents an explanation of why methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) production by reactive distillation may yield multiple solutions. Widely different composition profiles and conversions may, as already reported by Krishna and others, results with identical column specifications, depending on the initial estimates provided. A hypothesis yielding a qualitative understanding of this phenomenon has been developed. The inert n-butene plays a key role in the proposed explanation: As the reaction mixture is diluted with n-butene, the activity coefficient of methanol increases substantially and the temperature decreases. This dilution has a profound effect on the equilibrium conversion, enabling MTBE to escape from the reactive zone without decomposition. When methanol is fed below or in the lower part of the reactive zone of the column, the ``lifting capacity`` of the minimum boiling point MTBE-methanol azeotrope will also be important.

Hauan, S.; Hertzberg, T.; Lien, K.M. [Univ. of Trondheim (Norway)

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

338

Assigning a Value to Dried Distillers' Grains as a Protein Supplement in Cattle Consuming Low-Quality Forage  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Cattle consuming low-quality forage may have decreased forage organic matter intake as a result of decreased nitrogen (N) intake. To date, a value has not been assigned to dried distillers' grains as a protein supplement to cattle consuming low...

Rambo, Zachary Joseph

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

339

Kinetics of hydrogenation of aromatics determined by carbon-13 NMR for Athabasca bitumen-derived middle distillates  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

High aromatics content in middle distillates is detrimental to fuel quality, as shown in such properties as smoke point of jet fuel and cetane number of diesel fuel. In the petroleum and petrochemical industries the yields from fluid catalytic cracking or steam cracking units are adversely affected by high aromatics content in the feedstock. Distillates obtained from oil sand bitumen, heavy oils, or coal liquefaction products are particularly high in aromatics. Reducing the concentration of this class of compounds is important. Aromatics hydrogenation (AHYD) is one option to achieve this result. In the current Syncrude operation a primary objective of hydrotreating is to reduce product sulfur and nitrogen contents; reducing aromatics content is an incidental result. However, the expansion plan currently under study by Syncrude includes further AHYD to improve cetane number. Predicting the product aromatics content is an important issue for this study. In the present study, hydrotreating of five Athabasca-bitumen-derived gas oils was conducted in pilot scale trickle-bed reactors using alumina-based commercial NiMo catalysts. Feedstocks originated from the distillation of virgin bitumen, and from distillates derived from treating bitumen in a fluid coker and hydrocracking pilot plant. Aromatics content was determined by the {sup 13}C NMR method. The previously developed rate equation for AHYD was modified by including power terms for space velocity and hydrogen partial pressure. The data were analyzed using the modified equation.

Yui, S.M.; Sanford, E.C. (Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada))

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

The extreme nonlinear optics of gases and femtosecond optical filamentation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under certain conditions, powerful ultrashort laser pulses can form greatly extended, propagating filaments of concentrated high intensity in gases, leaving behind a very long trail of plasma. Such filaments can be much longer than the longitudinal scale over which a laser beam typically diverges by diffraction, with possible applications ranging from laser-guided electrical discharges to high power laser propagation in the atmosphere. Understanding in detail the microscopic processes leading to filamentation requires ultrafast measurements of the strong field nonlinear response of gas phase atoms and molecules, including absolute measurements of nonlinear laser-induced polarization and high field ionization. Such measurements enable the assessment of filamentation models and make possible the design of experiments pursuing applications. In this paper, we review filamentation in gases and some applications, and discuss results from diagnostics developed at Maryland for ultrafast measurements of laser-gas interactions.

Milchberg, H. M.; Chen, Y.-H.; Cheng, Y.-H.; Jhajj, N.; Palastro, J. P.; Rosenthal, E. W.; Varma, S.; Wahlstrand, J. K.; Zahedpour, S. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States)

2014-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Apparatus for the plasma destruction of hazardous gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A plasma cell for destroying hazardous gases is described. An electric-discharge cell having an electrically conducting electrode onto which an alternating high-voltage waveform is impressed and a dielectric barrier adjacent thereto, together forming a high-voltage electrode, generates self-terminating discharges throughout a volume formed between this electrode and a grounded conducting liquid electrode. The gas to be transformed is passed through this volume. The liquid may be flowed, generating thereby a renewable surface. Moreover, since hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids may be formed from destruction of various chlorofluorocarbons in the presence of water, a conducting liquid may be selected which will neutralize these corrosive compounds. The gases exiting the discharge region may be further scrubbed if additional purification is required. 4 figs.

Kang, M.

1995-02-07T23:59:59.000Z

342

Decontamination of combustion gases in fluidized bed incinerators  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Sulfur-containing atmospheric pollutants are effectively removed from exit gas streams produced in a fluidized bed combustion system by providing a fluidized bed of particulate material, i.e. limestone and/or dolomite wherein a concentration gradient is maintained in the vertical direction. Countercurrent contacting between upwardly directed sulfur containing combustion gases and descending sorbent particulate material creates a concentration gradient across the vertical extent of the bed characterized in progressively decreasing concentration of sulfur, sulfur dioxide and like contaminants upwardly and decreasing concentration of e.g. calcium oxide, downwardly. In this manner, gases having progressively decreasing sulfur contents contact correspondingly atmospheres having progressively increasing concentrations of calcium oxide thus assuring optimum sulfur removal.

Leon, Albert M. (Mamaroneck, NY)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Apparatus for hot-gas desulfurization of fuel gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An apparatus for removing sulfur values from a hot fuel gas stream in a fdized bed contactor containing particulate sorbent material by employing a riser tube regeneration arrangement. Sulfur-laden sorbent is continuously removed from the fluidized bed through a stand pipe to the riser tube and is rapidly regenerated in the riser tube during transport of the sorbent therethrough by employing an oxygen-containing sorbent regenerating gas stream. The riser tube extends from a location below the fluidized bed to an elevation above the fluidized bed where a gas-solid separating mechanism is utilized to separate the regenerated particulate sorbent from the regeneration gases and reaction gases so that the regenerated sorbent can be returned to the fluidized bed for reuse.

Bissett, Larry A. (Morgantown, WV)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Emissions of Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases From the Production and Use of Transportation Fuels and Electricity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITYCO2 GREENHOUSE GASES FROM THE PRODUCTION AND USE OF TRANSPORTATION FUELS AND ELECTRICITY

Delucchi, Mark

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

Wave Speed in the Macroscopic Extended Model for Ultrarelativistic Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An exact macroscopic extended model for ultrarelativistic gases, with an arbitrary number of moments, is present in the literature. Here we exploit equations determining wave speeds for that model. We find interesting results; for example, the whole system for their determination can be divided into independent subsystems and some, but not all, wave speeds are expressed by rational numbers. Moreover, the extraordinary property that these wave speeds for the macroscopic model are the same of those in the kinetic model, is proved.

F. Borghero; F. Demontis; S. Pennisi

2010-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

346

Extraction of uranium from spent fuels using liquefied gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

For reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels, a novel method to extract actinides from spent fuel using highly compressed gases, nitrogen dioxide and carbon dioxide was proposed. As a fundamental study, the nitrate conversion with liquefied nitrogen dioxide and the nitrate extraction with supercritical carbon dioxide were demonstrated by using uranium dioxide powder, uranyl nitrate and tri-n-butylphosphate complex in the present study. (authors)

Sawada, Kayo; Hirabayashi, Daisuke; Enokida, Youichi [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, 464-8603 (Japan)

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

The Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy for Dilute Gases in Equilibrium  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We use the kinetic theory of gases to compute the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy per particle for a dilute gas in equilibrium. For an equilibrium system, the KS entropy, h_KS is the sum of all of the positive Lyapunov exponents characterizing the chaotic behavior of the gas. We compute h_KS/N, where N is the number of particles in the gas. This quantity has a density expansion of the form h_KS/N = a\

H. van Beijeren; J. R. Dorfman; H. A. Posch; Ch. Dellago

1997-06-18T23:59:59.000Z

348

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes sample gases of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) for analysis. Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2006-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment of greenhouse gases emissions associated to colombian biofuels lifecycle.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth (2012) Evaluación de la generación de gases de efecto invernadero asociados al ciclo de vida de los biocombustibles colombianos = Assessment… (more)

Valencia Botero, Monica Julieth

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

Production of quantum degenerate strontium gases: Larger, better, faster, colder  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report on an improved scheme to generate Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) and degenerate Fermi gases of strontium. This scheme allows us to create quantum gases with higher atom number, a shorter time of the experimental cycle, or deeper quantum degeneracy than before. We create a BEC of 84-Sr exceeding 10^7 atoms, which is a 30-fold improvement over previously reported experiments. We increase the atom number of 86-Sr BECs to 2.5x10^4 (a fivefold improvement), and refine the generation of attractively interacting 88-Sr BECs. We present a scheme to generate 84-Sr BECs with a cycle time of 2s, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the shortest cycle time of BEC experiments ever reported. We create deeply-degenerate 87-Sr Fermi gases with T/T_F as low as 0.10(1), where the number of populated nuclear spin states can be set to any value between one and ten. Furthermore, we report on a total of five different double-degenerate Bose-Bose and Bose-Fermi mixtures. These studies prepare an excellent starting poi...

Stellmer, Simon; Schreck, Florian

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

351

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1996  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1990, with annual updates thereafter. This report is the fifth annual update, covering national emissions over the period 1989--1995, with preliminary estimates of emissions for 1996. The estimates contained in this report have been revised from those in last year`s report. Emissions estimates for carbon dioxide are reported in metric tons of carbon; estimates for other gases are reported in metric tons of gas. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapter 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes. Five appendixes are included with this report. 216 refs., 11 figs., 38 tabs.

NONE

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

EIA-Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program - Greenhouse Gases and  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S.30Natural Gas Glossary529 633 622 56623PrimarySelectedandForest(NAICSGlobal

353

New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 2007 10,998 9,933 10,998 10,643 10,998through 1996) inDecade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3SameNonhydrocarbon

354

U.S. Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines AboutDecemberSteamYearTexas--StateWinterYear Jan Feb MarRevision DecreasesDecade Year-0

355

New York Nonhydrocarbon Gases Removed from Natural Gas (Million Cubic Feet)  

Annual Energy Outlook 2013 [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelinesProved ReservesFeet) Year Jan FebFeet)SalesYear Jan Feb Mar AprSame MonthDecade

356

Kinetic Theory Estimates for the Kolmogorov-Sinai Entropy and the Largest Lyapunov Exponents for Dilute, Hard-Ball Gases and for Dilute, Random Lorentz Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The kinetic theory of gases provides methods for calculating Lyapunov exponents and other quantities, such as Kolmogorov-Sinai entropies, that characterize the chaotic behavior of hard-ball gases. Here we illustrate the use of these methods for calculating the Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy, and the largest positive Lyapunov exponent, for dilute hard-ball gases in equilibrium. The calculation of the largest Lyapunov exponent makes interesting connections with the theory of propagation of hydrodynamic fronts. Calculations are also presented for the Lyapunov spectrum of dilute, random Lorentz gases in two and three dimensions, which are considerably simpler than the corresponding calculations for hard-ball gases. The article concludes with a brief discussion of some interesting open problems.

H. van Beijeren; R. van Zon; J. R. Dorfman

2000-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

357

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

358

Performance Demonstration Program Plan for Analysis of Simulated Headspace Gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Performance Demonstration Program (PDP) for headspace gases distributes blind audit samples in a gas matrix for analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Participating measurement facilities (i.e., fixed laboratories, mobile analysis systems, and on-line analytical systems) are located across the United States. Each sample distribution is termed a PDP cycle. These evaluation cycles provide an objective measure of the reliability of measurements performed for transuranic (TRU) waste characterization. The primary documents governing the conduct of the PDP are the Quality Assurance Program Document (QAPD) (DOE/CBFO-94-1012) and the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) contained in the Hazardous Waste Facility Permit (NM4890139088-TSDF) issued by the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED). The WAP requires participation in the PDP; the PDP must comply with the QAPD and the WAP. This plan implements the general requirements of the QAPD and the applicable requirements of the WAP for the Headspace Gas (HSG) PDP. Participating measurement facilities analyze blind audit samples of simulated TRU waste package headspace gases according to the criteria set by this PDP Plan. Blind audit samples (hereafter referred to as PDP samples) are used as an independent means to assess each measurement facility’s compliance with the WAP quality assurance objectives (QAOs). To the extent possible, the concentrations of VOC analytes in the PDP samples encompass the range of concentrations anticipated in actual TRU waste package headspace gas samples. Analyses of headspace gases are required by the WIPP to demonstrate compliance with regulatory requirements. These analyses must be performed by measurement facilities that have demonstrated acceptable performance in this PDP. These analyses are referred to as WIPP analyses and the TRU waste package headspace gas samples on which they are performed are referred to as WIPP samples in this document. Participating measurement facilities must analyze PDP samples using the same procedures used for routine waste characterization analyses of WIPP samples.

Carlsbad Field Office

2007-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

359

Compressibility factors for retrograde gases: a new correlation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

deviations of proposed Methods 1 and 2, were 0. 96 and 1. 01 percent, respectively. DEDICATION Esta tesis es dedicada a: Mis padres que siempre me han guiado y ofrecido constante apoyo en todas mis metas y logros. Juan Sebastian por la dicha de ser tu... tested with an overall absolute deviation of 1. 01/o. Four condensate retrograde gases from published data were used for testing the accuracy of the proposed methods. Proposed method 2 presented the smallest overall average absolute deviation with 0...

Corredor Real, Jairo Hernando

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

360

Prospecting by sampling and analysis of airborne particulates and gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is claimed for prospecting by sampling airborne particulates or gases at a ground position and recording wind direction values at the time of sampling. The samples are subsequently analyzed to determine the concentrations of a desired material or the ratios of the desired material to other identifiable materials in the collected samples. By comparing the measured concentrations or ratios to expected background data in the vicinity sampled, one can select recorded wind directions indicative of the upwind position of the land-based source of the desired material.

Sehmel, G.A.

1984-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Separation of gases through gas enrichment membrane composites  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Thin film composite membranes having as a permselective layer a film of a homopolymer of certain vinyl alkyl ethers are useful in the separation of various gases. Such homopolymers have a molecular weight of greater than 30,000 and the alkyl group of the vinyl alkyl monomer has from 4 to 20 carbon atoms with branching within the alkyl moiety at least at the carbon atom bonded to the ether oxygen or at the next adjacent carbon atom. These membranes show excellent hydrolytic stability, especially in the presence of acidic or basic gaseous components.

Swedo, R.J.; Kurek, P.R.

1988-07-19T23:59:59.000Z

362

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) for biofuel production  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Microwave pyrolysis of distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was investigated to determine the effects of pyrolytic conditions on the yields of bio-oil, syngas, and biochar. Pyrolysis process variables included reaction temperature, time, and power input. Microwave pyrolysis of DDGS was analyzed using response surface methodology to ?nd out the effect of process variables on the biofuel (bio-oil and syn- gas) conversion yield and establish prediction models. Bio-oil recovery was in the range of 26.5–50.3 wt.% of the biomass. Biochar yields were 23.5–62.2% depending on the pyrolysis conditions. The energy con- tent of DDGS bio-oils was 28 MJ/kg obtained at the 650 oC and 8 min, which was about 66.7% of the heat- ing value of gasoline. GC/MS analysis indicated that the biooil contained a series of important and useful chemical compounds: aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons. At least 13% of DDGS bio-oil was the same hydrocarbon compounds found in regular unleaded gasoline.

Lei, Hanwu; Ren, Shoujie; Wang, Lu; Bu, Quan; Julson, James; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Ruan, Roger

2011-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume I. Technical discussion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). The first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 referenvces and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2. 18 figures, 4 tables.

Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

1984-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States 1995  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This is the fourth Energy Information Administration (EIA) annual report on US emissions of greenhouse gases. This report presents estimates of US anthropogenic (human-caused) emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and several other greenhouse gases for 1988 through 1994. Estimates of 1995 carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and halocarbon emissions are also provided, although complete 1995 estimates for methane are not yet available. Emissions of carbon dioxide increased by 1.9% from 1993 to 1994 and by an additional 0.8% from 1994 to 1995. Most carbon dioxide emissions are caused by the burning of fossil fuels for energy consumption, which is strongly related to economic growth, energy prices, and weather. The US economy grew rapidly in 1994 and slowed in 1995. Estimated emissions of methane increased slightly in 1994, as a result of a rise in emissions from energy and agricultural sources. Estimated nitrous oxide emissions increased by 1.8% in 1995, primarily due to increased use of nitrogen fertilizers and higher output of chemicals linked to nitrous oxide emissions. Estimated emissions of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and perfluorocarbons (PFCs), which are known to contribute to global warming, increased by nearly 11% in 1995, primarily as a result of increasing substitution for chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). With the exception of methane, the historical emissions estimates presented in this report are only slightly revised from those in last year`s report.

NONE

1996-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Process for recovery of sulfur from acid gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Elemental sulfur is recovered from the H.sub.2 S present in gases derived from fossil fuels by heating the H.sub.2 S with CO.sub.2 in a high-temperature reactor in the presence of a catalyst selected as one which enhances the thermal dissociation of H.sub.2 S to H.sub.2 and S.sub.2. The equilibrium of the thermal decomposition of H.sub.2 S is shifted by the equilibration of the water-gas-shift reaction so as to favor elemental sulfur formation. The primary products of the overall reaction are S.sub.2, CO, H.sub.2 and H.sub.2 O. Small amounts of COS, SO.sub.2 and CS.sub.2 may also form. Rapid quenching of the reaction mixture results in a substantial increase in the efficiency of the conversion of H.sub.2 S to elemental sulfur. Plant economy is further advanced by treating the product gases to remove byproduct carbonyl sulfide by hydrolysis, which converts the COS back to CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S. Unreacted CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 S are removed from the product gas and recycled to the reactor, leaving a gas consisting chiefly of H.sub.2 and CO, which has value either as a fuel or as a chemical feedstock and recovers the hydrogen value from the H.sub.2 S.

Towler, Gavin P. (Kirkbymoorside, GB2); Lynn, Scott (Pleasant Hill, CA)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Self-pulsing of hollow cathode discharge in various gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we investigate the self-pulsing phenomenon of cavity discharge in a cylindrical hollow cathode in various gases including argon, helium, nitrogen, oxygen, and air. The current-voltage characteristics of the cavity discharge, the waveforms of the self-pulsing current and voltage as well as the repetition frequency were measured. The results show that the pulsing frequency ranges from a few to tens kilohertz and depends on the averaged current and the pressure in all gases. The pulsing frequency will increase with the averaged current and decrease with the pressure. The rising time of the current pulse is nearly constant in a given gas or mixture. The self-pulsing does not depend on the external ballast but is affected significantly by the external capacitor in parallel with the discharge cell. The low-current self-pulsing in hollow cathode discharge is the mode transition between Townsend and glow discharges. It can be described by the charging-discharging process of an equivalent circuit consisting of capacitors and resistors.

Qin, Y.; He, F., E-mail: hefeng@bit.edu.cn; Jiang, X. X.; Ouyang, J. T., E-mail: jtouyang@bit.edu.cn [School of Physics, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Xie, K. [School of Aerospace Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

368

Instantaneous and efficient surface wave excitation of a low pressure gas or gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for instantaneously ionizing and continuously delivering energy in the form of surface waves to a low pressure gas or mixture of low pressure gases, comprising a source of rf energy, a discharge container, (such as a fluorescent lamp discharge tube), an rf shield, and a coupling device responsive to rf energy from the source to couple rf energy directly and efficiently to the gas or mixture of gases to ionize at least a portion of the gas or gases and to provide energy to the gas or gases in the form of surface waves. The majority of the rf power is transferred to the gas or gases near the inner surface of the discharge container to efficiently transfer rf energy as excitation energy for at least one of the gases. The most important use of the invention is to provide more efficient fluorescent and/or ultraviolet lamps.

Levy, Donald J. (Berkeley, CA); Berman, Samuel M. (San Francisco, CA)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

E-Print Network 3.0 - automobile exhaust gases Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

exhaust gases Page: << < 1 2 3 4 5 > >> 1 Ability of Catalytic Converters to Reduce Air Pollution Summary: Air Pollution MEASUREMENT OF SELECTED AIR POLLUTANTS IN CAR EXHAUST...

370

E-Print Network 3.0 - aircraft exhaust gases Sample Search Results  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

gases FAA, 2005. Water in the aircraft exhaust at altitude may have a greenhouse effect... . Aircraft ... Source: Ecole Polytechnique, Centre de mathmatiques...

371

Fact #825: June 16, 2014 Tier 3 Non-Methane Organic Gases Plus...  

Energy Savers [EERE]

organic gases (NMOG) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) that new light vehicles with gasoline engines are allowed to produce for model years 2017 to 2025. These standards apply to...

372

Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

2011-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

Free Energies of Dilute Bose gases: upper bound  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive a upper bound on the free energy of a Bose gas system at density $\\rho$ and temperature $T$. In combination with the lower bound derived previously by Seiringer \\cite{RS1}, our result proves that in the low density limit, i.e., when $a^3\\rho\\ll 1$, where $a$ denotes the scattering length of the pair-interaction potential, the leading term of $\\Delta f$ the free energy difference per volume between interacting and ideal Bose gases is equal to $4\\pi a (2\\rho^2-[\\rho-\\rhoc]^2_+)$. Here, $\\rhoc(T)$ denotes the critical density for Bose-Einstein condensation (for the ideal gas), and $[\\cdot ]_+$ $=$ $\\max\\{\\cdot, 0\\}$ denotes the positive part.

Jun Yin

2010-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

374

Finite-size energy of non-interacting Fermi gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We prove the asymptotics of the difference of the ground-state energies of two non-interacting $N$-particle Fermi gases on the half line of length $L$ in the thermodynamic limit up to order $1/L$. We are particularly interested in subdominant terms proportional to $1/L$, called finite-size energy. In the nineties Affleck and co-authors [Aff97, ZA97, AL94] claimed that the finite-size energy equals the decay exponent occuring in Anderson's orthogonality catastrophe. It turns out that the finite-size energy depends on the details of the thermodynamic limit and typically also includes a linear term in the scattering phase shift.

Martin Gebert

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

375

Loschmidt echo in one-dimensional interacting Bose gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We explore Loschmidt echo in two regimes of one-dimensional interacting Bose gases: the strongly interacting Tonks-Girardeau (TG) regime, and the weakly interacting mean-field regime. We find that the Loschmidt echo of a TG gas decays as a Gaussian when small (random and time independent) perturbations are added to the Hamiltonian. The exponent is proportional to the number of particles and the magnitude of a small perturbation squared. In the mean-field regime the Loschmidt echo shows richer behavior: it decays faster for larger nonlinearity, and the decay becomes more abrupt as the nonlinearity increases; it can be very sensitive to the particular realization of the noise potential, especially for relatively small nonlinearities.

Lelas, K.; Seva, T.; Buljan, H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering Mechanical Engineering and Naval Architecture, University of Split, Rudjera Boskovica BB, 21000 Split (Croatia); Department of Physics, University of Zagreb, Bijenicka c. 32, 10000 Zagreb (Croatia)

2011-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

376

Definition of heavy oil and natural bitumen  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Definition and categorization of heavy oils and natural bitumens are generally based on physical or chemical attributes or on methods of extraction. Ultimately, the hydrocarbon's chemical composition will govern both its physical state and the extraction technique applicable. These oils and bitumens closely resemble the residuum from wholecrude distillation to about 1,000/degree/F; if the residuum constitutes at least 15% of the crude, it is considered to be heavy. In this material is concentrated most of the trace elements, such as sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen, and metals, such as nickel and vanadium. A widely used definition separates heavy oil from natural bitumen by viscosity, crude oil being less, and bitumen more viscous than 10,000 cp. Heavy crude then falls in the range 10/degree/-20/degree/ API inclusive and extra-heavy oil less than 10/degree/ API. Most natural bitumen is natural asphalt (tar sands, oil sands) and has been defined as rock containing hydrocarbons more viscous than 10,000 cp or else hydrocarbons that may be extracted from mined or quarried rock. Other natural bitumens are solids, such as gilsonite, grahamite, and ozokerite, which are distinguished by streak, fusibility, and solubility. The upper limit for heavy oil may also be set at 18/degree/ API, the approximate limit for recovery by waterflood.

Meyer, R.F.

1988-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

377

Monte Carlo Simulation of Radiation in Gases with a NarrowBand Model  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, France (\\Phi) now at the Institute of Energy and Power Plant Technology, TH Darmstadt, 64287 DarmstadtMonte Carlo Simulation of Radiation in Gases with a Narrow­Band Model and a Net is used for simulation of radiative heat transfers in non­gray gases. The proposed procedure is based

Dufresne, Jean-Louis

378

Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety, therefore generating high  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract--Airborne pollution and explosive gases threaten human health and occupational safety and a thumb-drive sized prototype system. I. INTRODUCTION xposure to air pollution consistently ranks among to occupational safety as energy demands rise. Airborne pollutants and explosive gases vary in both time and space

Mason, Andrew

379

Preserving noble gases in a convecting mantle Helge M. Gonnermann1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a processed and out- gassed lower-mantle source, residues of mantle melting10,11 , depleted in uranium and mixing of noble-gas-depleted slabs dilutes the concentrations of noble gases in the mantle, thereby melt, which forms the ocean crust and leaves the residual mantle severely depleted of noble gases

Mukhopadhyay, Sujoy

380

Bose-Einstein condensates in 85 Rb gases at higher densities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Bose-Einstein condensates in 85 Rb gases at higher densities A. R. Sakhel, J. L. DuBois, and H. R August 2002; published 31 December 2002 The Bose-Einstein condensation in trapped gases of 85 Rb find that there is a significant depletion of the condensate at T 0 K, for example, 25% at na3 10 2

Glyde, Henry R.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Localization of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in interacting Bose gases with correlated disorder P. Lugan1,2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) in a weakly interacting Bose gas of chemical potential µ subjected to a disordered potential V . We introduce-Einstein condensates [40­48], interacting Bose gases at equilibrium [26, 49­72], strongly interacting Fermi gases [73 behaviors can be found in various situa- tions. For instance, weak repulsive interactions in a Bose gas

Boyer, Edmond

382

CO.sub.2 separation from low-temperature flue gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Two methods are provide for the separation of carbon dioxide from the flue gases. The first method utilizes a phase-separating moiety dissolved in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The second method utilizes a phase-separating moiety as a suspended solid in an aqueous solution of a basic moiety to capture carbon dioxide. The first method takes advantage of the surface-independent nature of the CO.sub.2 absorption reactions in a homogeneous aqueous system. The second method also provides permanent sequestration of the carbon dioxide. Both methods incorporate the kinetic rate enhancements of amine-based scrubbing while eliminating the need to heat the entire amine solution (80% water) in order to regenerate and release CO.sub.2. Both methods also take advantage of the low-regeneration temperatures of CO.sub.2-bearing mineral systems such as Na.sub.2CO.sub.3/NaHCO.sub.3 and K.sub.2CO.sub.3/KHCO.sub.3.

Dilmore, Robert (Irwin, PA); Allen, Douglas (Salem, MA); Soong, Yee (Monroeville, PA); Hedges, Sheila (Bethel Park, PA)

2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

383

Analysis of Oxygenated Compounds in Hydrotreated Biomass Fast Pyrolysis Oil Distillate Fractions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three hydrotreated bio-oils with different oxygen contents (8.2, 4.9, and 0.4 w/w) were distilled to produce Light, Naphtha, Jet, Diesel, and Gasoil boiling range fractions that were characterized for oxygen containing species by a variety of analytical methods. The bio-oils were originally generated from lignocellulosic biomass in an entrained-flow fast pyrolysis reactor. Analyses included elemental composition, carbon type distribution by {sup 13}C NMR, acid number, GC-MS, volatile organic acids by LC, and carbonyl compounds by DNPH derivatization and LC. Acid number titrations employed an improved titrant-electrode combination with faster response that allowed detection of multiple endpoints in many samples and for acid values attributable to carboxylic acids and to phenols to be distinguished. Results of these analyses showed that the highest oxygen content bio-oil fractions contained oxygen as carboxylic acids, carbonyls, aryl ethers, phenols, and alcohols. Carboxylic acids and carbonyl compounds detected in this sample were concentrated in the Light, Naphtha, and Jet fractions (<260 C boiling point). Carboxylic acid content of all of the high oxygen content fractions was likely too high for these materials to be considered as fuel blendstocks although potential for blending with crude oil or refinery intermediate streams may exist for the Diesel and Gasoil fractions. The 4.9 % oxygen sample contained almost exclusively phenolic compounds found to be present throughout the boiling range of this sample, but imparting measurable acidity primarily in the Light, Naphtha and Jet fractions. Additional study is required to understand what levels of the weakly acidic phenols could be tolerated in a refinery feedstock. The Diesel and Gasoil fractions from this upgraded oil had low acidity but still contained 3 to 4 wt% oxygen present as phenols that could not be specifically identified. These materials appear to have excellent potential as refinery feedstocks and some potential for blending into finished fuels. Fractions from the lowest oxygen content oil exhibited some phenolic acidity, but generally contained very low levels of oxygen functional groups. These materials would likely be suitable as refinery feedstocks and potentially as fuel blend components. PIONA analysis of the Light and Naphtha fractions shows benzene content of 0.5 and 0.4 vol%, and predicted (RON + MON)/2 of 63 and 70, respectively.

Christensen, Earl D.; Chupka, Gina; Luecke, Jon; Smurthwaite, Tricia D.; Alleman, Teresa L.; Iisa, Kristiina; Franz, James A.; Elliott, Douglas C.; McCormick, Robert L.

2011-10-06T23:59:59.000Z

384

Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

firn and ice at Summit, Greenland, J. Geophys. Res. , 98,AL. : TRACE GASES IN GREENLAND ICE CORE ¨ . Andreae Kettle,and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin, 1 M. B.

Aydin, M.; Williams, M. B; Saltzman, E. S

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

Oxygen buffering of Kilauea volcanic gases and the oxygen fugacity of Kilauea basalt  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Volcanic gases collected during episode 1 of the Puu Oo eruption along the east rift zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, have uniform C-O-H-S-Cl-F compositions that are sharply depleted in CO[sub 2]. The CO[sub 2]-poor gases are typical of Type II volcanic gases (GERLACH and GRAEBER, 1985) and were emitted from evolved magma stored for a prolonged period of time in the east rift zone after releasing CO[sub 2]-rich gases during an earlier period of temporary residence in the summit magma chamber. The samples are remarkably free of contamination by atmospheric gases and meteoric water. Thermodynamic evaluation of the analytical data shows that the episode 1 gases have equilibrium compositions appropriate for temperatures between 935 and 1032[degrees]C. Open- and closed-system equilibrium models of species distributions for the episode 1 gases show unequivocally that coexisting lavas buffered the gas oxygen fugacities during cooling. These models indicate that the F[sub o[sub 2

Gerlach, T.M. (Geological Survey, Vancouver, WA (United States))

1993-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

Two-stage hydrotreating of a bitumen-derived middle distillate to produce diesel and jet fuels, and kinetics of aromatics hydrogenation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The middle distillate from a synthetic crude oil derived from Athabasca bitumen was further hydrotreated in a downflow pilot unit over a typical NiMo catalyst at 330 to 400 C, 7 to 11 MPa and 0.63 to 1.39 h{sup {minus}1} LHSV. Feed and liquid products were characterized for aromatics, cetane index (CI) and other diesel specification items. Aromatics were determined by a supercritical fluid chromatography method, while CI was determined using the correlation developed at Syncrude Canada Ltd. Also feed and selected products were distilled into a jet fuel cut (150/260 C) by spinning band distillation for the determination of smoke point and other jet fuel specification items. A good relationship between aromatics content and CI was obtained. Kinetics of aromatics hydrogenation were investigated, employing a simple-first order reversible reaction model.

Yui, S.M. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, Alberta (Canada)

1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

387

Atmospheric Trace Gases from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, models, etc. and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication, Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. The collections under the CDIAC heading of Atmospheric Trace Gases include: Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide, Atmospheric Methane, Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide, Atmospheric Hydrogen, Isotopes in Greenhouse Gases, Radionuclides, Aerosols, and Other Trace Gases.

388

Radiative precursors driven by converging blast waves in noble gases  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A detailed study of the radiative precursor that develops ahead of converging blast waves in gas-filled cylindrical liner z-pinch experiments is presented. The experiment is capable of magnetically driving 20?km s{sup ?1} blast waves through gases of densities of the order 10{sup ?5} g cm{sup ?3} (see Burdiak et al. [High Energy Density Phys. 9(1), 52–62 (2013)] for a thorough description). Data were collected for Ne, Ar, and Xe gas-fills. The geometry of the setup allows a determination of the plasma parameters both in the precursor and across the shock, along a nominally uniform line of sight that is perpendicular to the propagation of the shock waves. Radiation from the shock was able to excite NeI, ArII, and XeII/XeIII precursor spectral features. It is shown that the combination of interferometry and optical spectroscopy data is inconsistent with upstream plasmas being in LTE. Specifically, electron density gradients do not correspond to any apparent temperature change in the emission spectra. Experimental data are compared to 1D radiation hydrodynamics HELIOS-CR simulations and to PrismSPECT atomic physics calculations to assist in a physical interpretation of the observations. We show that upstream plasma is likely in the process of being radiatively heated and that the emission from a small percentage of ionised atoms within a cool background plasma dominates the emission spectra. Experiments were carried out on the MAGPIE and COBRA pulsed-power facilities at Imperial College London and Cornell University, respectively.

Burdiak, G. C.; Lebedev, S. V.; Harvey-Thompson, A. J.; Swadling, G. F.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Hall, G. N.; Khoory, E.; Pickworth, L.; Bland, S. N.; Grouchy, P. de; Skidmore, J.; Suttle, L.; Bennett, M.; Niasse, N. P. L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom)] [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Williams, R. J. R. [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston RG7 4PR (United Kingdom)] [Atomic Weapons Establishment, Aldermaston RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Blesener, K.; Atoyan, L.; Cahill, A.; Hoyt, C.; Potter, W. [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)] [Laboratory of Plasma Studies, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); and others

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Excitation spectrum and quasiparticles in quantum gases. A rigorous approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis is devoted to a rigorous study of interacting quantum gases. The main objects of interest are the closely related concepts of excitation spectrum and quasiparticles. The immediate motivation of this work is to propose a spectral point of view concerning these two concepts. In the first part of this thesis we discuss the concepts of excitation spectrum and quasiparticles. We provide an overview of physical motivations and based on that we propose a spectral and Hamiltonian-based approach towards these terms. Based on that, we formulate definitions and propositions related to these concepts. In the second part we recall the Bogoliubov and Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approximations, which in the physics literature are used to obtain the quasiparticle picture. We show how these two approaches fit into a universal scheme which allows us to arrive at a quasiparticle picture in a more general setup. This scheme is based on the minimization of Hamiltonians over the so-called Gaussian states. Its abstract formulation is the content of Beliaev's Theorem. In the last part we present a rigorous result concerning the justification of the Bogoliubov approximation. This justification employs the concept of the mean-field and infinite-volume limit. We show that for a large number of particles, a large volume and a sufficiently high density, the low-lying energy-momentum spectrum of the homogeneous Bose gas is well described by the Bogoliubov approximation. This result, which is formulated in the form of a theorem, can be seen as the main result of this thesis.

Marcin Napiórkowski

2014-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

390

ACID GASES IN CO2-RICH SUBSURFACE GEOLOGIC ENVIRONMENTS  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The analysis of species behavior involving dilute fluid environments has been crucial for the advance of modern solvation thermodynamics through molecular-based formalisms to guide the development of macroscopic regression tools in the description of fluid behavior and correlation of experimental data (Chialvo 2013). Dilute fluid environments involving geologic formations are of great theoretical and practical relevance regardless of the thermodynamic state conditions. The most challenging systems are those involving highly compressible and reactive confined environments, i.e., where small perturbations of pressure and/or temperature can trigger considerable density changes. This in turn can alter significantly the species solvation, their preferential solvation, and consequently, their reactivity with one another and with the surrounding mineral surfaces whose outcome is the modification of the substrate porosity and permeability, and ultimately, the integrity of the mineral substrates. Considering that changes in porosity and permeability resulting from dissolution and precipitation phenomena in confined environments are at the core of the aqueous CO2-mineral interactions, and that caprock integrity (e.g., sealing capacity) depends on these key parameters, it is imperative to gain fundamental understanding of the mineral-fluid interfacial phenomena and fluid-fluid equilibria under mineral confinement at subsurface conditions. In order to undertand the potential effects of acid gases as contaminants of supercritical CO2 streams, in the next section we will discuss the thermodynamic behavior of CO2 fluid systems by addressing two crucial issues in the context of carbon capture, utilization and sequestration (CCUS) technologies: (i) Why should we consider (acid gas) CO2 impurities? and (ii) Why are CO2 fluid - mineral interactions of paramount relevance?

Chialvo, Ariel A [ORNL] [ORNL; Vlcek, Lukas [ORNL] [ORNL; Cole, David [Ohio State University] [Ohio State University

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

391

What's the Greenhouse Effect? The earth is surrounded by a blanket of gases. This  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;What's the Greenhouse Effect? · The earth is surrounded by a blanket of gases. This blanket and climate change result from the greenhouse effect. #12;What's the Problem? · Eradica@on of en

Bowen, James D.

392

Eddy covariance flux measurements of pollutant gases in urban Mexico City  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Eddy covariance (EC) flux measurements of the atmosphere/surface exchange of gases over an urban area are a direct way to improve and evaluate emissions inventories, and, in turn, to better understand urban atmospheric ...

Velasco, Erik

393

What are greenhouse gases? Many chemical compounds in the atmosphere act as  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, Michigan State University, 2 Michigan State University Extension Climate Change and Agriculture Fact Sheet greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide over the past 2000 years. Data are from ice core

394

Quantum coherence and magnetism in bosonic and fermionic gases of ultracold atoms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In this thesis, two sets of experimental studies in bosonic and fermionic gases are described. In the first part of the thesis, itinerant ferromagnetism was studied in a strongly interacting Fermi gas of ultracold atoms. ...

Jo, Gyu-Boong

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Adsorption Modeling of Coalbed Gases and the Effects of Water on Their Adsorption Behavior.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

??The simplified local-density/Peng-Robinson (SLD-PR) adsorption model was utilized to investigate the adsorption behavior of coalbed gases on coals of varying rank. The model parameters were… (more)

Mohammad, Sayeed Ahmed

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

396

Spatio-temporal theory of lasing action in optically-pumped rotationally excited molecular gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate laser emission from optically-pumped rotationally excited molecular gases confined in a metallic cavity. To this end, we have developed a theoretical framework able to accurately describe, both in the spatial ...

Chua, Song-Liang

397

Quantifying emissions of greenhouse gases from South Asia through a targeted measurement campaign  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Methane (CH 4 ), nitrous oxide (N20) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) are powerful greenhouse gases with global budgets that are well-known but regional distributions that are not adequately constrained for the purposes of ...

Ganesan, Anita Lakshmi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

Field-driven dynamics of dilute gases, viscous liquids and polymer chains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis is concerned with the exploration of field-induced dynamical phenomena arising in dilute gases, viscous liquids and polymer chains. The problems considered herein pertain to the slip-induced motion of a rigid, ...

Mohan, Aruna, 1981-

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

399

Evolution and stability of shock waves in dissipative gases characterized by activated inelastic collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves driven through dissipative gases may become unstable, for example, in granular gases, and in molecular gases undergoing strong relaxation effects. The mechanisms controlling these instabilities are not well understood. We successfully isolated and investigated this instability in the canonical problem of piston driven shock waves propagating into a medium characterized by inelastic collision processes. We treat the standard model of granular gases, where particle collisions are taken as inelastic with constant coefficient of restitution. The inelasticity is activated for sufficiently strong collisions. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed for 30,000 particles. We find that all shock waves investigated become unstable, with density non-uniformities forming in the relaxation region. The wavelength of these fingers is found comparable to the characteristic relaxation thickness. Shock Hugoniot curves for both elastic and inelastic collisions were obtaine...

Sirmas, Nick

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9--30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000--1100 C. 7 figs.

Natesan, K.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Iron-based alloys with corrosion resistance to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An iron-based alloy with improved performance with exposure to oxygen-sulfur mixed gases with the alloy containing about 9-30 wt. % Cr and a small amount of Nb and/or Zr implanted on the surface of the alloy to diffuse a depth into the surface portion, with the alloy exhibiting corrosion resistance to the corrosive gases without bulk addition of Nb and/or Zr and without heat treatment at temperatures of 1000.degree.-1100.degree. C.

Natesan, Krishnamurti (Naperville, IL)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Distillation of Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Double-Well Potential Y. Shin, M. Saba, A. Schirotzek, T. A. Pasquini, A. E. Leanhardt, D. E. Pritchard, and W. Ketterle*  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distillation of Bose-Einstein Condensates in a Double-Well Potential Y. Shin, M. Saba, A-Einstein condensates of sodium atoms, prepared in an optical dipole trap, were distilled into a second empty dipole the potential barrier separating the two wells and then forming a new condensate. This process serves as a model

403

Satellite Measurements of Trace Gases or Air Pollutants  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

#12;ACTIVE VS. PASSIVE REMOTE SENSING Passive Remote Sensing: Natural sources of radiation-located with receiver #12;Thermal Emission Measurements (IR, microwave) EARTH SURFACE I(To) Absorbing gas, HIRDLS Pros: · versa4lity (many species) · small field of view (nadir) · ver4

Dickerson, Russell R.

404

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1985--1990  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Earth`s capacity to support life depends on the moderating influences of gases that envelop the planet and warm its surface and protect it from harmful radiation. These gases are referred to as ``greenhouse gases.`` Their warming capacity, called ``the greenhouse effect,`` is essential to maintaining a climate hospitable to all plant, animal, and human life. In recent years, however, there has been increasing concern that human activity may be affecting the intricate balance between the Earth`s absorption of heat from the sun and its capacity to reradiate excess heat back into space. Emissions of greenhouse gases from human activities may be an important mechanism that affects global climate. Thus, research is intensifying to improve our understanding of the role human activities might play in influencing atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. On the basis of scientific findings of the past few decades, the US Government and the international community at large are now taking steps toward stabilizing greenhouse gas emissions. This report contributes to that process. Mandated by Congress this report provides estimates of US emissions of the principal greenhouse gases--carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorcarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and nonmethane volatile organic compounds. Estimates are for the period 1985 to 1990. Preliminary estimates for 1991 have also been included, whenever data were available.

Not Available

1993-11-10T23:59:59.000Z

405

Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases and wave velocities for increasing number of moments  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is characterized by two hierarchies of equations for moments of a suitable distribution function in which the internal degrees of freedom of a molecule is taken into account. On the basis of physical relevance the truncation orders of the two hierarchies are proven to be not independent on each other, and the closure procedures based on the maximum entropy principle (MEP) and on the entropy principle (EP) are proven to be equivalent. The characteristic velocities of the emerging hyperbolic system of differential equations are compared to those obtained for monatomic gases and the lower bound estimate for the maximum equilibrium characteristic velocity established for monatomic gases (characterized by only one hierarchy for moments with truncation order of moments N) by Boillat and Ruggeri (1997) (?{sub (N)}{sup E,max})/(c{sub 0}) ??(6/5 (N?1/2 )),(c{sub 0}=?(5/3 k/m T)) is proven to hold also for rarefied polyatomic gases independently from the degrees of freedom of a molecule. -- Highlights: •Molecular extended thermodynamics of rarefied polyatomic gases is studied. •The relation between two hierarchies of equations for moments is derived. •The equivalence of maximum entropy principle and entropy principle is proven. •The characteristic velocities are compared to those of monatomic gases. •The lower bound of the maximum characteristic velocity is estimated.

Arima, Takashi, E-mail: tks@stat.nitech.ac.jp [Center for Social Contribution and Collaboration, Nagoya Institute of Technology (Japan); Mentrelli, Andrea, E-mail: andrea.mentrelli@unibo.it [Department of Mathematics and Research Center of Applied Mathematics (CIRAM), University of Bologna (Italy); Ruggeri, Tommaso, E-mail: tommaso.ruggeri@unibo.it [Department of Mathematics and Research Center of Applied Mathematics (CIRAM), University of Bologna (Italy)

2014-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

406

A characterization and evaluation of coal liquefaction process streams. The kinetics of coal liquefaction distillation resid conversion  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under subcontract from CONSOL Inc., the University of Delaware studied the mechanism and kinetics of coal liquefaction resid conversion. The program at Delaware was conducted between August 15, 1994, and April 30, 1997. It consisted of two primary tasks. The first task was to develop an empirical test to measure the reactivity toward hydrocracking of coal-derived distillation resids. The second task was to formulate a computer model to represent the structure of the resids and a kinetic and mechanistic model of resid reactivity based on the structural representations. An introduction and Summary of the project authored by CONSOL and a report of the program findings authored by the University of Delaware researchers are presented here.

Klein, M.T.; Calkins, W.H.; Huang, H.; Wang, S.; Campbell, D.

1998-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Importance of Low Permeability Natural Gas Reservoirs (released in AEO2010)  

Reports and Publications (EIA)

Production from low-permeability reservoirs, including shale gas and tight gas, has become a major source of domestic natural gas supply. In 2008, low-permeability reservoirs accounted for about 40% of natural gas production and about 35% of natural gas consumption in the United States. Permeability is a measure of the rate at which liquids and gases can move through rock. Low-permeability natural gas reservoirs encompass the shale, sandstone, and carbonate formations whose natural permeability is roughly 0.1 millidarcies or below. (Permeability is measured in darcies.)

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

BlackBerry advisory describes a security issue that the BlackBerry Attachment Service component of the BlackBerry Enterprise Server is susceptible to. The issue relates to a known vulnerability in the PDF distiller component of the BlackBerry Attachment Service that affects how the BlackBerry Attachment Service processes PDF files.

409

Distillation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential The characteristic feature of Bose-Einstein condensation is the accumulation of a  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Distillation of Bose-Einstein condensates in a double-well potential The characteristic feature of Bose-Einstein condensation is the accumulation of a macroscopic number of particles in the lowest quantum state. Condensate fragmentation, the macroscopic occupation of two or more quantum states

410

Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil Greater Than 15 ppm to 500 ppm Sulfur  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary) " ,"ClickPipelines About U.S. NaturalA. Michael Schaal Director, Oil and10:InformationSteam Coal109,4334,538

411

Waste Heat Recovery from High Temperature Off-Gases from Electric Arc Furnace  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This article presents a study and review of available waste heat in high temperature Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) off gases and heat recovery techniques/methods from these gases. It gives details of the quality and quantity of the sensible and chemical waste heat in typical EAF off gases, energy savings potential by recovering part of this heat, a comprehensive review of currently used waste heat recovery methods and potential for use of advanced designs to achieve a much higher level of heat recovery including scrap preheating, steam production and electric power generation. Based on our preliminary analysis, currently, for all electric arc furnaces used in the US steel industry, the energy savings potential is equivalent to approximately 31 trillion Btu per year or 32.7 peta Joules per year (approximately $182 million US dollars/year). This article describes the EAF off-gas enthalpy model developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to calculate available and recoverable heat energy for a given stream of exhaust gases coming out of one or multiple EAF furnaces. This Excel based model calculates sensible and chemical enthalpy of the EAF off-gases during tap to tap time accounting for variation in quantity and quality of off gases. The model can be used to estimate energy saved through scrap preheating and other possible uses such as steam generation and electric power generation using off gas waste heat. This article includes a review of the historical development of existing waste heat recovery methods, their operations, and advantages/limitations of these methods. This paper also describes a program to develop and test advanced concepts for scrap preheating, steam production and electricity generation through use of waste heat recovery from the chemical and sensible heat contained in the EAF off gases with addition of minimum amount of dilution or cooling air upstream of pollution control equipment such as bag houses.

Nimbalkar, Sachin U [ORNL; Thekdi, Arvind [E3M Inc; Keiser, James R [ORNL; Storey, John Morse [ORNL

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

The spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil Point, California  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

area) are not well established, either globally or within strong source areas such as near Coal OilThe spatial scales, distribution, and intensity of natural marine hydrocarbon seeps near Coal Oil hydrocarbon seepage from marine environments is an important source of methane and other gases

Washburn, Libe

413

Life Cycle Assessment of Hydrogen Production via Natural Gas Steam Reforming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A life cycle assessment of hydrogen production via natural gas steam reforming was performed to examine the net emissions of greenhouse gases as well as other major environmental consequences. LCA is a systematic analytical method that helps identify and evaluate the environmental impacts of a specific process or competing processes.

Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.

2000-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

414

Phase Behavior of Light Gases in Hydrocarbon and Aqueous Solvents  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Under previous support from the Department of Energy, an experimental facility has been established and operated to measure valuable vapor-liquid equilibrium data for systems of interest in the production and processing of coal fluids. To facilitate the development and testing of models for prediction of the phase behavior for such systems, we have acquired substantial amounts of data on the equilibrium phase compositions for binary mixtures of heavy hydrocarbon solvents with a variety of supercritical solutes, including hydrogen, methane, ethane, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide. The present project focuses on measuring the phase behavior of light gases and water in Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) type solvents at conditions encountered in indirect liquefaction processes and evaluating and developing theoretically-based correlating frameworks to predict the phase behavior of such systems. Specific goals of the proposed work include (a) developing a state-of-the-art experimental facility to permit highly accurate measurements of equilibrium phase compositions (solubilities) of challenging F-T systems, (b) measuring these properties for systematically-selected binary, ternary and molten F-T wax mixtures to provide critically needed input data for correlation development, (c) developing and testing models suitable for describing the phase behavior of such mixtures, and (d) presenting the modeling results in generalized, practical formats suitable for use in process engineering calculations. During the present reporting period, our solubility apparatus was refurbished and restored to full service. To test the experimental apparatus and procedures used, measurements were obtained for the solubility Of C0{sub 2} in benzene at 160{degrees}F. Having confirmed the accuracy of the newly acquired data in comparison with our previous measurements and data reported in the literature for this test system, we have begun to measure the solubility of hydrogen in hexane. The measurements for this system will cover the temperature range from 160 to 280{degrees}F at pressures to 2,500 psia. As part of our model evaluation efforts, we examined the predictive abilities of an alternative approach we have proposed for calculating the phase behavior properties of highly non-ideal systems. Using this approach, the liquid phase fugacities generated from an equation of state (EOS) are augmented by a fugacity deviation function correction. The correlative abilities of this approach are compared with those of an EOS equipped with the recently introduced Wong-Sandler (MWS) mixing rules. These two approaches are compared with the current methods for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) calculations, i.e., the EOS (0/0) approach with the van der Waals mixing rules and the split (y/0) approach. The evaluations were conducted on a database comprised of non-ideal low pressure binary systems as well as asymmetric high pressure binary systems. These systems are of interest in the coal liquefaction and utilization processes. The Peng-Robinson EOS was selected for the purposes of this evaluation.

Gasem, K.A.M.; Robinson, R.L., Jr.; Trvedi, N.J., Gao, W.

1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Ceramic membrane reactor with two reactant gases at different pressures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The invention is a ceramic membrane reactor for syngas production having a reaction chamber, an inlet in the reactor for natural gas intake, a plurality of oxygen permeating ceramic slabs inside the reaction chamber with each slab having a plurality of passages paralleling the gas flow for transporting air through the reaction chamber, a manifold affixed to one end of the reaction chamber for intake of air connected to the slabs, a second manifold affixed to the reactor for removing the oxygen depleted air, and an outlet in the reaction chamber for removing syngas.

Balachandran, Uthamalingam (Hinsdale, IL); Mieville, Rodney L. (Glen Ellyn, IL)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Distillation 29 Chem 355 Jasperse DISTILLATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vaporize. The vapors produced are subsequently passed through a water-cooled condenser. Upon cooling liquid doesn't change, only the rate of vaporization. The energy supplied by heating is used

Jasperse, Craig P.

417

Simplified method for determining heat of combustion of natural gas  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simplified technique for determination of the heat of combustion of natural gas has been developed. It is a variation of the previously developed technique wherein the carrier air, in which the test sample was burnt, was oxygen enriched to adjust the mole fraction of oxygen in the combustion product gases up to that in the carrier air. The new technique eliminates the need for oxygen enrichment of the experimental mixtures and natural gas samples and has been found to predict their heats of combustion to an uncertainty of the order of 1 percent.

Singh, J.J.; Chegini, H.; Mall, G.H.

1987-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Synthesis via Methanol and Dimethyl Ether Intermediates: Final Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of the work was to enhance price-competitive, synthesis gas (syngas)-based production of transportation fuels that are directly compatible with the existing vehicle fleet (i.e., vehicles fueled by gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, etc.). To accomplish this, modifications to the traditional methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) process were investigated. In this study, we investigated direct conversion of syngas to distillates using methanol and dimethyl ether intermediates. For this application, a Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 (PdZnAl) catalyst previously developed for methanol steam reforming was evaluated. The PdZnAl catalyst was shown to be far superior to a conventional copper-based methanol catalyst when operated at relatively high temperatures (i.e., >300°C), which is necessary for MTG-type applications. Catalytic performance was evaluated through parametric studies. Process conditions such as temperature, pressure, gas-hour-space velocity, and syngas feed ratio (i.e., hydrogen:carbon monoxide) were investigated. PdZnAl catalyst formulation also was optimized to maximize conversion and selectivity to methanol and dimethyl ether while suppressing methane formation. Thus, a PdZn/Al2O3 catalyst optimized for methanol and dimethyl ether formation was developed through combined catalytic material and process parameter exploration. However, even after compositional optimization, a significant amount of undesirable carbon dioxide was produced (formed via the water-gas-shift reaction), and some degree of methane formation could not be completely avoided. Pd/ZnO/Al2O3 used in combination with ZSM-5 was investigated for direct syngas-to-distillates conversion. High conversion was achieved as thermodynamic constraints are alleviated when methanol and dimethyl are intermediates for hydrocarbon formation. When methanol and/or dimethyl ether are products formed separately, equilibrium restrictions occur. Thermodynamic relaxation also enables the use of lower operating pressures than what would be allowed for methanol synthesis alone. Aromatic-rich hydrocarbon liquid (C5+), containing a significant amount of methylated benzenes, was produced under these conditions. However, selectivity control to liquid hydrocarbons was difficult to achieve. Carbon dioxide and methane formation was problematic. Furthermore, saturation of the olefinic intermediates formed in the zeolite, and necessary for gasoline production, occurred over PdZnAl. Thus, yield to desirable hydrocarbon liquid product was limited. Evaluation of other oxygenate-producing catalysts could possibly lead to future advances. Potential exists with discovery of other types of catalysts that suppress carbon dioxide and light hydrocarbon formation. Comparative techno-economics for a single-step syngas-to-distillates process and a more conventional MTG-type process were investigated. Results suggest operating and capital cost savings could only modestly be achieved, given future improvements to catalyst performance. Sensitivity analysis indicated that increased single-pass yield to hydrocarbon liquid is a primary need for this process to achieve cost competiveness.

Dagle, Robert A.; Lebarbier, Vanessa MC; Lizarazo Adarme, Jair A.; King, David L.; Zhu, Yunhua; Gray, Michel J.; Jones, Susanne B.; Biddy, Mary J.; Hallen, Richard T.; Wang, Yong; White, James F.; Holladay, Johnathan E.; Palo, Daniel R.

2013-11-26T23:59:59.000Z

419

Composition and structure of resins in lube distillates from West Siberian crudes  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

As a result of the lower contents of lube components in the crudes being processed today, along with a steady increase of demand for high-quality oils and solid hydrocarbons, as well as the trend toward processing crudes with unregulated composition, it has become necessary to develop new technology for the manufacture of lube stocks, along with the use of additives for various purposes. The effectiveness of additives is determined by their properties and also by the chemical composition of the raw material in each stage of oil production. Resins are important components of raw lube stocks. These resins are complex in composition, and vary in the nature and number of heteroatoms in the molecule and in the structure of the hydrocarbon part of the molecule. The hydrocarbon radicals may include aromatic and naphthenic rings, as well as chains with various configurations. Depending on the structural features of the resin molecules, they may vary in their effects on processes of selective solvent treating, dewaxing, and deoiling with the use of additives. The authors have investigated the resins present in the intermediate and final products of lube oil production.

Kazakova, L.P.; Gundyrev, A.A.; Litvin, N.I.; Shubina, E.S.; Mukhin, M.L.

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash coat, and catalytic metals, to develop a regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor. The task of developing kinetic rate equations and modeling the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants will be abandoned since formulation of catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS is being in progress. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 46-570 seconds under reaction conditions to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases and evaluate their capabilities in reducing hydrogen sulfide and COS in coal gases. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,200-4,000-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-20,000-ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-27 v% hydrogen, 29-41 v% CO, 8-12 v% CO{sub 2}, 0-10 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of simulated coal gas mixtures to the reactor are 30 - 180 cm{sup 3}/min at 1 atm and 25 C (SCCM). The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-155 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 40-210 psia. The molar ratio

K.C. Kwon

2009-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Conversion of Hydrogen Sulfide in Coal Gases to Liquid Elemental Sulfur with Monolithic Catalysts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Removal of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) from coal gasifier gas and sulfur recovery are key steps in the development of Department of Energy's (DOE's) advanced power plants that produce electric power and clean transportation fuels with coal and natural gas. These plants will require highly clean coal gas with H{sub 2}S below 1 ppmv and negligible amounts of trace contaminants such as hydrogen chloride, ammonia, alkali, heavy metals, and particulate. The conventional method of sulfur removal and recovery employing amine, Claus, and tail-gas treatment is very expensive. A second generation approach developed under DOE's sponsorship employs hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) using regenerable metal oxide sorbents followed by Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP). However, this process sequence does not remove trace contaminants and is targeted primarily towards the development of advanced integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plants that produce electricity (not both electricity and transportation fuels). There is an immediate as well as long-term need for the development of cleanup processes that produce highly clean coal gas for next generation power plants. To this end, a novel process is now under development at several research organizations in which the H{sub 2}S in coal gas is directly oxidized to elemental sulfur over a selective catalyst. Such a process is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S In the Single-Step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP), the direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur in the presence of SO{sub 2} is ideally suited for coal gas from commercial gasifiers with a quench system to remove essentially all the trace contaminants except H{sub 2}S. This direct oxidation process has the potential to produce a super clean coal gas more economically than both conventional amine-based processes and HGD/DSRP. The H{sub 2} and CO components of syngas appear to behave as inert with respect to sulfur formed at the SSRP conditions. One problem in the SSRP process that needs to be eliminated or minimized is COS formation that may occur due to reaction of CO with sulfur formed from the Claus reaction. The objectives of this research are to formulate monolithic catalysts for removal of H{sub 2}S from coal gases and minimum formation of COS with monolithic catalyst supports, {gamma}-alumina wash or carbon coats, and catalytic metals, to develop a catalytic regeneration method for a deactivated monolithic catalyst, to measure kinetics of both direct oxidation of H{sub 2}S to elemental sulfur with SO{sub 2} as an oxidizer and formation of COS in the presence of a simulated coal gas mixture containing H{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, and moisture, using a monolithic catalyst reactor, and to develop kinetic rate equations and model the direct oxidation process to assist in the design of large-scale plants. This heterogeneous catalytic reaction has gaseous reactants such as H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}. However, this heterogeneous catalytic reaction has heterogeneous products such as liquid elemental sulfur and steam. Experiments on conversion of hydrogen sulfide into elemental sulfur and formation of COS were carried out for the space time range of 130-156 seconds at 120-140 C to formulate catalysts suitable for the removal of H{sub 2}S and COS from coal gases, evaluate removal capabilities of hydrogen sulfide and COS from coal gases with formulated catalysts, and develop an economic regeneration method of deactivated catalysts. Simulated coal gas mixtures consist of 3,300-3,800-ppmv hydrogen sulfide, 1,600-1,900 ppmv sulfur dioxide, 18-21 v% hydrogen, 29-34 v% CO, 8-10 v% CO{sub 2}, 5-18 vol % moisture, and nitrogen as remainder. Volumetric feed rates of a simulated coal gas mixture to the reactor are 114-132 SCCM. The temperature of the reactor is controlled in an oven at 120-140 C. The pressure of the reactor is maintained at 116-129 psia. The molar ratio of H{sub 2}S to SO{sub 2} in the monolithic catalyst reactor is

K. C. Kwon

2007-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

422

NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION NATURAL GAS MARKET ASSESSMENT PRELIMINARY RESULTS In Support.................................................................................... 6 Chapter 2: Natural Gas Demand.................................................................................................. 10 Chapter 3: Natural Gas Supply

423

Dissipative Dynamics of a Josephson Junction In the Bose-Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The dissipative dynamics of a Josephson junction in the Bose-gases is considered within the framework of the model of a tunneling Hamiltonian. The effective action which describes the dynamics of the phase difference across the junction is derived using functional integration method. The dynamic equation obtained for the phase difference across the junction is analyzed for the finite temperatures in the low frequency limit involving the radiation terms. The asymmetric case of the Bose-gases with the different order parameters is calculated as well.

R. A. Barankov; S. N. Burmistrov

2003-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

424

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, John E. (Woodridge, IL); Jalan, Vinod M. (Concord, MA)

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur-containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorbtion capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1982-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

426

High-temperature sorbent method for removal of sulfur containing gases from gaseous mixtures  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A copper oxide-zinc oxide mixture is used as a sorbent for removing hydrogen sulfide and other sulfur containing gases at high temperatures from a gaseous fuel mixture. This high-temperature sorbent is especially useful for preparing fuel gases for high temperature fuel cells. The copper oxide is initially reduced in a preconditioning step to elemental copper and is present in a highly dispersed state throughout the zinc oxide which serves as a support as well as adding to the sulfur sorption capacity. The spent sorbent is regenerated by high-temperature treatment with an air fuel, air steam mixture followed by hydrogen reduction to remove and recover the sulfur.

Young, J.E.; Jalan, V.M.

1984-06-19T23:59:59.000Z

427

Adsorption and Separation of Light Gases on an Amino-Functionalized Metal–Organic Framework: An Adsorption and In Situ XRD Study  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) metal-organic framework was studied for its use in the separation of CO{sub 2} from CH{sub 4}, H{sub 2}, N{sub 2} C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 8} mixtures. Isotherms of methane, ethane, propane, hydrogen, nitrogen, and CO{sub 2} were measured. The atypical shape of these isotherms is attributed to the breathing properties of the material, in which a transition from a very narrow pore form to a narrow pore form and from a narrow pore form to a large pore form occurs, depending on the total pressure and the nature of the adsorbate, as demonstrated by in-situ XRD patterns measured during adsorption. Apart from CO{sub 2}, all tested gases interacted weakly with the adsorbent. As a result, they are excluded from adsorption in the narrow pore form of the material at low pressure. CO{sub 2} interacted much more strongly and was adsorbed in significant amounts at low pressure. This gives the material excellent properties to separate CO{sub 2} from other gases. The separation of CO{sub 2} from methane, nitrogen, hydrogen, or a combination of these gases has been demonstrated by breakthrough experiments using pellets of NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al). The effect of total pressure (1-30 bar), gas composition, temperature (303-403 K) and contact time has been examined. In all cases, CO{sub 2} was selectively adsorbed, whereas methane, nitrogen, and hydrogen nearly did not adsorb at all. Regeneration of the adsorbent by thermal treatment, inert purge gas stripping, and pressure swing has been demonstrated. The NH{sub 2}-MIL-53(Al) pellets retained their selectivity and capacity for more than two years.

Couck S.; Stavitski E.; Gobehiya, E.; Kirschhock, C.E.A.; Serra-Crespo, P.; Juan-Alcaniz, J.; Martinez Joaristi, A.; Gascon, J.; Kapteijn, F.; Baron, G. V.; Denayer J.F.M.

2012-02-29T23:59:59.000Z

428

Distribution of higher n-alkanes in partially frozen middle-distillate fuels. Final report, October 1982-September 1984  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In conjunction with continuing studies on the effect of composition on the freezing points of middle distillate fuels, attention was directed to partially frozen fuels. The crystals and residual liquid from partially frozen JP-5 and DFM fuel samples derived from both petroleum and shale were separated from each other and collected by means of the NRL liquid-solid separator apparatus (LSS) at several temperatures below the freezing points of the original samples. The original fuel samples, the solid material (precipitate), and liquid (filtrate) were characterized by gas chromatography (GC). The filtrate data were straightforward. As expected, Van't Hoff plot of the n-alkanes concentrations (log concentrations vs reciprocal absolute temperature) formed straight lines, and their slopes demonstrated the importance of the higher n-alkanes in fuel crystallization at cold temperatures. The precipitate data presented some problems of interpretation since it was observed that the waxy crystal precipitate matrix entrapped significant amounts of liquid (filtrate). The data on solid which were obtained by these methods demonstrated that the higher n-alkanes play the key role in fuel crystallization at low temperatures, concentrating as much as tenfold in the crystallized solids compared to the liquid. Also, it was clearly shown that the n-alkanes form the major part, up to least 95% by weight in some fuels, of the solid crystals formed.

Van Winkle, T.L.; Affens, W.A.; Beal, E.J.; Hazlett, R.N.; DeGuzman, J.

1985-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

429

Natural gas monthly, November 1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gross withdrawals of natural gas (wet, after lease separation) from gas and oil wells in the United States during November 1988, were estimated at 1755 billion cubic feet, 1.3 percent above withdrawals during November 1987. Of the total quantity, an estimated 215 billion cubic feet were returned to gas and oil reservoirs for repressuring, pressure maintenance, and cycling; 35 billion cubic feet of nonhydrocarbon gases were removed; and 13 billion cubic feet were vented or flared. The remaining wet marketed production totaled 1492 billion cubic feet. Dry gas production (wet marketed production minus 70 billion cubic feet of extraction loss) totaled an estimated 1422 billion cubic feet, similar to the November 1987 level. The total dry gas supply available for disposition in November 1988 was estimated at 1702 billion cubic feet, including 173 billion cubic feet withdrawn from storage, 12 billion cubic feet of supplemental supplies, and 95 billion cubic feet that were imported. In November 1987, dry gas available for disposition totaled 1684 billion cubic feet. Of the total dry gas supply available for disposition in November 1988, an estimated 1467 billion cubic feet were consumed, 148 billion cubic feet were injected into underground storage reservoirs, and 5 billion cubic feet were exported, leaving 82 billion cubic feet unaccounted for.

Not Available

1989-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

430

Natural gas monthly, March 1989  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Gross withdrawals of natural gas (wet, after lease separation) from gas and oil wells in the United States during March 1989, were estimated at 1777 billion cubic feet, 0.4 percent below withdrawals during March 1988. Of the total quantity, an estimated 211 billion cubic feet were returned to gas and oil reservoirs for repressuring, pressure maintenance, and cycling; 36 billion cubic feet of nonhydrocarbon gases were removed; and 12 billion cubic feet were vented or flared. The remaining wet marketed production totaled 1518 billion cubic feet. Dry gas production (wet marketed production minus 71 billion cubic feet of extraction loss) totaled an estimated 1447 billion cubic feet, similar to the March 1988 level. The total dry gas supply available for disposition in March 1989 was estimated at 1881 billion cubic feet, including 319 billion cubic feet withdrawn from storage, 14 billion cubic feet of supplemental supplies, and 101 billion cubic feet that were imported. In March 1988, dry gas available for disposition totaled 1841 billion cubic feet. Of the total dry gas supply available for disposition in March 1989, an estimated 1837 billion cubic feet were consumed, 93 billion cubic feet were injected into underground storage reservoirs and 8 billion cubic feet were exported, leaving 57 billion cubic feet unaccounted for.

Not Available

1989-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

431

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known pressure swing adsorption'' technique utilizing the same sorption material. 1 fig.

Judkins, R.R.; Burchell, T.D.

1999-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

432

Feasibility of reconstructing paleoatmospheric records of selected alkanes, methyl halides, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and sulfur gases from Greenland ice cores M. Aydin,1 M. B. Williams,1 and E. S. Saltzman1 Received 7-lived atmospheric trace gases were measured in 25 ice core samples from Summit, Greenland. Samples were selected. The CH3Br results are consistent with previous observations of ``excess'' CH3Br in Greenland firn air

Saltzman, Eric

433

Method and apparatus for separating gases based on electrically and magnetically enhanced monolithic carbon fiber composite sorbents  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method for separating gases or other fluids involves placing a magnetic field on a monolithic carbon fiber composite sorption material to more preferentially attract certain gases or other fluids to the sorption material to which a magnetic field is applied. This technique may be combined with the known "pressure swing adsorption" technique utilizing the same sorption material.

Judkins, Roddie R. (9917 Rainbow Dr., Knoxville, TN 37922); Burchell, Timothy D. (109 Greywood Pl., Oak Ridge, TN 37830)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Bose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases Jerzy Zachorowski and Wojciech Gawlik  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. It is instructive to compare orders of magnitude typical for the thermal and condensed gas samples. For atom gasBose-Einstein Condensation in Atomic Gases Jerzy Zachorowski and Wojciech Gawlik M. Smoluchowski on the Bose-Einstein condensate. We also present main parameters and expected characteristics of the first Pol

435

Ion fragmentation in an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer interface with different gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the gas phase. However, particularly in multi- component samples, this may not be enough to unambigu predicts that the degree of ion fragmentation increases with increasing mass of the curtain gas. However with argon and krypton is caused by condensation of the gases within the free jet expansion between

Chen, David D.Y.

436

Electronic structure of the Si(111):GaSe van der Waals-like surface termination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electronic structure of the Si(111):GaSe van der Waals-like surface termination Reiner Rudolph-like surface termination has been determined by angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy using photons. This explains both the absence of a surface core-level shift in Si 2p photoelectron spectra of the terminated

Olmstead, Marjorie

437

Investigadores de la UA disean un catalizador que neutraliza gases responsables del cambio climtico  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industria, las plantas de combustión o de las emisiones de vehículos Alicante, 6 de junio de 2013 a reducir todas las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero acordadas en el Protocolo de Kioto" explica emisiones de vehículos (motores de gasolina, motores diésel, etc.), entre otros. Actualidad Universitaria

Escolano, Francisco

438

Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Dry Gases in the Cathode of PEM Fuel Cells M.J. Kermani1 J and N2, through the cathode of a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is studied numerically) an energy equation, written in a form that has enthalpy as the dependent variable. Keywords: PEM fuel cells

Stockie, John

439

Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Classical disordered ground states: Super-ideal gases and stealth and equi-luminous materials of Materials, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08544, USA 4 Program in Applied and Computational focus on three classes of configurations with unique radiation scattering characteristics: i "stealth

Torquato, Salvatore

440

A Biomass-based Model to Estimate the Plausibility of Exoplanet Biosignature Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Biosignature gas detection is one of the ultimate future goals for exoplanet atmosphere studies. We have created a framework for linking biosignature gas detectability to biomass estimates, including atmospheric photochemistry and biological thermodynamics. The new framework is intended to liberate predictive atmosphere models from requiring fixed, Earth-like biosignature gas source fluxes. New biosignature gases can be considered with a check that the biomass estimate is physically plausible. We have validated the models on terrestrial production of NO, H2S, CH4, CH3Cl, and DMS. We have applied the models to propose NH3 as a biosignature gas on a "cold Haber World," a planet with a N2-H2 atmosphere, and to demonstrate why gases such as CH3Cl must have too large of a biomass to be a plausible biosignature gas on planets with Earth or early-Earth-like atmospheres orbiting a Sun-like star. To construct the biomass models, we developed a functional classification of biosignature gases, and found that gases (such...

Seager, S; Hu, R

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Predictive Modeling of Mercury Speciation in Combustion Flue Gases Using GMDH-Based Abductive Networks  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to develop. The use of modern data-based machine learning techniques has been recently introduced, including and boiler operating conditions. Prediction performance compares favourably with neural network models for future work to further improve performance. Index Terms: Mercury speciation, Flue gases, Boiler emissions

Abdel-Aal, Radwan E.

442

Nuclear fusion in gases of deuterium clusters heated with a femtosecond T. Ditmire,  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Nuclear fusion in gases of deuterium clusters heated with a femtosecond laser* T. Ditmire, J deuterium­deuterium DD nuclear fusion. By diagnosing the fusion yield through measurements of 2.45 Me release of kinetic energy in fast ions can be harnessed to drive nuclear fusion between deuterium ions

Ditmire, Todd

443

Ballistic spin transport in exciton gases A. V. Kavokin,1, 2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, or spin-optronics challeng- ing. How possibly one can explore the current, which is carried by neutral are possible in exciton and exciton-polariton Bose gases. Bosonic spintronics or spin-optronics operates,28 . Combined with evident advantages of bosonic amplifica- tion and low dephasing, this makes spin-optronics

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

444

ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

digestion, aerobic digestion, dewatering, al composting, drying) and sludge disposal route (land applicationORBIT2012 G ESTABoues, a decision tool to assess greenhouse gases of sewage sludge treatment and di-laure.reverdy@irstea.fr EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Sewage sludge production increases continuously reaching almost 20% (946 700 t 1 118 795

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

445

1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change on trace gases and the biosphere  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This proposal seeks multi-agency funding to conduct an international, multidisciplinary 1988 Pilot Institute on Global Change to take place from August 7 through 21, 1988, on the topic: Trace Gases and the Biosphere. The institute, to be held in Snowmass, Colorado, is envisioned as a pilot version of a continuing series of institutes on Global Change (IGC). This proposal seeks support for the 1988 pilot institute only. The concept and structure for the continuing series, and the definition of the 1988 pilot institute, were developed at an intensive and multidisciplinary Summer Institute Planning Meeting in Boulder, Colorado, on August 24--25, 1987. The theme for the 1988 PIGC, Trace Gases and the Biosphere, will focus a concerted, high-level multidisciplinary effort on a scientific problem central to the Global Change Program. Dramatic year-to-year increases in the global concentrations of radiatively-active trace gases such as methane and carbon dioxide are now well documented. The predicted climatic effects of these changes lend special urgency to efforts to study the biospheric sources and sinks of these gases and to clarify their interactions and role in the geosphere-biosphere system.

Eddy, J.A.; Moore, B. III

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Greenhouse gases accounting and reporting for waste management - A South African perspective  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper investigates how greenhouse gases are accounted and reported in the waste sector in South Africa. Developing countries (including South Africa) do not have binding emission reduction targets, but many of them publish different greenhouse gas emissions data which have been accounted and reported in different ways. Results show that for South Africa, inventories at national and municipal level are the most important tools in the process of accounting and reporting greenhouse gases from waste. For the development of these inventories international initiatives were important catalysts at national and municipal levels, and assisted in developing local expertise, resulting in increased output quality. However, discrepancies in the methodology used to account greenhouse gases from waste between inventories still remain a concern. This is a challenging issue for developing countries, especially African ones, since higher accuracy methods are more data intensive. Analysis of the South African inventories shows that results from the recent inventories can not be compared with older ones due to the use of different accounting methodologies. More recently the use of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) procedures in Africa, geared towards direct measurements of greenhouse gases from landfill sites, has increased and resulted in an improvement of the quality of greenhouse gas inventories at municipal level.

Friedrich, Elena, E-mail: Friedriche@ukzn.ac.z [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa); Trois, Cristina [University of KwaZulu-Natal, CRECHE, School of Civil Engineering, Surveying and Construction, Howard College Campus, Durban (South Africa)

2010-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

447

Intercomparison of tritium and noble gases analyses, 3 and derived parameters excess air and recharge temperature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Intercomparison of tritium and noble gases analyses, 3 H/3 He ages and derived parameters excess with the tritium­helium (3 H/3 He) method has become a powerful tool for hydrogeologists. The uncertainty in the inter- comparison for tritium analyses and ten laboratories participated in the noble gas

448

Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant Emissions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Truck Stop Electrification as a Strategy To Reduce Greenhouse Gases, Fuel Consumption and Pollutant, Schneider, Lee, Bubbosh 2 ABSTRACT Extended truck idling is a very large source of fuel wastage, greenhouse, most long-haul truck drivers idle their vehicles for close to 10 hours per day to operate heating

449

UA Researchers design a catalyst that neutralizes the gases responsible for climate change  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in a fixed bed reactor through which the gas stream to be purified passes. The composition and temperature gases coming from industry, combustion plants or vehicle emissions that are responsible for increasing with ammonia, combustion processes of fossil fuels (coal, biomass, waste, etc.). and vehicle emissions

Escolano, Francisco

450

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network infrastructures are  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Abstract--Energy consumption and the concomitant Green House Gases (GHG) emissions of network on the overall power consumption and on the GHG emissions with just 25% of green energy sources. I. INTRODUCTION]. In the zero carbon approach, renewable (green) energy sources (e.g. sun, wind, tide) are employed and no GHGs

Politècnica de Catalunya, Universitat

451

Towards a history of the international industrial gases industry Ray Stokes, Ralf Banken, and Matthias Phl  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

industrial revolution" and their component companies. From David Landes's classic study, The Unbound of the industries of the second industrial revolution has been virtually ignored in this scholarship to date1 Towards a history of the international industrial gases industry Ray Stokes, Ralf Banken

Guo, Zaoyang

452

Internal structure and expansion dynamics of laser ablation plumes into ambient gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Internal structure and expansion dynamics of laser ablation plumes into ambient gases S. S. Harilal 13 December 2002 The effect of ambient gas on the expansion dynamics of the plasma generated by laser together with time resolved emission diagnostics, a triple structure of the plume was observed

Harilal, S. S.

453

Measurement and Analysis of the Relationship between Ammonia, Acid Gases, and Fine Particles in Eastern North  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

).2­4 Gas-to-particle conversion can be accomplished by condensation, which adds mass onto preMeasurement and Analysis of the Relationship between Ammonia, Acid Gases, and Fine Particles acid gas con- centrations of 0.23 g/m3 hydrochloric acid (standard deviation [SD] 0.2 g/m3 ); 1.14 g/m3

Aneja, Viney P.

454

Atmospheric Environment 42 (2008) 30763086 Scavenging of soluble gases by evaporating and growing cloud  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and condensation of a cloud droplet in the presence of soluble gases. It is assumed that gas absorption we performed numerical analysis of simultaneous heat and mass transfer during evaporation into account thermal effect of gas absorption. It was shown that nonlinear behavior of different parameters

Elperin, Tov

455

Photoconductivity and luminescence in GaSe crystals at high levels of optical excitation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photoconductivity and luminescence of GaSe layered crystals at high levels of optical excitation are studied experimentally. The specific features observed in the photoconductivity and photoluminescence spectra are controlled by the nonlinear optical absorption in the region of excitonic resonance.

Kyazym-zade, A. G.; Salmanov, V. M., E-mail: vagif_salmanov@yahoo.com; Salmanova, A. A. [Baku State University (Azerbaijan); Alieva, A. M.; Ibaeva, R. Z. [National Academy of Sciences, Institute of Physics (Azerbaijan)

2010-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

456

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases in Soils  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Effects of Biochar and Basalt Additions on Carbon Sequestration and Fluxes of Greenhouse Gases Emissions--Carbon Dioxide Emissions--Sequestration and Storage--Biochar--Basalt--Organic Fertilizers, this investigation focuses on the range of potential of different soil additives to enhance sequestration and storage

Vallino, Joseph J.

457

Operational aspects of the desulfurization process of energy gases mimics in biotrickling filters5  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Introduction Energy rich off-gases such as biogas are sometimes not used for electric power generation due impurities. H2S concentrations in biogas can range from 0.1 to 5 We dedicate this article to the memory/v (1000e20,000 ppmv), whereas the specifications for the maximum content of H2S in typical biogas

458

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Anode supported single chamber solid oxide fuel cells operating in exhaust gases of thermal engine fuel cells are usually described as devices able to convert chemical energy into electrical energy. Conventional solid oxide fuel cells are separated into two compartments containing each electrode split

Boyer, Edmond

459

Nature Macmillan Publishers Ltd 1997 letters to nature  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

To test these predictions we used drops of distilled water which contained charge-stabilized surfactant-free polystyrene micro- spheres (Interfacial Dynamics, Portland, OR) at a starting volume fraction of 10 values10 for the water diffusivity in air and for the saturated vapour concentration. In a separate

Asher, Sanford A.

460

Utilization of low-quality natural gas: A current assessment. Final report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The objective of this report is to evaluate the low quality natural gas (LQNG) resource base, current utilization of LQNG, and environmental issues relative to its use, to review processes for upgrading LQNG to pipeline quality, and to make recommendations of research needs to improve the potential for LQNG utilization. LQNG is gas from any reservoir which contains amounts of nonhydrocarbon gases sufficient to lower the heating value or other properties of the gas below commercial, pipeline standards. For the purposes of this study, LQNG is defined as natural gas that contains more than 2% carbon dioxide, more than 4% nitrogen, or more than 4% combined CO{sub 2} plus N{sub 2}. The other contaminant of concern is hydrogen sulfide. A minor contaminant in some natural gases is helium, but this inert gas usually presents no problems.

Acheson, W.P.; Hackworth, J.H.; Kasper, S.; McIlvried, H.G.

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Molybdenum-based additives to mixed-metal oxides for use in hot gas cleanup sorbents for the catalytic decomposition of ammonia in coal gases  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

This invention relates to additives to mixed-metal oxides that act simultaneously as sorbents and catalysts in cleanup systems for hot coal gases. Such additives of this type, generally, act as a sorbent to remove sulfur from the coal gases while substantially simultaneously, catalytically decomposing appreciable amounts of ammonia from the coal gases.

Ayala, Raul E. (Clifton Park, NY)

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polluting NO{sub x} gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO{sub x} gases are removed is directed to introducing NO{sub x}-free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor. 2 figs.

Mollot, D.J.; Bonk, D.L.; Dowdy, T.E.

1998-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

463

Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with stream, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

King, C.J.; Mackenzie, P.D.

1982-09-03T23:59:59.000Z

464

Process for removal of ammonia and acid gases from contaminated waters  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Contaminating basic gases, i.e., ammonia, and acid gases, e.g., carbon dioxide, are removed from process waters or waste waters in a combined extraction and stripping process. Ammonia in the form of ammonium ion is extracted by an immiscible organic phase comprising a liquid cation exchange component, especially an organic phosphoric acid derivative, and preferably di-2-ethyl hexyl phosphoric acid, dissolved in an alkyl hydrocarbon, aryl hydrocarbon, higher alcohol, oxygenated hydrocarbon, halogenated hydrocarbon, and mixtures thereof. Concurrently, the acidic gaseous contaminants are stripped from the process or waste waters by stripping with steam, air, nitrogen, or the like. The liquid cation exchange component has the ammonia stripped therefrom by heating, and the component may be recycled to extract additional amounts of ammonia.

King, C. Judson (Kensington, CA); MacKenzie, Patricia D. (Berkeley, CA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Removal of oxides of nitrogen from gases in multi-stage coal combustion  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Polluting NO.sub.x gas values are removed from off-gas of a multi-stage coal combustion process which includes an initial carbonizing reaction, firing of char from this reaction in a fluidized bed reactor, and burning of gases from the carbonizing and fluidized bed reactions in a topping combustor having a first, fuel-rich zone and a second, fuel-lean zone. The improvement by means of which NO.sub.x gases are removed is directed to introducing NO.sub.x -free oxidizing gas such as compressor air into the second, fuel-lean zone and completing combustion with this source of oxidizing gas. Excess air fed to the fluidized bed reactor is also controlled to obtain desired stoichiometry in the first, fuel-rich zone of the topping combustor.

Mollot, Darren J. (Morgantown, WV); Bonk, Donald L. (Louisville, OH); Dowdy, Thomas E. (Orlando, FL)

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

466

Bose and Fermi gases in the early Universe with self-gravitational effect  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We study the self-gravitational effect on the equation of state (EoS) of Bose and Fermi gases in thermal equilibrium at the end of reheating, the period after quark-hadron transition and before big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN). After introducing new grand canonical partition functions based on the work of Uhlenbeck and Gropper, we notice some interesting features of the newly developed EoSs with distinct behaviors of relativistic and nonrelativistic gases under self-gravity. The usual negligence of the self-gravitational effect when solving the background expansion of the early Universe is justified with numerical results, showing the magnitude of the self-gravitational modification of the state constant to be less than O(10{sup -78}). This helps us to clarify the background thermal evolution of the primordial patch. Such clarification is crucial in testing gravity theories, evaluating inflation models and determining element abundances in BBN.

Niu Yuezhen; Huang Junwu; Ma Boqiang [School of Physics and State Keye Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); School of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China) and Center for History and Philosophy of Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

467

Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Membranes, methods of making membranes, and methods of separating gases using membranes are provided. The membranes can include at least one hydrophilic polymer, at least one cross-linking agent, at least one base, and at least one amino compound. The methods of separating gases using membranes can include contacting a gas stream containing at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl with one side of a nonporous and at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl selectively permeable membrane such that at least one of CO.sub.2, H.sub.2S, and HCl is selectively transported through the membrane.

Ho, W. S. Winston

2012-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

468

Adsorption of molecular gases on porous materials in the SAFT-VR approximation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A simple molecular thermodynamic approach is applied to the study of the adsorption of gases of chain molecules on solid surfaces. We use a model based on the Statistical Associating Fluid Theory for Variable Range (SAFT-VR) potentials [A. Gil-Villegas, A. Galindo, P. J. Whitehead, S. J. Mills, G. Jackson, A. N. Burgess, J. Chem. Phys. 106 (1997) 4168] that we extend by including a quasi-two-dimensional approximation to describe the adsorption properties of this type of real gases [A. Martinez, M. Castro, C. McCabe, A. Gil-Villegas, J. Chem. Phys. 126 (2007) 074707]. The model is applied to ethane, ethylene, propane, and carbon dioxide adsorbed on activated carbon and silica gel, which are porous media of significant industrial interest. We show that the adsorption isotherms obtained by means of the present SAFT-VR modeling are in fair agreement with the experimental results provided in the literature

Castro, M; Martinez, A; Rosu, H C; 10.1016/j.physa.2010.04.028

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases in simulated waste solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiolytic generation of gases in simulated mixed waste solutions was studied. Computer modeling of the non-homogeneous kinetic processes in these highly concentrated homogeneous solutions was attempted. The predictions of the modeling simulations were verified experimentally. Two sources for the radiolytic generation of H{sub 2} are identified: direct dissociation of highly energetic water molecules and hydrogen abstraction from the organic molecules by hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation of the homogeneous kinetics of the NO{sub X} system indicate that no N{sub 2}O will be produced in the absence of organic solutes and none was experimentally detected. It was also found that long term pre-irradiation of the simulated waste solutions leads to enhanced thermal production of these two gases. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.; Diamond, H.; Matheson, M.S.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

470

Radiolytic and radiolytically induced generation of gases in simulated waste solutions  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The radiolytic generation of gases in simulated mixed waste solutions was studied. Computer modeling of the non-homogeneous kinetic processes in these highly concentrated homogeneous solutions was attempted. The predictions of the modeling simulations were verified experimentally. Two sources for the radiolytic generation of H{sub 2} are identified: direct dissociation of highly energetic water molecules and hydrogen abstraction from the organic molecules by hydrogen atoms. Computer simulation of the homogeneous kinetics of the NO{sub X} system indicate that no N{sub 2}O will be produced in the absence of organic solutes and none was experimentally detected. It was also found that long term pre-irradiation of the simulated waste solutions leads to enhanced thermal production of these two gases. 22 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Meisel, D.; Sauer, M.C. Jr.; Jonah, C.D.; Diamond, H.; Matheson, M.S.; Barnabas, F.; Cerny, E.; Cheng, Y.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Changes in atmospheric gases during isobaric storage of beef packaged pre- and post-rigor  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

displacement measurements of the head- space volume were conducted during two weeks of storage. Males of the headspace gases were calculated using the general gas law (PU = nRT). Carbon dioxide absorption by the meat was greatest in steaks stored in 100% C... OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REV IELV Microbiol ogical Aspects of Packaging Meat Shelf-Life of Packaged Meat Respiration . Carbon Dioxide Absorption OBJECTIVES EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Description of Meat Samples . Molar...

Hoermann, Karen Lee

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Evolution and stability of shock waves in dissipative gases characterized by activated inelastic collisions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Previous experiments have revealed that shock waves driven through dissipative gases may become unstable, for example, in granular gases, and in molecular gases undergoing strong relaxation effects. The mechanisms controlling these instabilities are not well understood. We successfully isolated and investigated this instability in the canonical problem of piston driven shock waves propagating into a medium characterized by inelastic collision processes. We treat the standard model of granular gases, where particle collisions are taken as inelastic with constant coefficient of restitution. The inelasticity is activated for sufficiently strong collisions. Molecular dynamic simulations were performed for 30,000 particles. We find that all shock waves investigated become unstable, with density non-uniformities forming in the relaxation region. The wavelength of these fingers is found comparable to the characteristic relaxation thickness. Shock Hugoniot curves for both elastic and inelastic collisions were obtained analytically and numerically. Analysis of these curves indicate that the instability is not of the Bethe-Zeldovich-Thompson or Dyakov-Kontorovich types. Analysis of the shock relaxation rates and rates for clustering in a convected fluid element with the same thermodynamic history outruled the clustering instability of a homogeneous granular gas. Instead, wave reconstruction of the early transient evolution indicates that the onset of instability occurs during the re-pressurization of the gas following the initial relaxation of the medium behind the lead shock. This re-pressurization gives rise to internal pressure waves in the presence of strong density gradients. This indicates that the mechanism of instability is more likely of the vorticity-generating Richtmyer-Meshkov type, relying on the action of the inner pressure waves development during the transient relaxation.

Nick Sirmas; Matei I. Radulescu

2015-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

473

The origin of hydrothermal and other gases in the Kenya Rift Valley  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Kenya Rift Valley (KRV) is part of a major continental rift system from which much outgassing is presently occurring. Previous research on gases in the KRV has tended to concentrate on their geothermal implications; the present paper is an attempt to broaden the interpretation by consideration of new data including helium and carbon isotope analyses from a wide cross-section of sites. In order to do this, gases have been divided into categories dependent on origin. N{sub 2} and noble gases are for the most part atmospherically derived, although their relative concentrations may be altered from ASW ratios by various physical processes. Reduced carbon (CH{sub 4} and homologues) appears to be exclusively derived from the shallow crust, with thermogenic {delta}{sup 13}C values averaging -25{per_thousand} PDB for CH{sub 4}. H{sub 2} is likely also to be crustally formed. CO{sub 2}, generally a dominant constituent, has a narrow {delta}{sup 13}C range averaging -3.7{per_thousand} PDB, and is likely to be derived with little modification from the upper mantle. Consideration of the ratio C/{sup 3}He supports this view in most cases. Sulphur probably also originates there. Ratios of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He reach a MORB-like maximum of 8.0 R/R{sub A} and provide the best indication of an upper mantle source of gases beneath the KRV. A correlation between {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He and the hydrocarbon parameter log (C{sub 1}/{Sigma}C{sub 2-4}) appears to be primarily temperature related. The highest {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in spring waters are associated with basalts, perhaps because of the leaching of basalt glasses. There may be a structural control on {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He ratios in the KRV as a whole.

Darling, W.G. [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom)] [British Geological Survey, Wallingford (United Kingdom); Griesshaber, E. [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany)] [Max-Planck Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz (Germany); Andrews, J.N. [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom)] [and others] [Univ. of Reading (United Kingdom); and others

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

474

INNOVATION EDUCATION EXCELLENCE DISTILLATIONS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Our Department is a powerhouse in the area of chem- istry applied to medicine. Andrei Yudin and his

Chan, Hue Sun

475

(distillation) (Le Chatelier  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

acetate(methyl-, ethyl-, butyl-) , methanol isobutene MTBE , ethanol isobutene ETBE , methanol 2-methyl-1% MTBE 3 DMC . 2% 1990 MTBE 1999 3 2002 MTBE . [ 1-1 ] Phosgene process polycarbonate(PC) 50/ . DMC DMC MTBE / . ( : Amoco, "Review of DMC Manufacture and its

Hong, Deog Ki

476

Regulation of natural monopolies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This chapter provides a comprehensive overview of the theoretical and empirical literature on the regulation of natural monopolies. It covers alternative definitions of natural monopoly, regulatory goals, alternative ...

Joskow, Paul L.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

477

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

478

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

479

Historical Natural Gas Annual  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

480

Natural Gas Rules (Louisiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Louisiana Department of Natural Resources administers the rules that govern natural gas exploration and extraction in the state. DNR works with the Louisiana Department of Environmental...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "distillate natural gase" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Natural Resources Districts (Nebraska)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute establishes Natural Resources District, encompassing all of the area of the state, to conserve, protect, develop, and manage Nebraska's natural resources. These districts replace and...

482

Trace water vapor determination in nitrogen and corrosive gases using infrared spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The generation of particles in gas handling systems as a result of corrosion is a major concern in the microelectronics industry. The corrosion can be caused by the presence of trace quantities of water in corrosive gases such as HCl or HBr. FTIR spectroscopy has been shown to be a method that can be made compatible with corrosive gases and is capable of detecting low ppb levels of water vapor. In this report, the application of FTIR spectroscopy combined with classical least squares multivariate calibration to detect trace H{sub 2}O in N{sub 2}, HCl and HBr is discussed. Chapter 2 discusses the gas handling system and instrumentation required to handle corrosive gases. A method of generating a background spectrum useful to the measurements discussed in this report, as well as in other application areas such as gas phase environmental monitoring, is discussed in Chapter 3. Experimental results obtained with the first system are presented in Chapter 4. Those results made it possible to optimize the design options for the construction of a dedicate system for low ppb water vapor determination. These designs options are discussed in Chapter 5. An FTIR prototype accessory was built. In addition, a commercially available evacuable FTIR system was obtained for evaluation. Test results obtained with both systems are discussed in Chapter 6. Experiments dealing with the interaction between H{sub 2}O-HCl and potential improvements to the detection system are discussed in Chapter 7.

Espinoza, L.H.; Niemczyk, T.M. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Stallard, B.R.; Garcia, M.J. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Strongly Correlated Quantum Fluids: Ultracold Quantum Gases, Quantum Chromodynamic Plasmas, and Holographic Duality  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Strongly correlated quantum fluids are phases of matter that are intrinsically quantum mechanical, and that do not have a simple description in terms of weakly interacting quasi-particles. Two systems that have recently attracted a great deal of interest are the quark-gluon plasma, a plasma of strongly interacting quarks and gluons produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions, and ultracold atomic Fermi gases, very dilute clouds of atomic gases confined in optical or magnetic traps. These systems differ by more than 20 orders of magnitude in temperature, but they were shown to exhibit very similar hydrodynamic flow. In particular, both fluids exhibit a robustly low shear viscosity to entropy density ratio which is characteristic of quantum fluids described by holographic duality, a mapping from strongly correlated quantum field theories to weakly curved higher dimensional classical gravity. This review explores the connection between these fields, and it also serves as an introduction to the Focus Issue of New Journal of Physics on Strongly Correlated Quantum Fluids: from Ultracold Quantum Gases to QCD Plasmas. The presentation is made accessible to the general physics reader and includes discussions of the latest research developments in all three areas.

Allan Adams; Lincoln D. Carr; Thomas Schaefer; Peter Steinberg; John E. Thomas

2012-05-23T23:59:59.000Z

484

Emissions of greenhouse gases in the United States, 1987--1994  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Energy Information Administration (EIA) is required by the Energy Policy Act of 1992 to prepare a report on aggregate US national emissions of greenhouse gases for the period 1987--1992, with annual updates thereafter. This is the third annual update report,covering national emissions over the period 1987--1993, with preliminary estimates of US carbon dioxide and halocarbon emissions for 1994. Calculating national aggregate emissions(or ``national inventories``) of greenhouse gases is a recently developed form of intellectual endeavor. Greenhouse gas emissions are rarely measured directly or reported to statistical agencies. Thus, to prepare emissions inventories usually requires inferring emissions indirectly from information collected for other purposes. Both the available information and the inferences drawn may be of varying reliability. Chapter 1 of this report briefly recapitulates some background information about global climate change and the greenhouse effect and discusses important recent developments in global climate change activities. Chapters 2 through 6 cover emissions of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, halocarbons, and criteria pollutants, respectively. Chapter 7 describes potential sequestration and emissions of greenhouse gases as a result of land use changes.

NONE

1995-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

485

A Characterization and Evaluation of Coal Liquefaction Process Streams. Results of Inspection Tests on Nine Coal-Derived Distillation Cuts in the Jet Fuel Boiling Range  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report describes the assessment of the physical and chemical properties of the jet fuel (180-300 C) distillation fraction of nine direct coal liquefaction products and compares those properties to the corresponding specifications for aviation turbine fuels. These crude coal liquids were compared with finished fuel specifications specifically to learn what the refining requirements for these crudes will be to make them into finished fuels. The properties of the jet fuel fractions were shown in this work to require extensive hydrotreating to meet Jet A-1 specifications. However, these materials have a number of desirable qualities as feedstocks for the production of high energy-density jet fuels.

S. D. Brandes; R. A. Winschel

1999-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

486

Dissolution and compaction of albite sand in distilled water and pH-buffered carboxylic acid solutions: experiments at 100 degrees and 160 degrees C  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. The confining fluid was either distilled water or a mixture of 3 parts Kerosene and 1 part SAE-30 non-detergent motor oil; confining pressure was controlled by an air- operated Sprague? pump. Inside the pressure vessel, the reaction cell (10 cm x 4. 4 cm O. D... sand. Fluid flows in and out of the reaction cell through Hastelloy C-276? lines. Slow flow rates (0. 08 ml/hr) and pore fluid pressures were controlled by an Isco? micro-processor syringe pump and a manually operated HiP? synnge pump. Rapid flow...

Carpenter, Thomas Doyle

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

487

This article was published in an Elsevier journal. The attached copy is furnished to the author for non-commercial research and  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as natural analogues for geological storage of anthropogenic CO2. We show that coherent fractionation air-derived noble gases (ASW) and accumulated crus- tal/radiogenic noble gas by CO2/water phase as a Rayleigh distillation process and enables us to quantify for each sample: (1) the volume of groundwater

488

ENVIRON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY IN ROMANIA--ESTROM PROJECT Sources and emission of greenhouse gases in Danube  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

gases in Danube Delta lakes Alina Pavel & Edith Durisch-Kaiser & Sorin Balan & Silviu Radan & Sebastian. Radan GeoEcoMar, National Institute for Marine Geology and Geoecology, 024053 Bucharest, Romania E

Wehrli, Bernhard

489

PII S0016-7037(01)00802-X Volatilization kinetics of silicon carbide in reducing gases: An experimental study with  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PII S0016-7037(01)00802-X Volatilization kinetics of silicon carbide in reducing gases occurring hexagonal sili- con carbide ( -SiC), and -SiC, the cubic form, are occasion- ally reported

Grossman, Lawrence

490

High-Pressure Phase Equilibria of Ionic Liquids and Compressed Gases for Applications in Reactions and Absorption Refrigeration  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of high-melting solids not liquids at processing conditions. Coupling ionic liquids with compressed gases systems may overcome most of these difficulties for their applications in separations, reactions, materials processing and engineering applications...

Ren, Wei

2009-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

491

An analytical inversion method for determining regional and global emissions of greenhouse gases: Sensitivity studies and application to halocarbons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A new analytical inversion method has been developed to determine the regional and global emissions of long-lived atmospheric trace gases. It exploits in situ measurement data from three global networks and builds on ...

Stohl, A.

492

Energy use and energy intensity of the U.S. chemical industry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

air is cooled and pressurized until it becomes a liquid with the various gases extracted through fractional distillation.

Worrell, Ernst; Phylipsen, Dian; Einstein, Dan; Martin, Nathan

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

493

Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Pennsylvania's Natural Gas Future Penn State Natural Gas Utilization Workshop Bradley Hall sales to commercial and industrial customers ­ Natural gas, power, oil · Power generation ­ FossilMMBtuEquivalent Wellhead Gas Price, $/MMBtu Monthly US Spot Oil Price, $/MMBtu* U.S. Crude Oil vs. Natural Gas Prices, 2005

Lee, Dongwon

494

Research Highlights Nature Nanotechnology  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

© 2009 APS Research Highlights Nature Nanotechnology Published online: 17 July 2009 | doi:10 perfect fluid. Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 025301 (2009). | Article |1. Nature Nanotechnology ISSN 1748 : Nature Nanotechnology http://www.nature.com/nnano/reshigh/2009/0709/full/nnano.2009.222.html 1 of 1 18

Müller, Markus

495

Natural gas monthly  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Natural Gas Monthly highlights activities, events, and analyses of interest to public and private sector organizations associated with the natural gas industry. Volume and price data are presented each month for natural gas production, distribution, consumption, and interstate pipeline activities. Producer-related activities and underground storage data are also reported. From time to time, the Natural Gas Monthly features articles designed to assist readers in using and interpreting natural gas information.

NONE

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

496

Rethinking Downstream Regulation: California's Opportunity to Engage Households in Reducing Greenhouse Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the winter months when hydroelectric power generation isare located and hydroelectric power generation is naturally

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

Prediction of middle-distillate fuel properties using liquid chromatography-proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy data. Final report, 1987-1988  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research was initiated to support the Army's capability to identify the components of fuels that contribute to low-temperature performance of fuels. It was discovered that various physical properties of middle-distillate fuels can be predicted. The LC-{sup 1}HNMR technique was developed to predict physical properties based on chemical structures present in the fuels. The prediction of properties is approached from a 'group property' point of view. In the group property approach, the structure of the molecule is examined for structural features that dictate the physical properties of the compounds. In other words, the physical properties of a molecule or compound are determined by the number of types of chemical groups, i.e., methyl, methylene, methine, etc., present. These LC-{sup 1}H NMR predicted property measurements were compared to measurements obtained by the ASTM fuel tests. Most measurements were found to be within experimental error. The research has demonstrated that the LC-{sup 1}H NMR approach for measuring various middle-distillate fuel properties can be used as an alternative to the ASTM methods of fuel property measurement.

Swann, M.

1989-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

498

Single-Step Syngas-to-Distillates (S2D) Process Based on Biomass-Derived Syngas - A Techno-Economic Analysis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study compared biomass gasification based syngas-to-distillate (S2D) systems using techno-economic analysis (TEA). Three cases, state of technology (SOT), goal, and conventional, were compared in terms of performance and cost. The SOT case represented the best available experimental results for a process starting with syngas using a single-step dual-catalyst reactor for distillate generation. The conventional case mirrored a conventional two-step S2D process consisting of separate syngas-to-methanol and methanol-to-gasoline (MTG) processes. The goal case assumed the same performance as the conventional, but with a single-step S2D technology. TEA results revealed that the SOT was more expensive than the conventional and goal cases. The SOT case suffers from low one-pass yield and high selectivity to light hydrocarbons, both of which drive up production cost. Sensitivity analysis indicated that light hydrocarbon yield and single pass conversion efficiency were the key factors driving the high cost for the SOT case.

Zhu, Y.; Jones, S. B.; Biddy, M. J.; Dagle, R. A.; Palo, D. R.

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

499

The Marginal Damage Costs of Different Greenhouse Gases: An Application of FUND  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We use FUND 3.8 to estimate the social cost of four greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and sulphur hexafluoride emissions. The damage potential for each gas—the ratio of the social cost of the non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas to the social cost of carbon dioxide—is also estimated. The damage potentials are compared to several metrics, focusing in particular on the global warming potentials, which are frequently used to measure the trade-off between gases in the form of carbon dioxide equivalents. We find that damage potentials could be significantly higher than global warming potentials. This finding implies that previous papers have underestimated the relative importance of reducing non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions from an economic damage perspective. We show results for a range of sensitivity analyses: carbon dioxide fertilization on agriculture productivity, terrestrial feedbacks, climate sensitivity, discounting, equity weighting, and socioeconomic and emissions scenarios. The sensitivity of the results to carbon dioxide fertilization is a primary focus as it is an important element of climate change that has not been considered in much of the previous literature. We estimate that carbon dioxide fertilization has a large positive impact that reduces the social cost of carbon dioxide with a much smaller effect on the other greenhouse gases. As a result, our estimates of the damage potentials of methane and nitrous oxide are much higher compared to estimates that ignore carbon dioxide fertilization. As a result, our base estimates of the damage potential for methane and nitrous oxide that include carbon dioxide fertilization are twice their respective global warming potentials. Our base estimate of the damage potential of sulphur hexafluoride is similar to the one previous estimate, both almost three times the global warming potential.

Waldhoff, Stephanie T.; Anthoff, David; Rose, Steven K.; Tol, Richard

2014-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

500

Modelling of noble anaesthetic gases and high hydrostatic pressure effects in lipid bilayers  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

Our objective was to study molecular processes that might be responsible for inert gas narcosis and high-pressure nervous syndrome. The classical molecular dynamics trajectories (200 ns-long) of dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC) bilayers simulated by the Berger force field were evaluated for water and the atomic distribution of noble gases around DOPC molecules at a pressure range of 1 - 1000 bar and temperature of 310 Kelvin. Xenon and argon have been tested as model gases for general anesthetics, and neon has been investigated for distortions that are potentially responsible for neurological tremor at hyperbaric conditions. The analysis of stacked radial pair distribution functions of DOPC headgroup atoms revealed the explicit solvation potential of gas molecules, which correlates with their dimensions. The orientational dynamics of water molecules at the biomolecular interface should be considered as an influential factor; while excessive solvation effects appearing in the lumen of membrane-embedded ion channels could be a possible cause of inert gas narcosis. All the noble gases tested exhibit similar patterns of the order parameter for both DOPC acyl chains, which is opposite to the patterns found for the order parameter curve at high hydrostatic pressures in intact bilayers. This finding supports the ‘critical volume’ hypothesis of anesthesia pressure reversal. The irregular lipid headgroup-water boundary observed in DOPC bilayers saturated with neon in the pressure range of 1 - 100 bar could be associated with the possible manifestation of neurological tremor at the atomic scale. The non-immobilizer neon also demonstrated the highest momentum impact on the normal component of the DOPC diffusion coefficient representing monolayers undulations rate, which indicates enhanced diffusivity, rather than atom size, as the key factor.

Moskovitz, Yevgeny [Middle Tennessee State University; Yang, Hui [Middle Tennessee State University

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z