National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dissolved solids tds

  1. Cost Effective Recovery of Low-TDS Frac Flowback Water for Re-use

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Claire Henderson; Harish Acharya; Hope Matis; Hareesh Kommepalli; Brian Moore; Hua Wang

    2011-03-31

    The project goal was to develop a cost-effective water recovery process to reduce the costs and envi-ronmental impact of shale gas production. This effort sought to develop both a flowback water pre-treatment process and a membrane-based partial demineralization process for the treatment of the low-Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) portion of the flowback water produced during hydrofracturing operations. The TDS cutoff for consideration in this project is < 35,000 {approx} 45,000 ppm, which is the typical limit for economic water recovery employing reverse osmosis (RO) type membrane desalination processes. The ultimate objective is the production of clean, reclaimed water suitable for re-use in hydrofracturing operations. The team successfully compiled data on flowback composition and other attributes across multiple shale plays, identified the likely applicability of membrane treatment processes in those shales, and expanded the proposed product portfolio to include four options suitable for various reuse or discharge applications. Pretreatment technologies were evaluated at the lab scale and down-selected based upon their efficacy in removing key contaminants. The chosen technologies were further validated by performing membrane fouling studies with treated flowback water to demonstrate the technical feasibility of flowback treatment with RO membranes. Process flow schemes were constructed for each of the four product options based on experimental performance data from actual flowback water treatment studies. For the products requiring membrane treatment, membrane system model-ing software was used to create designs for enhanced water recovery beyond the typical seawater desalination benchmark. System costs based upon vendor and internal cost information for all process flow schemes were generated and are below target and in line with customer expectations. Finally, to account for temporal and geographic variability in flowback characteristics as well as local disposal costs and regulations, a parametric value assessment tool was created to assess the economic attractiveness of a given flowback recovery process relative to conventional disposal for any combination of anticipated flowback TDS and local disposal cost. It is concluded that membrane systems in combination with appropriate pretreatment technologies can provide cost-effective recovery of low-TDS flow-back water for either beneficial reuse or safe surface discharge.

  2. Determination of Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved Solids in Liquid Process Samples: Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Total Solids in Biomass and Total Dissolved Solids in Liquid Process Samples Laboratory Analytical Procedure (LAP) Issue Date: 3/31/2008 A. Sluiter, B. Hames, D. Hyman, C. Payne, R. Ruiz, C. Scarlata, J. Sluiter, D. Templeton, and J. Wolfe Technical Report NREL/TP-510-42621 Revised March 2008 NREL is operated by Midwest Research Institute ● Battelle Contract No. DE-AC36-99-GO10337 National Renewable Energy Laboratory 1617 Cole Boulevard, Golden, Colorado 80401-3393 303-275-3000 * www.nrel.gov

  3. Utilizing rare earth elements as tracers in high TDS reservoir brines in CCS applications

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    McLing, Travis; Smith, William; Smith, Robert

    2014-12-31

    In this paper we report the result of research associated with the testing of a procedures necessary for utilizing natural occurring trace elements, specifically the Rare Earth Elements (REE) as geochemical tracers in Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) applications. Trace elements, particularly REE may be well suited to serve as in situ tracers for monitoring geochemical conditions and the migration of CO₂-charged waters within CCS storage systems. We have been conducting studies to determine the efficacy of using REE as a tracer and characterization tool in the laboratory, at a CCS analogue site in Soda Springs, Idaho, and at amore » proposed CCS reservoir at the Rock Springs Uplift, Wyoming. Results from field and laboratory studies have been encouraging and show that REE may be an effective tracer in CCS systems and overlying aquifers. In recent years, a series of studies using REE as a natural groundwater tracer have been conducted successfully at various locations around the globe. Additionally, REE and other trace elements have been successfully used as in situ tracers to describe the evolution of deep sedimentary Basins. Our goal has been to establish naturally occurring REE as a useful monitoring measuring and verification (MMV) tool in CCS research because formation brine chemistry will be particularly sensitive to changes in local equilibrium caused by the addition of large volumes of CO₂. Because brine within CCS target formations will have been in chemical equilibrium with the host rocks for millions of years, the addition of large volumes of CO₂ will cause reactions in the formation that will drive changes to the brine chemistry due to the pH change caused by the formation of carbonic acid. This CO₂ driven change in formation fluid chemistry will have a major impact on water rock reaction equilibrium in the formation, which will impart a change in the REE fingerprint of the brine that can measured and be used to monitor in situ reservoir conditions. Our research has shown that the REE signature imparted to the formation fluid by the introduction of CO₂ to the formation, can be measured and tracked as part of an MMV program. Additionally, this REE fingerprint may serve as an ideal tracer for fluid migration, both within the CCS target formation, and should formation fluids migrate into overlying aquifers. However application of REE and other trace elements to CCS system is complicated by the high salt content of the brines contained within the target formations. In the United States by regulation, in order for a geologic reservoir to be considered suitable for carbon storage, it must contain formation brine with total dissolved solids (TDS) > 10,000 ppm, and in most cases formation brines have TDS well in excess of that threshold. The high salinity of these brines creates analytical problems for elemental analysis, including element interference with trace metals in Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectroscopy (ICP-MS) (i.e. element mass overlap due to oxide or plasma phenomenon). Additionally, instruments like the ICP-MS that are sensitive enough to measure trace elements down to the parts per trillion level are quickly oversaturated when water TDS exceeds much more than 1,000 ppm. Normally this problem is dealt with through dilution of the sample, bringing the water chemistry into the instruments working range. However, dilution is not an option when analyzing these formation brines for trace metals, because trace elements, specifically the REE, which occur in aqueous solutions at the parts per trillion levels. Any dilution of the sample would make REE detection impossible. Therefore, the ability to use trace metals as in situ natural tracers in high TDS brines environments requires the development of methods for pre-concentrating trace elements, while reducing the salinity and associated elemental interference such that the brines can be routinely analyzed by standard ICP-MS methods. As part of the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Project the INL-CAES has developed a rapid, easy to use process that pre-concentrates trace metals, including REE, up to 100x while eliminating interfering ions (e.g. Ba, Cl). The process is straightforward, inexpensive, and requires little infrastructure, using only a single chromatography column with inexpensive, reusable, commercially available resins and wash chemicals. The procedure has been tested with synthetic brines (215,000 ppm or less TDS) and field water samples (up to 5,000 ppm TDS). Testing has produced data of high quality with REE capture efficiency exceeding 95%, while reducing interfering elements by > 99%.« less

  4. Process for separating dissolved solids from a liquid using an anti-solvent and multiple effect evaporators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, Edward J. (Oak Lawn, IL); Jody, Bassam J. (Chicago, IL); Bonsignore, Patrick V. (Channahon, IL)

    1994-01-01

    A process and system for treating aluminum salt cake containing water soluble halide salts by contacting the salt cake with water to dissolve water soluble halide salts forming a saturated brine solution. Transporting a portion of about 25% of the saturated brine solution to a reactor and introducing into the saturated brine solution at least an equal volume of a water-miscible low-boiling organic material such as acetone to precipitate a portion of the dissolved halide salts forming a three-phase mixture of an aqueous-organic-salt solution phase and a precipitated salt phase and an organic rich phase. The precipitated salt phase is separated from the other phases and the organic rich phase is recycled to the reactor. The remainder of the saturated brine solution is sent to a multiple effect evaporator having a plurality of stages with the last stage thereof producing low grade steam which is used to boil off the organic portion of the solution which is recycled.

  5. Process for separating dissolved solids from a liquid using an anti-solvent and multiple effect evaporators

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Daniels, E.J.; Jody, B.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.

    1994-07-19

    A process and system are disclosed for treating aluminum salt cake containing water soluble halide salts by contacting the salt cake with water to dissolve water soluble halide salts forming a saturated brine solution. Transporting a portion of about 25% of the saturated brine solution to a reactor and introducing into the saturated brine solution at least an equal volume of a water-miscible low-boiling organic material such as acetone to precipitate a portion of the dissolved halide salts forming a three-phase mixture of an aqueous-organic-salt solution phase and a precipitated salt phase and an organic rich phase. The precipitated salt phase is separated from the other phases and the organic rich phase is recycled to the reactor. The remainder of the saturated brine solution is sent to a multiple effect evaporator having a plurality of stages with the last stage thereof producing low grade steam which is used to boil off the organic portion of the solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  6. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  7. Computed solid phases limiting the concentration of dissolved constituents in basalt aquifers of the Columbia Plateau in eastern Washington. Geochemical modeling and nuclide/rock/groundwater interaction studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deutsch, W.J.; Jenne, E.A.; Krupka, K.M.

    1982-08-01

    A speciation-solubility geochemical model, WATEQ2, was used to analyze geographically-diverse, ground-water samples from the aquifers of the Columbia Plateau basalts in eastern Washington. The ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with calcite, which provides both a solubility control for dissolved calcium and a pH buffer. Amorphic ferric hydroxide, Fe(OH)/sub 3/(A), is at saturation or modestly oversaturated in the few water samples with measured redox potentials. Most of the ground-water samples compute to be at equilibrium with amorphic silica (glass) and wairakite, a zeolite, and are saturated to oversaturated with respect to allophane, an amorphic aluminosilicate. The water samples are saturated to undersaturated with halloysite, a clay, and are variably oversaturated with regard to other secondary clay minerals. Equilibrium between the ground water and amorphic silica presumably results from the dissolution of the glassy matrix of the basalt. The oversaturation of the clay minerals other than halloysite indicates that their rate of formation lags the dissolution rate of the basaltic glass. The modeling results indicate that metastable amorphic solids limit the concentration of dissolved silicon and suggest the same possibility for aluminum and iron, and that the processes of dissolution of basaltic glass and formation of metastable secondary minerals are continuing even though the basalts are of Miocene age. The computed solubility relations are found to agree with the known assemblages of alteration minerals in the basalt fractures and vesicles. Because the chemical reactivity of the bedrock will influence the transport of solutes in ground water, the observed solubility equilibria are important factors with regard to chemical-retention processes associated with the possible migration of nuclear waste stored in the earth's crust.

  8. Adsorption of iso-/n-butane on an Anatase Thin Film: A Molecular Beam Scattering and TDS Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goering, J.; Kadossov, E.; Burghaus, Uwe; Yu, Zhongqing; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Saraf, Laxmikant V.

    2007-07-01

    Binding energies and adsorption probabilities have been determined for n/iso-butane adsorption on an anatase thin film grown on SrTiO3(001) by means of thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS) and molecular beam scattering. The sample has been characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and Auger electrons spectroscopy (AES).

  9. Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

  10. Process for coal liquefaction by separation of entrained gases from slurry exiting staged dissolvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a solvent, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals are separated from the condensed dissolver effluent. In accordance with the improved process, fresh hydrogen is fed to each dissolver and the entrained gas from each dissolver is separated from the slurry phase and removed from the reactor system before the condensed phase is passed to the next dissolver in the series. In accordance with another process, the feeds to the dissolvers are such that the top of each downstream dissolver is used as a gas-liquid separator.

  11. Appendix SOTERM: Actinide Chemistry Source Term

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    bacteria SUi solubility uncertainty sampled from a distribution unique to each oxidation state i T temperature t half-life TDS total dissolved solid TR-LIF Time-resolved laser...

  12. Review of dissolved gas supersaturation literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitkamp, D.E.; Katz, M.

    1980-11-01

    Dissolved gas supersaturation is a condition that results from natural and human-caused processes. Supersaturation can result in gas bubble disease which has been described in a wide variety of fishes and invertebrates. In recent years dissolved gas supersaturation resulting from dams and thermal discharges has produced mortalities of fish in several cases. This review discusses most of the available literature dealing with dissolved gas supersaturation and the recorded cases of gas bubble disease.

  13. ARM - Lesson Plans: Dissolved Gases in Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissolved Gases in Water Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Dissolved Gases in Water Objective The objective of this activity is to prove that ocean water can absorb greenhouse gases and to demonstrate that what appears to be clear water is actually a complex

  14. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  15. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

    1998-03-24

    A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  16. Solid Catalyst - Alkylation - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Find More Like This Return to Search Solid Catalyst - Alkylation Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary This is a method used to reactivate solid/liquid catalysts used in INL's super critical process to produce alkylates. The method brings the catalyst into contact with the designated fluid that serves as the reactivating agent and has the density to dissolve the impurities. The process reactivates the

  17. A review of dissolved gas supersaturation literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitkamp, D.E.; Katz, M.

    1980-11-01

    Gas bubble disease in a condition that affects aquatic animals residing in fresh or marine waters that are supersaturated with atmospheric gases. The majority of research concerning dissolved gas supersaturation has been stimulated by a serious supersaturation problem that was first observed in the Columbia and Snake river systems in 1970. Available literature dealing with dissolved gas supersaturation and recorded cases of gas bubble disease are reviewed. The causes of supersaturation, the organisms affected by supersaturation, factors influencing susceptibility of aquatic organisms to gas bubble disease, and various other related topics are explored.

  18. Solid electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA)

    1993-06-15

    This invention pertains to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized (encapsulated) in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing complexes (solvates) formed between a Li salt such as LiAsF.sub.6, LiCF.sub.3 SO.sub.3 or LiClO.sub.4 and a mixture of aprotic organic solvents having high dielectric constants such as ethylene carbonate (EC) (dielectric constant=89.6) and propylene carbonate (PC) (dielectric constant=64.4) in a polymer matrix such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(tetraethylene glycol diacrylate), or poly(vinyl pyrrolidinone).

  19. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karraker, David G. (1600 Sherwood Pl., SE., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  20. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  1. Nebraska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) No Data Available For This Series - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Nebraska Associated-Dissolved Natural

  2. New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  3. ,"New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease...

  4. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Associated-Dissolved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease...

  5. Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is commonly measured in water and is an important parameter for understanding carbonate equilibrium, carbon cycling, and water-rock interaction. ...

  6. ,"Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  7. Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

  8. ,"Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  9. ,"Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  10. ,"Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  11. ,"Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,...

  12. ,"Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,...

  13. ,"Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,...

  14. ,"Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  15. ,"Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  16. ,"Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

  17. ,"West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  18. ,"Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  19. ,"California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  20. ,"Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  1. ,"New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  2. Methanex, Hoechst Celanese dissolve methanol partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, G.D.L.

    1993-03-31

    One of the many joint venture alliances recently announced in the petrochemical sector is ending in divorce. Hoechst Celanese Chemical (Dallas) and Methanex Corp. (Vancouver) are in the process of dissolving the partnership they had formed to restart Hoechst Celanese's methanol plant at Clear Lake, TX. Hoechst Celanese says it is actively seeking replacement partners and has several likely prospects, while Methanex is concentrating on its other ventures. Those include its just-completed acquisition of Fletcher Challenge's (Auckland, NZ) methanol business and a joint venture with American Cyanamid to convert an ammonia plant at Fortier, LA to methanol. Methanex will still be the world's largest producer of methanol. Officially, the negotiations between Methanex and Hoechst Celanese just broke down over the last month or so,' says Steve Yurich, operations manager for the Clear Lake plant. Market sources, however, say that Methanex found itself with too many irons in the fire' and pulled out before it ran into financial or perhaps even antitrust difficulties.

  3. Neptunium estimation in dissolver and high-level-waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Kanekar, A.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    This papers deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the estimation of {sup 237}Np in spent-fuel dissolver/high-level waste solutions using thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the extractant. (authors)

  4. Corrosion Testing of Carbon Steel in Oxalic Acid that Contains Dissolved Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, Bruce J.; Mickalonis, John I.; Subramanian, Karthik H.

    2012-10-11

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid (OA) will be used to chemically clean the tanks after waste retrieval is completed. The waste tanks at SRS were constructed from carbon steel materials and thus are vulnerable to corrosion in acidic media. In addition to structural impacts, the impact of corrosion on the hydrogen generated during the process must be assessed. Electrochemical and coupon immersion tests were used to investigate the corrosion mechanism at anticipated process conditions. The testing showed that the corrosion rates were dependent upon the reduction of the iron species that had dissolved in solution. Initial corrosion rates were elevated due to the reduction of the ferric species to ferrous species. At later times, as the ferric species depleted, the corrosion rate decreased. On the other hand, the hydrogen evolution reaction became more dominant.

  5. SolidShperal

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2013-12-22

    SolidSpheral is an extension of the Spheral open source meshless hydrodynamics method. SolidSpheral adds the capability to model solid materials using analytic equations of state, and a simple damage model to allow for the modeled materials to undergo dynamic damage evolution. SolidSpheral is a distributed parallel code employing MPI for the parallel framework.

  6. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, Tytus R. (Hickory Hills, IL)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and process for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine.

  7. Simulation Analysis for HB-Line Dissolver Mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S

    2006-03-22

    In support of the HB-Line Engineering agitator mixing project, flow pattern calculations have been made for a 90{sup o} apart and helical pitch agitator submerged in a flat tank containing dissolver baskets. The work is intended to determine maximum agitator speed to keep the dissolver baskets from contacting the agitator for the nominal tank liquid level. The analysis model was based on one dissolver basket located on the bottom surface of the flat tank for a conservative estimate. The modeling results will help determine acceptable agitator speeds and tank liquid levels to ensure that the dissolver basket is kept from contacting the agitator blade during HB-Line dissolver tank operations. The numerical modeling and calculations have been performed using a computational fluid dynamics approach. Three-dimensional steady-state momentum and continuity equations were used as the basic equations to estimate fluid motion driven by an agitator with four 90{sup o} pitched blades or three flat blades. Hydraulic conditions were fully turbulent (Reynolds number about 1 x 10{sup 5}). A standard two-equation turbulence model ({kappa},{var_epsilon}), was used to capture turbulent eddy motion. The commercial finite volume code, Fluent [5], was used to create a prototypic geometry file with a non-orthogonal mesh. Hybrid meshing was used to fill the computational region between the round-edged tank bottom and agitator regions. The nominal calculations and a series of sensitivity runs were made to investigate the impact of flow patterns on the lifting behavior of the dissolver basket. At high rotational speeds and low tank levels, local turbulent flow reaches the critical condition for the dissolver basket to be picked up from the tank floor and to touch the agitator blades during the tank mixing operations. This is not desirable in terms of mixing performance. The modeling results demonstrate that the flow patterns driven by the agitators considered here are not strong enough to lift up the dissolver basket for the agitator speeds up to 2500 rpm. The results also show that local velocity magnitudes for the three-blade flat plate agitator are at maximum three times smaller than the helical fourblade one. Table 5 and Table 6 summarize the results.

  8. Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14 1980's 34 12 27 31 14 25 41 13 28 39 1990's 22 14 11 9 11 32 28 31 17 54 2000's 19 19 20 14 12 14 19 15 9 78 2010's 10 104 7 19 18 - = No

  9. Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 67 1980's 73 66 74 80 114 105 66 61 71 105 1990's 126 108 85 53 43 27 47 51 47 31 2000's 35 26 33 27 20 20 21 30 45 38 2010's 36 62 62 43 58 - = No Data Reported; --

  10. Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 51 1980's 122 89 81 108 77 91 98 97 101 68 1990's 86 66 61 53 55 53 51 42 52 67 2000's 70 85 94 112 130 161 195 219 197 312 2010's 302 270 289 304 325 - = No Data

  11. Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 108 1980's 122 99 86 64 90 81 69 62 69 57 1990's 53 45 55 59 117 110 119 112 106 100 2000's 93 96 102 92 88 87 50 110 1 7 2010's 30 2 0 1 0 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  12. Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 1980's 11 14 12 19 17 13 17 19 19 22 1990's 8 10 8 6 47 27 24 26 20 29 2000's 27 25 25 25 19 30 36 34 34 32 2010's 111 98 93 44 49 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  13. Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 765 1980's 916 1,040 832 775 690 632 567 488 249 237 1990's 241 192 160 120 134 133 255 287 183 260 2000's 186 168 159 139 107 98 90 73 78 53

  14. Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 733 1980's 883 758 719 824 774 689 577 569 491 432 1990's 408 437 352 328 357 326 347 281 228 227 2000's 214 159 214 269 193 153 192 179 148 77 2010's 72 77 94 125 108

  15. Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 13 1980's 23 25 1990's 25 23 30 46 56 44 38 30 28 27 2000's 29 26 31 32 32 29 18 20 19 29 2010's 38 48 100 46 141 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  16. Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 166 1980's 194 184 174 194 189 157 150 145 157 145 1990's 67 136 133 93 85 104 89 56 38 41 2000's 39 30 38 37 40 46 44 37 12 20 2010's 29 46 82 135 189 - = No Data

  17. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 307 1980's 265 265 325 344 256 254 261 243 220 233 1990's 228 220 196 135 145 109 120 129 116 233 2000's 244 185 197

  18. California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 175 1980's 207 162 103 114 162 185 149 155 158 141 1990's 110 120 100 108 108 115 112 143 153 174 2000's 203

  19. California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 249 1980's 307 1,110 1,249 1,312 1,252 1990's 1,229 995 987 976 1,077 1,195 1,151 498 437 488 2000's 500 490 459 456 412 776 756

  20. Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 9 1980's 11 14 14 21 78 67 22 21 8 19 1990's 23 20 10 8 9 36 47 92 79 96 2000's 157 168 137 164 125 134 151 130 127 133 2010's 144 134 125 269 299 - = No Data

  1. Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,038 1980's 1,374 1,228 1,060 959 867 710 691 691 616 581 1990's 573 572 624 502 611 879 824 850 794 713 2000's 652 488 561 450 362 384 347 365 223 362 2010's 334 318

  2. SAMPLE RESULTS FROM MCU SOLIDS OUTAGE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peters, T.; Washington, A.; Oji, L.; Coleman, C.; Poirier, M.

    2014-09-22

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has received several solid and liquid samples from MCU in an effort to understand and recover from the system outage starting on April 6, 2014. SRNL concludes that the presence of solids in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) is the likely root cause for the outage, based upon the following discoveries ? A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the scrub contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT) proved to be mostly sodium oxalate ? An archived sample from Tank 49H taken last year was shown to contain a fine precipitate of sodium oxalate ? A solids sample from the extraction contactor #1 drain pipe from extraction contactor#1 proved to be mostly sodium aluminosilicate ? A liquid sample from the SSFT was shown to have elevated levels of oxalate anion compared to the expected concentration in the feed Visual inspection of the SSFT indicated the presence of precipitated or transferred solids, which were likely also in the Salt Solution Receipt Tank (SSRT). The presence of the solids coupled with agitation performed to maintain feed temperature resulted in oxalate solids migration through the MCU system and caused hydraulic issues that resulted in unplanned phase carryover from the extraction into the scrub, and ultimately the strip contactors. Not only did this carryover result in the Strip Effluent (SE) being pushed out of waste acceptance specification, but it resulted in the deposition of solids into several of the contactors. At the same time, extensive deposits of aluminosilicates were found in the drain tube in the extraction contactor #1. However it is not known at this time how the aluminosilicate solids are related to the oxalate solids. The solids were successfully cleaned out of the MCU system. However, future consideration must be given to the exclusion of oxalate solids into the MCU system. There were 53 recommendations for improving operations recently identified. Some additional considerations or additional details are provided below as recommendations. ? From this point on, IC-Anions analyses of the DSSHT should be part of the monthly routine analysis in order to spot negative trends in the oxalate leaving the MCU system. Care must be taken to monitor the oxalate content to watch for sudden precipitation of oxalate salts in the system. ? Conduct a study to optimize the cleaning strategy at ARP-MCU through decreasing the concentration or entirely eliminating the oxalic acid. ? The contents of the SSFT should remain unagitated. Routine visual observation should be maintained to ensure there is not a large buildup of solids. As water with agitation provided sufficient removal of the solids in the feed tank, it should be considered as a good means for dissolving oxalate solids if they are found in the future. ? Conduct a study to improve prediction of oxalate solubility in salt batch feed materials. As titanium and mercury have been found in various solids in this report, evaluate if either element plays a role in oxalate solubility during processing. ? Salt batch characterization focuses primarily on characterization and testing of unaltered Tank 21H material; however, non-typical feeds are developed through cleaning, washing, and/or sump transfers. As these solutions are processed through MCU, they may precipitate solids or reduce performance. Salt batch characterization and testing should be expanded to encompass a broader range of feeds that may be processed through ARPMCU.

  3. Solids mass flow determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E. (Hempfield Township, Westmoreland County, PA)

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  4. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  5. Results of Characterization and Retrieval Testing on Tank 241-C-109 Heel Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, William S.

    2013-09-26

    Eight samples of heel solids from tank 241-C-109 were delivered to the 222-S Laboratory for characterization and dissolution testing. After being drained thoroughly, one-half to two-thirds of the solids were off-white to tan solids that, visually, were fairly evenly graded in size from coarse silt (30-60 μm) to medium pebbles (8-16 mm). The remaining solids were mostly strongly cemented aggregates ranging from coarse pebbles (16-32 mm) to fine cobbles (6-15 cm) in size. Solid phase characterization and chemical analysis indicated that the air-dry heel solids contained ≈58 wt% gibbsite [Al(OH){sub 3}] and ≈37 wt% natrophosphate [Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}�19H{sub 2}O]. The strongly cemented aggregates were mostly fine-grained gibbsite cemented with additional gibbsite. Dissolution testing was performed on two test samples. One set of tests was performed on large pieces of aggregate solids removed from the heel solids samples. The other set of dissolution tests was performed on a composite sample prepared from well-drained, air-dry heel solids that were crushed to pass a �-in. sieve. The bulk density of the composite sample was 2.04 g/mL. The dissolution tests included water dissolution followed by caustic dissolution testing. In each step of the three-step water dissolution tests, a volume of water approximately equal to 3 times the initial volume of the test solids was added. In each step, the test samples were gently but thoroughly mixed for approximately 2 days at an average ambient temperature of 25 �C. The caustic dissolution tests began with the addition of sufficient 49.6 wt% NaOH to the water dissolution residues to provide ≈3.1 moles of OH for each mole of Al estimated to have been present in the starting composite sample and ≈2.6 moles of OH for each mole of Al potentially present in the starting aggregate sample. Metathesis of gibbsite to sodium aluminate was then allowed to proceed over 10 days of gentle mixing of the test samples at temperatures ranging from 26-30 �C. The metathesized sodium aluminate was then dissolved by addition of volumes of water approximately equal to 1.3 times the volumes of caustic added to the test slurries. Aluminate dissolution was allowed to proceed for 2 days at ambient temperatures of ≈29 �C. Overall, the sequential water and caustic dissolution tests dissolved and removed 80.0 wt% of the tank 241-C-109 crushed heel solids composite test sample. The 20 wt% of solids remaining after the dissolution tests were 85-88 wt% gibbsite. If the density of the residual solids was approximately equal to that of gibbsite, they represented ≈17 vol% of the initial crushed solids composite test sample. In the water dissolution tests, addition of a volume of water ≈6.9 times the initial volume of the crushed solids composite was sufficient to dissolve and recover essentially all of the natrophosphate present. The ratio of the weight of water required to dissolve the natrophosphate solids to the estimated weight of natrophosphate present was 8.51. The Environmental Simulation Program (OLI Systems, Inc., Morris Plains, New Jersey) predicts that an 8.36 w/w ratio would be required to dissolve the estimated weight of natrophosphate present in the absence of other components of the heel solids. Only minor amounts of Al-bearing solids were removed from the composite solids in the water dissolution tests. The caustic metathesis/aluminate dissolution test sequence, executed at temperatures ranging from 27-30 �C, dissolved and recovered ≈69 wt% of the gibbsite estimated to have been present in the initial crushed heel solids composite. This level of gibbsite recovery is consistent with that measured in previous scoping tests on the dissolution of gibbsite in strong caustic solutions. Overall, the sequential water and caustic dissolution tests dissolved and removed 80.3 wt% of the tank 241-C-109 aggregate solids test sample. The residual solids were 92-95 wt% gibbsite. Only a minor portion (≈4.5 wt%) of the aggregate solids was dissolved and recovered in the water dissolution test. Other than some smoothing caused by continuous mixing, the aggregates were essentially unaffected by the water dissolution tests. During the caustic metathesis/aluminate dissolution test sequence, ≈81 wt% of the gibbsite estimated to have been present in the aggregate solids was dissolved and recovered. The pieces of aggregate were significantly reduced in size but persisted as distinct pieces of solids. The increased level of gibbsite recovery, as compared to that for the crushed heel solids composite, suggests that the way the gibbsite solids and caustic solution are mixed is a key determinant of the overall efficiency of gibbsite dissolution and recovery. The liquids recovered after the caustic dissolution tests on the crushed solids composite and the aggregate solids were observed for 170 days. No precipitation of gibbsite was observed. The distribution of particle sizes in the residual solids recovered following the dissolution tests on the crushed heel solids composite was characterized. Wet sieving indicated that 21.4 wt% of the residual solids were >710 μm in size, and laser light scattering indicated that the median equivalent spherical diameter in the <710-μm solids was 35 μm. The settling behavior of the residual solids following the large-scale dissolution tests was also studied. When dispersed at a concentration of ≈1 vol% in water, ≈24 wt% of the residual solids settled at a rate >0.43 in./s; ≈68 wt% settled at rates between 0.02 and 0.43 in./s; and ≈7 wt% settled slower than 0.02 in./s.

  6. Refining of solid ferrous scrap intermingled with copper by using molten aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Iwase, M.

    1996-12-31

    A new approach for the removal of copper from solid ferrous scrap has been proposed by the present authors. With this process, solid ferrous scrap intermingled with pure copper is brought into contact with molten aluminum, which dissolved copper preferentially, and is recovered as {l_brace}Al + Cu{r_brace} alloys. After a duration of 30 minutes at temperatures between 963 K and 1,223 K, steel scrap is removed from the bath, resulting in being free of copper contamination.

  7. Rotary bulk solids divider

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Maronde, Carl P. (McMurray, PA); Killmeyer, Jr., Richard P. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for the disbursement of a bulk solid sample comprising, a gravity hopper having a top open end and a bottom discharge end, a feeder positioned beneath the gravity hopper so as to receive a bulk solid sample flowing from the bottom discharge end, and a conveyor receiving the bulk solid sample from the feeder and rotating on an axis that allows the bulk solid sample to disperse the sample to a collection station.

  8. Laser cooling of solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Epstein, Richard I; Sheik-bahae, Mansoor

    2008-01-01

    We present an overview of solid-state optical refrigeration also known as laser cooling in solids by fluorescence upconversion. The idea of cooling a solid-state optical material by simply shining a laser beam onto it may sound counter intuitive but is rapidly becoming a promising technology for future cryocooler. We chart the evolution of this science in rare-earth doped solids and semiconductors.

  9. Solid State Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1989-08-01

    This report contains brief discussions on work done in the Solid State Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The topics covered are: Theoretical Solid State Physics; Neutron scattering; Physical properties of materials; The synthesis and characterization of materials; Ion beam and laser processing; and Structure of solids and surfaces. (LSP)

  10. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1992-03-17

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration is disclosed. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  11. Solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, Donald S. (Shelley, ID); Schober, Robert K. (Midwest City, OK); Beller, John (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1992-01-01

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates.

  12. Improved solid aerosol generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Prescott, D.S.; Schober, R.K.; Beller, J.

    1988-07-19

    An improved solid aerosol generator used to produce a gas borne stream of dry, solid particles of predetermined size and concentration. The improved solid aerosol generator nebulizes a feed solution of known concentration with a flow of preheated gas and dries the resultant wet heated aerosol in a grounded, conical heating chamber, achieving high recovery and flow rates. 2 figs.

  13. Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,360 2,391 2,128 1,794 1,741 1990's 1,554 1,394 1,167 926 980 1,001 1,039 1,016 911 979 2000's 807 796 670 586 557 588 561 641 1,235 1,072 2010's 679 639 773 870 908

  14. California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,253 1980's 2,713 2,664 2,465 2,408 2,270 2,074 2,006 2,033 1,947 1,927 1990's 1,874 1,818 1,738 1,676 1,386

  15. California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,961 1980's 3,345 2,660 2,663 2,546 2,507 1990's 2,400 2,213 2,093 1,982 1,698 1,619 1,583 1,820 1,879 2,150 2000's 2,198 1,922 1,900 1,810 2,006 2,585 2,155 2,193

  16. Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 181 1980's 200 259 206 173 208 167 190 219 177 236 1990's 510 682 762 1,162 1,088 1,072 1,055 533 772 781 2000's 960 1,025 1,097 1,186 1,293 1,326 1,541 1,838 2,010

  17. Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,246 1980's 2,252 2,441 2,426 2,269 2,244 2,149 2,191 2,017 1,894 1,785 1990's 1,820 1,406 1,483 1,550 1,342 1,228 1,023 1,015 1,196 1,238 2000's 1,113 1,109 1,177

  18. Dissolving the mineral calcite: Reaction front instability | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory calcite: Reaction front instability Share Topic Programs Chemical sciences & engineering Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging & holography Using the X-ray Reflection Interfacial Microscope powered by the Advanced Photon Source, researchers can both watch and drive the nanoscale changes of the surface of a calcite mineral as it dissolves in real-time. In this image, researchers observe distortions in the reaction front (the boundary between the blue and red regions)

  19. Solids fluidizer-injector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bulicz, T.R.

    1990-04-17

    An apparatus and process are described for fluidizing solid particles by causing rotary motion of the solid particles in a fluidizing chamber by a plurality of rotating projections extending from a rotatable cylinder end wall interacting with a plurality of fixed projections extending from an opposite fixed end wall and passing the solid particles through a radial feed orifice open to the solids fluidizing chamber on one side and a solid particle utilization device on the other side. The apparatus and process are particularly suited for obtaining intermittent feeding with continual solids supply to the fluidizing chamber. The apparatus and process are suitable for injecting solid particles, such as coal, to an internal combustion engine. 3 figs.

  20. Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled release experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater...

  1. Solid Cold - F

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    F. Progress in science Aside from what it tells us about the thermodynamics of solids, this analysis by Einstein illustrates some important things about the way scientific progress is made. For one, it serves as a typical example of how discoveries about one phenomenon often help us understand others that had no obvious relation to it earlier. In this case, newly discovered properties of light suggested significant facts about solids-and about whether or not solids were made of atoms. Einstein

  2. Mixed oxide solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Magno, Scott (Dublin, CA); Wang, Ruiping (Fremont, CA); Derouane, Eric (Liverpool, GB)

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is a mixed oxide solid solution containing a tetravalent and a pentavalent cation that can be used as a support for a metal combustion catalyst. The invention is furthermore a combustion catalyst containing the mixed oxide solid solution and a method of making the mixed oxide solid solution. The tetravalent cation is zirconium(+4), hafnium(+4) or thorium(+4). In one embodiment, the pentavalent cation is tantalum(+5), niobium(+5) or bismuth(+5). Mixed oxide solid solutions of the present invention exhibit enhanced thermal stability, maintaining relatively high surface areas at high temperatures in the presence of water vapor.

  3. Solid State Lighting Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid State Lighting Reliability 2015Building Technologies Office Peer Review Lynn Davis, ... life testing methodologies that help lighting manufacturers and key stakeholders and ...

  4. Solid State Lighting Reliability

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid State Lighting Reliability 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Lynn Davis, ... DOE : 370 K methodologies to help lighting manufacturers and key stakeholders ...

  5. Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  6. Method For Reactivating Solid Catalysts Used For Alklation Reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thompson, David N. (Idaho Falls, ID); Coates, Kyle (Shelley, ID); Zalewski, David J. (Proctorville, OH); Fox, Robert V. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-05-03

    A method for reactivating a solid alkylation catalyst is provided which can be performed within a reactor that contains the alkylation catalyst or outside the reactor. Effective catalyst reactivation is achieved whether the catalyst is completely deactivated or partially deactivated. A fluid reactivating agent is employed to dissolve catalyst fouling agents and also to react with such agents and carry away the reaction products. The deactivated catalyst is contacted with the fluid reactivating agent under pressure and temperature conditions such that the fluid reactivating agent is dense enough to effectively dissolve the fouling agents and any reaction products of the fouling agents and the reactivating agent. Useful pressures and temperatures for reactivation include near-critical, critical, and supercritical pressures and temperatures for the reactivating agent. The fluid reactivating agent can include, for example, a branched paraffin containing at least one tertiary carbon atom, or a compound that can be isomerized to a molecule containing at least one tertiary carbon atom.

  7. Method for reactivating solid catalysts used in alkylation reactions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Thompson, David N.; Coates, Kyle; Zalewski, David J.; Fox, Robert V.

    2003-06-17

    A method for reactivating a solid alkylation catalyst is provided which can be performed within a reactor that contains the alkylation catalyst or outside the reactor. Effective catalyst reactivation is achieved whether the catalyst is completely deactivated or partially deactivated. A fluid reactivating agent is employed to dissolve catalyst fouling agents and also to react with such agents and carry away the reaction products. The deactivated catalyst is contacted with the fluid reactivating agent under pressure and temperature conditions such that the fluid reactivating agent is dense enough to effectively dissolve the fouling agents and any reaction products of the fouling agents and the reactivating agent. Useful pressures and temperatures for reactivation include near-critical, critical, and supercritical pressures and temperatures for the reactivating agent. The fluid reactivating agent can include, for example, a branched paraffin containing at least one tertiary carbon atom, or a compound that can be isomerized to a molecule containing at least one tertiary carbon atom.

  8. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-03-02

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  9. High solids fermentation reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wyman, Charles E.; Grohmann, Karel; Himmel, Michael E.; Richard, Christopher J.

    1993-01-01

    A fermentation reactor and method for fermentation of materials having greater than about 10% solids. The reactor includes a rotatable shaft along the central axis, the shaft including rods extending outwardly to mix the materials. The reactor and method are useful for anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes to produce methane, for production of commodity chemicals from organic materials, and for microbial fermentation processes.

  10. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, flow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated groundwater ages. The DIC calculated groundwater ages were compared with DOC calculated groundwater ages and both of these ages were compared to travel times developed in ground-water flow and transport models. If nuclear waste is stored in Yucca Mountain, the saturated zone is the final barrier against the release of radionuclides to the environment. The most recent rendition of the TSPA takes little credit for the presence of the saturated zone and is a testament to the inadequate understanding of this important barrier. If radionuclides reach the saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, then there is a travel time before they would leave the Yucca Mountain area and flow down gradient to the Amargosa Valley area. Knowing how long it takes groundwater in the saturated zone to flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas is critical information for potential radionuclide transport. Radionuclide transport in groundwater may be the quickest pathway for radionuclides in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository to reach land surface by way of groundwater pumped in Amargosa Valley. An alternative approach to ground-water flow and transport models to determine the travel time of radionuclides from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas in the saturated zone is by carbon-14 dating of both inorganic and organic carbon dissolved in the groundwater. A standard method of determining ground-water ages is to measure the carbon-13 and carbon-14 of DIC in the groundwater and then correct the measured carbon-14 along a flow path for geochemical reactions that involve carbon containing phases. These geochemical reactions are constrained by carbon-13 and isotopic fractionations. Without correcting for geochemical reactions, the ground-water ages calculated from only the differences in carbon-14 measured along a flow path (assuming the decrease in carbon-14 is due strictly to radioactive decay) could be tens of thousands of years too old. The computer program NETPATH, developed by the USGS, is the best geochemical program for correcting carbon-14 activities for geochemical r

  11. Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences (CNMS) - Ionically Active Solids

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ionically Active Solids

  12. Sandia Energy - Solid Fuels Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid Fuels Conversion Home Transportation Energy Predictive Simulation of Engines Clean FuelsPower Solid Fuels Conversion Solid Fuels ConversionAshley Otero2015-10-28T02:40:48+00...

  13. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were scanned after tank supernatant was removed. 4. Core sampler to determine the stainless steel solids distribution within the solids mounds. This sampler was designed and built to remove small sections of the mounds to evaluate concentrations of the stainless steel solids at different special locations. 5. Computer driven positioner that placed the laser rangefinders and the core sampler in appropriate locations over solids mounds that accumulated on the bottom of a scaled staging tank where mixing is poor. These devices and techniques were effective to estimate the movement, location, and concentrations of the solids representing heavier particles and could perform well at a larger scale The experiment contained two campaigns with each comprised of ten cycles to fill and empty the scaled staging tank. The tank was filled without mixing, but emptied, while mixing, in seven batches; the first six were of equal volumes of 13.1 gallons each to represent the planned fullscale batches of 145,000 gallons, and the last, partial, batch of 6.9 gallons represented a full-scale partial batch of 76,000 gallons that will leave a 72-inch heel in the staging tank for the next cycle. The sole difference between the two campaigns was the energy to mix the scaled staging tank, i.e., the nozzle velocity and jet rotational speed of the two jet pumps. Campaign 1 used 22.9 ft/s, at 1.54 rpm based on past testing and Campaign 2 used 23.9 ft/s at 1.75 rpm, based on visual observation of minimum velocity that allowed fast settling solids, i.e., sand and stainless steel, to accumulate on the scaled tank bottom.

  14. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, Bernard T. (Livermore, CA); Dreifuerst, Gary R. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1500 A peak, 1.0 .mu.s pulsewidth, and 4500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry.

  15. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Choe, Hyoun S. (Waltham, MA)

    1995-01-01

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF.sub.3 SO.sub.2).sub.2, LiAsF.sub.6, and LiClO.sub.4.

  16. Solid polymer electrolytes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Alamgir, M.; Choe, H.S.

    1995-12-12

    This invention relates to Li ion (Li{sup +}) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of poly(vinyl sulfone) and lithium salts, and their use in all-solid-state rechargeable lithium ion batteries. The lithium salts comprise low lattice energy lithium salts such as LiN(CF{sub 3}SO{sub 2}){sub 2}, LiAsF{sub 6}, and LiClO{sub 4}. 2 figs.

  17. Reversible Solid Oxide Electrolysis

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Clean, Efficient, Reliable Power Reversible Solid Oxide Electrolysis Randy Petri Director Product Development & Federal Programs Electrolytic Hydrogen Production Workshop DOE Fuel Cell Technologies Office Hosted by: National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Golden, Colorado February 27th and 28th, 2014 FCE Acquires VPS * FuelCell Energy fully acquired the shares of Versa Power Systems on December 20, 2012. Prior to this, FuelCell Energy owned approximately 39% of Versa "We view solid oxide

  18. Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on CO{sub 2}

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on CO{sub 2} Analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on CO{sub 2} Analysis Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is commonly measured in water and is an important parameter for understanding carbonate equilibrium, carbon cycling, and water-rock interaction. While accurate measurements

  19. ,"Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  20. ,"Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  1. ,"Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  2. New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  3. Electrodic voltages in the presence of dissolved sulfide: Implications for monitoring natural microbial activity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slater, L.; Ntarlagiannis, D.; Yee, N.; O'Brien, M.; Zhang, C.; Williams, K. H.

    2008-10-01

    There is growing interest in the development of new monitoring strategies for obtaining spatially extensive data diagnostic of microbial processes occurring in the earth. Open-circuit potentials arising from variable redox conditions in the fluid local-to-electrode surfaces (electrodic potentials) were recorded for a pair of silver-silver chloride electrodes in a column experiment, whereby a natural wetland soil containing a known community of sulfate reducers was continuously fed with a sulfate-rich nutrient medium. Measurements were made between five electrodes equally spaced along the column and a reference electrode placed on the column inflow. The presence of a sulfate reducing microbial population, coupled with observations of decreasing sulfate levels, formation of black precipitate (likely iron sulfide),elevated solid phase sulfide, and a characteristic sulfurous smell, suggest microbial-driven sulfate reduction (sulfide generation) in our column. Based on the known sensitivity of a silver electrode to dissolved sulfide concentration, we interpret the electrodic potentials approaching 700 mV recorded in this experiment as an indicator of the bisulfide (HS-) concentration gradients in the column. The measurement of the spatial and temporal variation in these electrodic potentials provides a simple and rapid method for monitoring patterns of relative HS- concentration that are indicative of the activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria. Our measurements have implications both for the autonomous monitoring of anaerobic microbial processes in the subsurface and the performance of self-potential electrodes, where it is critical to isolate, and perhaps quantify, electrochemical interfaces contributing to observed potentials.

  4. Dissolved oxygen and pH relationships in northern Australian mangrove waterways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boto, K.G.; Bunt, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Consistent, highly significant linear correlations (R2 greater than or equal to 0.8) between pH and dissolved oxygen levels have been found in northern Australian mangrove waterways. These properties seem to be influenced by dissolved organic matter, mainly polyphenolic compounds, present in the creeks and tidal channel waters.

  5. Solid Cold - A

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Celebrating Einstein "Solid Cold" By the early 20th century, the way in which temperatures of solid objects changed as they absorbed heat was considered strong evidence that matter was not made of atoms. Einstein used some recent discoveries about light to turn this assessment around. A B C D E F A. A puzzle, and a surprising solution Take equal masses of lead and aluminum. Heat them until their temperatures are both 10 degrees higher. Will it take the same amount of heat for each?

  6. Solid state switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Merritt, B.T.; Dreifuerst, G.R.

    1994-07-19

    A solid state switch, with reverse conducting thyristors, is designed to operate at 20 kV hold-off voltage, 1,500 A peak, 1.0 [mu]s pulsewidth, and 4,500 pps, to replace thyratrons. The solid state switch is more reliable, more economical, and more easily repaired. The switch includes a stack of circuit card assemblies, a magnetic assist and a trigger chassis. Each circuit card assembly contains a reverse conducting thyristor, a resistor capacitor network, and triggering circuitry. 6 figs.

  7. Process automation using combinations of process and machine control technologies with application to a continuous dissolver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.B.: Yarbro, O.O.

    1991-01-01

    Operation of a continuous rotary dissolver, designed to leach uranium-plutonium fuel from chopped sections of reactor fuel cladding using nitric acid, has been automated. The dissolver is a partly continuous, partly batch process that interfaces at both ends with batchwise processes, thereby requiring synchronization of certain operations. Liquid acid is fed and flows through the dissolver continuously, whereas chopped fuel elements are fed to the dissolver in small batches and move through the compartments of the dissolver stagewise. Sequential logic (or machine control) techniques are used to control discrete activities such as the sequencing of isolation valves. Feedback control is used to control acid flowrates and temperatures. Expert systems technology is used for on-line material balances and diagnostics of process operation. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  8. Solid polymer electrolyte compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garbe, James E. (Stillwater, MN); Atanasoski, Radoslav (Edina, MN); Hamrock, Steven J. (St. Paul, MN); Le, Dinh Ba (St. Paul, MN)

    2001-01-01

    An electrolyte composition is featured that includes a solid, ionically conductive polymer, organically modified oxide particles that include organic groups covalently bonded to the oxide particles, and an alkali metal salt. The electrolyte composition is free of lithiated zeolite. The invention also features cells that incorporate the electrolyte composition.

  9. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nations waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in other

  10. Molecular simulation of a model of dissolved organic matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Schulten,Hans-Rolf

    2004-11-08

    A series of atomistic simulations was performed to assess the ability of the Schulten dissolved organic matter (DOM) molecule, a well-established model humic molecule, to reproduce the physical and chemical behavior of natural humic substances. The unhydrated DOM molecule had a bulk density value appropriate to humic matter, but its Hildebrand solubility parameter was lower than the range of current experimental estimates. Under hydrated conditions, the DOM molecule went through conformational adjustments that resulted in disruption of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), although few water molecules penetrated the organic interior. The radius of gyration of the hydrated DOM molecule was similar to those measured for aquatic humic substances. To simulate humic materials under aqueous conditions with varying pH levels, carboxyl groups were deprotonated, and hydrated Na{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+} were added to balance the resulting negative charge. Because of intrusion of the cation hydrates, the model metal- humic structures were more porous, had greater solvent-accessible surface areas, and formed more H-bonds with water than the protonated, hydrated DOM molecule. Relative to Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} was both more strongly bound to carboxylate groups and more fully hydrated. This difference was attributed to the higher charge of the divalent cation. The Ca-DOM hydrate, however, featured fewer H-bonds than the Na-DOM hydrate, perhaps because of the reduced orientational freedom of organic moieties and water molecules imposed by Ca{sup 2+}. The present work is, to our knowledge, the first rigorous computational exploration regarding the behavior of a model humic molecule under a range of physical conditions typical of soil and water systems.

  11. Solid Phase Characterization of Solids Recovered from Failed Sluicer Arm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cooke, Gary A.

    2015-03-09

    The Enclosure to this memo discusses the solid phase characterization of a solid sample that was retrieved from the single-shell Tank 241-C-111 extended reach sluicer #2. This sluicer, removed from riser #3 on September 25, 2014, was found to have approximately 0.4 gallons of solid tank waste adhering to the nozzle area.

  12. PURPA and solid fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    Speaking before the FERC during the Spring, 1987 PURPA Hearings, Dr. Thomas A.V. Cassel, president of the Philadelphia, Pennsylvania-based Reading Energy Group, testified on the role PURPA has played in the development of the nation's solid fuel resource. Reading's Energy Group has in excess of $150 million of cogeneration assets under construction. These projects represent more than 65 MW and are fired by solid fuels which, prior to PURPA's enactment, were considered to be valueless waste and were overlooked by the electric utility industry. These plants will burn lignite and culm. Because of PURPA, culm will soon be eliminated as an eyesore and source of river pollution, and, at the same time, will help revitalize depressed mining areas.

  13. Solid Fuels Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid Fuels Conversion - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  14. solid rocket propellant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solid rocket propellant - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  15. Solid waste handling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parazin, R.J.

    1995-05-31

    This study presents estimates of the solid radioactive waste quantities that will be generated in the Separations, Low-Level Waste Vitrification and High-Level Waste Vitrification facilities, collectively called the Tank Waste Remediation System Treatment Complex, over the life of these facilities. This study then considers previous estimates from other 200 Area generators and compares alternative methods of handling (segregation, packaging, assaying, shipping, etc.).

  16. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, B.D.

    1986-02-24

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  17. Solar solids reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yudow, Bernard D. (Chicago, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A solar powered kiln is provided, that is of relatively simple design and which efficiently uses solar energy. The kiln or solids reactor includes a stationary chamber with a rearward end which receives solid material to be reacted and a forward end through which reacted material is disposed of, and a screw conveyor extending along the bottom of the chamber for slowly advancing the material between the chamber ends. Concentrated solar energy is directed to an aperture at the forward end of the chamber to heat the solid material moving along the bottom of the chamber. The solar energy can be reflected from a mirror facing at an upward incline, through the aperture and against a heat-absorbing material near the top of the chamber, which moves towards the rear of the chamber to distribute heat throughout the chamber. Pumps at the forward and rearward ends of the chamber pump heated sweep gas through the length of the chamber, while minimizing the flow of gas through an open aperture through which concentrated sunlight is received.

  18. Solid state electrochemical current source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Potanin, Alexander Arkadyevich (Sarov, RU); Vedeneev, Nikolai Ivanovich (Sarov, RU)

    2002-04-30

    A cathode and a solid state electrochemical cell comprising said cathode, a solid anode and solid fluoride ion conducting electrolyte. The cathode comprises a metal oxide and a compound fluoride containing at least two metals with different valences. Representative compound fluorides include solid solutions of bismuth fluoride and potassium fluoride; and lead fluoride and potassium fluoride. Representative metal oxides include copper oxide, lead oxide, manganese oxide, vanadium oxide and silver oxide.

  19. Fluid Dynamics and Solid Mechanics

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and Solid Mechanics Basic and applied research in theoretical continuum dynamics, modern hydrodynamic theory, materials modeling, global climate modeling, numerical...

  20. Packaging of solid state devices

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Glidden, Steven C.; Sanders, Howard D.

    2006-01-03

    A package for one or more solid state devices in a single module that allows for operation at high voltage, high current, or both high voltage and high current. Low thermal resistance between the solid state devices and an exterior of the package and matched coefficient of thermal expansion between the solid state devices and the materials used in packaging enables high power operation. The solid state devices are soldered between two layers of ceramic with metal traces that interconnect the devices and external contacts. This approach provides a simple method for assembling and encapsulating high power solid state devices.

  1. Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    release experiment (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled release experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled release experiment Authors: Trautz, R. C. ; Pugh, J. D. ; Varadharajan, C. ; Zheng, L. ; Bianchi, M. ; Nico, P. S. ; Spycher, N. F. ; Newell, D. L. ; Esposito, R. A. ; Wu, Y. ; Dafflon, B. ; Hubbard, S. S. ; Birkholzer, J. T. Publication

  2. Total dissolved gas prediction and optimization in RiverWare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Kevin M.; Witt, Adam M.; Hadjerioua, Boualem

    2015-09-01

    Management and operation of dams within the Columbia River Basin (CRB) provides the region with irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage. These various system-wide demands can require unique dam operations that may result in both voluntary and involuntary spill, thereby increasing tailrace levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) which can be fatal to fish. Appropriately managing TDG levels within the context of the systematic demands requires a predictive framework robust enough to capture the operationally related effects on TDG levels. Development of the TDG predictive methodology herein attempts to capture the different modes of hydro operation, thereby making it a viable tool to be used in conjunction with a real-time scheduling model such as RiverWare. The end result of the effort will allow hydro operators to minimize system-wide TDG while meeting hydropower operational targets and constraints. The physical parameters such as spill and hydropower flow proportions, accompanied by the characteristics of the dam such as plant head levels and tailrace depths, are used to develop the empirically-based prediction model. In the broader study, two different models are developed a simplified and comprehensive model. The latter model incorporates more specific bubble physics parameters for the prediction of tailrace TDG levels. The former model is presented herein and utilizes an empirically based approach to predict downstream TDG levels based on local saturation depth, spillway and powerhouse flow proportions, and entrainment effects. Representative data collected from each of the hydro projects is used to calibrate and validate model performance and the accuracy of predicted TDG uptake. ORNL, in conjunction with IIHR - Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa, carried out model adjustments to adequately capture TDG levels with respect to each plant while maintaining a generalized model configuration. Validation results indicate excellent model performance with coefficient of determination values exceeding 92% for all sites. This approach enables model extension to an increasingly wider array of hydropower plants, i.e., with the proper data input, TDG uptake can be calculated independent of actual physical component design. The TDG model is used as a module in the systematic optimization framework of RiverWare, a river and reservoir modeling tool used by federal agencies, public utility districts, and other dam owners and operators to forecast, schedule, and manage hydropower assets. The integration and testing of the TDG module within RiverWare, led by University of Colorado s Center for Advanced Decision Support for Water and Environmental Systems (CADSWES), will allow users to generate optimum system schedules based on the minimization of TDG. Optimization analysis and added value will be quantified as system wide reductions in TDG achieved while meeting existing hydropower constraints. Future work includes the development of a method to predict downstream reservoir forebay TDG levels as a function of upstream reservoir tailrace TDG values based on river hydrodynamics, hydro operations, and reservoir characteristics. Once implemented, a holistic model that predicts both TDG uptake and transport will give hydropower operators valuable insight into how system-wide environmental effects can be mitigated while simultaneously balancing stakeholder interests.

  3. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

  4. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, F.H.; Chung, B.W.; Raistrick, I.D.; Brosha, E.L.

    1996-08-06

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer. 4 figs.

  5. Solid state optical microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, I.T.

    1983-08-09

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal. 2 figs.

  6. Solid state optical microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, Ian T. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1983-01-01

    A solid state optical microscope wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. A galvanometer scanning mirror, for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions is provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  7. Solid state oxygen sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Sante Fe, NM); Chung, Brandon W. (Los Alamos, NM); Raistrick, Ian D. (Los Alamos, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1996-01-01

    Solid state oxygen sensors are provided with a yttria-doped zirconia as an electrolyte and use the electrochemical oxygen pumping of the zirconia electrolyte. A linear relationship between oxygen concentration and the voltage arising at a current plateau occurs when oxygen accessing the electrolyte is limited by a diffusion barrier. A diffusion barrier is formed herein with a mixed electronic and oxygen ion-conducting membrane of lanthanum-containing perovskite or zirconia-containing fluorite. A heater may be used to maintain an adequate oxygen diffusion coefficient in the mixed conducting layer.

  8. Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012 Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012 July 22-27, 2012; Napa

  9. Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012 Low Energy Electrodynamics in Solids (LEES) 2012 July 22-27, 2012; Napa...

  10. Solid polymer electrolyte lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alamgir, Mohamed (Dedham, MA); Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA)

    1993-01-01

    This invention pertains to Lithium batteries using Li ion (Li.sup.+) conductive solid polymer electrolytes composed of solvates of Li salts immobilized in a solid organic polymer matrix. In particular, this invention relates to Li batteries using solid polymer electrolytes derived by immobilizing solvates formed between a Li salt and an aprotic organic solvent (or mixture of such solvents) in poly(vinyl chloride).

  11. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  12. On-line fast response device and method for measuring dissolved gas in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tutu, Narinder Kumar (Manorville, NY)

    2011-01-11

    A method and device for the measurement of dissolved gas within a fluid. The fluid, substantially a liquid, is pumped into a pipe. The flow of the fluid is temporally restricted, creating one or more low pressure regions. A measurement indicative of trapped air is taken before and after the restriction. The amount of dissolved air is calculated from the difference between the first and second measurements. Preferably measurements indicative of trapped air is obtained from one or more pressure transducers, capacitance transducers, or combinations thereof. In the alternative, other methods such as those utilizing x-rays or gamma rays may also be used to detect trapped air. Preferably, the fluid is a hydraulic fluid, whereby dissolved air in the fluid is detected.

  13. Valve for controlling solids flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, M.D.

    1982-09-29

    A valve for controlling the flow of solids comprises a vessel having an overflow point, an inlet line for discharging solids into the vessel positioned within the vessel such that the inlet line's discharge point is lower than the vessel's overflow point, and means for introducing a fluidizing fluid into the vessel. The fluidizing fluid fluidizes the solids within the vessel so that they overflow at the vessel's overflow point. For the removal of nuclear waste product the vessel may be placed within a sealed container having a bottom connected transport line for transporting the solids to storage or other sites. The rate of solids flow is controlled by the flow rate of the fluidizing fluid and by V-notch weirs of different sizes spaced about the top of the vessel.

  14. Valve for controlling solids flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Staiger, M. Daniel (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1985-01-01

    A valve for controlling the flow of solids comprises a vessel having an overflow point, an inlet line for discharging solids into the vessel positioned within the vessel such that the inlet line's discharge point is lower than the vessel's overflow point, and apparatus for introducing a fluidizing fluid into the vessel. The fluidizing fluid fluidizes the solids within the vessel so that they overflow at the vessel's overflow point. For the removal of nuclear waste product the vessel may be placed within a sealed container having a bottom connected transport line for transporting the solids to storage or other sites. The rate of solids flow is controlled by the flow rate of the fluidizing fluid and by V-notch weirs of different sizes spaced about the top of the vessel.

  15. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 474 320 541 522 532 494 1990's 446 407 691 574 679 891 794 1,228 1,224 1,383 2000's 1,395 1,406 1,267

  16. Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 167 1980's 185 139 112 132 110 115 132 115 103 101 1990's 114 115 94 93 75 67 82 51 60 52 2000's 40 105 66 85 80 83 82 83 85 83 2010's 79 127 326 433 657 - = No Data Reported;

  17. Louisiana - South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,304 1980's 2,134 1,871 1,789 1,582 1,488 1,792 1,573 1,380 1,338 1,273 1990's 1,106 995 853 649 678 720 627 599 630 599

  18. Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 449 251 260 207 231 1990's 207 207 154 157 168 148 157 130 98 120 2000's 129 145 84 79 61 63 56 65 686 513 2010's 107 51 128 88 68 - = No

  19. California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 226 1980's 160 244 232 221 206 1990's 188 55 59 63 59 56 47 54 39 58 2000's 86 80 85 76 85 89 85 79 54 53 2010's 63 79 65 75 76 - = No Data

  20. Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 209 1980's 172 180 216 175 170 260 241 205 204 251 1990's 333 401 361 191 151 248 446 68 51 67 2000's 69 43 47 48 45 57 61 72 60 67 2010's 267

  1. Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 0 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 484 1980's 546 456 489 537 617 560 537 482 424 364 1990's 311 298 396 264 264 254 253 227 234 241 2000's 289 255 271 252 249 253 316 436

  2. Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 955 1980's 921 806 780 747 661 570 517 512 428 430 1990's 407 352 308 288 299 245 252 235 204 202 2000's 115 65 70 81

  3. Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,416 1980's 1,292 1,005 890 765 702 684 596 451 393 371 1990's 301 243 228 215 191 209 246 368 394 182 2000's 176 140

  4. Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 62 1980's 75 44 47 52 44 40 69 118 101 136 1990's 116 89 126 141 148 47 53 68 89 49 2000's 128 83 65 62 58 51 57 50 40 21 2010's 8 40 53 177

  5. Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 868 1980's 954 869 881 943 938 874 822 811 728 695 1990's 668 638 606 607 547 611 562 578 580 545 2000's 464 412 400 387 402 344 276 247 412

  6. Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 234 1980's 332 292 214 338 292 276 244 282 264 196 1990's 214 157 170 187 181 276 232 260 204 190 2000's 114 88 57 69 76 73 74 62 68 102

  7. Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 653 1980's 520 685 704 705 776 780 666 737 727 721 1990's 768 759 748 633 631 640 692 596 557 616 2000's 693 634 737 927 994 1,037 1,196

  8. Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 175 1980's 249 274 299 255 274 290 263 267 241 212 1990's 214 200 184 178 148 138 121 147 199 180 2000's 209 124 140 125 110 126 105 139 158

  9. Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 25 24 24 10 20 19 1990's 17 8 7 4 3 7 6 10 5 6 2000's 1 2 5 6 9 3 1 3 5 3 2010's 3 5 6 3 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  10. New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 151 1980's 156 150 146 180 194 181 214 213 259 178 1990's 184 156 127 107 97 119 108 106 98 92 2000's 115 99 103 89 90 98 82 87 86 82 2010's

  11. North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 201 1980's 239 253 248 257 267 331 293 276 266 313 1990's 334 243 266 274 275 263 255 257 261 250 2000's 264 270 315 316 320 343 357 417 484 1,070 2010's 1,717

  12. Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,047 1980's 1,417 800 984 1,635 1,178 938 898 594 480 589 1990's 371 376 381 343 315 355 399 391 342 402 2000's 469 340 346 304 208 184 174 101 99 97 2010's 90 74 223 314 208 - =

  13. Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 367 1980's 414 335 325 360 341 391 410 471 475 442 1990's 455 469 309 289 286 277 301 310 209 321 2000's 348 303 359 299 290 308 317 368 321 601 2010's 631 909 1,001 895 872 - =

  14. West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 76 1980's 122 63 83 86 73 73 65 150 141 98 1990's 86 159 198 190 133 74 71 59 43 88 2000's 98 48 21 23 20 19 16 16 23 24 2010's 29 52 21 70 32 - = No Data

  15. Solid Xenon Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Balakishiyeva, Durdana N.; Saab, Tarek [University of Florida (United States); Mahapatra, Rupak [Texas A and M University (United States); Yoo, Jonghee [FNAL (United States)

    2010-08-30

    Crystals like Germanium and Silicon need to be grown in specialized facilities which is time and money costly. It takes many runs to test the detector once it's manufactured and mishaps are very probable. It is of a great challenge to grow big germanium crystals and that's why stacking them up in a tower is the only way at the moment to increase testing mass. Liquid Noble gas experiments experiencing contamination problems, their predicted energy resolution at 10 keV and lower energy range is not as good as predicted. Every experiment is targeting one specific purpose, looking for one thing. Why not to design an experiment that is diverse and build a detector that can search for Dark Matter, Solar Axions, Neutrinoless Double Beta decay, etc. Solid Xenon detector is such detector. We designed a simple Xenon crystal growing chamber that was put together at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The first phase of this experiment was to demonstrate that a good, crack free Xenon crystal can be grown (regardless of many failed attempts by various groups) and our first goal, 1 kg crystal, was successful.

  16. A comparison of observables for solid-solid phase transitions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smilowitz, Laura B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Henson, Bryan F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Romero, Jerry J [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    The study of solid-solid phase transformations is hindered by the difficulty of finding a volumetric probe to use as a progress variable. Solids are typically optically opaque and heterogeneous. Over the past several years, second harmonic generation (SHG) has been used as a kinetic probe for a solid-solid phase transition in which the initial and final phases have different symmetries. Bulk generation of SHG is allowed by symmetry only in noncentrosymmetric crystallographic space groups. For the organic energetic nitramine octahydro-1,3 ,5,7 -tetranitro-1,3 ,5,7 -tatrazocine (HMX), the beta phase is centro symmetric (space group P2{sub 1}/c) and the delta phase iS noncentrosymmetric (space group P6{sub 1}22) making SHG an extremely sensitive, essentially zero background probe of the phase change progress. We have used SHG as a tool to follow the progress of the transformation from beta to delta phase during the solid-solid transformation. However, kinetic models of the transformation derived using different observables from several other groups have differed, showing later onset for the phase change and faster progression to completion. In this work, we have intercompared several techniques to understand these differences. The three techniques discussed are second harmonic generation, Raman spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The progress of the beta to delta phase transition in HMX observed with each of these different probes will be discussed and advantages and disadvantages of each technique described. This paper compares several different observables for use in measuring the kinetics of solid-solid phase transitions. Relative advantages and disadvantages for each technique are described and a direct comparison of results is made for the beta to delta polymorphic phase transition of the energetic nitramine, octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tatrazocine.

  17. Method of dissolving metal oxides with di- or polyphosphonic acid and a redundant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, Earl P. (Argonne, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Argonne, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A method of dissolving metal oxides using a mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

  18. Solid-State NMR | The Ames Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid-State NMR Solid-State NMR Our team is well-known for its work in the following areas: - Using multi-dimensional solid-state NMR of quadrupolar nuclei to study spin-12 nuclei...

  19. Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

    2007-01-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at both sites are then presented in both text and graphics. The findings and recommendations for further research are discussed, followed by a listing of the references cited in the report.

  20. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FAQs

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    further information, see: - Fuel Cell Handbook (Seventh Edition) SOLID OXIDE FUEL CELLS - ENVIRONMENT Q: How are fuel cells used? A: Fuel cells may be used to power anything that...

  1. Is solid helium a supersolid?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hallock, Robert

    2015-05-15

    Recent experiments suggest that helium-4 atoms can flow through an experimental cell filled with solid helium. But that incompletely understood flow is quite different from the reported superfluid-like motion that so excited physicists a decade ago.

  2. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M. (Shrewsbury, MA); Kovar, Robert F. (Wrentham, MA); Osenar, Paul (Watertown, MA); Landrau, Nelson (Marlborough, MA); Rubin, Leslie S. (Newton, MA)

    2001-06-19

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  3. Composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Formato, Richard M.; Kovar, Robert F.; Osenar, Paul; Landrau, Nelson; Rubin, Leslie S.

    2006-05-30

    The present invention relates to composite solid polymer electrolyte membranes (SPEMs) which include a porous polymer substrate interpenetrated with an ion-conducting material. SPEMs of the present invention are useful in electrochemical applications, including fuel cells and electrodialysis.

  4. Solid Waste Management Program Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duncan, D.R.

    1990-08-01

    The objective of the Solid Waste Management Program Plan (SWMPP) is to provide a summary level comprehensive approach for the storage, treatment, and disposal of current and future solid waste received at the Hanford Site (from onsite and offsite generators) in a manner compliant with current and evolving regulations and orders (federal, state, and Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford)). The Plan also presents activities required for disposal of selected wastes currently in retrievable storage. The SWMPP provides a central focus for the description and control of cost, scope, and schedule of Hanford Site solid waste activities, and provides a vehicle for ready communication of the scope of those activities to onsite and offsite organizations. This Plan represents the most complete description available of Hanford Site Solid Waste Management (SWM) activities and the interfaces between those activities. It will be updated annually to reflect changes in plans due to evolving regulatory requirements and/or the SWM mission. 8 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    This report summarizes the progress of the Solid State Photovoltaic Research Branch of the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) from October 1, 1988, through September 30,l 1989. Six technical sections of the report cover these main areas of SERIs in-house research: Semiconductor Crystal Growth, Amorphous Silicon Research, Polycrystalline Thin Films, III-V High-Efficiency Photovoltaic Cells, Solid-State Theory, and Laser Raman and Luminescence Spectroscopy. Sections have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  6. 2015 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Project Portfolio

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2015 Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Project Portfolio Solid Oxide Fuel Cells are energy conversion devices that produce electric power through an electrochemical reaction rather than by...

  7. Wastes Hazardous or Solid | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    or Solid Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleWastesHazardousorSolid&oldid612186" Feedback Contact needs updating Image...

  8. Theoretical calculating the thermodynamic properties of solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    of the solid phases involved. Such methodology not only can be used to search for good candidates from existing database of solid materials, but also can provide some...

  9. Municipal Solid Waste | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Municipal Solid Waste Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Municipal Solid Waste Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleMunicipalSo...

  10. Probabilistic evaluation of shallow groundwater resources at a hypothetical carbon sequestration site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Keating, Elizabeth; Bacon, Diana H.; Viswanathan, Hari; Stauffer, Philip; Jordan, Amy B.; Pawar, Rajesh

    2014-03-07

    Carbon sequestration in geologic reservoirs is an important approach for mitigating greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere. This study first develops an integrated Monte Carlo method for simulating CO2 and brine leakage from carbon sequestration and subsequent geochemical interactions in shallow aquifers. Then, we estimate probability distributions of five risk proxies related to the likelihood and volume of changes in pH, total dissolved solids, and trace concentrations of lead, arsenic, and cadmium for two possible consequence thresholds. The results indicate that shallow groundwater resources may degrade locally around leakage points by reduced pH and increased total dissolved solids (TDS). The volumes of pH and TDS plumes are most sensitive to aquifer porosity, permeability, and CO2 and brine leakage rates. The estimated plume size of pH change is the largest, while that of cadmium is the smallest among the risk proxies. Plume volume distributions of arsenic and lead are similar to those of TDS. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight for understanding risks of deep fluids leaking into shallow aquifers, determining the area of review, and designing monitoring networks at carbon sequestration sites.

  11. Solid oxide electrochemical reactor science.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sullivan, Neal P.; Stechel, Ellen Beth; Moyer, Connor J.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Key, Robert J.

    2010-09-01

    Solid-oxide electrochemical cells are an exciting new technology. Development of solid-oxide cells (SOCs) has advanced considerable in recent years and continues to progress rapidly. This thesis studies several aspects of SOCs and contributes useful information to their continued development. This LDRD involved a collaboration between Sandia and the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) ins solid-oxide electrochemical reactors targeted at solid oxide electrolyzer cells (SOEC), which are the reverse of solid-oxide fuel cells (SOFC). SOECs complement Sandia's efforts in thermochemical production of alternative fuels. An SOEC technology would co-electrolyze carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) with steam at temperatures around 800 C to form synthesis gas (H{sub 2} and CO), which forms the building blocks for a petrochemical substitutes that can be used to power vehicles or in distributed energy platforms. The effort described here concentrates on research concerning catalytic chemistry, charge-transfer chemistry, and optimal cell-architecture. technical scope included computational modeling, materials development, and experimental evaluation. The project engaged the Colorado Fuel Cell Center at CSM through the support of a graduate student (Connor Moyer) at CSM and his advisors (Profs. Robert Kee and Neal Sullivan) in collaboration with Sandia.

  12. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, E.

    1995-05-23

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon. 5 Figs.

  13. Conversion of organic solids to hydrocarbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greenbaum, Elias (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1995-01-01

    A method of converting organic solids to liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons includes impregnating an organic solid with photosensitizing ions and exposing the impregnated solid to light in a non-oxidizing atmosphere for a time sufficient to photocatalytically reduce the solid to at least one of a liquid and a gaseous hydrocarbon.

  14. Solid Electrolyte Batteries | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Electrolyte Batteries Solid Electrolyte Batteries 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C. PDF icon es060_goodenough_2010_p.pdf More Documents & Publications SOLID ELECTROLYTES FOR NEXT GENERATION BATTERIES SOLID ELECTROLYTE BATTERIES

  15. SOLID ELECTROLYTE BATTERIES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SOLID ELECTROLYTE BATTERIES SOLID ELECTROLYTE BATTERIES 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation PDF icon es060_goodenough_2011_o.pdf More Documents & Publications SOLID ELECTROLYTES FOR NEXT GENERATION BATTERIES Solid Electrolyte Batteries

  16. FLOWSHEET EVALUATION FOR THE DISSOLVING AND NEUTRALIZATION OF SODIUM REACTOR EXPERIMENT USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, W. E.; Hansen, E. K.; Shehee, T. C.

    2012-10-30

    This report includes the literature review, hydrogen off-gas calculations, and hydrogen generation tests to determine that H-Canyon can safely dissolve the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE; thorium fuel), Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR; aluminum alloy fuel), and Denmark Reactor (DR-3; silicide fuel, aluminum alloy fuel, and aluminum oxide fuel) assemblies in the L-Bundles with respect to the hydrogen levels in the projected peak off-gas rates. This is provided that the number of L-Bundles charged to the dissolver is controlled. Examination of SRE dissolution for potential issues has aided in predicting the optimal batching scenario. The calculations detailed in this report demonstrate that the FNR, SRE, and DR-3 used nuclear fuel (UNF) are bounded by MURR UNF and may be charged using the controls outlined for MURR dissolution in a prior report.

  17. Lower 48 States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 32,208 1980's 33,443 32,870 31,268 31,286 30,282 29,515 28,684 27,457 26,609 26,611 1990's 26,242 25,088 24,701 23,551 23,913 24,532 24,715 24,666

  18. Alaska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 27,217 1980's 28,567 28,676 30,814 30,408 30,356 31,092 30,893 30,732 6,269 6,198 1990's 6,927 6,729 6,723 6,494 6,487 6,265 6,080 7,716 7,275 7,209 2000's 6,768 6,592 6,376

  19. Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,513 1980's 2,429 2,080 1,881 1,784 1,756 1,537 1,405 1,296 1,226 1,148 1990's 1,056 1,123 1,206 1,159 1,063 960

  20. Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,645 1980's 2,569 2,630 2,908 3,014 2,932 3,004 3,076 2,898 3,072 3,128 1990's 3,068 2,770 2,742 2,562 2,751 2,834 2,981 3,144 2,820 3,175

  1. Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,485 1980's 1,396 1,486 1,420 1,301 1,272 1,314 1,275 1,271 1,267 1,534 1990's 1,526 1,521 1,585 1,451 1,572 1,318 1,276 1,206 1,097 1,513

  2. U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 6,773 6,487 6,315 6,120 6,738 7,471 7,437 7,913 7,495 7,093 2000's 7,010 8,649 8,090 7,417 6,361 5,904 4,835 4,780 5,106 5,223 2010's 5,204

  3. New Mexico - East Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - East Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,672 1980's 1,533 1,499 1,374 1,323 1,375 1,309 1,232 1,232 1,194 1,200 1990's 1,251 1,398 1,470 1,478 1,544 1,559 1,585 1,314 1,345 1,486 2000's

  4. New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,823 1980's 1,689 1,649 1,520 1,503 1,569 1,490 1,446 1,445 1,453 1,378 1990's 1,435 1,554 1,597 1,585 1,641 1,678 1,693 1,420 1,443 1,578 2000's 1,588 1,447 1,482

  5. Table 12. Associated-dissolved natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, an

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-dissolved natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2014" "billion cubic feet" ,,"Changes in Reserves During 2014" ,"Published",,,,,,,,"New Reservoir" ,"Proved",,"Revision","Revision",,,,"New Field","Discoveries","Estimated","Proved"

  6. Solid-state lithium battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ihlefeld, Jon; Clem, Paul G; Edney, Cynthia; Ingersoll, David; Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Fenton, Kyle Ross

    2014-11-04

    The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate (La.sub.1/3-xLi.sub.3xTaO.sub.3) directly with a thin metal foil current collector appropriate for a lithium-free solid-state battery.

  7. Solid evacuated microspheres of hydrogen

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Turnbull, Robert J. (Urbana, IL); Foster, Christopher A. (Champaign, IL); Hendricks, Charles D. (Livermore, CA)

    1982-01-01

    A method is provided for producing solid, evacuated microspheres comprised of hydrogen. The spheres are produced by forming a jet of liquid hydrogen and exciting mechanical waves on the jet of appropriate frequency so that the jet breaks up into drops with a bubble formed in each drop by cavitation. The drops are exposed to a pressure less than the vapor pressure of the liquid hydrogen so that the bubble which is formed within each drop expands. The drops which contain bubbles are exposed to an environment having a pressure just below the triple point of liquid hydrogen and they thereby freeze giving solid, evacuated spheres of hydrogen.

  8. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, Ji-Guang (Golden, CO); Benson, David K. (Golden, CO); Tracy, C. Edwin (Golden, CO)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li.sub.2 O--CeO.sub.2 --SiO.sub.2 system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications.

  9. Solid lithium-ion electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhang, J.G.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1998-02-10

    The present invention relates to the composition of a solid lithium-ion electrolyte based on the Li{sub 2}O--CeO{sub 2}--SiO{sub 2} system having good transparent characteristics and high ion conductivity suitable for uses in lithium batteries, electrochromic devices and other electrochemical applications. 12 figs.

  10. Regional solid waste management study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    In 1990, the Lower Savannah Council of Governments (LSCOG) began dialogue with the United States Department of Energy (DOE) regarding possibilities for cooperation and coordination of solid waste management practices among the local governments and the Savannah River Site. The Department of Energy eventually awarded a grant to the Lower Savannah Council of Governments for the development of a study, which was initiated on March 5, 1992. After careful analysis of the region`s solid waste needs, this study indicates a network approach to solid waste management to be the most viable. The network involves the following major components: (1) Rural Collection Centers, designed to provide convenience to rural citizens, while allowing some degree of participation in recycling; (2) Rural Drop-Off Centers, designed to give a greater level of education and recycling activity; (3) Inert landfills and composting centers, designed to reduce volumes going into municipal (Subtitle D) landfills and produce useable products from yard waste; (4) Transfer Stations, ultimate landfill disposal; (5) Materials Recovery Facilities, designed to separate recyclables into useable and sellable units, and (6) Subtitle D landfill for burial of all solid waste not treated through previous means.

  11. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A.M.; Draper, R.

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row. 5 figures.

  12. Solid-state radioluminescent compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Clough, Roger L. (Albuquerque, NM); Gill, John T. (Miamisburg, OH); Hawkins, Daniel B. (Fairbanks, AK); Renschler, Clifford L. (Tijeras, NM); Shepodd, Timothy J. (Livermore, CA); Smith, Henry M. (Overland Park, KS)

    1991-01-01

    A solid state radioluminescent composition for light source comprises an optically clear polymer organic matrix containing tritiated organic materials and dyes capable of "red" shifting primary scintillation emissions from the polymer matrix. The tritiated organic materials are made by reducing, with tritium, an unsaturated organic compound that prior to reduction contains olefinic or alkynylic bonds.

  13. Solid colloidal optical wavelength filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alvarez, Joseph L. (Boulder, CO)

    1992-01-01

    A solid colloidal optical wavelength filter includes a suspension of spheal particles dispersed in a coagulable medium such as a setting plastic. The filter is formed by suspending spherical particles in a coagulable medium; agitating the particles and coagulable medium to produce an emulsion of particles suspended in the coagulable medium; and allowing the coagulable medium and suspended emulsion of particles to cool.

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Di Croce, A. Michael (Murrysville, PA); Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1993-11-02

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a plenum containing at least two rows of spaced apart, annular, axially elongated fuel cells. An electrical conductor extending between adjacent rows of fuel cells connects the fuel cells of one row in parallel with each other and in series with the fuel cells of the adjacent row.

  15. High temperature solid state storage cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rea, Jesse R. (Burlington, MA); Kallianidis, Milton (Brockton, MA); Kelsey, G. Stephen (Nashua, NH)

    1983-01-01

    A completely solid state high temperature storage cell comprised of a solid rechargeable cathode such as TiS.sub.2, a solid electrolyte which remains solid at the high temperature operating conditions of the cell and which exhibits high ionic conductivity at such elevated temperatures such as an electrolyte comprised of lithium iodide, and a solid lithium or other alkali metal alloy anode (such as a lithium-silicon alloy) with 5-50% by weight of said anode being comprised of said solid electrolyte.

  16. Variable C : N : P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Letscher, R. T.; Moore, J. K.; Teng, Y. -C.; Primeau, F.

    2015-01-12

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the ocean's biological carbon pump by providing an advective/mixing pathway for ~ 20% of export production. DOM is known to have a stoichiometry depleted in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compared to the particulate organic matter pool, a fact that is often omitted from biogeochemical ocean general circulation models. However the variable C : N : P stoichiometry of DOM becomes important when quantifying carbon export from the upper ocean and linking the nutrient cycles of N and P with that of carbon. Here we utilize recent advances in DOM observationalmore » data coverage and offline tracer-modeling techniques to objectively constrain the variable production and remineralization rates of the DOM C : N : P pools in a simple biogeochemical-ocean model of DOM cycling. The optimized DOM cycling parameters are then incorporated within the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and validated against the compilation of marine DOM observations. The optimized BEC simulation including variable DOM C : N : P cycling was found to better reproduce the observed DOM spatial gradients than simulations that used the canonical Redfield ratio. Global annual average export of dissolved organic C, N, and P below 100 m was found to be 2.28 Pg C yr-1 (143 Tmol C yr-1, 16.4 Tmol N yr-1, and 1 Tmol P yr-1, respectively, with an average export C : N : P stoichiometry of 225 : 19 : 1 for the semilabile (degradable) DOM pool. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export contributed ~ 25% of the combined organic C export to depths greater than 100 m.« less

  17. Use of iron salts to control dissolved sulfide in trunk sewers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padival, N.A.; Kimbell, W.A. [County Sanitation District of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (United States); Redner, J.A. [County Sanitation District of Los Angeles County, Compton, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sewer headspace H{sub 2}S reduction by precipitating dissolved sulfide in wastewater was investigated using iron salt (FeCl{sub 3} and FeCl{sub 2}). Full-scale experiments were conducted in a 40-km (25 mi) sewer with an average flow of 8.7 m{sup 3}/s (200 mgd). Results were sensitive to total Fe dosages and Fe(III)/Fe(II) blend ratios injected. A concentration of 16 mg/L total Fe and a blend ratio of 1.9:1 [Fe(III):Fe(II)] reduced dissolved sulfide levels by 97%. Total sulfide and headspace H{sub 2}S were reduced by 63% and 79%, respectively. Liquid and gas-phase sulfide reductions were largely due to the effective precipitation of sulfide with Fe(III) and Fe(II) and the limited volatilization of H{sub 2}S, respectively. Oxidation of sulfide in the presence of Fe(II) and minute amounts of O{sub 2} may have occurred. A combination of Fe(III) and Fe(II) proved more effective than either salt alone. By using excess Fe(III), dissolved sulfide can be reduced to undetectable levels. No specific relation between the concentration of Fe or Fe(III)/Fe(II) blend ratio and sewer crown pH was inferred. Iron salts may retard crown corrosion rates by precipitating free sulfide and reducing its release to the sewer headspace as H{sub 2}S. A mechanism to inhibit certain responsible bacteria was not established in the 40-km (25 mi) sewer.

  18. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neitzel, Duane A.

    2009-09-14

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including changes in pressure as they pass through turbines and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). To examine pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted specific tests using a hyperbaric chamber. Tests were designed to simulate Kaplan turbine passage conditions and to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes, with and without the complication of fish being acclimated to gas-supersaturated water.

  19. Development of a SREX flowsheet for the separation of strontium from dissolved INEEL zirconium calcine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, J.D.; Wood, D.J.; Todd, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning {sup 90}Sr from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. These laboratory results were used to develop a flowsheet for countercurrent testing of the SREX process with dissolved pilot plant calcine. Testing was performed using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors which are installed in the Remote Analytical Laboratory hot cell. Dissolved Run No.64 pilot plant calcine spiked with {sup 85}Sr was used as feed solution for the testing. The flowsheet tested consisted of an extraction section (0.15 M 4{prime},4{prime}(5{prime})-di-(tert-butylcyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.5 M TBP in Isopar-L.), a 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} scrub section to remove extracted K from the SREX solvent, a 0.01 M HNO{sub 3} strip section for the removal of Sr from the SREX solvent, a 0.25 M Na2CO{sub 3} wash section to remove degradation products from the solvent, and a 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} rinse section. The behavior of {sup 85}Sr, Na, K, Al, B, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zr was evaluated. The described flowsheet successfully extracted {sup 85}Sr from the dissolved pilot plant calcine with a removal efficiency of 99.6%. Distribution coefficients for {sup 85}Sr ranged from 3.6 to 4.5 in the extraction section. With these distribution coefficients a removal efficiency of approximately >99.99% was expected. It was determined that the lower than expected removal efficiency can be attributed to a stage efficiency of only 60% in the extraction section. Extracted K was effectively scrubbed from the SREX solvent with the 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} resulting in only 6.4% of the K in the HLW strip product. Sodium was not extracted from the dissolved calcine by the SREX solvent; however, the use of a 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} scrub solution resulted in a Na concentration of 70 mg/L (12.3% of the feed concentration) in the HLW strip product. Al, B, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zr were determined to be essentially inextractable.

  20. Development of a SREX Flowsheet for the Separation of Strontium from Dissolved INEEL Zirconium Calcine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Jack Douglas; Wood, David James; Todd, Terry Allen

    1999-02-01

    Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning 90 Sr from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. These laboratory results were used to develop a flowsheet for countercurrent testing of the SREX process with dissolved pilot plant calcine. Testing was performed using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors which are installed in the Remote Analytical Laboratory hot cell. Dissolved Run #64 pilot plant calcine spiked with 85 Sr was used as feed solution for the testing. The flowsheet tested consisted of an extraction section (0.15 M 4',4'(5')-di-(tert-butylcyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.5 M TBP in Isopar-L.), a 1.0 M NaNO3 scrub section to remove extracted K from the SREX solvent, a 0.01 M HNO3 strip section for the removal of Sr from the SREX solvent, a 0.25 M Na2CO3 wash section to remove degradation products from the solvent, and a 0.1 M HNO3 rinse section. The behavior of 85 Sr, Na, K, Al, B, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zr was evaluated. The described flowsheet successfully extracted 85 Sr from the dissolved pilot plant calcine with a removal efficiency of 99.6%. Distribution coefficients for 85 Sr ranged from 3.6 to 4.5 in the extraction section. With these distribution coefficients a removal efficiency of approximately >99.99% was expected. It was determined that the lower than expected removal efficiency can be attributed to a stage efficiency of only 60% in the extraction section. Extracted K was effectively scrubbed from the SREX solvent with the 1.0 M NaNO3 resulting in only 6.4% of the K in the HLW strip product. Sodium was not extracted from the dissolved calcine by the SREX solvent; however, the use of a 1.0 M NaNO3 scrub solution resulted in a Na concentration of 70 mg/L (12.3% of the feed concentration) in the HLW strip product. Al, B, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zr were determined to be essentially inextractable.

  1. Foam-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2015-06-02

    Foam-based adsorbents and a related method of manufacture are provided. The foam-based adsorbents include polymer foam with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the foam-based adsorbents includes irradiating polymer foam, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Foam-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  2. The effect of the use of plastic sampling containers on laboratory measurements of dissolved oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehring, J.P.

    1990-10-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are often used to define the water quality of a stream or reservoir. In the Tennessee Valley, there is a commonly held belief that water quality in general, and DO in particular, is declining in TVA reservoirs. In 1980, TVA conducted a study of DO trends in the tailraces of Tennessee River Dams and found a downward trend in most reservoirs, with the greatest decrease in the downstream reservoirs. This report examines a change in sampling procedures which may have contributed to the perception of declining DO. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  3. Subsurface Monitor for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at Geological Sequestration Site Phase 1 SBIR Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng Wu

    2012-08-03

    Phase I research of this SBIR contract has yielded anticipated results and enable us to develop a practical new instrument to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons (DIC) as well as Supercritical (SC) CO2 in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, higher frequency and longer period of time for the Monitoring, Verification & Accounting (MVA) of CO2 sequestration as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). We show that reduced cost and improved performance are possible; both future and emerging market exist for the proposed new instrument.

  4. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 193 1980's 365 335 161 220 156 143 88 110 67 208 1990's 141 69 13 245 530 248 222 1,360 107 394 2000's 387 1,287 229 447 34 119 40 46 107 263 2010's 102 611 151 63 327 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  5. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 264 1980's 369 271 365 326 296 341 189 155 339 174 1990's 250 334 292 163 202 634 338 187 218 424 2000's 249 477 331 124 97 79 65 73 820 169 2010's 186 160 229 581 584 -

  6. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 6,586 845 908 1,062 987 2,071 1,960 1,350 938 678 2010's 2,469 1,884 2,150 2,843 4,589 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  7. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,925 1980's 1,053 -1,079 843 1,564 -486 695 425 177 437 415 1990's 57 257 567 -302 163 345 164 262 -706 143 2000's -605 499 499 202 -21 126 -54 276 455 877 2010's -482 390 385 -649 1,396 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  8. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gordon, John Howard (Salt Lake City, UT); Taylor, Dale M. (Murray, UT)

    2011-06-07

    Solid-state membrane modules comprising at least one membrane unit, where the membrane unit has a dense mixed conducting oxide layer, and at least one conduit or manifold wherein the conduit or manifold comprises a dense layer and at least one of a porous layer and a slotted layer contiguous with the dense layer. The solid-state membrane modules may be used to carry out a variety of processes including the separating of any ionizable component from a feedstream wherein such ionizable component is capable of being transported through a dense mixed conducting oxide layer of the membrane units making up the membrane modules. For ease of construction, the membrane units may be planar.

  9. Solid-State Lighting | Department of Energy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Princeton's approach to solid-state lighting. Read more A Comprehensive Program Solid-state lighting (SSL) technology has the potential to reduce U.S. lighting energy usage by...

  10. Idaho Solid Waste Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid Waste Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Idaho Solid Waste Webpage Abstract This webpage provides an overview of regulation...

  11. Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-01-01

    INL's patented, continuous-flow Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) produces the highest ASTM-quality B-100 biodiesel from waste fats, oils, and greases at the site of waste generation. SSC delivers low-cost transportation fuel, avoids significant landfill costs for municipalities, and reduces potent methane and other emissions produced in landfills from these wastes. You can learn more about INL's energy research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  12. Solid-state membrane module

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hinklin, Thomas Ray; Lewinsohn, Charles Arthur

    2015-06-30

    A module for separating oxygen from an oxygen-containing gaseous mixture comprising planar solid-state membrane units, each membrane unit comprising planar dense mixed conducting oxides layers, planar channel-free porous support layers, and one or more planar intermediate support layers comprising at least one channeled porous support layer. The porosity of the planar channeled porous support layers is less than the porosity of the planar channel-free porous support layers.

  13. Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-28

    INL's patented, continuous-flow Supercritical/Solid Catalyst (SSC) produces the highest ASTM-quality B-100 biodiesel from waste fats, oils, and greases at the site of waste generation. SSC delivers low-cost transportation fuel, avoids significant landfill costs for municipalities, and reduces potent methane and other emissions produced in landfills from these wastes. You can learn more about INL's energy research programs at http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  14. NETL: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Publications This page provides links to SOFC Program related documents and reference materials. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Program 2015 Project Portfolio The Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFC) Project Portfolio provides an overview of the SOFC Program, including a description of key technology areas, information on projects, location map, and contact information for personnel supporting the SOFC Program. Recent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Studies May 2013 In 2007, the SECA

  15. SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy

  16. SolidEnergy Systems | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SolidEnergy Systems National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition SolidEnergy Systems Massachusetts Institute of Technology The Polymer Ionic Liquid (PIL) lithium battery combines the safety and energy density of a solid polymer lithium battery and the high performance of a lithium-ion battery. The battery developed by SolidEnergy achieves high energy density that works safely over a wide temperature range, which makes it ideal for electric vehicles and consumer electronics where both energy

  17. Solid Waste Management Plan. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-04-26

    The waste types discussed in this Solid Waste Management Plan are Municipal Solid Waste, Hazardous Waste, Low-Level Mixed Waste, Low-Level Radioactive Waste, and Transuranic Waste. The plan describes for each type of solid waste, the existing waste management facilities, the issues, and the assumptions used to develop the current management plan.

  18. Suspended Solids Profiler Shop Test Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    STAEHR, T.W.

    2000-01-19

    The Suspended Solids Profiler (SSP) Instrument is planned to be installed in the AZ-101 tank to measure suspended solids concentrations during mixer pump testing. The SSP sensor uses a reflectance measurement principle to determine the suspended solids concentrations. The purpose of this test is to provide a documented means of verifying that the functional components of the SSP operate properly.

  19. Energy and solid/hazardous waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1981-12-01

    This report addresses the past and potential future solid and hazardous waste impacts from energy development, and summarizes the major environmental, legislation applicable to solid and hazardous waste generation and disposal. A glossary of terms and acronyms used to describe and measure solid waste impacts of energy development is included. (PSB)

  20. Solid State Lighting FAQ Tip Sheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid State Lighting FAQ Tip Sheet Solid State Lighting FAQ Tip Sheet Contains information on solid state lighting applications for energy efficiency in buildings. PDF icon ...

  1. International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid Waste Association (ISWA) Jump to: navigation, search Name: International Solid Waste Association (ISWA) Address: ISWA - International Solid Waste Association General...

  2. Photochemical Oxidation of Dissolved Elemental Mercury by Carbonate Radicals in Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feng; Zhao, Wenrong; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury [Hg(0)] affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially in natural freshwaters containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by various reactive ionic species [e.g., DOM, HCO3-, NO3-] and free radicals in a creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH=8) under simulated solar irradiation. We report a high Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) in the presence of both HCO3- and NO3-, whereas HCO3-, NO3-, or DOM alone increased the oxidation rate slightly (k = 0.1 0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO ) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify that carbonate radicals (CO3 -) primarily drive the Hg(0) photooxidation, whereas addition of DOM resulted in a 2-fold decrease in Hg(0) oxidation. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3 - radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and fate in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.

  3. Photochemical Oxidation of Dissolved Elemental Mercury by Carbonate Radicals in Water

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Feng; Zhao, Wenrong; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury [Hg(0)] affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially in natural freshwaters containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by various reactive ionic species [e.g., DOM, HCO3-, NO3-] and free radicals in a creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH=8) under simulated solar irradiation. We report a high Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) in the presence of both HCO3- and NO3-, whereas HCO3-,more » NO3-, or DOM alone increased the oxidation rate slightly (k = 0.1 0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO ) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify that carbonate radicals (CO3 -) primarily drive the Hg(0) photooxidation, whereas addition of DOM resulted in a 2-fold decrease in Hg(0) oxidation. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3 - radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and fate in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.« less

  4. Removal of dissolved humic acid from water by photocatalytic oxidation using a silver orthophosphate semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatakeyama, Keisuke; Okuda, Masukazu; Kuki, Takahiro; Esaka, Takao

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? The photocatalytic property of a silver orthophosphate (Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) was investigated for humic acid degradation. ? The Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} shows high photocatalytic activity under visible light. ? The photocatalytic activity was greatly improved by employing the precipitation method. -- Abstract: In order to remove dissolved organic matter such as humic acid from water, a silver orthophosphate (Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) was newly employed as a heterogeneous photocatalyst. Here, Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was prepared by simple ion-exchange and precipitation methods, and the physico-chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultravioletvisible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, particle distribution measurements and BrunauerEmmettTeller (BET) analysis. The degradation of humic acid was faster over Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} catalyst than over conventional TiO{sub 2} (P-25). The total photocatalytic properties were improved by employing not an ion-exchange method but a precipitation method; humic acid degradation was performed with a removal ratio of dissolved organic carbon of 75% under visible light (? = 451 nm) for 2-h irradiation.

  5. Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury by carbonate radicals in water

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Feng; Gu, Baohua; Zhao, Weirong; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-11-11

    In this study, photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury, Hg(0), affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially concerning the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate (CO32-) in natural freshwaters. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by reactive ionic species (e.g., DOM, CO32-, and NO3–) and free radicals in creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH 8) under simulated solar irradiation. The Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) is much higher in the presencemore » of both CO32- and NO3- than in the presence of CO32-, NO3-, or DOM alone (k = 0.1–0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO•) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found that carbonate radicals (CO3•-) primarily drive Hg(0) photooxidation. The addition of DOM to the solution of CO32- and NO3- decreased the oxidation rate by half. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3•- radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and the fate of Hg in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.« less

  6. Results of Characterization and Retrieval Testing on Tank 241-C-110 Heel Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Callaway, William S.

    2013-09-30

    Nine samples of heel solids from tank 241-C-110 were delivered to the 222-S Laboratory for characterization and dissolution testing. After being drained thoroughly, the sample solids were primarily white to light-brown with minor dark-colored inclusions. The maximum dimension of the majority of the solids was <2 mm; however, numerous pieces of aggregate, microcrystalline, and crystalline solids with maximum dimensions ranging from 5-70 mm were observed. In general, the larger pieces of aggregate solids were strongly cemented. Natrophosphate [Na{sub 7}F(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}�19H{sub 2}O] was the dominant solid phase identified in the heel solids. Results of chemical analyses suggested that 85-87 wt% of the heel solids were the fluoridephosphate double salt. The average bulk density measured for the heel solids was 1.689 g/mL; the reference density of natrophosphate is 1.71 g/mL. Dissolution tests on composite samples indicate that 94 to 97 wt% of the tank 241-C-110 heel solids can be retrieved by dissolution in water. Dissolution and recovery of the soluble components in 1 kg (0.59 L) of the heel solids required the addition of ≈9.5 kg (9.5 L) of water at 15 �C and ≈4.4 kg (4.45 L) of water at 45 �C. Calculations performed using the Environmental Simulation Program indicate that dissolution of the ≈0.86 kg of natrophosphate in each kilogram of the tank 241-C-110 heel solids would require ≈9.45 kg of water at 15 �C and ≈4.25 kg of water at 45 �C. The slightly larger quantities of water determined to be required to retrieve the soluble components in 1 kg of the heel solids are consistent with that required for the dissolution of solids composed mainly of natrophosphate with a major portion of the balance consisting of highly soluble sodium salts. At least 98% of the structural water, soluble phosphate, sodium, fluoride, nitrate, carbonate, nitrite, sulfate, oxalate, and chloride in the test composites was dissolved and recovered in the dissolution tests. Most of the {sup 99}Tc and {sup 137}Cs present in the initial heel solids composites was removed in the water dissolution tests. The estimated activities/weights of {sup 129}I, {sup 234}U, {sup 235}U, {sup 236}U, and {sup 238}U in the dry residual solids were <25% of the weights/activities in the initial composite solids. Gibbsite and nordstrandite [both Al(OH){sub 3}] were the major solid phases identified in the solids remaining after completion of the dissolution tests. Chemical analysis indicated that the residual solids may have contained up to 62 wt% Al(OH){sub 3}. Significant quantities of unidentified phosphate-, iron-, bismuth-, silicon-, and strontium- bearing species were also present in the residual solids. The reference density of gibbsite (and nordstrandite) is 2.42 g/mL. The measured density of the residual solids, 2.65 g/mL, would be a reasonable value for solids containing gibbsite as the major component with minor quantities of other, higher density solids. Sieve analysis indicated that 22.2 wt% of the residual solids were discrete particles >710 μm in size, and 77.8 wt% were particulates <710 μm in size. Light-scattering measurements suggested that nearly all of the <710-μm particulates with diameters >12 μm were weakly bound aggregates of particles with diameters <2 μm. The <710-μm residual solids settled very slowly when dispersed in reagent water. The physical appearance of a suspension containing ≈0.4 vol% of the solids in pure water changed very little over a period of 46.5 hours. It should be noted that the distribution of particle sizes in the residual solids and the observed settling behavior were both strongly influenced by the procedures followed in the dissolution tests.

  7. Flowmeter for gas-entrained solids flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Porges, Karl G. (Evanston, IL)

    1990-01-01

    An apparatus and method for the measurement of solids feedrate in a gas-entrained solids flow conveyance system. The apparatus and method of the present invention include a vertical duct connecting a source of solids to the gas-entrained flow conveyance system, a control valve positioned in the vertical duct, and a capacitive densitometer positioned along the duct at a location a known distance below the control valved so that the solid feedrate, Q, of the gas entrained flow can be determined by Q=S.rho..phi.V.sub.S where S is the cross sectional area of the duct, .rho. is the density of the solid, .phi. is the solid volume fraction determined by the capacitive densitometer, and v.sub.S is the local solid velocity which can be inferred from the konown distance of the capacitive densitometer below the control valve.

  8. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, S.F.; Rauh, R.D.

    1990-07-03

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counter electrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films. 4 figs.

  9. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, Stuart F. (Sudbury, MA); Rauh, R. David (Newton, MA)

    1993-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  10. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, Stuart F. (111 Downey St., Norwood, MA 02062); Rauh, R. David (111 Downey St., Norwood, MA 02062)

    1990-01-01

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  11. Solid state electrochromic light modulator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cogan, Stuart F.; Rauh, R. David

    1993-12-07

    An all solid-state variable transmission electrochromic device has a source of charge compensating ions. An inorganic oxide counterelectrode film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions increases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength is separated from a primary electrochromic film which on reduction with the accompanying insertion of the charge compensating ions decreases its transmission of light of predetermined wavelength by an insulating electrolyte film that transports the charge compensating ions. First and second electrodes are contiguous with the inorganic oxide counter electrode film and the primary electrochromic film, respectively, and separated by the three films.

  12. Solid-state optical microscope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Young, I.T.

    1981-01-07

    A solid state optical microscope is described wherein wide-field and high-resolution images of an object are produced at a rapid rate by utilizing conventional optics with a charge-coupled photodiode array. Means for scanning in one of two orthogonal directions are provided, while the charge-coupled photodiode array scans in the other orthogonal direction. Illumination light from the object is incident upon the photodiodes, creating packets of electrons (signals) which are representative of the illuminated object. The signals are then processed, stored in a memory, and finally displayed as a video signal.

  13. Solid phase microextraction field kit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nunes, Peter J.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2005-08-16

    A field kit for the collection, isolation and concentration of trace amounts of high explosives (HE), biological weapons (BW) and chemical weapons (CW) residues in air, soil, vegetation, swipe, and liquid samples. The field kit includes a number of Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) fiber and syringe assemblies in a hermetically sealed transportation container or tubes which includes a sampling port, a number of extra SPME fiber and syringe assemblies, the fiber and syringe assemblies including a protective cap for the fiber, and an extractor for the protective cap, along with other items including spare parts, protective glove, and an instruction manual, all located in an airtight container.

  14. Solid oxide fuel cell generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Draper, Robert (Churchill Boro, PA); George, Raymond A. (Pittsburgh, PA); Shockling, Larry A. (Plum Borough, PA)

    1993-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell generator has a pair of spaced apart tubesheets in a housing. At least two intermediate barrier walls are between the tubesheets and define a generator chamber between two intermediate buffer chambers. An array of fuel cells have tubes with open ends engaging the tubesheets. Tubular, axially elongated electrochemical cells are supported on the tubes in the generator chamber. Fuel gas and oxidant gas are preheated in the intermediate chambers by the gases flowing on the other side of the tubes. Gas leakage around the tubes through the tubesheets is permitted. The buffer chambers reentrain the leaked fuel gas for reintroduction to the generator chamber.

  15. Impacts of individual fish movement patterns on estimates of mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation in the Columbia River Basin.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Fidler, Larry E.

    2002-12-31

    Spatial and temporal distributions of dissolved gases in the Columbia and Snake rivers vary due to many factors including river channel and dam geometries, operational decisions, and natural variations in flow rates. As a result, the dissolved gas exposure histories experienced by migrating juvenile salmonids can vary significantly among individual fish. A discrete, particle-based model of individual fish movements and dissolved gas exposure history has been developed and applied to examine the effects of such variability on estimates of fish mortality. The model, called the Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator or FINS, is linked to a two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) hydrodynamic simulator that quantifies local water velocity, temperature, and dissolved gas levels as a function of river flow rates and dam operations. Simulated gas exposure histories are then input to biological mortality models to predict the effects of various river configurations on fish injury and mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation. This model framework provides a critical linkage between hydrodynamic models of the river system and models of biological effects. FINS model parameters were estimated and validated based on observations of individual fish movements collected using radiotelemetry methods during 1997 and 1998. The model was then used to simulate exposure histories under selected operational scenarios. We compare mortality rates estimated using the FINS model approach (incorporating individual behavior and spatial and temporal variability) to those estimated using average exposure times and levels as is done in traditional lumped-parameter model approaches.

  16. Solid state division progress report, period ending February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Research is reported concerning theoretical solid state physics; surface and near-surface properties of solids; defects in solids; transport properties of solids; neutron scattering; crystal growth and characterization; and isotope research materials.

  17. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Fishes of the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, Kathy E.; Dawley, Earl; Geist, David R.

    2006-03-31

    Gas supersaturation problems generated by spill from dams on the Columbia River were first identified in the 1960s. Since that time, considerable research has been conducted on effects of gas supersaturation on aquatic life, primarily juvenile salmonids. Also since that time, modifications to dam structures and operations have reduced supersaturated gas levels produced by the dams. The limit for total dissolved gas saturation (TDGS) as mandated by current Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards is 110%. State management agencies issue limited waivers to water quality, allowing production of levels of up to 120% TDGS to facilitate the downstream migration of juvenile salmonids. Recently, gas supersaturation as a water quality issue has resurfaced as concerns have grown regarding chronic effects of spill-related total dissolved gas on salmonids, including incubating embryos and larvae, resident fish species, and other aquatic organisms. Because of current concerns, and because the last comprehensive review of research on supersaturation effects on fishes was conducted in 1997, we reviewed recent supersaturation literature to identify new or ongoing issues that may not be adequately addressed by the current 110% TDGS limit and the 120% TDGS water quality waiver. We found that recent work supports older research indicating that short-term exposure to levels up to 120% TDGS does not produce acute effects on migratory juvenile or adult salmonids when compensating depths are available. Monitoring programs at Snake and Columbia river dams from 1995 to the early 2000s documented a low incidence of significant gas bubble disease or mortality in Columbia River salmonids, resident fishes, or other taxa. We did, however, identify five areas of concern in which total dissolved gas levels lower than water quality limits may produce sublethal effects on fishes of the Columbia River. These areas of concern are 1) sensitive and vulnerable species or life stages, 2) long-term chronic or multiple exposure, 3) vulnerable habitats and reaches, 4) effects on incubating fish in hyporheic habitats, and 5) community and ecosystem effects. Although some of these areas of concern may have been identified previously in earlier works, we suggest that consideration of the issues is warranted to avoid detrimental impacts on aquatic resources of the Columbia River system. We discuss these issues and provide recommendations to regulatory and management agencies based on our review of recent literature. In general, we recommend that additional attention be directed toward resolving the uncertainties within these five areas.

  18. Real-time determination of lubricant concentrations dissolved in alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schafer, W.R.

    1999-07-01

    A methodology was developed and used to measure both polyolester lubricant concentrations in solution with R-134a and R-407C and mineral oils in solution with R-123. This method is unaffected by changes in pressure, temperature, refrigerant type, and lubricant type. The concentration of dissolved lubricant was measured in three alternative refrigerants with two different synthetic polyolesters and two different mineral oils over a temperature range of 68 F (20 C) to 140 F (60 C) and a concentration range of 0 to 6% w/w. The evaluation methods included density, viscosity, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Measurements of viscosity and density were performed on an oscillating body viscometer. Lubricant concentrations determined by HPLC compared favorably with the ASHRAE Standard 41.1 method (ASHRAE 1984). Circulating lubricant, miscible and immiscible, concentration in identical R-407C operating systems was also measured to demonstrate the practical application of the test method.

  19. Laboratory studies of the effects of pressure and dissolved gas supersaturation on turbine-passed fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, C. S.; Amidan, B. G.; Cada, G. F.

    2001-03-01

    Designing advanced turbine systems requires knowledge of environmental conditions that injure or kill fish such as the stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes fish experience during turbine passage and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). The objective of this study was to examine the relative importance of pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality. Specific tests were designed to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes typical of turbine passage, with and without the complication of the fish being acclimated to gas supersaturated water. The study investigated the responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to these two stresses, both singly and in combination.

  20. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5,289 5,631 5,477 5,639 2000's 5,195 6,628 6,573 5,903 5,416 6,271 6,045 6,890 6,680 7,615 2010's 9,099 13,260 19,550 22,218 27,240 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  1. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 3,405 1980's 3,405 3,316 3,248 3,355 3,518 3,454 3,443 3,351 3,192 3,099 1990's 2,936 2,968 3,031 2,868 2,907 2,886 2,938 3,022 3,136 3,313 2000's 3,299 3,193 2,988 2,855 2,742

  2. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,139 1980's 1,861 1,537 1,351 977 1,182 1,099 758 542 498 760 1990's 615 737 760 867 850 857 991 1,116 727 586 2000's 2,683 1,194 852 817 907 1,032 810 1,098 1,488 2,669 2010's 2,660 5,957 10,030 9,630 9,962 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  3. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,209 1980's 2,941 2,561 4,516 3,815 2,999 3,163 2,903 2,755 27,612 3,130 1990's 2,571 3,479 1,844 2,723 3,002 2,328 2,013 3,241 3,937 8,705 2000's 4,546 3,232 2,637 2,790 3,170 2,034 2,782 1,804 7,385 2,698 2010's 3,964

  4. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,517 1980's 5,283 4,349 5,580 3,695 4,313 4,308 3,856 3,734 4,152 4,603 1990's 4,804 3,698 2,850 3,239 4,519 3,527 3,234 4,925 5,005 11,226 2000's 3,884 3,259 3,587 3,044 4,009 3,281 5,372 5,400 2,943 5,522 2010's 4,983

  5. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 6,921 1,145 1,064 1,040 1,004 1,655 1,726 1,115 662 564 2010's 1,146 1,338 1,131 1,733 4,058 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  6. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 59,425 1980's 62,010 61,546 62,082 61,694 60,638 60,607 59,577 58,189 32,878 32,809 1990's 33,169 31,817 31,424 30,045 30,400 30,797 30,795 32,382 30,660 31,415 2000's 29,833 29,824 29,541 28,552 27,649 28,236 29,640 32,668 29,023 33,383

  7. Variable C : N : P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Letscher, R. T.; Moore, J. K.; Teng, Y. -C.; Primeau, F.

    2014-06-16

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the ocean's biological carbon pump by providing an advective/mixing pathway for ~ 20% of export production. DOM is known to have a stoichiometry depleted in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compared to the particulate organic matter pool, a~fact that is often omitted from biogeochemical-ocean general circulation models. However the variable C : N : P stoichiometry of DOM becomes important when quantifying carbon export from the upper ocean and linking the nutrient cycles of N and P with that of carbon. Here we utilize recent advances in DOM observational data coveragemore » and offline tracer-modeling techniques to objectively constrain the variable production and remineralization rates of the DOM C / N / P pools in a simple biogeochemical-ocean model of DOM cycling. The optimized DOM cycling parameters are then incorporated within the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) component of the Community Earth System Model and validated against the compilation of marine DOM observations. The optimized BEC simulation including variable DOM C : N : P cycling was found to better reproduce the observed DOM spatial gradients than simulations that used the canonical Redfield ratio. Global annual average export of dissolved organic C, N, and P below 100 m was found to be 2.28 Pg C yr-1 (143 Tmol C yr-1), 16.4 Tmol N yr-1, and 1 Tmol P yr-1, respectively with an average export C : N : P stoichiometry of 225 : 19 : 1 for the semilabile (degradable) DOM pool. DOC export contributed ~ 25% of the combined organic C export to depths greater than 100 m.« less

  8. ,"New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  9. ,"North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  10. ,"Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  11. ,"Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  12. ,"Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  13. ,"Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  14. ,"Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  15. ,"Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  16. ,"Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  17. ,"Alaska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  18. ,"Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  19. ,"California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  20. ,"Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  1. ,"Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  2. ,"Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  3. ,"Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  4. ,"Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  5. ,"Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  6. ,"Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  7. ,"Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  8. ,"Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  9. ,"Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  10. Effects of Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Fish Residing in the Snake and Columbia Rivers, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrank, Boyd P.

    1998-03-01

    Increased spill at dams has commonly brought dissolved gas supersaturation higher than levels established by state and federal water quality criteria in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. These increased spill volumes are intended to provide safe passage for migrating juvenile salmon. However, dissolved gas supersaturation resulting from spill in past decades has led to gas bubble disease (GBD) in fish. Therefore, during the period of high spill in 1996, the authors monitored the prevalence and severity of gas bubble disease by sampling resident fish in Priest Rapids Reservoir and downstream from Bonneville, Priest Rapids, and Ice Harbor Dams.

  11. Solid-oxide fuel cell electrolyte

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bloom, Ira D. (Bolingbrook, IL); Hash, Mark C. (Joliet, IL); Krumpelt, Michael (Naperville, IL)

    1993-01-01

    A solid-oxide electrolyte operable at between 600.degree. C. and 800.degree. C. and a method of producing the solid-oxide electrolyte are provided. The solid-oxide electrolyte comprises a combination of a compound having weak metal-oxygen interactions with a compound having stronger metal-oxygen interactions whereby the resulting combination has both strong and weak metal-oxygen interaction properties.

  12. Solid phase sequencing of biopolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles (Del Mar, CA); Koster, Hubert (La Jolla, CA)

    2010-09-28

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing target nucleic acid sequences, to mass modified nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probes comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Nucleic acids whose sequences can be determined include DNA or RNA in biological samples such as patient biopsies and environmental samples. Probes may be fixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated molecular weight analysis and identification of the target sequence.

  13. Solid phase sequencing of biopolymers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cantor, Charles R.; Hubert, Koster

    2014-06-24

    This invention relates to methods for detecting and sequencing target nucleic acid sequences, to mass modified nucleic acid probes and arrays of probes useful in these methods, and to kits and systems which contain these probes. Useful methods involve hybridizing the nucleic acids or nucleic acids which represent complementary or homologous sequences of the target to an array of nucleic acid probes. These probes comprise a single-stranded portion, an optional double-stranded portion and a variable sequence within the single-stranded portion. The molecular weights of the hybridized nucleic acids of the set can be determined by mass spectroscopy, and the sequence of the target determined from the molecular weights of the fragments. Probes may be affixed to a solid support such as a hybridization chip to facilitate automated molecular weight analysis and identification of the target sequence.

  14. Solid State Gas Sensors - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Advanced Materials Advanced Materials Find More Like This Return to Search Solid State Gas Sensors Los Alamos National Laboratory Contact LANL About This Technology LANLs...

  15. Sandia Energy - Solid-State Lighting

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ECIS-Veeco: Research Driving Down the Costs of Efficient LED Lighting Energy, Energy Efficiency, Materials Science, Partnership, Research & Capabilities, Solid-State Lighting...

  16. Solid Waste Program Website | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Waste Program Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Solid Waste Program Website Author Alaska Division of Environmental Health...

  17. Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    mosaic virus nanostructures and ALD ruthenium oxide Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid flexible electrochemical supercapacitor using Tobacco mosaic virus ...

  18. Design of Nanocrystal Solids for Photoelectrochemical Synthesis...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Design of Nanocrystal Solids for Photoelectrochemical Synthesis of Liquid Fuels The proposed research project seeks to exploit the unique size-, composition-, and surface-tunable...

  19. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An exemplary material can include material components made of diblock polymers or triblock polymers. Many uses are contemplated for the solid polymer electrolyte materials. For ...

  20. MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Open problems in condensed matter physics, 1987 Falicov, L.M. 75 CONDENSED MATTER PHYSICS, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY AND SUPERFLUIDITY; SOLID STATE PHYSICS; RESEARCH PROGRAMS;...

  1. Solid-State Lighting Program Strategy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    James R. Brodrick, Ph.D. April 22, 2014 U.S. Department of Energy Solid-State Lighting Program Strategy MARKET * Many companies * Semiconductors :: Lighting * Large business ...

  2. NREL: Energy Sciences - Solid-State Theory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Science Printable Version Solid-State Theory Image showing a roughly spherical red shape that looks like an apple that is floating within a yellow hemispherical shell....

  3. Theoretical calculating the thermodynamic properties of solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    solid systems, we demonstrate that our methodology can predict the useful information to ... Report Number(s): NETL-364 Resource Type: Technical Report Research Org: National Energy ...

  4. Solid-State Lighting | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Emerging Technologies » Solid-State Lighting Solid-State Lighting Register now for DOE's 13th Annual R&amp;D Workshop Register now for DOE's 13th Annual R&D Workshop Join DOE and our nation's top researchers and lighting industry experts February 2-4, 2016. Read more DOE Announces Funding Opportunity for Solid-State Lighting R&amp;D DOE Announces Funding Opportunity for Solid-State Lighting R&D A total of up to $10.5M in funding is directed toward all three existing R&D

  5. Method for the decontamination of soil containing solid organic explosives therein

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Radtke, Corey W. (Idaho Falls, ID); Roberto, Francisco F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2000-01-01

    An efficient method for decontaminating soil containing organic explosives ("TNT" and others) in the form of solid portions or chunks which are not ordinarily subject to effective bacterial degradation. The contaminated soil is treated by delivering an organic solvent to the soil which is capable of dissolving the explosives. This process makes the explosives more bioavailable to natural bacteria in the soil which can decompose the explosives. An organic nutrient composition is also preferably added to facilitate decomposition and yield a compost product. After dissolution, the explosives are allowed to remain in the soil until they are decomposed by the bacteria. Decomposition occurs directly in the soil which avoids the need to remove both the explosives and the solvents (which either evaporate or are decomposed by the bacteria). Decomposition is directly facilitated by the solvent pre-treatment process described above which enables rapid bacterial remediation of the soil.

  6. The effects of total dissolved gas on chum salmon fry survival, growth, gas bubble disease, and seawater tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, David R.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-02-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta alevin developing in gravel habitats downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are exposed to elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) when water is spilled at the dam to move migrating salmon smolts downstream to the Pacific Ocean. Current water quality criteria for the management of dissolved gas in dam tailwaters were developed primarily to protect salmonid smolts and are assumed to be protective of alevin if adequate depth compensation is provided. We studied whether chum salmon alevin exposed to six levels of dissolved gas ranging from 100% to 130% TDG at three development periods between hatch and emergence (hereafter early, middle, and late stage) suffered differential mortality, growth, gas bubble disease, or seawater tolerance. Each life stage was exposed for 50 d (early stage), 29 d (middle stage), or 16 d (late stage) beginning at 13, 34, and 37 d post-hatch, respectively, through 50% emergence. The mortality for all stages from exposure to emergence was estimated to be 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 4% to 12%) when dissolved gas levels were between 100% and 117% TDG. Mortality significantly increased as dissolved gas levels rose above 117% TDG,; with the lethal concentration that produced 50% mortality (LC50 ) was estimated to be 128.7% TDG (95% CI of 127.2% to 130.2% TDG) in the early and middle stages. By contrast, there was no evidence that dissolved gas level significantly affected growth in any life stage except that the mean wet weight at emergence of early stage fish exposed to 130% TDG was significantly less than the modeled growth of unexposed fish. The proportion of fish afflicted with gas bubble disease increased with increasing gas concentrations and occurred most commonly in the nares and gastrointestinal tract. Early stage fish exhibited higher ratios of filament to lamellar gill chloride cells than late stage fish, and these ratios increased and decreased for early and late stage fish, respectively, as gas levels increased; however, there were no significant differences in mortality between life stages after 96 h in seawater. The study results suggest that current water quality guidelines for the management of dissolved gas appear to offer a conservative level of protection to chum salmon alevin incubating in gravel habitat downstream of Bonneville Dam.

  7. Determining the release of radionuclides from tank waste residual solids. FY2015 report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    King, William D.; Hobbs, David T.

    2015-09-11

    Methodology development for pore water leaching studies has been continued to support Savannah River Site High Level Waste tank closure efforts. For FY2015, the primary goal of this testing was the achievement of target pH and Eh values for pore water solutions representative of local groundwater in the presence of grout or grout-representative (CaCO3 or FeS) solids as well as waste surrogate solids representative of residual solids expected to be present in a closed tank. For oxidizing conditions representative of a closed tank after aging, a focus was placed on using solid phases believed to be controlling pH and Eh at equilibrium conditions. For three pore water conditions (shown below), the target pH values were achieved to within 0.5 pH units. Tank 18 residual surrogate solids leaching studies were conducted over an Eh range of approximately 630 mV. Significantly higher Eh values were achieved for the oxidizing conditions (ORII and ORIII) than were previously observed. For the ORII condition, the target Eh value was nearly achieved (within 50 mV). However, Eh values observed for the ORIII condition were approximately 160 mV less positive than the target. Eh values observed for the RRII condition were approximately 370 mV less negative than the target. Achievement of more positive and more negative Eh values is believed to require the addition of non-representative oxidants and reductants, respectively. Plutonium and uranium concentrations measured during Tank 18 residual surrogate solids leaching studies under these conditions (shown below) followed the general trends predicted for plutonium and uranium oxide phases, assuming equilibrium with dissolved oxygen. The highest plutonium and uranium concentrations were observed for the ORIII condition and the lowest concentrations were observed for the RRII condition. Based on these results, it is recommended that these test methodologies be used to conduct leaching studies with actual Tank 18 residual solids material. Actual waste testing will include leaching evaluations of technetium and neptunium, as well as plutonium and uranium.

  8. Managing America`s solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1998-03-02

    This report presents an historical overview of the federal role in municipal solid waste management from 1965 to approximately 1995. Attention is focuses on the federal role in safeguarding public health, protecting the environment, and wisely using material and energy resources. It is hoped that this report will provide important background for future municipal solid waste research and development initiatives.

  9. Biochemical transformation of solid carbonaceous material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    2001-09-25

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  10. Solid fuel applications to transportation engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rentz, Richard L.; Renner, Roy A.

    1980-06-01

    The utilization of solid fuels as alternatives to liquid fuels for future transportation engines is reviewed. Alternative liquid fuels will not be addressed nor will petroleum/solid fuel blends except for the case of diesel engines. With respect to diesel engines, coal/oil mixtures will be addressed because of the high interest in this specific application as a result of the large number of diesel engines currently in transportation use. Final assessments refer to solid fuels only for diesel engines. The technical assessments of solid fuels utilization for transportation engines is summarized: solid fuel combustion in transportation engines is in a non-developed state; highway transportation is not amenable to solid fuels utilization due to severe environmental, packaging, control, and disposal problems; diesel and open-cycle gas turbines do not appear worthy of further development, although coal/oil mixtures for slow speed diesels may offer some promise as a transition technology; closed-cycle gas turbines show some promise for solid fuels utilization for limited applications as does the Stirling engine for use of cleaner solid fuels; Rankine cycle engines show good potential for limited applications, such as for locomotives and ships; and any development program will require large resources and sophisticated equipment in order to advance the state-of-the-art.

  11. Solid-State Lighting | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lighting Solid-State Lighting 2013 DOE Solid-State Lighting Program Overview PDF icon ssl-overview_brochure_feb2013.pdf More Documents & Publications January 2016 POSTINGS Emerging Lighting Technology INNOVATIVE PHOSPHORESCENT OLED TECHNOLOGY IS HELPING TO MAKE OLED LIGHTING MARKET-READY

  12. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  13. Solid waste burial grounds interim safety analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saito, G.H.

    1994-10-01

    This Interim Safety Analysis document supports the authorization basis for the interim operation and restrictions on interim operations for the near-surface land disposal of solid waste in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. The Solid Waste Burial Grounds Interim Safety Basis supports the upgrade progress for the safety analysis report and the technical safety requirements for the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds. Accident safety analysis scenarios have been analyzed based on the significant events identified in the preliminary hazards analysis. The interim safety analysis provides an evaluation of the operations in the Solid Waste Burial Grounds to determine if the radiological and hazardous material exposures will be acceptable from an overall health and safety standpoint to the worker, the onsite personnel, the public, and the environment.

  14. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, P.H.

    1984-09-28

    A solid state radiative heat pump operable at room temperature (300 K) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of change carriers as compared equilibrium. In one form of the invention an infrared semiconductor photodiode is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention, a homogenous semiconductor is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-refection layer is coated into the active surface of the semiconductor, the anti-reflection layer having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor. In the second method, a passive layer is speaced trom the active surface of the semiconductor by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler with a paraboloid reflecting surface surface is in contact with the active surface of the semiconductor, the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  15. Solid state radiative heat pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Berdahl, Paul H. (Oakland, CA)

    1986-01-01

    A solid state radiative heat pump (10, 50, 70) operable at room temperature (300.degree. K.) utilizes a semiconductor having a gap energy in the range of 0.03-0.25 eV and operated reversibly to produce an excess or deficit of charge carriers as compared to thermal equilibrium. In one form of the invention (10, 70) an infrared semiconductor photodiode (21, 71) is used, with forward or reverse bias, to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. In another form of the invention (50), a homogeneous semiconductor (51) is subjected to orthogonal magnetic and electric fields to emit an excess or deficit of infrared radiation. Three methods of enhancing transmission of radiation through the active surface of the semiconductor are disclosed. In one method, an anti-reflection layer (19) is coated into the active surface (13) of the semiconductor (11), the anti-reflection layer (19) having an index of refraction equal to the square root of that of the semiconductor (11). In the second method, a passive layer (75) is spaced from the active surface (73) of the semiconductor (71) by a submicron vacuum gap, the passive layer having an index of refractive equal to that of the semiconductor. In the third method, a coupler (91) with a paraboloid reflecting surface (92) is in contact with the active surface (13, 53) of the semiconductor (11, 51), the coupler having an index of refraction about the same as that of the semiconductor.

  16. Valve for controlling solids flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Feldman, David K. (Fairlawn, NJ)

    1980-01-01

    A fluidized solids control valve is disclosed that is particularly well adapted for use with a flow of coal or char that includes both large particles and fines. The particles may or may not be fluidized at various times during the operation. The valve includes a tubular body that terminates in a valve seat covered by a normally closed closure plate. The valve body at the seat and the closure plate is provided with aligned longitudinal slots that receive a pivotally supported key plate. The key plate is positionable by an operator in inserted, intermediate and retracted positions respecting the longitudinal slot in the valve body. The key plate normally closes the slot within the closure plate but is shaped and aligned obliquely to the longitudinal slot within the valve body to provide progressively increasing slot openings between the inserted and retracted positions. Transfer members are provided between the operator, key plate and closure plate to move the closure plate into an open position only when the key plate is retracted from the longitudinal slot within the valve body.

  17. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, J.W.

    1993-02-23

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating positive'' terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating negative'' terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  18. Solid state safety jumper cables

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kronberg, James W. (353 Church Rd., Beech Island, SC 29841)

    1993-01-01

    Solid state jumper cables for connecting two batteries in parallel, having two bridge rectifiers for developing a reference voltage, a four-input decoder for determining which terminals are to be connected based on a comparison of the voltage at each of the four terminals to the reference voltage, and a pair of relays for effecting the correct connection depending on the determination of the decoder. No connection will be made unless only one terminal of each battery has a higher voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "positive" terminals, and one has a lower voltage than the reference voltage, indicating "negative" terminals, and that, therefore, the two high voltage terminals may be connected and the two lower voltage terminals may be connected. Current flows once the appropriate relay device is closed. The relay device is preferably a MOSFET (metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor) combined with a series array of photodiodes that develop MOSFET gate-closing potential when the decoder output causes an LED to light.

  19. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  20. Prediction of Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) at Hydropower Dams throughout the Columbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Hadjerioua, Boualem; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. The entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin cause elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation. Physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been characterized throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and at real-time water quality monitoring stations. These data have been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange which are site specific and account for the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant transport and exchange in route to the downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the findings from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow for the formulation of optimal water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases.

  1. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that itmore » is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.« less

  2. Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2014-05-13

    A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  3. The effect of Sequoyah Nuclear Plant on dissolved oxygen in Chickamauga Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butkus, S.R.; Shiao, M.C.; Yeager, B.L.

    1990-09-01

    During the summer of 1985, the Tennessee Division of Water Pollution Control and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency measured dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations downstream from the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) discharge mixing zone that were below the state criterion for DO. The Tennessee General Water Quality Criteria'' specifies that DO should be a minimum of 5.0 mg/l measured at a depth of 5 feet for the protection of fish and aquatic life. The Tennessee Valley Authority developed the present study to answer general concerns about reservoir conditions and potential for adverse effects on aquatic biota. Four objectives were defined for this study: (1) to better define the extent and duration of the redistribution of DO in the reservoir, (2) to better understand DO dynamics within the mixing zone, (3) to determine whether DO is being lost (or added) as the condenser cooling water passes through the plant, and (4) to evaluate the potential for impact on aquatic life in the reservoir.

  4. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that it is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.

  5. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, K.M.; Peramunage, D.

    1998-06-16

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li{sub 4}Ti{sub 5}O{sub 12} anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn{sub 2}O{sub 4}, LiCoO{sub 2}, LiNiO{sub 2} and LiV{sub 2}O{sub 5} and their derivatives. 5 figs.

  6. Passivation-free solid state battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Abraham, Kuzhikalail M. (Needham, MA); Peramunage, Dharmasena (Norwood, MA)

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to passivation-free solid-state rechargeable batteries composed of Li.sub.4 Ti.sub.5 O.sub.12 anode, a solid polymer electrolyte and a high voltage cathode. The solid polymer electrolyte comprises a polymer host, such as polyacrylonitrile, poly(vinyl chloride), poly(vinyl sulfone), and poly(vinylidene fluoride), plasticized by a solution of a Li salt in an organic solvent. The high voltage cathode includes LiMn.sub.2 O.sub.4, LiCoO.sub.2, LiNiO.sub.2 and LiV.sub.2 O.sub.5 and their derivatives.

  7. Solid-waste contracting: Questions and answers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The increasing complexity of local government responsibilities is nowhere better illustrated than in solid waste management. In the past, when the adverse effects of waste disposal were less recognized, garbage was simply taken to local public dumps, or burned in backyard barrels or apartment building incinerators. Local governments must modernize their solid waste programs and operate within growing federal and state regulations. The changing regulatory environment of solid waste management presents a golden opportunity to contract with the private sector if interest of the community can be protected.

  8. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

    2009-01-29

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

  9. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of molecular hydrogen dissolved in water at pressures up to 200 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borysow, Jacek Rosso, Leonardo del; Celli, Milva; Ulivi, Lorenzo; Moraldi, Massimo

    2014-04-28

    We have measured the Raman Q-branch of hydrogen in a solution with water at a temperature of about 280 K and at pressures from 20 to 200 MPa. From a least-mean-square fitting analysis of the broad Raman Q-branch, we isolated the contributions from the four lowest individual roto-vibrational lines. The vibrational lines were narrower than the pure rotational Raman lines of hydrogen dissolved in water measured previously, but significantly larger than in the gas. The separations between these lines were found to be significantly smaller than in gaseous hydrogen and their widths were slightly increasing with pressure. The lines were narrowing with increasing rotational quantum number. The Raman frequencies of all roto-vibrational lines were approaching the values of gas phase hydrogen with increasing pressure. Additionally, from the comparison of the integrated intensity signal of Q-branch of hydrogen to the integrated Raman signal of the water bending mode, we have obtained the concentration of hydrogen in a solution with water along the 280 K isotherm. Hydrogen solubility increases slowly with pressure, and no deviation from a smooth behaviour was observed, even reaching thermodynamic conditions very close to the transition to the stable hydrogen hydrate. The analysis of the relative hydrogen concentration in solution on the basis of a simple thermodynamic model has allowed us to obtain the molar volume for the hydrogen gas/water solution. Interestingly, the volume relative to one hydrogen molecule in solution does not decrease with pressure and, at high pressure, is larger than the volume pertinent to one molecule of water. This is in favour of the theory of hydrophobic solvation, for which a larger and more stable structure of the water molecules is expected around a solute molecule.

  10. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

    2012-10-01

    The Salish Sea, including Puget Sound, is a large estuarine system bounded by over seven thousand miles of complex shorelines, consists of several subbasins and many large inlets with distinct properties of their own. Pacific Ocean water enters Puget Sound through the Strait of Juan de Fuca at depth over the Admiralty Inlet sill. Ocean water mixed with freshwater discharges from runoff, rivers, and wastewater outfalls exits Puget Sound through the brackish surface outflow layer. Nutrient pollution is considered one of the largest threats to Puget Sound. There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of nutrient loads on the water quality and ecological health of Puget Sound in particular and the Salish Sea as a whole. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model. The water quality model simulates algae growth, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound to inform potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or control human impacts to DO levels in the sensitive areas. The project did not include any additional data collection but instead relied on currently available information. This report describes model development effort conducted during the period 2009 to 2012 under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperative agreement with PNNL, Ecology, and the University of Washington awarded under the National Estuary Program

  11. Effects of Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Fish Residing in the Snake and Columbia Rivers, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Brad A.

    1998-04-01

    Large amounts of spill at dams has commonly generated levels of dissolved gas supersaturation that are higher than levels established by state and federal agencies setting criteria for acceptable water quality in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Large spill volumes are sometimes provided voluntarily to increase the proportion of migrating juvenile salmon that pass dams through nonturbine routes. However, total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) resulting from spill in past decades has led to gas bubble disease (GBD) in fish. Therefore, during the period of high spill in 1997, the authors monitored the prevalence and severity of gas bubble disease by sampling resident fish in Ice Harbor reservoir and downstream from Ice Harbor and Bonneville Dams.

  12. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Li, Bingyun; Jiang, Bingbing; Gray, McMahan L; Fauth, Daniel J; Pennline, Henry W; Richards, George A

    2014-11-18

    A solid sorbent for the capture and the transport of carbon dioxide gas is provided having at least one first layer of a positively charged material that is polyethylenimine or poly(allylamine hydrochloride), that captures at least a portion of the gas, and at least one second layer of a negatively charged material that is polystyrenesulfonate or poly(acryclic acid), that transports the gas, wherein the second layer of material is in juxtaposition to, attached to, or crosslinked with the first layer for forming at least one bilayer, and a solid substrate support having a porous surface, wherein one or more of the bilayers is/are deposited on the surface of and/or within the solid substrate. A method of preparing and using the solid sorbent is provided.

  13. Interfacial material for solid oxide fuel cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baozhen, Li (Essex Junction, VT); Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Singhal, Subhash C. (Murrysville, PA)

    1999-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells having improved low-temperature operation are disclosed. In one embodiment, an interfacial layer of terbia-stabilized zirconia is located between the air electrode and electrolyte of the solid oxide fuel cell. The interfacial layer provides a barrier which controls interaction between the air electrode and electrolyte. The interfacial layer also reduces polarization loss through the reduction of the air electrode/electrolyte interfacial electrical resistance. In another embodiment, the solid oxide fuel cell comprises a scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte having high electrical conductivity. The scandia-stabilized zirconia electrolyte may be provided as a very thin layer in order to reduce resistance. The scandia-stabilized electrolyte is preferably used in combination with the terbia-stabilized interfacial layer. The solid oxide fuel cells are operable over wider temperature ranges and wider temperature gradients in comparison with conventional fuel cells.

  14. Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshop

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Nearly 200 lighting industry leaders, chip makers, fixture and component manufacturers, and others gathered in Fairfax, Virginia, on April 21 and 22, 2009, for the first-ever DOE Solid-State...

  15. Eco solids International Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    United Kingdom Zip: BH25 6DX Product: Eco-solids focusses on improvement of waste-water and sewage sludge treatment using anaerobic digestion. Coordinates: 35.59652,...

  16. SolidMarks | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Product: German project developer found by IdeemaSun and MAGE Solar to develop solar parks across Europe. References: SolidMarks1 This article is a stub. You can help OpenEI...

  17. Solid-state diffusion in amorphous zirconolite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, C.; Dove, M. T.; Trachenko, K.; Zarkadoula, E.; Todorov, I. T.; Geisler, T.; Brazhkin, V. V.

    2014-11-14

    We discuss how structural disorder and amorphization affect solid-state diffusion, and consider zirconolite as a currently important case study. By performing extensive molecular dynamics simulations, we disentangle the effects of amorphization and density, and show that a profound increase of solid-state diffusion takes place as a result of amorphization. Importantly, this can take place at the same density as in the crystal, representing an interesting general insight regarding solid-state diffusion. We find that decreasing the density in the amorphous system increases pre-factors of diffusion constants, but does not change the activation energy in the density range considered. We also find that atomic species in zirconolite are affected differently by amorphization and density change. Our microscopic insights are relevant for understanding how solid-state diffusion changes due to disorder and for building predictive models of operation of materials to be used to encapsulate nuclear waste.

  18. Grating enhanced solid-state laser amplifiers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Erlandson, Alvin C. (Livermore, CA); Britten, Jerald A. (Clayton, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and apparatus for suppressing ASE and parasitic oscillation modes in a high average power laser is introduced. Such an invention, as disclosed herein, uses diffraction gratings to increase gain, stored energy density, and pumping efficiency of solid-state laser gain media, such as, but not limited to rods, disks and slabs. By coupling predetermined gratings to solid-state gain media, such as crystal or ceramic laser gain media, ASE and parasitic oscillation modes can be effectively suppressed.

  19. solid state lighting | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid-State Lighting Solid-State Lighting (SSL) is an emerging technology with the potential to address the urgent challenges of revitalizing America's economy, strengthening our national energy security, and reducing our country's greenhouse gas emissions. SSL will mean greener homes and businesses that use substantially less electricity, making them less dependent on fossil fuels. In the coming decade, SSL will become a key to affordable high-performance buildings - buildings that consume less

  20. DOE Solid-State Lighting Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    James R. Brodrick, Ph.D. April 16, 2015 U.S. Department of Energy DOE Solid-State Lighting Program 2 DOE Solid-State Lighting Program Mission and Goal By 2025, develop advanced SSL technologies that - compared to conventional lighting technologies - are much more energy efficient, longer lasting, and cost competitive, by targeting a product system efficiency of 50 percent with lighting that accurately reproduces sunlight spectrum. Guided by a government-industry partnership, DOE's mission is to

  1. Estimating Adult Chinook Salmon Exposure to Dissolved Gas Supersaturation Downstream of Hydroelectric Dams Using Telemetry and Hydrodynamic Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Peery, Christopher A.; Bennett, David H.; bjornn, Theodore C.; Caudill, Christopher C.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-11-01

    Gas bubble disease (GBD) has been recognized for years as a potential problem for fishes in the Columbia River basin. GBD results from exposure to gas supersaturated water created by discharge over dam spillways. Spill typically creates a downstream plume of water with high total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) that may be positioned along either shore or mid-channel, depending on dam operations. We obtained spatial data on fish migration paths and migration depths for 228 adult spring and summer Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, during 2000. Migration paths were compared to output from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic and dissolved gas model to estimate the potential for GBD expression and to test for behavioral avoidance of the high TDGS plume in unrestrained fish migrating under field conditions. Consistent with our previous estimates using single-location estimates of TDGS, we observed salmon swam sufficiently deep in the water column to receive complete hydrostatic compensation 95.9% of time spent in the Bonneville tailrace and 88.1% of the time in the Ice Harbor tailrace. The majority of depth uncompensated exposure occurred at TDGS levels > 115%. Adult spring and summer Chinook salmon tended to migrate near the shoreline. Adults moved into the high dissolved gas plume as often as they moved out of it downstream of Bonneville Dam, providing no evidence that adults moved laterally to avoid areas with elevated dissolved gas levels. The strong influence of dam operations on the position of the high-TDGS plume and shoreline-orientation behaviors of adults suggest that exposure of adult salmonids to high-TDGS conditions may be minimized using operational conditions that direct the plume mid-channel, particularly during periods of high discharge and spill. More generally, our approach illustrates the potential for combined field and modeling efforts to estimate the fine-scale environmental conditions encountered by fishes in natural and regulated rivers.

  2. Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition Magnets Research Personnel Characterization The project proposes a new solid state processing technology which will...

  3. Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture (Patent) |...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Layered solid sorbents for carbon dioxide capture You are accessing a document from...

  4. Nevada Industrial Solid Waste Disposal Site Permit Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Nevada Industrial Solid Waste Disposal Site Permit Application Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Nevada Industrial Solid Waste Disposal Site...

  5. Solid International ASIA Pte Ltd | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid International ASIA Pte Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solid International ASIA Pte Ltd Place: Singapore, Singapore Zip: 349564 Sector: Solar Product: Singapore-based...

  6. Design of solid state neutral particle analyzer array for National...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Design of solid state neutral particle analyzer array for National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of solid state neutral ...

  7. Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement January 9, 2006 - 9:43am Addthis Richland, WA - ...

  8. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is...

  9. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technologies: Improved Electrode-Electrode...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technologies: Improved Electrode-Electrode Structures for Solid State Electrochemical Devices Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Contact LBL About This...

  10. DOE Solid-State Lighting Program: Modest Investments, Extraordinary...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Modest Investments, Extraordinary Impacts DOE Solid-State Lighting Program Shaping the Future of Solid-State Lighting Today, LED (light-emitting diode) technologies illuminate ...

  11. Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Research and Development ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    3 (DE-FOA-0000561) Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Research and Development - Round 3 ... is achieve cost reduction of solid-state lighting for general illumination through ...

  12. Solid-State Lighting Program Strategy Overview - 2014 BTO Peer...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Strategy Overview - 2014 BTO Peer Review Solid-State Lighting Program Strategy ... of the Building Technologies Office's Solid-State Lighting Program Strategy activities. ...

  13. The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state solar cell Home > Research > ANSER Research Highlights > The Kanatzidis - Chang Cell: dye sensitized all solid state...

  14. Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium Iodide Investigated by Atomic Force Microscopy Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reactivity of Ozone with Solid Potassium...

  15. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and ...

  16. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Citation Details In-Document Search Title: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric ...

  17. Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well ...

  18. Solid SCR Demonstration Truck Application | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SCR Demonstration Truck Application Solid SCR Demonstration Truck Application Demonstrate the feasibility and performance of the FEV Solid SCR (Ammonium Carbamate) Technology PDF...

  19. 2014 DOE SOLID-STATE LIGHTING MARKET DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE SOLID-STATE LIGHTING MARKET DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP 2014 DOE SOLID-STATE LIGHTING MARKET DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP PDF icon DOE SSL Market Development Workshop Agenda.pdf More...

  20. FEMP Outdoor Solid-State Lighting Intiative: Resources for Outdoor...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Outdoor Solid-State Lighting Intiative: Resources for Outdoor SSL Applications FEMP Outdoor Solid-State Lighting Intiative: Resources for Outdoor SSL Applications Fact sheet...

  1. DOE Joint Solid-State Lighting Roundtables on Science Challenges...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    DOE Joint Solid-State Lighting Roundtables on Science Challenges DOE Joint Solid-State Lighting Roundtables on Science Challenges PDF icon 2014BES-EEREroundtables...

  2. Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells This study, completed by...

  3. Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting Presentation-given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility...

  4. Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid Sorbents for CO2 Capture Applications* Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Efficient Theoretical Screening of Solid...

  5. Solid-State Sensors for Monitoring Hydrogen | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid-State Sensors for Monitoring Hydrogen Solid-State Sensors for Monitoring Hydrogen New Sensors Rapidly and Accurately Detect Hydrogen, Improving Industrial Safety and ...

  6. Geothermal Power Plants — Minimizing Solid Waste and Recovering Minerals

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Although many geothermal power plants generate no appreciable solid waste, the unique characteristics of some geothermal fluids require special attention to handle entrained solid byproducts.

  7. Hawaii Permit Application for Solid Waste Management Facility...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Permit Application for Solid Waste Management Facility Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Form: Hawaii Permit Application for Solid Waste Management...

  8. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Bailey, Sharon A.; Bower, John C.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Eakin, David E.; Elmore, Monte R.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.; Guzman, Anthony D.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Hopkins, Derek F.; Hurley, David E.; Johnson, Michael D.; Kirihara, Leslie J.; Lawler, Bruce D.; Loveland, Jesse S.; Mullen, O Dennis; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Peters, Timothy J.; Robinson, Peter J.; Russcher, Michael S.; Sande, Susan; Santoso, Christian; Shoemaker, Steven V.; Silva, Steve M.; Smith, Devin E.; Su, Yin-Fong; Toth, James J.; Wiberg, John D.; Yu, Xiao-Ying; Zuljevic, Nino

    2009-05-11

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants. The test data were used to independently develop mixing models that can be used to predict full-scale WTP vessel performance and to rate current WTP mixing system designs against two specific performance requirements. One requirement is to ensure that all solids have been disturbed during the mixing action, which is important to release gas from the solids. The second requirement is to maintain a suspended solids concentration below 20 weight percent at the pump inlet. The models predict the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action, and the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids have been lifted from the floor. From the cloud height estimate we can calculate the concentration of solids at the pump inlet. The velocity needed to lift the solids is slightly more demanding than "disturbing" the solids, and is used as a surrogate for this metric. We applied the models to assess WTP mixing vessel performance with respect to the two performance requirements. Each mixing vessel was evaluated against these two criteria for two defined waste conditions. One of the wastes was defined by design limits and one was derived from Hanford waste characterization reports. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The assessment predicts that three vessel types will satisfy the design criteria for all conditions evaluated. Seven vessel types will not satisfy the performance criteria used for any of the conditions evaluated. The remaining three vessel types provide varying assessments when the different particle characteristics are evaluated. The HLP-022 vessel was also evaluated using 12 m/s pulse jet velocity with 6-in. nozzles, and this design also did not satisfy the criteria for all of the conditions evaluated.

  9. Solid electrolyte-electrode system for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuller, H.L.; Kramer, S.A.; Spears, M.A.

    1995-04-04

    An electrochemical device including a solid electrolyte and solid electrode composed of materials having different chemical compositions and characterized by different electrical properties but having the same crystalline phase is provided. A method for fabricating an electrochemical device having a solid electrode and solid electrolyte characterized by the same crystalline phase is also provided. 17 figures.

  10. Solid electrolyte-electrode system for an electrochemical cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tuller, Harry L. (Wellesley, MA); Kramer, Steve A. (Somerville, MA); Spears, Marlene A. (Woburn, MA)

    1995-01-01

    An electrochemical device including a solid electrolyte and solid electrode composed of materials having different chemical compositions and characterized by different electrical properties but having the same crystalline phase is provided. A method for fabricating an electrochemical device having a solid electrode and solid electrolyte characterized by the same crystalline phase is also provided.

  11. Solid-State Lighting Program Overview Brochure | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Program Overview Brochure Solid-State Lighting Program Overview Brochure PDF icon Solid-State Lighting Program Overview Brochure.pdf More Documents & Publications Solid-State Lighting Emerging Lighting Technology Solid-State Lighting R&D Plan

  12. SOLID ELECTROLYTES FOR NEXT GENERATION BATTERIES | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    SOLID ELECTROLYTES FOR NEXT GENERATION BATTERIES SOLID ELECTROLYTES FOR NEXT GENERATION BATTERIES 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es158_goodenough_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications Solid Electrolyte Batteries SOLID ELECTROLYTE BATTERIES CX-011743: Categorical Exclusion Determination

  13. ,"Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Louisiana and Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Louisiana and Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

  14. Solid Waste Assurance Program Implementation Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Irons, L.G.

    1995-06-19

    On June 6, 1995, a waiver to Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria, was approved by the US Department of Energy Richland Operations Office (RL) to replace the low-level, mixed, and transuranic (TRU) generator assessment programs with the Solid Waste Assurance Program (SWAP). This is associated with a waiver that was approved on March 16, 1995 to replace the Storage/Disposal Approval Record (SDAR) requirements with the Waste Specification System (WSS). This implementation plan and the SWAP applies to Solid Waste Disposal (SWD) functions, facilities, and personnel who perform waste acceptance, verification, receipt, and management functions of dangerous, radioactive, and mixed waste from on- and off-site generators who ship to or within the Hanford Site for treatment, storage, and/or disposal (TSD) at SWD TSD facilities.

  15. Apparatus for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crosbie, Gary M. (Dearborn, MI); Predmesky, Ronald L. (Livonia, MI); Nicholson, John M. (Wayne, MI)

    1995-04-04

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  16. Method for silicon nitride precursor solids recovery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Crosbie, Gary M. (Dearborn, MI); Predmesky, Ronald L. (Livonia, MI); Nicholson, John M. (Wayne, MI)

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are provided for collecting reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow from a reaction situs, wherein the gaseous outflow includes a condensable vapor. A condensate is formed of the condensable vapor on static mixer surfaces within a static mixer heat exchanger. The entrained reaction product solids are captured in the condensate which can be collected for further processing, such as return to the reaction situs. In production of silicon imide, optionally integrated into a production process for making silicon nitride caramic, wherein reactant feed gas comprising silicon halide and substantially inert carrier gas is reacted with liquid ammonia in a reaction vessel, silicon imide reaction product solids entrained in a gaseous outflow comprising residual carrier gas and vaporized ammonia can be captured by forming a condensate of the ammonia vapor on static mixer surfaces of a static mixer heat exchanger.

  17. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Sanner, Robert D. (Livermore, CA); Dias, Victoria L. (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2010-09-28

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  18. Solid materials for removing arsenic and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R. (Livermore, CA); Coleman, Sabre J. (Oakland, CA); Sanner, Robert D. (Livermore, CA); Dias, Victoria L. (Livermore, CA); Reynolds, John G. (San Ramon, CA)

    2008-07-01

    Solid materials have been developed to remove arsenic compounds from aqueous media. The arsenic is removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the arsenic leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are aerogels or xerogels and aerogels or xerogels and solid support structure, e.g., granulated activated carbon (GAC), mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards arsenic.

  19. Coordinated garbage collection for raid array of solid state disks

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dillow, David A; Ki, Youngjae; Oral, Hakki S; Shipman, Galen M; Wang, Feiyi

    2014-04-29

    An optimized redundant array of solid state devices may include an array of one or more optimized solid-state devices and a controller coupled to the solid-state devices for managing the solid-state devices. The controller may be configured to globally coordinate the garbage collection activities of each of said optimized solid-state devices, for instance, to minimize the degraded performance time and increase the optimal performance time of the entire array of devices.

  20. Pulse Jet Mixing Tests With Noncohesive Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Perry A.; Bamberger, Judith A.; Enderlin, Carl W.; Fort, James A.; Wells, Beric E.; Sundaram, S. K.; Scott, Paul A.; Minette, Michael J.; Smith, Gary L.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Greenwood, Margaret S.; Morgen, Gerald P.; Baer, Ellen BK; Snyder, Sandra F.; White, Michael K.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2012-02-17

    This report summarizes results from pulse jet mixing (PJM) tests with noncohesive solids in Newtonian liquid. The tests were conducted during FY 2007 and 2008 to support the design of mixing systems for the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Tests were conducted at three geometric scales using noncohesive simulants, and the test data were used to develop models predicting two measures of mixing performance for full-scale WTP vessels. The models predict the cloud height (the height to which solids will be lifted by the PJM action) and the critical suspension velocity (the minimum velocity needed to ensure all solids are suspended off the floor, though not fully mixed). From the cloud height, the concentration of solids at the pump inlet can be estimated. The predicted critical suspension velocity for lifting all solids is not precisely the same as the mixing requirement for 'disturbing' a sufficient volume of solids, but the values will be similar and closely related. These predictive models were successfully benchmarked against larger scale tests and compared well with results from computational fluid dynamics simulations. The application of the models to assess mixing in WTP vessels is illustrated in examples for 13 distinct designs and selected operational conditions. The values selected for these examples are not final; thus, the estimates of performance should not be interpreted as final conclusions of design adequacy or inadequacy. However, this work does reveal that several vessels may require adjustments to design, operating features, or waste feed properties to ensure confidence in operation. The models described in this report will prove to be valuable engineering tools to evaluate options as designs are finalized for the WTP. Revision 1 refines data sets used for model development and summarizes models developed since the completion of Revision 0.

  1. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell demonstration activities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, E.R.; Veyo, S.E.

    1995-12-31

    This reports on a solid oxide fuel cell demonstration program in which utilities are provided fully integrated, automatically controlled, packaged solid oxide fuel cell power generation systems. These field units serve to demonstrate to customers first hand the beneficial attributes of the SOFC, to expose deficiencies through experience in order to guide continued development, and to garner real world feedback and data concerning not only cell and stack parameters, but also transportation, installation, permitting and licensing, start-up and shutdown, system alarming, fault detection, fault response, and operator interaction.

  2. Microsoft Word - Solid Waste at Hanford

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Use of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Funds on Solid Waste Project Activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site OAS-RA-L-11-08 May 2011 DOE F 1325.8 (08-93) United States Government Department of Energy Memorandum DATE: May19, 2011 Audit Report Number: OAS-RA-L-11-08 REPLY TO ATTN OF: IG-34 (A10RA041) SUBJECT: Report on "Use of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 Funds on Solid Waste Project Activities at the Department of Energy's Hanford Site" TO:

  3. Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel Cells FE researchers at NETL have developed a unique test platform, called the multi-cell array, to rapidly test multiple fuel cells and determine how they degrade when contaminants exist in the fuel stream, such as might occur when using syngas from a coal gasifier. FE researchers at NETL have developed a unique test platform, called the multi-cell array, to rapidly test multiple fuel cells and determine how they degrade when contaminants exist in the

  4. Hanford Site Solid Waste Acceptance Criteria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-11-17

    This manual defines the Hanford Site radioactive, hazardous, and sanitary solid waste acceptance criteria. Criteria in the manual represent a guide for meeting state and federal regulations; DOE Orders; Hanford Site requirements; and other rules, regulations, guidelines, and standards as they apply to acceptance of radioactive and hazardous solid waste at the Hanford Site. It is not the intent of this manual to be all inclusive of the regulations; rather, it is intended that the manual provide the waste generator with only the requirements that waste must meet in order to be accepted at Hanford Site TSD facilities.

  5. Influence of suspended solids on bioavailability of hexachlorobenzene and lindane to the deposit-feeding marine bivalve, Abra nitida (Mueller)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ekelund, R.; Granmo, A.; Berggren, M.; Renberg, L.; Wahlberg, C.

    1987-03-01

    It is well-known that suspended solids in water adsorb hydrophobic pollutants, thereby decreasing the bioavailability of the compounds to aquatic organisms which do not use the particles as food. It is also known that hydrophobic pollutants deposited in sediments usually have a low bioavailability. The relative contribution of water and sediment respectively to bioaccumulation of hydrophobic pollutants has been discussed in many papers based on field data, but the conclusions are uncertain. However, very few studies have been performed under controlled conditions in the laboratory on how the bioaccumulation of such compounds dissolved in the water is changed by adsorption to particles when these particles are used as food by the organism. This has now been investigated using the deposit-feeding bivalve Abra nitida which was exposed to hexachlorobenzene and lindane by means of a new method for dosing of hydrophobic compounds to a continuous flow system in long term tests.

  6. Migration depths of adult steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to dissolved gas supersaturation in a regulated river system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Caudill, Christopher C.; keefer, matthew L.; Peery, Christopher A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2010-04-01

    Adult steelhead tagged with archival transmitters primarily migrated through a large river corridor at depths > 2 m, interspersed with frequent but short (< 5 min) periods closer to the surface. The recorded swimming depths and behaviours probably provided adequate hydrostatic compensation for the encountered supersaturated dissolved gas conditions and probably limited development of gas bubble disease (GBD). Results parallel those from a concurrent adult Chinook salmon study, except steelhead experienced greater seasonal variability and were more likely to have depth-uncompensated supersaturation exposure in some dam tailraces, perhaps explaining the higher incidence of GBD in this species.

  7. ,"U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  8. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

    2000-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a ceramic-ceramic composite electrolyte is provided containing lithium nitride and lithium phosphate. The ceramic-ceramic composite is also preferably annealed and exhibits an activation energy of about 0.1 eV.

  9. Solid-state NMR imaging system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gopalsami, Nachappa (Naperville, IL); Dieckman, Stephen L. (Elmhurst, IL); Ellingson, William A. (Naperville, IL)

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for use with a solid-state NMR spectrometer includes a special imaging probe with linear, high-field strength gradient fields and high-power broadband RF coils using a back projection method for data acquisition and image reconstruction, and a real-time pulse programmer adaptable for use by a conventional computer for complex high speed pulse sequences.

  10. Solid Waste Program technical baseline description

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1994-07-01

    The system engineering approach has been taken to describe the technical baseline under which the Solid Waste Program is currently operating. The document contains a mission analysis, function analysis, system definition, documentation requirements, facility and project bases, and uncertainties facing the program.

  11. Solid polymer MEMS-based fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowski, Alan F. (Livermore, CA); Morse, Jeffrey D. (Pleasant Hill, CA)

    2008-04-22

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  12. Solid oxide MEMS-based fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Jankowksi, Alan F.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2007-03-13

    A micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) based thin-film fuel cells for electrical power applications. The MEMS-based fuel cell may be of a solid oxide type (SOFC), a solid polymer type (SPFC), or a proton exchange membrane type (PEMFC), and each fuel cell basically consists of an anode and a cathode separated by an electrolyte layer. The electrolyte layer can consist of either a solid oxide or solid polymer material, or proton exchange membrane electrolyte materials may be used. Additionally catalyst layers can also separate the electrodes (cathode and anode) from the electrolyte. Gas manifolds are utilized to transport the fuel and oxidant to each cell and provide a path for exhaust gases. The electrical current generated from each cell is drawn away with an interconnect and support structure integrated with the gas manifold. The fuel cells utilize integrated resistive heaters for efficient heating of the materials. By combining MEMS technology with thin-film deposition technology, thin-film fuel cells having microflow channels and full-integrated circuitry can be produced that will lower the operating temperature an will yield an order of magnitude greater power density than the currently known fuel cells.

  13. Model the Deformation and Failure of Solids

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-10-19

    EMU models the deformation and failure of solids based on a reformulated theory of continuum mechanics known as the Peridynamic model. This approach allows dynamic fracture and other failure mechanisms to be simulated with a minimum of mesh effeces and without a need for supplementary kinetic relations for crack growth. Penetration by a rigid projectile is also included in the code.

  14. Energy aspects of solid waste management: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The Eighteenth Annual Illinois Energy Conference entitled Energy Aspects of Solid Waste Management'' was held in Chicago, Illinois on October 29--30, 1990. The conference program was developed by a planning committee that drew upon Illinois energy and environmental specialists from the major sectors including energy industries, environmental organizations, research universities, utility companies, federal, state and local government agencies, and public interest groups. Within this framework, the committee identified a number of key topic areas surrounding solid waste management in Illinois which were the focus of the conference. These issues included: review of the main components of the solid waste cycle in the Midwest and what the relative impact of waste reduction, recycling, incineration and land disposal might be on Illinois' and the Midwest's solid waste management program. Investigation of special programs in the Midwest dealing with sewage sludge, combustion residuals and medical/infectious wastes. Review of the status of existing landfills in Illinois and the Midwest and an examination of the current plans for siting of new land disposal systems. Review of the status of incinerators and waste-to-energy systems in Illinois and the Midwest, as well as an update on activities to maximize methane production from landfills in the Midwest.

  15. Thermal dissolution of solid fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    E.G. Gorlov

    2007-10-15

    The use of oil shales and coals in the processes of thermal dissolution is considered. It is shown that thermal dissolution is a mode of liquefaction of solid fossil fuels and can be used both independently and in combination with liquefaction of coals and processing of heavy petroleum residues.

  16. Calcined solids storage facility closure study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dahlmeir, M.M.; Tuott, L.C.; Spaulding, B.C.

    1998-02-01

    The disposal of radioactive wastes now stored at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is currently mandated under a {open_quotes}Settlement Agreement{close_quotes} (or {open_quotes}Batt Agreement{close_quotes}) between the Department of Energy and the State of Idaho. Under this agreement, all high-level waste must be treated as necessary to meet the disposal criteria and disposed of or made road ready to ship from the INEEL by 2035. In order to comply with this agreement, all calcined waste produced in the New Waste Calcining Facility and stored in the Calcined Solids Facility must be treated and disposed of by 2035. Several treatment options for the calcined waste have been studied in support of the High-Level Waste Environmental Impact Statement. Two treatment methods studied, referred to as the TRU Waste Separations Options, involve the separation of the high-level waste (calcine) into TRU waste and low-level waste (Class A or Class C). Following treatment, the TRU waste would be sent to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for final storage. It has been proposed that the low-level waste be disposed of in the Tank Farm Facility and/or the Calcined Solids Storage Facility following Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure. In order to use the seven Bin Sets making up the Calcined Solids Storage Facility as a low-level waste landfill, the facility must first be closed to Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) standards. This study identifies and discusses two basic methods available to close the Calcined Solids Storage Facility under the RCRA - Risk-Based Clean Closure and Closure to Landfill Standards. In addition to the closure methods, the regulatory requirements and issues associated with turning the Calcined Solids Storage Facility into an NRC low-level waste landfill or filling the bin voids with clean grout are discussed.

  17. Seasonal changes in dissolved-gas supersaturation in the Sacramento River and possible effects on striped bass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colt, J.

    1984-09-01

    Dissolved-gad supersaturation levels were monitored in the Sacramento River system in central California during 1981-1982. Gas supersaturation was highest in the spring when temperature and flow were increasing rapidly, and was caused primarily by inflows of highly supersaturated water from the American and Feather rivers. During high runoff, air entrained by falls and rapids can produce supersaturation. Rapid heating can produce gas supersaturation because the solubility of gases is reduced at higher temperatures. Entrainment of air at dams does not appear to be responsible for gas supersaturation in these two rivers, although the dams may have an influence on dissolved gas levels in the Sacramento River. Gas supersaturation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system may adversely affect the eggs and larvae of wild striped bass Morone saxatilis and salmonids in hatcheries. The siting of salmonid hatcheries below large dams insures that hatchery fish will be exposed to high levels of gas supersaturation. Because larval striped bass are positively phototactic, they are at greater risk than fish that are found lower in the water column. 48 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  18. Solid materials for removing metals and fabrication method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Coronado, Paul R.; Reynolds, John G.; Coleman, Sabre J.

    2004-10-19

    Solid materials have been developed to remove contaminating metals and organic compounds from aqueous media. The contaminants are removed by passing the aqueous phase through the solid materials which can be in molded, granular, or powder form. The solid materials adsorb the metals and the organics leaving a purified aqueous stream. The materials are sol-gel and or sol-gel and granulated activated carbon (GAC) mixtures. The species-specific adsorption occurs through specific chemical modifications of the solids tailored towards the contaminant(s). The contaminated solid materials can then be disposed of or the contaminant can be removed and the solids recycled.

  19. Effects of Time, Heat, and Oxygen on K Basin Sludge Agglomeration, Strength, and Solids Volume

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delegard, Calvin H.; Sinkov, Sergey I.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.

    2011-01-04

    Sludge disposition will be managed in two phases under the K Basin Sludge Treatment Project. The first phase is to retrieve the sludge that currently resides in engineered containers in the K West (KW) Basin pool at ~10 to 18°C. The second phase is to retrieve the sludge from interim storage in the sludge transport and storage containers (STSCs) and treat and package it in preparation for eventual shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. The work described in this report was conducted to gain insight into how sludge may change during long-term containerized storage in the STSCs. To accelerate potential physical and chemical changes, the tests were performed at temperatures and oxygen partial pressures significantly greater than those expected in the T Plant canyon cells where the STSCs will be stored. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of 50°C oxygenated water exposure on settled quiescent uraninite (UO2) slurry and a full simulant of KW containerized sludge to determine the effects of oxygen and heat on the composition and mechanical properties of sludge. Shear-strength measurements by vane rheometry also were conducted for UO2 slurry, mixtures of UO2 and metaschoepite (UO3•2H2O), and for simulated KW containerized sludge. The results from these tests and related previous tests are compared to determine whether the settled solids in the K Basin sludge materials change in volume because of oxidation of UO2 by dissolved atmospheric oxygen to form metaschoepite. The test results also are compared to determine if heating or other factors alter sludge volumes and to determine the effects of sludge composition and settling times on sludge shear strength. It has been estimated that the sludge volume will increase with time because of a uranium metal → uraninite → metaschoepite oxidation sequence. This increase could increase the number of containers required for storage and increase overall costs of sludge management activities. However, the volume might decrease because of decreases in the water-volume fraction caused by sludge solid reactions, compaction, or intergrowth and recrystallization of metaschoepite. In that case, fewer STSCs may be needed, but the shear strength would increase, and this could challenge recovery by water jet erosion and require more aggressive retrieval methods. Overall, the tests described herein indicate that the settled solids volume remains the same or decreases with time. The only case for which the sludge solids volumes increase with time is for the expansion factor attendant upon the anoxic corrosion of uranium metal to produce UO2 and subsequent reaction with oxygen to form equimolar UO2.25 and UO3•2H2O.

  20. Generator configuration for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichner, Philip (Plum Boro, PA)

    1989-01-01

    Disclosed are improvements in a solid oxide fuel cell generator 1 having a multiplicity of electrically connected solid oxide fuel cells 2, where a fuel gas is passed over one side of said cells and an oxygen-containing gas is passed over the other side of said cells resulting in the generation of heat and electricity. The improvements comprise arranging the cells in the configuration of a circle, a spiral, or folded rows within a cylindrical generator, and modifying the flow rate, oxygen concentration, and/or temperature of the oxygen-containing gases that flow to those cells that are at the periphery of the generator relative to those cells that are at the center of the generator. In these ways, a more uniform temperature is obtained throughout the generator.

  1. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, Roswell J. (Pittsburgh, PA); Warner, Kathryn A. (Bryan, TX)

    1999-01-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation.

  2. Enhanced electrodes for solid state gas sensors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Garzon, Fernando H. (Santa Fe, NM); Brosha, Eric L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    2001-01-01

    A solid state gas sensor generates an electrical potential between an equilibrium electrode and a second electrode indicative of a gas to be sensed. A solid electrolyte substrate has the second electrode mounted on a first portion of the electrolyte substrate and a composite equilibrium electrode including conterminous transition metal oxide and Pt components mounted on a second portion of the electrolyte substrate. The composite equilibrium electrode and the second electrode are electrically connected to generate an electrical potential indicative of the gas that is being sensed. In a particular embodiment of the present invention, the second electrode is a reference electrode that is exposed to a reference oxygen gas mixture so that the electrical potential is indicative of the oxygen in a gas stream.

  3. Solids feed nozzle for fluidized bed

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zielinski, Edward A. (Harwinton, CT)

    1982-01-01

    The vertical fuel pipe of a fluidized bed extends up through the perforated support structure of the bed to discharge granulated solid fuel into the expanded bed. A cap, as a deflecting structure, is supported above the discharge of the fuel pipe and is shaped and arranged to divert the carrier fluid and granulated fuel into the combusting bed. The diverter structure is spaced above the end of the fuel pipe and provided with a configuration on its underside to form a venturi section which generates a low pressure in the stream into which the granules of solid fuel are drawn to lengthen their residence time in the combustion zone of the bed adjacent the fuel pipe.

  4. Rainer Held > Guest Researcher - Max-Planck Institute for Solid...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Rainer Held Guest Researcher - Max-Planck Institute for Solid State Research heldrain@gmail.com Formerly a member of the Schlom Group, he joined the Max-Planck Institute for Solid...

  5. MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries Citation Details In-Document Search Title: MultiLayer solid electrolyte for lithium thin film batteries You...

  6. Exterior Solid-State Lighting Solutions for Municipalities | Department of

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Exterior Solid-State Lighting Solutions for Municipalities Webinar. PDF icon Presentation Microsoft Office document icon Transcript More Documents & Publications Interior Lighting Efficiency for Municipalities Solid State Lighting: GATEWAY and CALiPER interiorlightingefficiencyformunicipalities.doc

  7. Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel Friction Stir and Ultrasonic Solid State Joining of Magnesium to Steel 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle...

  8. Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters |...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Heat Pump Water Heater using Solid-State Energy Converters Sheetak will work on developing a full scale prototype of its ...

  9. Systems and methods for monitoring a solid-liquid interface

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoddard, Nathan G; Lewis, Monte A.; Clark, Roger F

    2013-06-11

    Systems and methods are provided for monitoring a solid-liquid interface during a casting process. The systems and methods enable determination of the location of a solid-liquid interface during the casting process.

  10. A new technique to measure tunneling barrier height in solid...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A new technique to measure tunneling barrier height in solid media Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A new technique to measure tunneling barrier height in solid media ...

  11. Lithium-ion batteries having conformal solid electrolyte layers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kim, Gi-Heon; Jung, Yoon Seok

    2014-05-27

    Hybrid solid-liquid electrolyte lithium-ion battery devices are disclosed. Certain devices comprise anodes and cathodes conformally coated with an electron insulating and lithium ion conductive solid electrolyte layer.

  12. Energy Department Announces $4 Million Solicitation for Solid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 Million Solicitation for Solid-State Lighting Research Energy Department Announces 4 Million Solicitation for Solid-State Lighting Research August 29, 2005 - 2:46pm Addthis ...

  13. Energy Department Provides $7 Million for Solid-State Lighting...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    7 Million for Solid-State Lighting Product Development Energy Department Provides 7 Million for Solid-State Lighting Product Development June 6, 2006 - 2:15pm Addthis Funding to ...

  14. Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Research and Development ...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    4 (DE-FOA-0000792) Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Research and Development - Round 4 ... to achieve cost reduction of solid-state lighting (SSL) for general illumination through ...

  15. Solid Polymer Fuel Cell Research Group | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Polymer Fuel Cell Research Group Jump to: navigation, search Name: Solid Polymer Fuel Cell Research Group Place: London, United Kingdom Zip: SW7 2AZ Product: The Solid Polymer Fuel...

  16. Nevada Solid Waste Forms and Guidance Documents Webpage | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid Waste Forms and Guidance Documents Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Nevada Solid Waste Forms and Guidance Documents...

  17. Nevada Washoe County Solid Waste Management Webpage | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Washoe County Solid Waste Management Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Nevada Washoe County Solid Waste Management Webpage Author...

  18. Hawaii DOH Solid Waste Section Webpage | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Solid Waste Section Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Hawaii DOH Solid Waste Section Webpage Abstract This webpage provides an...

  19. Solid tags for identifying failed reactor components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bunch, Wilbur L. (Richland, WA); Schenter, Robert E. (Richland, WA)

    1987-01-01

    A solid tag material which generates stable detectable, identifiable, and measurable isotopic gases on exposure to a neutron flux to be placed in a nuclear reactor component, particularly a fuel element, in order to identify the reactor component in event of its failure. Several tag materials consisting of salts which generate a multiplicity of gaseous isotopes in predetermined ratios are used to identify different reactor components.

  20. Solid state synthesis of poly(dichlorophosphazene)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Allen, Christopher W. (Essex Junction, VT); Hneihen, Azzam S. (Burlington, VT); Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2001-01-01

    A method for making poly(dichlorophosphazene) using solid state reactants is disclosed and described. The present invention improves upon previous methods by removing the need for chlorinated hydrocarbon solvents, eliminating complicated equipment and simplifying the overall process by providing a "single pot" two step reaction sequence. This may be accomplished by the condensation reaction of raw materials in the melt phase of the reactants and in the absence of an environmentally damaging solvent.

  1. solid-state hydrogen storage gaps

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    solid-state hydrogen storage gaps - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs

  2. Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium 2014 Building Technologies Office Peer Review Day Burners in Detroit, December 2013 Marc Ledbetter, Marc.Ledbetter@pnnl.gov Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Project Summary Timeline: Start date: April, 2010 Planned end date: FY19 Key Milestones 1. Detroit joining MSSLC and deciding to pursue an LED-based system, November, 2013 2. Model Controls Specification V2.0 released; April, 2014 3. Street Lighting Controls Demonstration Established,

  3. Anti-perovskite solid electrolyte compositions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zhao, Yusheng; Daemen, Luc Louis

    2015-12-26

    Solid electrolyte antiperovskite compositions for batteries, capacitors, and other electrochemical devices have chemical formula Li.sub.3OA, Li.sub.(3-x)M.sub.x/2OA, Li.sub.(3-x)N.sub.x/3OA, or LiCOX.sub.zY.sub.(1-z), wherein M and N are divalent and trivalent metals respectively and wherein A is a halide or mixture of halides, and X and Y are halides.

  4. COMPILATION OF DISPOSABLE SOLID WASTE CASK EVALUATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    THIELGES, J.R.; CHASTAIN, S.A.

    2007-06-21

    The Disposable Solid Waste Cask (DSWC) is a shielded cask capable of transporting, storing, and disposing of six non-fuel core components or approximately 27 cubic feet of radioactive solid waste. Five existing DSWCs are candidates for use in storing and disposing of non-fuel core components and radioactive solid waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell, ultimately shipping them to the 200 West Area disposal site for burial. A series of inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications were performed to ensure that these casks can be used to safely ship solid waste. These inspections, studies, analyses, and modifications are summarized and attached in this report. Visual inspection of the casks interiors provided information with respect to condition of the casks inner liners. Because water was allowed to enter the casks for varying lengths of time, condition of the cask liner pipe to bottom plate weld was of concern. Based on the visual inspection and a corrosion study, it was concluded that four of the five casks can be used from a corrosion standpoint. Only DSWC S/N-004 would need additional inspection and analysis to determine its usefulness. The five remaining DSWCs underwent some modification to prepare them for use. The existing cask lifting inserts were found to be corroded and deemed unusable. New lifting anchor bolts were installed to replace the existing anchors. Alternate lift lugs were fabricated for use with the new lifting anchor bolts. The cask tiedown frame was modified to facilitate adjustment of the cask tiedowns. As a result of the above mentioned inspections, studies, analysis, and modifications, four of the five existing casks can be used to store and transport waste from the Interim Examination and Maintenance Cell to the disposal site for burial. The fifth cask, DSWC S/N-004, would require further inspections before it could be used.

  5. Test Plan - Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.; Fowley, M. D.

    2012-05-10

    This plan documents the highlights of the Solids Accumulations Scouting Studies test; a project, from Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS), that began on February 1, 2012. During the last 12 weeks considerable progress has been made to design and plan methods that will be used to estimate the concentration and distribution of heavy fissile solids in accumulated solids in the Hanford double-shell tank (DST) 241-AW-105 (AW-105), which is the primary goal of this task. This DST will be one of the several waste feed delivery staging tanks designated to feed the Pretreatment Facility (PTF) of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Note that over the length of the waste feed delivery mission AW-105 is currently identified as having the most fill empty cycles of any DST feed tanks, which is the reason for modeling this particular tank. At SRNL an existing test facility, the Mixing Demonstration Tank, which will be modified for the present work, will use stainless steel particles in a simulant that represents Hanford waste to perform mock staging tanks transfers that will allow solids to accumulate in the tank heel. The concentration and location of the mock fissile particles will be measured in these scoping studies to produce information that will be used to better plan larger scaled tests. Included in these studies is a secondary goal of developing measurement methods to accomplish the primary goal. These methods will be evaluated for use in the larger scale experiments. Included in this plan are the several pretest activities that will validate the measurement techniques that are currently in various phases of construction. Aspects of each technique, e.g., particle separations, volume determinations, topographical mapping, and core sampling, have been tested in bench-top trials, as discussed herein, but the actual equipment to be employed during the full test will need evaluation after fabrication and integration into the test facility.

  6. Thermoelectrics | Solid State Solar Thermal Energy Conversion

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Thermoelectrics One of the central themes of S3TEC is to develop more efficient thermoelectric materials to directly convert heat into electricity via the Seebeck effect, or provide cooling via the Peltier effect. Their ability to harvest waste heat and deliver cooling power through solid-state devices without moving parts makes them important candidates of sustainable energy technologies in the future. Despite the benefits, the current bottleneck of thermoelectric technology is its relatively

  7. Solid-state-laser-rod holder

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gettemy, D.J.; Barnes, N.P.; Griggs, J.E.

    1981-08-11

    The disclosure relates to a solid state laser rod holder comprising Invar, copper tubing, and epoxy joints. Materials and coefficients of expansion of the components of the holder combine with the rod to produce a joint which will give before the rod itself will. The rod may be lased at about 70 to 80/sup 0/K and returned from such a temperature to room temperature repeatedly without its or the holder's destruction.

  8. Computational Investigations of Solid-Liquid Interfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mark Asta

    2011-08-31

    In a variety of materials synthesis and processing contexts, atomistic processes at heterophase interfaces play a critical role governing defect formation, growth morphologies, and microstructure evolution. Accurate knowledge of interfacial structure, free energies, mobilities and segregation coefficients are critical for predictive modeling of microstructure evolution, yet direct experimental measurement of these fundamental interfacial properties remains elusive in many cases. In this project first-principles calculations were combined with molecular-dynamics (MD) and Monte-Carlo (MC) simulations, to investigate the atomic-scale structural and dynamical properties of heterophase interfaces, and the relationship between these properties and the calculated thermodynamic and kinetic parameters that influence the evolution of phase transformation structures at nanometer to micron length scales. The topics investigated in this project were motivated primarily by phenomena associated with solidification processing of metals and alloys, and the main focus of the work was thus on solid-liquid interfaces and high-temperature grain boundaries. Additional efforts involved first-principles calculations of coherent solid-solid heterophase interfaces, where a close collaboration with researchers at the National Center for Electron Microscopy was undertaken to understand the evolution of novel core-shell precipitate microstructures in aluminum alloys.

  9. The anaerobic digestion of organic solid wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hartung, H.A.

    1996-09-01

    Anaerobic digestion offers many advantages in the processing of organic solid wastes, using a closed system to convert the waste to combustible gas and a stabilized organic residue.Odors are contained while digestion removes their source and gas is collected for energy recovery as heat or electricity. The stabilized residue is less than the starting waste by the mass of gas produced, and it can be disposed of by land application, land filling, incineration or composting. The stimulation of digesters and the phenomenon of co-digestion are two ways the performance of anaerobic digesters can be enhanced. Data from farm digesters and municipal wastewater treatment plants illustrate the present venue of the process; laboratory studies of the anaerobic digestion of a variety of solid wastes show that the process can be applied to these materials as well. About two thirds of municipal solid waste is shown to be amenable to anaerobic digestion in a substrate from an active municipal sewage plant digester.

  10. Municipal solid-waste management in Istanbul

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kanat, Gurdal

    2010-08-15

    Istanbul, with a population of around 13 million people, is located between Europe and Asia and is the biggest city in Turkey. Metropolitan Istanbul produces about 14,000 tons of solid waste per day. The aim of this study was to assess the situation of municipal solid-waste (MSW) management in Istanbul. This was achieved by reviewing the quantity and composition of waste produced in Istanbul. Current requirements and challenges in relation to the optimization of Istanbul's MSW collection and management system are also discussed, and several suggestions for solving the problems identified are presented. The recovery of solid waste from the landfills, as well as the amounts of landfill-generated biogas and electricity, were evaluated. In recent years, MSW management in Istanbul has improved because of strong governance and institutional involvement. However, efforts directed toward applied research are still required to enable better waste management. These efforts will greatly support decision making on the part of municipal authorities. There remains a great need to reduce the volume of MSW in Istanbul.

  11. Scalable, Efficient Solid Waste Burner System - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Biomass and Biofuels Biomass and Biofuels Find More Like This Return to Search Scalable, Efficient Solid Waste Burner System Colorado State University Contact CSU About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary A system that effectively burns solid human waste where traditional waste management practices are not viable, such as forward-operation military bases. Description This innovation is a semi-gasifier, burner device to process solid waste, particularly solid human waste. Developed by

  12. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narula, Chaitanya K; Daniel, Claus

    2013-05-28

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  13. Solid lithium ion conducting electrolytes and methods of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Narula, Chaitanya K.; Daniel, Claus

    2015-11-19

    A composition comprised of nanoparticles of lithium ion conducting solid oxide material, wherein the solid oxide material is comprised of lithium ions, and at least one type of metal ion selected from pentavalent metal ions and trivalent lanthanide metal ions. Solution methods useful for synthesizing these solid oxide materials, as well as precursor solutions and components thereof, are also described. The solid oxide materials are incorporated as electrolytes into lithium ion batteries.

  14. Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Manufacturing Workshops Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2009-10-01

    The final report from the U.S. Department of Energy 2009 Solid-State Lighting Manufacturing Workshops.

  15. 2014 Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio 2014 Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio This report contains an overview of SSL projects currently funded by DOE, and those completed. PDF icon 2014_ssl-project-portfolio.pdf More Documents & Publications 2015 Project Portfolio Solid-State Lighting Patents Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects Solid-State Lighting Patents Resulting from DOE-Funded Projects

  16. High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles 2012 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Program Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting PDF icon es129_eitouni_2012_p.pdf More Documents & Publications High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for Electric Drive Vehicles Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Voltage Solid Polymer Batteries for

  17. Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) Technology for Greener Airplanes Presentation by Larry Chick, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, at the DOD-DOE Aircraft Petroleum Use Reduction Workshop, September 30, 2010, in Washington, DC. PDF icon aircraft_9_chick.pdf More Documents & Publications Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and Power System Development at PNNL Electrical Generation for More-Electric Aircraft using Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Solid Oxide Fuel

  18. Understanding Porosity in Amorphous Porous Molecular Solids | Center for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Gas SeparationsRelevant to Clean Energy Technologies | Blandine Jerome Understanding Porosity in Amorphous Porous Molecular Solids

  19. Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Capture CO2 Applications (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Theoretical Predictions of the thermodynamic Properties of Solid Sorbents Capture CO2 Applications We are establishing a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO{sub 2} solid sorbents from a large solid material databank to meet the DOE programmatic goal for

  20. Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting |

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Department of Energy Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting Federal Technology Deployment Pilot: Exterior Solid State Lighting Presentation-given at the Fall 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting-provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Solid-State Lighting Program and an exterior solid-state lighting federal technology deployment pilot project. PDF icon fupwg_fall11_mccullough.pdf More Documents & Publications FEMP Exterior

  1. National Energy Technology Laboratory Publishes Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Studies

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A compilation of studies examining cathodes for solid oxide fuel cells is available on the Department of Energy’s National Energy Technology Laboratory website. The report, entitled Recent Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Cathode Studies, provides a concise, portfolio-wide synopsis of cathode research conducted under the Office of Fossil Energy’s Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Program.

  2. The radiation chemistry of CCD-PEG, a solvent-extraction process for Cs and Sr from dissolved nuclear fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mincher, B.J.; Herbst, R.S.; Tillotson, R.D.; Mezyk, S.P.

    2008-07-01

    Cobalt dicarbollide and polyethylene glycol in phenyl-trifluoromethyl sulfone (HCCD/PEG in FS- 13) is currently under consideration for use in the process-scale selective extraction of fission- product cesium and strontium from dissolved nuclear fuel. This solvent will be exposed to high radiation doses during use and has not been adequately investigated for radiation stability. Here, HCCD/PEG was y-irradiated to various absorbed doses, to a maximum of 432 kGy, using {sup 60}Co. Irradiations were performed for the neat organic phase and also for the organic phase in contact with 1 M-nitric acid mixed by air sparging. Post-irradiation solvent-extraction measurements showed that Cs distribution ratios were unaffected; however, Sr extraction efficiency decreased with absorbed dose under both conditions and was greater when in contact with the aqueous phase. Stripping performance was not affected. A mechanism, initiated by direct radiolysis of the sulfone diluent, is proposed. (authors)

  3. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore » the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  4. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  5. Feasibility Study for Evaluating Cumulative Exposure of Downstream Migrant Juvenile Salmonids to Total Dissolved Gas. Final Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, C.Scott; Dauble, Dennis D.; Johnson, Robert L.

    1997-11-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to determine if downstream migrant salmonids could be monitored to determine potential relationships between total dissolved gas (TDG) exposure and signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT). The primary objectives were to: (1) establish logistical requirements for in-river monitoring of TDG exposure, including net pen design, deployment, and navigation constraints; (2) resolve uncertainties associated with effects of the net pen on fish behavior; (3) test the accuracy and precision of in-river monitoring equipment used to measure fish distribution and water quality; and (4) determine the application of hydrologic/flow models to predictions of TDG exposure. In-river measurements included water velocity, boat position, and selected water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, depth, conductivity). Fish distribution within the net pen was monitored using scanning sonar, and a split-beam echo sounder was used to evaluate vertical distribution of fish m in the river adjacent to the net pen. Three test drifts were conducted from late July through late August. The studies demonstrated that it was feasible to assemble and deploy a large net pen for mobile monitoring of TDG exposure. Accurate monitoring of vertical and lateral distribution of smolts was performed, and diel differences in behavior were documented. Further, the fish sounded in response to researcher activity on the perimeter platform. Thus, in-transit monitoring for GBT or mortality would affect fish depth distribution and exposure to TDG. Principal recommendations for future studies are directed at improving maneuverability of the net pen in adverse weather conditions and applying new acoustics technology to simultaneously collect fish distribution data from within and outside of the pen. 6 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. SOLIDS PRECIPITATION EVENT IN MCU CAUSAL ANALYSIS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FROM SOLIDS RECOVERY TEAM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garrison, A.; Aponte, C.

    2014-08-15

    A process upset occurred in the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) facility on April 6th, 2014. During recovery efforts, a significant amount of solids were found in the Salt Solution Feed Tank (SSFT), Salt Solution Receipt Tanks (SSRTs), two extraction contactors, and scrub contactors. The solids were identified by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) as primarily sodium oxalate and sodium alumina silicate (NAS) with the presence of some aluminum hydroxide. NAS solids have been present in the SSFT since simulant runs during cold chemical startup of MCU in 2007, and have not hindered operations since that time. During the process upset in April 2014, the oxalate solids partially blocked the aqueous outlet of the extraction contactors, causing salt solution to exit through the contactor organic outlet to the scrub contactors with the organic phase. This salt solution overwhelmed the scrub contactors and passed with the organic phase to the strip section of MCU. The partially reversed flow of salt solution resulted in a Strip Effluent (SE) stream that was high in Isopar L, pH and sodium. The primary cause of the excessive solids accumulation in the SSRTs and SSFT at MCU is attributed to an increase in the frequency of oxalic acid cleaning of the 512-S primary filter. Agitation in the SSRTs at MCU in response to cold weather likely provided the primary mechanism to transfer the solids to the contactors. Sources of the sodium oxalate solids are attributed to the oxalic acid cleaning solution used to clean the primary filter at the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) filtration at 512-S, as well as precipitation from the salt batch feed, which is at or near oxalate saturation. The Solids Recovery Team was formed to determine the cause of the solids formation and develop recommendations to prevent or mitigate this event in the future. A total of 53 recommendations were generated. These recommendations were organized into 4 focus areas: Improve understanding of oxalate equilibrium and kinetics in salt solutions Reduction/elimination of oxalic acid cleaning in 512-S Flowsheet optimization Improving diagnostic capability The recommendations implemented prior to resumption of MCU operations provide a risk mitigation or detection function through additional sampling and observation. The longer term recommendations provide a framework to increase the basic process knowledge of both oxalate chemistry and filtration behavior and then facilitate decisions that improve the salt flowsheet as a system.

  7. ,"New Mexico - East Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico - East Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  8. ,"New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  9. ,"U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  10. ,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  11. ,"California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014

  12. ,"California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014

  13. ,"California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  14. ,"Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014

  15. ,"Louisiana - South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana - South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  16. ,"Lower 48 States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Lower 48 States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  17. System for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cowan, Richard G. (Kennewick, WA); Blasewitz, Albert G. (Richland, WA)

    1982-01-01

    An improved method and system for chemically digesting low level radioactive, solid waste material having a high through-put. The solid waste material is added to an annular vessel (10) substantially filled with concentrated sulfuric acid. Concentrated nitric acid or nitrogen dioxide is added to the sulfuric acid within the annular vessel while the sulfuric acid is reacting with the solid waste. The solid waste is mixed within the sulfuric acid so that the solid waste is substantilly fully immersed during the reaction. The off gas from the reaction and the products slurry residue is removed from the vessel during the reaction.

  18. Integrated solid waste management of Scottsdale, Arizona

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-11-01

    The subject document reports the results of an in-depth investigation of the fiscal year 1992 cost of the city of Scottsdale, Arizona, integrated municipal solid waste management (IMSWM) system, the energy consumed to operate the system, and the environmental performance requirements for each of the system`s waste-processing and disposal facilities. The document reports actual data from records kept by participants. Every effort was made to minimize the use of assumptions, and no attempt is made to interpret the data reported. Analytical approaches are documented so that interested analysts may per-form manipulation or further analysis of the data. As such, the report is a reference document for municipal solid waste (MSW) management professionals who are interested in the actual costs and energy consumption, for a 1-year period, of an operating IMSWM system. The report is organized into two main parts. The first part is the executive summary and case study portion of the report. The executive summary provides a basic description of the study area and selected economic and energy information. Within the case study are detailed descriptions of each component operating during the study period; the quantities of solid waste collected, processed, and marketed within the study boundaries; the cost of MSW in Scottsdale; an energy usage analysis; a review of federal, state, and local environmental requirement compliance; a reference section; and a glossary of terms. The second part of the report focuses on a more detailed discourse on the above topics. In addition, the methodology used to determine the economic costs and energy consumption of the system components is found in the second portion of this report. The methodology created for this project will be helpful for those professionals who wish to break out the costs of their own integrated systems.

  19. 1994 Solid waste forecast container volume summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Templeton, K.J.; Clary, J.L.

    1994-09-01

    This report describes a 30-year forecast of the solid waste volumes by container type. The volumes described are low-level mixed waste (LLMW) and transuranic/transuranic mixed (TRU/TRUM) waste. These volumes and their associated container types will be generated or received at the US Department of Energy Hanford Site for storage, treatment, and disposal at Westinghouse Hanford Company`s Solid Waste Operations Complex (SWOC) during a 30-year period from FY 1994 through FY 2023. The forecast data for the 30-year period indicates that approximately 307,150 m{sup 3} of LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste will be managed by the SWOC. The main container type for this waste is 55-gallon drums, which will be used to ship 36% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of 55-gallon drums is Past Practice Remediation. This waste will be generated by the Environmental Restoration Program during remediation of Hanford`s past practice sites. Although Past Practice Remediation is the primary generator of 55-gallon drums, most waste generators are planning to ship some percentage of their waste in 55-gallon drums. Long-length equipment containers (LECs) are forecasted to contain 32% of the LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste. The main waste generator forecasting the use of LECs is the Long-Length Equipment waste generator, which is responsible for retrieving contaminated long-length equipment from the tank farms. Boxes are forecasted to contain 21% of the waste. These containers are primarily forecasted for use by the Environmental Restoration Operations--D&D of Surplus Facilities waste generator. This waste generator is responsible for the solid waste generated during decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) of the facilities currently on the Surplus Facilities Program Plan. The remaining LLMW and TRU/TRUM waste volume is planned to be shipped in casks and other miscellaneous containers.

  20. Solid electrolytes strengthened by metal dispersions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lauf, R.J.; Morgan, C.S.

    1981-10-05

    An improvement in solid electrolytes of advanced secondary batteries of the sodium-sulfur, sodium-halogen, and like combinations is achieved by providing said battery with a cermet electrolyte containing a metal dispersion ranging from 0.1 to 10.0 vol. % of a substantially nonreactive metal selected from the group consisting essentially of Pt, Cr, Fe, Co, Ni, Nb, their alloys, and their physical mixtures in the elemental or uncombined state, the remainder of said cermet being an ion-conductive ceramic material.

  1. Nanoengineering for solid-state lighting.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schubert, E. Fred; Koleske, Daniel David; Wetzel, Christian; Lee, Stephen Roger; Missert, Nancy A.; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Fischer, Arthur Joseph

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes results from a 3-year Laboratory Directed Research and Development project performed in collaboration with researchers at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Our collaborative effort was supported by Sandia's National Institute for Nanoengineering and focused on the study and application of nanoscience and nanoengineering concepts to improve the efficiency of semiconductor light-emitting diodes for solid-state lighting applications. The project explored LED efficiency advances with two primary thrusts: (1) the study of nanoscale InGaN materials properties, particularly nanoscale crystalline defects, and their impact on internal quantum efficiency, and (2) nanoscale engineering of dielectric and metal materials and integration with LED heterostructures for enhanced light extraction efficiency.

  2. Phase 2, Solid waste retrieval strategy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1994-09-29

    Solid TRU retrieval, Phase 1 is scheduled to commence operation in 1998 at 218W-4C-T01 and complete recovery of the waste containers in 2001. Phase 2 Retrieval will recover the remaining buried TRU waste to be retrieved and provide the preliminary characterization by non-destructive means to allow interim storage until processing for disposal. This document reports on researching the characterization documents to determine the types of wastes to be retrieved and where located, waste configurations, conditions, and required methods for retrieval. Also included are discussions of wastes encompassed by Phase 2 for which there are valid reasons to not retrieve.

  3. Solid state transport-based thermoelectric converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Zhiyu

    2010-04-13

    A solid state thermoelectric converter includes a thermally insulating separator layer, a semiconducting collector and an electron emitter. The electron emitter comprises a metal nanoparticle layer or plurality of metal nanocatalyst particles disposed on one side of said separator layer. A first electrically conductive lead is electrically coupled to the electron emitter. The collector layer is disposed on the other side of the separator layer, wherein the thickness of the separator layer is less than 1 .mu.m. A second conductive lead is electrically coupled to the collector layer.

  4. Solids mass flow indication with radiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E. (Irwin, PA); Estriplet, Isnard (Irwin, PA)

    1985-06-04

    Method and apparatus for indicating mass flow of a solid particulate material through a rotary feeder. A radiation source and detector are positioned in a manner whereby radiation flux is directed through, and attenuated by, particulate material contained in rotating pockets. A Cesium-137 gamma source can be mounted within the shaft of the feeder, and one or more detectors can be mounted outside of the feeder housing. The detected signal is indicative of the mass of particulate material contained within a given pocket rotating within the feeder.

  5. Solid Freeform Fabrication of Aesthetic Objects

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Hart, George [SUNY Stony Brook, Stony Brook, New York, United States

    2009-09-01

    Solid Freeform Fabrication (aka. Rapid Prototyping) equipment can produce beautiful three-dimensional objects of exquisite intricacy. To use this technology to its full potential requires spatial visualization in the designer and new geometric algorithms as tools. As both a sculptor and a research professor in the Computer Science department at Stony Brook University, George Hart is exploring algorithms for the design of elaborate aesthetic objects. In this talk, he will describe this work, show many images, and bring many physical models to display.

  6. Pulsed Power for Solid-State Lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gagnon, W; Albrecht, G; Trenholme, J; Newton, M

    2007-04-19

    Beginning in the early 1970s, a number of research and development efforts were undertaken at U.S. National Laboratories with a goal of developing high power lasers whose characteristics were suitable for investigating the feasibility of laser-driven fusion. A number of different laser systems were developed and tested at ever larger scale in pursuit of the optimum driver for laser fusion experiments. Each of these systems had associated with it a unique pulsed power option. A considerable amount of original and innovative engineering was carried out in support of these options. Ultimately, the Solid-state Laser approach was selected as the optimum driver for the application. Following this, the Laser Program at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and the University of Rochester undertook aggressive efforts directed at developing the technology. In particular, at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, a series of laser systems beginning with the Cyclops laser and culminating in the present with the National Ignition Facility were developed and tested. As a result, a large amount of design information for solid-state laser pulsed power systems has been documented. Some of it is in the form of published papers, but most of it is buried in internal memoranda, engineering reports and LLNL annual reports. One of the goals of this book is to gather this information into a single useable format, such that it is easily accessed and understood by other engineers and physicists for use with future designs. It can also serve as a primer, which when seriously studied, makes the subsequent reading of original work and follow-up references considerably easier. While this book deals only with the solid-state laser pulsed power systems, in the bibliography we have included a representative cross section of papers and references from much of the very fine work carried out at other institutions in support of different laser approaches. Finally, in recent years, there has been a renewed interest in high-average-power solid-state glass lasers. Much of the prime power technology developed in support of this has definite applications in the long term for fusion power plant scenarios.

  7. Solid fuel volatilization to produce synthesis gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmidt, Lanny D.; Dauenhauer, Paul J.; Degenstein, Nick J.; Dreyer, Brandon J.; Colby, Joshua L.

    2014-07-29

    A method comprising contacting a carbon and hydrogen-containing solid fuel and a metal-based catalyst in the presence of oxygen to produce hydrogen gas and carbon monoxide gas, wherein the contacting occurs at a temperature sufficiently high to prevent char formation in an amount capable of stopping production of the hydrogen gas and the carbon monoxide gas is provided. In one embodiment, the metal-based catalyst comprises a rhodium-cerium catalyst. Embodiments further include a system for producing syngas. The systems and methods described herein provide shorter residence time and high selectivity for hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

  8. solid-sorbent | netl.doe.gov

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Evaluation of Solid Sorbents as a Retrofit Technology for CO2 Capture from Coal-Fired Power Plants Project No.: DE-NT0005649 ADA-ES Sorbent Test Equipment. ADA-ES Sorbent Test Equipment. ADA-ES Inc. is developing and scaling-up a sorbent-based, post-combustion carbon dioxide (CO2 ) capture process. Investigators are evaluating the performance of sorbents from laboratory- to bench-scale. Various sorbents are being screened in a fixed-bed contactor in the laboratory on simulated flue gas, as well

  9. Solid composite electrolytes for lithium batteries

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kumar, Binod (Dayton, OH); Scanlon, Jr., Lawrence G. (Fairborn, OH)

    2001-01-01

    Solid composite electrolytes are provided for use in lithium batteries which exhibit moderate to high ionic conductivity at ambient temperatures and low activation energies. In one embodiment, a polymer-ceramic composite electrolyte containing poly(ethylene oxide), lithium tetrafluoroborate and titanium dioxide is provided in the form of an annealed film having a room temperature conductivity of from 10.sup.-5 S cm.sup.-1 to 10.sup.-3 S cm.sup.-1 and an activation energy of about 0.5 eV.

  10. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell development program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ray, E.R.; Cracraft, C.

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the Westinghouse Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) development activities and current program status. The Westinghouse goal is to develop a cost effective cell that can operate for 50,000 to 100,000 hours. Progress toward this goal will be discussed and test results presented for multiple single cell tests which have now successfully exceeded 56,000 hours of continuous power operation at temperature. Results of development efforts to reduce cost and increase power output of tubular SOFCs are described.

  11. Solid State Marx Modulators for Emerging Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kemp, M.A.; /SLAC

    2012-09-14

    Emerging linear accelerator applications increasingly push the boundaries of RF system performance and economics. The power modulator is an integral part of RF systems whose characteristics play a key role in the determining parameters such as efficiency, footprint, cost, stability, and availability. Particularly within the past decade, solid-state switch based modulators have become the standard in high-performance, high power modulators. One topology, the Marx modulator, has characteristics which make it particularly attractive for several emerging applications. This paper is an overview of the Marx topology, some recent developments, and a case study of how this architecture can be applied to a few proposed linear accelerators.

  12. Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbent for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    xtended A b stra c t o f 2 0 1 4 AICliE S pring M eeting, New O rleans, LA, M ar.30-A pr.02, 20 1 4 Theoretical Screening of Mixed Solid Sorbent for Applications to C 0 2 Capture Technology Yuhua Duan' N ational E nergy T echnology Laboratory, United States D epartm ent o f Energy, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15236, USA Abstract Since current technologies for capturing CO2 to fight global clim ate change are still too energy intensive, there is a critical need for developm ent o f new m aterials

  13. Ultrasonic characterization of solid liquid suspensions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Panetta, Paul D.

    2010-06-22

    Using an ultrasonic field, properties of a solid liquid suspension such as through-transmission attenuation, backscattering, and diffuse field are measured. These properties are converted to quantities indicating the strength of different loss mechanisms (such as absorption, single scattering and multiple scattering) among particles in the suspension. Such separation of the loss mechanisms can allow for direct comparison of the attenuating effects of the mechanisms. These comparisons can also indicate a model most likely to accurately characterize the suspension and can aid in determination of properties such as particle size, concentration, and density of the suspension.

  14. Tubular solid oxide fuel cell current collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bischoff, Brian L. (Knoxville, TN); Sutton, Theodore G. (Kingston, TN); Armstrong, Timothy R. (Clinton, TN)

    2010-07-20

    An internal current collector for use inside a tubular solid oxide fuel cell (TSOFC) electrode comprises a tubular coil spring disposed concentrically within a TSOFC electrode and in firm uniform tangential electrical contact with the electrode inner surface. The current collector maximizes the contact area between the current collector and the electrode. The current collector is made of a metal that is electrically conductive and able to survive under the operational conditions of the fuel cell, i.e., the cathode in air, and the anode in fuel such as hydrogen, CO, CO.sub.2, H.sub.2O or H.sub.2S.

  15. Process for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic liquid radioactive wastes to solid insoluble products

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Barney, Gary S.; Brownell, Lloyd E.

    1977-01-01

    A method for converting sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive wastes to a solid, relatively insoluble, thermally stable form is provided and comprises the steps of reacting powdered aluminum silicate clay, e.g., kaolin, bentonite, dickite, halloysite, pyrophyllite, etc., with the sodium nitrate-containing radioactive wastes which have a caustic concentration of about 3 to 7 M at a temperature of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to thereby entrap the dissolved radioactive salts in the aluminosilicate matrix. In one embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid waste, such as neutralized Purex-type waste, or salts or oxide produced by evaporation or calcination of these liquid wastes (e.g., anhydrous salt cake) is converted at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C to the solid mineral form-cancrinite having an approximate chemical formula 2(NaAlSiO.sub.4) .sup.. xSalt.sup.. y H.sub.2 O with x = 0.52 and y = 0.68 when the entrapped salt is NaNO.sub.3. In another embodiment the sodium nitrate-containing, caustic, radioactive liquid is reacted with the powdered aluminum silicate clay at a temperature within the range of 30.degree. C to 100.degree. C, the resulting reaction product is air dried eitheras loose powder or molded shapes (e.g., bricks) and then fired at a temperature of at least 600.degree. C to form the solid mineral form-nepheline which has the approximate chemical formula of NaAlSiO.sub.4. The leach rate of the entrapped radioactive salts with distilled water is reduced essentially to that of the aluminosilicate lattice which is very low, e.g., in the range of 10.sup.-.sup.2 to 10.sup.-.sup.4 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for cancrinite and 10.sup.-.sup.3 to 10.sup.-.sup.5 g/cm.sup.2 -- day for nepheline.

  16. Solid State Division Progress Report for period ending March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Green, P.H.; Watson, D.M.

    1986-08-01

    This report is divided into: theoretical solid-state physics, surface and near-surface properties of solids, defects in solids, transport properties of solids, neutron scattering, and synthesis and properties of novel materials. (DLC)

  17. The expected anisotropy in solid inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Ricciardone, Angelo; Peloso, Marco; Unal, Caner E-mail: peloso@physics.umn.edu E-mail: unal@physics.umn.edu

    2014-11-01

    Solid inflation is an effective field theory of inflation in which isotropy and homogeneity are accomplished via a specific combination of anisotropic sources (three scalar fields that individually break isotropy). This results in specific observational signatures that are not found in standard models of inflation: a non-trivial angular dependence for the squeezed bispectrum, and a possibly long period of anisotropic inflation (to drive inflation, the ''solid'' must be very insensitive to any deformation, and thus background anisotropies are very slowly erased). In this paper we compute the expected level of statistical anisotropy in the power spectrum of the curvature perturbations of this model. To do so, we account for the classical background values of the three scalar fields that are generated on large (superhorizon) scales during inflation via a random walk sum, as the perturbation modes leave the horizon. Such an anisotropy is unavoidably generated, even starting from perfectly isotropic classical initial conditions. The expected level of anisotropy is related to the duration of inflation and to the amplitude of the squeezed bispectrum. If this amplitude is close to its current observational limit (so that one of the most interesting predictions of the model can be observed in the near future), we find that a level of statistical anisotropy F{sup 2} gives frozen and scale invariant vector perturbations on superhorizon scales.

  18. SOLID STATE ENERGY CONVERSION ALLIANCE DELPHI SOFC

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steven Shaffer; Sean Kelly; Subhasish Mukerjee; David Schumann; H. Skip Mieney

    2003-06-09

    The objective of Phase I under this project is to develop a 5 kW Solid Oxide Fuel Cell power system for a range of fuels and applications. During Phase I, the following will be accomplished: Develop and demonstrate technology transfer efforts on a 5 kW stationary distributed power generation system that incorporates steam reforming of natural gas with piped-in water (Demonstration System A); and Initiate development of a 5 kW system for later mass-market automotive auxiliary power unit application, which will incorporate Catalytic Partial Oxidation (CPO) reforming of gasoline, with anode exhaust gas injected into an ultra-lean burn internal combustion engine. This technical progress report covers work performed by Delphi from July through December 2002 under Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-02NT41246 for the 5 kW mass-market automotive (gasoline) auxiliary power unit. This report highlights technical results of the work performed under the following tasks for the automotive 5 kW system: Task 1--System Design and Integration; Task 2--Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Stack Developments; Task 3--Reformer Developments; Task 4--Development of Balance of Plant (BOP) Components; Task 5--Manufacturing Development (Privately Funded); Task 6--System Fabrication; and Task 7--System Testing.

  19. Solids flow rate measurement in dense slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Porges, K.G.; Doss, E.D.

    1993-09-01

    Accurate and rapid flow rate measurement of solids in dense slurries remains an unsolved technical problem, with important industrial applications in chemical processing plants and long-distance solids conveyance. In a hostile two-phase medium, such a measurement calls for two independent parameter determinations, both by non-intrusive means. Typically, dense slurries tend to flow in laminar, non-Newtonian mode, eliminating most conventional means that usually rely on calibration (which becomes more difficult and costly for high pressure and temperature media). These issues are reviewed, and specific solutions are recommended in this report. Detailed calculations that lead to improved measuring device designs are presented for both bulk density and average velocity measurements. Cross-correlation, chosen here for the latter task, has long been too inaccurate for practical applications. The cause and the cure of this deficiency are discussed using theory-supported modeling. Fluid Mechanics are used to develop the velocity profiles of laminar non-Newtonian flow in a rectangular duct. This geometry uniquely allows the design of highly accurate `capacitive` devices and also lends itself to gamma transmission densitometry on an absolute basis. An absolute readout, though of less accuracy, is also available from a capacitive densitometer and a pair of capacitive sensors yields signals suitable for cross-correlation velocity measurement.

  20. Sintered electrode for solid oxide fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ruka, R.J.; Warner, K.A.

    1999-06-01

    A solid oxide fuel cell fuel electrode is produced by a sintering process. An underlayer is applied to the electrolyte of a solid oxide fuel cell in the form of a slurry, which is then dried. An overlayer is applied to the underlayer and then dried. The dried underlayer and overlayer are then sintered to form a fuel electrode. Both the underlayer and the overlayer comprise a combination of electrode metal such as nickel, and stabilized zirconia such as yttria-stabilized zirconia, with the overlayer comprising a greater percentage of electrode metal. The use of more stabilized zirconia in the underlayer provides good adhesion to the electrolyte of the fuel cell, while the use of more electrode metal in the overlayer provides good electrical conductivity. The sintered fuel electrode is less expensive to produce compared with conventional electrodes made by electrochemical vapor deposition processes. The sintered electrodes exhibit favorable performance characteristics, including good porosity, adhesion, electrical conductivity and freedom from degradation. 4 figs.

  1. Interface control document between PUREX Plant Transition and Solid Waste Disposal Division

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carlson, A.B.

    1995-09-01

    The interfacing responsibilities regarding solid waste management are described for the Solid Waste Disposal Division and the PUREX Transition Organization.

  2. Possible global environmental impacts of solid waste practices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, M.M.; Holter, G.M.; DeForest, T.J.; Stapp, D.C.; Dibari, J.C.

    1994-09-01

    Pollutants resulting from the management of solid waste have been shown to affect the air, land, oceans, and waterways. In addition, solid wastes have other, more indirect impacts such as reduction in feedstocks of natural resources, because useful materials are disposed of rather than recycled. The objective of this study is to evaluate solid waste management practices that have negative implications on the global environment and develop recommendations for reducing such impacts. Recommendations identifying needed changes are identified that will reduce global impacts of solid waste practices in the future. The scope of this study includes the range of non-hazardous solid wastes produced within our society, including municipal solid waste (MSW) and industrial solid waste (ISW), as well as industry-specific wastes from activities such as construction, demolition, and landclearing. Most solid waste management decisions continue to be made and implemented at very local levels, predominantly with a short-term focus to respond to relatively immediate pressures of landfill shortages, funding problems, political considerations, and the like. In this rush to address immediate local problems, little consideration is being given to potential impacts, either short- or long-term, at the national or global level resulting from solid waste management practices. More and more, the cumulative impacts from local decisions concerning solid waste management are beginning to manifest themselves in broader, longer-term impacts than are being addressed by the decision-makers or, at the very least, are presenting a greater and greater potential for such impacts.

  3. Continuous high-solids anaerobic co-digestion of organic solid wastes under mesophilic conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon; Oh, Sae-Eun

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: > High-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion is attracting a lot of attention these days. > One reactor was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste. > Maximum biogas production rate of 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d was achieved at HRT 40 d and 40% TS. > The other reactor was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW). > Until a 40% LW content increase, the reactor exhibited a stable performance. - Abstract: With increasing concerns over the limited capacity of landfills, conservation of resources, and reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions, high-solids (dry) anaerobic digestion of organic solid waste (OSW) is attracting a great deal of attention these days. In the present work, two dry anaerobic co-digestion systems fed with different mixtures of OSW were continuously operated under mesophilic conditions. Dewatered sludge cake was used as a main seeding source. In reactor (I), which was fed with food waste (FW) and paper waste (PW), hydraulic retention time (HRT) and solid content were controlled to find the maximum treatability. At a fixed solid content of 30% total solids (TS), stable performance was maintained up to an HRT decrease to 40 d. However, the stable performance was not sustained at 30 d HRT, and hence, HRT was increased to 40 d again. In further operation, instead of decreasing HRT, solid content was increased to 40% TS, which was found to be a better option to increase the treatability. The biogas production rate (BPR), CH{sub 4} production yield (MPY) and VS reduction achieved in this condition were 5.0 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, 0.25 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and 80%, respectively. Reactor (II) was fed with FW and livestock waste (LW), and LW content was increased during the operation. Until a 40% LW content increase, reactor (II) exhibited a stable performance. A BPR of 1.7 m{sup 3}/m{sup 3}/d, MPY of 0.26 m{sup 3} CH{sub 4}/g COD{sub added}, and VS reduction of 72% was achieved at 40% LW content. However, when the LW content was increased to 60%, there was a significant performance drop, which was attributed to free ammonia inhibition. The performances in these two reactors were comparable to the ones achieved in the conventional wet digestion and thermophilic dry digestion processes.

  4. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1996-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  5. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, Gregory A. (Idaho Falls, ID); Thomas, Charles P. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    1995-01-01

    A system for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste).

  6. Solid State Division progress report, September 30, 1981

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1982-04-01

    Progress made during the 19 months from March 1, 1980, through September 30, 1981, is reported in the following areas: theoretical solid state physics (surfaces, electronic and magnetic properties, particle-solid interactions, and laser annealing); surface and near-surface properties of solids (plasma materials interactions, ion-solid interactions, pulsed laser annealing, and semiconductor physics and photovoltaic conversion); defects in solids (radiation effects, fracture, and defects and impurities in insulating crystals); transport properties of solids (fast-ion conductors, superconductivity, and physical properties of insulating materials); neutron scattering (small-angle scattering, lattice dynamics, and magnetic properties); crystal growth and characterization (nuclear waste forms, ferroelectric mateirals, high-temperature materials, and special materials); and isotope research materials. Publications and papers are listed. (WHK)

  7. Method for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1995-10-03

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  8. Apparatus for removing hydrocarbon contaminants from solid materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bala, G.A.; Thomas, C.P.

    1996-02-13

    A system is described for removing hydrocarbons from solid materials. Contaminated solids are combined with a solvent (preferably terpene based) to produce a mixture. The mixture is washed with water to generate a purified solid product (which is removed from the system) and a drainage product. The drainage product is separated into a first fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a second fraction (containing solids and water). The first fraction is separated into a third fraction (consisting mostly of contaminated solvent) and a fourth fraction (containing residual solids and water). The fourth fraction is combined with the second fraction to produce a sludge which is separated into a fifth fraction (containing water which is ultimately reused) and a sixth fraction (containing solids). The third fraction is then separated into a seventh fraction (consisting of recovered solvent which is ultimately reused) and an eighth fraction (containing hydrocarbon waste). 4 figs.

  9. Solid Catalyzed Isoparaffin Alkylation at Supercritical Fluid and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Near-Supercritical Fluid Conditions - Energy Innovation Portal Startup America Startup America Find More Like This Return to Search Solid Catalyzed Isoparaffin Alkylation at Supercritical Fluid and Near-Supercritical Fluid Conditions Idaho National Laboratory Contact INL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary INL has developed a solid catalyst process for the alkylation reaction of isoparaffins with olefins over solid catalysts. The process includes contacting a mixture of an

  10. Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition Magnets |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    The Ames Laboratory Solid State Processing of Fully Dense Anistropic Nanocomposition Magnets Research Personnel Publications Characterization The project proposes a new solid state processing technology which will transform how current magnets are fabricated, resulting in a dramatic cost decrease and significant reduction of the rare earth (RE) content while actually enhancing the magnetic performance of the magnets. This will be accomplished by a revolutionary solid-state processing

  11. Structural Integrity Program for INTEC Calcined Solids Storage Facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Bryant

    2008-08-30

    This report documents the activities of the structural integrity program at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center relevant to the high-level waste Calcined Solids Storage Facilities and associated equipment, as required by DOE M 435.1-1, 'Radioactive Waste Management Manual'. Based on the evaluation documented in this report, the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities are not leaking and are structurally sound for continued service. Recommendations are provided for continued monitoring of the Calcined Solids Storage Facilities.

  12. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1986-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  13. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Zymboly, Gregory E. (Penn Hills Township, Allegheny County, PA)

    1985-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  14. Protective interlayer for high temperature solid electrolyte electrochemical cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Isenberg, Arnold O. (Forest Hills Boro, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA)

    1987-01-01

    A high temperature, solid electrolyte electrochemical cell is made, having a first and second electrode with solid electrolyte between them, where the electrolyte is formed by hot chemical vapor deposition, where a solid, interlayer material, which is electrically conductive, oxygen permeable, and protective of electrode material from hot metal halide vapor attack, is placed between the first electrode and the electrolyte, to protect the first electrode from the hot metal halide vapors during vapor deposition.

  15. 2012 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials | Department of Energy Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials 2012 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials This page provides links to the presentations and materials from the 2012 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Tutorials and Workshop, held July 17-19 in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Presentations Pre-Workshop Tutorials Solid-State Lighting 101 Jack Curran, LED Transformations CALiPER: How Well Do LED Products Perform in

  16. 2013 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Materials | Department of Energy Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials 2013 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop Presentations and Materials This page provides links to the presentations and materials from the 2013 Solid-State Lighting Market Introduction Workshop and Pre-Workshop LED Education, held November 12-14 in Portland, OR. Presentations Pre-Workshop LED Education Solid-State Lighting: The New Basics Jack Curran, LED Transformations Controls

  17. 2015 DOE Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PROJECT PORTFOLIO: SOLID-STATE LIGHTING January 2015 DOE Solid-State Lighting Project Portfolio January 2015 Executive Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) partners with businesses, universities, and national laboratories to accelerate improvements in solid-state lighting (SSL) technology. These collaborative, cost-shared efforts focus on developing highly energy-efficient, low cost, white light sources for general illumination. DOE supports SSL research for both light-emitting diode

  18. Energy Department Announces $4 Million Solicitation for Solid-State

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Lighting Research | Department of Energy 4 Million Solicitation for Solid-State Lighting Research Energy Department Announces $4 Million Solicitation for Solid-State Lighting Research August 29, 2005 - 2:46pm Addthis Technology has Potential to Double Lighting Efficiency in U.S., Lowering Energy Bills WASHINGTON, DC - The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) today announced a $4 million solicitation for research into solid-state lighting (SSL) that has the potential to create light with virtually

  19. Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Agreement | Department of Energy Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement Energy Secretary Bodman Statement on Hanford Solid Waste Settlement Agreement January 9, 2006 - 9:43am Addthis Richland, WA - U.S. Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman today announced that the Department of Energy (DOE) and the State of Washington have entered into a settlement agreement that will lead to a final order and the dismissal of the challenge to Hanford's Solid Waste Environmental Impact Statement

  20. Design of solid state neutral particle analyzer array for National

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Design of solid state neutral particle analyzer array for National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Design of solid state neutral particle analyzer array for National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade A new compact, multi-channel Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) diagnostic based on silicon photodiode array has been designed and is being fabricated for the National

  1. Solid-State Lighting Consortia | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Solid-State Lighting Consortia Solid-State Lighting Consortia Presenter: Marc Ledbetter, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Most potential users of light-emitting diode (LED) lighting do not have large training budgets to independently educate themselves; participation in the Solid-State Lighting (SSL) Consortia is a low-cost-low-risk way to benefit from the knowledge and experience of others. The goal of the SSL Consortia is to help specific members of the lighting community-including

  2. Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol | Department of Energy diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Measurement of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using a catalytic stripper for comparison with Europe's PMP protocol Evaluation and comparison of the measurements of diesel solid nanoparticle emissions using the European Particle Measurement Programme (PMP) system and catalytic stripper PDF icon deer11_jung.pdf

  3. First Principles Contributions to the Thermodynamic Assessment of Solid

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    State Metal Hydride and Complex Hydride Phases | Department of Energy First Principles Contributions to the Thermodynamic Assessment of Solid State Metal Hydride and Complex Hydride Phases First Principles Contributions to the Thermodynamic Assessment of Solid State Metal Hydride and Complex Hydride Phases Presentation on the Thermodynamic Assessment of Solid State Metal Hydride and Complex Hydride Phases given at the DOE Theory Focus Session on Hydrogen Storage Materials on May 18, 2006.

  4. DOE Announces Selections from Solid-State Lighting Core Technologies

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Funding Opportunity Announcement and Laboratory Call | Department of Energy from Solid-State Lighting Core Technologies Funding Opportunity Announcement and Laboratory Call DOE Announces Selections from Solid-State Lighting Core Technologies Funding Opportunity Announcement and Laboratory Call The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is pleased to announce the selection of sixteen (16) applications in response to the Solid-State

  5. DOE Announces Selections from Solid-State Lighting Product Development

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Funding Opportunity Announcement | Department of Energy from Solid-State Lighting Product Development Funding Opportunity Announcement DOE Announces Selections from Solid-State Lighting Product Development Funding Opportunity Announcement The National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), on behalf of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), is pleased to announce the selection of five (5) applications in response to the Solid-State Lighting Product Development Funding Opportunity Announcement

  6. Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy Webcasts » Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Kickoff Webcast This May 6, 2010 webcast served as the first official meeting of the new DOE Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium. Ed Smalley of Seattle City Light and Bruce Kinzey of Pacific Northwest National Laboratory discussed the Consortium's mission and goals, and provided an overview of its first steps, and opportunities to

  7. Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) Energetic Materials for EGS Well Stimulation (solids, liquids, gases) presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado. PDF icon energetics_peer2013.pdf More Documents & Publications Controlled Rapid Pressurization Using Liquid Propellants for EGS Well Stimulation track 4: enhanced geothermal systems

  8. Reversibility and criticality in amorphous solids (Journal Article) |

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    SciTech Connect Reversibility and criticality in amorphous solids Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Reversibility and criticality in amorphous solids The physical processes governing the onset of yield, where a material changes its shape permanently under external deformation, are not yet understood for amorphous solids that are intrinsically disordered. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and mean-field theory, we show that at a critical strain amplitude the sizes of

  9. Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Patent) | SciTech Connect Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid electrolyte material manufacturable by polymer processing methods The present invention relates generally to electrolyte materials. According to an embodiment, the present invention provides for a solid polymer electrolyte material that is ionically conductive, mechanically robust, and can be formed into desirable shapes using conventional

  10. Solid-state lithium battery (Patent) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Patent: Solid-state lithium battery Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Solid-state lithium battery The present invention is directed to a higher power, thin film lithium-ion electrolyte on a metallic substrate, enabling mass-produced solid-state lithium batteries. High-temperature thermodynamic equilibrium processing enables co-firing of oxides and base metals, providing a means to integrate the crystalline, lithium-stable, fast lithium-ion conductor lanthanum lithium tantalate

  11. Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Breakout Group 5: Solid Oxide Fuel Cells Report from Breakout Group 5 of the Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop, January 23-24, 2008 PDF icon fc_pre-solicitation_workshop_sofc.pdf More Documents & Publications DOE Fuel Cell Pre-Solicitation Workshop Agenda, January 23-24, 2008, Golden, Colorado Breakout Group 2: Membrane Electrode Assemblies Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System (SOFC) Technology R&D Needs (Presentation)

  12. System Reliability Model for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires | Department

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    of Energy System Reliability Model for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires System Reliability Model for Solid-State Lighting Luminaires Lead Performer: RTI International - Research Triangle Park, NC Partners: Auburn University - Auburn, AL DOE Total Funding: $2,848,942 Cost Share: $712,234 Project Term: 9/16/2011 - 9/30/2016 Funding Opportunity: Solid State Lighting Core Technology Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA- 0000329) Project Objective The primary objectives of the proposed work

  13. THE TENTH ANNUAL SOLID-STATE LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP |

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Department of Energy THE TENTH ANNUAL SOLID-STATE LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP THE TENTH ANNUAL SOLID-STATE LIGHTING TECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP More than 230 lighting leaders from across North America gathered in Portland, OR, November 17-18, 2015, for the tenth annual Solid-State Lighting Technology Development Workshop, hosted by DOE. The diverse audience spanned the spectrum of SSL stakeholders, representing lighting, control, and components companies as well as research

  14. Outdoor Solid-State Lighting Technology Deployment | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Products & Technologies » Technology Deployment » Outdoor Solid-State Lighting Technology Deployment Outdoor Solid-State Lighting Technology Deployment Solid-state lighting (SSL) technology has the potential to reduce U.S. lighting energy usage by nearly one half and contribute significantly to our nation's climate change solutions. The Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Outdoor SSL Initiative offers a unique opportunity for the Federal sector to lead large-scale imple-mentation

  15. Standards Development for Solid-State Lighting | Department of Energy

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Research & Development » Technology Application R&D » Standards Development for Solid-State Lighting Standards Development for Solid-State Lighting To accelerate the development and implementation of needed standards for solid-state lighting products, DOE works closely with a network of standards-setting organizations and offers technical assistance and support. Since 2006, DOE has facilitated ongoing dialogue with key standards development organizations to foster greater coordination

  16. Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1:

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Availability of Feedstock and Technology | Department of Energy 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) to Liquid Fuels Synthesis, Volume 1: Availability of Feedstock and Technology Municipal solid waste (MSW) is a domestic energy resource with the potential to provide a significant amount of energy to meet US liquid fuel requirements. MSW is defined as household waste, commercial solid waste, nonhazardous sludge, conditionally exempt, small quantity hazardous

  17. Solid oxide fuel cell process and apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, Matthew Ellis (Morgantown, WV); Bayless, David J. (Athens, OH); Trembly, Jason P. (Durham, NC)

    2011-11-15

    Conveying gas containing sulfur through a sulfur tolerant planar solid oxide fuel cell (PSOFC) stack for sulfur scrubbing, followed by conveying the gas through a non-sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack. The sulfur tolerant PSOFC stack utilizes anode materials, such as LSV, that selectively convert H.sub.2S present in the fuel stream to other non-poisoning sulfur compounds. The remaining balance of gases remaining in the completely or near H.sub.2S-free exhaust fuel stream is then used as the fuel for the conventional PSOFC stack that is downstream of the sulfur-tolerant PSOFC. A broad range of fuels such as gasified coal, natural gas and reformed hydrocarbons are used to produce electricity.

  18. Solid phase microextraction device using aerogel

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, Fred S.; Andresen, Brian D.

    2005-06-14

    A sample collection substrate of aerogel and/or xerogel materials bound to a support structure is used as a solid phase microextraction (SPME) device. The xerogels and aerogels may be organic or inorganic and doped with metals or other compounds to target specific chemical analytes. The support structure is typically formed of a glass fiber or a metal wire (stainless steel or kovar). The devices are made by applying gel solution to the support structures and drying the solution to form aerogel or xerogel. Aerogel particles may be attached to the wet layer before drying to increase sample collection surface area. These devices are robust, stable in fields of high radiation, and highly effective at collecting gas and liquid samples while maintaining superior mechanical and thermal stability during routine use. Aerogel SPME devices are advantageous for use in GC/MS analyses due to their lack of interfering background and tolerance of GC thermal cycling.

  19. Producing usable fuel from municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ohlsson, O.O.

    1995-03-01

    Refuse disposal is a matter of increasing concern for municipalities and state governments. As existing land-fills become filled to capacity, and new landfills become more costly to site, it has become critical to develop alternative disposal methods. Some of the refuse that is presently being landfilled has the potential to provide considerable quantities of energy and thereby replace conventional fossil fuels. Another environmental concern is the problem of the emissions associated with combustion of traditional fossil fuels. The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 significantly restrict the level of sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions permissible as effluent from combustion facilities. To address both of these concerns, Argonne National Laboratory, under sponsorship of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has developed a means of producing fuel from municipal solid waste that can be co-fired with coal to supplement coal supplies and reduce problematic emissions.

  20. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.