National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for distillate fuel output

  1. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate ...

  2. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    End Use Product: Residential - Distillate Fuel Oil Residential - No. 1 Residential - No. 2 Residential - Kerosene Commercial - Distillate Fuel Oil Commercial - No. 1 Distillate ...

  3. The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity Presentation given at 2007 ...

  4. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Marketing Annual 1997 401 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  5. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Marketing Annual 1999 359 Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  6. Distillate Fuel Oil Assessment for Winter 1996-1997

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    1997-01-01

    This article describes findings of an analysis of the current low level of distillate stocks which are available to help meet the demand for heating fuel this winter, and presents a summary of the Energy Information Administration's distillate fuel oil outlook for the current heating season under two weather scenarios.

  7. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    10.9;" " Unit: Percents." ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)" ...tchable","Switchable","Receipts(e)","Gas","Fuel Oil","Coal","LPG","Breeze","Other(f)" ...

  8. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Petroleum Marketing Annual 1999 295 Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State (Thousand Gallons per Day) - Continued...

  9. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    839.2 135.0 1,251.9 See footnotes at end of table. 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil Volumes by PAD District and State Energy Information Administration ...

  10. Table 10.24 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable, 2006; Level: National Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Reasons that Made Quantity Unswitchable; Unit: Million barrels. Total Amount of Total Amount of Equipment is Not Switching Unavailable Long-Term Unavailable Combinations of NAICS Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable Distillate Capable of Using Adversely Affects Alternative Environmenta Contract Storage for Another Columns F, G, Code(a) Subsector and Industry Consumed as a Fue Fuel Oil Fuel Use

  11. Refiner/marketer targets production of transportation fuels and distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Citgo Petroleum Corp., the wholly owned subsidiary of Petroleos de Venezuela, S.A. (PDVSA), the Venezuelan national oil company, owns two gasoline producing refineries, a 305,000-b/d system in Lake Charles, La., and a 130,000-b/d facility in Corpus Christi, Texas. Each is considered a deep conversion facility capable of converting heavy, sour crudes into a high percentage of transportation fuels and distillates. Two smaller refineries, one in Paulsboro, N.J., and one in Savannah, GA., have the capacity to process 40,000 b/d and 28,000 b/d of crude, respectively, for asphalt products. In the past two years, Citgo`s light oils refineries operated safely and reliably with a minimum of unscheduled shutdowns. An ongoing emphasis to increase reliability has resulted in extended run lengths at the refineries. Citgo has invested $314 million at its facilities in 1995, much of this toward environmental and regulatory projects, such as the new waste water treatment unit at the Lake Charles refinery. Over the next few years, Citgo expects to complete $1.5 billion in capital spending for major processing units such as a 60,000-b/d FCC feed hydrotreater unit at the Lake Charles refinery and crude expansion at the Corpus Christi refinery. Product exchanges and expanded transport agreements are allowing Citgo to extend its marketing reach.

  12. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for"...

  13. ,"New Mexico Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","New Mexico Total Distillate SalesDeliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","New Mexico No 2 Diesel SalesDeliveries to Off-Highway ...

  14. Composition-explicit distillation curves of aviation fuel JP-8 and a coal-based jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Beverly L. Smith; Thomas J. Bruno

    2007-09-15

    We have recently introduced several important improvements in the measurement of distillation curves for complex fluids. The modifications to the classical measurement provide for (1) a composition explicit data channel for each distillate fraction (for both qualitative and quantitative analysis); (2) temperature measurements that are true thermodynamic state points; (3) temperature, volume, and pressure measurements of low uncertainty suitable for an equation of state development; (4) consistency with a century of historical data; (5) an assessment of the energy content of each distillate fraction; (6) a trace chemical analysis of each distillate fraction; and (7) a corrosivity assessment of each distillate fraction. The most significant modification is achieved with a new sampling approach that allows precise qualitative as well as quantitative analyses of each fraction, on the fly. We have applied the new method to the measurement of rocket propellant, gasoline, and jet fuels. In this paper, we present the application of the technique to representative batches of the military aviation fuel JP-8, and also to a coal-derived fuel developed as a potential substitute. We present not only the distillation curves but also a chemical characterization of each fraction and discuss the contrasts between the two fluids. 26 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. ,,,,"Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4 Relative Standard Errors for Table 10.24;" " Unit: Percents." ,,,,"Reasons that Made Distillate Fuel Oil Unswitchable" " "," ",,,,,,,,,,,,," " ,,"Total Amount of ","Total Amount of","Equipment is Not","Switching","Unavailable ",,"Long-Term","Unavailable",,"Combinations of " "NAICS"," ","Distillate Fuel Oil","Unswitchable

  16. Development of a high-output dual-fuel engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Danyluk, P.R. . Fairbanks Morse Engineering Division)

    1993-10-01

    This paper presents the results of a new dual-fuel engine development program. The engine is the largest commercially available in terms of power output (650 hp/cyl) and features very low emissions (1 g/hp-hr NO[sub x]) and excellent fuel consumption (43 percent thermal efficiency). A two-cylinder turbocharged prototype was designed and built for the initial development. Results from testing on 18-cylinder production versions are also reported.

  17. "Table A10. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region and Economic Characteristics of the" " Establishment, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day)" ,,,," Inputs for Heat",,," Primary Consumption" " "," Primary Consumption for all Purposes",,," Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," for Nonfuel Purposes",,,"RSE" ,"

  18. "Table A2. Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Total Consumption of LPG, Distillate Fuel Oil, and Residual Fuel" " Oil for Selected Purposes by Census Region, Industry Group, and Selected" " Industries, 1991" " (Estimates in Barrels per Day) " ,,,,," Input for Heat,",,," Primary" " ",," Consumption for All Purposes",,,"Power, and Generation of Electricity",,," Consumption for Nonfuel Purposes ",,,"RSE" "SIC",,"

  19. Fuel-blending stocks from the hydrotreatment of a distillate formed by direct coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andile B. Mzinyati

    2007-09-15

    The direct liquefaction of coal in the iron-catalyzed Suplex process was evaluated as a technology complementary to Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. A distinguishing feature of the Suplex process, from other direct liquefaction processes, is the use of a combination of light- and heavy-oil fractions as the slurrying solvent. This results in a product slate with a small residue fraction, a distillate/naphtha mass ratio of 6, and a 65.8 mass % yield of liquid fuel product on a dry, ash-free coal basis. The densities of the resulting naphtha (C{sub 5}-200{sup o}C) and distillate (200-400{sup o}C) fractions from the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction were high (0.86 and 1.04 kg/L, respectively). The aromaticity of the distillate fraction was found to be typical of coal liquefaction liquids, at 60-65%, with a Ramsbottom carbon residue content of 0.38 mass %. Hydrotreatment of the distillate fraction under severe conditions (200{sup o}C, 20.3 MPa, and 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1}) with a NiMo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst gave a product with a phenol content of {lt}1 ppm, a nitrogen content {lt}200 ppm, and a sulfur content {lt}25 ppm. The temperature was found to be the main factor affecting diesel fraction selectivity when operating at conditions of WHSV = 0.41 g{sub feed} h{sup -1} g{sub catalyst}{sup -1} and PH{sub 2} = 20.3 MPa, with excessively high temperatures (T {gt} 420{sup o}C) leading to a decrease in diesel selectivity. The fuels produced by the hydroprocessing of the straight-run Suplex distillate fraction have properties that make them desirable as blending components, with the diesel fraction having a cetane number of 48 and a density of 0.90 kg/L. The gasoline fraction was found to have a research octane number (RON) of 66 and (N + 2A) value of 100, making it ideal as a feedstock for catalytic reforming and further blending with Fischer-Tropsch liquids. 44 refs., 9 figs., 12 tabs.

  20. Cryogenic distillation: a fuel enrichment system for near-term tokamak-type D-T fusion reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misra, B.; Davis, J.F.

    1980-02-01

    The successful operation and economic viability of deuterium-tritium- (D-T-) fueled tokamak-type commercial power fusion reactors will depend to a large extent on the development of reliable tritium-containment and fuel-recycle systems. Of the many operating steps in the fuel recycle scheme, separation or enrichment of the isotropic species of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation is one of the most important. A parametric investigation was carried out to study the effects of the various operating conditions and the composition of the spent fuel on the degree of separation. A computer program was developed for the design and analysis of a system of interconnected distillation columns for isotopic separation such that the requirements of near-term D-T-fueled reactors are met. The analytical results show that a distillation cascade consisting of four columns is capable of reprocessing spent fuel varying over a wide range of compositions to yield reinjection-grade fuel with essentially unlimited D/T ratio.

  1. Evaluation of Exxon donor solvent full-range distillate as a utility boiler fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reese, J.; Folsom, B.; Jones, F.

    1984-03-01

    The use of Exxon Donor Solvent (EDS) as a utility boiler fuel was evaluated at Southern California Edison Company's Highgrove Unit 4, a Combustion Engineering 44.5 net Mw wall-fired boiler. The EDS evaluated was a full range solvent oil produced at the Exxon Coal-Liquefaction Pilot Plant in Baytown, Texas. This evaluation involved modifying the boiler equipment and operating procedures for EDS, and then firing 4500 barrels of EDS in the boiler. The resulting boiler performance and emissions with EDS were compared to those with a blended low-sulfur petroleum distillate similar to No. 4 fuel oil and with natural gas. The boiler was operated over a range of load and excess air conditions during the tests. The potential for NO/sub x/ reduction with a burner out of service (BOOS) was also evaluated. Boiler performance, including excess air requirements, maximum load, thermal efficiency and heat rate efficiency was similar to that with oil. The NO/sub x/ emissions with EDS were about 12 percent higher than with oil. NO/sub x/ reduction with BOOS was about 20 percent with both oil and EDS. EDS use did not result in an increase in particulate emissions. Submicron particulate, however, was increased with EDS. Required equipment modifications at Highgrove primarily involved material compatibility with EDS, fuel system capacity, and the burner nozzles. The use of EDS required the implementation of health and safety procedures due to the adverse health effects that could result from prolonged exposure to the fuel. The results of the evaluation demostrated that EDS can be used in a utility boiler designed for oil with only minor modifications.

  2. Recovery of Navy distillate fuel from reclaimed product. Volume II. Literature review

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brinkman, D.W.; Whisman, M.L.

    1984-11-01

    In an effort to assist the Navy to better utilize its waste hydrocarbons, NIPER, with support from the US Department of Energy, is conducting research designed to ultimately develop a practical technique for converting Reclaimed Product (RP) into specification Naval Distillate Fuel (F-76). This first phase of the project was focused on reviewing the literature and available information from equipment manufacturers. The literature survey has been carefully culled for methodology applicable to the conversion of RP into diesel fuel suitable for Navy use. Based upon the results of this study, a second phase has been developed and outlined in which experiments will be performed to determine the most practical recycling technologies. It is realized that the final selection of one particular technology may be site-specific due to vast differences in RP volume and available facilities. A final phase, if funded, would involve full-scale testing of one of the recommended techniques at a refueling depot. The Phase I investigations are published in two volumes. Volume 1, Technical Discussion, includes the narrative and Appendices I and II. Appendix III, a detailed Literature Review, includes both a narrative portion and an annotated bibliography containing about 800 references and abstracts. This appendix, because of its volume, has been published separately as Volume 2.

  3. ,"U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. Total Distillate Adj SalesDeliveries to Military Consumers (Thousand Gallons)","U.S. No 2 Diesel Adj SalesDeliveries to Off-Highway ...

  4. Job and Output Benefits of Stationary Fuel Cells (JOBS FC): An Economic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Impact Tool Developed for USDOE | Department of Energy and Output Benefits of Stationary Fuel Cells (JOBS FC): An Economic Impact Tool Developed for USDOE Job and Output Benefits of Stationary Fuel Cells (JOBS FC): An Economic Impact Tool Developed for USDOE Presented at the Technology Transition Corporation and U.S. Department of Energy Webinar: Where the Jobs Are: Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Your Area, July 19, 2011. webinarjul19_mintz.pdf (213.56 KB) More Documents & Publications DOE

  5. Table 8.6a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    a Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Total (All Sectors), 1989-2011 (Sum of Tables 8.6b and 8.6c) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 16,509,639 1,410,151 16,356,550 353,000 247,409 19,356,746

  6. Table 8.6b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    b Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Electric Power Sector, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu 1989 638,798 119,640 1,471,031 762 – 1,591,433 81,669,945 2,804 24,182 5,687

  7. Table 8.6c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a)

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    c Estimated Consumption of Combustible Fuels for Useful Thermal Output at Combined-Heat-and-Power Plants: Commercial and Industrial Sectors, 1989-2011 (Subset of Table 8.6a) Year Coal 1 Petroleum Natural Gas 6 Other Gases 7 Biomass Other 10 Distillate Fuel Oil 2 Residual Fuel Oil 3 Other Liquids 4 Petroleum Coke 5 Total 5 Wood 8 Waste 9 Short Tons Barrels Short Tons Barrels Thousand Cubic Feet Billion Btu Billion Btu Billion Btu Commercial Sector 11<//td> 1989 711,212 202,091 600,653 – –

  8. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Supercritical transesterification processing permits efficient fuel system and combustion chamber designs to optimize fuel utilization in diesel engines.,

  9. Conversion of lpg hydrocarbons to distillate fuels or lubes using integration of lpg dehydrogenation and mogdl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C. D.; Penick, J. E.; Socha, R. F.

    1985-09-17

    Disclosed is a method and apparatus for producing distillate and/or lubes which employ integrating catalytic (or thermal) dehydrogenation of paraffins with MOGDL. The process feeds the product from a low temperature propane and/or butane dehydrogenation zone into a first catalytic reactor zone, which operates at low pressure and contains zeolite oligomerization catalysts, where the low molecular weight olefins are reacted to primarily gasoline range materials. These gasoline range materials can then be pressurized to the pressure required for reacting to distillate in a second catalytic reactor zone operating at high pressure and containing a zeolite oligomerization catalyst. The distillate is subsequently sent to a hydrotreating unit and product separation zone to form lubes and other finished products.

  10. Conversion of LPG hydrocarbons to distillate fuels or lubes using integration of LPG dehydrogenation and mogdl

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, C.D.; Penick, J.E.; Socha, R.F.

    1987-07-07

    This patent describes an apparatus for producing distillates of lubes from paraffins, which comprise: (a) a dehydrogenation reactor including means for passing a paraffinic feedstock stream into a dehydrogenation zone at conditions of pressure and temperature selected to convert the paraffins to an olefin rich effluent stream comprising at least one of the group consisting of propylene and butylene; (b) a low pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor including means for contacting the olefin rich effluent stream in a low pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone with a crystalline zeolite oligomerization catalyst at conditions of pressure and temperature selected to convert olefins to a first reactor effluent stream rich in liquid olefinic gasoline range hydrocarbons; (c) a first means for separating the first reactor effluent stream to form a substantially liquid C/sub 5/+ rich stream and a C/sub 4/- rich stream; (d) means for passing the C/sub 5/+ rich stream to a high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone; (e) a high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor including means for contacting the substantially liquid C/sub 5/+ rich stream in the high pressure oligomerization catalytic reactor zone with a crystalline zeolite oligomerization catalyst at conditions of temperature and pressure selected to produce a second reactor effluent stream which is rich in distillate; (f) second means for separating the second reactor effluent stream to recover an olefinic gasoline stream and a distillate stream; and (g) a hydrotreating reactor including means for contacting the distillate stream with hydrogen in a hydrotreating unit to produce a hydrotreated distillate stream comprising lube range hydrocarbons.

  11. Conversion of LPG hydrocarbons into distillate fuels using an integral LPG dehydrogenation-MOGD process

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Owen, H.; Zahner, J.C.

    1987-06-23

    This patent describes a process for converting lower paraffinic hydrocarbon feedstock comprising propane and/or butane into heavier hydrocarbons comprising gasoline and distillate, comprising the steps of: feeding the paraffinic feedstock to a dehydrogenation zone under conversion conditions for dehydrogenating at least a portion of the feedstock; recovering a first dehydrogenation gaseous effluent stream comprising propene and/or butene; contacting the first gaseous effluent steam with a liquid lean oil sorbent stream comprising C/sub 5//sup +/ hydrocarbons under sorption conditions to produce a C/sub 3//sup +/ rich liquid absorber stream and a light gas stream; sequentially pressurizing, heating and passing the C/sub 3//sup +/ rich liquid absorber stream to an oligomerization reactor zone at elevated temperature and pressure; contacting the C/sub 3//sup +/ rich stream with oligomerization catalyst in the oligomerization reactor zone for conversion of at least a portion of lower olefins to heavier hydrocarbons under oligomerization reaction conditions to provide a second reactor effluent stream comprising gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons; flash separating the second reactor effluent stream into a separator vapor stream comprising a major portion of the hydrocarbons which later form the lean oil stream, and a major portion of the C/sub 4//sup -/ hydrocarbons and a separator liquid stream comprising the gasoline and distillate boiling range materials produced in the oligomerization reactor zone; fractionating the separator liquid stream in a first product debutanizer tower into a first debutanizer overhead vapor stream comprising C/sub 4//sup -/ hydrocarbons and a product debutanizer liquid bottoms stream comprising C/sub 5//sup +/ gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons.

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Sulfur Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel, Code, Source and Emission Units Combustion System Type / Firing Configuration Fuel EIA Fuel Code Source and Tables (As Appropriate) Emissions Units Lbs = Pounds MMCF = Million Cubic Feet MG = Thousand Gallons Cyclone Firing Boiler Fluidized Bed Firing Boiler Stoker Boiler Tangential Firing Boiler All Other Boiler Types Combustion Turbine Internal Combustion Engine Distillate Fuel Oil* DFO Source: 2, Table 3.1-2a, 3.4-1 & 1.3-1 Lbs per MG

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Carbon Dioxide Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel EIA Fuel Code Factor (Kilograms of CO2 Per Million Btu)*** Notes Bituminous Coal BIT 93.3 Distillate Fuel Oil DFO 73.16 Geothermal GEO 7.71 Jet Fuel JF 70.9 Kerosene KER 72.3 Lignite Coal LIG 97.7 Municipal Solid Waste MSW 41.69 Natural Gas NG 53.07 Petroleum Coke PC 102.1 Propane Gas PG 63.07 Residual Fuel Oil RFO 78.79 Coal-Derived Synthesis Gas SGC 53.07 Assumed to have emissions similar to Natural Gas Synthesis Gas from Petroleum Coke SGP

  14. Geothermal Energy Market Study on the Atlantic Coastal Plain: Technical Feasibility of use of Eastern Geothermal Energy in Vacuum Distillation of Ethanol Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-04-01

    The DOE is studying availability, economics, and uses of geothermal energy. These studies are being conducted to assure maximum cost-effective use of geothermal resources. The DOE is also aiding development of a viable ethanol fuel industry. One important point of the ethanol program is to encourage use of non-fossil fuels, such as geothermal energy, as process heat to manufacture ethanol. Geothermal waters available in the eastern US tend to be lower in temperature (180 F or less) than those available in the western states (above 250 F). Technically feasible use of eastern geothermal energy for ethanol process heat requires use of technology that lowers ethanol process temperature requirements. Vacuum (subatmospheric) distillation is one such technology. This study, then, addresses technical feasibility of use of geothermal energy to provide process heat to ethanol distillation units operated at vacuum pressures. They conducted this study by performing energy balances on conventional and vacuum ethanol processes of ten million gallons per year size. Energy and temperature requirements for these processes were obtained from the literature or were estimated (for process units or technologies not covered in available literature). Data on available temperature and energy of eastern geothermal resources was obtained from the literature. These data were compared to ethanol process requirements, assuming a 150 F geothermal resource temperature. Conventional ethanol processes require temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking to 240 F for stripping. Fermentation, conducted at 90 F, is exothermic and requires no process heat. All temperature requirements except those for fermentation exceed assumed geothermal temperatures of 150 F. They assumed a 130 millimeter distillation pressure for the vacuum process. It requires temperatures of 221 F for mash cooking and 140 F for distillation. Data indicate lower energy requirements for the vacuum ethanol process (30 million BTUs per

  15. Job and Output Benefits of Stationary Fuel Cells (JOBS FC): An...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    More Documents & Publications DOE Updates JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells (JOBS FC1.1) Model JOBS FC 1.0 (JOBS and Economic Impacts of Fuel Cells) Careers in Fuel Cell ...

  16. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F8: Distillate Fuel Oil Price and Expenditure Estimates, 2014 State Prices Expenditures ... Where shown, (s) Expenditure value less than 0.05. Notes: Distillate fuel oil estimates ...

  17. Job and Output Benefits of Stationary Fuel Cells (JOBS FC): An...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    USDOE Marianne Mintz Argonne National Lab 2 2 What is JOBS FC? JOBS FC is a user friendly model that can be used to show the economic benefits of near- to mid-term fuel cell ...

  18. Method for reducing fuel cell output voltage to permit low power operation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reiser, Carl A.; Landau, Michael B.

    1980-01-01

    Fuel cell performance is degraded by recycling a portion of the cathode exhaust through the cells and, if necessary, also reducing the total air flow to the cells for the purpose of permitting operation below a power level which would otherwise result in excessive voltage.

  19. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1984-01-01

    Catalytic distillation structure for use in reaction distillation columns, a providing reaction sites and distillation structure and consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and being present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consist of at least 10 volume % open space.

  20. Integrating engineering design improvements with exoelectrogen enrichmentprocess to increase power output from microbial fuel cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Leak, David; Andras, Calin; Morrell-Falvey, Jennifer L; Keller, Martin; Davison, Brian H

    2009-01-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFC) hold promise as a green technology for bioenergy production. The challenge is to improve the engineering design while exploiting the ability of microbes to generate and transfer electrons directly to electrodes. A strategy using a combination of improved anode design and an enrichment processwas formulated to improve power densities. The designwas based on a flow-through anode with minimal dead volume and a high electrode surface area per unit volume. The strategy focused on promoting biofilm formation via a combination of forced flow through the anode, carbon limitation, and step-wise reduction of external resistance. The enrichment process resulted in development of exoelectrogenic biofilm communities dominated by Anaeromusa spp. This is the first report identifying organisms fromthe Veillonellaceae family in MFCs. The power density of the resulting MFC using a ferricyanide cathode reached 300Wm?3 net anode volume (3220mWm?2), which is about a third of what is estimated to be necessary for commercial consideration. The operational stability of the MFC using high specific surface area electrodes was demonstrated by operating the MFC for a period of over four months.

  1. Catalytic distillation structure

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  2. Closed-Form Solution for the Effect of Fuel Decay and Thermoelectric Degradation on Output of SiGe RTGs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schock, Alfred

    1991-08-01

    Presented at the 26th IECEC in Boston, MA August 4-9, 1991. The paper derives a closed-form solution for the long-term effect of fuel decay and thermoelectric degradation on the performance of Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators employing silicon-germanium converter elements. RTGs of this type were used to power the recent Galileo and Ulysses space exploration missions, and are slated for use on the upcoming CRAF and Cassini missions. The method described applies not only to uniform-temperature RTGs, but also to RTGs with significant axial and circumferential variations in the couples' cold-junction temperatures and voltages (due to unsymmetrically obstructed heat rejection paths). This is important for the mutually blocking RTGs on the CRAF and Cassini spacecraft, and even more so for the reflector-blocked Solar Probe RTGs. The method for predicting RTG degradation that is dervied in this paper is based on both analytical and experimental data. It accounts for the effect of diminishing hot-junction temperatures on thermoelectric degradation rates. The method leads to an integral equation, for which the author was able to derive a closed-form solution. The solution was successfully validated by comparison with long-term test data. It enables the RTG designer to predict the power output profile throughout the mission, to ensure that it satisfies the mission's power demand profile. There are four copies in the file.

  3. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    153,155 151,196 153,135 153,257 154,753 158,135 1982-2016 PADD 1 58,175 60,720 61,919 61,846 63,491 63,077 1990-2016 New England 10,627 11,547 11,412 11,329 11,828 11,763 1990-2016 Central Atlantic 34,602 35,869 37,219 37,396 37,908 37,951 1990-2016 Lower Atlantic 12,946 13,304 13,288 13,122 13,754 13,363 1990-2016 PADD 2 30,637 30,058 29,641 29,668 30,209 31,542 1990-2016 PADD 3 46,763 43,491 44,527 44,536 43,558 45,155 1990-2016 PADD 4 3,515 3,565 3,342 3,267 3,076 3,256 1990-2016 PADD 5

  4. Imports of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    93 96 184 92 224 128 1982-2016 East Coast (PADD 1) 83 89 169 64 159 113 2004-2016 Midwest (PADD 2) 0 0 2 3 2 1 2004-2016 Gulf Coast (PADD 3) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004-2016 Rocky Mountain (PADD 4) 0 0 0 0 0 0 2004-2016 West Coast (PADD 5) 10 7 14 25 63 13

  5. Table A3. Refiner/Reseller Prices of Distillate and Residual...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A3. RefinerReseller Prices of Distillate and Residual Fuel Oils, by PAD District, 1983-Present (Cents per Gallon Excluding Taxes) Geographic Area Year No. 1 Distillate No. 2...

  6. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A. (Bellaire, TX)

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  7. Catalytic distillation process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  8. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  9. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2002-02-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop the flooding predictor, an advanced process control strategy, into a universally useable tool that will maximize the separation yield of a distillation column.

  10. ,"U.S. Sales for Resale Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" ,"Click ... Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates",11,"Monthly"...

  11. ,"U.S. Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates" ,"Click ... Volumes of Aviation Fuels, Kerosene, Propane, No.1 and No. 2 Distillates",11,"Monthly"...

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Natural Gas as the Primary Fuel, by Producer Type, 2014 (Megawatts, Percent) Fuel-Switchable Part of Total Producer Type Total Net Summer Capacity of All Generators Reporting Natural Gas as the Primary Fuel Net Summer Capacity of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Fuel Switchable Capacity as Percent of Total Maximum Achievable Net Summer Capacity Using Petroleum Liquids Fuel Switchable Net

  13. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Petroleum Liquids as the Primary Fuel, by Producer Type, 2014 (Megawatts, Percent) Fuel-Switchable Part of Total Producer Type Total Net Summer Capacity of All Generators Reporting Petroleum Liquids as the Primary Fuel Net Summer Capacity of Petroleum Liquids-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Natural Gas Fuel Switchable Capacity as Percent of Total Maximum Achievable Net Summer Capacity Using Natural Gas Electric

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Industrial Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas ...

  16. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    C. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  17. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  18. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    F. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all ...

  19. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F. Natural Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  20. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  1. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F. Wood Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all ...

  2. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    C. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all ...

  3. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  4. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    F. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  5. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    C. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  6. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    C. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  7. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric ...

  8. SAS Output

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    C. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) ...

  9. SAS Output

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    F. Coal: Consumption for Electricity Generation and Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities ...

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities ...

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Natural Gas as the Primary Fuel, by Type of Prime Mover, 2014 (Megawatts, Percent) Prime Mover Type Number of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Net Summer Capacity of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Fuel Switchable Net Summer Capacity Reported to Have No Factors that Limit the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Steam Generator 178

  12. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Fuel-Switching Capacity of Operable Generators Reporting Natural Gas as the Primary Fuel, by Year of Initial Commercial Operation, 2014 (Megawatts, Percent) Year of Initial Commercial Operation Number of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Net Summer Capacity of Natural Gas-Fired Generators Reporting the Ability to Switch to Petroleum Liquids Fuel Switchable Net Summer Capacity Reported to Have No Factors that Limit the Ability to Switch to

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Nitrogen Oxides Uncontrolled Emission Factors Fuel, Code, Source and Emission Units Combustion System Type / Firing Configuration Tangential Boiler All Other Boiler Types Fuel EIA Fuel Code Source and Tables (As Appropriate) Emissions Units Lbs = Pounds MMCF = Million Cubic Feet MG = Thousand Gallons Cyclone Firing Boiler Fluidized Bed Firing Boiler Stoker Boiler Dry-Bottom Boilers Wet-Bottom Boilers Dry-Bottom Boilers Wet-Bottom Boilers Combustion Turbine Internal Combustion Engine

  14. SAS Output

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1. Total Electric Power Industry Summary Statistics, 2014 and 2013 Net Generation and Consumption of Fuels for ... Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Utility Scale Facilities 17,691 ...

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Receipts of coal include imported coal. NA Not available. ... Dual-fired capacity returned to respective fuel categories ... EIA-767, 'Steam-Electric Plant Operation and Design ...

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    . Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Average Cost Average Cost Average Cost Average Cost Period Receipts (Thousand Tons) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Receipts (Thousand Barrels) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Receipts (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per MMBtu) 2004 1,002,032 0.97 1.36 27.42

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Electric Utilities, 2004 - 2014 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2004 107,985 3,817 0.89 25.15 5.10

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    8. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Independent Power Producers, 2004 - 2014 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2004 73,745 2,609 0.72 20.30

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Commerical Sector, 2004 - 2014 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2004 0 0 -- -- -- 0.0 16,176 15,804

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Industrial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (continued) Petroleum Coke Natural Gas All Fossil Fuels Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMbtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Mcf) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Mcf) Percentage of Consumption (Dollars per MMBtu) Annual Totals 2004 14,876 540 0.98 27.01 5.59 40.4

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Nitrogen Oxides Control Technology Emissions Reduction Factors Reduction Factor Nitrogen Oxides Control Technology EIA Code Coal Residual Fuel Oil and Distallate Fuel Oil Natural Gas Wood Other Solids Other Liquids Other Gases Other Fuels Burner Out of Service BO 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 Low Excess Air LA 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 Biased Firing (Alternative Burners) BF 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 Overfire Air OV 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.25

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.C. Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units Using Primarily Fossil Fuels and by State, 2014 and 2013 (Megawatts) Census Division and State Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Natural Gas Fired Combustion Turbine Other Natural Gas Coal Petroleum Coke Petroleum Liquids Other Gases Total Fossil Fuels Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 New England 11,742.0 11,720.9 1,110.1

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Total (All Sectors), 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Electric Utilities, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Commercial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Net Generation from Renewable Sources: Industrial Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Megawatthours) Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Distributed Generation Net Generation From Utility Scale Facilities and Distributed Generation Period Wind Solar Photovoltaic Solar Thermal Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Landfill Gas Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste Other Waste Biomass Geothermal Conventional Hydroelectric Total Renewable Generation at Utility Scale Facilities Estimated Distributed Solar

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,158 0 415 5 738 2005 994 0 519 212 263 2006 1,034 0 267 549 218 2007 985 0 226 532 228 2008 552 0 271 211 70 2009 440 0 313 91 37 2010 847 0 643 174 30 2011 1,635 0 1,422 165 48 2012 1,630 0 1,441 156 32 2013 414 0 132 206 76 2014 852 88 266 326 173

  8. "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    " Unit: Percents." " ",," "," ",," "," " "Economic",,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Characteristic(a)","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal

  9. "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    "," ",," "," " ,,"Residual","Distillate",,"LPG and" "Economic","Electricity","Fuel Oil","Fuel Oil(b)","Natural Gas(c)","NGL(d)","Coal" "Characteristic(a)","(kWh)","(gallons)","...

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Weighted Average Cost of Fossil Fuels for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Total Fossil Bituminous Subbituminous Lignite All Coal Ranks Period Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu) Average Cost (Dollars per MMBtu) Receipts (Trillion Btu)

  11. American Distillation Inc | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Distillation Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: American Distillation Inc. Place: Leland, North Carolina Zip: 28451 Product: Biodiesel producer in North Carolina. References:...

  12. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated...

  13. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Total Combined Heat and Power (All Sectors), 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2004 351,871 80,824 16,659 654,242 126,157 667,341 45,456 1,942,550 2005 341,806 79,362 13,021 624,008 138,469 664,691 41,400 1,902,757 2006 332,548 54,224 24,009 603,288 126,049 689,549 49,308 1,878,973 2007 326,803 50,882 25,373 554,394 116,313 651,230 46,822 1,771,816

  14. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Electric Power Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2004 39,014 5,731 2,486 239,416 18,200 17,347 3,822 326,017 2005 39,652 5,571 2,238 239,324 36,694 18,240 3,884 345,605 2006 38,133 4,812 2,253 207,095 22,567 17,284 4,435 296,579 2007 38,260 5,294 1,862 212,705 20,473 19,166 4,459 302,219 2008 37,220 5,479 1,353 204,167

  15. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Useful Thermal Output by Energy Source: Commercial Sector Combined Heat and Power, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Period Coal Petroleum Liquids Petroleum Coke Natural Gas Other Gas Renewable Sources Other Total Annual Totals 2004 22,450 4,118 165 21,851 0 8,936 6,350 63,871 2005 22,601 3,518 166 20,227 0 8,647 5,921 61,081 2006 22,186 2,092 172 19,370 0.22 9,359 6,242 59,422 2007 22,595 1,640 221 20,040 0 6,651 3,983 55,131 2008 22,991 1,822 177 20,183 0 8,863 6,054 60,091 2009 20,057 1,095 155

  16. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 24,275 0 3,809 1,540 18,926 2005 23,833 0 3,918 1,544 18,371 2006 23,227 0 3,834 1,539 17,854 2007 22,810 0 3,795 1,566 17,449 2008 22,168 0 3,689 1,652 16,827 2009 20,507 0 3,935 1,481 15,091 2010 21,727 0 3,808 1,406 16,513 2011 21,532 0 3,628 1,321 16,584

  17. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Coal: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 564,497 0 87,981 34,538 441,978 2005 548,666 0 88,364 34,616 425,685 2006 532,561 0 84,335 34,086 414,140 2007 521,717 0 83,838 34,690 403,189 2008 503,096 0 81,416 36,163 385,517 2009 462,674 0 90,867 32,651 339,156 2010 490,931 0 90,184 30,725 370,022 2011

  18. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Barrels) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 20,654 0 1,501 1,203 17,951 2005 20,494 0 1,392 1,004 18,097 2006 14,077 0 1,153 559 12,365 2007 13,462 0 1,303 441 11,718 2008 7,533 0 1,311 461 5,762 2009 8,128 0 1,301 293 6,534 2010 4,866 0 1,086 212 3,567 2011 3,826 0 1,004 168 2,654 2012

  19. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Petroleum Liquids: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 124,809 0 8,592 7,219 108,997 2005 125,689 0 8,134 6,145 111,410 2006 87,137 0 6,740 3,481 76,916 2007 82,768 0 7,602 2,754 72,412 2008 45,481 0 7,644 2,786 35,051 2009 48,912 0 7,557 1,802 39,552 2010 29,243 0 6,402 1,297 21,545 2011 22,799 0 5,927

  20. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Thousand Tons) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,043 0 237 8 798 2005 783 0 206 8 568 2006 1,259 0 195 9 1,055 2007 1,262 0 162 11 1,090 2008 897 0 119 9 769 2009 1,007 0 126 8 873 2010 1,059 0 98 11 950 2011 1,080 0 112 6 962 2012 1,346 0 113 11 1,222 2013 1,486 0 96 11 1,379 2014 1,283 3 90 16

  1. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Petroleum Coke: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 29,342 0 6,768 226 22,347 2005 22,224 0 5,935 228 16,061 2006 38,169 0 5,672 236 32,262 2007 38,033 0 4,710 303 33,019 2008 27,100 0 3,441 243 23,416 2009 29,974 0 3,652 213 26,109 2010 31,303 0 2,855 296 28,152 2011 31,943 0 3,244 153 28,546 2012

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,052,100 0 388,424 39,233 624,443 2005 984,340 0 384,365 34,172 565,803 2006 942,817 0 330,878 33,112 578,828 2007 872,579 0 339,796 35,987 496,796 2008 793,537 0 326,048 32,813 434,676 2009 816,787 0 305,542 41,275 469,970 2010 821,775 0 301,769

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Natural Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,085,191 0 398,476 40,122 646,593 2005 1,008,404 0 392,842 35,037 580,525 2006 968,574 0 339,047 33,928 595,599 2007 894,272 0 347,181 36,689 510,402 2008 813,794 0 333,197 33,434 447,163 2009 836,863 0 312,553 42,032 482,279 2010 841,521 0 308,246 47,001

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Wood / Wood Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 1,016,124 0 14,968 1,493 999,663 2005 997,331 0 19,193 1,028 977,111 2006 1,049,161 0 18,814 1,045 1,029,303 2007 982,486 0 21,435 1,756 959,296 2008 923,889 0 18,075 1,123 904,690 2009 816,285 0 19,587 1,135 795,563 2010 876,041 0 18,357

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Landfill Gas: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Million Cubic Feet) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 2,174 0 735 10 1,429 2005 1,923 0 965 435 522 2006 2,051 0 525 1,094 433 2007 1,988 0 386 1,102 501 2008 1,025 0 454 433 138 2009 793 0 545 176 72 2010 1,623 0 1,195 370 58 2011 3,195 0 2,753 351 91 2012 3,189 0 2,788 340 61 2013 831 0 261 423 147

  6. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Biogenic Municipal Solid Waste: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 19,991 0 4,746 12,295 2,950 2005 20,296 0 4,551 11,991 3,754 2006 21,729 0 5,347 12,654 3,728 2007 16,174 0 5,683 8,350 2,141 2008 18,272 0 6,039 12,174 59 2009 18,785 0 6,229 11,535 1,021 2010 17,502 0 6,031 10,333 1,138 2011 16,766 0

  7. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    E. Other Waste Biomass: Consumption for Useful Thermal Output, by Sector, 2004 - 2014 (Billion Btus) Electric Power Sector Period Total (all sectors) Electric Utilities Independent Power Producers Commercial Sector Industrial Sector Annual Totals 2004 30,228 0 12,055 2,627 15,547 2005 38,010 0 10,275 2,086 25,649 2006 36,966 0 8,561 2,318 26,087 2007 41,757 0 10,294 2,643 28,820 2008 41,851 0 9,674 1,542 30,635 2009 41,810 0 10,355 1,638 29,817 2010 47,153 0 8,436 1,648 37,070 2011 43,483 0

  8. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Electric Utilities, 2004 - 2014 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2004 15,440,681 758,557 1.34 27.30 0.91 98.2 592,478 93,034 4.80

  9. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Independent Power Producers, 2004 - 2014 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2004 4,410,775 227,700 1.41 27.27 1.13 93.3 337,011

  10. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Commercial Sector, 2004 - 2014 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2004 10,682 451 2.08 49.32 2.48 23.5 3,066 527 6.19 35.96 0.20

  11. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1. Receipts, Average Cost, and Quality of Fossil Fuels: Industrial Sector, 2004 - 2014 Coal Petroleum Liquids Receipts Average Cost Receipts Average Cost Period (Billion Btu) (Thousand Tons) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Ton) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption (Billion Btu) (Thousand Barrels) (Dollars per MMBtu) (Dollars per Barrel) Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Percentage of Consumption Annual Totals 2004 326,495 15,324 1.63 34.79 1.43 57.6 25,491 4,107 4.98 30.93

  12. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Military Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maine 1,487 2,852 1,506 1,071 1,058 2,482 1984-2014 Massachusetts 500 343 3,101 466 329 453 1984-2014 New Hampshire 1,480 490 253 104 90 257 1984-2014 Rhode Island 1,643 903 900 ...

  13. Total Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 55,664,448 58,258,830 59,769,444 57,512,994 58,675,008 61,890,990 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 18,219,180 17,965,794 17,864,868 16,754,388

  14. Total Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    End Use: Total Residential Commercial Industrial Oil Company Farm Electric Power Railroad Vessel Bunkering On-Highway Military Off-Highway All Other Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: End Use Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 54,100,092 56,093,645 57,082,558 57,020,840 58,107,155 60,827,930 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 17,821,973 18,136,965 17,757,005 17,382,566

  15. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Residential Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,103,881 3,930,517 3,625,747 3,473,310 3,536,111 3,802,848 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 3,670,994 3,545,676 3,274,963 3,183,878 3,240,215 3,501,957 1984-2014 New England (PADD...

  16. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Farm Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    660,024 2,928,175 2,942,436 3,031,878 3,026,611 3,209,391 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 333,748 454,160 375,262 382,639 404,799 401,686 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 13,909...

  17. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Railroad Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,759,140 2,974,641 3,121,150 3,118,150 3,369,781 3,670,338 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 459,324 482,929 514,418 492,156 460,066 480,024 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 43,763...

  18. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Industrial Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,159,428 2,045,164 2,179,953 2,325,503 2,271,056 2,417,898 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 597,048 560,403 568,024 568,997 559,886 600,949 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 60,994...

  19. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Commercial Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    785,246 2,738,304 2,715,335 2,557,543 2,471,897 2,543,778 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 1,565,353 1,528,778 1,433,828 1,286,053 1,295,125 1,348,704 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A)...

  20. Distillate Fuel Oil Days of Supply

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Changes to proved reserves of U.S. natural gas by source, 2013-14 trillion cubic feet Year-end 2013 2014 Year-end 2014 proved 2014 revisions and 2014 proved Source of natural gas reserves Discoveries other changes production reserves Coalbed methane 12.4 0.4 4.3 -1.4 15.7 Shale 159.1 37.8 16.2 -13.4 199.7 Other U.S. natural gas Lower 48 onshore 166.0 11.4 -8.4 -11.7 157.2 Lower 48 offshore 9.1 0.8 0.8 -1.3 9.4 Alaska 7.4 0.1 -0.4 -0.3 6.8 U.S. TOTAL 354.0 50.5 12.4 -28.1 388.8 Note: Lower 48

  1. Product Supplied for Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 4.77 2.81 3.07 2.74 2.51 1990's 3.10 2.59 2.25 2.59 2.50 2.39 2.97 3.02 2.45 2.61 2000's 4.10 4.19 3.41 5.54 6.09 7.59 6.83 6.92 8.58 4.47 2010's 5.02 4.64 3.25 4.08 5.51 3.07

    Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 1989 2.69 2.40 2.40 2.33 2.44 2.57 2.54 2.48 2.41 2.56 2.71 2.79 1990 3.11 2.94 2.42 2.95 2.51 2.75 2.95 2.79 2.82 2.71 2.74 4.23 1991 3.61 3.08 2.76 2.87 2.14 2.19 2.36 2.53 2.32 2.27

  2. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    B. Existing Net Summer Capacity of Other Renewable Sources by Producer Type, 2004 through 2014 (Megawatts) Year Wind Solar Thermal and Photovoltaic Wood and Wood-Derived Fuels Geothermal Other Biomass Total (Other Renewable Sources) Total (All Sectors) 2004 6,456.0 398.0 6,182.0 2,152.0 3,529.0 18,717.0 2005 8,706.0 411.0 6,193.0 2,285.0 3,609.0 21,205.0 2006 11,329.0 411.0 6,372.0 2,274.0 3,727.0 24,113.0 2007 16,515.0 502.0 6,704.0 2,214.0 4,134.0 30,069.0 2008 24,651.0 536.0 6,864.0 2,229.0

  3. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7.A. Net Summer Capacity of Utility Scale Units by Technology and by State, 2014 and 2013 (Megawatts) Census Division and State Renewable Sources Fossil Fuels Hydroelectric Pumped Storage Other Energy Storage Nuclear All Other Sources All Sources Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 Year 2014 Year 2013 New England 4,577.6 4,403.4 22,853.0 23,564.2 1,775.4 1,753.4 3.0 3.0 4,046.3 4,645.4 52.9 52.9 33,308.2 34,422.3

  4. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    A. Capacity Factors for Utility Scale Generators Primarily Using Fossil Fuels, January 2013-December 2014 Coal Natural Gas Petroleum Period Natural Gas Fired Combined Cycle Natural Gas Fired Combustion Turbine Steam Turbine Internal Combustion Engine Steam Turbine Petroleum Liquids Fired Combustion Turbine Internal Combustion Engine Annual Factors 2013 59.7% 48.2% 4.9% 10.6% 6.1% 12.1% 0.8% 2.2% 2014 61.0% 48.3% 5.2% 10.4% 8.5% 12.5% 1.1% 1.4% Year 2013 January 61.2% 46.3% 3.6% 7.3% 4.6% 10.0%

  5. SAS Output

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3. Average Quality of Fossil Fuel Receipts for the Electric Power Industry, 2004 through 2014 Coal Petroleum Natural Gas Period Average Btu per Pound Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Average Btu per Gallon Average Sulfur Percent by Weight Average Ash Percent by Weight Average Btu per Cubic Foot 2004 10,074 0.97 9.0 147,286 1.66 0.2 1,027 2005 10,107 0.98 9.0 146,481 1.61 0.2 1,028 2006 10,063 0.97 9.0 143,883 2.31 0.2 1,027 2007 10,028 0.96 8.8 144,546 2.10 0.1

  6. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Simmons, Wayne W.; Silva, Laura J.; Qiu, Dongming; Perry, Steven T.; Yuschak, Thomas; Hickey, Thomas P.; Arora, Ravi; Smith, Amanda; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Neagle, Paul

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  7. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  8. Table 5.6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel Oil ...

  9. Table 5.2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    2 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National Data; Row: End Uses within NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate Fuel ...

  10. Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced Distillation Curve Method Evaluation of Biodiesel Fuels from Supercritical Fluid Processing with the Advanced ...

  11. FRACTIONAL DISTILLATION SEPARATION OF PLUTONIUM VALUES FROM LIGHT ELEMENT VALUES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cunningham, B.B.

    1957-12-17

    A process is described for removing light element impurities from plutonium. It has been found that plutonium contaminated with impurities may be purified by converting the plutonium to a halide and purifying the halide by a fractional distillation whereby impurities may be distilled from the plutonium halide. A particularly effective method includes the step of forming a lower halide such as the trior tetrahalide and distilling the halide under conditions such that no decomposition of the halide occurs. Molecular distillation methods are particularly suitable for this process. The apparatus may comprise an evaporation plate with means for heating it and a condenser surface with means for cooling it. The condenser surface is placed at a distance from the evaporating surface less than the mean free path of molecular travel of the material being distilled at the pressure and temperature used. The entire evaporating system is evacuated until the pressure is about 10/sup -4/ millimeters of mercury. A high temperuture method is presented for sealing porous materials such as carbon or graphite that may be used as a support or a moderator in a nuclear reactor. The carbon body is subjected to two surface heats simultaneously in an inert atmosphere; the surface to be sealed is heated to 1500 degrees centigrade; and another surface is heated to 300 degrees centigrade, whereupon the carbon vaporizes and flows to the cooler surface where it is deposited to seal that surface. This method may be used to seal a nuclear fuel in the carbon structure.

  12. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  13. Effect of Narrow Cut Oil Shale Distillates on HCCI Engine Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eaton, Scott J; Bunting, Bruce G; Lewis Sr, Samuel Arthur; Fairbridge, Craig

    2009-01-01

    In this investigation, oil shale crude obtained from the Green River Formation in Colorado using Paraho Direct retorting was mildly hydrotreated and distilled to produce 7 narrow boiling point fuels of equal volumes. The resulting derived cetane numbers ranged between 38.3 and 43.9. Fuel chemistry and bulk properties strongly correlated with boiling point.

  14. ITP Chemicals: Hybrid Separations/Distillation Technology. Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybrid SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction ITP Chemicals: Hybrid SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research ...

  15. ITP Chemicals: Hybripd Separations/Distillation Technology. Research...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hybripd SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction ITP Chemicals: Hybripd SeparationsDistillation Technology. Research ...

  16. The Northeast heating fuel market: Assessment and options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2000-07-01

    In response to a Presidential request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of tie energy markets in the Northeast. In addition, this report explores the potential for nonresidential users to move away from distillate fuel oil and how this might impact future prices, and discusses conversion of distillate fuel oil users to other fuels over the next 5 years. Because the President's and Secretary's request focused on converting factories and other large-volume users of mostly high-sulfur distillate fuel oil to other fuels, transportation sector use of low-sulfur distillate fuel oil is not examined here.

  17. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:www.nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  18. fuel

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    4%2A en Cheaper catalyst may lower fuel costs for hydrogen-powered cars http:nnsa.energy.govblogcheaper-catalyst-may-lower-fuel-costs-hydrogen-powered-cars

  19. Fuels

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  20. Develop the dual fuel conversion system for high output, medium speed diesel engines. Quarterly report number 5, November 1997--January 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-23

    This quarter has the authors starting out with the engine mapped out in its standard dual fuel configuration. This means that the engine is configured to be exactly what the have been selling in the past. They have worked to install the new style gas injectors, Hydraulic power unit, control lines, gas lines and associated hardware. This hardware has been tested and is operational. They have been able to start at installing the spark ignition system but have been held up because of other more pressing work.

  1. Reactive Distillation for Esterification of Bio-based Organic Acids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fields, Nathan; Miller, Dennis J.; Asthana, Navinchandra S.; Kolah, Aspi K.; Vu, Dung; Lira, Carl T.

    2008-09-23

    The following is the final report of the three year research program to convert organic acids to their ethyl esters using reactive distillation. This report details the complete technical activities of research completed at Michigan State University for the period of October 1, 2003 to September 30, 2006, covering both reactive distillation research and development and the underlying thermodynamic and kinetic data required for successful and rigorous design of reactive distillation esterification processes. Specifically, this project has led to the development of economical, technically viable processes for ethyl lactate, triethyl citrate and diethyl succinate production, and on a larger scale has added to the overall body of knowledge on applying fermentation based organic acids as platform chemicals in the emerging biorefinery. Organic acid esters constitute an attractive class of biorenewable chemicals that are made from corn or other renewable biomass carbohydrate feedstocks and replace analogous petroleum-based compounds, thus lessening U.S. dependence on foreign petroleum and enhancing overall biorefinery viability through production of value-added chemicals in parallel with biofuels production. Further, many of these ester products are candidates for fuel (particularly biodiesel) components, and thus will serve dual roles as both industrial chemicals and fuel enhancers in the emerging bioeconomy. The technical report from MSU is organized around the ethyl esters of four important biorenewables-based acids: lactic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, and propionic acid. Literature background on esterification and reactive distillation has been provided in Section One. Work on lactic acid is covered in Sections Two through Five, citric acid esterification in Sections Six and Seven, succinic acid in Section Eight, and propionic acid in Section Nine. Section Ten covers modeling of ester and organic acid vapor pressure properties using the SPEAD (Step Potential

  2. Develop the dual fuel conversion system for high output, medium speed diesel engines. Quarterly report number 4, July--September, 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-23

    This quarter started out with fresh ability to perform sustained engine operation on gas because of the successful operation of the gas compressor last quarter. The authors have completed baseline tests recording emissions and efficiency numbers. This gives the authors data that they have never before been able to acquire in the facility. In addition to the baseline data they have recorded data with a host of additional engine variables. These variables include the adjustments of ignition timing, air fuel ratio, air inlet temperatures and some propane seeding of the injected gas. With the background data on record they will be able to properly measure the level of positive impact that the port gas injection system provides. The remaining time in this quarter has been focused on completing the application of the port style gas injection system. The next steps in this project all pivot on the application of this port injection system. They have also progressed in the evaluation of the cylinder/engine monitoring system.

  3. Table 5.5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Electricity; Unit: Physical Units or Btu. Distillate ...

  4. Table 5.8 End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010;

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    End Uses of Fuel Consumption, 2010; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: End Uses; Column: Energy Sources, including Net Demand for Electricity; Unit: Trillion Btu. Distillate ...

  5. ,"for Electricity(a)","Fuel Oil","Diesel Fuel(b)","(billion"...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Unit: Percents." ,,,"Distillate",,,"Coal" ,,,"Fuel Oil",,,"(excluding Coal" ,"Net Demand","Residual","and","Natural Gas(c)","LPG and","Coke and Breeze)" ,"for Electricity(a)","Fuel ...

  6. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes multicomponent.pdf (517.32 KB) ...

  7. Distillation: Still towering over other options

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kunesh, J.G.; Kister, H.Z.; Lockett, M.J.; Fair, J.R.

    1995-10-01

    Distillation dominates separations in the chemical process industries (CPI), at least for mixtures that normally are processed as liquids. The authors fully expect that distillation will continue to be the method of choice for many separations, and the method against which other options must be compared. So, in this article, they will put into some perspective just why distillation continues to reign as the king of separations, and what steps are being taken to improve its applicability and performance, as well as basic understanding of the technique.

  8. Minimizing corrosion in coal liquid distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.

    1985-01-01

    In an atmospheric distillation tower of a coal liquefaction process, tower materials corrosion is reduced or eliminated by introduction of boiling point differentiated streams to boiling point differentiated tower regions.

  9. This Week In Petroleum Distillate Section

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    On-highway diesel fuel prices (dollars per gallon) U.S. Regional U.S. on-highway diesel fuel prices graph Regional on-highway diesel fuel prices graph On-highway diesel fuel prices ...

  10. Winters fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-10-27

    The outlook for distillate fuel oil this winter is for increased demand and a return to normal inventory patterns, assuming a resumption of normal, cooler weather than last winter. With industrial production expected to grow slightly from last winter`s pace, overall consumption is projected to increase 3 percent from last winter, to 3.4 million barrels per day during the heating season (October 1, 1995-March 31, 1996). Much of the supply win come from stock drawdowns and refinery production. Estimates for the winter are from the Energy Information Administration`s (EIA) 4th Quarter 1995 Short-Tenn Energy Outlook (STEO) Mid-World Oil Price Case forecast. Inventories in place on September 30, 1995, of 132 million barrels were 9 percent below the unusually high year-earlier level. Inventories of high-sulfur distillate fuel oil, the principal type used for heating, were 13 percent lower than a year earlier. Supply problems are not anticipated because refinery production and the ready availability of imports should be adequate to meet demand. Residential heating off prices are expected to be somewhat higher than last winter`s, as the effects of lower crude oil prices are offset by lower distillate inventories. Heating oil is forecast to average $0.92 per gallon, the highest price since the winter of 1992-93. Diesel fuel (including tax) is predicted to be slightly higher than last year at $1.13 per gallon. This article focuses on the winter assessment for distillate fuel oil, how well last year`s STEO winter outlook compared to actual events, and expectations for the coming winter. Additional analyses include regional low-sulfur and high-sulfur distillate supply, demand, and prices, and recent trends in distillate fuel oil inventories.

  11. Table N1.1. First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... oil converted to residual and distillate" "fuel oils) are excluded." " NFNo applicable ... for any table cell, multiply the cell's" "corresponding RSE column and RSE row factors. ...

  12. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for All Other Uses

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Connecticut 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 Maine 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 Massachusetts 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 New Hampshire 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 Rhode Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014 Vermont 0 0 ...

  13. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Oil Company Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Connecticut 12 2 0 3 4 0 1984-2014 Maine 0 438 238 0 0 0 1984-2014 Massachusetts 0 871 965 887 0 0 1984-2014 New Hampshire 0 997 0 2 0 27 1984-2014 Rhode Island 0 0 0 0 0 0 ...

  14. East Coast (PADD 1) Distillate Fuel Oil Imports

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Ghana 1995-2003 Gibralter 2012-2012 Greece 9 1995-2016 India 24 1995-2016 Ireland 1995-2003 Israel 1995-2003 Italy 1995-2014 Ivory Coast 2014-2014 Jamaica 2012-2012 Japan 2006-2011 ...

  15. Texas Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vessel Bunkering 198,625 323,153 306,887 210,408 208,962 281,626 1984-2014 On-Highway 3,711,173 3,849,991 4,114,193 4,375,991 4,672,287 5,210,804 1984-2014 Military 28,385 33,020 ...

  16. Florida Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Vessel Bunkering 84,718 118,991 142,198 131,685 126,464 124,343 1984-2014 On-Highway 1,322,703 1,340,494 1,329,312 1,340,337 1,394,235 1,420,204 1984-2014 Military 4,370 5,481 ...

  17. Louisiana Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    514,474 1,744,771 1,873,769 1,488,986 1,405,392 1,375,580 1984-2014 Residential 1,036 140 34 53 84 89 1984-2014 Commercial 59,689 38,695 39,659 36,840 17,590 21,197 1984-2014 Industrial 21,826 26,063 20,770 33,052 31,744 33,670 1984-2014 Oil Company 243,789 319,394 364,261 245,303 183,801 178,810 1984-2014 Farm 42,624 44,027 49,985 48,462 40,785 46,134 1984-2014 Electric Power 4,321 4,775 5,464 2,733 4,610 4,826 1984-2014 Railroad 18,345 25,425 32,515 28,110 39,578 45,790 1984-2014 Vessel

  18. Mississippi Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    835,855 800,065 771,577 830,756 806,396 819,763 1984-2014 Residential 5 5 4 7 7 8 1984-2014 Commercial 26,641 23,713 26,383 26,386 24,019 28,803 1984-2014 Industrial 21,853 18,362 15,450 20,153 21,186 19,595 1984-2014 Oil Company 3,955 4,262 4,058 6,226 7,450 6,419 1984-2014 Farm 41,080 57,087 52,559 81,878 84,753 79,443 1984-2014 Electric Power 3,796 3,393 2,019 1,674 2,223 1,921 1984-2014 Railroad 24,727 17,936 37,741 29,848 32,550 35,578 1984-2014 Vessel Bunkering 141,302 93,384 58,285 58,505

  19. New Mexico Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    09,709 554,352 574,557 608,490 621,430 669,923 1984-2014 Residential 55 46 37 27 72 53 1984-2014 Commercial 11,030 9,435 9,609 9,145 9,112 12,114 1984-2014 Industrial 33,804 24,429 27,110 31,316 32,029 32,917 1984-2014 Oil Company 9,871 1,705 2,127 5,857 11,218 27,016 1984-2014 Farm 11,278 14,821 10,955 12,816 15,784 11,752 1984-2014 Electric Power 4,321 4,000 1,689 5,155 4,816 3,826 1984-2014 Railroad 245 1,780 1,707 19,123 38,543 45,446 1984-2014 Vessel Bunkering 0 0 0 0 0 0 1984-2014

  20. Alabama Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    987,571 1,038,133 1,094,359 1,132,711 1,047,981 1,027,777 1984-2014 Residential 3,971 4,895 432 750 639 722 1984-2014 Commercial 39,802 46,009 48,475 46,654 30,536 27,874 1984-2014 Industrial 90,659 77,542 81,120 120,347 77,119 65,322 1984-2014 Oil Company 0 328 1,035 2,640 2,929 2,985 1984-2014 Farm 17,882 19,881 24,518 24,503 24,651 20,459 1984-2014 Electric Power 8,276 10,372 22,490 9,375 6,514 10,071 1984-2014 Railroad 44,546 42,465 97,177 125,439 63,570 56,873 1984-2014 Vessel Bunkering

  1. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,856.4 26,071.0 56,502.9 1,351.8 60,057.4 April ... 1,030.8 157.5 20,855.8 21,528.9 3,655.2 25,184.0 46,039.8 817.2 48,045.3 May...

  2. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils and Kerosene...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    165,833.6 February ... 7,190.5 4,192.4 55,685.0 76,234.8 22,030.8 98,265.6 153,950.6 2,265.8 167,599.4 March ... 3,741.4...

  3. Table 50. Prime Supplier Sales Volumes of Distillate Fuel Oils...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    December ... 3,872.6 4,684.1 35,790.4 88,601.0 20,217.6 108,818.6 144,609.0 1,089.2 154,255.0 1998 Average ... 2,643.4 1,854.8...

  4. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(b)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which payment was made," "quantities transferred in, quantities purchased and paid for by a central" "purchasing entity, and quantities for which payment was made in kind. ...

  5. ,,"Distillate Fuel Oil(b)",,,"Alternative Energy Sources(c)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... for which payment was made," "quantities transferred in, quantities purchased and paid for by a central" "purchasing entity, and quantities for which payment was made in kind. ...

  6. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Off-Highway Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,985,592 2,148,677 2,070,260 2,088,157 2,063,319 2,014,184 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 605,884 615,812 634,470 621,261 584,856 604,093 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 81,453...

  7. Distillate Fuel Oil Sales for Vessel Bunkering Use

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,912,984 2,002,834 2,133,395 1,768,324 1,675,521 1,593,398 1984-2014 East Coast (PADD 1) 276,013 259,319 296,947 283,254 274,142 289,674 1984-2014 New England (PADD 1A) 45,147...

  8. Refiner and Blender Net Production of Distillate Fuel Oil

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    4,918 4,940 4,739 4,939 4,849 4,973 1982-2016 PADD 1 320 348 301 348 357 358 1990-2016 PADD 2 1,091 1,090 988 987 1,073 1,121 1990-2016 PADD 3 2,781 2,727 2,741 2,841 2,626 2,687 1990-2016 PADD 4 185 188 176 173 178 190 1990-2016 PADD 5 542 589 533 590 616 618 1990

  9. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil 15 ppm Sulfur and Under

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    132,482 132,347 130,397 131,457 131,718 133,666 2004-2016 PADD 1 48,923 46,750 48,286 49,440 49,186 51,086 2004-2016 New England 5,713 5,479 5,820 5,827 5,734 6,024 2004-2016 Central Atlantic 31,119 29,742 30,218 31,411 31,392 32,339 2004-2016 Lower Atlantic 12,091 11,529 12,249 12,201 12,060 12,724 2004-2016 PADD 2 28,720 29,395 28,836 28,371 28,446 28,898 2004-2016 PADD 3 39,119 40,396 37,775 38,050 38,502 37,824 2004-2016 PADD 4 3,574 3,285 3,352 3,122 3,014 2,804 2004-2016 PADD 5 12,147

  10. Stocks of Distillate Fuel Oil Greater Than 500 ppm Sulfur

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    11,431 11,494 11,351 12,031 11,757 11,381 1993-2016 PADD 1 5,157 5,148 5,505 5,651 5,642 5,604 1993-2016 New England 1,516 1,458 1,668 1,668 1,609 1,762 1993-2016 Central Atlantic 2,888 2,588 3,204 3,316 3,376 3,134 1993-2016 Lower Atlantic 753 1,102 632 667 657 707 1993-2016 PADD 2 677 815 783 862 813 884 1993-2016 PADD 3 4,414 4,239 4,137 4,547 4,220 3,808 1993-2016 PADD 4 93 98 77 93 116 129 1993-2016 PADD 5 1,090 1,193 848 878 966 956

  11. Climate Model Output Rewriter

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-06-21

    CMOR comprises a set of FORTRAN 90 dunctions that can be used to produce CF-compliant netCDF files. The structure of the files created by CMOR and the metadata they contain fulfill the requirements of many of the climate community’s standard model experiments (which are referred to here as "MIPS", which stands for "model intercomparison project", including, for example, AMIP, CMIP, CFMIP, PMIP, APE, and IPCC scenario runs), CMOR was not designed to serve as anmore » all-purpose wfiter of CF-compliant netCDF files, but simply to reduce the effort required to prepare and manage MIP data. Although MIPs encourage systematic analysis of results across models, this is only easy to do if the model output is written in a common format with files structured similarly and with sufficient metadata uniformly stored according to a common standard. Individual modeling groups store their data in different ways. but if a group can read its own data with FORTRAN, then it should easily be able to transform the data, using CMOR, into the common format required by the MIPs, The adoption of CMOR as a standard code for exchanging climate data will facilitate participation in MIPs because after learning how to satisfy the output requirements of one MIP, it will be easy to prepare output for the other MIPs.« less

  12. SRC residual fuel oils

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, K.C.; Foster, E.P.

    1985-10-15

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  13. SRC Residual fuel oils

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tewari, Krishna C.; Foster, Edward P.

    1985-01-01

    Coal solids (SRC) and distillate oils are combined to afford single-phase blends of residual oils which have utility as fuel oils substitutes. The components are combined on the basis of their respective polarities, that is, on the basis of their heteroatom content, to assure complete solubilization of SRC. The resulting composition is a fuel oil blend which retains its stability and homogeneity over the long term.

  14. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1985-08-20

    A method and apparatus are disclosed for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  15. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1984-01-01

    A method for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catatlyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  16. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, Jr., Edward M.

    1985-01-01

    A method and apparatus for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture, comprising and feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor contracting said reactant in a liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure, consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column.

  17. Contact structure for use in catalytic distillation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jones, E.M. Jr.

    1984-03-27

    A method is described for conducting catalytic chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants into a distillation column reactor, contracting said reactant in liquid phase with a fixed bed catalyst in the form of a contact catalyst structure consisting of closed porous containers containing the catalyst for the reaction and a clip means to hold and support said containers, which are disposed above, i.e., on the distillation trays in the tower. The trays have weir means to provide a liquid level on the trays to substantially cover the containers. In other words, the trays function in their ordinary manner with the addition thereto of the catalyst. The reaction mixture is concurrently fractionated in the column. 7 figs.

  18. Catalytic hydroprocessing of petroleum and distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oballa, M.C.; Shih, S.S.

    1994-12-31

    There is a strong push for the processing of heavy oils, bitumen and/or residue, which carries with it some problems. These are connected with obtaining state-of-the-art technologies at reasonable capital and operating costs to the refiner. Then there are problems associated with choosing the best catalyst--one specially designed to lower considerably the high content of heteroatoms (S, N, O) and metals (V, Ni, Fe). To address the above considerations, engineers and scientists working in the processing of petroleum and distillates from different parts of the world presented papers covering different facets of residue upgrading and distillate hydrotreating. This book is a compilation of most of the papers presented in the five sessions of the symposium. The editors have broadly classified the papers in terms of content into the following four categories: catalyst deactivation; upgrading of heavy oils and residue; hydrotreating of distillates; and general papers. All papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Fuel cell generator energy dissipator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veyo, Stephen Emery; Dederer, Jeffrey Todd; Gordon, John Thomas; Shockling, Larry Anthony

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a fuel cell generator when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated. During a generator shut down condition, electrically resistive elements are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel

  20. Methods of producing transportation fuel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nair, Vijay; Roes, Augustinus Wilhelmus Maria; Cherrillo, Ralph Anthony; Bauldreay, Joanna M.

    2011-12-27

    Systems, methods, and heaters for treating a subsurface formation are described herein. At least one method for producing transportation fuel is described herein. The method for producing transportation fuel may include providing formation fluid having a boiling range distribution between -5.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. from a subsurface in situ heat treatment process to a subsurface treatment facility. A liquid stream may be separated from the formation fluid. The separated liquid stream may be hydrotreated and then distilled to produce a distilled stream having a boiling range distribution between 150.degree. C. and 350.degree. C. The distilled liquid stream may be combined with one or more additives to produce transportation fuel.

  1. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  2. Decontamination performance of selected in situ technologies for jet fuel contamination. Master's thesis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chesley, G.D.

    1993-01-01

    Specific study of jet fuel is warranted because of the quantitive and qualitative component differences between jet fuel and other hydrocarbon fuels. Quantitatively, jet fuel contains a larger aliphatic or saturate fraction and a smaller aromatic fraction than other fuels (i.e. heating oil and diesel oil) in the medium-boiling-point-distillate class of fuels. Since the aliphatic and aromatic fractions of fuel are not equally susceptible to biodegradation, jet fuel decontamination using biodegradation may be different from other fuels.

  3. Apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shishido, T.; Sato, Y.

    1984-02-14

    An apparatus for distilling shale oil from oil shale comprises: a vertical type distilling furnace which is divided by two vertical partitions each provided with a plurality of vent apertures into an oil shale treating chamber and two gas chambers, said oil shale treating chamber being located between said two gas chambers in said vertical type distilling furnace, said vertical type distilling furnace being further divided by at least one horizontal partition into an oil shale distilling chamber in the lower part thereof and at least one oil shale preheating chamber in the upper part thereof, said oil shale distilling chamber and said oil shale preheating chamber communication with each other through a gap provided at an end of said horizontal partition, an oil shale supplied continuously from an oil shale supply port provided in said oil shale treating chamber at the top thereof into said oil shale treating chamber continuously moving from the oil shale preheating chamber to the oil shale distilling chamber, a high-temperature gas blown into an oil shale distilling chamber passing horizontally through said oil shale in said oil shale treating chamber, thereby said oil shale is preheated in said oil shale preheating chamber, and a gaseous shale oil is distilled from said preheated oil shale in said oil shale distilling chamber; and a separator for separating by liquefaction a gaseous shale oil from a gas containing the gaseous shale oil discharged from the oil shale preheating chamber.

  4. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Processes | Department of Energy Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes multicomponent.pdf (517.32 KB) More Documents & Publications Development of Method and Algorithms To Identify Easily Implementable Energy-Efficient Low-Cost Multicomponent Distillation Column Trains With Large Energy Savings For Wide Number of Separations CX-100137 Categorical Exclusion Determination ITP

  5. Increasing Distillate Production at U.S. Refineries

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2010-01-01

    Paper explores the potential for U.S. refiners to create more distillate and less gasoline without major additional investments beyond those already planned.

  6. Use of extractive distillation to produce concentrated nitric acid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, P.C.; Griffin, T.P.; Irwin, C.F.

    1981-04-01

    Concentrated nitric acid (> 95 wt %) is needed for the treatment of off-gases from a fuels-reprocessing plant. The production of concentrated nitric acid by means of extractive distillation in the two-pot apparatus was studied to determine the steady-state behavior of the system. Four parameters, EDP volume (V/sub EDP/) and temperature (T/sub EDP/), acid feed rate, and solvent recycle, were independently varied. The major response factors were percent recovery (CPRR) and product purity (CCP). Stage efficiencies also provided information about the system response. Correlations developed for the response parameters are: CPRR = 0.02(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) + 53.5; CCP = -0.87 (T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 81; eta/sub V,EDP/ = 9.1(F/sub feed/ - 11.5 cc/min) - 0.047(V/sub EDP/ - 800 cc) - 2.8(F/sub Mg(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2// - 50 cc/min) + 390; and eta/sub L,EDP/ = 1.9(T/sub EDP/ - 140/sup 0/C) + 79. A computer simulation of the process capable of predicting steady-state conditions was developed, but it requires further work.

  7. U.S. Fuel Consumed at Refineries

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Liquefied Petroleum Gases 2,404 1,291 1,521 1,311 2,305 3,009 1986-2015 Distillate Fuel Oil 440 483 539 475 309 364 1986-2015 Residual Fuel Oil 980 759 540 443 413 395 1986-2015 ...

  8. Omniphobic Membrane for Robust Membrane Distillation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lin, SH; Nejati, S; Boo, C; Hu, YX; Osuji, CO; Ehmelech, M

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we fabricate an omniphobic microporous membrane for membrane distillation (MD) by modifying a hydrophilic glass fiber membrane with silica nanoparticles followed by surface fluorination and polymer coating. The modified glass fiber membrane exhibits an anti-wetting property not only against water but also against low surface tension organic solvents that easily wet a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane that is commonly used in MD applications. By comparing the performance of the PTFE and omniphobic membranes in direct contact MD experiments in the presence of a surfactant (sodium dodecyl sulfate, SDS), we show that SDS wets the hydrophobic PTFE membrane but not the omniphobic membrane. Our results suggest that omniphobic membranes are critical for MD applications with feed waters containing surface active species, such as oil and gas produced water, to prevent membrane pore wetting.

  9. BioGold Fuels Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    through joint ventures a lower-cost, higher-output system for the production of diesel fuel derived from Municipal Solid Waste ("MSW"). References: BioGold Fuels...

  10. Northeast Heating Fuel Market The, Assessment and Options

    Reports and Publications (EIA)

    2000-01-01

    In response to the President's request, this study examines how the distillate fuel oil market (and related energy markets) in the Northeast behaved in the winter of 1999-2000, explains the role played by residential, commercial, industrial, and electricity generation sector consumers in distillate fuel oil markets and describes how that role is influenced by the structure of the energy markets in the Northeast

  11. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pierce, R.; Pak, D.

    2011-08-10

    Vacuum distillation of chloride salts from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}) and simulant PuO{sub 2} has been previously demonstrated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites using kilogram quantities of chloride salt. The apparatus for vacuum distillation contains a zone heated using a furnace and a zone actively cooled using either recirculated water or compressed air. During a vacuum distillation operation, a sample boat containing the feed material is placed into the apparatus while it is cool, and the system is sealed. The system is evacuated using a vacuum pump. Once a sufficient vacuum is attained, heating begins. Volatile salts distill from the heated zone to the cooled zone where they condense, leaving behind the non-volatile materials in the feed boat. The application of vacuum salt distillation (VSD) is of interest to the HB-Line Facility and the MOX Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF) at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Both facilities are involved in efforts to disposition excess fissile materials. Many of these materials contain chloride and fluoride salt concentrations which make them unsuitable for dissolution without prior removal of the chloride and fluoride salts. Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and HB-Line designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a system for the distillation of chloride salts. Subsequent efforts are attempting to adapt the technology for the removal of fluoride. Fluoride salts of interest are less-volatile than the corresponding chloride salts. Consequently, an alternate approach is required for the removal of fluoride without significantly increasing the operating temperature. HB-Line Engineering requested SRNL to evaluate and demonstrate the feasibility of an alternate approach using both non-radioactive simulants and plutonium-bearing materials. Whereas the earlier developments targeted the removal of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl), the current

  12. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunham, Mark E.; Morley, David W.

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  13. Fuel dissipater for pressurized fuel cell generators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Basel, Richard A.; King, John E.

    2003-11-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for eliminating the chemical energy of fuel remaining in a pressurized fuel cell generator (10) when the electrical power output of the fuel cell generator is terminated during transient operation, such as a shutdown; where, two electrically resistive elements (two of 28, 53, 54, 55) at least one of which is connected in parallel, in association with contactors (26, 57, 58, 59), a multi-point settable sensor relay (23) and a circuit breaker (24), are automatically connected across the fuel cell generator terminals (21, 22) at two or more contact points, in order to draw current, thereby depleting the fuel inventory in the generator.

  14. Igniter and actuator output testing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, N.A.

    1988-01-01

    Closed system mechanical work output measurements were made for five types of thermal battery igniters and one type of valve actuator. Each unit was fired into a high-precision fit piston/cylinder arrangement, and the work output was determined from measuring the rise of a known weight. The results showed that work output for an individual igniter type varied over a considerable range while the mean work output values of the various igniter types appeared to depend principally on the type of closure disc and the details of the charge mix. The large variability in igniter output was the principal inducement to build a second apparatus, with approximately 10 times the capacity of the first, to investigate the output actuators. Compared with igniters, the actuator work output was appropriately in scale, but the variability was considerably reduced (R=1.5), and was attributed to increase in scale. Motion picture photography at 8000 to 9000 frames per second was used to determine the motion of the rising weight and the associated output pressure, which exhibited three distinct phases. Initially, the average acceleration of the weight was of the order of 100 g during the first half-millisecond of weight rise and corresponded to average pressures of 15,000 to 37,000 psi, depending principally on the mass of the weight. This was followed by a significant weight rise at a constant pressure of approximately 150 to 450 psi. Finally, the weight decelerated to rest under gravity to reach the maximum recorded height. 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Membrane augmented distillation to separate solvents from water

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huang, Yu; Baker, Richard W.; Daniels, Rami; Aldajani, Tiem; Ly, Jennifer H.; Alvarez, Franklin R.; Vane, Leland M.

    2012-09-11

    Processes for removing water from organic solvents, such as ethanol. The processes include distillation to form a rectified overhead vapor, compression of the rectified vapor, and treatment of the compressed vapor by two sequential membrane separation steps.

  16. A Method to Distill Hydrogen Isotopes from Lithium | Princeton...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to Distill Hydrogen Isotopes from Lithium This white paper outlines a method for the removal of tritium and deuterium from liquid lithium. The method is based on rapid or flash ...

  17. Heat Integrated Distillation through Use of Microchannel Technology

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a breakthrough distillation process using Microchannel Process Technology to integrate heat transfer and separation into a single unit operation.

  18. Correlations estimate volume distilled using gravity, boiling point

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moreno, A.; Consuelo Perez de Alba, M. del; Manriquez, L.; Guardia Mendoz, P. de la

    1995-10-23

    Mathematical nd graphic correlations have been developed for estimating cumulative volume distilled as a function of crude API gravity and true boiling point (TBP). The correlations can be used for crudes with gravities of 21--34{degree} API and boiling points of 150--540 C. In distillation predictions for several mexican and Iraqi crude oils, the correlations have exhibited accuracy comparable to that of laboratory measurements. The paper discusses the need for such a correlation and the testing of the correlation.

  19. ITP Chemicals: Hybrid Separations/Distillation Technology. Research

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction | Department of Energy Hybrid Separations/Distillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction ITP Chemicals: Hybrid Separations/Distillation Technology. Research Opportunities for Energy and Emissions Reduction hybrid_separation.pdf (315.31 KB) More Documents & Publications Review of Historical Membrane Workshop Results Membrane Technology Workshop Summary Report, November 2012 Membrane Technology W

  20. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    25,794.3 125,232.3 November ... 14,453.5 66,101.3 8,392.5 14,607.4 22,846.0 80,708.7 3,071.6 38,342.1 25,917.7 119,050.8 December ......

  1. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    I January ... 3,767.8 15,166.2 1,271.9 3,441.5 5,039.7 18,607.8 1,103.3 23,611.9 6,143.0 42,219.7 February ... 4,023.0 15,858.8...

  2. Table 46. Refiner No. 2 Distillate, Diesel Fuel, and Fuel Oil...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    October ... 14,752.6 69,758.6 7,217.1 15,271.7 21,969.7 85,030.3 3,137.2 25,623.2 25,106.9 110,653.4 November ... 14,904.2...

  3. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996 report provides information, illustrations and State-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. The Petroleum Marketing Division, Office of Oil and Gas, Energy Information Administration ensures the accuracy, quality, and confidentiality of the published data in the Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1996. 24 tabs.

  4. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  5. Low contaminant formic acid fuel for direct liquid fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Masel, Richard I.; Zhu, Yimin; Kahn, Zakia; Man, Malcolm

    2009-11-17

    A low contaminant formic acid fuel is especially suited toward use in a direct organic liquid fuel cell. A fuel of the invention provides high power output that is maintained for a substantial time and the fuel is substantially non-flammable. Specific contaminants and contaminant levels have been identified as being deleterious to the performance of a formic acid fuel in a fuel cell, and embodiments of the invention provide low contaminant fuels that have improved performance compared to known commercial bulk grade and commercial purified grade formic acid fuels. Preferred embodiment fuels (and fuel cells containing such fuels) including low levels of a combination of key contaminants, including acetic acid, methyl formate, and methanol.

  6. Four different shale oils processed into jet fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-03-01

    Crude shale oils produced by (a) Geokinetics, (b) Occidental, (c) Paraho, and (d) Tosco II processes have each been catalytically hydroprocessed to produce jet fuel fractions. The shale oil hydroprocessing was performed at low, medium and high hydroprocessing severities. Hydroprocessing severity was changed mainly by varying the temperature. Full boiling range (121-300/sup 0/C) jet fuel was produced from the hydroprocessed product of the raw oil distillates boiling below 343/sup 0/C. This paper describes the shale oil properties and hydroprocessing, gives the results of sulfur removal and hydrogenated shale oil distillation, and lists the physical and chemical properties of the jet fuels. 2 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Fuel Cell Technologies Office FY 2016 Budget At-A-Glance

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    activities to demonstrate hydrogen and fuel cell systems under real-world conditions to ... technologies (e.g., by increasing PEM fuel cell power output per gram of ...

  8. Proceedings of the 6. international conference on stability and handling of liquid fuels. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giles, H.N.

    1998-12-01

    Volume 2 of these proceedings contain 42 papers arranged under the following topical sections: Fuel blending and compatibility; Middle distillates; Microbiology; Alternative fuels; General topics (analytical methods, tank remediation, fuel additives, storage stability); and Poster presentations (analysis methods, oxidation kinetics, health problems).

  9. ,"No. 2 Distillate Sales to End Users Refiner Sales Volumes"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ... Refiners (Thousand Gallons per Day)","New Mexico No 2 Distillate Retail Sales by Refiners ...57.7,6018.7,64.6,101.5,691.5,1553.8,1576.9,2030.5,4320.3,1350.4,683.2,792.4,316.4,804.3,37...

  10. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-09-27

    This publication contains the 1994 survey results of the ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` (Form EIA-821). This is the sixth year that the survey data have appeared in a separate publication. Prior to the 1989 report, the statistics appeared in the Petroleum Marketing Annual (PMA)for reference year 1988 and the Petroleum Marketing Monthly (PMM) for reference years 1984 through 1987. The 1994 edition marks the 11th annual presentation of the results of the ongoing ``Annual Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales Report`` survey. Distillate and residual fuel oil sales continued to move in opposite directions during 1994. Distillate sales rose for the third year in a row, due to a growing economy. Residual fuel oil sales, on the other hand, declined for the sixth year in a row, due to competitive natural gas prices, and a warmer heating season than in 1993. Distillate fuel oil sales increased 4.4 percent while residual fuel oil sales declined 1.6 percent. Kerosene sales decreased 1.4 percent in 1994.

  11. Overload protection circuit for output driver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stewart, Roger G.

    1982-05-11

    A protection circuit for preventing excessive power dissipation in an output transistor whose conduction path is connected between a power terminal and an output terminal. The protection circuit includes means for sensing the application of a turn on signal to the output transistor and the voltage at the output terminal. When the turn on signal is maintained for a period of time greater than a given period without the voltage at the output terminal reaching a predetermined value, the protection circuit decreases the turn on signal to, and the current conduction through, the output transistor.

  12. New Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Design Methods and Algorithms for Multi-component Distillation Processes Improved Energy Efficiency through the Determination of Optimal Distillation Configuration The ability to apply low-energy distillation confgurations can allow chemical manufacturers to reduce energy consumption of both existing and grassroots plants. However, the determina- tion of an appropriate confguration is limited by an incomplete knowledge of the 'search space' for a proper distillation network. Currently, no

  13. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-17

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide consise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: Distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; Natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s as well as selected National average prices; Residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; Crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and A 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree days by city.

  14. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-29

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; propane net product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and US total heating degree-days by city. 27 figs, 12 tabs.

  15. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1995-02-03

    The Winter Fuels Report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and State and local governments on the following topics: distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for all Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) and product supplied on a US level; propane net production, imports and stocks on a US level and for PADD`s I, II, and III; natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the US and consumption for all PADD`s; as well as selected National average prices; residential and wholesale pricing data for heating oil and propane for those States participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the US and selected cities; and a 6-10 Day and 30-Day outlook for temperature and precipitation and US total heating degree-days by city.

  16. Integrated process of distillation with side reactors for synthesis of organic acid esters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panchal, Chandrakant B; Prindle, John C; Kolah, Aspri; Miller, Dennis J; Lira, Carl T

    2015-11-04

    An integrated process and system for synthesis of organic-acid esters is provided. The method of synthesizing combines reaction and distillation where an organic acid and alcohol composition are passed through a distillation chamber having a plurality of zones. Side reactors are used for drawing off portions of the composition and then recycling them to the distillation column for further purification. Water is removed from a pre-reactor prior to insertion into the distillation column. An integrated heat integration system is contained within the distillation column for further purification and optimizing efficiency in the obtaining of the final product.

  17. Enhanced Separation Efficiency in Olefin/Paraffin Distillation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This factsheet describes a research project whose main objective is to develop technologies to enhance separation efficiencies by replacing the conventional packing materials with hollow fiber membranes, which have a high specific area and separated channels for both liquid and vapor phases. The use of hollow fibers in distillation columns can help refineries decrease operating costs, reduce greenhouse gas emissions through reduced heating costs, and help expand U.S. refining capacity through improvements to existing sites, without large scale capital investment.

  18. Hydrogen as a fuel for fuel cell vehicles: A technical and economic comparison

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ogden, J.; Steinbugler, M.; Kreutz, T.

    1997-12-31

    All fuel cells currently being developed for near term use in vehicles require hydrogen as a fuel. Hydrogen can be stored directly or produced onboard the vehicle by reforming methanol, ethanol or hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil (e.g., Diesel, gasoline or middle distillates). The vehicle design is simpler with direct hydrogen storage, but requires developing a more complex refueling infrastructure. In this paper, the authors compare three leading options for fuel storage onboard fuel cell vehicles: compressed gas hydrogen storage; onboard steam reforming of methanol; onboard partial oxidation (POX) of hydrocarbon fuels derived from crude oil. Equilibrium, kinetic and heat integrated system (ASPEN) models have been developed to estimate the performance of onboard steam reforming and POX fuel processors. These results have been incorporated into a fuel cell vehicle model, allowing us to compare the vehicle performance, fuel economy, weight, and cost for various fuel storage choices and driving cycles. A range of technical and economic parameters were considered. The infrastructure requirements are also compared for gaseous hydrogen, methanol and hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil, including the added costs of fuel production, storage, distribution and refueling stations. Considering both vehicle and infrastructure issues, the authors compare hydrogen to other fuel cell vehicle fuels. Technical and economic goals for fuel cell vehicle and hydrogen technologies are discussed. Potential roles for hydrogen in the commercialization of fuel cell vehicles are sketched.

  19. Summary of the Output from the VTP Advanced Materials Workshop | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy the Output from the VTP Advanced Materials Workshop Summary of the Output from the VTP Advanced Materials Workshop 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting vtpn04_lm_schutte_2012_o.pdf (461.49 KB) More Documents & Publications Materials Lightweight Materials Overview Overview of Lightweight Materials

  20. Evaluation of coal-derived liquids as boiler fuels. Volume 2: boiler test results. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1985-09-01

    A combustion demonstration using six coal-derived liquid (CDL) fuels was conducted on a utility boiler located at the Plant Sweatt Electric Generating Station of Mississippi Power Company in Meridian, Mississippi. The test program was conducted in two phases. The first phase included the combustion tests of the two conventional fuels (natural gas and No. 6 fuel oil) and three coal-derived liquid fuels (Solvent Refined Coal-II full range distillate, H-Coal heavy distillate and H-Coal blended distillate). The second phase involved the evaluation of three additional CDL fuels (H-Coal light distillate, Exxon Donor Solvent full range distillate and Solvent Refined Coal-II middle distillate). The test boiler was a front wall-fired Babcock and Wilcox unit with a rated steam flow of 425,000 lb/h and a generating capacity of 40 MW. Boiler performance and emissions were evaluated with baseline and CDL fuels at 15, 25, 40 MW loads and at various excess air levels. Low NO/sub x/ (staged) combustion techniques were also implemented. Boiler performance monitoring included measurements for fuel steam and flue gas flow, pressure, temperature, and heat absorption, resulting in a calculated combustion efficiency, boiler efficiency, and heat rate. Emissions measurements included oxygen, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur dioxide, sulfur trioxide, acid dewpoint, particulate mass, size distribution and morphology, chlorides, and opacity. The test program demonstrated the general suitability of CDL fuels for use in existing oil-fired utility boilers. No significant boiler tube surface modifications will be required. The CDL fuels could be handled similarly to No. 2 oil with appropriate safety procedures and materials compatibility considerations. Volume 2 of a five-volume report contains the detailed boiler test results. 96 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radley, Ian; Bievenue, Thomas J.; Burdett, John H.; Gallagher, Brian W.; Shakshober, Stuart M.; Chen, Zewu; Moore, Michael D.

    2008-06-08

    An x-ray source assembly and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode having a source spot upon which electrons impinge and a control system for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  2. X-ray source assembly having enhanced output stability, and fluid stream analysis applications thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radley, Ian; Bievenue, Thomas J.; Burdett Jr., John H.; Gallagher, Brian W.; Shakshober, Stuart M.; Chen, Zewu; Moore, Michael D.

    2007-04-24

    An x-ray source assembly (2700) and method of operation are provided having enhanced output stability. The assembly includes an anode (2125) having a source spot upon which electrons (2120) impinge and a control system (2715/2720) for controlling position of the anode source spot relative to an output structure. The control system can maintain the anode source spot location relative to the output structure (2710) notwithstanding a change in one or more operating conditions of the x-ray source assembly. One aspect of the disclosed invention is most amenable to the analysis of sulfur in petroleum-based fuels.

  3. Fuel Options

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hydrogen Production Market Transformation Fuel Cells Predictive Simulation of Engines ... Twitter Google + Vimeo Newsletter Signup SlideShare Fuel Options HomeCapabilitiesFuel ...

  4. T-534: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    PROBLEM: Vulnerability in the PDF distiller of the BlackBerry Attachment Service for the BlackBerry Enterprise Server. PLATFORM: * BlackBerry Enterprise Server Express version...

  5. Fractional distillation of C/sub 2//C/sub 3/ hydrocarbons at optimum pressures

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tedder, D.W.

    1984-08-07

    A method of recovering by distillation the separate components of a hydrocarbon gas mixture comprising ethylene, ethane, propylene and propane which comprises separating the ethylene and ethane as an overhead from a propylene and propane bottom in a first distillation tower at from about 400 to about 600 psia, separating ethylene and ethane as an ethylene overhead and an ethane bottom in a second distillation tower at from about 600 to about 700 psia, and separating propylene as an overhead from a propane bottom in a third distillation tower at from about 280 to about 300 psia is disclosed.

  6. Combined process for heavy oil, upgrading and synthetic fuel production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polomski, R.E.

    1984-06-05

    A process for upgrading heavy oil to fuel products comprises deasphalting the heavy oil with an oxygenated solvent and simultaneously converting the oxygenated solvent and deasphalted oil over a ZSM-5 type catalyst to produce gasoline and distillate boiling range hydrocarbons.

  7. Biomass fuel use in agriculture under alternative fuel prices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjornstad, D.J.; Hillsman, E.L.; Tepel, R.C.

    1984-11-01

    A linear programming model is used to analyze cost-competitiveness of biomass fuels in agricultural applications for the projected year 1990. With all else held constant, the prices of conventional fuels are increased and analytically compared to prices for biomass fuel products across a variety of end uses. Potential penetration of biomass fuels is measured as the share of each conventional fuel for which cost savings could be realized by substituting biomass fuels. This study examines the cost competitiveness of biomass fuels produced on farms, relative to conventional fuels (diesel, gasoline, natural gas, LPG, fuel oil, and electricity), as the prices of conventional fuels change. The study is targeted at the year 1990 and considers only fuel use in the agricultural sector. The method of analysis is to project fuel demands for ten farm operations in the year 1990 and to match these with biomass fuel substitutes from ten feedstock and nine process alternatives. In all, 61 feedstock/process combinations are possible. The matching of fuel demands and biomass fuels occurs in a linear programming model that seeks to meet fuel demands at minimum cost. Two types of biomass fuel facilities are considered, assuming a decentralized fuel distribution system. The first includes on-farm production units such as oil presses, low-Btu gasifiers, biogas digestors and direct combustion units. The second type of facility would be run by a farm co-operative. The primary data describing the biomass technologies are cost per unit output, where costs are calculated as first-year capital charges, plus al l allocable operating expenses, less any by-products of value. All costs assume commercial purchase of equipment. Homemade or makeshift installations are not considered. 1 reference.

  8. Farm alcohol fuel project. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demmel, D.

    1981-11-15

    The Small Energy Project is a research and demonstration effort designed to assist small farmers in the utilization of energy conservation techniques on their farms. The Farm Alcohol Project was designed to demonstrate the production of alcohol fuels on small farms in order to reduce purchased liquid fuel requirements. The Project considered the use of on-farm raw materials for process heat and the production of fuel grade, low prood ethanol in volumes up to 10,000 gallons per year. The fuel would be used entirely on the farm. The approach considered low-cost systems the farmer could build himself from local resources. Various crops were considered for ethanol production. The interest in farm alcohol production reached a peak in 1980 and then decreased substantially as farmers learned that the process of alcohol production on the farm was much more complicated than earlier anticipated. Details of Alcohol Project experiences in ethanol production, primarily from corn, are included in this report. A one-bushel distillation plant was constructed as a learning tool to demonstrate the production of ethanol. The report discusses the various options in starch conversion, fermentation and distillation that can be utilized. The advantages and disavantages of atmospheric and the more complicated process of vacuum distillation are evaluated. Larger farm plants are considered in the report, although no experience in operating such plants was gained through the Project. Various precautions and other considerations are included for farm plant designs. A larger community portable distillery is also evaluated. Such a plant was considered for servicing farms with limited plant equipment. The farms serviced would perform only fermentation tasks, with the portable device performing distillation and starch conversion.

  9. Fossil fuels -- future fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-03-01

    Fossil fuels -- coal, oil, and natural gas -- built America`s historic economic strength. Today, coal supplies more than 55% of the electricity, oil more than 97% of the transportation needs, and natural gas 24% of the primary energy used in the US. Even taking into account increased use of renewable fuels and vastly improved powerplant efficiencies, 90% of national energy needs will still be met by fossil fuels in 2020. If advanced technologies that boost efficiency and environmental performance can be successfully developed and deployed, the US can continue to depend upon its rich resources of fossil fuels.

  10. High Energy Output Marx Generator Design

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Monty Lehmann

    2011-07-01

    High Energy Output Marx Generator Design a design of a six stage Marx generator that has a unipolar pulse waveform of 200 kA in a 50500 microsecond waveform is presented. The difficulties encountered in designing the components to withstand the temperatures and pressures generated during the output pulse are discussed. The unique methods and materials used to successfully overcome these problems are given. The steps necessary to increase the current output of this Marx generator design to the meg-ampere region or higher are specified.

  11. Deliveries of fuel oil and kerosene in 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-02-11

    This report contains numerical data on deliveries of distillate fuel oil, residual fuel oil, and kerosene which will be helpful to federal and state agencies, industry, and trade associations in trend analysis, policy/decision making, and forecasting. The data for 1979 and 1980 are tabulated under the following headings: all uses, residential, commercial, industrial, oil companies, electric utilities, transportation, military, and farm use. The appendix contains product and end-use descriptions. (DMC)

  12. Winter fuels report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    The report is intended to provide concise, timely information to the industry, the press, policymakers, consumers, analysts, and state and local governments on the following topics: (1) distillate fuel oil net production, imports and stocks for all PADD's and product supplied on a US level; (2) propane net production, imports and stocks for Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) I, II, and III; (3) natural gas supply and disposition and underground storage for the United States and consumption for all PADD's; (4) residential and wholesale pricing data for propane and heating oil for those states participating in the joint Energy Information Administration (EIA)/State Heating Oil and Propane Program; (5) crude oil and petroleum price comparisons for the United States and selected cities; and (6) US total heating degree-days by city.

  13. Fuel Tables.indd

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    F7: Distillate Fuel Oil Consumption Estimates, 2014 State Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric Power Total Residential Commercial Industrial Transportation Electric Power Total Thousand Barrels Trillion Btu Alabama 18 677 3,447 20,567 177 24,885 0.1 3.9 19.9 118.8 1.0 143.7 Alaska 1,155 1,264 4,022 5,738 507 12,686 6.7 7.3 23.2 33.1 2.9 73.2 Arizona 2 1,025 5,201 18,452 108 24,789 (s) 5.9 30.0 106.5 0.6 143.1 Arkansas 5 570 5,157 15,448 45 21,225 (s) 3.3 29.8 89.2 0.3 122.6

  14. Opportunity fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutwen, R.C.

    1994-12-31

    Opportunity fuels - fuels that can be converted to other forms of energy at lower cost than standard fossil fuels - are discussed in outline form. The type and source of fuels, types of fuels, combustability, methods of combustion, refinery wastes, petroleum coke, garbage fuels, wood wastes, tires, and economics are discussed.

  15. Fuel cell stack monitoring and system control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keskula, Donald H.; Doan, Tien M.; Clingerman, Bruce J.

    2004-02-17

    A control method for monitoring a fuel cell stack in a fuel cell system in which the actual voltage and actual current from the fuel cell stack are monitored. A preestablished relationship between voltage and current over the operating range of the fuel cell is established. A variance value between the actual measured voltage and the expected voltage magnitude for a given actual measured current is calculated and compared with a predetermined allowable variance. An output is generated if the calculated variance value exceeds the predetermined variance. The predetermined voltage-current for the fuel cell is symbolized as a polarization curve at given operating conditions of the fuel cell.

  16. Mirrored serpentine flow channels for fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rock, Jeffrey Allan

    2000-08-08

    A PEM fuel cell having serpentine flow field channels wherein the input/inlet legs of each channel border the input/inlet legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field, and the output/exit legs of each channel border the output/exit legs of the next adjacent channels in the same flow field. The serpentine fuel flow channels may be longer, and may contain more medial legs, than the serpentine oxidant flow channels.

  17. Fuel cell system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Early, Jack; Kaufman, Arthur; Stawsky, Alfred

    1982-01-01

    A fuel cell system is comprised of a fuel cell module including sub-stacks of series-connected fuel cells, the sub-stacks being held together in a stacked arrangement with cold plates of a cooling means located between the sub-stacks to function as electrical terminals. The anode and cathode terminals of the sub-stacks are connected in parallel by means of the coolant manifolds which electrically connect selected cold plates. The system may comprise a plurality of the fuel cell modules connected in series. The sub-stacks are designed to provide a voltage output equivalent to the desired voltage demand of a low voltage, high current DC load such as an electrolytic cell to be driven by the fuel cell system. This arrangement in conjunction with switching means can be used to drive a DC electrical load with a total voltage output selected to match that of the load being driven. This arrangement eliminates the need for expensive voltage regulation equipment.

  18. Comparison of advanced distillation control methods. Third annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Riggs, J.B.

    1997-07-01

    Detailed dynamic simulations of three industrial distillation columns (a propylene/propane splitter, a xylene/toluene column, and a depropanizer) have been used to study the issue of configuration selection for diagonal PI dual composition controls, feedforward from a feed composition analyzer, and decouplers. Auto Tune Variation (ATV) identification with on-line detuning for setpoint changes was used for tuning the diagonal proportional integral (PI) composition controls. In addition, robustness tests were conducted by inducting reboiler duty upsets. For single composition control, the (L, V) configuration was found to be best. For dual composition control, the optimum configuration changes from one column to another. Moreover, the use of analysis tools, such as RGA, appears to be of little value in identifying the optimum configuration for dual composition control. Using feedforward from a feed composition analyzer and using decouplers are shown to offer significant advantages for certain specific cases.

  19. Low capital implementation of distributed distillation in ethylene recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reyneke, Rian; Foral, Michael J.; Lee, Guang-Chung

    2006-10-31

    An apparatus for recovering ethylene from a hydrocarbon feed stream, where the apparatus is a single distillation column pressure shell encasing an upper region and a lower region. The upper region houses an ethylene distributor rectifying section and the lower region houses a C2 distributor section and an ethylene distributor stripping section. Vapor passes from the lower region into the upper region, and liquid passes from the upper region to the lower region. The process for recovering the ethylene is also disclosed. The hydrocarbon feed stream is introduced into the C2 distributor section, and after a series of stripping and refluxing steps, distinct hydrocarbon products are recovered from the C2 distributor section, the ethylene distributor stripping section, and the ethylene distributor rectifying section, respectively.

  20. UV resonance Raman characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in coal liquid distillates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rumelfanger, R.; Asher, S.A.; Perry, M.B.

    1988-02-01

    Ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition of a series of distillates of coal-derived liquids. The UV Raman spectra easily monitor changes in the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon composition as a function of distillation temperature. Specific species, such as pyrene, can be determined by judicious choice of excitation wavelength.

  1. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, K.C.

    1988-01-21

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil area of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor. 2 figs.

  2. Expert system for surveillance and diagnosis of breach fuel elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gross, Kenny C.

    1989-01-01

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for surveillance and diagnosis of breached fuel elements in a nuclear reactor. A delayed neutron monitoring system provides output signals indicating the delayed neutron activity and age and the equivalent recoil areas of a breached fuel element. Sensors are used to provide outputs indicating the status of each component of the delayed neutron monitoring system. Detectors also generate output signals indicating the reactor power level and the primary coolant flow rate of the reactor. The outputs from the detectors and sensors are interfaced with an artificial intelligence-based knowledge system which implements predetermined logic and generates output signals indicating the operability of the reactor.

  3. U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia ...

  4. U.S. Adjusted Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia ...

  5. U.S. Sales of Distillate Fuel Oil by End Use

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia ...

  6. U.S. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Area: U.S. East Coast (PADD 1) New England (PADD 1A) Connecticut Maine Massachusetts New Hampshire Rhode Island Vermont Central Atlantic (PADD 1B) Delaware District of Columbia ...

  7. ,"U.S. Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End Use"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...301984" ,"Data 11","Military",4,"Annual",2014,"6301984" ,"Data ... "Back to Contents","Data 11: Military" "Sourcekey","KD0VMINUS1","K2DVMINUS1","...

  8. ,"U.S. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ...301984" ,"Data 11","Military",4,"Annual",2014,"6301984" ,"Data ... "Back to Contents","Data 11: Military" "Sourcekey","KD0VAMNUS1","K2DVAMNUS1","...

  9. ,"U.S. Adjusted Distillate Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales by End...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Residential",4,"Annual",2013,"6301984" ,"Data...

  10. The Influence of Molecular Structure of Distillate Fuels on HFRR Lubricity

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given at 2007 Diesel Engine-Efficiency & Emissions Research Conference (DEER 2007). 13-16 August, 2007, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of FreedomCAR and Vehicle Technologies (OFCVT).