Sample records for dissolved inorganic carbon

  1. Rapid extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon from seawater and groundwater samples for radiocarbon dating

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gospodinova, Kalina Doneva

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The focus of this thesis is the design and development of a system for rapid extraction of dissolved inorganic carbon from seawater and groundwater samples for radiocarbon dating. The Rapid Extraction of Dissolved Inorganic ...

  2. Isotopic variations of dissolved inorganic carbon in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kan, David Lan-Rong

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ISOTOPIC VARIATIONS OF DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis DAVID LAN-RONG RAN Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August... l9IO Maj or Subject: Oceanography ISOTOPIC VARIATIONS OF DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by DAVID LAN-RONG ZAN Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Head of Departm at) ember) g~& (Member...

  3. Subsurface Monitor for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at Geological Sequestration Site Phase 1 SBIR Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng Wu

    2012-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Phase I research of this SBIR contract has yielded anticipated results and enable us to develop a practical new instrument to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons (DIC) as well as Supercritical (SC) CO2 in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, higher frequency and longer period of time for the Monitoring, Verification & Accounting (MVA) of CO2 sequestration as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). We show that reduced cost and improved performance are possible; both future and emerging market exist for the proposed new instrument.

  4. GEOCHEMISTRY OF PARTICULATE AND DISSOLVED INORGANIC CARBON IN THE CENTRAL NORTH PACIFIC

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luther, Douglas S.

    -carbonate system of the open ocean is still not completely understood today. This investigation incorporated both for 15 months at the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station, ALOHA, was predominantly controlled waters are a very small sink for anthropogenic CO2, this CO2 has penetrated to a depth of 700 m

  5. The dual influences of dissolved organic carbon on hypolimnetic metabolism: organic substrate and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pace, Michael L.

    The dual influences of dissolved organic carbon on hypolimnetic metabolism: organic substrate investigated the effect of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on hypolimnetic metabolism (accumulation of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and methane (CH4)) in 21 lakes across a gradient of DOC concentrations (308 to 1540

  6. Fractionation between inorganic and organic carbon during the Lomagundi (2.222.1 Ga) carbon isotope excursion

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bekker, Andrey

    is poorly characterized. Because dissolved inorganic and organic carbon reservoirs were arguably larger deposition, a carbon isotope fractionation as large as ~37 appears to characterize the production of bulk was dominated by a large dissolved inorganic carbon reservoir during the Lomagundi excursion. Our study suggests

  7. Final Technical Report: Ocean CO{sub 2} Measurements for the WOCE Hydrographic Survey in the Pacific Ocean, 1992-1995 Field Years: Shore Based Analysis of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon January 1, 1993-April 15, 1998

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeling, Charles D.

    1998-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Participation in the hydrographic survey of the world ocean circulation experiment (WOCE) began in December 1990 with a two year grant from DOE for shore related analyses of inorganic carbon in sea water. These analyses were intended to assure that the measurements carried out under difficult laboratory conditions on board ships were consistent with measurements made under more carefully controlled shore laboratory conditions.

  8. Evaluating the origins and transformations of organic matter and dissolved inorganic nitrogen in two contrasting North Sea estuaries 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ahad, Jason Michael Elias

    In order to delineate the potential sources and to understand the main controls on the biogeochemical cycling of dissolved and particulate organic matter (DOM, POM) and dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) during estuarine ...

  9. Hidden cycle of dissolved organic carbon in the deep ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Repeta, Daniel J.

    Marine dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a large (660 Pg C) reactive carbon reservoir that mediates the oceanic microbial food web and interacts with climate on both short and long timescales. Carbon isotopic content ...

  10. Fractionation of Dissolved Solutes and Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter During Experimental Sea Ice Formation.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Smith, Stephanie 1990-

    2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    (TN), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), fluorescence and absorption (optics), water isotopes (?18O and ?D), and lignin phenols. Results showed a clear fractionation effect for all parameters, where the ice samples contained much less of the dissolved...

  11. 3.5 Dissolved inorganic carbon (CT) 5 February 2005

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , and to clarify the mechanism of the CO2 absorption, because the magnitude of the predicted global warming depends such as burning of fossil fuels, deforestation, cement production, etc. It is an urgent task to estimate. For the system A, the module consists of two electric dehumidifiers (kept at 1 - 2 °C) and a chemical desiccant

  12. Properties of Mutants of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Lacking Inorganic Carbon Sequestration Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Roegner, Matthias

    Properties of Mutants of Synechocystis sp. Strain PCC 6803 Lacking Inorganic Carbon SequestrationA is the only active inorganic carbon sequestration system showed low activity of HCO3 ­ uptake and grew under the significance of carbon sequestration in dissipating excess light energy. Keywords: CO2 and HCO3 Ŕ uptake -- CO2

  13. Examining the coupling of carbon and nitrogen cycles in Southern Appalachian streams: Understanding the role of dissolved organic nitrogen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lutz, Brian D [Duke University; Bernhardt, Emily [Duke University; Roberts, Brian [Louisiana Universities Marine Consortium; Mulholland, Patrick J [ORNL

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Although regional and global models of nitrogen (N) cycling typically focus on nitrate, dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) is the dominant form of nitrogen export from many watersheds and thus the dominant form of dissolved N in many streams. Our understanding of the processes controlling DON export from temperate forests is poor. In pristine systems, where biological N limitation is common, N contained in recalcitrant organic matter (OM) can dominate watershed N losses. This recalcitrant OM often has moderately constrained carbon:nitrogen (C:N) molar ratios ({approx}25-55) and therefore, greater DON losses should be observed in sites where there is greater total dissolved organic carbon (DOC) loss. In regions where anthropogenic N pollution is high, it has been suggested that increased inorganic N availability can reduce biological demand for organic N and therefore increase watershed DON losses. This would result in a positive correlation between inorganic and organic N concentrations across sites with varying N availability. In four repeated synoptic surveys of stream water chemistry from forested watersheds along an N loading gradient in the southern Appalachians, we found surprisingly little correlation between DON and DOC concentrations. Further, we found that DON concentrations were always significantly correlated with watershed N loading and stream water [NO{sub 3}{sup -}] but that the direction of this relationship was negative in three of the four surveys. The C:N molar ratio of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in streams draining watersheds with high N deposition was very high relative to other freshwaters. This finding, together with results from bioavailability assays in which we directly manipulated C and N availabilities, suggests that heterotrophic demand for labile C can increase as a result of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) loading, and that heterotrophs can preferentially remove N-rich molecules from DOM. These results are inconsistent with the two prevailing hypotheses that dominate interpretations of watershed DON loss. Therefore, we propose a new hypothesis, the indirect carbon control hypothesis, which recognizes that heterotrophic demand for N-rich DOM can keep stream water DON concentrations low when N is not limiting and heterotrophic demand for labile C is high.

  14. Interactions between diatom aggregates, minerals, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic matter: Further

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Interactions between diatom aggregates, minerals, particulate organic carbon, and dissolved organic October 2008. [1] Correlations of particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral fluxes into sediment traps in the deep sea have previously suggested that interactions between organic matter and minerals play a key

  15. Carbons for lithium ion cells prepared using sepiolite as an inorganic template.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandi, G.

    1998-12-09T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon anodes for Li ion cells have been prepared by the in situ polymerization of olefins such as propylene and ethylene in the channels of sepiolite clay mineral. Upon dissolution of the inorganic framework, a disordered carbon was obtained. The carbon was tested as anode in coin cells, yielding a reversible capacity of 633 mAh/g, 1.70 times higher than the capacity delivered by graphitic carbon, assuming 100% efficiency. The coulombic efficiency was higher than 90%.

  16. The distribution of dissolved and particulate organic carbon in the southeastern Indian Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Abd El-Reheim, Hussein Anwar

    1976-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    . rbe rloSxee of NASTI. R OP SCIENCE Decerabex 1976 Na)or Subject: OueanoStaPby THE DISTRIBUTION OF DISSOLVED AND PARTICULATE ORGANIC CARBON IN THE SOUTHEASTERN INDIAN OCEAN A Thesis by HUSSEIN ANWAR ABD EL-REHEIM (Co-Chairman of ommittee) (Co...-C irman of Commit e) (Head of Department) (Member) r (Member) December 1976 ABSTtlACT The Distribution of Dissolved and Particulate Organic Carbon In the Southeastern Indian Ocean. (December 1976) Hussein Anwan Abd El-Reheim B. Sc. , Alexandria...

  17. Dissolved carbonic anhydrase for enhancing post-combustion carbon dioxide hydration in aqueous ammonia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collett, James R.; Heck, Robert W.; Zwoster, Andy

    2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aqueous ammonia solvents that capture CO2 as ionic complexes of carbonates with ammonium have recently been advanced as alternatives to amine-based solvents due to their lower energy requirements for thermal regeneration. In ammonia based solvents, the hydration of CO2 to form bicarbonate may become a rate-limiting step as the CO2 loading increases and the resulting pH level of the solvent decreases. Variants of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase can accelerate the reversible hydration of CO2 to yield bicarbonate by more than 10(6)-fold. The possible benefit of bovine carbonic anhydrase (BCA) addition to solutions of aqueous ammonia to enhance CO2 hydration was investigated in semi-batch reactions within continuously stirred tank reactors or in a bubble column gas-liquid contactor. Adding 154 mg/liter of BCA to 2 M aqueous ammonia provided a 34.1% overall increase in the rate of CO2 hydration (as indicated by the production of [H+]) as the pH declined from 9.6 to 8.6 during sparging with a 15% CO2, 85% N-2 gas at a flow rate of 3 lpm. The benefits of adding BCA to enhance CO2 hydration were only discernable below similar to pH 9. The implications of the apparent pH limitations on the utility of BCA are discussed in the context of absorber unit operation design. Possible embodiments of carbonic anhydrase as either an immobilized catalyst or as a dissolved, recirculating catalyst in potential plant scale aqueous ammonia systems are considered as well. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. A method for the determination of dissolved organic carbon in sea water by gas chromatography

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fredericks, Alan D

    1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    OF PLATES Plate Page I Front Oblique View of Ampoule Flushing and Sealing Apparatus . 15 2 Side View of Ampoule Flushing and Sealing Apparatus . 17 3 Ampoule Crushing Apparatus 4 Two Position Gas Valve 5 Carbon Dioxide Analysis Apparatus 29 37 45... is passed through an infrared analyzer using nitrogen as a carrier gas. The purpose of this investigation was to develop a shipboard method for determining the concentration of dissolved organic carbon in sea water samples. Sea water was sealed in glass...

  19. Determining Sources of Dissolved Organic Carbon and Nutrients in an Urban Basin Using Novel and Traditional Methods

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Govil, Krittika

    2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Water quality in urban ecosystems is sensitive to localized disturbances potentially affecting those mechanisms which influence nutrient cycles. The Carters Creek Basin has been reported to have elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon...

  20. Dissolved inorganic carbon in soil and shallow groundwater, Konza Prairie LTER Site, NE Kanas, USA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tsypin, Mikhail

    2011-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    cycles of soil air CO2, groundwater DIC, and isotope characteristics showed a strong dependency on weather conditions and soil respiration. Soil air CO2 reached its annual maximum in the middle of the growing season, when moisture was not limiting to soil...

  1. Recovery Act: Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Goddard, William

    2012-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    To further our understanding and develop the method for measuring the DICs under geological sequestration conditions, we studied the infrared spectra of DICs under high pressure and temperature conditions. First principles simulations of DICs in brine conditions were performed using a highly optimized ReaxFF-DIC forcefield. The thermodynamics stability of each species were determined using the 2PT method, and shown to be consistent with the Reax simulations. More importantly, we have presented the IR spectra of DIC in real brine conditions as a function of temperature and pressure. At near earth conditions, we find a breaking of the O-C-O bending modes into asymmetric and symmetric modes, separated by 100cm{sup -1} at 400K and 5 GPa. These results can now be used to calibrate FTIR laser measurements.

  2. Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on CO{sub 2}

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National5Sales for4,645 3,625 1,006 492 742EnergyOn AprilAElectronicCurvesSpeedingScientificof ScientificQ LA-UR-

  3. Corrosion Testing of Carbon Steel in Oxalic Acid that Contains Dissolved Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, Bruce J.; Mickalonis, John I.; Subramanian, Karthik H.

    2012-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid (OA) will be used to chemically clean the tanks after waste retrieval is completed. The waste tanks at SRS were constructed from carbon steel materials and thus are vulnerable to corrosion in acidic media. In addition to structural impacts, the impact of corrosion on the hydrogen generated during the process must be assessed. Electrochemical and coupon immersion tests were used to investigate the corrosion mechanism at anticipated process conditions. The testing showed that the corrosion rates were dependent upon the reduction of the iron species that had dissolved in solution. Initial corrosion rates were elevated due to the reduction of the ferric species to ferrous species. At later times, as the ferric species depleted, the corrosion rate decreased. On the other hand, the hydrogen evolution reaction became more dominant.

  4. Small angle neutron and X-ray scattering studies of carbons prepared using inorganic templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandi, G.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

    1997-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small angle neutron (SANS) and X-ray (SAXS) scattering analyses of carbons derived from organic-loaded inorganic template materials, used as anodes in lithium ion cells, have been performed. Two clays were used as templates to load the organic precursors, pillared montmorrillonite (PILC), a layered silicate clay whose sheets have been permanently propped open by sets of thermally stable molecular props, and sepiolite, a natural channeled clay. Five different organic precursors were used to load the PILC: pyrene, styrene, pyrene/trioxane copolymer, ethylene and propylene, whereas only propylene and ethylene were used to load sepiolite. Pyrolysis took place at 700{degrees}C under nitrogen. Values such as hole radius, fractal dimension, cutoff length and density of the final carbons will be compared as a function of the clay and carbon precursors.

  5. Small angle neutron scattering characterization of the porous structure of carbons prepared using inorganic templates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandi, G.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Carrado, K.A.; Winans, R.E. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1999-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Small angle neutron scattering (SANS) was used for the characterization of the microstructure of carbons derived from organic-loaded inorganic template materials that are used as anodes in lithium ion cells. Pillared clays (PILC), layered silicates whose sheets have been permanently propped open by sets of thermally stable molecular props, were used as a template to load the organic precursors. Five organic precursors, namely pyrene, styrene, pyrene/trioxane copolymer, ethylene, and propylene, were used to load the PILC. Pyrolysis was carried out at 700 C under nitrogen atmosphere. From SANS, information has been derived about the pore radius, mass fractal dimension, and the cutoff length (above which the fractal property breaks down) on each carbon. In general, the pore radius ranges from 4 to 11 {angstrom}, and the mass fractal dimension varies in the range from 2.5 to 2.9. Contrast-match SANS studies of carbons wetted in 84% deuterated toluene indicate that a significant amount of pores in carbon from pyrene are not accessible to the solvent, while most of the porous network of carbon from propylene is accessible.

  6. The Arctic Ocean carbon sink G.A. MacGilchrist a,n

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Naveira Garabato, Alberto

    Carbon sequestration Biological pump a b s t r a c t We present observation based estimatesThe Arctic Ocean carbon sink G.A. MacGilchrist a,n , A.C. Naveira Garabato a , T. Tsubouchi b , S January 2014 Keywords: Arctic Ocean Dissolved inorganic carbon Carbon budget Air­sea carbon dioxide flux

  7. Dissolved organic carbon dynamics in anaerobic sediments of the Santa Monica Basin

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    C. (1996) Biogenic matter diagenesis on the sea ?oor: aQuanti?cation of early diagenesis: dissolved constituents inR. A. (1990) Early diagenesis and recycling of biogenic

  8. Study of dissolved organic matter in peatlands: molecular characterisation of a dynamic carbon reservoir 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ridley, Luke McDonald

    2014-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Northern peatlands represent a significant carbon reservoir, containing approximately a third of the terrestrial carbon pool. The stability of these carbon stores is poorly understood, and processes of accumulation and ...

  9. Use of carbonates for biological and chemical synthesis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory Hudson

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system of using carbonates, especially water-insoluble or sparing soluble mineral carbonates, for maintaining or increasing dissolved inorganic carbon concentrations in aqueous media. In particular, the system generates concentrated dissolve inorganic carbon substrates for photosynthetic, chemosynthetic, or abiotic chemical production of carbonaceous or other compounds in solution. In some embodiments, the invention can also enhance the dissolution and retention of carbon dioxide in aqueous media, and can produce pH buffering capacity, metal ions, and heat, which can be beneficial to the preceding syntheses.

  10. Dissolved organic matter properties and their relationship to carbon dioxide efflux from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Tim

    of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany c Department of Geography and Centre for Climate and Global Change 2001; accepted 9 December 2002 Abstract The effects of peat bog harvesting and restoration on dissolved- centrations, humification indices derived from synchronous fluorescence spectra (humification index (HIX

  11. ECOSYSTEM ECOLOGY -ORIGINAL PAPER Linking calcification by exotic snails to stream inorganic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall Jr., Robert O.

    ecosystems, ignore biotic calcification (biocalcification) CO2 fluxes from animals with CaCO3 exoskeletons. When CaCO3 exoskeletons are formed from dissolved Ca2? and HCO3 - , nearly 1 mol CO2 is released for each mole of CaCO3 fixed (Ware et al. 1991; Frankignoulle et al. 1994): Ca2ţ ţ 2HCOŔ 3 $ CaCO3 ţ H2O ţ

  12. Inorganic origin of carbon dioxide during low temperature thermal recovery of bitumen: Chemical and isotopic evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hutcheon, I.; Abercrombia, H.J.; Krouse, H.R. (Univ. of Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon dioxide, produced at low temperatures, is the dominant gaseous species evolved during steam-assisted thermal recovery of bitumen at the Tucker Lake pilot, Cold Lake, Alberta. Two possible sources for the produced CO{sub 2} are considered: pyrolysis of bitumen and dissolution of carbonate minerals. Data from natural systems and experiments by other authors suggest that clay-carbonate reactions are the dominant source of CO{sub 2}. Bitumen pyrolysis may contribute small amounts of CO{sub 2}, probably by decarboxylation, early in the production cycle but cannot contribute significant volumes. The recognition of production of CO{sub 2} by reactive calcite destruction at temperatures between 70 and 220{degree}C suggests that this process may be responsible for the production of large quantities of CO{sub 2} in natural systems, particularly in lithofeldspathic sands and shales with high carbonate content and abundant clays. Organic acids have been suggested to be the source of CO{sub 2} in diagenetic fluids, but the results presented here suggest that this hypothesis requires more complete investigation.

  13. Optical Properties of Mixed Black Carbon, Inorganic and Secondary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulson, S E

    2012-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

    Summarizes the achievements of the project, which are divided into four areas: 1) Optical properties of secondary organic aerosols; 2) Development and of a polar nephelometer to measure aerosol optical properties and theoretical approaches to several optical analysis problems, 3) Studies on the accuracy of measurements of absorbing carbon by several methods, and 4) Environmental impacts of biodiesel.

  14. The use of capacitive deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes to remove inorganic contaminants from water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Fix, D.V.; Mack, G.V.; Pekala, R.W.; Poco, J.F.

    1995-02-17T23:59:59.000Z

    The capacitive deionization of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been successfully demonstrated for the first time. Unlike ion exchange, one of the more conventional deionization processes, no chemicals were required for regeneration of the system. Electricity was used instead. Water with various anions and cations was pumped through the electrochemical cell. After polarization, ions were electrostatically removed from the water and held in the electric double layers formed at electrode surfaces. The water leaving the cell was purified, as desired.

  15. Thresholds for Survival of Brown Trout during the Spring Flood Acid Pulse in Streams High in Dissolved Organic Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Buffam, Ishi

    .--The survival of brown trout Salmo trutta embryos and first-year juveniles was studied using in situ bioassays concentration. No toxic effect could be directly attributed to measured inorganic aluminum concentrations). Increased Hţ levels impede the active uptake of sodium and stimulate efflux (Leivestad and Muniz 1976

  16. Soil inorganic carbon storage pattern in China , S H A O Q I A N G WA N G *, J I Y U A N L I U *, G U I R U I Y U *, W E N J U A N Z H A N G *2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Soil inorganic carbon storage pattern in China N A M I *1 , S H A O Q I A N G WA N G *, J I Y U A N San Luis, Argentina Abstract Soils with pedogenic carbonate cover about 30% (3.44 Â 106 km2 ) of China (1979­1992), total soil inorganic carbon (SIC) storage in China was estimated to be 53.3 Ć 6.3 PgC (1 Pg

  17. Inorganic non-aqueous cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kuo, H. C.; Dey, A. N.; Foster, D. L.; Gopikanth, M. L.; Schlaikjer, C. R.

    1985-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel inorganic non-aqueous electrochemical cell having an alkali or alkaline earth metal anode, an inorganic electrolyte comprised of an SO/sub 2/ solvent with an alkali or alkaline earth metal halide salt of aluminum, tantalum niobium or antimony, dissolved in the SO/sub 2/ and a cathode comprised of a carbonaceous material having an apparent bulk density in excess of 5 lb/ft/sup 3/ (80 gm/1). Lower bulk density carbonaceous material may, however, be used in electrolytes having high salt concentrations. Ketjenblack EC (furnace black) carbonaceous material may be admixed with a solid cathode active material which is substantially insoluble in the SO/sub 2/ electrolyte to provide a high primary cell capacity and an effectively rechargeable cell. There is no SO/sub 2/ per se discharge in the cell.

  18. PEGylated Inorganic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Karakoti, Ajay S.; Das, Soumya; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Seal, Sudipta

    2011-02-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Application of inorganic nanoparticles in diagnosis and therapy has become a critical component in targeted treatment of diseases. The surface modification of inorganic oxides is important for providing diversity in size, shape, solubility, long term stability and attachment of selective functional groups. PEGylation of surfaces is a key strategic approach for providing stealth characteristics to nanomaterials otherwise identified as foreign materials by human body. The current review describes the role of surface modification of oxides by polyethylene glycol (PEG) in providing versatile characteristics to inorganic oxide nanoparticles with a focus on their biomedical applications. The role of PEG as structure directing agent in synthesis of oxides is also captured in this short review.

  19. APPLICATION OF CARBOHYDRATES AND PHENOLS AS BIOMARKERS TO STUDY DISSOLVED ORGANIC MATTER RESERVOIRS IN ARCTIC RIVERS.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McMahon, Rachel

    2014-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Arctic rivers are the dominant pathways for the transport of terrestrial dissolved organic carbon to the Arctic Ocean, but knowledge of sources, transformations and transfer of organic carbon and nitrogen in Arctic river watersheds is extremely...

  20. Comparison of the Carbon System Parameters at the Global CO2 Survey Crossover Locations in the North and South Pacific Ocean, 1990-1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Feely, Richard A [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Lamb, Marilyn F. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Greeley, Dana J. [NOAA, Pacific Marine Environmental Laboratory (PMEL); Wanninkhof, Rik [NOAA, Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML)

    1999-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    As a collaborative program to measure global ocean carbon inventories and provide estimates of the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (C02) uptake by the oceans. the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the U.S. Department of Energy have sponsored the collection of ocean carbon measurements as part of the World Ocean Circulation Experiment and Ocean-Atmosphere Carbon Exchange Study cruises. The cruises discussed here occurred in the North and South Pacific from 1990 through 1996. The carbon parameters from these 30 crossover locations have been compared to ensure that a consistent global data set emerges from the survey cruises. !'he results indicate that for dissolved inorganic carbon. fugacity of C02• and pH. the a~:,rreements at most crossover locations are well within the design specifications for the global CO) survey: whereas. in the case of total alkaliniry. the agreement between crossover locations is not as close.

  1. Supported inorganic membranes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sehgal, Rakesh (Albuquerque, NM); Brinker, Charles Jeffrey (Albuquerque, NM)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Supported inorganic membranes capable of molecular sieving, and methods for their production, are provided. The subject membranes exhibit high flux and high selectivity. The subject membranes are substantially defect free and less than about 100 nm thick. The pores of the subject membranes have an average critical pore radius of less than about 5 .ANG., and have a narrow pore size distribution. The subject membranes are prepared by coating a porous substrate with a polymeric sol, preferably under conditions of low relative pressure of the liquid constituents of the sol. The coated substrate is dried and calcined to produce the subject supported membrane. Also provided are methods of derivatizing the surface of supported inorganic membranes with metal alkoxides. The subject membranes find use in a variety of applications, such as the separation of constituents of gaseous streams, as catalysts and catalyst supports, and the like.

  2. Inorganic nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in the water column of the patuxent river. Final technical report, 1 July 1989-31 December 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Capone, D.G.; Miller, V.; Love, J.; Duguay, L.

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    An analysis was made of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) dynamics in the water column of the Patuxent River, Maryland, over a 2 year cycle. Specifically, inorganic N and P assimilation were determined by isotopic tracer methods at 3 stations along the salinity gradient of the river on a monthly basis. The authors determined the concentrations of particulate N and P and the major dissolved species. Among inorganic species, nitrate showed the greatest seasonal variation, particularly at the upstream stations. Nitrate, which increased going upstream, tended to dominate the inorganic N pools. Ammonium, nitrate and phosphate uptake varied over a wide range among and within sites. Values tended to increase moving upstream. Nitrate uptake dominated inorganic N assimilation upstream while ammonium uptake was of greater importance at the most saline station. With respect to indicies of nutrient limitation, except for the summer, dissolved inorganic N was in excess relative to inorganic P, suggestive of P limitation.

  3. Microbial community transcriptomes reveal microbes and metabolic pathways associated with dissolved organic matter turnover in the sea

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McCarren, Jay

    Marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) contains as much carbon as the Earth's atmosphere, and represents a critical component of the global carbon cycle. To better define microbial processes and activities associated with ...

  4. DESCRIPTIVE TEXT SEA WATER INORGANIC CARBON DATABASE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    glass bottle, "Q" a 1 liter vitreous quartz bottle, "S" a 500 ml borosilicate glass bottle with a metal "bail" stopper closure, and "R" a 500 ml borosilicate glass bottle with a Rodaviss stopper closure. Additional one-time prefixes are "H" for 250 ml "HOT" program glass bottles (HAWI cruise, 12-1997), and "N

  5. Group of Microbes Change Dissolved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lovley, Derek

    their energy by breathing in dissolved forms of toxic metals, such as uranium and cadmium, and converting them is found in all water, even seawater, the use of these microbes to harvest gold does not make economic

  6. Aged black carbon identified in marine dissolved organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ziolkowski, Lori A; Druffel, Ellen R.M.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    pool in the northeast Pacific Ocean, Deep Sea Res. , Part I,?445‰ in the deep NE Pacific Ocean (Table S1). The Suwanneein the northeast Pacific Ocean. If the BC in the Amazon

  7. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NA

    2004-11-22T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this modeling activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for 14 elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) important to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log (line integral) CO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for Total System Performance Assessment for the License Application (TSPA-LA) to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for all of the actinides. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so that they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  8. Extracting inorganics from scrap tires

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cummings, R.; Wertz, D.L. [Univ. of Southern Mississippi, Hattiesburg, MS (United States)

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Scrap tires contain several inorganic moieties in abundances >0.5% which are impregnated into their carbonaceous matrix. These inorganic species are known to produce acid rain, toxic aerosols, and boiler scale and could produce unwanted catalytic effects as well. It is our position that the potential of recycling scrap tires would be considerably enhanced if the inorganics in question - S, Ca, and Zn - were removed prior to attempts to upgrade the carbonaceous matrix. Using non-mechanical methods, we are attempting to cleave the adherence between the co-polymer matrix and to extract the inorganics. The efficiency of our methods is being measured by wavelength dispersive x-ray spectrometry and by other methods.

  9. Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Large-scale synthesis of inorganic and organic nanomaterials (single-crystalline nanowires and functionalized conducting polymer thin films) together with strategies for large-scale assembly are discussed

  10. Carbon dioxide fixation by Metallosphaera yellowstonensis and acidothermophilic iron-oxidizing microbial communities from Yellowstone National Park

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jennings, Ryan; Whitmore, Laura M.; Moran, James J.; Kreuzer, Helen W.; Inskeep, William P.

    2014-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The fixation of inorganic carbon (as carbon dioxide) has been documented in all three domains of life and results in the biosynthesis of a diverse suite of organic compounds that support the growth of heterotrophic organisms. The primary aim of this study was to assess the importance of carbon dioxide fixation in high-temperature Fe(III)-oxide mat communities and in pure cultures of one of the dominant Fe(II)-oxidizing organisms (Metallosphaera yellowstonensis strain MK1) present in situ. Protein-encoding genes of the complete 3-hydroxypropionate/4-hydroxybutyrate (3-HP/4-HB) carbon fixation pathway were identified in pure-cultures of M. yellowstonensis strain MK1. Metagenome sequencing from the same environments also revealed genes for the 3-HP/4-HB pathway belonging to M. yellowstonensis populations, as well as genes for a complete reductive TCA cycle from Hydrogenobaculum spp. (Aquificales). Stable isotope (13CO2) labeling was used to measure the fixation of CO2 by M. yellowstonensis strain MK1, and in ex situ assays containing live Fe(III)-oxide microbial mats. Results showed that M. yellowstonensis strain MK1 fixes CO2 via the 3-HP/4-HB pathway with a fractionation factor of ~ 2.5 ‰. Direct analysis of the 13C composition of dissolved inorganic C (DIC), dissolved organic C (DOC), landscape C and microbial mat C showed that mat C is comprised of both DIC and non-DIC sources. The estimated contribution of DIC carbon to biomass C (> ~ 35%) is reasonably consistent with the relative abundance of known chemolithoautotrophs and corresponding CO2 fixation pathways detected in metagenome sequence. The significance of DIC as a major source of carbon for Fe-oxide mat communities provides a foundation for examining microbial interactions in these systems that are dependent on the activity of autotrophic organisms such as Hydrogenobaculum and Metallosphaera spp.

  11. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  12. High yield production of inorganic graphene-like materials (MoS?, WS?, BN) through liquid exfoliation testing key parameters

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pu, Fei, S.B. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic graphene-like materials such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS?), tungsten sulfide (WS?), and boron nitride (BN) are known to have electronic properties. When exfoliated into layers and casted onto carbon nanofilms, ...

  13. 3D Fluorescence analysis of dissolved organic carbon in Tempe Town Lake Hilairy E.Hartnett1,2, Jesse Coe1, Zachary Smith1, Margaret Bowman2, Marissa Raleigh3, Andrew Chesley2, Gordana Pavlovic2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    water management (dam releases). Fluorescence spectroscopy using excitation-emission matrices (EEM's) provides information about the chemical character of the organic carbon compounds lake water. EEM techniques (e.g., SUVA254). We present EEM's from Tempe Town Lake samples collected from June 2011 to Dec

  14. Utilization of DNA as a Sole Source of Phosphorus, Carbon, and Energy by Shewanella spp.: Ecological and Physiological Implications for Dissimilatory Metal Reduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Ammons, Christine G.; Culley, David E.; Li, Shu-Mei; McLean, Jeffrey S.; Romine, Margaret F.; Nealson, Kenneth H.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2008-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

    As a constituent of dissolved organic matter, DNA may be consumed by microorganisms inhabiting various freshwater and marine environments. In this study, we demonstrate that dissolved extracellular DNA can serve as a sole source of carbon, energy, nitrogen, and phosphorus for microorganisms residing in the upper layer of Columbia River (WA, USA) water column as well as a sole source of phosphorus for the dissimilatory metal-reducing bacteria Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 and Geobacter sulfurreducens and for Bacillus subtilis ATCC 49760. Our results suggest that DNA assimilation by S. oneidensis is linked to the activity of Ca2+-dependent nuclease(s) and extracellular phosphatase(s). The ability to use DNA as the sole source of phosphorus may be of particular ecological advantage for microorganisms living under Fe(III)-reducing conditions where bioavailability of inorganic phosphate may be limited by the formation of vivianite [Fe3(PO4)2•8H20].

  15. Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2011)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    1 Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2011) Instructor: Assistant Professor Mathew M. Maye Chemistry", 5th Edition, Freeman Press. Available at SU bookstore. The solution manual is optional. (Suggested for CHE611 Students pursuing Inorganic) Huheey, "Inorganic Chemistry: Principles of Structure

  16. Freshwater and Saline Loads of Dissolved Inorganic Nitrogen to Hood Canal and Lynch Cove, Washington

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of Lynch Cove on Highway 106 just east of Twanoh State Park. (Photograph taken by F. William Simonds, U. Patrick Leahy, Acting Director U.S. Geological Survey, Reston, Virginia: 2006 For sale by U.S. Geological citation: Paulson, A.J.,Konrad, C.P., Frans, L.M., Noble, M., Kendall, C., Josberger, E.G., Huffman, R

  17. Photolytic processing of secondary organic aerosols dissolved...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    processing of secondary organic aerosols dissolved in cloud droplets. Abstract: The effect of UV irradiation on the molecular composition of aqueous extracts of secondary...

  18. Oceanography June 200450 Colored Dissolved Organic

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oregon, University of

    . Sunlight striking the ocean surface penetrates into the water column and interacts with the dissolvedOceanography June 200450 Colored Dissolved Organic in the Coastal Ocean A N O P T I C A L TO O L F usage that all three words are individu- ally synonymous for "ocean." Poems, song titles, and movies

  19. Inorganic Nanocrystal Bulk Heterojunctions - Energy Innovation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Photovoltaic Solar Photovoltaic Find More Like This Return to Search Inorganic Nanocrystal Bulk Heterojunctions Brookhaven National Laboratory Contact BNL About This...

  20. Chemically stabilized ionomers containing inorganic fillers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roelofs, Mark Gerrit

    2013-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Ionomeric polymers that are chemically stabilized and contain inorganic fillers are prepared, and show reduced degradation. The ionomers care useful in membranes and electrochemical cells.

  1. Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Karsten Meyer Chair of Inorganic and General Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Meyer, Karsten

    Prof. Dr. rer. nat. Karsten Meyer Chair of Inorganic and General Chemistry Department of Chemistry chemistry in the Meyer laboratory bridges the field of classical coordination chemistry with fields, and K. Meyer Carbon Dioxide Activation with Sterically Pressured Mid- and High-Valent Uranium Complexes

  2. Thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membrane materials. Topical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krishnan, G.N.; Sanjurjo, A.; Wood, B.J.; Lau, K.H.

    1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This report describes the results of a literature review to evaluate the long-term thermal and chemical degradation of inorganic membranes that are being developed to separate gaseous products produced by the gasification or combustion of coal in fixed-, fluidized-, and entrained-bed gasifiers, direct coal-fired turbines, and pressurized-fluidized-bed combustors. Several impurities, such as H{sub 2}S, NH{sub 3}, SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x}, and trace metal compounds are generated during coal conversion, and they must be removed from the coal gas or the combustor flue gas to meet environmental standards. The use of membranes to separate these noxious gases is an attractive alternative to their removal by sorbents such as zinc titanate or calcium oxide. Inorganic membranes that have a high separation efficiency and exhibit both thermal and chemical stability would improve the economics of power generation from coal. The U.S. Department of Energy is supporting investigations to develop inorganic membranes for separating hydrogen from coal gas streams and noxious impurities from hot coal- and flue-gas streams. Membrane materials that have been investigated in the past include glass (silica), alumina, zirconia, carbon, and metals (Pd and Pt).

  3. 2007 Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms Gordon Research Conference-February 18-23

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Andreja Bakac

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This conference focuses on kinetic, mechanistic, and thermodynamic studies of reactions that play a role in fields as diverse as catalysis, energy, bioinorganic chemistry, green chemistry, organometallics, and activation of small molecules (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, alkanes). Participants from universities, industry, and national laboratories present results and engage in discussions of pathways, intermediates, and outcome of various reactions of inorganic, organic, coordination, organometallic, and biological species. This knowledge is essential for rational development and design of novel reactions, compounds, and catalysts.

  4. PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) Database: A Data Synthesis Resource (NDP-92, ORNL/CDIAC-159)

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Suzuki, T.; Ishii, M.; Aoyama, M. R; Christian, J. R.; Enyo, K.; Kawano, T.; Key, R. M.; Kosugi, N.; Kozyr, A.; Miller, L. A.; Murata, A.; Nakano, T.; Ono, T.; Saino, T.; Sasaki, K.; Sasano, D; Takatani, Y.; Wakita, M.; Sabine, C.

    PACIFICA (PACIFic ocean Interior CArbon) was an international collaborative project for synthesis of data on ocean interior carbon and its related parameters in the Pacific Ocean. The North Pacific Marine Science Organization (PICES), Section on Carbon and Climate (S-CC) supported the project. Hydrographic/hydrochemical datasets have been merged from a total of 272 cruises, including those from cruises conducted between the late 1980s and 2000 but not included in GLODAP, as well as CLIVAR/CO2 Repeat Hydrography datasets from the 2000s. Adjustments were calculated to account for analytical offsets in dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, salinity, oxygen, and nutrients (nitrate and nitrite, phosphate, and silicic acid) for each cruise as a result of the secondary quality control procedure, based on crossover analysis using data from deep layers (Tanhua et al., 2010). A total of 59 adjusted datasets from Line P off the west coast of Canada were also merged. Finally, the authors have produced the adjusted PACIFICA database that consists of datasets from a total of 306 cruises that also includes 34 datasets from WOCE Hydrographic Program cruises in the Pacific Ocean conducted in the 1990s. The PACIFICA database is available free of charge as a numeric data package (NDP-92) from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) and the primary PACIFICA data site at pacifica.pices.jp. The NDP consists of the original cruise data files, adjusted data product, and the documentation.

  5. Deep-SeaResearch, 1974,Vol.21,pp. 481 to 488.PergamonPress.Printed in Great Britain. Dissolved hydrocarbons in the eastern Gulf of Mexico Loop Current

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Iliffe, Thomas M.

    hydrocarbons in the eastern Gulf of Mexico Loop Current and the Caribbean Sea THOMASM. ILIFFE*and JOHNA. CALDER---Concentrations of dissolved non-polar hydrocarbons extracted from waters taken at several stations and depths in the Gulf THEREhave been few studies of the dissolved hydrocarbons in seawater. BLU~R (1970) reported carbon numbers

  6. Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2010)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    -ligand reactivity, and the chemical synthesis of coordination compounds and other "solid" state materials 1 Chemistry 411/611 Inorganic Chemistry (2010) Instructor: Assistant Professor Mathew M. Maye: M-W 4:00-5:00, and by appointment Credits: 3 Text: (Required) Shriver & Atkins, "Inorganic Chemistry

  7. Inorganic Nanotubes: A Novel Platform for Nanofluidics

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong

    Inorganic Nanotubes: A Novel Platform for Nanofluidics JOSHUA GOLDBERGER, RONG FAN, AND PEIDONG are being developed for the synthesis of inorganic nanotubes, a novel platform for nanofluidics. Single modulation of ionic conductance. These nanofluidic devices have been further dem- onstrated to be useful

  8. Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species. Molecular Structure and Stability of Dissolved Lithium Polysulfide Species. Abstract: Ability to predict the solubility and...

  9. Dissolved aluminum in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Myre, Peggy Lynne

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    in areas of minimum sediment resuspension. With limited data available it appears that the boundary of the sediment/water interface does release dissolved Al, but kinetically Al should decrease with depth in the sediment during authigenesis. The Al... DISSOLVED ALUMINUM IN THE GULF OF MEXICO A Thesis by PEGGY LYNNE MYRE Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A6M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE August 1990 Majo...

  10. Dynamics of carbon concentrating mechanism induction and protein re-localisation during the dark to light transition in synchronised Chlamydomonas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    MItchell, Madeline C.; Meyer, Moritz T.; Griffiths, Howard

    2014-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    In the model green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a carbon concentrating mechanism (CCM) is induced under low CO2 in the light and comprises: active inorganic carbon transport components, carbonic anhydrases and aggregation of Rubisco...

  11. RESEARCH ARTICLE Carbon quantity defines productivity while its quality defines

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Vincent, Warwick F.

    RESEARCH ARTICLE Carbon quantity defines productivity while its quality defines community that dissolved organic carbon (DOC) quantity and quality differently influence bacterioplankton. The ponds were production, abundance, biomass were highest in mid-summer and correlated positively with the concentration

  12. Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    examined Inorganic chemistry can provide insight and improve technical issues surrounding nuclear power production and waste disposition. July 31, 2013 Aspects of inorganic...

  13. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    & Publications Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format, Li-ion Batteries...

  14. NSF/DOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics NSFDOE Thermoelectric Partnership: Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics 2011 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program, and Vehicle...

  15. acids inorganic: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    for inorganic synthesis MIT - DSpace Summary: Thin film nanocomposites consisting of inorganic matter embedded within a soft polymeric matrix on the nanometer length scale are an...

  16. active inorganic phosphate: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as nanostructured templates for inorganic synthesis MIT - DSpace Summary: Thin film nanocomposites consisting of inorganic matter embedded within a soft polymeric matrix...

  17. All-Boron Aromatic Clusters as Potential New Inorganic Ligands...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Boron Aromatic Clusters as Potential New Inorganic Ligands and Building Blocks in Chemistry. All-Boron Aromatic Clusters as Potential New Inorganic Ligands and Building Blocks in...

  18. Nanomaterials: Organic and Inorganic for Next-Generation Diesel...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nanomaterials: Organic and Inorganic for Next-Generation Diesel Technologies Nanomaterials: Organic and Inorganic for Next-Generation Diesel Technologies 2007 Diesel...

  19. Photochemical reactivity of ancient marine dissolved organic carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaupré, Steven R; Druffel, Ellen R. M

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    14 C DOC o ţ mt ţ b Non-linear regression demonstrated goodC value determined by non-linear regression (D 14 C DOC,o =curve is the non-linear least-squares regression of both

  20. Dissolved Organic Carbon Concentrations and Compositions, and Trihalomethane Formation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    in Waters from Agricultural Peat Soils, Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California: Implications for Drinking SURVEY Water-Resources Investigations Report 98­4147 Prepared in cooperation with the California Department of Water Resources 6217-37 Sacramento, California 1998 #12;U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR BRUCE

  1. Synthesis of a Cationic Inorganic Layered Material for Trapping Anionic Pharmaceutical Pollutants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sergo, Kevin Michael

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    CRUZ SYNTHESIS OF A CATIONIC INORGANIC LAYERED MATERIAL FORAbstract Synthesis of a Cationic Inorganic Layered Material

  2. Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

  3. February 11, 1987 I Inorganic Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Girolami, Gregory S.

    Volume 26 Number 3 February 11, 1987 I Inorganic Chemistry 0 Copyright 1987 by the American uranium phthalocyanine derivatives have been crystallographically (I) (a) Kasuga, K.; Tsutsui, M. Coord

  4. tributed by bicarbonate (HCO3 ) and carbon-

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kalas, Paul G.

    - tinental margin "biogeochemical reactor." Sea- level change also affected carbon sequestration through such as phosphorous may have caused a glacial-interglacial redistri- bution of carbon sequestration between the margin1982 tributed by bicarbonate (HCO3 ­) and carbon- ate (CO3 2­) ions, the main forms of dissolved

  5. Analytical and characterization studies of organic and inorganic species in brown coal

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    G. Domazetis; M. Raoarun; B.D. James; J. Liesegang; P.; J. Pigram; N. Brack [La Trobe University, Vic. (Australia). Department of Chemistry

    2006-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Detailed studies have been carried out on the distribution of organic functional groups and inorganic species in as-received (ar) and acid-washed (aw) brown coals using elemental analysis, energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDX), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and Time-of-flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS). Surface concentrations of the various carbon groups, organic oxygen, and inorganic hydroxide were obtained using XPS, but oxygen from clay and quartz, if present, interfered with organic oxygen determinations for the coals. A comparison of ar and aw coals using XPS and SEM-EDX is provided in terms of inorganic and organic sulfur groups. Chloride in these coals is present mainly as acid extractable forms, but small amounts of chloride in the organic matrix were indicated by the elemental analysis of ultra low-ash coals. TOF-SIMS fragments from brown coals were indicative of polymers consisting mainly of single aromatic groups linked by hydrocarbons with carboxyl and phenol functional groups. Sulfur fragments were from inorganic sulfur, thiols, organo-sulfates, and S-N-organic species. Numerous fragments containing organically bound chloride were observed. Fragments of the inorganic species Na, Mg, Al, Si, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni, Cu, and Ga were also observed. Environmentally undesirable species, particularly from organo-sulfur and organo-chloride groups in brown coal, are likely to emerge from processes that heat coal-water mixture. 54 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  6. Inorganic water chemistry 71 Chapter 4 -Inorganic Water Chemistry of the Boulder Creek

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inorganic water chemistry 71 Chapter 4 - Inorganic Water Chemistry of the Boulder Creek Watershed Creek Watershed, Colorado were determined on a suite of water samples collected during high and low flow sixteen stream sites, twelve tributaries/inflows, and Saint Vrain Creek. The most upstream site was above

  7. Inorganic Phosphorus Uptake in a Carbonate-dominated Seagrass Ecosystem

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Koch-Rose, Marguerite

    of Biological Sciences, Florida Atlantic University, 777 Glades Road, Boca Raton, Florida 33431 2 South Florida un- derstood. While Pi uptake has been examined on coral reef flats (Atkinson 1987; Bilger

  8. Discovery of a natural CO2 seep in the German North Sea: Implications for shallow dissolved gas and seep detection

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wehrli, Bernhard

    2010; published 5 March 2011. [1] A natural carbon dioxide (CO2) seep was discovered during conditions of CO2 bubble and plume seepage and potential flux paths to the atmosphere. Shallow bubble release will be difficult to detect as bubbles dissolve very rapidly (within meters). Bubbleplume modeling further shows

  9. Polymer/inorganic superhydrophobic surfaces.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Collord, Andrew; Kissel, David J.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Apblett, Christopher Alan; Branson, Eric D.

    2009-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    We have designed and built electrostatically actuated microvalves compatible with integration into a PDMS based microfluidic system. The key innovation for electrostatic actuation was the incorporation of carbon nanotubes into the PDMS valve membrane, allowing for electrostatic charging of the PDMS layer and subsequent discharging, while still allowing for significant distention of the valveseat for low voltage control of the system. Nanoparticles were applied to semi-cured PDMS using a stamp transfer method, and then cured fully to make the valve seats. DC actuation in air of these valves yielded operational voltages as low as 15V, by using a supporting structure above the valve seat that allowed sufficient restoring forces to be applied while not enhancing actuation forces to raise the valve actuation potential. Both actuate to open and actuate to close valves have been demonstrated, and integrated into a microfluidic platform, and demonstrated fluidic control using electrostatic valves.

  10. Crystallization and functionality of inorganic materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xue, Dongfeng, E-mail: dongfeng@ciac.jl.cn [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Li, Keyan [School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Liu, Jun [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, 411105 (China)] [Key Laboratory of Low Dimensional Materials and Application Technology, Ministry of Education, Faculty of Materials, Optoelectronics and Physics, Xiangtan University, 411105 (China); Sun, Congting; Chen, Kunfeng [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China) [State Key Laboratory of Rare Earth Resource Utilization, Changchun Institute of Applied Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Changchun 130022 (China); School of Chemical Engineering, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    In this article, we briefly summarized our recent work on the studies of crystallization and functionality of inorganic materials. On the basis of the chemical bonding theory of single crystal growth, we can quantitatively simulate Cu{sub 2}O crystallization processes in solution system. We also kinetically controlled Cu{sub 2}O crystallization process in the reduction solution route. Lithium ion battery and supercapacitor performances of some oxides such as Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} and MnO{sub 2} were shown to elucidate the important effect of crystallization on functionality of inorganic materials. This work encourages us to create novel functionalities through the study of crystallization of inorganic materials, which warrants more chances in the field of functional materials.

  11. Drake passage and central american seaway controls on the distribution of the oceanic carbon reservoir

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Fyke, Jeremy G.; D'Orgeville, Marc; Weaver, Andrew J.

    2015-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A coupled carbon/climate model is used to explore the impact of Drake Passage opening and Central American Seaway closure on the distribution of carbon in the global oceans. We find that gateway evolution likely played an important role in setting the modern day distribution of oceanic dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), which is currently characterized by relatively low concentrations in the Atlantic ocean, and high concentrations in the Southern, Indian, and Pacific oceans. In agreement with previous studies, we find a closed Drake Passage in the presence of an open Central American Seaway results in suppressed Atlantic meridional overturning and enhancedmore »southern hemispheric deep convection. Opening of the Drake Passage triggers Antarctic Circumpolar Current flow and a weak Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Subsequent Central American Seaway closure reinforces the AMOC while also stagnating equatorial Pacific subsurface waters. These gateway-derived oceanographic changes are reflected in large shifts to the global distribution of DIC. An initially closed Drake Passage results in high DIC concentrations in the Atlantic and Arctic oceans, and lower DIC concentrations in the Pacific/Indian/Southern oceans. Opening Drake Passage reverses this gradient by lowering mid-depth Atlantic and Arctic DIC concentrations and raising deep Pacific/Indian/Southern Ocean DIC concentrations. Central American Seaway closure further reinforces this trend through additional Atlantic mid-depth DIC decreases, as well as Pacific mid-depth DIC concentration increases, with the net effect being a transition to a modern distribution of oceanic DIC.« less

  12. Continuous air agglomeration method for high carbon fly ash beneficiation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gray, McMahon L. (Pittsburgh, PA); Champagne, Kenneth J. (Monongahela, PA); Finseth, Dennis H. (Pittsburgh, PA)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The carbon and mineral components of fly ash are effectively separated by a continuous air agglomeration method, resulting in a substantially carboree mineral stream and a highly concentrated carbon product. The method involves mixing the fly ash comprised of carbon and inorganic mineral matter with a liquid hydrocarbon to form a slurry, contacting the slurry with an aqueous solution, dispersing the hydrocarbon slurry into small droplets within the aqueous solution by mechanical mixing and/or aeration, concentrating the inorganic mineral matter in the aqueous solution, agglomerating the carbon and hydrocarbon in the form of droplets, collecting the droplets, separating the hydrocarbon from the concentrated carbon product, and recycling the hydrocarbon.

  13. IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wells, Scott A.

    1 IMPROVEMENTS IN MODELLING DISSOLVED OXYGEN IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE SYSTEMS Jacek Makinia*, Scott A in a full-scale activated sludge reactor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 was used to describe for dissolved oxygen. KEYWORDS Activated sludge; dispersion; dissolved oxygen dynamics; mass transfer

  14. Spin Contamination in Inorganic Chemistry Calculations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schlegel, H. Bernhard

    R EVISED PAG E PR O O FS ia617 Spin Contamination in Inorganic Chemistry Calculations Jason L . In such cases, 0 is said to be spin contaminated owing to incorporation of higher spin state character of Iron­Sulfur ia618 Clusters). It is important to note that while spin-contaminated and broken

  15. Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jochem, Frank J.

    Lab 3: Inorganic Plant Nutrients: Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Silicate Introduction Compounds of nitrogen. Silicate can play a regulating role in the growth of such organisms that carry shells of silicate. Most important are diatoms, which may form phytoplankton blooms under conditions of sufficient silicate

  16. FACULTY POSITION IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Department of Chemistry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Doyle, Robert

    FACULTY POSITION IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Department of Chemistry Syracuse University The Department of Chemistry at Syracuse University invites applications for a tenure track faculty position at the Assistant Professor level in inorganic chemistry with specialization in materials chemistry (broadly defined

  17. Organic carbon flux at the mangrove soil-water column interface in the Florida Coastal Everglades 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Romigh, Melissa Marie

    2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Coastal outwelling of organic carbon from mangrove wetlands contributes to near-shore productivity and influences biogeochemical cycling of elements. I used a flume to measure fluxes of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) between ...

  18. Multifunctional, Inorganic-Filled Separators for Large Format...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    microscopy Rhodia - Inorganic fillers ENTEK Manufacturing Inc -Equipment and materials processing Project objectives Selection of electrochemically stable,...

  19. The marine geochemistry of dissolved gallium: A comparison with dissolved aluminum

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Orians, K.J.; Bruland, K.W. (Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (USA))

    1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissolved Ga concentrations in the pacific Ocean range from 2 to 30 picomolar: they are low in surface waters (2-12 pM), with a subsurface maximum at 150-300 m (6-17 pM), a mid-depth minimum from 500 to 1,000 m (4-10 pM) and increasing values with depth to a maximum in the bottom waters (12-30 pM). The highest concentrations are in the central gyre, with lower values toward the north and east where productivity and particle scavenging increase. Dissolved Ga concentrations in the surface waters of the northwest Atlantic are nearly an order of magnitude higher than in the central North pacific, with higher values in the Gulf Stream than in the continental slope boundary region. The vertical distributions and horizontal transects indicate three sources of dissolved Ga to the oceans. The surface distribution reflects an eolian source with no net fluvial input to the open ocean; the subsurface maximum (a feature not seen for North Pacific dissolved Al) is attributed to vertical exchange processes; the source for the deep waters of the North Pacific is from a sediment surface remineralization process or a pore water flux. Scavenging removal throughout the water column is evident in the vertical profiles for both dissolved Ga and Al, with intensified removal in the boundary regions where productivity and particle scavenging are at a maximum. Residence times of dissolved Ga in surface waters are nearly an order of magnitude longer than the corresponding values for Al.

  20. Toward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers and Inorganic Nanocrystals in Close

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    , China ABSTRACT: Organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells composed of conjugated polymers (CPs) and inorganicToward High-Performance Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Solar Cells: Bringing Conjugated Polymers to traditional silicon solar cells due to the capacity of producing high- efficiency solar energy in a cost

  1. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karraker, David G. (1600 Sherwood Pl., SE., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  2. actual icpp dissolved: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    on the graphite surface, probably caused by adsorption of nitrogen molecules dissolved in water. The subsequent adsorption process resembles the layer-plus-island, or...

  3. Variations in dissolved gas compositions of reservoir fluids...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    from the Coso geothermal field Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Conference Proceedings: Variations in dissolved gas compositions of reservoir...

  4. Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composites While there are limitless

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harmon, Julie P.

    Carbon Nanotube Polymer Composites Figure1 Figure2 While there are limitless applications industry. Initially, we focused on optically transparent single wall nanotoube (SWNT) polymer composites (2 to produce poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanotube composites. When these composites are dissolved

  5. The Effect of Heterogeneity on Matrix Acidizing of Carbonate Rocks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Keys, Ryan S.

    2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

    pressure. A hydrochloric acid solution is used in carbonate reservoirs, which actually dissolves the calcite rock matrix in the form of conductive channels called wormholes. These wormholes propagate from the wellbore out into the reservoir, bypassing...

  6. Method of making carbon nanotube composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Bryan, Gregory; Skinner, Jack L; Vance, Andrew; Yang, Elaine Lai; Zifer, Thomas

    2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention is a method of making a composite polymeric material by dissolving a vinyl thermoplastic polymer, un-functionalized carbon nanotubes and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes and optionally additives in a solvent to make a solution and removing at least a portion of the solvent after casting onto a substrate to make thin films. The material has enhanced conductivity properties due to the blending of the un-functionalized and hydroxylated carbon nanotubes.

  7. Adaptive Management Team Total Dissolved Gas in the

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adaptive Management Team Total Dissolved Gas in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Evaluation of the 115 Percent Total Dissolved Gas Forebay Requirement Washington State Department of Ecology and State of Oregon Department of Environmental Quality Final January 2009 Publication no. 09-10-002 #12;Publication and Contact

  8. Reactions of inorganic nitrogen species in supercritical water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dell`Orco, P.C. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)] [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States)

    1994-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Redox reactions of nitrate salts with NH3 and methanol were studied in near-critical and supercritical water at 350 to 530 C and constant pressure of 302 bar. Sodium nitrate decomposition reactions were investigated at similar conditions. Reactions were conducted in isothermal tubular reactor under plug flow. For kinetic modeling, nitrate and nitrite reactants were lumped into an NO{sub x}{sup -} reactant; kinetic expressions were developed for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X and sodium nitrate decomposition reactions. The proposed elementary reaction mechanism for MNO{sub 3}/NH{sub 4}X reaction indicated that NO{sub 2} was the primary oxidizing species and that N{sub 2}/N{sub 2}O selectivities could be determined by the form of MNO{sub 3} used. This suggest a nitrogen control strategy for use in SCWO (supercritical water oxidation) processes; nitrate or NH3 could be used to remove the other, at reaction conditions far less severe than required by other methods. Reactions of nitrate with methanol indicated that nitrate was a better oxidant than oxygen in supercritical water. Nitrogen reaction products included NH3 and nitrite, while inorganic carbon was the major carbon reaction product. Analysis of excess experiments indicated that the reaction at 475 C was first order in methanol concentration and second order in NO{sub x}{sup -} concentration. In order to determine phase regimes for these reactions, solubility of sodium nitrate was determined for some 1:1 nitrate electrolytes. Solubilities were measured at 450 to 525 C, from 248 to 302 bar. A semi-empirical solvation model was shown to adequately describe the experimental sodium nitrate solubilities. Solubilities of Li, Na, and K nitrates revealed with cations with smaller ionic radii had greater solubilities with nitrate.

  9. SciTech Connect: Metal-Organic Framework Templated Inorganic...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Metal-Organic Framework Templated Inorganic Sorbents for Rapid and Efficient Extraction of Heavy Metals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Metal-Organic Framework Templated...

  10. applied inorganic chemistry: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Bus.Admin.Public Admin. Chemical Engineering Chem. Eng.Comp. Sci. Chemistry Civil Engineering Heller, Barbara 6 Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined...

  11. aluminosilicate inorganic polymers: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Efficiency in ZnO Nanowirep-Polymer Hybridized InorganicOrganic Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by Piezo- Materials Science Websites Summary: of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia...

  12. Cold Dissolved Saltcake Waste Simulant Development, Preparation, and Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rassat, Scot D.; Mahoney, Lenna A.; Russell, Renee L.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Sell, Rachel L.

    2003-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    CH2M HILL Hanford Group, Inc. is identifying and developing supplemental process technologies to accelerate the Hanford tank waste cleanup mission. Bulk vitrification, containerized grout, and steam reforming are three technologies under consideration for treatment of the radioactive saltcake wastes in 68 single-shell tanks. To support development and testing of these technologies, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) was tasked with developing a cold dissolved saltcake simulant formulation to be representative of an actual saltcake waste stream, preparing 25- and 100-L batches of the simulant, and analyzing the composition of the batches to ensure conformance to formulation targets. Lacking a defined composition for dissolved actual saltcake waste, PNNL used available tank waste composition information and an equilibrium chemistry model (Environmental Simulation Program [ESP{trademark}]) to predict the concentrations of analytes in solution. Observations of insoluble solids in initial laboratory preparations for the model-predicted formulation prompted reductions in the concentration of phosphate and silicon in the final simulant formulation. The analytical results for the 25- and 100-L simulant batches, prepared by an outside vendor to PNNL specifications, agree within the expected measurement accuracy ({approx}10%) of the target concentrations and are highly consistent for replicate measurements, with a few minor exceptions. In parallel with the production of the 2nd simulant batch (100-L), a 1-L laboratory control sample of the same formulation was carefully prepared at PNNL to serve as an analytical standard. The instrumental analyses indicate that the vendor prepared batches of solution adequately reflect the as-formulated simulant composition. In parallel with the simulant development effort, a nominal 5-M (molar) sodium actual waste solution was prepared at the Hanford Site from a limited number of tank waste samples. Because this actual waste solution w as also to be used for testing the supplemental treatment technologies, the modeled simulant formulation was predicated on the composite of waste samples used to prepare it. Subsequently, the actual waste solution was filtered and pretreated to remove radioactive cesium at PNNL and then analyzed using the same instrumentation and procedures applied to the simulant samples. The overall agreement of measured simulant and actual waste solution compositions is better than {+-}10% for the most concentrated species including sodium, nitrate, hydroxide, carbonate, and nitrite. While the magnitude of the relative difference in the simulant and actual waste composition is large (>20% difference) for a few analytes (aluminum, chromium, fluoride, potassium, and total organic carbon), the absolute differences in concentration are in general not appreciable. Our evaluation is that these differences in simulant and actual waste solutions should have a negligible impact on bulk vitrification and containerized grout process testing, while the impact of the low aluminum concentration on steam reforming is yet to be determined.

  13. Preparation and screening of crystalline inorganic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Danville, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Brice{hacek over (n)}o, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xiao-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

    2008-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  14. Combinatorial synthesis of inorganic or composite materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goldwasser, Isy (Palo Alto, CA); Ross, Debra A. (Mountain Ranch, CA); Schultz, Peter G. (La Jolla, CA); Xiang, Xiao-Dong (Danville, CA); Briceno, Gabriel (Baldwin Park, CA); Sun, Xian-Dong (Fremont, CA); Wang, Kai-An (Cupertino, CA)

    2010-08-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials or, alternatively, allowing the components to interact to form at least two different materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, nonbiological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  15. Combinatorial screening of inorganic and organometallic materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G. (Oakland, CA); Xiang, Xiaodong (Alameda, CA); Goldwasser, Isy (Alameda, CA)

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  16. Selective Recovery of Enriched Uranium from Inorganic Wastes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kimura, R. T.

    2003-02-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Uranium as U(IV) and U(VI) can be selectively recovered from liquids and sludge containing metal precipitates, inorganic salts, sand and silt fines, debris, other contaminants, and slimes, which are very difficult to de-water. Chemical processes such as fuel manufacturing and uranium mining generate enriched and natural uranium-bearing wastes. This patented Framatome ANP (FANP) uranium recovery process reduces uranium losses, significantly offsets waste disposal costs, produces a solid waste that meets mixed-waste disposal requirements, and does not generate metal-contaminated liquids. At the head end of the process is a floating dredge that retrieves liquids, sludge, and slimes in the form of a slurry directly from the floor of a lined surface impoundment (lagoon). The slurry is transferred to and mixed in a feed tank with a turbine mixer and re-circulated to further break down the particles and enhance dissolution of uranium. This process uses direct steam injection and sodium hypochlorite addition to oxidize and dissolves any U(IV). Cellulose is added as a non-reactive filter aid to help filter slimes by giving body to the slurry. The slurry is pumped into a large recessed-chamber filter press then de-watered by a pressure cycle-controlled double-diaphragm pump. U(VI) captured in the filtrate from this process is then precipitated by conversion to U(IV) in another Framatome ANP-patented process which uses a strong reducing agent to crystallize and settle the U(IV) product. The product is then dewatered in a small filter press. To-date, over 3,000 Kgs of U at 3% U-235 enrichment were recovered from a 8100 m2 hypalon-lined surface impoundment which contained about 10,220 m3 of liquids and about 757 m3 of sludge. A total of 2,175 drums (0.208 m3 or 55 gallon each) of solid mixed-wastes have been packaged, shipped, and disposed. In addition, 9463 m3 of low-U liquids at <0.001 KgU/m3 were also further processed and disposed.

  17. 277Journal of Paleolimnology 24: 277291, 2000. 2000 Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gruber, Nicolas

    , conductivity, dissolved oxygen and dissolved inorganic carbon from Soppensee (District of Lucerne, Switzerland and their link to the sediment record in Soppensee, a small lake located 20 km northwest of Lucerne

  18. On dissolved phosphorus in the Gulf of Mexico

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wright, David John

    1970-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ON DISSOLVED PHOSPI;GRUS IN TiK GUL OP l'MEXICO A Thesis by DAVID JOHN HRIGHT Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas AMi University ln part. 'al fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of NAST1, R OP SCIENCE Nay i/70 :iajor Subject...: Oceanography ON DISSOLVED PHOSPHOHUS IN THE GULF OF I~1~XICO A Tbesls by DAVID JOHN liRIGHT Approved as to style and content by: l && ~ ~Ohs ' ~f'". . r ead of epact tmen rN 1 tv&ay 1970 ABSTRACT On Dissolved Phosphorus 1n the Gulf of Nexico. (Nay...

  19. CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rollins, Andrew M.

    materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon Composites(T300 & SWB): Crush Resistance, Bend StrengthCARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite · C-C supplied in two forms · T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine

  20. Carbon Dynamics in Aquatic Ecosystems in Response to Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Altered Nutrients Availability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Song, Chao

    2011-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Aquatic ecosystems will experience altered inorganic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous availability in the future due to elevated atmospheric CO2, stronger stratification and anthropogenic activities. Despite its importance in modulating global...

  1. Microbial production and consumption of marine dissolved organic matter

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Becker, Jamie William

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Marine phytoplankton are the principal producers of oceanic dissolved organic matter (DOM), the organic substrate responsible for secondary production by heterotrophic microbes in the sea. Despite the importance of DOM in ...

  2. Constraining oceanic dust deposition using surface ocean dissolved Al

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Han, Qin; Moore, J. Keith; Zender, Charles; Measures, Chris; Hydes, David

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Lett. , 114, 101 – 111. Bruland, K. W. , and M. C. Lohan (K. J. , and K. W. Bruland (1985), Dissolved aluminium in theK. J. , and K. W. Bruland (1986), The biogeochemistry of

  3. Dissolved gaseous mercury behavior in shallow water estuaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landin, Charles Melchor

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The formation of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) can be an important pathway for mercury removal from an aquatic environment. DGM evasional fluxes from an aquatic system can account for up to 95% of atmospheric Hg and its deposition pathways. While...

  4. The marine biogeochemistry of dissolved and colloidal iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica Nicole

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Iron is a redox active trace metal micronutrient essential for primary production and nitrogen acquisition in the open ocean. Dissolved iron (dFe) has extremely low concentrations in marine waters that can drive phytoplankton ...

  5. Searching for Inorganic Substances using the Molecular Formula Search Field The following inorganic compounds can be searched within Reaxys

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Searching for Inorganic Substances using the Molecular Formula Search Field The following inorganic, but the exercise deals with the molecular formula search field. #12;Scenario: Search for Reactions containing on the [+] sign for Substance identification Click on the Molecular formula field. Leave the "is" operator

  6. The Dissolution of Desicooler Residues in H-Canyon Dissolvers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gray, J.H.

    2003-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    A series of dissolution and characterization studies has been performed to determine if FB-Line residues stored in desicooler containers will dissolve using a modified H-Canyon processing flowsheet. Samples of desicooler materials were used to evaluate dissolving characteristics in the low-molar nitric acid solutions used in H-Canyon dissolvers. The selection for the H-Canyon dissolution of desicooler residues was based on their high-enriched uranium content and trace levels of plutonium. Test results showed that almost all of the enriched uranium will dissolve from the desicooler materials after extended boiling in one molar nitric acid solutions. The residue that contained uranium after completion of the extended boiling cycle consisted of brown solids that had agglomerated into large pieces and were floating on top of the dissolver solution. Addition of tenth molar fluoride to a three molar nitric acid solution containing boron did not dissolve remaining uranium from the brown solids. Only after boiling in an eight molar nitric acid-tenth molar fluoride solution without boron did remaining uranium and aluminum dissolve from the brown solids. The amount of uranium associated with brown solids would be approximately 1.4 percent of the total uranium content of the desicooler materials. The brown solids that remain in the First Uranium Cycle feed will accumulate at the organic/aqueous interface during solvent extraction operations. Most of the undissolved white residue that remained after extended boiling was aluminum oxide containing additional trace quantities of impurities. However, the presence of mercury used in H-Canyon dissolvers should complete the dissolution of these aluminum compounds.

  7. Dissolved gaseous mercury behavior in shallow water estuaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Landin, Charles Melchor

    2008-10-10T23:59:59.000Z

    of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) can be an important pathway for mercury removal from an aquatic environment. DGM evasional fluxes from an aquatic system can account for up to 95% of atmospheric Hg and its deposition pathways. While this makes DGM.... Based on information obtained in freshwater systems, one can hypothesize that processes affecting DGM cycling are similar in estuarine systems. The hypothesis that was tested in this research is as follows: Dissolved gaseous mercury concentrations...

  8. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  9. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  10. Organic Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics Organic Molecule Functionalized Zn3P2 Nanowire Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Thermoelectrics Demonstrates...

  11. Novel forms of carbon as potential anodes for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Winans, R.E.; Carrado, K.A.

    1994-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study is to design and synthesize novel carbons as potential electrode materials for lithium rechargeable batteries. A synthetic approach which utilizes inorganic templates is described and initial characterization results are discussed. The templates also act as a catalyst enabling carbon formation at low temperatures. This synthetic approach should make it easier to control the surface and bulk characteristics of these carbons.

  12. Ris-R-1143(EN) Modelling Calcium Carbonate Deposition

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Risř-R-1143(EN) CRACK2 - Modelling Calcium Carbonate Deposition from Bicarbonate Solution in Cracks: The numerical CRACK2 model simulates precipitation of calcite from calcium bi- carbo-nate solution (e is simulated as calcium hydroxide mixed with inert material but with sodium hydroxide dissolved in the pore

  13. Continuous surface ocean measurements of dissolved oxygen isotopes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Rafelski, Lauren Elmegreen

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Figure 6.2: Fossil fuel emissions perof Carbon Dioxide from Fossil Fuels, editors W. P. Elliott,Carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuels: A procedure for

  14. Dissolved Oxygen in Allen CreekDissolved Oxygen in Allen Creek Dissolved oxygen (DO) enters the water by diffusion from air, as a by-product of photosynthesis and

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tyler, Christy

    Dissolved Oxygen in Allen CreekDissolved Oxygen in Allen Creek Dissolved oxygen (DO) enters and rapids. There is an inverse relationship between temperature and DO, i.e. colder water holds more oxygen it supplies oxygen to aquatic organisms. Higher DO levels also give the water a better taste. Figure 2. During

  15. Inorganic Chemistry Solutions to Semiconductor Nanocrystal Problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alvarado, Samuel R. [Ames Laboratory; Guo, Yijun [Ames Laboratory; Ruberu, T. Purnima A. [Ames Laboratory; Tavasoli, Elham [Ames Laboratory; Vela, Javier [Ames Laboratory

    2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The optoelectronic and chemical properties of semiconductor nanocrystals heavily depend on their composition, size, shape and internal structure, surface functionality, etc. Available strategies to alter these properties through traditional colloidal syntheses and ligand exchange methods place a premium on specific reaction conditions and surfactant combinations. In this invited review, we apply a molecular-level understanding of chemical precursor reactivity to reliably control the morphology, composition and intimate architecture (core/shell vs. alloyed) of semiconductor nanocrystals. We also describe our work aimed at achieving highly selective, low-temperature photochemical methods for the synthesis of semiconductor–metal and semiconductor–metal oxide photocatalytic nanocomposites. In addition, we describe our work on surface modification of semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots using new approaches and methods that bypass ligand exchange, retaining the nanocrystal's native ligands and original optical properties, as well as on spectroscopic methods of characterization useful in determining surface ligand organization and chemistry. Using recent examples from our group and collaborators, we demonstrate how these efforts have lead to faster, wider and more systematic application of semiconductor nanocrystal-based materials to biological imaging and tracking, and to photocatalysis of unconventional substrates. We believe techniques and methods borrowed from inorganic chemistry (including coordination, organometallic and solid state chemistry) have much to offer in reaching a better understanding of the synthesis, functionalization and real-life application of such exciting materials as semiconductor nanocrystals (quantum dots, rods, tetrapods, etc.).

  16. Interfacial Coatings for Inorganic Composite Insulation Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hooker, M. W.; Fabian, P. E.; Stewart, M. W.; Grandlienard, S. D.; Kano, K. S. [Composite Technology Development, Inc., Lafayette, CO, 80026 (United States)

    2006-03-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic (ceramic) insulation materials are known to have good radiation resistance and desirable electrical and mechanical properties at cryogenic and elevated temperatures. In addition, ceramic materials can withstand the high-temperature reaction cycle used with Nb3Sn superconductor materials, allowing the insulation to be co-processed with the superconductor in a wind-and-react fabrication process. A critical aspect in the manufacture of ceramic-based insulation systems is the deposition of suitable fiber-coating materials that prevent chemical reaction of the fiber and matrix materials, and thus provide a compliant interface between the fiber and matrix, which minimizes the impact of brittle failure of the ceramic matrix. Ceramic insulation produced with CTD-FI-202 fiber interfaces have been found to exhibit very high shear and compressive strengths. However, this material is costly to produce. Thus, the goal of the present work is to evaluate alternative, lower-cost materials and processes. A variety of oxide and polyimide coatings were evaluated, and one commercially available polyimide coating has been shown to provide some improvement as compared to uncoated and de-sized S2 glass.

  17. Thermal properties of organic and inorganic aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hrubesh, L.W.; Pekala, R.W. (Chemistry and Material Science Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-9900 (United States))

    1994-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Aerogels are open-cell foams that have already been shown to be among the best thermal insulating solid materials known. This paper examines the three major contributions to thermal transport through porous materials; solid, gaseous, and radiative, to identify how to reduce the thermal conductivity of air-filled aerogels. We find that significant improvements in the thermal insulation property of aerogels are possible by; (i) employing materials with a low intrinsic solid conductivity, (ii) reducing the average pore size within aerogels, and (iii) affecting an increase of the infrared extinction in aerogels. Theoretically, polystyrene is the best of the organic materials and zirconia is the best inorganic material to use for the lowest achievable conductivity. Significant reduction of the thermal conductivity for all aerogel varieties is predicted with only a modest decrease of the average pore size. This might be achieved by modifying the sol-gel chemistry leading to aerogels. For example, a thermal resistance value of [ital R]=20 per inch would be possible for an air-filled resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogel at a density of 156 kg/m[sup 3], if the average pore size was less than 35 nm. An equation is included which facilitates the calculation of the optimum density for the minimum total thermal conductivity, for all varieties of aerogels.

  18. Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal Burke Hales,1

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Stephen

    Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin Burke Hales,1 Lee Karp), Oxygen production and carbon sequestration in an upwelling coastal margin, Global Biogeochem. Cycles, 20 of particulate organic carbon (POC) and dissolved O2 during the upwelling season off the Oregon coast. Oxygen

  19. Nanoporous Metal-Inorganic Materials for Storage and Capture...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Vehicles and Fuels Vehicles and Fuels Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Find More Like This Return to Search Nanoporous Metal-Inorganic Materials for Storage and...

  20. anisotropic inorganic materials: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    anisotropic inorganic materials First Page Previous Page 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 Hybrid...

  1. Lithium-based inorganic-organic framework materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yeung, Hamish Hei-Man

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This dissertation describes research into lithium-based inorganic-organic frameworks, which has led to an increased understanding of the structural diversity and properties of these materials. The crystal structures of 11 new forms of lithium...

  2. Polyelectrolyte multilayers as nanostructured templates for inorganic synthesis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Tom Chih-Hung, 1973-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Thin film nanocomposites consisting of inorganic matter embedded within a soft polymeric matrix on the nanometer length scale are an important class of materials with potential application in optoelectronics and photonics, ...

  3. Photocurable Inorganic-Organic Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Yaping

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    -DA) with tunable chemical and physical properties for use as tissue engineering scaffolds. These inorganic-organic hydrogels provide a useful platform to study the effect of scaffold properties on cell behavior in tissue culture. Twenty compositionally unique...

  4. Fabrication of organic and inorganic nanoparticles using electrospray

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deotare, Parag Bhaskar

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A new fabrication process of organic and inorganic nanoparticles and cups by electrospraying blended polymer-sol-gel solutions followed by calcination has been investigated. Because of low viscosity and high surface tension of blended polymersol...

  5. Recycling of cleach plant filtrates by electrodialysis removal of inorganic non-process elements.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsai, S. P.; Pfromm, P.; Henry, M. P.; Fracaro, A. T.; Swanstrom, C. P.; Moon, P.; Energy Systems; Inst. of Paper Science and Tech.

    2000-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water use in the pulp and paper industry is very significant, and the U.S. pulp and paper industries as well as other processing industries are actively pursuing water conservation and pollution prevention by in-process recycling of water. Bleach plant effluent is a large portion of the water discharged from a typical bleached kraft pulp mill. The recycling of bleach plant effluents to the kraft recovery cycle is widely regarded as an approach to low effluent bleached kraft pulp production. The focus of this work has been on developing an electrodialysis process for recycling the acidic bleach plant effluent of bleached Kraft pulp mills. Electrodialysis is uniquely suited as a selective kidney to remove non-process elements (NPEs) from bleach plant effluent before they reach the chemical recovery cycle. Using electrodialysis for selective NPE removal can prevent the problems caused by accumulation of inorganic NPEs in the pulping cycle and recovery boiler. In this work, acidic bleach plant filtrates from three mills using different bleaching sequences based on chlorine dioxide were characterized. The analyses showed no fundamental differences in the inorganic NPE composition or other characteristics among these filtrates. The majority of total dissolved solids in the effluents were found to be inorganic NPEs. Chloride and nitrate were present at significant levels in all effluent samples. Sodium was the predominant metal ion, while calcium and magnesium were also present at considerable levels. The feasibility of using electrodialysis to selectively remove inorganic NPEs from the acidic bleach effluent was successfully demonstrated in laboratory experiments with effluents from all these three mills. Although there were some variations in these effluents, chloride and potentially harmful cations, such as potassium, calcium, and magnesium, were removed efficiently from the bleach effluents into a small-volume, concentrated purge stream. This effective removal of inorganic NPEs can enable the mills to recycle bleach effluents to reduce water consumption. The electrodialysis process also effectively retained up to 98% of the organics and can reduce the organic discharge in the mill wastewater. By using suitable commercially available electrodialysis membranes, there were no indications of rapid or irreversible membrane fouling or scale formation, even in extended laboratory scale operations up to 100 hours. Results of laboratory experiments also showed that commercially available membranes properly selected for this process would have good stability to withstand the potentially oxidative conditions of the filtrate. A pilot-scale field demonstration was also conducted at a southern mill, using the D0 filtrate from the bleach plant. During the field demonstration we found serious membrane 2 stack clogging problems, which apparently were caused by fine fibers that escaped through the 5-micron pre-filters, although such a pre-filtration method had been satisfactory in the laboratory tests. Additional R&D is recommended to address this pre-filtration or clogging issue with systems approaches integrating pre-filtration, other separation methods, and stack design. After the pre-filtration/clogging issue is overcome, laboratory development and pilot demonstration are recommended to optimize the process parameters and to evaluate the long-term process parameters. The key technical issues here include membrane lives, control and mitigation of fouling and scaling, and cleaning-in-place protocols. From the data collected in this work, a preliminary process design and economic evaluations were performed for a model mill with 1,000-ton/day pulp production that uses a bleaching sequence based on chlorine dioxide. Assuming 3 m{sup 3} acidic effluents to be treated per ton of pulp produced, the electrodialysis process would require a membrane area of about 361 m{sup 2} for this model mill. The energy consumption of the electrodialytic stack for separation is estimated to be about $160/day, and the estimated capital cost of the electrodia

  6. Autonomous observations of the ocean biological carbon pump

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bishop, James K.B.

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Prediction of the substantial biologically mediated carbon flows in a rapidly changing and acidifying ocean requires model simulations informed by observations of key carbon cycle processes on the appropriate space and time scales. From 2000 to 2004, the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP) supported the development of the first low-cost fully-autonomous ocean profiling Carbon Explorers that demonstrated that year-round real-time observations of particulate organic carbon (POC) concentration and sedimentation could be achieved in the world's ocean. NOPP also initiated the development of a sensor for particulate inorganic carbon (PIC) suitable for operational deployment across all oceanographic platforms. As a result, PIC profile characterization that once required shipboard sample collection and shipboard or shore based laboratory analysis, is now possible to full ocean depth in real time using a 0.2W sensor operating at 24 Hz. NOPP developments further spawned US DOE support to develop the Carbon Flux Explorer, a free-vehicle capable of following hourly variations of particulate inorganic and organic carbon sedimentation from near surface to kilometer depths for seasons to years and capable of relaying contemporaneous observations via satellite. We have demonstrated the feasibility of real time - low cost carbon observations which are of fundamental value to carbon prediction and when further developed, will lead to a fully enhanced global carbon observatory capable of real time assessment of the ocean carbon sink, a needed constraint for assessment of carbon management policies on a global scale.

  7. Nature and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    assimilated and produced; however, little is known about the chemical nature and fate of DOM in treatment degradation of specific components of the DOM (6). Free water surface treatment wetlands consist of semiNature and Transformation of Dissolved Organic Matter in Treatment Wetlands L A R R Y B . B A R B E

  8. Interactions of Arsenic and the Dissolved Substances Derived from

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    As trapping and transport within porous soil media and in developing comprehensive plans for managingInteractions of Arsenic and the Dissolved Substances Derived from Turf Soils Z H A N G R O N G C H University, Miami, Florida 33199, Southeast Environmental Research Center, Florida International University

  9. Functionalized inorganic membranes for gas separation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ku, Anthony Yu-Chung (Rexford, NY); Ruud, James Anthony (Delmar, NY); Molaison, Jennifer Lynn (Marietta, GA); Schick, Louis Andrew ,(Delmar, NY); Ramaswamy, Vidya (Niskayuna, NY)

    2008-07-08T23:59:59.000Z

    A porous membrane for separation of carbon dioxide from a fluid stream at a temperature higher than about 200.degree. C. with selectivity higher than Knudsen diffusion selectivity. The porous membrane comprises a porous support layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia; a porous separation layer comprising alumina, silica, zirconia or stabilized zirconia, and a functional layer comprising a ceramic oxide contactable with the fluid stream to preferentially transport carbon dioxide. In particular, the functional layer may be MgO, CaO, SrO, BaO, La.sub.2O.sub.3, CeO.sub.2, ATiO.sub.3, AZrO.sub.3, AAl.sub.2O.sub.4, A.sup.1FeO.sub.3, A.sup.1MnO.sub.3, A.sup.1CoO.sub.3, A.sup.1NiO.sub.3, A.sup.2HfO.sub.3, A.sup.3CeO.sub.3, Li.sub.2ZrO.sub.3, Li.sub.2SiO.sub.3, Li.sub.2TiO.sub.3 or a mixture thereof; wherein A is Mg, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.1 is La, Ca, Sr or Ba; A.sup.2 is Ca, Sr or Ba; and A.sup.3 is Sr or Ba.

  10. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pyatina, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-11-14T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  11. Inorganic Corrosion-Inhibitive Pigments for High-Temperature Alkali-activated Well Casing Foam Cement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugama, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pyatina, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This study evaluates inorganic pigments for improving carbon steel (CS) brine-corrosion protection by the sodium metasilicate-activated calcium aluminate cement/Fly Ash blend at 300°C. Calcium borosilicate (CBS) and zinc phosphate, significantly improved CS corrosion-protection by decreasing cement’s permeability for corrosive ions and inhibiting anodic corrosion. An amorphous Na2O-Al2O3-SiO2-H2O phase tightly attached to CS surface formed at 300oC in CBS-modified cement pore solution. The corrosion rate of the CS covered with this phase was nearly 4-fold lower than in the case of nonmodified cement pore solution where the major phase formed on the surface of CS was crystalline analcime.

  12. Hybrid organic/inorganic coatings for abrasion resistance on plastic and metal substrates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, J.; Jordens, K.; Wilkes, G.L. [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ., Blacksburg, VA (United States)

    1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Novel abrasion resistant coatings have been successfully prepared by the sol-gel method. These materials are spin coated onto bisphenol-A polycarbonate, diallyl diglycol carbonate resin (CR-39) sheet, aluminum, and steel substrates and are thermally cured to obtain a transparent coating of a few microns in thickness. Following the curing, the abrasion resistance is measured and compared with an uncoated control. It was found that these hybrid organic/inorganic networks partially afford excellent abrasion resistance to the polycarbonate substrates investigated. In addition to having excellent abrasion resistance comparable to current commercial coatings, some newly developed systems are also UV resistant. Similar coating formulations applied to metals can greatly improve the abrasion resistance despite the fact that the coatings are lower in density than their substrates.

  13. Rate and apparent quantum yield of photodissolution of sedimentary organic matter Margaret L. Estapa,a,b,1,* Lawrence M. Mayer,a and Emmanuel Boss b

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boss, Emmanuel S.

    leads to O2 consumption, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) production, peroxide production (Estapa removal term in coastal carbon budgets that could be reduced by sediment resuspension and subsequent POC

  14. Heterostructures based on inorganic and organic van der Waals systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Gwan-Hyoung [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Chul-Ho [KU-KIST Graduate School of Converging Science and Technology, Korea University, Seoul 136-701 (Korea, Republic of); Zande, Arend M. van der [Energy Frontier Research Center (EFRC), Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Han, Minyong [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Cui, Xu; Arefe, Ghidewon; Hone, James [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Nuckolls, Colin [Department of Chemistry, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Heinz, Tony F. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Kim, Philip, E-mail: pk2015@columbia.edu [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Department of Physics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The two-dimensional limit of layered materials has recently been realized through the use of van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures composed of weakly interacting layers. In this paper, we describe two different classes of vdW heterostructures: inorganic vdW heterostructures prepared by co-lamination and restacking; and organic-inorganic hetero-epitaxy created by physical vapor deposition of organic molecule crystals on an inorganic vdW substrate. Both types of heterostructures exhibit atomically clean vdW interfaces. Employing such vdW heterostructures, we have demonstrated various novel devices, including graphene/hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) and MoS{sub 2} heterostructures for memory devices; graphene/MoS{sub 2}/WSe{sub 2}/graphene vertical p-n junctions for photovoltaic devices, and organic crystals on hBN with graphene electrodes for high-performance transistors.

  15. Marine Biology Research, 2013; 9: 27-34 Preprint 1 Carbonate apatite formulation in cuticle structure adds resistance to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kunkel, Joseph G.

    insulate more soluble calcium carbonate from attack by acid secreting micro-organisms. A trabecular bone or deeper rapidly dissolving amorphous calcium carbonate, generating a concerted general immune response Edwards, 1837, is reportedly dominated by calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate (Lowenstam 1981; Raabe

  16. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  17. Dissolved Organic Matter Cycling on the Louisiana Shelf: Implications for the Formation of Hypoxia

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shen, Li

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    sources of dissolved organic matter (DOM). Moreover, even less is known about the importance of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON), a critical component of DOM (along with DOC) in supporting hypoxia in this region. Most nitrogen in marine organisms exists...

  18. Clathrate hydrates in frozen confections : formation by carbon dioxide flash freezing and behavior during distribution and consumption

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Teresa Baker, 1981-

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbonated frozen foods are not common on the market due to the limited liquid water available to dissolve CO? . CO? clathrate hydrates can change this because CO? is trapped in crystalline water. The CO? flash-freezing ...

  19. Aerogel and xerogel composites for use as carbon anodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Tillotson, Thomas M. (Tracy, CA); Hrubesh, Lawrence W. (Pleasanton, CA)

    2008-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed herein are aerogel and xerogel composite materials suitable for use as anodes in fuel cells and batteries. Precursors to the aerogel and xerogel compounds are infused with inorganic polymeric materials or carbon particles and then gelled. The gels are then pyrolyzed to form composites with internal structural support.

  20. Sequestration of Dissolved CO2 in the Oriskany Formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dilmore, R.M.; Allen, D.E. (Salem State College, Salem, MA); McCarthy-Jones, J.R.; Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee

    2008-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Experiments were conducted to determine the solubility of CO2 in a natural brine solution of the Oriskany formation under elevated temperature and pressure conditions. These data were collected at temperatures of 22 and 75 °C and pressures between 100 and 450 bar. Experimentally determined data were compared with CO2 solubility predictions using a model developed by Duan and Sun (Chem. Geol. 2003, 193, 257-271). Model results compare well with Oriskany brine CO2 solubility data collected experimentally, suggesting that the Duan and Sun model is a reliable tool for estimating solution CO2 capacity in high salinity aquifers in the temperature and pressure range evaluated. The capacity for the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 was calculated using results of the solubility models, estimation of the density of CO2 saturated brine, and available geographic information system (GIS) information on the formation depth and thickness. Results indicate that the Oriskany formation can hold approximately 0.36 gigatonnes of dissolved CO2 if the full basin is considered. When only the region where supercritical CO2 can exist (temperatures greater than 31° C and pressures greater than 74 bar) is considered, the capacity of the Oriskany formation to sequester dissolved CO2 is 0.31 gigatonnes. The capacity estimate considering the potential to sequester free-phase supercritical CO2 if brine were displaced from formation pore space is 8.8 gigatonnes in the Oriskany formation.

  1. Dissolved Oxygen Sensing in a Flow Stream using Molybdenum Chloride Optical Indicators

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Ruby N.

    Dissolved Oxygen Sensing in a Flow Stream using Molybdenum Chloride Optical Indicators Reza Loloee1@msu.edu Abstract--Dissolved oxygen concentration is considered the most important water quality variable in fish culture. Reliable and continuous (24/7) oxygen monitoring of dissolved oxygen (DO) in the 1 ­ 11 mg

  2. Inorganic Nanotubes DOI: 10.1002/anie.200803447

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ben G.

    (MWNTs) with liquid and molten-phase inorganic salts if the surface tension of the filling materials) by molten-phase capillary wetting.[3] Salt encapsulation was shown to result in a profound change in the structural chemistry of the included material relative to its bulk form. In the case of salts such as KI

  3. Role of inorganic chemistry on nuclear energy examined

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    reprocessing or disposition of spent nuclear fuel materials. The articles in the issue discussed inorganic #12. Significance of the research The efficacy of nuclear power production rests on the ability to manage a nuclear fuel cycle safely, efficiently, and economically. "Fuel cycle" is the term used to describe how nuclear

  4. Photocurable Inorganic-Organic Hydrogels for Biomedical Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hou, Yaping

    2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

    ............................................. 4 1.3 Hydrogels as Sensor Membranes ............................................. 6 II PHOTO-CROSSLINKED PDMSstar-PEG HYDROGELS: SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION, AND POTENTIAL APPLICATION FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING SCAFFOLD........... 9........................................................... 5 1.2 Sequence of events that leads to formation of fibrous capsules around implanted biosesors .................................................................................... 8 2.1 Synthesis of: (top) inorganic PDMS star -MA (A...

  5. Role of ammonia chemistry and coarse mode aerosols in global climatological inorganic aerosol distributions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zender, Charles

    1 Role of ammonia chemistry and coarse mode aerosols in global climatological inorganic aerosol distributions Chao Luo1 , Charles S. Zender1 , Huisheng Bian2 , Swen Metzger3 Abstract We use an inorganic aerosol thermodynamic equilibrium model

  6. Dissolver Off-gas Hot Operations Authorization (AFCI CETE Milestone Report)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jubin, Robert Thomas [ORNL

    2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The head-end processing of the Coupled-End-to-End (CETE) Demonstration includes fuel receipt, fuel disassembly, exposure of fuel (e.g., by segmenting the fuel pins), voloxidation of the fuel to separate tritium, and fuel dissolution. All of these processing steps with the exception of the dissolution step will be accomplished in the Irradiated Fuels Examination Laboratory (IFEL) (Building 3525). The final headend step will be performed in the Radiochemical Engineering Development Center (Building 7920). The primary purpose of the fuel dissolution step is to prepare the solid fuel for subsequent liquid separations steps. This is accomplished by dissolving the fuel solids using nitric acid. During the dissolution process gases are evolved. Oxides of nitrogen are the primary off-gas components generated by the reactions of nitric acid and the fuel oxides however, during the dissolution and sparging of the resulting solution, iodine, C-14 as carbon dioxide, xenon, and krypton gasses are also released to the off-gas stream. The Dissolver Off-gas treatment rack provides a means of trapping these volatile fission products and other gases via various trapping media. Specifically the rack will recover iodine on a solid sorbent bed, scrub NOx in a water/acid column, scrub CO{sub 2} in a caustic scrubber column, remove moisture with solid sorbent drier beds and recover Xe and Kr using solid absorbent beds. The primary purpose of this experimental rack and the off-gas rack associated with the voloxidation equipment located at IFEL is to close the material balances around the volatile gases and to provide an understanding of the impacts of specific processing conditions on the fractions of the volatile components released from the various head-end processing steps.

  7. Biogeochemical Characteristics of the Lower Mississippi River, USA, During June 2003

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Breed, Greg A.

    , Louisiana, United States. Properties measured at the surface during each of the 48 stations were temperature (PN). Air-water CO2 flux was calculated from surface water dissolved inorganic carbon and pH. During. 1990; Meade 1995). River water contains high concentrations of dissolved inorganic nutrients, natural

  8. ADVANCED INORGANIC LABORATORY FALL 2008 CHEMISTRY 410 (CRN 11299:), CHEMISTRY 510 (CRN 11315)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richmond, Geraldine L.

    materials and announcements will be posted on the site. Required Text: "Synthesis and Technique in InorganicADVANCED INORGANIC LABORATORY ­ FALL 2008 CHEMISTRY 410 (CRN 11299:), CHEMISTRY 510 (CRN 11315 to a wide range of conceptual and practical (laboratory) inorganic chemistry. Because of the introductory

  9. Process for coal liquefaction by separation of entrained gases from slurry exiting staged dissolvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a solvent, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals are separated from the condensed dissolver effluent. In accordance with the improved process, fresh hydrogen is fed to each dissolver and the entrained gas from each dissolver is separated from the slurry phase and removed from the reactor system before the condensed phase is passed to the next dissolver in the series. In accordance with another process, the feeds to the dissolvers are such that the top of each downstream dissolver is used as a gas-liquid separator.

  10. Carbon steady-state model of the planktonic food web of Lake Biwa, Japan

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jackson, George

    after degradation of detritus to release dissolved organic carbon. Keywords: detritus, food web, lakeCarbon steady-state model of the planktonic food web of Lake Biwa, Japan NATHALIE NIQUIL,* GRETTA planktonic food web in the surface mixed-layer of the North Basin in Lake Biwa, Japan. This model synthesised

  11. Using tracer experiments to determine deep saline aquifers caprocks transport characteristics for carbon dioxide storage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boyer, Edmond

    for carbon dioxide storage P. Bachaud1,2 , Ph. Berne1 , P. Boulin1,3,4 , F. Renard5,6 , M. Sardin2 , J caprocks from a deep saline aquifer in the Paris basin. Introduction Storage of carbon dioxide in deep bubble. Determination of the diffusion properties is also required since they will govern how dissolved

  12. Adsorption of dissolved organic carbon to mineral soils: A comparison of four isotherm approaches

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Moore, Tim

    .N. Kothawala a, , T.R. Moore a,1 , W.H. Hendershot b,2 a Department of Geography and Global Environmental

  13. Sources and Fates of Dissolved Organic Carbon in Rural and Urban Watersheds in Brazos County, Texas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cioce, Danielle

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    to frequent exposure to high sodium irrigation water. The results indicate that sodium is a major driver of DOC in the system. Sound management decisions concerning irrigation water chemistry and urban development might eventually emerge to protect water...

  14. Natural Abundance Radiocarbon Studies of Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in the Marine Environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    de Jesus, Roman P

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Press, San Diego. Bruland, K.W. , (1989) Complexation of6624), 480-482. Rue, E.L. , Bruland, K.W. , (1997) The rolemetal binding ligands (Bruland, 1989; Rue and Bruland, 1997;

  15. Natural abundance radiocarbon studies of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the marine environment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Jesus, Roman Paul

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Press, San Diego. Bruland, K.W. , (1989) Complexation of6624), 480-482. Rue, E.L. , Bruland, K.W. , (1997) The rolemetal binding ligands (Bruland, 1989; Rue and Bruland, 1997;

  16. Preparation of polypyrrole-incorporated mesoporous carbon-based composites for confinement of Eu(III) within mesopores

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Boo, Jin-Hyo

    e Mesoporous polymer-carbon composite (CMPEI/CMK-3) materials were successfully preparedPreparation of polypyrrole-incorporated mesoporous carbon-based composites for confinement of Eu processes. 1. Introduction A number of organic-inorganic or organic-organic composite materials have been

  17. 2 Accessibility of pores in coal to methane and carbon dioxide 3 Yuri B. Melnichenko a,b,

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 2 Accessibility of pores in coal to methane and carbon dioxide 3 Yuri B. Melnichenko a,b, , Lilin inorganic and organic solutes (including 56 hydrocarbons) and gaseous species (e.g. carbon dioxide, CO2, the chemical and physical properties of the solid and fluid phases collectively dictate how fluid 35molecules

  18. Carbon Smackdown: Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Jeffrey Long

    2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    In this July 9, 2010 Berkeley Lab summer lecture, Lab scientists Jeff Long of the Materials Sciences and Nancy Brown of the Environmental Energy Technologies Division discuss their efforts to fight climate change by capturing carbon from the flue gas of power plants, as well as directly from the air

  19. Survey of electrochemical production of inorganic compounds. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1980-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The electrochemical generation of inorganic compounds, excluding chlorine/caustic, has been critically reviewed. About 60 x 10/sup 12/ Btu/y fossil fuel equivalent will be used in the year 2000 for the electrosynthesis of inorganic compounds. Significant energy savings in chlorate production can result from the development of suitable electrocatalysts for lowering the cathodic overpotential. Perchlorates, electrolytic hypochlorite, electrolytic manganese dioxide, fluorine and other miscellaneous compounds use relatively small amounts of electrical energy. Implementation of caustic scrubber technology for stack gas cleanup would result in appreciable amounts of sodium sulfate which could be electrolyzed to regenerate caustic. Hydrogen peroxide, now produced by the alkyl anthraquinone process, could be made electrolytically by a new process coupling anodic oxidation of sulfate with cathodic reduction of oxygen in alkaline solution. Ozone is currently manufactured using energy-inefficient silent discharge equipment. A novel energy-efficient approach which uses an oxygen-enhanced anodic reaction is examined.

  20. Inorganic metal oxide/organic polymer nanocomposites and method thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

    2004-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal inorganic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophillic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the composite material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  1. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (United States)); Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States)); Shah, N.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (United States))

    1991-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical objectives of this project are: (1) To define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail. (2) To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and (3) to develop, based on the information required in (1) and (2), a tractable process'' model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the nature and distribution of products. 26 refs., 151 figs., 51 tabs.

  2. Bioavailability of PAHs: Effects of Soot Carbon and PAH Source

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cope, W. Gregory

    dissolved in water, air, or a cosolvent such as crude oil; and pyrogenic PAHs are formed as a resultBioavailability of PAHs: Effects of Soot Carbon and PAH Source W A V E R L Y A . T H O R S E N of 38 individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds was determined through calculation

  3. Super-slime! The impact of changing environment on aquatic biofilm carbon cycling Susan Waldron & Vernon Phoenix (Geographical and Earth Sciences, GES, University of Glasgow)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Glasgow, University of

    Super-slime! The impact of changing environment on aquatic biofilm carbon cycling Susan Waldron is a crucial environment in which to consider the fate of exported terrestrial carbon in the aquatic system. To a large extent the fate of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) may be controlled by reprocessing within

  4. Inorganic arsenic exposure and type 2 diabetes mellitus in Mexico

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coronado-Gonzalez, Jose Antonio [Clinical Epidemiologic Research Unit, General Regional Hospital 1 'Gabriel Mancera', Mexican Institute of the Social Security, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Razo, Luz Maria del [Toxicology Departament, Cinvestav, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Garcia-Vargas, Gonzalo [School of Medicine, Durango State Juarez University, Gomez Palacio, Durango (Mexico); Biomedical Research Center, Coahuila, Autonomous University, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Sanmiguel-Salazar, Francisca [Biomedical Research Center, Coahuila, Autonomous University, Torreon, Coahuila (Mexico); Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge [Clinical Epidemiologic Research Unit, General Regional Hospital 1 'Gabriel Mancera', Mexican Institute of the Social Security, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: jorgeep@servidor.unam.mx

    2007-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic arsenic exposure in drinking water has been recently related to diabetes mellitus. To evaluate this relationship the authors conducted in 2003, a case-control study in an arseniasis-endemic region from Coahuila, a northern state of Mexico with a high incidence of diabetes. The present analysis includes 200 cases and 200 controls. Cases were obtained from a previous cross-sectional study conducted in that region. Diagnosis of diabetes was established following the American Diabetes Association criteria, with two fasting glucose values {>=}126 mg/100 ml ({>=}7.0 mmol/l) or a history of diabetes treated with insulin or oral hypoglycemic agents. The next subject studied, subsequent to the identification of a case in the cross-sectional study was taken as control. Inorganic arsenic exposure was measured through total arsenic concentrations in urine, measured by hydride-generation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Subjects with intermediate total arsenic concentration in urine (63.5-104 {mu}g/g creatinine) had two-fold higher risk of having diabetes (odds ratio=2.16; 95% confidence interval: 1.23, 3.79), but the risk was almost three times greater in subjects with higher concentrations of total arsenic in urine (odds ratio=2.84; 95% confidence interval: 1.64, 4.92). This data provides additional evidence that inorganic arsenic exposure may be diabetogenic.

  5. Size and Crystallinity in Protein-Templated Inorganic Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jolley, Craig C.; Uchida, Masaki; Reichhardt, Courtney; Harrington, Richard; Kang, Sebyung; Klem, Michael T.; Parise, John B.; Douglas, Trevor (SBU); (Montana)

    2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Protein cages such as ferritins and virus capsids have been used as containers to synthesize a wide variety of protein-templated inorganic nanoparticles. While identification of the inorganic crystal phase has been successful in some cases, very little is known about the detailed nanoscale structure of the inorganic component. We have used pair distribution function analysis of total X-ray scattering to measure the crystalline domain size in nanoparticles of ferrihydrite, {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Mn{sub 3}O{sub 4}, CoPt, and FePt grown inside 24-meric ferritin cages from H. sapiens and P. furiosus. The material properties of these protein-templated nanoparticles are influenced by processes at a variety of length scales: the chemistry of the material determines the precise arrangement of atoms at very short distances, while the interior volume of the protein cage constrains the maximum nanoparticle size attainable. At intermediate length scales, the size of coherent crystalline domains appears to be constrained by the arrangement of crystal nucleation sites on the interior of the cage. On the basis of these observations, some potential synthetic strategies for the control of crystalline domain size in protein-templated nanoparticles are suggested.

  6. Analysis of dissolving functions of insoluble phosphate by phosphorus deficiency sensitive plants

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Suzuki, Ayako; Kashima, Hiroyuki; Shinmachi, Fumie; Noguchi, Akira; Hasegawa, Isao

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of technologies allowing plants to dissolve and absorb frominvestigated a mechanism of response by plants to low-conditions, specifically plants sensitive to phosphorus

  7. COSIMA-Rosetta calibration for in-situ characterization of 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko cometary inorganic compounds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Krüger, Harald; Engrand, Cécile; Briois, Christelle; Siljeström, Sandra; Merouane, Sihane; Baklouti, Donia; Fischer, Henning; Fray, Nicolas; Hornung, Klaus; Lehto, Harry; Orthous-Daunay, François-Régis; Rynö, Jouni; Schulz, Rita; Silen, Johan; Thirkell, Laurent; Trieloff, Mario; Hilchenbach, Martin

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    COSIMA (COmetary Secondary Ion Mass Analyser) is a time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometer (TOF-SIMS) on board the Rosetta space mission. COSIMA has been designed to measure the composition of cometary dust grains. It has a mass resolution m/{\\Delta}m of 1400 at mass 100 u, thus enabling the discrimination of inorganic mass peaks from organic ones in the mass spectra. We have evaluated the identification capabilities of the reference model of COSIMA for inorganic compounds using a suite of terrestrial minerals that are relevant for cometary science. Ground calibration demonstrated that the performances of the flight model were similar to that of the reference model. The list of minerals used in this study was chosen based on the mineralogy of meteorites, interplanetary dust particles and Stardust samples. It contains anhydrous and hydrous ferromagnesian silicates, refractory silicates and oxides (present in meteoritic Ca-Al-rich inclusions), carbonates, and Fe-Ni sulfides. From the analyses of these mi...

  8. Hydrogen Selective Inorganic membranes for Gas Separations under High Pressure Intermediate Temperature Hydrocarbonic Envrionment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rich Ciora; Paul KT Liu

    2012-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

    In this project, we have successfully developed a full scale commercially ready carbon molecular sieve (CMS) based membrane for applications in H{sub 2} recovery from refinery waste and other aggressive gas streams. Field tests at a refinery pilot plant and a coal gasification facility have successfully demonstrated its ability to recovery hydrogen from hydrotreating and raw syngas respectively. High purity H{sub 2} and excellent stability of the membrane permeance and selectivity were obtained in testing conducted over >500 hours at each site. The results from these field tests as well as laboratory testing conclude that the membranes can be operated at high pressures (up to 1,000 psig) and temperatures (up to 300 C) in presence of aggressive contaminants, such as sulfur and nitrogen containing species (H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, NH{sub 3}, etc), condensable hydrocarbons, tar-like species, heavy metals, etc. with no observable effect on membrane performance. By comparison, similar operating conditions and/or environments would rapidly destroy competing membranes, such as polymeric, palladium, zeolitic, etc. Significant cost savings can be achieved through recovering H{sub 2} from refinery waste gas using this newly developed CMS membrane. Annual savings of $2 to 4MM/year (per 20,000 scfd of waste gas) can be realized by recovering the H{sub 2} for reuse (versus fuel). Projecting these values over the entire US market, potential H{sub 2} savings from refinery waste gases on the order of 750 to 1,000MM scfd and $750 to $1,000MM per year are possible. In addition to the cost savings, potential energy savings are projected to be ca. 150 to 220 tBTU/yr and CO{sub 2} gas emission reductions are projected to be ca. 5,000 to 6,500MMtons/year. The full scale membrane bundle developed as part of this project, i.e., 85 x 30 inch ceramic membrane tubes packaged into a full ceramic potting, is an important accomplishment. No comparable commercial scale product exists in the inorganic membrane field. Further, this newly developed full scale bundle concept can be extended to other thin film inorganic membrane technology (Pd, zeolite, etc), providing a potential commercialization pathway for these membrane materials that demonstrate high potential in a variety of separation applications yet remain a laboratory 'novelty' for lack of a full scale support. Overall, the project has been highly successful and all of the project objectives have been met. We have developed the first of its kind commercial scale carbon molecular sieve membrane and demonstrated its performance in field testing under aggressive operating conditions and in the presence of chemical contaminants that would rapidly destroy alternative organic and inorganic membranes. This innovative membrane permits H{sub 2} recovery from gas streams that up until now have not been successfully treated with membrane or conventional technology. Our end user participant is currently pursuing the field demonstration of this membrane for hydrogen recovery at its refinery site.

  9. 2010 INORGANIC CHEMISTRY GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE JUNE 20 - 25, 2010

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    JOHN LOCKEMEYER

    2010-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

    The Inorganic Chemistry GRC is one of the longest-standing of the GRCs, originating in 1951. Over the years, this conference has played a role in spawning many other GRCs in specialized fields, due to the involvement of elements from most of the periodic table. These include coordination, organometallic, main group, f-element, and solid state chemistries; materials science, catalysis, computational chemistry, nanotechnology, bioinorganic, environmental, and biomedical sciences just to name a few. The 2010 Inorganic Chemistry GRC will continue this tradition, where scientists at all levels from academic, industrial, and national laboratories meet to define the important problems in the field and to highlight emerging opportunities through exchange of ideas and discussion of unpublished results. Invited speakers will present on a wide variety of topics, giving attendees a look at areas both inside and outside of their specialized areas of interest. In addition to invited speakers, the poster sessions at GRCs are a key feature of the conference. All conferees at the Inorganic Chemistry GRC are invited to present a poster on their work, and here the informal setting promotes the free exchange of ideas and fosters new relationships. As in previous years, we will offer poster presenters the opportunity to compete for one of several program spots in which they can give an oral presentation based on the subject matter of their poster. This is a great way to get your work noticed by the scientists attending the meeting, especially for those early in their career path such as junior faculty members, postdoctoral fellows, and those at comparable ranks. Anyone interested in participating in the poster competition should bring an electronic slide presentation and a small hard copy of their poster to submit to the committee.

  10. Inorganic Chemistry in Hydrogen Storage and Biomass Catalysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thorn, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-13T23:59:59.000Z

    Making or breaking C-H, B-H, C-C bonds has been at the core of catalysis for many years. Making or breaking these bonds to store or recover energy presents us with fresh challenges, including how to catalyze these transformations in molecular systems that are 'tuned' to minimize energy loss and in molecular and material systems present in biomass. This talk will discuss some challenging transformations in chemical hydrogen storage, and some aspects of the inorganic chemistry we are studying in the development of catalysts for biomass utilization.

  11. Engineering the Interface Between Inorganic Materials and Cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schaffer, David

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    To further optimize cell function in hybrid “living materials”, it would be advantageous to render mammalian cells responsive to novel “orthogonal” cues, i.e. signals they would not ordinarily respond to but that can be engineered to feed into defined intracellular signaling pathways. We recently developed an optogenetic method, based on A. thaliana Cry2, for rapid and reversible protein oligomerization in response to blue light. We also demonstrated the ability to use this method to channel the light input into several defined signaling pathways, work that will enhance communication between inorganic devices and living systems.

  12. Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweighardt, Frank K. (Upper Macungie, PA)

    1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process.

  13. Pattern Replication in Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Materials

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nedelcu, Mihaela

    2014-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

    of an impeding fuel shortage and the need for clean renewable sources of energy, considerable effort has been made to reduce the cost of solar cells by primarily addressing the material processing techniques. Photo-electrochemical solar cells are an emerging... metal and the mesoporous TiO2 and Nb2O5, which have applications in dye sen- sitized solar cells. The first part of the thesis presents an overview of pattern formation in organic and inorganic materials and the working principles of dye sensitized solar...

  14. Automated process for solvent separation of organic/inorganic substance

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schweighardt, F.K.

    1986-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

    There is described an automated process for the solvent separation of organic/inorganic substances that operates continuously and unattended and eliminates potential errors resulting from subjectivity and the aging of the sample during analysis. In the process, metered amounts of one or more solvents are passed sequentially through a filter containing the sample under the direction of a microprocessor control apparatus. The mixture in the filter is agitated by ultrasonic cavitation for a timed period and the filtrate is collected. The filtrate of each solvent extraction is collected individually and the residue on the filter element is collected to complete the extraction process. 4 figs.

  15. Low-melting point inorganic nitrate salt heat transfer fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bradshaw, Robert W. (Livermore, CA); Brosseau, Douglas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2009-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A low-melting point, heat transfer fluid made of a mixture of four inorganic nitrate salts: 9-18 wt % NaNO.sub.3, 40-52 wt % KNO.sub.3, 13-21 wt % LiNO.sub.3, and 20-27 wt % Ca(NO.sub.3).sub.2. These compositions can have liquidus temperatures less than 100 C; thermal stability limits greater than 500 C; and viscosity in the range of 5-6 cP at 300 C; and 2-3 cP at 400 C.

  16. Solid state radioluminescent sources: Mixed organic/inorganic hybrids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gill, J.T. (EG and G Mound Applied Technologies, Miamisburg, OH (USA)); Renschler, C.L. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Shepodd, T.J. (Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (USA)); Smith, H.M. (Allied-Signal, Inc., Kansas City, MO (USA))

    1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This concept brings a condensed source of tritium into close proximity with an inorganic phosphor. That source may thus become the equivalent of many atmospheres of tritium gas pressure. If both phosphor and tritium source material are optically clear, then a lamp's brightness may be made to scale with optical path length. Proof of principle of this concept has been demonstrated and will be described. A theoretical treatment is presented for the results here and for results from aerogel experiments. 12 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Catalyzed CO.sub.2-transport membrane on high surface area inorganic support

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Wei

    2014-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Disclosed are membranes and methods for making the same, which membranes provide improved permeability, stability, and cost-effective manufacturability, for separating CO.sub.2 from gas streams such as flue gas streams. High CO.sub.2 permeation flux is achieved by immobilizing an ultra-thin, optionally catalyzed fluid layer onto a meso-porous modification layer on a thin, porous inorganic substrate such as a porous metallic substrate. The CO.sub.2-selective liquid fluid blocks non-selective pores, and allows for selective absorption of CO.sub.2 from gas mixtures such as flue gas mixtures and subsequent transport to the permeation side of the membrane. Carbon dioxide permeance levels are in the order of 1.0.times.10.sup.-6 mol/(m.sup.2sPa) or better. Methods for making such membranes allow commercial scale membrane manufacturing at highly cost-effective rates when compared to conventional commercial-scale CO.sub.2 separation processes and equipment for the same and such membranes are operable on an industrial use scale.

  18. Carbons for lithium batteries prepared using sepiolite as an inorganic template

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sandi, Giselle (Wheaton, IL); Winans, Randall E. (Downers Grove, IL); Gregar, K. Carrado (Naperville, IL)

    2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of preparing an anode material using sepiolite clay having channel-like interstices in its lattice structure. Carbonaceous material is deposited in the channel-like interstices of the sepiolite clay and then the sepiolite clay is removed leaving the carbonaceous material. The carbonaceous material is formed into an anode. The anode is combined with suitable cathode and electrolyte materials to form a battery of the lithium-ion type.

  19. Low density microcellular carbon foams and method of preparation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, C. Jr.; Aubert, J.H.; Clough, R.L.; Rand, P.B.; Sylwester, A.P.

    1988-06-20T23:59:59.000Z

    A low density, open-celled microcellular carbon foam is disclosed which is prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer or copolymer in a solvent, pouring the solution into a mold, cooling the solution, removing the solvent, and then carbonizing the polymer or copolymer in a high temperature oven to produce the foam. If desired, an additive can be introduced in order to produce a doped carbon foam, and the foams can be made isotropic by selection of a suitable solvent. The low density, microcellular foams produced by this process are particularly useful in the fabrication of inertial confinement fusion targets, but can also be used as catalysts, absorbents, and electrodes.

  20. Dissolved oxygen stratification in two micro-tidal partially-mixed estuaries

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mallin, Michael

    Dissolved oxygen stratification in two micro-tidal partially-mixed estuaries Jing Lin a,*, Lian Xie online 21 August 2006 Abstract The controlling physical factors for vertical oxygen stratification that vertical stratification of dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration can be explained by the extended Hansen

  1. Effects of applied voltages and dissolved oxygen on sustained power generation by microbial fuel cells

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Effects of applied voltages and dissolved oxygen on sustained power generation by microbial fuel), Faculty of Advanced Technology, University of Glamorgan, Pontypridd RCT CF37 1DL, UK Oxygen intrusion chamber MFCs at the end of a cycle when the substrate is depleted. A slight increase in dissolved oxygen

  2. The potential source of dissolved aluminum from resuspended sediments to the North Atlantic deep water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moran, S.B.; Moore, R.M. (Dalhousie Univ., Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada))

    1991-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Laboratory and field studies were conducted to investigate the significance of resuspended sediments as a source of dissolved Al to the deep northwest Atlantic. Sediment resuspension experiments demonstrate the effect on dissolved Al concentration (initially 11 nM) of adding natural suspended sediments (ca. 0.1-10 mg/L) to seawater. The concentration of dissolved Al increased by the resuspension of sediments; for example, addition of 0.15 mg/L sediments caused dissolved Al to increase by 10 nM. Distributions of dissolved and leachable particulate Al off the tail of the Grand Banks, near the high-energy western boundary current, show elevated levels in the near-bottom waters. The authors suggest that resuspended sediments associated with nepheloid layers along the western boundary of the North Atlantic are a source of dissolved Al. Strong western boundary currents provide the energy to resuspend and maintain intense nepheloid layers of sediments. Continued resuspension and deposition of sediments within the nepheloid layer promotes the release of Al from sediments to the overlying water. The Al-rich terrigenous sediments that predominate along the deep boundary of the Denmark Strait, Labrador Sea, Newfoundland and off Nova Scotia constitute a potentially significant source of dissolved Al. Release of Al from resuspended sediments associated with nepheloid layers at a more northern location (e.g., Denmark Strait) may contribute to the near-linear increase in dissolved Al with depth observed in the deep northwest Atlantic.

  3. Thermal decomposition of norbornane (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane) dissolved in benzene.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Thermal decomposition of norbornane (bicyclo[2.2.1]heptane) dissolved in benzene. Experimental (dissolved in benzene) has been studied in a jet stirred reactor at temperatures between 873 and 973 K decomposition of the norbornane ­ benzene binary mixture has been performed. Reactions involved in the mechanism

  4. Proceedings from the Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. T. Brown; G. Matthern; A. Glenn (INEEL); J. Kauffman (EnviroIssues); S. Rock (USEPA); M. Kuperberg (Florida State U); C. Ainsworth (PNNL); J. Waugh (Roy F. Weston Assoc.)

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Metals and Radionuclides Product Line of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) is responsible for the development of technologies and systems that reduce the risk and cost of remediation of radionuclide and hazardous metal contamination in soils and groundwater. The rapid and efficient remediation of these sites and the areas surrounding them represents a technological challenge. Phytoremediation, the use of living plants to cleanup contaminated soils, sediments, surface water and groundwater, is an emerging technology that may be applicable to the problem. The use of phytoremediation to cleanup organic contamination is widely accepted and is being implemented at numerous sites. This workshop was held to initiate a discussion in the scientific community about whether phytoremediation is applicable to inorganic contaminants, such as metals and radionuclides, across the DOE complex. The Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants was held at Argonne National Laboratory from November 30 through December 2, 1999. The purpose of the workshop was to provide SCFA and the DOE Environmental Restoration Program with an understanding of the status of phytoremediation as a potential remediation technology for DOE sites. The workshop was expected to identify data gaps, technologies ready for demonstration and deployment, and to provide a set of recommendations for the further development of these technologies.

  5. Screening combinatorial arrays of inorganic materials with spectroscopy or microscopy

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Peter G.; Xiang, Xiaodong; Goldwasser, Isy

    2004-02-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods and apparatus for the preparation and use of a substrate having an array of diverse materials in predefined regions thereon. A substrate having an array of diverse materials thereon is generally prepared by delivering components of materials to predefined regions on a substrate, and simultaneously reacting the components to form at least two materials. Materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, covalent network solids, ionic solids and molecular solids. More particularly, materials which can be prepared using the methods and apparatus of the present invention include, for example, inorganic materials, intermetallic materials, metal alloys, ceramic materials, organic materials, organometallic materials, non-biological organic polymers, composite materials (e.g., inorganic composites, organic composites, or combinations thereof), etc. Once prepared, these materials can be screened for useful properties including, for example, electrical, thermal, mechanical, morphological, optical, magnetic, chemical, or other properties. Thus, the present invention provides methods for the parallel synthesis and analysis of novel materials having useful properties.

  6. Small angle neutron scattering analysis of novel carbons for lithium secondary batteries.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandi, G.; Thiyagarajan, P.; Winans, R.; Carrado, K.

    1998-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Small angle neutron scattering analyses of carbonaceous materials used as anodes in lithium ion cells have been performed. The carbons have been synthesized using pillared clays (PILCs) as inorganic templates. Pillared clays are layered silicates whose sheets have been permanently propped open by sets of thermally stable molecular props. The calcined PILC was loaded with five different organic precursors and heated at 700 C under nitrogen. When the inorganic pillars were removed by acid treatment, carbon sheets are produced with holes. The fitting of the data in the high q region suggested that the carbon sheets have voids with radii ranging from 4 to 8 {angstrom}. Similar radii were obtained for the PILC and PILC/organic precursor, which suggests that the carbon was well distributed in the clay prior to pyrolysis.

  7. Differential Supply of Autochthonous Organic Carbon and Nitrogen to the Microbial Loop in the Delaware Estuary

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    such as terrestrial organic C supply, inorganic N speciation and concentrations, and extracellular release% of organic carbon (C) produced through primary production is used to fuel bacterial production (Ducklow 2000 is fueled by a combination of autochthonous and allochthonous DOM. Differen- tiating between the two sources

  8. Molten carbonate fuel cell cathode with mixed oxide coating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hilmi, Abdelkader; Yuh, Chao-Yi

    2013-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    A molten carbonate fuel cell cathode having a cathode body and a coating of a mixed oxygen ion conductor materials. The mixed oxygen ion conductor materials are formed from ceria or doped ceria, such as gadolinium doped ceria or yttrium doped ceria. The coating is deposited on the cathode body using a sol-gel process, which utilizes as precursors organometallic compounds, organic and inorganic salts, hydroxides or alkoxides and which uses as the solvent water, organic solvent or a mixture of same.

  9. Identifying Optimal Inorganic Nanomaterials for Hybrid Solar Cells Hongjun Xiang* and Su-Huai Wei

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Gong, Xingao

    Identifying Optimal Inorganic Nanomaterials for Hybrid Solar Cells Hongjun Xiang* and Su-Huai Wei and Department of Physics, Fudan UniVersity, Shanghai 200433, China ReceiVed: August 17, 2009 As a newly developed photovoltaic technology, organic-inorganic hybrid solar cells have attracted great interest

  10. Theme issue: inorganic nanotubes and DOI: 10.1039/b900135m

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Zhong L.

    . This themed issue on inorganic 1D nano- materials gathers papers about the synthesis, characterization Jin Fan et al. gave a review on the synthesis of 1D nano- materials of spinel structured materialsTheme issue: inorganic nanotubes and nanowires DOI: 10.1039/b900135m Nanotubes, nanowires

  11. Thin films and nanolaminates incorporating organic/inorganic Srinivas Manne and Ilhan A Aksay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Aksay, Ilhan A.

    nanolaminates has ranged from fundamental studies of biomineralization to the synthesis of novel materials continued to inspire materials scientists, research involving organic/inorganic interfaces, thin layers in the synthesis and processing of inorganic thin films at organic interfaces and between organic layers

  12. Electronic coupling in organic-inorganic semiconductor hybrid structures with type-II energy level alignment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Peters, Achim

    Electronic coupling in organic-inorganic semiconductor hybrid structures with type-II energy level Electronic coupling in a hybrid structure made of ZnMgO and a spirobifluorene derivative SP6 is inves- tigated in the situation where the energy level alignment at the organic/inorganic interface revealed

  13. Organic/inorganic nanocomposites, methods of making, and uses as a permeable reactive barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harrup, Mason K. (Idaho Falls, ID); Stewart, Frederick F. (Idaho Falls, ID)

    2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanocomposite materials having a composition including an inorganic constituent, a preformed organic polymer constituent, and a metal ion sequestration constituent are disclosed. The nanocomposites are characterized by being single phase, substantially homogeneous materials wherein the preformed polymer constituent and the inorganic constituent form an interpenetrating network with each other. The inorganic constituent may be an inorganic oxide, such as silicon dioxide, formed by the in situ catalyzed condensation of an inorganic precursor in the presence of the solvated polymer and metal ion sequestration constituent. The polymer constituent may be any hydrophilic polymer capable of forming a type I nanocomposite such as, polyacrylonitrile (PAN), polyethyleneoxide (PEO), polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl acetate (PVAc), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), and combinations thereof. Nanocomposite materials of the present invention may be used as permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) to remediate contaminated groundwater. Methods for making nanocomposite materials, PRB systems, and methods of treating groundwater are also disclosed.

  14. Microbial dissolved organic phosphorus utilization in the Hudson River Estuary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ammerman, J.W. (Texas A M Univ., College Station (United States)); Angel, D.L. (City College of New York, NY (United States))

    1990-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

    The Hudson River Estuary has large inputs of phosphorus and other nutrients from sewage discharge. Concentrations of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) reach at least 4 uM during the summer low-flow period. Biological utilization of phosphorus and other nutrients is usually minimal because of the high turbidity and short residence time of the water. Therefore SRP is normally a conservative tracer of salinity, with maximum concentrations found off Manhattan and decreasing to the north. Despite this abundance of SRP, some components of the dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP) appear to be rapidly cycled by microbes. The objective of this study was to measure this DIP cycling during both the high- and low-flow periods. We measured the concentrations of SRP and DOP, the SRP turnover rate, algal and bacterial biomass, and the substrate turnover rates of two microbial cell-surface phosphatases, alkaline phosphatase (AP) and 5[prime] - nucleotidase (5PN). SRP concentrations ranged from about 0.5-4 uM, DOP was usually less than 1 uM. SRP and AP turnover were slow (generally < 5%/h), but 5PN substrate turnover was high with a median rate of 100%/h. Furthermore, over 30% of the phosphate hydrolyzed by 5PN was immediately taken up. If the nucleotide-P concentration is conservatively assumed to be 5 nM, than the rate of phosphate utilization from DOP is nearly equal to that from SRP. That is paradoxical considering the large SRP concentration, but suggests that much of this SRP may be biologically unavailable due to complexation with iron or other processes.

  15. Elucidation of the inorganic chemistry of hydrotreating catalysts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeCanio, E.C.; Edwards, J.C.; Storm, D.A. [Texaco, Inc., Beacon, NY (United States); Bruno, J.W. [Wesleyan Univ., Middletown, CT (United States)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    New environmental regulations are making it necessary to developed improved hydrotreating catalysts for the removal of sulfur, nitrogen and aromatics from refinery streams. In order to develop better catalysts, the authors must gain a more detailed understanding of the inorganic chemistry of these catalysts. Commercial catalysts typically contain ca. 15 wt% molybdenum or tungsten oxides and ca. 4 wt% nickel or cobalt. Additives, such as phosphate and fluoride, are often added to improve the catalytic activity. However, the role of these additives is not fully understood. The authors have, therefore, carried out studies on alumina supported phosphate and flouride materials using FT-IR, powder x-ray diffraction, and solid-state NMR ({sup 31}P, {sup 27}Al, and {sup 1}H). The results of this work have enabled the authors to determine the structures of the various compounds formed on the alumina system when fluoride or phosphate is present.

  16. Inorganic Metal Oxide/Organic Polymer Nanocomposites And Method Thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gash, Alexander E. (Livermore, CA); Satcher, Joe H. (Patterson, CA); Simpson, Randy (Livermore, CA)

    2004-11-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal in organic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophilic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  17. Inorganic nanotubes and electro-fluidic devices fabricated therefrom

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yang, Peidong (Kensington, CA); Majumdar, Arunava (Orinda, CA); Fan, Rong (Pasadena, CA); Karnik, Rohit (Cambridge, MA)

    2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofluidic devices incorporating inorganic nanotubes fluidly coupled to channels or nanopores for supplying a fluid containing chemical or bio-chemical species are described. In one aspect, two channels are fluidly interconnected with a nanotube. Electrodes on opposing sides of the nanotube establish electrical contact with the fluid therein. A bias current is passed between the electrodes through the fluid, and current changes are detected to ascertain the passage of select molecules, such as DNA, through the nanotube. In another aspect, a gate electrode is located proximal the nanotube between the two electrodes thus forming a nanofluidic transistor. The voltage applied to the gate controls the passage of ionic species through the nanotube selected as either or both ionic polarities. In either of these aspects the nanotube can be modified, or functionalized, to control the selectivity of detection or passage.

  18. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boni, A.A.; Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S. (PSI Technology Co., Andover, MA (USA)); Flagan, R.C. (California Inst. of Tech., Pasadena, CA (USA)); Huffman, G.P.; Huggins, F.E. (Kentucky Univ., Lexington, KY (USA)); Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA)); Sarofim, A.F. (Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (USA))

    1989-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The technical objectives of this project are: (a) To (1) define the partitioning of inorganic constituents associated with raw coal particles among products (including vapors, aerosols, and residual char/ash particles) formed under conditions representative of pulverized coal flames as a function of the specific (intrinsic and extrinsic) characteristics of the raw coal and the environment in which the transformations occur; and (2) to characterize the resultant spectrum of products in detail; (b) To elucidate and quantify the fundamental processes (involving basic principles of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics) by which transformations of the inorganic constituents occur; and (c) To develop, based on the information required in a. and b. above, a tractable process model capable of predicting the significant features of the transformation process, most importantly, the distribution and nature of products. This report represents work accomplished in the tenth quarter of performance on the contract. The authors specifically highlight work accomplished: at the California Institute of Technology (CalTech) on developing and constructing a thermophoretic sampling probe, for submicron fume particle sampling; at MIT on (1) completion of the baseline ash particle size distribution measurements for seven program coals (five US and two Australian), and (2) analysis of the fragmentation model results in terms of a closed-form solution for a simplified case; at the University of Arizona, on obtaining detailed ash particle and submicron fume chemistry for four program coals; and at PSI Technology Company (PSIT) on concluding data analysis and describing mineral interaction trends observed during combustion of two program coals. Individual progress reports have been indexed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  19. Proceedings from the Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, Jay Thatcher; Matthern, Gretchen Elise; Glenn, Anne Williams; Kauffman, J.; Rock, S.; Kuperberg, M.; Ainsworkth, C.; Waugh, J.

    2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Metals and Radionuclides Product Line of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Subsurface Contaminants Focus Area (SCFA) is responsible for the development of technologies and systems that reduce the risk and cost of remediation of radionuclide and hazardous metal contamination in soils and groundwater. The rapid and efficient remediation of these sites and the areas surrounding them represents a technological challenge. Phytoremediation, the use of living plants to cleanup contaminated soils, sediments, surface water and groundwater, is an emerging technology that may be applicable to the problem. The use of phytoremediation to cleanup organic contamination is widely accepted and is being implemented at numerous sites. This workshop was held to initiate a discussion in the scientific community about whether phytoremediation is applicable to inorganic contaminants, such as metals and radionuclides, across the DOE complex. The Workshop on Phytoremediation of Inorganic Contaminants was held at Argonne National Laboratory from November 30 through December 2, 1999. The purpose of the workshop was to provide SCFA and the DOE Environmental Restoration Program with an understanding of the status of phytoremediation as a potential remediation technology for DOE sites. The workshop was expected to identify data gaps, technologies ready for demonstration and deployment, and to provide a set of recommendations for the further development of these technologies. More specifically, the objectives of the workshop were to: · Determine the status of the existing baseline, including technological maturation, · Identify areas for future potential research, · Identify the key issues and recommendations for issue resolution, · Recommend a strategy for maturing key aspects of phytoremediation, · Improve communication and collaboration among organizations currently involved in phytoremediation research, and · Identify technical barriers to making phytoremediation commercially successful in more areas.

  20. OXIDATIVE COUPLING OF METHANE USING INORGANIC MEMBRANE REACTORS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Y.H. Ma; Dr. W.R. Moser; Dr. A.G. Dixon; Dr. A.M. Ramachandra; Dr. Y. Lu; C. Binkerd

    1998-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this research is to study the oxidative coupling of methane in catalytic inorganic membrane reactors. A specific target is to achieve conversion of methane to C{sub 2} hydrocarbons at very high selectivity and higher yields than in conventional non-porous, co-feed, fixed bed reactors by controlling the oxygen supply through the membrane. A membrane reactor has the advantage of precisely controlling the rate of delivery of oxygen to the catalyst. This facility permits balancing the rate of oxidation and reduction of the catalyst. In addition, membrane reactors minimize the concentration of gas phase oxygen thus reducing non selective gas phase reactions, which are believed to be a main route for the formation of CO{sub x} products. Such gas phase reactions are a cause of decreased selectivity in the oxidative coupling of methane in conventional flow reactors. Membrane reactors could also produce higher product yields by providing better distribution of the reactant gases over the catalyst than the conventional plug flow reactors. Membrane reactor technology also offers the potential for modifying the membranes both to improve catalytic properties as well as to regulate the rate of the permeation/diffusion of reactants through the membrane to minimize by-product generation. Other benefits also exist with membrane reactors, such as the mitigation of thermal hot-spots for highly exothermic reactions such as the oxidative coupling of methane. The application of catalytically active inorganic membranes has potential for drastically increasing the yield of reactions which are currently limited by either thermodynamic equilibria, product inhibition, or kinetic selectivity.

  1. Predicting the oceanic input of organic carbon by continental erosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ludwig, W.; Probst, J.C. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg (France)] [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Strasbourg (France); Kempe, S. [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany)] [Technische Hochschule Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Empirical models were developed to describe relationships between the climatic, biologic, and geomorphologic characteristics of major world rivers and the observed dissolved and particulate carbon fluxes. The main purpose of the study was to determine the best regression models to describe river carbon flux at a global scale. Model parameters were grouped in all possible combinations and in a way to minimize the effects of multicollinearity. All parameter combinations were then tested individually. A model was developed with parameters which corresponded well to field results and global carbon fluxes which were close to previous estimates. The model was also used to relate the variability of annual carbon fluxes to the environmental variability of river basins. The statistical approach allows only a general view, but is capable of identifying the principal factors controlling global organic carbon flux. 111 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs.

  2. Stable carbonous catalyst particles and method for making and utilizing same

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ganguli, Partha S.; Comolli, Alfred G.

    2005-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Stable carbonous catalyst particles composed of an inorganic catalytic metal/metal oxide powder and a carbonaceous binder material are formed having a basic inner substantially uniform-porous carbon coating of the catalytic powder, and may include an outer porous carbon coating layer. Suitable inorganic catalytic powders include zinc-chromite (ZnO/Cr.sub.2 03) and suitable carbonaceous liquid binders having molecular weight of 200-700 include partially polymerized furfuryl alcohol, which are mixed together, shaped and carbonized and partially oxidized at elevated temperature. Such stable carbonous catalyst particles such as 0.020-0.100 inch (0.51-2.54 mm) diameter extrudates, have total carbon content of 2-25 wt. % and improved crush strength of 1.0-5 1b/mn, 50-300 m.sup.2 /g surface area, and can be advantageously utilized in fixed bed or ebullated/fluidized bed reactor operations. This invention also includes method steps for making the stable carbonous catalyst particles having improved particle strength and catalytic activity, and processes for utilizing the active stable carbonous carbon-coated catalysts such as for syn-gas reactions in ebullated/fluidized bed reactors for producing alcohol products and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis liquid products.

  3. Direct and indirect photoreactions of chromophoric dissolved organic matter : roles of reactive oxygen species and iron

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goldstone, Jared Verrill, 1971-

    2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Photochemical transformations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are one of the principal processes controlling its fate in coastal waters. The photochemical decomposition of CDOM leads to the formation of a ...

  4. Distal transport of dissolved hydrothermal iron in the deep South Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fitzsimmons, Jessica N.

    Until recently, hydrothermal vents were not considered to be an important source to the marine dissolved Fe (dFe) inventory because hydrothermal Fe was believed to precipitate quantitatively near the vent site. Based on ...

  5. Chemical characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in seawater : structure, cycling, and the role of biology

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Quan, Tracy M. (Tracy Michelle), 1977-

    2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The goal of this thesis is to investigate three different areas relating to the characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM): further determination of the chemical compounds present in high molecular weight DOM ...

  6. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY TO EVALUATE CORROSION OF THE F-CANYON DISSOLVER DURING THEUNIRRADIATED MARK-42 CAMPAIGN

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J; Kerry Dunn, K

    1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Unirradiated Mark 42 fuel tubes are to be dissolved in an upcoming campaign in F-canyon. Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC)/Chemical & Hydrogen Technology Section (CHTS) identified a flow sheet for the dissolution of these Mark 42 fuel tubes which required a more aggressive dissolver solution than previously required for irradiated Mark 42 fuel tubes. Subsequently, SRTC/MTS was requested to develop and perform a corrosion testing program to assess the impact of new flow sheets on corrosion of the dissolver wall. The two primary variables evaluated were the fluoride and aluminum concentrations of the dissolver solution. Fluoride was added as Calcium Fluoride (CaF{sub 2}) while the aluminum was added either as metallic aluminum, which was subsequently dissolved, or as the chemical aluminum nitrate (Al(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}). The dissolved aluminum metal was used to simulate the dissolution of the aluminum from the Mark 42 cladding and fuel matrix. Solution composition for the corrosion tests bracketed the flow sheet for the Mark 42. Corrosion rates of AISI Type 304 stainless steel coupons, both welded and non-welded coupons, were calculated from measured weight losses and post-test concentrations of soluble Fe, Cr and Ni. The corrosion rates, which ranged between 2.7 and 32.5 mpy, were calculated from both the one day and the one week weight losses. These corrosion rates indicated a relatively mild corrosion on the dissolver vessel. The welded coupons consistently had a higher corrosion rate than the non-welded coupons. The difference between the two decreased as the solution aggressiveness decreased. In these test solutions, aggressiveness corresponded with the fluoride concentration. Based on the results of this study, any corrosion occurring during the Mark 42 Campaign is not expected to have a deleterious effect on the dissolver vessel.

  7. DISCOLORATION OF THE WETTED SURFACE IN THE 6.1D DISSOLVER

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudisill, T.; Mickalonis, J.; Crapse, K.

    2013-12-18T23:59:59.000Z

    During a camera inspection of a failed coil in the 6.1D dissolver, an orange discoloration was observed on a portion of the dissolver wall and coils. At the request of H-Canyon Engineering, the inspection video of the dissolver was reviewed by SRNL to assess if the observed condition (a non-uniform, orange-colored substance on internal surfaces) was a result of corrosion. Although the dissolver vessel and coil corrode during dissolution operations, the high acid conditions are not consistent with the formation of ferrous oxides (i.e., orange/rust-colored corrosion products). In a subsequent investigation, SRNL performed dissolution experiments to determine if residues from the nylon bags used for Pu containment could have generated the orange discoloration following dissolution. When small pieces of a nylon bag were placed in boiling 8 M nitric acid solutions containing other components representative of the H-Canyon process, complete dissolution occurred almost immediately. No residues were obtained even when a nylon mass to volume ratio greater than 100 times the 6.1D dissolver value was used. Degradation products from the dissolution of nylon bags are not responsible for the discoloration observed in the dissolver.

  8. Carbon Fiber

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  9. Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2013-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon Sequestration- the process of capturing the CO2 released by the burning of fossil fuels and storing it deep withing the Earth, trapped by a non-porous layer of rock.

  10. Carbon Fiber

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGetrick, Lee

    2014-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Lee McGetrick leads ORNL's effort to produce light, durable carbon fiber at lower cost -- a key to improvements in manufacturing that will produce more fuel-efficient vehicles and other advances.

  11. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL; Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

  12. Advanced Branching Control and Characterization of Inorganic Semiconducting Nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hughes, Steven Michael

    2007-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    The ability to finely tune the size and shape of inorganic semiconducting nanocrystals is an area of great interest, as the more control one has, the more applications will be possible for their use. The first two basic shapes develped in nanocrystals were the sphere and the anistropic nanorod. the II_VI materials being used such as Cadmium Selenide (CdSe) and Cadmium Telluride (CdTe), exhibit polytypism, which allows them to form in either the hexagonally packed wurtzite or cubically packed zinc blende crystalline phase. The nanorods are wurtzite with the length of the rod growing along the c-axis. As this grows, stacking faults may form, which are layers of zinc blende in the otherwise wurtzite crystal. Using this polytypism, though, the first generation of branched crystals were developed in the form of the CdTe tetrapod. This is a nanocrystal that nucleates in the zincblend form, creating a tetrahedral core, on which four wurtzite arms are grown. This structure opened up the possibility of even more complex shapes and applications. This disseration investigates the advancement of branching control and further understanding the materials polytypism in the form of the stacking faults in nanorods.

  13. Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization using combusted oil shale

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorini, S.S.; Lane, D.C.

    1991-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the ability of combusted oil shale to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous wastes. The oil shale used in the research was a western oil shale retorted in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor. Two combustion temperatures were used, 1550{degrees}F and 1620{degrees}F (843{degrees}C and 882{degrees}C). The five wastes selected for experimentation were an API separator sludge, creosote-contaminated soil, mixed metal oxide/hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge, and smelter dust. The API separator sludge and creosote-contaminated soil are US EPA-listed hazardous wastes and contain organic contaminants. The mixed metal oxide/hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge (also an EPA-listed waste), and smelter dust contain high concentrations of heavy metals. The smelter dust and mixed metal oxide/hydroxide waste fail the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for cadmium, and the metalplating sludge fails the TCLP for chromium. To evaluate the ability of the combusted oil shales to stabilize the hazardous wastes, mixtures involving varying amounts of each of the shales with each of the hazardous wastes were prepared, allowed to equilibrate, and then leached with deionized, distilled water. The leachates were analyzed for the hazardous constituent(s) of interest.

  14. Removal of inorganic trace contaminants by electrodialysis in a remote Australian community 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Banasiak, Laura J.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Water provision for developing countries is a critical issue as a vast number of lives are lost annually due to lack of access to safe drinking water. The presence and fate of inorganic trace contaminants is of particular ...

  15. Assembly and detection of viruses and biological molecules on inorganic surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sinensky, Asher Keeling

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This work is composed of three distinct, albeit related, projects. Each project is an exploration of the ways in which interactions between inorganic surfaces and biological molecules can be advantageously exploited. The ...

  16. First principles study of structure and lithium storage in inorganic nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Tibbetts, Kevin (Kevin Joseph)

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The exact structure of layered inorganic nanotubes is difficult to determine, but this information is vital to using atomistic calculations to predict nanotube properties. A multi-walled nanotube with a circular cross ...

  17. Salmon Carcasses Increase Stream Productivity More than Inorganic Fertilizer Pellets: A Test on Multiple Trophic Levels

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wagner, Diane

    Salmon Carcasses Increase Stream Productivity More than Inorganic Fertilizer Pellets: A Test experiment, we examined the short-term (6 weeks) comparative effects of artificial nutrient pellets pellet treatment was soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) concentration. Ammonium-nitrogen concentration

  18. Organic-inorganic nanocomposite membranes from highly ordered mesoporous thin films for solubility-based separations

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Yoo, Suk Joon

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    properties. In this study, we synthesized the organic-inorganic nanocomposite membranes by decorating the surfaces of commercially available mesoporous alumina substrates, and surfactant-templated highly ordered mesoporous silicate thin films placed...

  19. Formation of semivolatile inorganic aerosols in the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Karydis, V. A.

    One of the most challenging tasks for chemical transport models (CTMs) is the prediction of the formation and partitioning of the major semi-volatile inorganic aerosol components (nitrate, chloride, ammonium) between the ...

  20. Inorganic Chemistry, "01. 13,No. 7, 1974 exchange resin using acetonitrile as eluent. The acetonitrile was

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodner, George M.

    Inorganic Chemistry, "01. 13,No. 7, 1974 exchange resin using acetonitrile as eluent. The acetonitrile was removed in vacuo and the residue sublimed at 40-45" to obtain 0.764 g (4.3 5% yield, mp 145

  1. Adhesion in flexible organic and hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting device and solar cells

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu, D.; Kwabi, D.; Akogwu, O.; Du, J. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, 70 Prospect Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Olden Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Oyewole, O. K. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Physics, African University of Science and Technology, Km 10, Airport Road, Galadimawa, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara State (Nigeria); Tong, T. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, 70 Prospect Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Electrical Engineering, Princeton University, Olden Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Anye, V. C.; Rwenyagila, E. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology, Km 10, Airport Road, Galadimawa, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Asare, J.; Fashina, A. [Department of Theoretical and Applied Physics, African University of Science and Technology, Km 10, Airport Road, Galadimawa, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria); Soboyejo, W. O. [Princeton Institute of Science and Technology of Materials, Princeton University, 70 Prospect Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, Olden Street, Princeton, New Jersey 08544 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, African University of Science and Technology, Km 10, Airport Road, Galadimawa, Abuja, Federal Capital Territory (Nigeria)

    2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents the results of an experimental study of the adhesion between bi-material pairs that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, organic bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid organic/inorganic solar cells on flexible substrates. Adhesion between the possible bi-material pairs is measured using force microscopy (AFM) techniques. These include: interfaces that are relevant to organic light emitting devices, hybrid organic/inorganic light emitting devices, bulk heterojunction solar cells, and hybrid combinations of titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) and poly(3-hexylthiophene). The results of AFM measurements are incorporated into the Derjaguin-Muller-Toporov model for the determination of adhesion energies. The implications of the results are then discussed for the design of robust organic and hybrid organic/inorganic electronic devices.

  2. Summary of Tests to Determine Effectiveness of Gelatin Strike on SS{ampersand}C Dissolver Solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murray, A.M. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States); Karraker, D.G.

    1998-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The solutions from the dissolution of sand, slag, and crucible (SS&C) material are sufficiently different from previous solutions processed via the F-Canyon Purex process that the effectiveness of individual process steps needed to be ascertained. In this study, the effectiveness of gelatin strike was tested under a variety of conditions. Specifically, several concentrations of silica, fluoride, nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), and aluminium nitrate nonahydrate (ANN) were studied. The disengagement times of surrogate and plant SS&C dissolver solutions from plant solvent also were measured. The results of the tests indicate that gelatin strike does not coagulate the silica at the low concentration of silica ({tilde 30} ppm) expected in the SS&C dissolver solutions because the silicon is complexed with fluoride ions (e.g., SiF{sub 6}{sup -2}). The silicon fluoride complex is expected to remain with the aqueous phase during solvent extraction. The disengagement times of the dissolver solutions from the plant solvent were not affected by the presence of low concentrations of silica and no third phase formation was observed in the disengagement phase with the low silica concentrations. Tests of surrogate SS&C dissolver solutions with higher concentration of silica (less than 150 ppm) did show that gelatin strike followed by centrifugation resulted in good phase disengagement of the surrogate SS{ampersand}C dissolver solution from the plant dissolver solution. At the higher silica concentrations, there is not sufficient fluoride to complex with the silica, and the silica must be entrained by the gelatin and removed from the dissolver solution prior to solvent extraction.

  3. Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Steiner, Ullrich

    Exfoliation of self-assembled 2D organic-inorganic perovskite semiconductors Wendy Niu,1,a) Anna-inorganic perovskite (C6H9C2H4NH3)2PbI4 are produced using micromechanical exfoliation. Mono- and few-layer areas microme- chanical exfoliation of 2D PbI perovskites and explore the few-layer behaviour of such systems

  4. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. Forenergy and could capture and sequester carbon emissions.

  5. Capturing carbon | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    carbon Released: October 02, 2011 New technology enables molecular-level insight into carbon sequestration Carbon sequestration is a potential solution for reducing greenhouse...

  6. In Situ Infrared Spectroscopic Study of Brucite Carbonation in Dry to Water-Saturated Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loring, John S.; Thompson, Christopher J.; Zhang, Changyong; Wang, Zheming; Schaef, Herbert T.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2012-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

    In geologic carbon sequestration, while part of the injected carbon dioxide will dissolve into host brine, some will remain as neat to water saturated super critical CO2 (scCO2) near the well bore and at the caprock, especially in the short-term life cycle of the sequestration site. Little is known about the reactivity of minerals with scCO2 containing variable concentrations of water. In this study, we used high-pressure infrared spectroscopy to examine the carbonation of brucite (Mg(OH)2) in situ over a 24 hr reaction period with scCO2 containing water concentrations between 0% and 100% saturation, at temperatures of 35, 50, and 70 °C, and at a pressure of 100 bar. Little or no detectable carbonation was observed when brucite was reacted with neat scCO2. Higher water concentrations and higher temperatures led to greater brucite carbonation rates and larger extents of conversion to magnesium carbonate products. The only observed carbonation product at 35 °C was nesquehonite (MgCO3 • 3H2O). Mixtures of nesquehonite and magnesite (MgCO3) were detected at 50 °C, but magnesite was more prevalent with increasing water concentration. Both an amorphous hydrated magnesium carbonate solid and magnesite were detected at 70 °C, but magnesite predominated with increasing water concentration. The identity of the magnesium carbonate products appears strongly linked to magnesium water exchange kinetics through temperature and water availability effects.

  7. Carbon supercapacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Delnick, F.M.

    1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon supercapacitors are represented as distributed RC networks with transmission line equivalent circuits. At low charge/discharge rates and low frequencies these networks approximate a simple series R{sub ESR}C circuit. The energy efficiency of the supercapacitor is limited by the voltage drop across the ESR. The pore structure of the carbon electrode defines the electrochemically active surface area which in turn establishes the volume specific capacitance of the carbon material. To date, the highest volume specific capacitance reported for a supercapacitor electrode is 220F/cm{sup 3} in aqueous H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (10) and {approximately}60 F/cm{sup 3} in nonaqueous electrolyte (8).

  8. Carbon microtubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Huisheng (Shanghai, CN); Zhu, Yuntian Theodore (Cary, NC); Peterson, Dean E. (Los Alamos, NM); Jia, Quanxi (Los Alamos, NM)

    2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A carbon microtube comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the microtube has a diameter of from about 10 .mu.m to about 150 .mu.m, and a density of less than 20 mg/cm.sup.3. Also described is a carbon microtube, having a diameter of at least 10 .mu.m and comprising a hollow, substantially tubular structure having a porous wall, wherein the porous wall comprises a plurality of voids, said voids substantially parallel to the length of the microtube, and defined by an inner surface, an outer surface, and a shared surface separating two adjacent voids.

  9. Chemically Accelerated Carbon Mineralization: Chemical and Biological Catalytic Enhancement of Weathering of Silicate Minerals as Novel Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2010-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: Columbia University is developing a process to pull CO2 out of the exhaust gas of coal-fired power plants and turn it into a solid that can be easily and safely transported, stored above ground, or integrated into value-added products (e.g. paper filler, plastic filler, construction materials, etc.). In nature, the reaction of CO2 with various minerals over long periods of time will yield a solid carbonate—this process is known as carbon mineralization. The use of carbon mineralization as a CO2 capture and storage method is limited by the speeds at which these minerals can be dissolved and CO2 can be hydrated. To facilitate this, Columbia University is using a unique process and a combination of chemical catalysts which increase the mineral dissolution rate, and the enzymatic catalyst carbonic anhydrase which speeds up the hydration of CO2.

  10. Carbon Storage Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Sequestration Partnership MSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Montana State University MVA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring,...

  11. PREDICTION OF DISSOLVER LIFETIMES THROUGH NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION AND LABORATORY TESTING

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mickalonis, J.; Woodsmall, T.; Hinz, W.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Non-destructive evaluation was used as the primary method of monitoring the corrosion degradation of nuclear material dissolvers and assessing the remaining lifetimes. Materials were typically processed in nitric acid based (4-14M) solutions containing fluoride concentrations less than 0.2 M. The primary corrosion issue for the stainless steel dissolvers is the occurrence of localized corrosion near the tank bottom and the heat affected zones of the welds. Laboratory data for a range of operational conditions, including solution chemistry and temperature, was used to assess the impact of processing changes on the dissolver corrosion rate. Experimental and NDE-based general corrosion rates were found to be in reasonable agreement for standard dissolution chemistries consisting of nitric acid with fluorides and at temperatures less than 95 C. Greater differences were observed when chloride was present as an impurity and temperatures exceeded 100 C.

  12. On-line fast response device and method for measuring dissolved gas in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tutu, Narinder Kumar (Manorville, NY)

    2011-01-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method and device for the measurement of dissolved gas within a fluid. The fluid, substantially a liquid, is pumped into a pipe. The flow of the fluid is temporally restricted, creating one or more low pressure regions. A measurement indicative of trapped air is taken before and after the restriction. The amount of dissolved air is calculated from the difference between the first and second measurements. Preferably measurements indicative of trapped air is obtained from one or more pressure transducers, capacitance transducers, or combinations thereof. In the alternative, other methods such as those utilizing x-rays or gamma rays may also be used to detect trapped air. Preferably, the fluid is a hydraulic fluid, whereby dissolved air in the fluid is detected.

  13. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas, or even coal with carbon capture and sequestration. Afuels that facilitate carbon capture and sequestration. For

  14. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    cycle plants, possibly with carbon capture and storage (CCS)natural gas plant with carbon capture and storage technology

  15. Methanation of Carbon Dioxide

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Goodman, Daniel Jacob

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    gas plant with carbon capture and storage technology werewith carbon capture and storage (CCS) technology, to replace

  16. Carbon Additionality: Discussion Paper

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Carbon Additionality: A review Discussion Paper Gregory Valatin November 2009 Forest Research. Voluntary Carbon Standards American Carbon Registry Forest Carbon Project Standard (ACRFCPS) 27 CarbonFix Standard (CFS) 28 Climate, Community and Biodiversity Standard (CCBS) 28 Forest Carbon Standard (FCS) 28

  17. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

    1998-03-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  18. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  19. Nutrient and dissolved-oxygen distributions in the Gulf of Mexico and adjacent regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morrison, John Miller

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    renuirezent . d'or the u. =. p 'e= o 1 LA S 1" R G P S C I '"'11 C Z y Iis (h l1ajor Sub?-'er c: Ge, . anoSraoh; NUTRIENT AND DISSOLVED-OXYGE11 DISTRIBUTIONS XN THE GULF OF MEXICO AND ADJACENT REGIONS A Thesis by JOHN MILLER MORRXSON Approved... as to style and content by: (Chairman of Co ittee) (Head Department) (Member) (Me er) May &9yi) ABSTRACT Nutrient and. Dissolved-oxygen Distributions in the Gulf of Nexico and Adjacent Regions. (Nay 1974) John Miller Morrison~ B. A. , College...

  20. Renewable energy powered membrane technology: Salt and inorganic contaminant removal by nanofiltration/reverse osmosis 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Richards, Laura A.; Richards, Bryce S.; Schäfer, Andrea

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of fluctuating energy and pH on retention of dissolved contaminants from real Australian groundwaters using a solar (photovoltaic) powered ultrafiltration – ...

  1. Chlorofluorocarbons, Sulfur Hexafluoride, and Dissolved Permanent Gases in Ground Water from Selected Sites In and Near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory, Idaho, 1994 - 1997

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Busenberg, E.; Plummer, L.N.; Bartholomay, R.C.; Wayland, J.E.

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    From July 1994 through May 1997, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperations with the Department of Energy, sampled 86 wells completed in the Snake River Plain aquifer at and near the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). The wells were sampled for a variety of constituents including one- and two-carbon halocarbons. Concentrations of dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12), trichlorofluoromethane (CFC-11), and trichlorotrifluororoethane (CFC-113) were determined. The data will be used to evaluate the ages of ground waters at INEEL. The ages of the ground water will be used to determine recharge rates, residence time, and travel time of water in the Snake River Plain aquifer in and near INEEL. The chromatograms of 139 ground waters are presented showing a large number of halomethanes, haloethanes, and haloethenes present in the ground waters underlying the INEEL. The chromatograms can be used to qualitatively evaluate a large number of contaminants at parts per trillion to parts per billion concentrations. The data can be used to study temporal and spatial distribution of contaminants in the Snake River Plain aquifer. Representative compressed chromatograms for all ground waters sampled in this study are available on two 3.5-inch high density computer disks. The data and the program required to decompress the data can be obtained from the U.S. Geological Survey office at Idaho Falls, Idaho. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) concentrations were measured in selected wells to determine the feasibility of using this environmental tracer as an age dating tool of ground water. Concentrations of dissolved nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and methane were measured in 79 ground waters. Concentrations of dissolved permanent gases are tabulated and will be used to evaluate the temperature of recharge of ground water in and near the INEEL.

  2. Biogeosciences, 2, 189204, 2005 www.biogeosciences.net/bg/2/189/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    : inorganic carbon ex- port also implies that the net atmospheric CO2 sequestration by the biological pump carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, silica and calcium in the supernatant of the collection cups. At the base for carbon and ni- trogen dissolved concentrations account for 30 (±8)% and 47(±11)% of total fluxes

  3. Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Weiblen, George D

    Carbon Trading, Carbon Taxes and Social Discounting Elisa Belfiori belf0018@umn.edu University of Minnesota Abstract This paper considers the optimal design of policies to carbon emissions in an economy, such as price or quantity controls on the net emissions of carbon, are insufficient to achieve the social

  4. Environmental effects of dredging: Predicting and monitoring dredge-induced dissolved oxygen reduction. Technical notes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Houston, L.; LaSalle, M.W.; Lunz, J.D.

    1989-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This note summarizes the results of research into the potential for dissolved oxygen (DO) reduction associated with dredging operations. Efforts toward development of a simple computational model for predicting the degree of dredge-induced DO reduction are described along with results of a monitoring program around a bucket dredge operation.

  5. Fate of Acids in Clouds 1. Combination with bases dissolved in clouds: acids neutralized

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schofield, Jeremy

    problems. E#11;ects of Acid Rain 1. Vegetation: SO 2 is toxic to plants #15; Leaves damaged below pH 3 rain { Athens and Rome cathedrals and statues: pollution leads to acid rain #15; SteelFate of Acids in Clouds 1. Combination with bases dissolved in clouds: acids neutralized NH 3 (g

  6. What is the Role of Arsenite-Oxidising Bacteria in Dissolving Arsenic Minerals?

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Crawford, Ian

    What is the Role of Arsenite-Oxidising Bacteria in Dissolving Arsenic Minerals? Supervisors: Dr through dissolution of arsenic-bearing minerals. This process is mediated by bacteria, which can break down the mineral lattice by extracting nutrient elements such as potassium, or by causing redox changes

  7. Preferential Solvent Partitioning within Asphaltenic Aggregates Dissolved in Binary Solvent Mixtures

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    Preferential Solvent Partitioning within Asphaltenic Aggregates Dissolved in Binary SolventVised Manuscript ReceiVed December 9, 2006 The heaviest fraction of crude oils, asphaltenes, has been shown to play-assembled interfacially active asphaltenic aggregates. Thus, careful characterization of these aggregates is of great

  8. Did BP's oil-dissolving chemical make the spill By Kate Spinner

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Belogay, Eugene A.

    oil should be a feast for bacteria that would break down some of the most harmful products in the oilDid BP's oil-dissolving chemical make the spill worse? By Kate Spinner Published: Monday, May 30, 2011 at 8:47 p.m. BP succeeded in sinking the oil from its blown well out of sight -- and keeping much

  9. Biogeochemical and hydrographic controls on chromophoric dissolved organic matter distribution in the Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Siegel, David A.

    in the Pacific Ocean Chantal M. Swan a,Ă, David A. Siegel a,b , Norman B. Nelson a , Craig A. Carlson c , Elora Available online 19 September 2009 Keywords: CDOM AOU Pacific Water masses Hydrography Bio-optical a b s t r a c t Recent in situ observations of chromophoric dissolved organic material (CDOM) in the Pacific

  10. Method of dissolving metal oxides with di- or polyphosphonic acid and a redundant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, Earl P. (Argonne, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Argonne, IL)

    1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of dissolving metal oxides using a mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

  11. Quantitative concentration measurements of creatinine dissolved in water and urine using Raman

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Berger, Andrew J.

    to the lack of suitable materials with refractive indices lower that of water (n 1.33). Recently, howeverQuantitative concentration measurements of creatinine dissolved in water and urine using Raman in water and in urine. At short integration times, where shot noise is most troublesome, the enhanced

  12. Changes in seal capacity of fractured claystone caprocks induced by dissolved and gaseous CO2 seepage

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Luquot, Linda

    reactivate pre-existing weaknesses inherited from reservoir production periods and create new fracturesChanges in seal capacity of fractured claystone caprocks induced by dissolved and gaseous CO2 underground storage when residual CO2 gas reaches the reservoir top due to buoyancy. Permeability changes

  13. Modeling transport of dissolved silica in a forested headwater catchment: Implications for defining the hydrochemical

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scanlon, Todd

    in groundwater to be related to the saturation deficit in this zone. A positive correlation between the average and have emphasized the need for a rational, nonempirical approach for the identification stream water chemistry can provide valuable insight into the transport of dissolved materials

  14. Geographic variation in phenotypic plasticity in response to dissolved oxygen in an African cichlid fish

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nuismer, Scott L.

    Geographic variation in phenotypic plasticity in response to dissolved oxygen in an African cichlid variation in a population over a number of generations to result in a population that is locally adapted and plastic variation in gill and brain size among swamp (low oxygen; hypoxic) and river (normal oxygen

  15. Fluid Mechanics and Tt.ansDOrtPhenomena A Mathematical Model for a Dissolving Polymer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Edwards, David A.

    Fluid Mechanics and Tt.ansDOrtPhenomena A Mathematical Model for a Dissolving Polymer David A boundary-value problem. The boundary separates the polymer into two distinct states: glassy and rub- bery- ablefront speed and a self-regulatingmass uptake. Introduction In the last few years, new uses for polymers

  16. Dissolved metal contamination in the East RiverLong Island sound system: potential biological effects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Johnsen, Sönke

    in the United States. The ER­WLIS region receives treated sewage from 18 wastewater treatment plants in New YorkDissolved metal contamination in the East River­Long Island sound system: potential biological sewage, and to assess its possible biological impact on local waters. The East River­Long Island Sound

  17. Wastewater Discharge, Nutrient Loading, and Dissolved Oxygen Dynamics in a Shallow Texas Bay

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Schroer, Lee Allen

    2014-05-07T23:59:59.000Z

    In Oso Bay, a wastewater treatment plant acts as a source of eutrophication and may have measureable impact on the health of the bay. The objectives of this study were to create a model for modeling dissolved oxygen concentrations over time...

  18. The Relationships of Particulate Matter and Particulate Organic Carbon with Hypoxic Conditions Along the Texas-Louisiana Shelf

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Zuck, Nicole A

    2014-08-06T23:59:59.000Z

    an onboard surface-water flow-through system, CTD casts, and by an undulating towed vehicle. Total particulate matter and particulate organic carbon samples were obtained from Niskin bottles on CTD casts. Samples were also taken to measure dissolved oxygen...

  19. Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Public Review Draft: A Method for Assessing Carbon Stocks, Carbon Sequestration, and Greenhouse, and Zhu, Zhiliang, 2010, Public review draft; A method for assessing carbon stocks, carbon sequestration

  20. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the Management ofThe Importance of Carbon Footprint Estimation Boundaries.Carbon accounting and carbon footprint - more than just

  1. Unsteady-state material balance model for a continuous rotary dissolver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lewis, B.E.

    1984-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The unsteady-state continuous rotary dissolver material balance code (USSCRD) is a useful tool with which to study the performance of the rotary dissolver under a wide variety of operating conditions. The code does stepwise continuous material balance calculations around each dissolver stage and the digester tanks. Output from the code consists of plots and tabular information on the stagewise concentration profiles of UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2}, fission products, Pu(NO{sub 3}){sub 4}, UO{sub 2}(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}, fission product nitrates, HNO{sub 3}, H{sub 2}O, stainless steel, total particulate, and total fuel in pins. Other information about material transfers, stagewise liquid volume, material inventory, and dissolution performance is also provided. This report describes the development of the code, its limitations, key operating parameters, usage procedures, and the results of the analysis of several sets of operating conditions. Of primary importance in this work was the estimation of the steady-state heavy metal inventory in a 0.5-t/d dissolver drum. Values ranging from {similar_to}12 to >150 kg of U + Pu were obtained for a variety of operating conditions. Realistically, inventories are expected to be near the lower end of this range. Study of the variation of operating parameters showed significant effects on dissolver product composition from intermittent solids feed. Other observations indicated that the cycle times for the digesters and shear feed should be closely coupled in order to avoid potential problems with off-specification product. 19 references, 14 tables.

  2. Constraining the propagation of bomb-radiocarbon through the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) pool in the northeast Pacific Ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Beaupré, Steven R; Druffel, Ellen R.M.

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    the most recent series of thermonuclear tests. Nature 200 (Druffel, 1987) created by thermonuclear weapons testing inthe time elapsed since thermonuclear weapons testing ($50

  3. STUDIES ON THE USE OF CARBON DIOXIDE DISSOLVED IN REFRIGERATED BRINE FOR THE PRESERVATION OF WHOLE FISH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , Higman, and Siebenaler, 1952; Osterhaug, 1957; Cohen and Peters, 1962; Peters and Dassow, 1965; Roach et the growth of spoilage bacteria in fish stored in refrigerated seawater also presents a problem (Roach et al

  4. PAPER www.rsc.org/pps | Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences Alteration of chromophoric dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sommaruga, Ruben

    the lagoon that were incubated in the pre-exposed water for 5 h in the dark. Cell abundance, activity dissolved organic matter by solar UV radiation causes rapid changes in bacterial community composition We evaluated the effect of photochemical alterations of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM

  5. Constraining bubble dynamics and mixing with dissolved gases: Implications for productivity measurements by oxygen mass balance

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hamme, Roberta C; Emerson, Steven R

    2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ux estimates and bubble dynamics. Organic carbon export fromcarbon export estimates for the whole euphotic zone. Both bubblebubble ?uxes would have had a much larger effect. Previous observations of organic carbon

  6. Capacitive, deionization with carbon aerogel electrodes: Carbonate, sulfate, and phosphate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Fix, D.V.; Mack, G.V.; Pekala, R.W.; Poco, J.F.

    1995-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for the capacitive deionization (CDI) of water with a stack of carbon aerogel electrodes has been developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Unlike ion exchange, one of the more conventional deionization processes, no chemicals are required for regeneration of the system. Electricity is used instead. Water with various anions and cations is pumped through the electrochemical cell. After polarization, ions are electrostatically removed from the water and held in the electric double layers formed at the surfaces of electrodes. The water leaving the cell is purified, as desired. The effects of cell voltage on the electrosorption capacities for Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} have been investigated and are reported here. Results for NaCl and NaNO{sub 3} have been reported previously. Possible applications for CDI are as a replacement for ion exchange processes which remove heavy metals and radioisotopes from process and waste water in various industries, as well as to remove inorganic ions from feedwater for fossil and nuclear power plants.

  7. The retention time of inorganic mercury in the brain — A systematic review of the evidence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rooney, James P.K., E-mail: jrooney@rcsi.ie

    2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Reports from human case studies indicate a half-life for inorganic mercury in the brain in the order of years—contradicting older radioisotope studies that estimated half-lives in the order of weeks to months in duration. This study systematically reviews available evidence on the retention time of inorganic mercury in humans and primates to better understand this conflicting evidence. A broad search strategy was used to capture 16,539 abstracts on the Pubmed database. Abstracts were screened to include only study types containing relevant information. 131 studies of interest were identified. Only 1 primate study made a numeric estimate for the half-life of inorganic mercury (227–540 days). Eighteen human mercury poisoning cases were followed up long term including autopsy. Brain inorganic mercury concentrations at death were consistent with a half-life of several years or longer. 5 radionucleotide studies were found, one of which estimated head half-life (21 days). This estimate has sometimes been misinterpreted to be equivalent to brain half-life—which ignores several confounding factors including limited radioactive half-life and radioactive decay from surrounding tissues including circulating blood. No autopsy cohort study estimated a half-life for inorganic mercury, although some noted bioaccumulation of brain mercury with age. Modelling studies provided some extreme estimates (69 days vs 22 years). Estimates from modelling studies appear sensitive to model assumptions, however predications based on a long half-life (27.4 years) are consistent with autopsy findings. In summary, shorter estimates of half-life are not supported by evidence from animal studies, human case studies, or modelling studies based on appropriate assumptions. Evidence from such studies point to a half-life of inorganic mercury in human brains of several years to several decades. This finding carries important implications for pharmcokinetic modelling of mercury and potentially for the regulatory toxicology of mercury.

  8. CARBON NANOTUBES: PROPERTIES AND APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fischer, John, E.

    2009-07-24T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon nanotubes were discovered in 1991 as a minority byproduct of fullerene synthesis. Remarkable progress has been made in the ensuing years, including the discovery of two basic types of nanotubes (single-wall and multi-wall), great strides in synthesis and purification, elucidation of many fundamental physical properties, and important steps towards practical applications. Both the underlying science and technological potential of SWNT can profitably be studied at the scale of individual tubes and on macroscopic assemblies such as fibers. Experiments on single tubes directly reveal many of the predicted quantum confinement and mechanical properties. Semiconductor nanowires have many features in common with nanotubes, and many of the same fundamental and practical issues are in play – quantum confinement and its effect on properties; possible device structures and circuit architectures; thermal management; optimal synthesis, defect morphology and control, etc. In 2000 we began a small effort in this direction, conducted entirely by undergraduates with minimal consumables support from this grant. With DOE-BES approval, this grew into a project in parallel with the carbon nanotube work, in which we studied of inorganic semiconductor nanowire growth, characterization and novel strategies for electronic and electromechanical device fabrication. From the beginnings of research on carbon nanotubes, one of the major applications envisioned was hydrogen storage for fuel-cell powered cars and trucks. Subsequent theoretical models gave mixed results, the most pessimistic indicating that the fundamental H2-SWNT interaction was similar to flat graphite (physisorption) with only modest binding energies implying cryogenic operation at best. New material families with encouraging measured properties have emerged, and materials modeling has gained enormously in predictive power, sophistication, and the ability to treat a realistically representative number of atoms. One of the new materials, highly porous carbide-derived carbons (CDC), is the subject of an add-on to this grant awarded to myself and Taner Yildirim (NIST). Results from the add-on led eventually to a new 3-year award DE-FG02-08ER46522 “From Fundamental Understanding to Predicting New Nanomaterials for High Capacity Hydrogen Storage”, $1000K, (05/31/2008 - 05/01/2011) with Taner Yildirim and myself as co-PI’s.

  9. CALIFORNIA CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    CALIFORNIA ENERGY COMMISSION CARBON SEQUESTRATION THROUGH CHANGES IN LAND USE IN WASHINGTON. Carbon Sequestration Through Changes in Land Use in Washington: Costs and Opportunities. California for Terrestrial Carbon Sequestration in Oregon. Report to Winrock International. #12;ii #12;iii Preface

  10. Photophysics of carbon nanotubes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Samsonidze, Georgii G

    2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This thesis reviews the recent advances made in optical studies of single-wall carbon nanotubes. Studying the electronic and vibrational properties of carbon nanotubes, we find that carbon nanotubes less than 1 nm in ...

  11. Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Narasayya, Vivek

    #12;Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward Zero Carbon Energy Production Toward

  12. Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Woodland Carbon Code Requirements for voluntary carbon sequestration projects ® Version 1.2 July trademark 10 3. Carbon sequestration 11 3.1 Units of carbon calculation 11 3.2 Carbon baseline 11 3.3 Carbon leakage 12 3.4 Project carbon sequestration 12 3.5 Net carbon sequestration 13 4. Environmental quality 14

  13. Nano Res (2010) 3: 170173170 Synthesis and Characterization of WS2 Inorganic Nanotubes with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Davis, Ben G.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Nano Res (2010) 3: 170­173170 Synthesis and Characterization of WS2 Inorganic Nanotubes]. Folding and bonding of edge atoms on the periphery of the quasi two-dimensional planar nano- structure this nanotubular structure is suitable for capillary filling using molten metal halides. Nano Res (2010) 3: 170

  14. Relation of soil-, surface-, and ground-water distributions of inorganic nitrogen with

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Macdonald, Ellen

    Relation of soil-, surface-, and ground-water distributions of inorganic nitrogen with topographic position in harvested and unharvested portions of an aspen-dominated catchment in the Boreal Plain M.L. Macrae, K.J. Devito, I.F. Creed, and S.E. Macdonald Abstract: Spatial distributions of soil extractable

  15. INORGANIC NANOPARTICLES AS PHASE-CHANGE MATERIALS FOR LARGE-SCALE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pennycook, Steve

    INORGANIC NANOPARTICLES AS PHASE-CHANGE MATERIALS FOR LARGE- SCALE THERMAL ENERGY STORAGE Miroslaw storage performance. The expected immediate outcome of this effort is the demonstration of high-energy generation at high efficiency could revolutionize the development of solar energy. Nanoparticle-based phase

  16. Environmental impacts of petroleum production: Fate of inorganic and organic chemicals in

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Environmental impacts of petroleum production: Fate of inorganic and organic chemicals in produced%, respectively (1). Exploration for and production of petroleum typically involves activities such as road water from the Osage-Skiatook Petroleum Environmental Research sites, Osage County, Oklahoma Yousif K

  17. Sodium-dependent uptake of inorganic phosphate by the intracellular malaria parasite

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    McFadden, Geoff

    cytosol has a relatively low Na1 concentration2,4 and there is therefore a large inward Na1 gradient gradient to energize the uptake of inorganic phosphate (Pi), an essential nutrient. Pi was taken up of the ionic composition of its host cell. Pi is an important nutrient in cell metabolism and is required

  18. The Effects of Inorganic Solid Particles on Water and Crude Oil Emulsion Stability

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Kilpatrick, Peter K.

    are found in a variety of industries, from food and pharmaceuticals to petroleum production and refining and refining operations of the petroleum industry. 2. Background 2.1. Surface-Active Species in PetroleumThe Effects of Inorganic Solid Particles on Water and Crude Oil Emulsion Stability Andrew P

  19. Mn-Substituted Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials Based on ZnSe

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Li, Jing

    for optoelectronics and information storage technology. In this study, we demonstrate that the hybrid nanostructuresMn-Substituted Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Materials Based on ZnSe: Nanostructures That May Lead are highly desirable and extremely attractive in the development of new multifunctional devices

  20. NEW PROTON CONDUCTIVE COMPOSITE MATERIALS WITH INORGANIC AND STYRENE GRAFTED AND SULFONATED VDF/CTFE FLUOROPOLYMERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lvov, Serguei [ORNL; Payne, Terry L [ORNL

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Creation of new membrane materials for proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) operating at elevated temperature and low relative humidity (RH) is one of the major challenges in the implementation of the fuel cell technology. New candidate membrane materials are required to efficiently conduct protons at 120oC and RH down to 15%. Based on these criteria, we are working on the development of new membrane materials, which are composites of inorganic proton conductors with a functionalized and cross-linkable Teflon-type polymer. The synthesis of crosslinkable P(VDF-CTFE) copolymer with controllable structure, molecular weight and terminal and side chain silane groups was described in [1]. The chemistry of the synthesis was centered on a specifically designed functional borane initiator containing silane groups. The major role of polymer matrix is to maintain the continuity of charge transfer and to ensure membrane integrity. The primary considerations include sufficient proton conductivity, thermal and chemical stability at elevated temperature, mechanical strength, compatibility with inorganic particulate phases, processibility to form uniform thin film, and cost effectiveness. Several classes of inorganic proton conductors with high water retention capability, including mesoporous materials (sulfated and/or sulfonated alumina, zirconia, titania) and zirconium phosphate of different structure have been chosen as candidate components for the new composite membranes for PEMFC operation at elevated temperatures and reduced RH. The primary requirement to the inorganic phases is the ability to provide high proton conductivity with the minimum amount of water (reduced humidity).

  1. Synthesis, Computed Stability, and Crystal Structure of a New Family of Inorganic Compounds: Carbonophosphates

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ceder, Gerbrand

    Synthesis, Computed Stability, and Crystal Structure of a New Family of Inorganic Compounds: Carbonophosphates Hailong Chen, Geoffroy Hautier,§ and Gerbrand Ceder* Department of Materials Science are now being used to search and predict new functional materials and novel compounds. However, system

  2. Inorganic islands on a highly stretchable polyimide substrate Jeong-Yun Sun

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Inorganic islands on a highly stretchable polyimide substrate Jeong-Yun Sun Department of Material. A polyimide substrate is first coated with a thin layer of an elastomer, on top of which SiNx islands, but SiNx islands on much stiffer polyimide (PI) sub- strates crack and debond when the substrates

  3. Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells{

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Angell, C. Austen

    Binary inorganic salt mixtures as high conductivity liquid electrolytes for .100 uC fuel cells cations (e.g. ammonium) as electrolytes in fuel cells operating in the temperature range 100­200 uC, where cell operating with optimized electrodes in the same temperature range, while open circuit voltages

  4. Coupling of Organic and Inorganic Vibrational States and Their Thermal Transport in Nanocrystal Arrays

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Malen, Jonathan A.

    ) is a close-packed structure of nanocrystals (i.e., inorganic cores 2-20 nm in diameter encapsulated transistors,4 memory devices,5 light-emitting diodes,6 photodetectors,7,8 solar cells,9-11 and thermoelectric

  5. Inorganic-modified semiconductor TiO2 nanotube arrays for photocatalysis

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Lin, Zhiqun

    Inorganic-modified semiconductor TiO2 nanotube arrays for photocatalysis Mengye Wang,ab James Ioccozia,b Lan Sun,*a Changjian Lin*a and Zhiqun Lin*b Semiconductor photocatalysis is a promising resistance, and nontoxicity. This Review briefly introduces the key mechanisms of photocatalysis, highlights

  6. FLOWSHEET EVALUATION FOR THE DISSOLVING AND NEUTRALIZATION OF SODIUM REACTOR EXPERIMENT USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, W. E.; Hansen, E. K.; Shehee, T. C.

    2012-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

    This report includes the literature review, hydrogen off-gas calculations, and hydrogen generation tests to determine that H-Canyon can safely dissolve the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE; thorium fuel), Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR; aluminum alloy fuel), and Denmark Reactor (DR-3; silicide fuel, aluminum alloy fuel, and aluminum oxide fuel) assemblies in the L-Bundles with respect to the hydrogen levels in the projected peak off-gas rates. This is provided that the number of L-Bundles charged to the dissolver is controlled. Examination of SRE dissolution for potential issues has aided in predicting the optimal batching scenario. The calculations detailed in this report demonstrate that the FNR, SRE, and DR-3 used nuclear fuel (UNF) are bounded by MURR UNF and may be charged using the controls outlined for MURR dissolution in a prior report.

  7. Ambient dissolved oxygen concentrations in Delaware's Inland Bays. Final report, June 6, 1984

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biggs, R.B.

    1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Ambient dissolved oxygen concentrations were measured at dawn during August, 1983, in Rehoboth and Indian River Bays. In Indian River Bay, 59% of the D.O. measurements were below the State minimum water quality standard of 5 mg L/sup -1/, while in Rehoboth Bay 17% of the values fail to meet the State standards. Diurnal dissolved oxygen curves measured at 5 stations in the Bays and tributary creeks, provide evidence that, although the Bays are in reasonable balance with respect to apparent net daytime photosynthesis (Pa) and nighttime respiration (Rn), the absolute values of Pa and Rn are very high, compared with other coastal ecosystems, except for central Rehoboth Bay. These conclusions are consistent with the annual nutrient loads to the systems, which are about double for Indian River when contrasted with Rehoboth. 11 references, 1 figure, 7 tables.

  8. Method of making carbon-carbon composites

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engle, Glen B. (16716 Martincoit Rd., Poway, CA 92064)

    1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A process for making 2D and 3D carbon-carbon composites having a combined high crystallinity, high strength, high modulus and high thermal and electrical conductivity. High-modulus/high-strength mesophase derived carbon fibers are woven into a suitable cloth. Layers of this easily graphitizible woven cloth are infiltrated with carbon material to form green composites. The carbonized composite is then impregnated several times with pitch by covering the composite with hot pitch under pressure. The composites are given a heat treatment between each impregnant step to crack up the infiltrated carbon and allow additional pitch to enter the microstructure during the next impregnation cycle. The impregnated composites are then given a final heat treatment in the range 2500.degree. to 3100.degree. C. to fully graphitize the fibers and the matrix carbon. The composites are then infiltrated with pyrolytic carbon by chemical vapor deposition in the range 1000.degree. C. to 1300.degree. C. at a reduced. pressure.

  9. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    The Carbon Fiber Technology Facility is relevant in proving the scale- up of low-cost carbon fiber precursor materials and advanced manufacturing technologies * Significant...

  10. Motivating carbon dioxide | EMSL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Motivating carbon dioxide Motivating carbon dioxide Released: April 17, 2013 Scientists show what it takes to get the potential fuel feedstock to a reactive spot on a model...

  11. Levels of dissolved zinc and cadmium in some surface waters of western Nigeria

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fatoki, O.S. [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria)] [Obafemi Awolowo Univ., Ile-Ife (Nigeria)

    1993-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Dissolved zinc and cadmium in some surface waters of Western Nigeria were separated and quantified using anion exchange of their chloro-complexes and detected by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Concentrations of zinc and cadmium found in tested water samples ranged from 0.99 to 2.97 mg L{sup {minus}1} and 0.13 to 0.17 mg L{sup {minus}1}, respectively. 35 refs., 2 tabs.

  12. Carbon Capture (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Smit, Berend

    2011-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

    Berend Smit speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 3, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  13. Shallow Carbon Sequestration Demonstration Project

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pendergrass, Gary; Fraley, David; Alter, William; Bodenhamer, Steven

    2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The potential for carbon sequestration at relatively shallow depths was investigated at four power plant sites in Missouri. Exploratory boreholes were cored through the Davis Shale confining layer into the St. Francois aquifer (Lamotte Sandstone and Bonneterre Formation). Precambrian basement contact ranged from 654.4 meters at the John Twitty Energy Center in Southwest Missouri to over 1100 meters near the Sioux Power Plant in St. Charles County. Investigations at the John Twitty Energy Center included 3D seismic reflection surveys, downhole geophysical logging and pressure testing, and laboratory analysis of rock core and water samples. Plans to perform injectivity tests at the John Twitty Energy Center, using food grade CO{sub 2}, had to be abandoned when the isolated aquifer was found to have very low dissolved solids content. Investigations at the Sioux Plant and Thomas Hill Energy Center in Randolph County found suitably saline conditions in the St. Francois. A fourth borehole in Platte County was discontinued before reaching the aquifer. Laboratory analyses of rock core and water samples indicate that the St. Charles and Randolph County sites could have storage potentials worthy of further study. The report suggests additional Missouri areas for further investigation as well.

  14. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, S.T.; Pekala, R.W.; Kaschmitter, J.L.

    1997-05-06T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granulated materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivity and power to system energy. 1 fig.

  15. Composite carbon foam electrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Steven T. (San Leandro, CA); Pekala, Richard W. (Pleasant Hill, CA); Kaschmitter, James L. (Pleasanton, CA)

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon aerogels used as a binder for granularized materials, including other forms of carbon and metal additives, are cast onto carbon or metal fiber substrates to form composite carbon thin film sheets. The thin film sheets are utilized in electrochemical energy storage applications, such as electrochemical double layer capacitors (aerocapacitors), lithium based battery insertion electrodes, fuel cell electrodes, and electrocapacitive deionization electrodes. The composite carbon foam may be formed by prior known processes, but with the solid particles being added during the liquid phase of the process, i.e. prior to gelation. The other forms of carbon may include carbon microspheres, carbon powder, carbon aerogel powder or particles, graphite carbons. Metal and/or carbon fibers may be added for increased conductivity. The choice of materials and fibers will depend on the electrolyte used and the relative trade off of system resistivty and power to system energy.

  16. Mat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 628 2000 Materials Research Society Hybrid Inorganic/Organic Diblock Copolymers. Nanostructure in Polyhedral Oligomeric

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Mather, Patrick T.

    Our main approach to the synthesis and study of hybrid organic/inorganic materials involvesMat. Res. Soc. Symp. Proc. Vol. 628 © 2000 Materials Research Society CC2.6.1 Hybrid Inorganic the synthesis of melt processable, linear hybrid polymers containing pendent inorganic clusters, and allows us

  17. Mesoporous Carbon-based Materials for Alternative Energy Applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Cross, Kimberly Michelle

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Synthesis of Periodic Surfactant/Inorganic Composite Materials."materials, have been used as inorganic templates for the synthesissynthesis of periodic mesoporous organosilicas (Scott, Many types of organic-inorganic molecular composites or hybrid materials

  18. http://webhelp.esri.com/arcgisdesktop/9.3/index.cfm?id=1840&pid=1837&topicname=Dissolve_(Data_Management) Dissolve Aggregates features based on specified attributes. It removes internal boundaries.

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Brownstone, Rob

    http://webhelp.esri.com/arcgisdesktop/9.3/index.cfm?id=1840&pid=1837&topicname://webhelp.esri.com/arcgisdesktop/9.3/index.cfm?id=1840&pid=1837&topicname=Dissolve_(Data_Management) Parameters: Input Features

  19. Optical Properties of Moderately-Absorbing Organic and Mixed Organic/Inorganic Particles at Very High Humidities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bond, Tami C; Rood, Mark J; Brem, Benjamin T; Mena-Gonzalez, Francisco C; Chen, Yanju

    2012-04-16T23:59:59.000Z

    Relative humidity (RH) affects the water content of an aerosol, altering its ability to scatter and absorb light, which is important for aerosol effects on climate and visibility. This project involves in situ measurement and modeling of aerosol optical properties including absorption, scattering and extinction at three visible wavelengths (467, 530, 660 nm), for organic carbon (OC) generated by pyrolysis of biomass, ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride, and their mixtures at controlled RH conditions. Novel components of this project include investigation of: (1) Changes in all three of these optical properties at scanned RH conditions; (2) Optical properties at RH values up to 95%, which are usually extrapolated instead of measured; and (3) Examination of aerosols generated by the pyrolysis of wood, which is representative of primary atmospheric organic carbon, and its mixture with inorganic aerosol. Scattering and extinction values were used to determine light absorption by difference and single scattering albedo values. Extensive instrumentation development and benchmarking with independently measured and modeled values were used to obtain and evaluate these new results. The single scattering albedo value for a dry absorbing polystyrene microsphere benchmark agreed within 0.02 (absolute value) with independently published results at 530 nm. Light absorption by a nigrosin (sample light-absorbing) benchmark increased by a factor of 1.24 +/-0.06 at all wavelengths as RH increased from 38 to 95%. Closure modeling with Mie theory was able to reproduce this increase with the linear volume average (LVA) refractive index mixing rule for this water soluble compound. Absorption by biomass OC aerosol increased by a factor of 2.1 +/- 0.7 and 2.3 +/- 1.2 between 32 and 95% RH at 467 nm and 530 nm, but there was no detectable absorption at 660 nm. Additionally, the spectral dependence of absorption by OC that was observed with filter measurements was confirmed qualitatively in situ at 467 and 530 nm. Closure modeling with the dynamic effective medium approximation (DEMA) refractive index model was able to capture the increasing absorption trend with RH indicating that the droplets were heterogeneously mixed while containing dispersed insoluble absorbing material within those droplets. Seven other refractive index mixing models including LVA did not adequately describe the measurements for OC. Mixing the biomass OC aerosol with select mass fractions of ammonium sulfate ranging from 25 to 36% and sodium chloride ranging from 21 to 30% resulted in an increase in light scattering and extinction with RH and inorganic mass fraction. However, no detectable difference in light absorption behavior in comparison to pure biomass OC was observed. The main finding of this research is a measured increase in absorption with increasing RH, which is currently not represented in radiative transfer models even though biomass burning produces most of the primary OC aerosol in the atmosphere.

  20. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory Hudson (Castro Valley, CA)

    2012-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A system is described for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizing a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate, in particular water-insoluble calcium carbonate or magnesium carbonate, is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide. Among other uses, the metal hydroxide formed can be employed to absorb acid gases such as carbon dioxide from a gas mixture. The invention can also generate hydrogen and oxidative gases such as oxygen or chlorine.

  1. Research Summary Carbon Additionality

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of the quality assurance of emissions reduction and carbon sequestration activities, but remains a source of muchResearch Summary Carbon Additionality Additionality is widely considered to be a core aspect controversy in national carbon accounting, international regulatory frameworks and carbon markets. A review

  2. Acetylenic carbon allotrope

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagow, R.J.

    1998-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

    A fourth allotrope of carbon, an acetylenic carbon allotrope, is described. The acetylenic carbon allotropes of the present invention are more soluble than the other known carbon allotropes in many common organic solvents and possesses other desirable characteristics, e.g. high electron density, ability to burn cleanly, and electrical conductive properties. Many uses for this fourth allotrope are described herein. 17 figs.

  3. Carbon Monoxide Environmental Public

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The National Workgroup on Carbon Monoxide Surveillance Formed in April 2005 Membership: EPHT grantees Academic

  4. The Woodland Carbon Code

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    The Woodland Carbon Code While society must continue to make every effort to reduce greenhouse gas a role by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The potential of woodlands to soak up carbon to help compensate for their carbon emissions. But before investing in such projects, people want to know

  5. Carbon Dioxide Hydrate Particles for Ocean Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chow, Aaron C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Adams, E. Eric [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Israelsson, P. H. [Quantitative Environmental Analysis; Tsouris, Costas [ORNL

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This paper presents strategies for producing negatively buoyant CO{sub 2} hydrate composite particles for ocean carbon sequestration. Our study is based on recent field observations showing that a continuous-jet hydrate reactor located at an ocean depth of 1500 m produced curved negatively buoyant cylindrical particles with diameters {approx} 2.5 cm and lengths up to {approx} 1 m. Accordingly we performed new laboratory experiments to determine the drag coefficient of such particles and, based on the measured drag coefficient and the initial settling velocity observed in the field, have concluded that the reactor efficiency (percentage of liquid CO{sub 2} converted to hydrate) in the field was {approx} 16%. Using the dissolution rates observed in the field, we conclude that such particles would ultimately sink to depth below discharge of {approx} 115 m. We have also predicted the sinking depth of particles potentially produced from various scaled-up reactors and have shown that, for example, a 10 cm diameter particle produced with a hydrate conversion of 50% could reach the ocean bottom before completely dissolving. In a real sequestration scenario, we are interested in following large groups of hydrate particles released continuously. We have previously shown that increasing particle size and hydrate conversion efficiency enhances the sinking of hydrate particle plumes produced by the continuous release of CO{sub 2} in a quiescent ambient, but that a sufficiently strong current will cause the entrained particles to separate from the plume and settle discretely. In the latter case, particles of different sizes and hydrate conversions (hence different settling velocities) will follow different settling trajectories as they dissolve. This particle fractionation, if employed deliberately, spreads the discharged CO{sub 2} in the down current and vertical directions, enhancing mixing, while turbulent diffusion helps spread the CO{sub 2} in the third direction. A numerical model that incorporates these processes is used to predict the downstream concentrations and changes in pH from such particle plumes in a 'strong' current. An extension of this model simulates hydrate particles that are released continuously from a moving ship. Because of the ship speed, such particles would never form a coherent plume, but the combination of particle fractionation and advection due to the ship motion produces excellent dilution of the discharged CO{sub 2}.

  6. Inorganic and organic carbon variations in surface water, Konza prairie LTER site, USA, and Maolan karst experimental site, China

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Liu, Huan

    2014-05-31T23:59:59.000Z

    at the Maolan Karst Experimental (Maolan) Site, China. For the stream at the Konza LTER site, little variation in water chemistry was observed among the upstream, midstream and downstream locations, indicating the groundwater and stream water chemistry...

  7. Emissions of black carbon, organic, and inorganic aerosols from biomass burning in North America and Asia in 2008

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jimenez, Jose-Luis

    assessment of the impact of aerosols emitted from boreal forest fires on the Arctic climate necessitates) in summer 2008 and in those transported from Asia (Siberia in Russia and Kazakhstan) in spring 2008. We the microphysical properties of clouds [Lubin and Vogelmann, 2006]. Deposition of BC onto snow and ice changes

  8. The Role of Dissolved Oxygen in Hard Clam Aquaculture1 Kerry Weber, Elise Hoover, Leslie Sturmer, and Shirley Baker2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Florida, University of

    FA152 The Role of Dissolved Oxygen in Hard Clam Aquaculture1 Kerry Weber, Elise Hoover, Leslie. Visit the EDIS Web Site at http://edis.ifas.ufl.edu. 2. Kerry Weber, former graduate student; Elise

  9. A measurement of the absorption of liquid argon scintillation light by dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million level

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Jones, Benjamin James Poyner

    We report on a measurement of the absorption length of scintillation light in liquid argon due to dissolved nitrogen at the part-per-million (ppm) level. We inject controlled quantities of nitrogen into a high purity volume ...

  10. Mesoporous carbon materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Sheng; Fulvio, Pasquale Fernando; Mayes, Richard T.; Wang, Xiqing; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Guo, Bingkun

    2014-09-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A conductive mesoporous carbon composite comprising conductive carbon nanoparticles contained within a mesoporous carbon matrix, wherein the conductive mesoporous carbon composite possesses at least a portion of mesopores having a pore size of at least 10 nm and up to 50 nm, and wherein the mesopores are either within the mesoporous carbon matrix, or are spacings delineated by surfaces of said conductive carbon nanoparticles when said conductive carbon nanoparticles are fused with each other, or both. Methods for producing the above-described composite, devices incorporating them (e.g., lithium batteries), and methods of using them, are also described.

  11. Dissolved gas supersaturation associated with the thermal effluent of an electric generating station and some effects on fishes 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciesluk, Alexander Frank

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    ) of bluegill sunfish, Iargemouth bass, and red shiners exposed to various levels of dissolved gas supersaturation. . 71 15 Occurrence, by location, of external symptoms of gas-bubble disease in bluegill sunfish, la rgemouth bass, and red shiners during...-27 February cage bioassay. 58 15 Mortality and incidence of gas-bubble disease in bluegill sunfish, Iargemouth bass, and red shiners subjected to various levels of dissolved gas supersaturation for 72 hours 70 16-A Gas bubbles within the left eye of a...

  12. 2013 INORGANIC REACTION MECHANISMS GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE (MARCH 3-8, 2013 - HOTEL GALVEZ, GALVESTON TX)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abu-Omar, Mahdi M.

    2012-12-08T23:59:59.000Z

    The 2013 Gordon Conference on Inorganic Reaction Mechanisms will present cutting-edge research on the molecular aspects of inorganic reactions involving elements from throughout the periodic table and state-of-the art techniques that are used in the elucidation of reaction mechanisms. The Conference will feature a wide range of topics, such as homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis, metallobiochemistry, electron-transfer in energy reactions, polymerization, nitrogen fixation, green chemistry, oxidation, solar conversion, alkane functionalization, organotransition metal chemistry, and computational chemistry. The talks will cover themes of current interest including energy, materials, and bioinorganic chemistry. Sections cover: Electron-Transfer in Energy Reactions; Catalytic Polymerization and Oxidation Chemistry; Kinetics and Spectroscopy of Heterogeneous Catalysts; Metal-Organic Chemistry and its Application in Synthesis; Green Energy Conversion;Organometallic Chemistry and Activation of Small Molecules; Advances in Kinetics Modeling and Green Chemistry; Metals in Biology and Disease; Frontiers in Catalytic Bond Activation and Cleavage.

  13. CX-000459: Categorical Exclusion Determination

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Molecular Simulation of Dissolved Inorganic Carbons for Underground Brine Carbon Dioxide SequestrationCX(s) Applied: A9, B3.6Date: 12/07/2009Location(s): Pasadena, CaliforniaOffice(s): Fossil Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory

  14. * Corresponding author. Tel.: #44-1603-592648; fax: #44-1603-507719. E-mail address: d.bakker@uea.ac.uk (D.C.E. Bakker).

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Watson, Andrew

    with additional iron infusions after 3, 5 and 7 days. A small decrease of the fugacity of carbon dioxide (fCO ) and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) by iron-induced algal growth was observed 4}5 days after the "rst infusion

  15. Microwave-assisted synthesis of carbon nanotubes from tannin, lignin, and derivatives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Tito

    2014-06-17T23:59:59.000Z

    A method of synthesizing carbon nanotubes. In one embodiment, the method includes the steps of: (a) dissolving a first amount of a first transition-metal salt and a second amount of a second transition-metal salt in water to form a solution; (b) adding a third amount of tannin to the solution to form a mixture; (c) heating the mixture to a first temperature for a first duration of time to form a sample; and (d) subjecting the sample to a microwave radiation for a second duration of time effective to produce a plurality of carbon nanotubes.

  16. Actinide partitioning from actual ICPP dissolved zirconium calcine using the TRUEX solvent

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brewer, K.N.; Herbst, R.S.; Tranter, T.J. [and others

    1995-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The TRansUranic EXtraction process (TRUEX), as developed by E.P. Horwitz and coworkers at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), is being evaluated as a TRU extraction process for Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) wastes. A criteria that must be met during this evaluation, is that the aqueous raffinate must be below the 10 nCi/g limit specified in 10 CFR 61.55. A test was performed where the TRUEX solvent (0.2 M octyl(phenyl)-N-N-diisobutyl-carbamoylmethyl-phosphine oxide (CMPO), and 1.4 M tributylphosphate (TBP) in an Isopar-L diluent) was contacted with actual ICPP dissolved zirconium calcine. Two experimental flowsheets were used to determine TRU decontamination factors, and TRU, Zr, Fe, Cr, and Tc extraction, scrub, and strip distribution coefficients. Results from these two flowsheets show that >99.99% of the TRU alpha activity was removed from the acidic feed after three contacts with the TRUEX solvent (fresh solvent being used for each contact). The resulting aqueous raffinate solution contained an approximate TRU alpha activity of 0.02 nCi/g, which is well below the non-TRU waste limit of 10 nCi/g specified in 10 CFR 61.55. Favorable scrub and strip distribution coefficients were also observed for Am-241, Pu-238, and Pu-239, indicating the feasibility of recovering these isotopes from the TRUTEX solvent. A solution of 0.04 M 1-hydroxyethane-1,1-diphosphonic acid (HEDPA) in 0.04 M HNO{sub 3} was used to successfully strip the TRUs from the TRUEX solvent. The results of the test using actual ICPP dissolved zirconium calcine, and subsequent GTM evaluation, show the feasibility of removing TRUs from the dissolved zirconium calcine with the TRUEX solvent and the deleterious effects zirconium poses with the ICPP zirconium calcine waste. Test results using actual ICPP zirconium calcine reveal the necessity of preventing zirconium from following the TRUs.

  17. Composite Organic Radical - Inorganic Hybrid Cathode for Lithium-ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Qian; Cosimbescu, Lelia; Koech, Phillip K.; Choi, Daiwon; Lemmon, John P.

    2013-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A new organic radical inorganic hybrid cathode comprised of PTMA/LiFePO4 composite system is developed and reported for the first time. The hybrid cathodes demonstrate high pulse power capability resulting in a significant improvement over the pure PTMA or LiFePO4 cathode which is very promising for transportation and other high pulse power applications that require long cycle life and lower cost.

  18. Inorganic-Organic Molecules and Solids with Nanometer-Sized Pores

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maverick, Andrew W.

    2011-12-17T23:59:59.000Z

    We are constructing porous inorganic-organic hybrid molecules and solids, many of which contain coordinatively unsaturated metal centers. In this work, we use multifunctional ���²-diketone ligands as �¢����building blocks�¢��� to prepare extended-solid and molecular porous materials that are capable of reacting with a variety of guest molecules.

  19. Study of Electron Transport in Organic and Inorganic Atomic Monolayer Based MOS/MOSFET

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Azariah, J Cyril Robinson; Devaprakasam, D

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The wide research interest for the potential nanoelectronics applications are attracted by the organic and inorganic monolayer materials. In this work, we have studied the organic monolayer such as trichloro (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl)-silane (FOTS), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and inorganic monolayers such as hexagonal - boron nitride (h-BN) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) based MOS devices. The organic monolayer based configurations are Au/FOTS/p-Si and Au/HMDS/p-Si. The inorganic monolayer based configurations are Au/MoS2/SiO2/p-Si and Au/h-BN/SiO2/p-Si. These configurations were examined and compared with Au/SiO2/p-Si MOS configuration using the Multi-dielectric Energy Band Diagram Program (MEBDP) and MOSFeT simulation software. The C-V and I-V characteristics of MOS and MOSFET of FOTS, HMDS, h-BN, MoS2 and SiO2 were reported. The results show that the above configurations are suitable for designing MOSFETs with smaller drain induced barrier lowering (DIBL) and reduced threshold voltage. We noted that th...

  20. Controlled Synthesis of Organic/Inorganic van de Waals Solid for Tunable Light-matter Interactions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Niu, Lin; Cong, Chunxiao; Wu, Chunyang; Wu, Di; Chang, Tay-Rong; Wang, Hong; Zeng, Qingsheng; Zhou, Jiadong; Wang, Xingli; Fu, Wei; Yu, Peng; Fu, Qundong; Zhang, Zhuhua; Yakobson, Boris I; Tay, Beng Kang; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Lin, Hsin; Sum, Tze Chien; Jin, Chuanhong; He, Haiyong; Yu, Ting; Liu, Zheng

    2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Van de Waals (vdW) solids, as a new type of artificial materials that consisting of alternative layers bonded by weak interactions, have shed light on fantastic optoelectronic devices. As a result, a large variety of shining vdW devices have been engineered via layer-by-layer stacking of two-dimensional materials, although shadowed by the difficulties of fabrication. Alternatively, direct growth of vdW solids have been proved a scalable and swift way towards vdW solids, reflected by the successful synthesis of graphene/h-BN and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) vertical heterostructures from controlled vapor deposition. Enlightened by it, with a three-step deposition and reaction, we realize high-quality organic and inorganic vdW solids, using methylammonium lead halide as the organic part (organic perovskite) and 2D monolayers inorganic as counterpart. Being a perfect light absorbent, the electrons and holes generated in organic perovskite couple with its inorganic 2D companions, and behave dramaticall...

  1. Desalination with carbon aerogel electrodes. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farmer, J.C.; Richardson, J.H.; Fix, D.V. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Thomson, S.L.; May, S.C. [Bechtel National, Inc., San Francisco, CA (United States)

    1996-12-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Electrically regenerated electrosorption process (carbon aerogel CDI) was developed by LLNL for continuously removing ionic impurities from aqueous streams. A salt solution flows in a channel formed by numerous pairs of parallel carbon aerogel electrodes. Each electrode has a very high BET surface area (2-5.4x10{sup 6}ft{sup 2}lb{sup -1} or 400-1100 m{sup 2}g{sup -1}) and very low electrical resistivity ({le}40 m{Omega}). Ions are removed from the electrolyte by the electric field and electrosorbed onto the carbon aerogel. It is concluded that carbon aerogel CDI may be an energy-efficient alternative to electrodialysis and reverse osmosis for desalination of brackish water ({le}5000 ppM). The intrinsic energy required by this process is about QV/2, where Q is the stored electrical charge and V is the voltage between the electrodes, plus losses. Estimated requirement for desalination of a 2000 ppM feed is -0.53-2.5 Wh/gal{sup -1} (0.5-2.4 kJ L{sup -1}), depending on voltage, flow rate, cell dimensions, aerogel density, recovery ratio, etc. This assumes that 50-70% of the stored electrical energy is reclaimed during regeneration (electrical discharge). Though the energy requirement for desalination of sea water is also low, this application will be much more difficult. Additional work will be required for desalination of streams that contain more than 5000 ppM total dissolved solids (2000 ppM will require electrochemical cells with extremely tight, demanding tolerances). At this present time, the process is best suited for streams with dilute impurities, as recently demonstrated during a field test at LLNL Treatment Facility C.

  2. Soil metagenomics and carbon cycling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    and carbon cycling Establishing a foundational understanding of the microbial and ecosystem factors that control carbon cycling to improve climate modeling and carbon...

  3. Carbon Nanostructure-Based Sensors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sarkar, Tapan

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Control of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Functionalization.M. S. Characterizing carbon nanotube samples with resonancewith a Single-Walled Carbon Nanotube Capacitor. Science

  4. Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Large Magnetization at Carbon Surfaces Print Wednesday, 31 August 2011 00:00 From organic matter to pencil lead, carbon is a versatile...

  5. The Australian terrestrial carbon budget

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Australian terrestrial carbon budget Open Access 3 , G. P.The Australian terrestrial carbon budget Luo, C. , Mahowald,terrestrial carbon budget Richards, G. P. , Borough, C. ,

  6. Carbon fuel cells with carbon corrosion suppression

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA)

    2012-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

    An electrochemical cell apparatus that can operate as either a fuel cell or a battery includes a cathode compartment, an anode compartment operatively connected to the cathode compartment, and a carbon fuel cell section connected to the anode compartment and the cathode compartment. An effusion plate is operatively positioned adjacent the anode compartment or the cathode compartment. The effusion plate allows passage of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide exhaust channels are operatively positioned in the electrochemical cell to direct the carbon dioxide from the electrochemical cell.

  7. A three-phase free boundary problem with melting ice and dissolving gas

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Maurizio Ceseri; John M. Stockie

    2014-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

    We develop a mathematical model for a three-phase free boundary problem in one dimension that involves the interactions between gas, water and ice. The dynamics are driven by melting of the ice layer, while the pressurized gas also dissolves within the meltwater. The model incorporates a Stefan condition at the water-ice interface along with Henry's law for dissolution of gas at the gas-water interface. We employ a quasi-steady approximation for the phase temperatures and then derive a series solution for the interface positions. A non-standard feature of the model is an integral free boundary condition that arises from mass conservation owing to changes in gas density at the gas-water interface, which makes the problem non-self-adjoint. We derive a two-scale asymptotic series solution for the dissolved gas concentration, which because of the non-self-adjointness gives rise to a Fourier series expansion in eigenfunctions that do not satisfy the usual orthogonality conditions. Numerical simulations of the original governing equations are used to validate the series approximations.

  8. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate-Scale Hydrodynamic Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Zhaoqing; Khangaonkar, Tarang; Labiosa, Rochelle G.; Kim, Taeyun

    2010-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

    The Washington State Department of Ecology contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to develop an intermediate-scale hydrodynamic and water quality model to study dissolved oxygen and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound and to help define potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies and decisions. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or dominate human impacts to dissolved oxygen levels in the sensitive areas. In this study, an intermediate-scale hydrodynamic model of Puget Sound was developed to simulate the hydrodynamics of Puget Sound and the Northwest Straits for the year 2006. The model was constructed using the unstructured Finite Volume Coastal Ocean Model. The overall model grid resolution within Puget Sound in its present configuration is about 880 m. The model was driven by tides, river inflows, and meteorological forcing (wind and net heat flux) and simulated tidal circulations, temperature, and salinity distributions in Puget Sound. The model was validated against observed data of water surface elevation, velocity, temperature, and salinity at various stations within the study domain. Model validation indicated that the model simulates tidal elevations and currents in Puget Sound well and reproduces the general patterns of the temperature and salinity distributions.

  9. Kinetics and Modeling of Dissolved PhosphorusExport from a Tile-Drained Agricultural Watershed

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    David, Mark B.

    of these parameters include humidity, slope, peat area percentage, minor till plain area, carbonate till area, exposed of pollutants such as chemical oxygen demand Y. Xue, M.B. David, and L.E. Gentry, Dep. of Natural Resources

  10. Carbon Monoxide Safety Tips

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shaw, Bryan W.; Garcia, Monica L.

    1999-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

    Protect yourself and your family from the deadly effects of carbon monoxide--a colorless, odorless poisonous gas. This publication describes the warning signs of carbon monoxide exposure and includes a home safety checklist....

  11. SCALE-UP OF CARBON /CARBON BIPOLAR PLATES

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates · Project Objectives ­ Build and demonstrate a pilot facility#12;SCALE-UP OF CARBON /CARBON BIPOLAR PLATES Quarterly Report to the Department of Energy, May 19 #12;DOE PROGRAM OBJECTIVES Scale-up of Carbon/Carbon Bipolar Plates · Phase I ­ Technology Development

  12. ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Santa Barbara, University of

    1 ESM 271 Carbon Footprints and Carbon Accounting Instructor: Sangwon Suh Bren hall 3422, suh: Homework (1 for each week @10%): 40% Personal carbon account (report): 30% Final exam: 30% Course schedule Week 1: Introduction to carbon footprint and carbon account - Background: carbon awareness, major

  13. Reactions of carbon atoms in pulsed molecular beams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reisler, H. [Univ. of Southern California, Los Angeles (United States)

    1993-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

    This research program consists of a broad scope of experiments designed to unravel the chemistry of atomic carbon in its two spin states, P and D, by using well-controlled initial conditions and state-resolved detection of products. Prerequisite to the proposed studies (and the reason why so little is known about carbon atom reactions), is the development of clean sources of carbon atoms. Therefore, in parallel with the studies of its chemistry and reaction dynamics, the authors continuously explore new, state-specific and efficient ways of producing atomic carbon. In the current program, C({sup 3}P) is produced via laser ablation of graphite, and three areas of study are being pursued: (i) exothermic reactions with small inorganic molecules (e.g., O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O, NO{sub 2}) that can proceed via multiple pathways; (ii) the influence of vibrational and translational energy on endothermic reactions involving H-containing reactants that yield CH products (e.g., H{sub 2}O H{sub 2}CO); (iii) reactions of C({sup 3}P) with free radicals (e.g., HCO, CH{sub 3}O). In addition, the authors plan to develop a source of C({sup 1}D) atoms by exploiting the pyrolysis of diazotetrazole and its salts in the ablation source. Another important goal involves collaboration with theoreticians in order to obtain relevant potential energy surfaces, rationalize the experimental results and predict the roles of translational and vibrational energies.

  14. Big Sky Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    (Acknowledgment to the Big Sky Carbon Sequestration Partnership (BSCSP); see home page at http://www.bigskyco2.org/)

  15. Using dissolved noble gas and isotopic tracers to evaluate the vulnerability of groundwater resources in a small, high elevation catchment to predicted climate changes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Singleton, M J; Moran, J E

    2009-10-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We use noble gas concentrations and multiple isotopic tracers in groundwater and stream water in a small high elevation catchment to provide a snapshot of temperature, altitude, and physical processes at the time of recharge; and to determine subsurface residence times of different groundwater components. They identify three sources that contribute to groundwater flow: (1) seasonal groundwater recharge with short travel times, (2) water from bedrock aquifers that have elevated radiogenic {sup 4}He, and (3) upwelling of deep fluids that have 'mantle' helium and hydrothermal carbon isotope signatures. Although a bimodal distribution in apparent groundwater age indicates that groundwater storage times range from less than a year to several decades, water that recharges seasonally is the largest likely contributor to stream baseflow. Under climate change scnearios with earlier snowmelt, the groundwater that moves through the alluvial aquifer seasonally will be depleted earlier, providing less baseflow and possible extreme low flows in the creek during summer and fall. Dissolved noble gas measurements indciate recharge temperatures are 5 to 11 degrees higher than would be expected for direct influx of snowmelt, and that excess air concentrations are lower than would be expected for recharge through bedrock fractures. Instead, recharge likely occurs over diffuse vegetated areas, as indicated by {delta}{sup 13}C-DIC values that are consistent with incorporation of CO{sub 2} from soil respiration. Recharge temperatures are close to or slightly higher than mean annual air temperature, and are consistent with recharge during May and June, when snowpack melting occurs.

  16. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2010-01-08T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  17. Intro to Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2008-03-06T23:59:59.000Z

    NETL's Carbon Sequestration Program is helping to develop technologies to capture, purify, and store carbon dioxide (CO2) in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions without adversely influencing energy use or hindering economic growth. Carbon sequestration technologies capture and store CO2 that would otherwise reside in the atmosphere for long periods of time.

  18. Carbon Footprint Towson University

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fath, Brian D.

    Carbon Footprint Towson University GHG Inventory for Educational Institutes Getting Starting.TM The Carbon Footprint 8 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 1. Scope I-Direct Emissions works.TM The Carbon Footprint 10 The Constellation Experience A Broad Inventory 3. Scope III

  19. Manufacture of finely divided carbon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Walker, D.G.

    1980-01-22T23:59:59.000Z

    Finely divided carbon is manufactured by a process producing a gaseous stream containing carbon monoxide by reacting coal and air in a slagging ash gasifier, separating carbon monoxide from the gaseous mixture, and disproportionating the carbon monoxide to produce finely divided carbon and carbon dioxide, the latter of which is recycled to the gasifier.

  20. SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    SmallholderSmallholder CarbonCarbon AgroforestryAgroforestry && Carbon for Poverty ReductionCarbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Roundtable (CAPR) GEO Forest Monitoring SymposiumGEO Forest Monitoring)Amazon Initiative Consortium (IA) #12;Carbon for Poverty Reduction Roundtable (CAPR)Carbon for Poverty Reduction

  1. Criticality experiments with low enriched UO/sub 2/ fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bierman, S.R.; Murphy, E.S.; Clayton, E.D.; Keay, R.T.

    1984-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The results obtained in a criticality experiments program performed for British Nuclear Fuels, Ltd. (BNFL) under contract with the United States Department of Energy (USDOE) are presented in this report along with a complete description of the experiments. The experiments involved low enriched UO/sub 2/ and PuO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ fuel rods in water containing dissolved gadolinium, and are in direct support of BNFL plans to use soluble compounds of the neutron poison gadolinium as a primary criticality safeguard in the reprocessing of low enriched nuclear fuels. The experiments were designed primarily to provide data for validating a calculation method being developed for BNFL design and safety assessments, and to obtain data for the use of gadolinium as a neutron poison in nuclear chemical plant operations - particularly fuel dissolution. The experiments program covers a wide range of neutron moderation (near optimum to very under-moderated) and a wide range of gadolinium concentration (zero to about 2.5 g Gd/l). The measurements provide critical and subcritical k/sub eff/ data (1 greater than or equal to k/sub eff/ greater than or equal to 0.87) on fuel-water assemblies of UO/sub 2/ rods at two enrichments (2.35 wt % and 4.31 wt % /sup 235/U) and on mixed fuel-water assemblies of UO/sub 2/ and PuO/sub 2/-UO/sub 2/ rods containing 4.31 wt % /sup 235/U and 2 wt % PuO/sub 2/ in natural UO/sub 2/ respectively. Critical size of the lattices was determined with water containing no gadolinium and with water containing dissolved gadolinium nitrate. Pulsed neutron source measurements were performed to determine subcritical k/sub eff/ values as additional amounts of gadolinium were successively dissolved in the water of each critical assembly. Fission rate measurements in /sup 235/U using solid state track recorders were made in each of the three unpoisoned critical assemblies, and in the near-optimum moderated and the close-packed poisoned assemblies of this fuel.

  2. Chemical Equilibrium of the Dissolved Uranium in Groundwaters From a Spanish Uranium-Ore Deposit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Garralon, Antonio; Gomez, Paloma; Turrero, Maria Jesus; Buil, Belen; Sanchez, Lorenzo [Departamento de Medio Ambiente, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22. Edificio 19, Madrid, 28040 (Spain)

    2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The main objectives of this work are to determine the hydrogeochemical evolution of an uranium ore and identify the main water/rock interaction processes that control the dissolved uranium content. The Mina Fe uranium-ore deposit is the most important and biggest mine worked in Spain. Sageras area is located at the north part of the Mina Fe, over the same ore deposit. The uranium deposit was not mined in Sageras and was only perturbed by the exploration activities performed 20 years ago. The studied area is located 10 Km northeast of Ciudad Rodrigo (Salamanca) at an altitude over 650 m.a.s.l. The uranium mineralization is related to faults affecting the metasediments of the Upper Proterozoic to Lower Cambrian schist-graywacke complex (CEG), located in the Centro-Iberian Zone of the Hesperian Massif . The primary uranium minerals are uraninite and coffinite but numerous secondary uranium minerals have been formed as a result of the weathering processes: yellow gummite, autunite, meta-autunite, torbernite, saleeite, uranotile, ianthinite and uranopilite. The water flow at regional scale is controlled by the topography. Recharge takes place mainly in the surrounding mountains (Sierra Pena de Francia) and discharge at fluvial courses, mainly Agueda and Yeltes rivers, boundaries S-NW and NE of the area, respectively. Deep flows (lower than 100 m depth) should be upwards due to the river vicinity, with flow directions towards the W, NW or N. In Sageras-Mina Fe there are more than 100 boreholes drilled to investigate the mineral resources of the deposit. 35 boreholes were selected in order to analyze the chemical composition of groundwaters based on their depth and situation around the uranium ore. Groundwater samples come from 50 to 150 m depth. The waters are classified as calcium-bicarbonate type waters, with a redox potential that indicates they are slightly reduced (values vary between 50 to -350 mV). The TOC varies between <0.1 and 4.0 mgC/L and the dissolved uranium has a maximum value of 7.7 mg/L. According the analytical data of dissolved uranium, the mineral closest to equilibrium seems to be UO{sub 2}(am). The tritium contents in the groundwaters vary between 1.5 and 7.3 T.U. Considering that the mean value of tritium in rainwater from the studied area has a value of 4 T.U., it can be concluded that the residence times of the groundwaters are relatively short, not longer than 50 years in the oldest case. (authors)

  3. Phytosequestration: Carbon biosequestration by plants and the prospects of genetic engineering

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jansson, C.; Wullschleger, S.D.; Kalluri, U.C.; Tuskan, G.A.

    2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Photosynthetic assimilation of atmospheric carbon dioxide by land plants offers the underpinnings for terrestrial carbon (C) sequestration. A proportion of the C captured in plant biomass is partitioned to roots, where it enters the pools of soil organic C and soil inorganic C and can be sequestered for millennia. Bioenergy crops serve the dual role of providing biofuel that offsets fossil-fuel greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and sequestering C in the soil through extensive root systems. Carbon captured in plant biomass can also contribute to C sequestration through the deliberate addition of biochar to soil, wood burial, or the use of durable plant products. Increasing our understanding of plant, microbial, and soil biology, and harnessing the benefits of traditional genetics and genetic engineering, will help us fully realize the GHG mitigation potential of phytosequestration.

  4. Shape transition of unstrained flattest single-walled carbon nanotubes under pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mu, Weihua, E-mail: whmu@mit.edu, E-mail: muwh@itp.ac.cn [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2735 Beijing 100190 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2735 Beijing 100190 (China); Cao, Jianshu, E-mail: jianshu@mit.edu [Department of Chemistry, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Ou-Yang, Zhong-can [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2735 Beijing 100190 (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, P. O. Box 2735 Beijing 100190 (China); Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART), Singapore 138602 (Singapore); Center for Advanced Study, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2014-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

    Single walled carbon nanotube's (SWCNT's) cross section can be flattened under hydrostatic pressure. One example is the cross section of a single walled carbon nanotube successively deforms from the original round shape to oval shape, then to peanut-like shape. At the transition point of reversible deformation between convex shape and concave shape, the side wall of nanotube is flattest. This flattest tube has many attractive properties. In the present work, an approximate approach is developed to determine the equilibrium shape of this unstrained flattest tube and the curvature distribution of this tube. Our results are in good agreement with recent numerical results, and can be applied to the study of pressure controlled electric properties of single walled carbon nanotubes. The present method can also be used to study other deformed inorganic and organic tube-like structures.

  5. Formation of Carbon Dwarfs

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Charles L. Steinhardt; Dimitar D. Sasselov

    2012-01-27T23:59:59.000Z

    We consider the formation of dwarf carbon stars via accretion from a carbon AGB companion in light of the new 107 object sample of Downes et al. (2004). This sample is now large enough to allow good mass determination via comparison of a composite spectrum to theoretical atmospheric models. Carbon dwarfs of spectral type M are indeed main sequence M dwarfs with enhanced metallicity and carbon abundance. We also calculate the predicted abundance of both M and of F/G carbon dwarfs, and show that the latter should be falsifiable in the near future.

  6. Inorganic aerosols responses to emission changes in Yangtze River Delta, China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Xinyi; Li, Juan; Fu, Joshua S.; Gao, Yang; Huang, Kan; Zhuang, Guoshun

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    China announced the Chinese National Ambient Air Quality standards (CH-NAAQS) on Feb. 29th, 2012, and PM2.5 is for the very first time included in the standards as a criteria pollutant. In order to probe into PM2.5 pollution over Yangtze River Delta, which is one of the major urban clusters hosting more than 80 million people in China, the integrated MM5/CMAQ modeling system is applied for a full year simulation to examine the PM2.5 concentration and seasonality, and also the inorganic aerosols responses to precursor emission changes. Both simulation and observation demonstrated that, inorganic aerosols have substantial contributions to PM2.5 over YRD, ranging from 37.1% in November to 52.8% in May. Nocturnal production of nitrate (NO3-) through heterogeneous hydrolysis of N2O5 was found significantly contribute to high NO3-concentration throughout the year. We also found that in winter NO3- was even increased under nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction due to higher production of N2O5 from the excessive ozone (O3) introduced by attenuated titration, which further lead to increase of ammonium (NH4+) and sulfate (SO42-), while other seasons showed decrease response of NO3-. Sensitivity responses of NO3- under anthropogenic VOC emission reduction was examined and demonstrated that in urban areas over YRD, NO3- formation was actually VOC sensitive due to the O3-involved nighttime chemistry of N2O5, while a reduction of NOx emission may have counter-intuitive effect by increasing concentrations of inorganic aerosols.

  7. Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon fiber

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Das, Suman

    Study of fire retardant behavior of carbon nanotube membranes and carbon nanofiber paper in carbon Accepted 14 January 2010 Available online 20 January 2010 A B S T R A C T Single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) and multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) membranes (buckypaper) and carbon nanofiber (CNF) paper

  8. Diffusional motion of redox centers in carbonate electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Kee Sung [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Persson, Kristin A. [Environmental Energy Technologies Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei [Energy and Environmental Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Hu, Jian Zhi [Fundamental and Computational Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Mueller, Karl T., E-mail: karl.mueller@pnnl.gov [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferrocene (Fc) and N-(ferrocenylmethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-N-ethylammonium bistrifluoromethyl-sulfonimide (Fc1N112-TFSI) were dissolved in carbonate solvents and self-diffusion coefficients (D) of solutes and solvents were measured by {sup 1}H and {sup 19}F pulsed field gradient nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The organic solvents were propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC), and a ternary mixture that also includes ethylene carbonate (EC). Results from NMR studies over the temperature range of 0–50 °C and for various concentrations (0.25–1.7 M) of Fc1N112-TFSI are compared to values of D simulated with classical molecular dynamics (MD). The measured self-diffusion coefficients gradually decreased as the Fc1N112-TFSI concentration increased in all solvents. Since TFSI{sup ?} has fluoromethyl groups (CF{sub 3}), D{sub TFSI} could be measured separately and the values found are larger than those for D{sub Fc1N112} in all samples measured. The EC, PC, and EMC have the same D in the neat solvent mixture and when Fc is dissolved in EC/PC/EMC at a concentration of 0.2 M, probably due to the interactions between common carbonyl structures within EC, PC, and EMC. A difference in D (D{sub PC} < D{sub EC} < D{sub EMC}), and both a higher E{sub a} for translational motion and higher effective viscosity for PC in the mixture containing Fc1N112-TFSI reflect the interaction between PC and Fc1N112{sup +}, which is a relatively stronger interaction than that between Fc1N112{sup +} and other solvent species. In the EC/PC/EMC solution that is saturated with Fc1N112-TFSI, we find that D{sub PC} = D{sub EC} = D{sub EMC} and Fc1N112{sup +} and all components of the EC/PC/EMC solution have the same E{sub a} for translational motion, while the ratio D{sub EC/PC/EMC}/D{sub Fc1N112} is approximately 3. These results reflect the lack of available free volume for independent diffusion in the saturated solution. The Fc1N112{sup +} transference numbers lie around 0.4 and increase slightly as the temperature is increased in the PC and EMC solvents. The trends observed for D from simulations are in good agreement with experimental results and provide molecular level understanding of the solvation structure of Fc1N112-TFSI dissolved in EC/PC/EMC.

  9. Diffusional Motion of Redox Centers in Carbonate Electrolytes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Han, Kee Sung; Rajput, Nav Nidhi; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Wei; Hu, Jian Z.; Persson, Kristin A.; Mueller, Karl T.

    2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Ferrocene (Fc) and N-(ferrocenylmethyl)-N,N-dimethyl-N-ethylammonium bistrifluoromethyl-sulfonimide (Fc1N112-TFSI) were dissolved in carbonate solvents and self diffusion coefficents (D) of solutes and solvents were measured by 1H and 19F pulsed field gradient (PFG) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. The organic solvents were propylene carbonate (PC), ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) and a ternary mixture that also includes ethylene carbonate (EC). Results from NMR studies over the temperature range of 0-50 °C and for various concentrations (0.25 - 1.7 M) of Fc1N112-TFSI are compared to values of D simulated with classical molecular dynamics (MD). The measured self-diffusion coefficients gradually decreased as the Fc1N112-TFSI concentration increased in all solvents. Since the peaks for the two ions (Fc1N212 and TFSI) are separated in one-dimensional NMR spectra, separate diffusion coefficients could be measured and DTFSI is larger than DFc1N112 in all samples measured. The EC, PC and EMC have the same D in the neat solvent mixture and when Fc is dissolved in EC/PC/EMC at a concentration of 0.2 M, probably due to the interactions between common carbonyl structures within EC, PC and EMC. A difference in D (DPC < DEC < DEMC), and both a higher Ea for translational motion and higher effective viscosity for PC in the mixture containing Fc1N112-TFSI reflect the interaction between PC and Fc1N112+, which is a relatively stronger interaction than that between Fc1N112+ and other solvent species. In the EC/PC/EMC solution that is saturated with Fc1N112-TFSI, we find that DPC = DEC = DEMC and Fc1N112+ and all components of the EC/PC/EMC solution have the same Ea for translational motion, while the ratio DEC/PC/EMC/DFc1N112+ is approximately 3. These results reflect the lack of available free volume for independent diffusion in the saturated solution. The Fc1N112+ transference numbers lie around 0.4 and increases slightly as the temperature is increased in the PC and EMC solvents. The trends observed for D from simulations are in good agreement with experimental results and provide molecular level understanding of the solvation structure of Fc1N112-TFSI dissolved in EC/PC/EMC.

  10. Understanding ligand-centred photoluminescence through flexibility and bonding of anthraquinone inorganic?organic frameworks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Furman, Joshua D.; Burwood, Ryan P.; Tang, Min; Mikhailovsky, Alexander A.; Cheetham, Anthony K. (Cambridge); (UCSB)

    2011-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Five novel inorganic-organic framework compounds containing the organic chromophore ligand anthraquinone-2,3-dicarboxylic acid (abbreviated H{sub 2}AQDC) and calcium (CaAQDC), zinc (ZnAQDC), cadmium (CdAQDC), manganese (MnAQDC), and nickel (NiAQDC), respectively, have been synthesized. The photoluminescence of these materials is only visible at low temperatures and this behaviour has been evaluated in terms of ligand rigidity. It is proposed that the 2,3 position bonding sites result in luminescence-quenching ligand motion, as supported by X-ray diffraction and temperature-dependent luminescence studies.

  11. Inorganic, Radioisotopic, and Organic Analysis of 241-AP-101 Tank Waste

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fiskum, S.K.; Bredt, P.R.; Campbell, J.A.; Farmer, O.T.; Greenwood, L.R.; Hoppe, E.W.; Hoopes, F.V.; Lumetta, G.J.; Mong, G.M.; Ratner, R.T.; Soderquist, C.Z.; Steele, M.J.; Swoboda, R.G.; Urie, M.W.; Wagner, J.J.

    2000-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Battelle received five samples from Hanford waste tank 241-AP-101, taken at five different depths within the tank. No visible solids or organic layer were observed in the individual samples. Individual sample densities were measured, then the five samples were mixed together to provide a single composite. The composite was homogenized and representative sub-samples taken for inorganic, radioisotopic, and organic analysis. All analyses were performed on triplicate sub-samples of the composite material. The sample composite did not contain visible solids or an organic layer. A subsample held at 10 C for seven days formed no visible solids.

  12. A method of determining the dissolved oxygen in the moisture of a porous medium and some oxygen diffusion studies

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Runkles, Jack Ralph

    1952-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    this dissolved oxygen The sample chamber apparatus gives ocnsplcte seal of the bottle from the atmosphere The ohsabor does not require a large ameunt Of nitrogen Sb remove all the oxygen from it, It is easily portable and light in weight The proposed method... METHOD QF DETRHRIUIHO THE DISSOLVED OXmEK IE THE MOISTURE OF A POROUS ERDD% @AD SMfE QXYOEB DKFFUSIOE STUDIES ' INTRO DUO fQRF, I Oxygen, bas been known to be important in plant growth fox maay years There has been a great deal of xesearoh...

  13. Dissolved Nutrient Retention Dynamics in River Networks: A Modeling Investigation of Transient Flow and Scale Effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ye, Sheng; Covino, Timothy P.; Sivapalan, Murugesu; Basu, Nandita; Li, Hongyi; Wang, Shaowen

    2012-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

    In this paper, we use a dynamic network flow model, coupled with a transient storage zone biogeochemical model, to simulate dissolved nutrient removal processes at the channel network scale. We have explored several scenarios in respect of the combination of rainfall variability, and the biological and geomorphic characteristics of the catchment, to understand the dominant controls on removal and delivery of dissolved nutrients (e.g., nitrate). These model-based theoretical analyses suggested that while nutrient removal efficiency is lower during flood events compared to during baseflow periods, flood events contribute significantly to bulk nutrient removal, whereas bulk removal during baseflow periods is less. This is due to the fact that nutrient supply is larger during flood events; this trend is even stronger in large rivers. However, the efficiency of removal during both periods decreases in larger rivers, however, due to (i) increasing flow velocities and thus decreasing residence time, and (ii) increasing flow depth, and thus decreasing nutrient uptake rates. Besides nutrient removal processes can be divided into two parts: in the main channel and in the hyporheic transient storage zone. When assessing their relative contributions the size of the transient storage zone is a dominant control, followed by uptake rates in the main channel and in the transient storage zone. Increasing size of the transient storage zone with downstream distance affects the relative contributions to nutrient removal of the water column and the transient storage zone, which also impacts the way nutrient removal rates scale with increasing size of rivers. Intra-annual hydrologic variability has a significant impact on removal rates at all scales: the more variable the streamflow is, compared to mean discharge, the less nutrient is removed in the channel network. A scale-independent first order uptake coefficient, ke, estimated from model simulations, is highly dependent on the relative size of the transient storage zone and how it changes in the downstream direction, as well as the nature of hydrologic variability.

  14. Evaluation and Testing of the Cells Unit Crossflow Filter on INEEL Dissolved Calcine Slurries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    N. R. Mann; T. A. Todd

    1998-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Development of waste treatment processes for the remediation of radioactive wastes is currently under way at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), located at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). INTEC, formerly known as the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant, previously reprocessed nuclear fuel to retrieve fissionable uranium. Liquid waste raffinates resulting from reprocessing were solidified into a granular calcine material. Approximately 4,000 m3 of calcine are presently being stored in concrete encased stainless steel bins at the INTEC. Greater than 99 weight percent of the calcine is non-radioactive inert materials. By separating radioactive and non-radioactive constituents into high and low activity fractions, a significant high-activity volume reduction can be achieved. Prior to separation, calcine dissolution must be performed. However, dissolution studies have shown a small percentage of solids present after dissolution. Undissolved solids (UDS) in solution must be removed prior to downstream processes such as solvent extraction and ion exchange. Furthermore, residual UDS in solutions have the potential to carry excess radioactivity into low activity waste fractions, if not removed. Filtration experiments were conducted at the INEEL using the Cell Unit Filter (CUF) on actual dissolved H-4 calcine and dissolved Run 1027 non-radioactive pilot plant calcine. The purpose of this testing was to evaluate the removal and operational efficiency of crossflow filtration on slurries of various solids loading. The solids loadings tested were, 0.19, 2.44 (H-4) and 7.94 (1027) weight percent, respectively. A matrix of test patterns was used to determine the effects of transmembrane pressure and axial velocity on filtrate flux. Filtrate flux rates for each solids loading displayed a high dependence on transmembrane pressure, indicating that pressure filtration resistance limits filtrate flux. Filtrate flux rates for all solids loading displayed a negative dependency on axial velocity. This would suggest axial velocities tested were efficient at removing filter cake.

  15. Effect of chloride content of molten nitrate salt on corrosion of A516 carbon steel.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, Robert W.; Clift, W. Miles

    2010-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The corrosion behavior of A516 carbon steel was evaluated to determine the effect of the dissolved chloride content in molten binary Solar Salt. Corrosion tests were conducted in a molten salt consisting of a 60-40 weight ratio of NaNO{sub 3} and KNO{sub 3} at 400{sup o}C and 450{sup o}C for up to 800 hours. Chloride concentrations of 0, 0.5 and 1.0 wt.% were investigated to determine the effect on corrosion of this impurity, which can be present in comparable amounts in commercial grades of the constituent salts. Corrosion rates were determined by descaled weight losses, corrosion morphology was examined by metallographic sectioning, and the types of corrosion products were determined by x-ray diffraction. Corrosion proceeded by uniform surface scaling and no pitting or intergranular corrosion was observed. Corrosion rates increased significantly as the concentration of dissolved chloride in the molten salt increased. The adherence of surface scales, and thus their protective properties, was degraded by dissolved chloride, fostering more rapid corrosion. Magnetite was the only corrosion product formed on the carbon steel specimens, regardless of chloride content or temperature.

  16. Carbon dioxide sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dutta, Prabir K. (Worthington, OH); Lee, Inhee (Columbus, OH); Akbar, Sheikh A. (Hilliard, OH)

    2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention generally relates to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor that incorporates lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3). In another embodiment, the present invention relates to a carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensor has a reduced sensitivity to humidity due to a sensing electrode with a layered structure of lithium carbonate and barium carbonate. In still another embodiment, the present invention relates to a method of producing carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sensors having lithium phosphate (Li.sub.3PO.sub.4) as an electrolyte and sensing electrode comprising a combination of lithium carbonate (Li.sub.2CO.sub.3) and barium carbonate (BaCO.sub.3).

  17. THE SCENARIOS APPROACH TO ATTENUATION-BASED REMEDIES FOR INORGANIC AND RADIONUCLIDE CONTAMINANTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vangelas, K.; Rysz, M.; Truex, M.; Brady, P.; Newell, C.; Denham, M.

    2011-08-04T23:59:59.000Z

    Guidance materials based on use of conceptual model scenarios were developed to assist evaluation and implementation of attenuation-based remedies for groundwater and vadose zones contaminated with inorganic and radionuclide contaminants. The Scenarios approach is intended to complement the comprehensive information provided in the US EPA's Technical Protocol for Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) of Inorganic Contaminants by providing additional information on site conceptual models and extending the evaluation to consideration of Enhanced Attenuation approaches. The conceptual models incorporate the notion of reactive facies, defined as units with hydrogeochemical properties that are different from surrounding units and that react with contaminants in distinct ways. The conceptual models also incorporate consideration of biogeochemical gradients, defined as boundaries between different geochemical conditions that have been induced by waste disposal or other natural phenomena. Gradients can change over time when geochemical conditions from one area migrate into another, potentially affecting contaminant mobility. A recognition of gradients allows the attenuation-affecting conditions of a site to be projected into the future. The Scenarios approach provides a stepwise process to identify an appropriate category of conceptual model and refine it for a specific site. Scenario materials provide links to pertinent sections in the EPA technical protocol and present information about contaminant mobility and important controlling mechanism for attenuation-based remedies based on the categories of conceptual models.

  18. Cellular morphology of organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on alkali alumino-silicate matrix

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Verdolotti, Letizia; Capasso, Ilaria; Lavorgna, Marino [Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Naples (Italy); Liguori, Barbara; Caputo, Domenico [Department of Chemical, Materials and Industrial Engineering, University of Naples Federico II, Naples (Italy); Iannace, Salvatore [Institute of Composite and Biomedical Materials, National Research Council, Naples, Italy and IMAST SCRAL, Piazza Bovio 22 Napoli 80133 (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Organic-inorganic hybrid foams based on an alkali alumino-silicate matrix were prepared by using different foaming methods. Initially, the synthesis of an inorganic matrix by using aluminosilicate particles, activated through a sodium silicate solution, was performed at room temperature. Subsequently the viscous paste was foamed by using three different methods. In the first method, gaseous hydrogen produced by the oxidization of Si powder in an alkaline media, was used as blowing agent to generate gas bubbles in the paste. In the second method, the porous structure was generated by mixing the paste with a “meringue” type of foam previously prepared by whipping, under vigorous stirring, a water solution containing vegetal proteins as surfactants. In the third method, a combination of these two methods was employed. The foamed systems were consolidated for 24 hours at 40°C and then characterized by FTIR, X-Ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compression tests. Low density foams (?500 Kg/m{sup 3}) with good cellular structure and mechanical properties were obtained by combining the “meringue” approach with the use of the chemical blowing agent based on Si.

  19. Polymeric media comprising polybenzimidazoles N-substituted with organic-inorganic hybrid moiety

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Klaehn, John R. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Peterson, Eric S. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Wertsching, Alan K. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Orme, Christopher J. (Shelley, ID) [Shelley, ID; Luther, Thomas A. (Idaho Falls, ID) [Idaho Falls, ID; Jones, Michael G. (Pocatello, ID) [Pocatello, ID

    2009-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A PBI compound includes imidazole nitrogens at least a portion of which are substituted with an organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be included in a separator medium. At least 85% of the imidazole nitrogens may be substituted. The organic-inorganic hybrid moiety may be an organosilane moiety, for example, (R)Me.sub.2SiCH.sub.2-- where R is selected from among methyl, phenyl, vinyl, and allyl. The separatory medium may exhibit an H.sub.2, Ar, N.sub.2, O.sub.2, CH.sub.3, or CO.sub.2 gas permeability greater than the gas permeability of a comparable separatory medium comprising the PBI compound without substitution. The separatory medium may further include an electronically conductive medium and/or ionically conductive medium. The separatory medium may be used as a membrane (semi-permeable, permeable, and non-permeable), a barrier, an ion exhcange media, a filter, a gas chromatography coating (such as stationary phase coating in affinity chromatography), etc.

  20. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation. Multiphase Sequestration Geochemistry: Model for Mineral Carbonation. Abstract: Carbonation of formation...

  1. Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    1 Carbon Sequestration via Mineral Carbonation: Overview and Assessment 14 March 2002 Howard Herzog overview and assessment of carbon sequestration by mineral carbonation (referred to as "mineral sequestration R&D. The first is that carbonates have a lower energy state than CO2. Therefore, at least

  2. Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    No 52-2013 Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry halshs-00870689,version1-7Oct2013 #12;Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses

  3. Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Balser, Dana S.

    Carbon RRLs Carbon RRLs towards Ultra-compact HII Regions Dana S. Balser D. Anish Roshi (Raman (Agnes Scott College) #12;Carbon RRLs Carbon Radio Recombination Lines (RRLs) NGC 2024 (Orion B) IC 1795 (W3) Palmer et al. (1967) #12;Carbon RRLs Photodissociation Regions (PDRs) Hollenbach & Tielens (1997

  4. Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert1 on climate can be characterized by a single statistic, called Cumulative Carbon. This is the aggregate amount of carbon emitted in the form of carbon dioxide by activities such as fossil fuel burning and deforestation

  5. Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes**

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    New Mexico, University of

    Pyrolytic carbon electrodes Lithographically Defined Porous Carbon Electrodes** D. Bruce Burckel Polsky* The special nature of the CŔC bond can lead to various polymorphic forms of carbon such as graphite, glassy-carbon, fullerenes (such as buckyballs), carbon nanotubes, and diamond. Electrodes made

  6. Hydrolysis of Naptalam and Structurally Related Amides: Inhibition by Dissolved Metal Ions and Metal (Hydr)Oxide Surfaces

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Huang, Ching-Hua

    . INTRODUCTION Several important classes of agrochemicals possess amide and anilide functional groups. Naptalam). Agrochemicals often possess functional groups in the vicinity of amide and anilide linkages; participation and anilide agrochemicals. Granados et al. (1995) reported no significant effects of dissolved divalent metal

  7. The sediment resuspension event scours dissolved phase contaminants from the water column. As a result, a short-term

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Laboratory, Episodic Events

    The sediment resuspension event scours dissolved phase contaminants from the water column of this increased input is 8 kg of PCBs and 2200 kg of PAHs, which is ~57% and 55-610% of previous atmospheric compounds (SOCs) was investigated using a two-pronged sampling strategy. First, discrete air and water

  8. Metal binding to dissolved organic matter and adsorption to ferrihydrite in shallow peat groundwaters: Application to diamond exploration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Metal binding to dissolved organic matter and adsorption to ferrihydrite in shallow peat t The speciation and solubility of kimberlite pathfinder metals (Ni, Nd, Ba and K) in shallow peat ground- waters with kimberlite pathfinder metals and determine the spatial distribution of those metals in shallow peat

  9. Bench Scale Application of the Hybridized Zero Valent Iron Process for the Removal of Dissolved Silica From Water

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Morar, Nilesh Mohan

    2014-11-12T23:59:59.000Z

    is effective. A more robust and cost-effective dissolved silica removal technique is desirable. The hybridized zero-valent iron (hZVI) process, now commercially available as Pironox™, uses zero-valent iron (Fe^0 ) as its main reactive media developed to remove...

  10. Molecular weight and humification index as predictors of adsorption for plant-and manure-derived dissolved

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Chorover, Jon

    -derived dissolved organic matter to goethite T. OHNO a , J. CHOROVER b , A. OMOIKE b & J. HUNT a a Department the sorption to goethite (a-FeOOH) of DOM extracted from: (i) above-ground biomass of wheat straw (Triticum with goethite. The multiple regression equation, based only on MWAP and HIX parameters, explained 76

  11. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng; Wang, Xiqing

    2013-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  12. Mesoporous carbon materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dai, Sheng (Knoxville, TN); Wang, Xiqing (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

    The invention is directed to a method for fabricating a mesoporous carbon material, the method comprising subjecting a precursor composition to a curing step followed by a carbonization step, the precursor composition comprising: (i) a templating component comprised of a block copolymer, (ii) a phenolic compound or material, (iii) a crosslinkable aldehyde component, and (iv) at least 0.5 M concentration of a strong acid having a pKa of or less than -2, wherein said carbonization step comprises heating the precursor composition at a carbonizing temperature for sufficient time to convert the precursor composition to a mesoporous carbon material. The invention is also directed to a mesoporous carbon material having an improved thermal stability, preferably produced according to the above method.

  13. The effects of total dissolved gas on chum salmon fry survival, growth, gas bubble disease, and seawater tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, David R.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta alevin developing in gravel habitats downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are exposed to elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) when water is spilled at the dam to move migrating salmon smolts downstream to the Pacific Ocean. Current water quality criteria for the management of dissolved gas in dam tailwaters were developed primarily to protect salmonid smolts and are assumed to be protective of alevin if adequate depth compensation is provided. We studied whether chum salmon alevin exposed to six levels of dissolved gas ranging from 100% to 130% TDG at three development periods between hatch and emergence (hereafter early, middle, and late stage) suffered differential mortality, growth, gas bubble disease, or seawater tolerance. Each life stage was exposed for 50 d (early stage), 29 d (middle stage), or 16 d (late stage) beginning at 13, 34, and 37 d post-hatch, respectively, through 50% emergence. The mortality for all stages from exposure to emergence was estimated to be 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 4% to 12%) when dissolved gas levels were between 100% and 117% TDG. Mortality significantly increased as dissolved gas levels rose above 117% TDG,; with the lethal concentration that produced 50% mortality (LC50 ) was estimated to be 128.7% TDG (95% CI of 127.2% to 130.2% TDG) in the early and middle stages. By contrast, there was no evidence that dissolved gas level significantly affected growth in any life stage except that the mean wet weight at emergence of early stage fish exposed to 130% TDG was significantly less than the modeled growth of unexposed fish. The proportion of fish afflicted with gas bubble disease increased with increasing gas concentrations and occurred most commonly in the nares and gastrointestinal tract. Early stage fish exhibited higher ratios of filament to lamellar gill chloride cells than late stage fish, and these ratios increased and decreased for early and late stage fish, respectively, as gas levels increased; however, there were no significant differences in mortality between life stages after 96 h in seawater. The study results suggest that current water quality guidelines for the management of dissolved gas appear to offer a conservative level of protection to chum salmon alevin incubating in gravel habitat downstream of Bonneville Dam.

  14. Release of dissolved organic matter by coastal diatoms Michael S. Wetz1 and Patricia A. Wheeler

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierce, Stephen

    are capable of relatively rapid sinking rates, both as individual cells and in aggregates, and are responsible beginning in late exponential growth as a result of increased cell density. For Cylindrotheca closterium. This coincided with continued particulate organic carbon (POC) production and a threefold increase in the per-cell

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF CONTINUOUS SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESSES FOR COAL DERIVED CARBON PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Elliot B. Kennel; Philip L. Biedler; Chong Chen; Dady Dadyburjor; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2005-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

    The purpose of this DOE-funded effort is to develop continuous processes for solvent extraction of coal for the production of carbon products. These carbon products include materials used in metals smelting, especially in the aluminum and steel industries, as well as porous carbon structural material referred to as ''carbon foam'' and carbon fibers. A process has been developed which results in high quality binder pitch suitable for use in graphite electrodes or carbon anodes. A detailed description of the protocol is given by Clendenin. Briefly, aromatic heavy oils are hydro-treated under mild conditions in order to increase their ability to dissolve coal. An example of an aromatic heavy oil is Koppers Carbon Black Base (CBB) oil. CBB oil has been found to be an effective solvent and acceptably low cost (i.e., significantly below the market price for binder pitch, or about $280 per ton at the time of this writing). It is also possible to use solvents derived from hydrotreated coal and avoid reliance on coke oven recovery products completely if so desired.

  16. Electrochemical formation of hydroxide for enhancing carbon dioxide and acid gas uptake by a solution

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rau, Gregory Hudson

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for forming metal hydroxide from a metal carbonate utilizes a water electrolysis cell having an acid-producing anode and a hydroxyl-producing cathode immersed in a water solution of sufficient ionic content to allow an electric current to pass between the hydroxyl-producing cathode and the acid-producing anode. A metal carbonate is placed in close proximity to the acid-producing anode. A direct current electrical voltage is provided across the acid-producing anode and the hydroxyl-producing cathode sufficient to generate acid at the acid-producing anode and hydroxyl ions at the hydroxyl-producing cathode. The acid dissolves at least part of the metal carbonate into metal and carbonate ions allowing the metal ions to travel toward the hydroxyl-producing cathode and to combine with the hydroxyl ions to form the metal hydroxide. The carbonate ions travel toward the acid-producing anode and form carbonic acid and/or water and carbon dioxide.

  17. Activated Carbon Injection

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-22T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  18. Carbon Fiber SMC

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    confidential, or otherwise restricted information. ACC932 Materials and Processes Technology Development Carbon Fiber SMC 5-20-09 Charles Knakal USCAR C. S. Wang General Motors...

  19. Activated Carbon Injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2014-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    History of the Clean Air Act and how the injection of carbon into a coal power plant's flu smoke can reduce the amount of mercury in the smoke.

  20. Reinforced Carbon Nanotubes.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ren, Zhifen (Newton, MA); Wen, Jian Guo (Newton, MA); Lao, Jing Y. (Chestnut Hill, MA); Li, Wenzhi (Brookline, MA)

    2005-06-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The present invention relates generally to reinforced carbon nanotubes, and more particularly to reinforced carbon nanotubes having a plurality of microparticulate carbide or oxide materials formed substantially on the surface of such reinforced carbon nanotubes composite materials. In particular, the present invention provides reinforced carbon nanotubes (CNTs) having a plurality of boron carbide nanolumps formed substantially on a surface of the reinforced CNTs that provide a reinforcing effect on CNTs, enabling their use as effective reinforcing fillers for matrix materials to give high-strength composites. The present invention also provides methods for producing such carbide reinforced CNTs.

  1. Carbon Fiber Technology Facility

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    conventional and alternative precursors to carbon fiber Advance high-volume composite design and manufacturing capabilities Transition technology to industry partners...

  2. EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Bhringer

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    EMBODIED CARBON TARIFFS Christoph Böhringer Jared C. Carbone Thomas F. Rutherford Revised: August 2013 Abstract Embodied carbon tariffs tax the direct and indirect carbon emissions embodied in trade -- an idea popularized by countries seeking to extend the reach of domestic carbon regu- lations. We

  3. A study of the abundance and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of atmospheric carbon dioxide and oceanic carbon in relation to the global carbon cycle. Final technical report, February 15, 1990--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keeling, C.D.

    1995-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    Knowledge can be gained about the fluxes and storage of carbon in natural systems and their relation to climate by detecting temporal and spatial patterns in atmospheric CO{sub 2}. When patterns in its {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C isotopic ratio are included in the analysis, there is also a basis for distinguishing organic and inorganic processes. The authors systematically measured the concentration and {sup 13}C/{sup 12}C ratio of atmospheric CO{sub 2} to produce time series data essential to reveal these temporal and spatial patterns. To pursue the significance of these patterns further, the result also involved measurements of inorganic carbon in sea water and of CO{sub 2} in air near growing land plants. The study was coordinated with a study of the same title concurrently funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF). The study called for continued atmospheric measurements at an array of ten stations from the Arctic Basin to the South Pole. Air was collected in flasks brought back to the laboratory for analysis, except at Mauna Loa. Observatory, Hawaii, where continuous measurements were also carried out.

  4. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, R.R.; Schroeder, J.L.

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO{sub 2} at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere. 3 figs.

  5. Method for the preparation of high surface area high permeability carbons

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lagasse, Robert R. (Albuquerque, NM); Schroeder, John L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing carbon materials having high surface area and high macropore volume to provide high permeability. These carbon materials are prepared by dissolving a carbonizable polymer precursor, in a solvent. The solution is cooled to form a gel. The solvent is extracted from the gel by employing a non-solvent for the polymer. The non-solvent is removed by critical point drying in CO.sub.2 at an elevated pressure and temperature or evaporation in a vacuum oven. The dried product is heated in an inert atmosphere in a first heating step to a first temperature and maintained there for a time sufficient to substantially cross-link the polymer material. The cross-linked polymer material is then carbonized in an inert atmosphere.

  6. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Y. Li, M. Daskin. 2009. Carbon Footprint and the ManagementJ. van Houtum. 2011. E?ect of carbon emission regulations onStreamlined Enterprise Carbon Footprinting. Environmental

  7. Effective Permeability Change in Wellbore Cement with Carbon Dioxide Reaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Um, Wooyong; Jung, Hun Bok; Martin, Paul F.; McGrail, B. Peter

    2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Portland cement, a common sealing material for wellbores for geological carbon sequestration was reacted with CO{sub 2} in supercritical, gaseous, and aqueous phases at various pressure and temperature conditions to simulate cement-CO{sub 2} reaction along the wellbore from carbon injection depth to the near-surface. Hydrated Portland cement columns (14 mm diameter x 90 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.33) including additives such as steel coupons and Wallula basalt fragments were reacted with CO{sub 2} in the wet supercritical (the top half) and dissolved (the bottom half) phases under carbon sequestration condition with high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 5 months, while small-sized hydrated Portland cement columns (7 mm diameter x 20 mm length; water-to-cement ratio = 0.38) were reacted with CO{sub 2} in dissolved phase at high pressure (10 MPa) and temperature (50 C) for 1 month or with wet CO{sub 2} in gaseous phase at low pressure (0.2 MPa) and temperature (20 C) for 3 months. XMT images reveal that the cement reacted with CO{sub 2} saturated groundwater had degradation depth of {approx}1 mm for 1 month and {approx}3.5 mm for 5 month, whereas the degradation was minor with cement exposure to supercritical CO{sub 2}. SEM-EDS analysis showed that the carbonated cement was comprised of three distinct zones; the innermost less degraded zone with Ca atom % > C atom %, the inner degraded zone with Ca atom % {approx} C atom % due to precipitation of calcite, the outer degraded zone with C atom % > Ca atom % due to dissolution of calcite and C-S-H, as well as adsorption of carbon to cement matrix. The outer degraded zone of carbonated cement was porous and fractured because of dissolution-dominated reaction by carbonic acid exposure, which resulted in the increase in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. In contrast, cement-wet CO{sub 2}(g) reaction at low P (0.2 MPa)-T (20 C) conditions for 1 to 3 months was dominated by precipitation of micron-sized calcite on the outside surface of cement, which resulted in the decrease in BJH pore volume and BET surface area. Cement carbonation and pore structure change are significantly dependent on pressure and temperature conditions as well as the phase of CO{sub 2}, which controls the balance between precipitation and dissolution in cement matrix. Geochemical modeling result suggests that ratio of solid (cement)-to-solution (carbonated water) has a significant effect on cement carbonation, thus the cement-CO{sub 2} reaction experiment needs to be conducted under realistic conditions representing the in-situ wellbore environment of carbon sequestration field site. Total porosity and air permeability for a duplicate cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 measured after oven-drying by Core Laboratories using Boyle's Law technique and steady-state method were 31% and 0.576 mD. A novel method to measure the effective liquid permeability of a cement column using X-ray micro-tomography images after injection of pressurized KI (potassium iodide) is under development by PNNL. Preliminary results indicate the permeability of a cement column with water-to-cement ratio of 0.38 is 4-8 mD. PNNL will apply the method to understand the effective permeability change of Portland cement by CO{sub 2}(g) reaction under a variety of pressure and temperature conditions to develop a more reliable well-bore leakage risk model.

  8. Crystal structure and catalytic properties of three inorganic–organic hybrid constructed from heteropolymolybdate and aminopyridine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Deng, Qian; Huang, Yilan; Peng, Zhenshan; Dai, Zengjin; Lin, Minru [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Cai, Tiejun, E-mail: tjcai53@163.com [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China)

    2013-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Three new organic–inorganic hybrid compounds (2-C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 2}){sub 3}·(SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40})·(C{sub 4}H{sub 8}N{sub 4}){sub 0.5}·(C{sub 5}H{sub 6}N{sub 2}){sub 2}·(H{sub 2}O){sub 2} (1), (3-C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 2}){sub 8}·(SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}){sub 2}·(C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 3}){sub 2}·(H{sub 8}O{sub 4})·(H{sub 2}O){sub 8} (2) and (4-C{sub 5}H{sub 7}N{sub 2}){sub 6}·(SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40}) (3) composed the heteropolymolybdate ?-H{sub 4}SiMo{sub 12}O{sub 40} and the organic substrate 2/3/4-aminopyridine have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by routine methods. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibit a three-dimensional supramolecular network via hydrogen bond and ?–? stacking interactions. Compound 2 contains a tetramolecular water cluster which consists of four water molecules connected by hydrogen bonds. These compounds exhibit good thermal stability and photoluminescent phenomena. Compounds 1 and 3 are active for catalytic oxidation of methanol in a continuous-flow fixed-bed micro-reactor, when the initial concentration of methanol is 2.75 g m{sup ?3} in air and flow rate is 10 mL min{sup ?1} at 150 °C, corresponding to the elimination rate of methanol i.e. 87.7% and 76.8%, respectively. - Three new Keggin type inorganic–organic hybrid frameworks were synthesized. Compounds exhibit an extended three-dimensional supramolecular network. Compounds 1 and 3 have better catalytic activity for eliminating methanol. Highlights: ? Three 3-D Keggin inorganic–organic hybrid frameworks were synthesized. ? The ?–? stacking interactions are existed in Compounds 1 and 2. ? Compound 2 contains a tetramolecular water cluster connected by hydrogen bond. ? Compounds 1 and 3 are active in the catalytic oxidation of methanol into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O.

  9. Carbon-Optimal and Carbon-Neutral Supply Chains

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Caro, F.; Corbett, C. J.; Tan, T.; Zuidwijk, R.

    2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Pearce, D. 2003. The Social Cost Of Carbon And Its PolicyR.S.J. 2008. The Social Cost of Carbon: Trends, Outliers and

  10. The effect of Sequoyah Nuclear Plant on dissolved oxygen in Chickamauga Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butkus, S.R.; Shiao, M.C.; Yeager, B.L.

    1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    During the summer of 1985, the Tennessee Division of Water Pollution Control and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency measured dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations downstream from the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) discharge mixing zone that were below the state criterion for DO. The Tennessee General Water Quality Criteria'' specifies that DO should be a minimum of 5.0 mg/l measured at a depth of 5 feet for the protection of fish and aquatic life. The Tennessee Valley Authority developed the present study to answer general concerns about reservoir conditions and potential for adverse effects on aquatic biota. Four objectives were defined for this study: (1) to better define the extent and duration of the redistribution of DO in the reservoir, (2) to better understand DO dynamics within the mixing zone, (3) to determine whether DO is being lost (or added) as the condenser cooling water passes through the plant, and (4) to evaluate the potential for impact on aquatic life in the reservoir.

  11. Prediction of Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) at Hydropower Dams throughout the Columbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasha, MD Fayzul K [ORNL] [ORNL; Hadjerioua, Boualem [ORNL] [ORNL; Stewart, Kevin M [ORNL] [ORNL; Bender, Merlynn [Bureau of Reclamation] [Bureau of Reclamation; Schneider, Michael L. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers] [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. The entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin cause elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation. Physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been characterized throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and at real-time water quality monitoring stations. These data have been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange which are site specific and account for the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant transport and exchange in route to the downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the findings from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow for the formulation of optimal water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases.

  12. Competitive ligand exchange reveals mercury reactivity change with dissolved organic matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Carrie L [ORNL; Gu, Baohua [ORNL; Liang, Liyuan [ORNL

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Abstract Complexation of mercury (Hg) with naturally dissolved organic matter (DOM) is important in freshwater environments but the kinetics of Hg binding to DOM and the repartitioning of Hg within the DOM remain poorly understood. We examined changes in Hg-DOM complexes using glutathione (GSH) titrations, coupled with stannous chloride reducible Hg measurements during Hg equilibration with DOM. In laboratory prepared DOM solutions and in water from a Hg-contaminated creek, a fraction of the Hg that was present in Hg-DOM complexes was not reactive to GSH. This unreactive fraction increased with the reaction time between Hg and DOM. In reactions between Hg and Suwannee River natural organic matter, the unreactive Hg increased from 13% at 1 hour to 74% after 48 hours of equilibration. This time-dependent increase in unreactive Hg suggests that either Hg forms strong complexes with DOM that are unreactive to GSH or the DOM complexed Hg becomes more sterically protected as the binding environment changes within the DOM over time. In the contaminated creek water, 58% of the Hg was present as complexes that were unreactive with GSH, demonstrating that the strength of the Hg-DOM complexes evolves with time. The extent of Hg sequestration inside DOM may provide insight to understanding transformations of Hg in natural aquatic systems.

  13. Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2014-05-13T23:59:59.000Z

    A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  14. Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    of offsetting the University's carbon footprint, promoting biodiversity and establishing easily maintained Carbon Park Environmental Impact Assessment A B.E.S.T. Project By, Adam Bond 2011 #12; Bishop's University Carbon Park

  15. First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon First Proof of Ferromagnetic Carbon Print Wednesday, 25 July 2007 00:00 Although it has long been suspected that carbon belongs on the short list of...

  16. Design, optimization, and selectivity of inorganic ion-exchangers for radioactive waste remediation 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Medvedev, Dmitry Gennadievich

    2005-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The processes of development of nuclear weapons resulted in accumulation of thousands of curies of high-level radioactive waste. Liquid waste produced in the US has been stored in carbon steel tanks in highly alkaline (1-3 ...

  17. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, Stephen E. (Pinole, CA); Moses, William W. (Berkeley, CA)

    1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses.

  18. Fly ash carbon passivation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    La Count, Robert B; Baltrus, John P; Kern, Douglas G

    2013-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    A thermal method to passivate the carbon and/or other components in fly ash significantly decreases adsorption. The passivated carbon remains in the fly ash. Heating the fly ash to about 500 and 800 degrees C. under inert gas conditions sharply decreases the amount of surfactant adsorbed by the fly ash recovered after thermal treatment despite the fact that the carbon content remains in the fly ash. Using oxygen and inert gas mixtures, the present invention shows that a thermal treatment to about 500 degrees C. also sharply decreases the surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash even though most of the carbon remains intact. Also, thermal treatment to about 800 degrees C. under these same oxidative conditions shows a sharp decrease in surfactant adsorption of the recovered fly ash due to the fact that the carbon has been removed. This experiment simulates the various "carbon burnout" methods and is not a claim in this method. The present invention provides a thermal method of deactivating high carbon fly ash toward adsorption of AEAs while retaining the fly ash carbon. The fly ash can be used, for example, as a partial Portland cement replacement in air-entrained concrete, in conductive and other concretes, and for other applications.

  19. Controlling the release of active compounds from the inorganic carrier halloysite

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tescione, F.; Buonocore, G. G.; Stanzione, M.; Oliviero, M.; Lavorgna, M. [National Research Council - Institute of Composites and Biomedical Materials, P.le E. Fermi, 1 80055 Portici (Naples) (Italy)

    2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    Halloysite (HNTs), a natural material characterized by a nanotube structure, has been used as an inorganic carrier of active compounds in several applications from medicine to anticorrosion coatings. In this present work, vanillin (VAN) used as a antimicrobial model, has been encapsulated within HNTs for exploiting its applicability in the active food packaging sector. The molecule release rate has been controlled by crosslinking at the tube ends the loaded vanillin with copper ions, thus producing a stopper network. The vanillin-loaded HNTs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The antimicrobial release kinetics from the loaded nanoparticles (VAN/HNTs) in water was investigated using UV-vis spectroscopy. The results show that the vanillin crosslinked with cupper ions is a feasible method to tailor the release rate of antimicrobial model from HTNs nanoparticles.

  20. Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A.P.; Colvin, V.L.

    1998-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed. 10 figs.

  1. Semiconductor nanocrystals covalently bound to solid inorganic surfaces using self-assembled monolayers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alivisatos, A. Paul (Berkeley, CA); Colvin, Vicki L. (Berkeley, CA)

    1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Methods are described for attaching semiconductor nanocrystals to solid inorganic surfaces, using self-assembled bifunctional organic monolayers as bridge compounds. Two different techniques are presented. One relies on the formation of self-assembled monolayers on these surfaces. When exposed to solutions of nanocrystals, these bridge compounds bind the crystals and anchor them to the surface. The second technique attaches nanocrystals already coated with bridge compounds to the surfaces. Analyses indicate the presence of quantum confined clusters on the surfaces at the nanolayer level. These materials allow electron spectroscopies to be completed on condensed phase clusters, and represent a first step towards synthesis of an organized assembly of clusters. These new products are also disclosed.

  2. Electron spin and the origin of Bio-homochirality II. Prebiotic inorganic-organic reaction model

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The emergence of biomolecular homochirality is a critically important question about life phenomenon and the origins of life. In a previous paper (arXiv:1309.1229), I tentatively put forward a new hypothesis that the emergence of a single chiral form of biomolecules in living organisms is specifically determined by the electron spin state during their enzyme-catalyzed synthesis processes. However, how a homochirality world of biomolecules could have formed in the absence of enzymatic networks before the origins of life remains unanswered. Here I discussed the electron spin properties in Fe3S4, ZnS, and transition metal doped dilute magnetic ZnS, and their possible roles in the prebiotic synthesis of chiral molecules. Since the existence of these minerals in hydrothermal vent systems is matter of fact, the suggested prebiotic inorganic-organic reaction model, if can be experimentally demonstrated, may help explain where and how life originated on early Earth.

  3. High-performance hybrid organic-inorganic solar cell based on planar n-type silicon

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chi, Dan [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China); Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qi, Boyuan; Wang, Jizheng [Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, CAS Key Laboratory of Organic Solids, Institute of Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Qu, Shengchun, E-mail: qsc@semi.ac.cn; Wang, Zhanguo [Key Laboratory of Semiconductor Materials Science, Institute of Semiconductors, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2014-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    Hybrid organic-inorganic solar cells were fabricated by spin coating the hole transporting conductive poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) film on n-type crystalline silicon (n-Si). By incorporating different additives into the PEDOT:PSS, the conductivity and wettability of PEDOT:PSS film are markedly improved, and the device performance is greatly enhanced accordingly. To further optimize the device performance, poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) layer was inserted between the n-Si and PEDOT:PSS layer. The P3HT layer blocks electrons from diffusing to the PEDOT:PSS, and hence reduces recombination at the anode side. The device eventually exhibits a high power conversion efficiency of 11.52%.

  4. Biologically Inspired Synthesis Route to Three-Dimensionally Structured Inorganic Thin Films

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Schwenzer, Birgit; Morse, Daniel E.

    2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Inorganic thin films (hydroxide, oxide, and phosphate materials) that are textured on a submicron scale have been prepared from aqueous metal salt solutions at room temperature using vapor-diffusion catalysis. This generic synthesis approach mimics the essential advantages of the catalytic and structure-directing mechanisms observed for the formation of silica skeletons of marine sponges. Chemical composition, crystallinity, and the three-dimensional morphology of films prepared by this method are extremely sensitive to changes in the synthesis conditions, such as concentrations, reaction times, and the presence and nature of substrate materials. Focusing on different materials systems, the reaction mechanism for the formation ofmore »these thin films and the influence of different reaction parameters on the product are explained.« less

  5. Improved oxidation resistance of organic/inorganic composite atomic layer deposition coated cellulose nanocrystal aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, Sean W.; Matthews, David J.; Conley, John F., E-mail: jconley@eecs.oregonstate.edu [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, 1148 Kelley Engineering Center, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States); Buesch, Christian; Simonsen, John [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 119 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 (United States)

    2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Cellulose nanocrystal (CNC) aerogels are coated with thin conformal layers of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} using atomic layer deposition to form hybrid organic/inorganic nanocomposites. Electron probe microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} penetrated more than 1500??m into the aerogel for extended precursor pulse and exposure/purge times. The measured profile of coated fiber radius versus depth from the aerogel surface agrees well with simulations of precursor penetration depth in modeled aerogel structures. Thermogravimetric analysis shows that Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} coated CNC aerogel nanocomposites do not show significant thermal degradation below 295?°C as compared with 175?°C for uncoated CNC aerogels, an improvement of over 100?°C.

  6. Sources and Fate of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in the Arctic Ocean and Surrounding Watersheds

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Walker, Sally Annette

    2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

    the time to share, Dr. Louchouarn and Dr. Duan Shwang for lignin analysis, Amanda Rinehart for her help collecting samples, Stephanie Smith for her work on DOM fractionation during sea ice formation, and Kerestin Goodman for her help with sample analysis...-mass spectrometry HTC High temperature combustion HWL Halocline water layer viii IPCC Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change LHW Lower halocline water layer LOP Lignin oxidation products OC Organic carbon PARAFAC Parallel Factor...

  7. Organic and inorganic hazardous waste stabilization utilizing fossil fuel combustion waste materials

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Netzel, D.A.; Lane, D.C.; Brown, M.A.; Raska, K.A.; Clark, J.A.; Rovani, J.F.

    1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

    A laboratory study was conducted at the Western Research Institute to evaluate the ability of innovative clean coal technology (ICCT) waste to stabilize organic and inorganic constituents of hazardous wastes. The four ICCT wastes used in this study were: (1) the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) atmospheric fluidized bed combustor (AFBC) waste, (2) the TVA spray dryer waste, (3) the Laramie River Station spray dryer waste, and (4) the Colorado-Ute AFBC waste. Four types of hazardous waste stream materials were obtained and chemically characterized for use in evaluating the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize hazardous organic and inorganic wastes. The wastes included an API separator sludge, mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste, metal-plating sludge, and creosote-contaminated soil. The API separator sludge and creosote-contaminated soil are US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)-listed hazardous wastes and contain organic contaminants. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste and metal-plating sludge (also an EPA-listed waste) contain high concentrations of heavy metals. The mixed metal oxide-hydroxide waste fails the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) for cadmium, and the metal-plating sludge fails the TCLP for chromium. To evaluate the ability of the ICCT wastes to stabilize the hazardous wastes, mixtures involving varying amounts of each of the ICCT wastes with each of the hazardous wastes were prepared, allowed to equilibrate, and then leached with deionized, distilled water. The leachates were analyzed for the hazardous constituent(s) of interest using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure.

  8. Inorganic soil and groundwater chemistry near Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant, Paducah, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moore, G.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    Near-surface soils, boreholes, and sediments near the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) were sampled in 1989-91 as were monitoring wells, TVA wells, and privately-owned wells. Most wells were sampled two or three times. The resulting chemical analyses have been published in previous reports and have been previously described (CH2M HILL 1991, 1992; Clausen et al. 1992). The two reports by CH2M HILL are controversial, however, because, the concentrations of some constituents were reported to exceed background levels or drinking water standards and because both on-site (within the perimeter fence at PGDP) and off-site pollution was reported to have occurred. The groundwater samples upon which these interpretations were based may not be representative, however. The CH2M HILL findings are discussed in the report. The purpose of this report is to characterize the inorganic chemistry of groundwater and soils near PGDP, using data from the CH2M HILL reports (1991, 1992), and to determine whether or not any contamination has occurred. The scope is limited to analysis and interpretation of data in the CH2M HILL reports because previous interpretations of these data may not be valid, because samples were collected in a relatively short period of time at several hundred locations, and because the chemical analyses are nearly complete. Recent water samples from the same wells were not considered because the characterization of inorganic chemistry for groundwater and soil requirements only one representative sample and an accurate analysis from each location.

  9. CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    GEOLOGIC CARBON SEQUESTRATION STRATEGIES FOR CALIFORNIA: REPORT TO THE LEGISLATURE Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) studies that we used, including Cameron Downey

  10. The enhancement of xylose monomer and xylotriose degradation by inorganic salts in aqueous solutions at 180 C

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    California at Riverside, University of

    compared to treatment with just pressurized hot water at the same temperature. Although the addition, and especially the latter, significantly increased xylose mono- mer and xylotriose degradation in water heated of these inorganic salts produced a significant drop in pH, the degradation rates with salts were much faster than

  11. Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    von der Linde, D.

    to the optical components required to utilize XFEL beams, including radiation damage. Theoretical workDamage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength SC were exposed to single 25 fs long pulses of 32.5 nm free-electron-laser radiation at fluences of up

  12. Probabilistic evaluation of shallow groundwater resources at a hypothetical carbon sequestration site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dai, Zhenxue; Keating, Elizabeth; Bacon, Diana H.; Viswanathan, Hari; Stauffer, Philip; Jordan, Amy B.; Pawar, Rajesh

    2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Carbon sequestration in geologic reservoirs is an important approach for mitigating greenhouse gases emissions to the atmosphere. This study first develops an integrated Monte Carlo method for simulating CO2 and brine leakage from carbon sequestration and subsequent geochemical interactions in shallow aquifers. Then, we estimate probability distributions of five risk proxies related to the likelihood and volume of changes in pH, total dissolved solids, and trace concentrations of lead, arsenic, and cadmium for two possible consequence thresholds. The results indicate that shallow groundwater resources may degrade locally around leakage points by reduced pH and increased total dissolved solids (TDS). The volumes of pH and TDS plumes are most sensitive to aquifer porosity, permeability, and CO2 and brine leakage rates. The estimated plume size of pH change is the largest, while that of cadmium is the smallest among the risk proxies. Plume volume distributions of arsenic and lead are similar to those of TDS. The scientific results from this study provide substantial insight for understanding risks of deep fluids leaking into shallow aquifers, determining the area of review, and designing monitoring networks at carbon sequestration sites.

  13. advanced carbon-carbon composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Next Page Last Page Topic Index 1 CARBON-CARBON COMPOSITE ALLCOMP Carbon-Carbon Composite Biology and Medicine Websites Summary: CARBON-CARBON...

  14. Successful Thrombolysis and Spasmolysis of Acute Leg Ischemia after Accidental Intra-arterial Injection of Dissolved Flunitrazepam Tablets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Radeleff, B., E-mail: Boris_radeleff@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Stampfl, U.; Sommer, C.-M.; Bellemann, N. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Hyhlik-Duerr, A. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Weber, M.-A. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany); Boeckler, D. [University of Heidelberg, Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery (Germany); Kauczor, H.-U. [University of Heidelberg, Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology (Germany)

    2011-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

    A 37-year-old man with known intravenous drug abuse presented in the surgical ambulatory care unit with acute leg ischemia after accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets into the right femoral artery. A combination of anticoagulation, vasodilatation, and local selective and superselective thrombolysis with urokinase was performed to salvage the leg. As a result of the severe ischemia-induced pain, the patient had to be monitored over the complete therapy period on the intensive care unit with permanent administration of intravenous fluid and analgetics. We describe the presenting symptoms and the interventional technique, and we discuss the recent literature regarding the management of accidental intra-arterial injection of dissolved flunitrazepam tablets.

  15. Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nacional de San Luis, Universidad

    Trading Water for Carbon with Biological Carbon Sequestration Robert B. Jackson,1 * Esteban G. Farley,1 David C. le Maitre,5 Bruce A. McCarl,6 Brian C. Murray7 Carbon sequestration strategies plantations feature prominently among tools for carbon sequestration (1­8). Plantations typi- cally combine

  16. Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    Cumulative Carbon and Just Allocation of the Global Carbon Commons R.T. Pierrehumbert* Abstract statistic, called cumulative carbon. This statistic is the aggregate amount ofcarbon emitted in theform such activitiespersist.In thispaper the conceptis usedto addressthe question offair allocation of carbon emissions

  17. International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10)

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Srivastava, Kumar Vaibhav

    International Conference on Carbon Nanotechnology: Potential and Challenges (Carbon 10) 15 - 17th Since the discovery of the carbon nanotube (CNT) about two decades ago, research related to its of Materials and Process Engineering Kanpur Chapter hosted the `International Conference on Carbon

  18. Puget Sound Dissolved Oxygen Modeling Study: Development of an Intermediate Scale Water Quality Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khangaonkar, Tarang; Sackmann, Brandon S.; Long, Wen; Mohamedali, Teizeen; Roberts, Mindy

    2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The Salish Sea, including Puget Sound, is a large estuarine system bounded by over seven thousand miles of complex shorelines, consists of several subbasins and many large inlets with distinct properties of their own. Pacific Ocean water enters Puget Sound through the Strait of Juan de Fuca at depth over the Admiralty Inlet sill. Ocean water mixed with freshwater discharges from runoff, rivers, and wastewater outfalls exits Puget Sound through the brackish surface outflow layer. Nutrient pollution is considered one of the largest threats to Puget Sound. There is considerable interest in understanding the effect of nutrient loads on the water quality and ecological health of Puget Sound in particular and the Salish Sea as a whole. The Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) contracted with Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to develop a coupled hydrodynamic and water quality model. The water quality model simulates algae growth, dissolved oxygen, (DO) and nutrient dynamics in Puget Sound to inform potential Puget Sound-wide nutrient management strategies. Specifically, the project is expected to help determine 1) if current and potential future nitrogen loadings from point and non-point sources are significantly impairing water quality at a large scale and 2) what level of nutrient reductions are necessary to reduce or control human impacts to DO levels in the sensitive areas. The project did not include any additional data collection but instead relied on currently available information. This report describes model development effort conducted during the period 2009 to 2012 under a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) cooperative agreement with PNNL, Ecology, and the University of Washington awarded under the National Estuary Program

  19. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

    2009-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

  20. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of molecular hydrogen dissolved in water at pressures up to 200 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borysow, Jacek, E-mail: jborysow@mtu.edu; Rosso, Leonardo del; Celli, Milva; Ulivi, Lorenzo, E-mail: lorenzo.ulivi@isc.cnr.it [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)] [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Istituto dei Sistemi Complessi, Via Madonna del piano 10, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); Moraldi, Massimo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitŕ degli Studi di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)] [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universitŕ degli Studi di Firenze, Via Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2014-04-28T23:59:59.000Z

    We have measured the Raman Q-branch of hydrogen in a solution with water at a temperature of about 280 K and at pressures from 20 to 200 MPa. From a least-mean-square fitting analysis of the broad Raman Q-branch, we isolated the contributions from the four lowest individual roto-vibrational lines. The vibrational lines were narrower than the pure rotational Raman lines of hydrogen dissolved in water measured previously, but significantly larger than in the gas. The separations between these lines were found to be significantly smaller than in gaseous hydrogen and their widths were slightly increasing with pressure. The lines were narrowing with increasing rotational quantum number. The Raman frequencies of all roto-vibrational lines were approaching the values of gas phase hydrogen with increasing pressure. Additionally, from the comparison of the integrated intensity signal of Q-branch of hydrogen to the integrated Raman signal of the water bending mode, we have obtained the concentration of hydrogen in a solution with water along the 280 K isotherm. Hydrogen solubility increases slowly with pressure, and no deviation from a smooth behaviour was observed, even reaching thermodynamic conditions very close to the transition to the stable hydrogen hydrate. The analysis of the relative hydrogen concentration in solution on the basis of a simple thermodynamic model has allowed us to obtain the molar volume for the hydrogen gas/water solution. Interestingly, the volume relative to one hydrogen molecule in solution does not decrease with pressure and, at high pressure, is larger than the volume pertinent to one molecule of water. This is in favour of the theory of hydrophobic solvation, for which a larger and more stable structure of the water molecules is expected around a solute molecule.

  1. Dissolved gas supersaturation associated with the thermal effluent of an electric generating station and some effects on fishes

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ciesluk, Alexander Frank

    1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    saturations of total dissolved gas were determined with a Weiss Gas Saturometer and ranged from 100. 5 to 115. 04 in the discharge water. Saturation levels were directly related to the power plant AT and the gas content of the intake water. Percent... hours. Red shiners were more susceptible to gas supersaturation than bluegiils or bass. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS I would like to thank the Texas Utilities System including Dallas Power E Light Company, Texas Electric Service Company, and Texas Power C Light...

  2. ,"Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources andPlant Liquids, ExpectedLNGCoalbedAnnual",2014Associated-Dissolved

  3. ,"Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel), 2002; Level: National and Regional Data; Row: NAICS Codes; Column: Energy Sources and Shipments;NetPrice (Dollars per ThousandLiquidsAssociated-Dissolved

  4. IMPACCT: Carbon Capture Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    None

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    IMPACCT Project: IMPACCT’s 15 projects seek to develop technologies for existing coal-fired power plants that will lower the cost of carbon capture. Short for “Innovative Materials and Processes for Advanced Carbon Capture Technologies,” the IMPACCT Project is geared toward minimizing the cost of removing carbon dioxide (CO2) from coal-fired power plant exhaust by developing materials and processes that have never before been considered for this application. Retrofitting coal-fired power plants to capture the CO2 they produce would enable greenhouse gas reductions without forcing these plants to close, shifting away from the inexpensive and abundant U.S. coal supply.

  5. Computational, electrochemical and {sup 7}Li NMR studies of lithiated disordered carbons electrodes in lithium ion cells.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sandi, G.; Gerald, R., II; Scanlon, L. G.; Carrado, K. A.; Winans, R. E.

    1998-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

    Disordered carbons that deliver high reversible capacity in electrochemical cells have been synthesized by using inorganic clays as templates to control the pore size and the surface area. The capacities obtained were much higher than those calculated if the resultant carbon had a graphitic-like structure. Computational chemistry was used to investigate the nature of lithium bonding in a carbon lattice unlike graphite. The lithium intercalated fullerene Li{sub n}-C{sub 60} was used as a model for our (non-graphitic) disordered carbon lattice. A dilithium-C{sub 60} system with a charge and multiplicity of (0,1) and a trilithium-C{sub 60} system with a charge and multiplicity of (0,4) were investigated. The spatial distribution of lithium ions in an electrochemical cell containing this novel disordered carbon material was investigated in situ by Li-7 NMR using an electrochemical cell that was incorporated into a toroid cavity nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) imager. The concentration of solvated Li{sup +} ions in the carbon anode appears to be larger than in the bulk electrolyte, is substantially lower near the copper/carbon interface, and does not change with cell charging.

  6. Earth Syst. Sci. Data, 1, 3543, 2009 www.earth-syst-sci-data.net/1/35/2009/

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Nordic Seas total dissolved inorganic carbon data in CARINA A. Olsen Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research quality control (QC) in order to ensure highest possible quality and consistency. The data for most.e. secondary quality control. Significant biases have been corrected for in the data products, i.e. the three

  7. RADIOCARBON, Vol 44, Nr 2, 2002, p 567580 2002 by the Arizona Board of Regents on behalf of the University of Arizona RADIOCARBON DATING OF DEEP-SEA CORALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Adkins, Jess F.

    The radiocarbon content of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in seawater is an important tool for constraining and in-situ aging are important in determining the seawater D14C. In the modern western Atlantic calibration points because they contain enough Uranium to make independent 230Th dates on the exact same

  8. PRODUCTION OF CARBON PRODUCTS USING A COAL EXTRACTION PROCESS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dady Dadyburjor; Philip R. Biedler; Chong Chen; L. Mitchell Clendenin; Manoj Katakdaunde; Elliot B. Kennel; Nathan D. King; Liviu Magean; Peter G. Stansberry; Alfred H. Stiller; John W. Zondlo

    2004-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory sponsored project developed carbon products, using mildly hydrogenated solvents to extract the organic portion of coal to create synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and carbon fibers. The focus of this effort was on development of lower cost solvents, milder hydrogenation conditions and improved yield in order to enable practical production of these products. This technology is needed because of the long-term decline in production of domestic feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. Currently, carbon products represents a market of roughly 5 million tons domestically, and 19 million tons worldwide. Carbon products are mainly derived from feedstocks such as petroleum pitch and coal tar pitch. The domestic supply of petroleum pitch is declining because of the rising price of liquid fuels, which has caused US refineries to maximize liquid fuel production. As a consequence, the long term trend has a decline in production of petroleum pitch over the past 20 years. The production of coal tar pitch, as in the case of petroleum pitch, has likewise declined significantly over the past two decades. Coal tar pitch is a byproduct of metallurgical grade coke (metcoke) production. In this industry, modern metcoke facilities are recycling coal tar as fuel in order to enhance energy efficiency and minimize environmental emissions. Metcoke production itself is dependent upon the production requirements for domestic steel. Hence, several metcoke ovens have been decommissioned over the past two decades and have not been replaced. As a consequence sources of coal tar are being taken off line and are not being replaced. The long-term trend is a reduction in coal tar pitch production. Thus import of feedstocks, mainly from Eastern Europe and China, is on the rise despite the relatively large transportation cost. To reverse this trend, a new process for producing carbon products is needed. The process must be economically competitive with current processes, and yet be environmentally friendly as well. The solvent extraction process developed uses mild hydrogenation of low cost oils to create powerful solvents that can dissolve the organic portion of coal. The insoluble portion, consisting mainly of mineral matter and fixed carbon, is removed via centrifugation or filtration, leaving a liquid solution of coal chemicals and solvent. This solution can be further refined via distillation to meet specifications for products such as synthetic pitches, cokes, carbon foam and fibers. The most economical process recycles 85% of the solvent, which itself is obtained as a low-cost byproduct from industrial processes such as coal tar or petroleum refining. Alternatively, processes have been developed that can recycle 100% of the solvent, avoiding any need for products derived from petroleum or coal tar.

  9. Black Carbon’s Properties and Role in the Environment: A Comprehensive Review

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Shrestha, Gyami

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    carbon has a high carbon sequestration potential due to itsin soil can lead to sustainable carbon sequestration.process takes carbon sequestration from afforestation a step

  10. Method for synthesizing carbon nanotubes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fan, Hongyou

    2012-09-04T23:59:59.000Z

    A method for preparing a precursor solution for synthesis of carbon nanomaterials, where a polar solvent is added to at least one block copolymer and at least one carbohydrate compound, and the precursor solution is processed using a self-assembly process and subsequent heating to form nanoporous carbon films, porous carbon nanotubes, and porous carbon nanoparticles.

  11. GETTING CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Haszeldine, Stuart

    GETTING CARBON CAPTURE AND STORAGE TECHNOLOGIES TO MARKET BREAKING THE DEADLOCK Report of a Science: Carbon Capture and Storage © OECD/IEA 2009, fig. 1, p. 6 Figures 2 and 3 reprinted with permission from `UK Carbon storage and capture, where is it?' by Stuart Haszeldine, Professor of Carbon Capture

  12. Research Report Forests and carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    , baseline, carbon, climate change mitigation, forestry, quality assurance, sequestration. FCRP013/FCResearch Report Forests and carbon: a review of additionality #12;#12;Forests and carbon: a review. ISBN 978-0-85538-816-4 Valatin, G. (2011). Forests and carbon: a review of additionality. Forestry

  13. 4, 1367, 2007 Modelling carbon

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    BGD 4, 13­67, 2007 Modelling carbon overconsumption and extracellular POC formation M. Schartau et carbon overconsumption and the formation of extracellular particulate organic carbon M. Schartau1 , A Correspondence to: M. Schartau (markus.schartau@gkss.de) 13 #12;BGD 4, 13­67, 2007 Modelling carbon

  14. Carboxysomal carbonic anhydrases: Structure and role in microbial CO2 fixation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannon, Gordon C.; Heinhorst, Sabine; Kerfeld, Cheryl A.

    2010-06-23T23:59:59.000Z

    Cyanobacteria and some chemoautotrophic bacteria are able to grow in environments with limiting CO2 concentrations by employing a CO2-concentrating mechanism (CCM) that allows them to accumulate inorganic carbon in their cytoplasm to concentrations several orders of magnitude higher than that on the outside. The final step of this process takes place in polyhedral protein microcompartments known as carboxysomes, which contain the majority of the CO2-fixing enzyme, RubisCO. The efficiency of CO2 fixation by the sequestered RubisCO is enhanced by co-localization with a specialized carbonic anhydrase that catalyzes dehydration of the cytoplasmic bicarbonate and ensures saturation of RubisCO with its substrate, CO2. There are two genetically distinct carboxysome types that differ in their protein composition and in the carbonic anhydrase(s) they employ. Here we review the existing information concerning the genomics, structure and enzymology of these uniquely adapted carbonic anhydrases, which are of fundamental importance in the global carbon cycle.

  15. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO); Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager)

    2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  16. Carbon Capture Pilots (Kentucky)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Support for the Carbon Management Research Group (CMRG), a public/private partnership consisting of most of the Commonwealth’s utilities, the Electric Power Research Institute, the Center for...

  17. Extrasolar Carbon Planets

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Marc J. Kuchner; S. Seager

    2005-05-02T23:59:59.000Z

    We suggest that some extrasolar planets planets and low-mass white dwarf planets are especially good candidate members of this new class of planets, but these objects could also conceivably form around stars like the Sun. This planet-formation pathway requires only a factor of two local enhancement of the protoplanetary disk's C/O ratio above solar, a condition that pileups of carbonaceous grains may create in ordinary protoplanetary disks. Hot, Neptune-mass carbon planets should show a significant paucity of water vapor in their spectra compared to hot planets with solar abundances. Cooler, less massive carbon planets may show hydrocarbon-rich spectra and tar-covered surfaces. The high sublimation temperatures of diamond, SiC, and other carbon compounds could protect these planets from carbon depletion at high temperatures.

  18. Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    DOE has created a network of seven Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSPs) to help develop the technology, infrastructure, and regulations to implement large-scale CO2 storage (also...

  19. Low Carbon Fuel Standards

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sperling, Dan; Yeh, Sonia

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    S O N I A YE H Low Carbon Fuel Standards The most direct andalternative transportation fuels is to spur innovation withstandard for upstream fuel producers. hen it comes to energy

  20. Activated carbon aerogels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hanzawa, Y.; Kaneko, K. [Chiba Univ. (Japan)] [Chiba Univ. (Japan); Pekala, R.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Dresselhaus, M.S. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1996-12-25T23:59:59.000Z

    Activated carbon aerogels were obtained from the CO{sub 2} activation of the carbon aerogels. The adsorption isotherms of nitrogen on activated carbon aerogels at 77 K were measured and analyzed by the high-resolution {alpha}{sub s} plot to evaluate their porosities. The {alpha}{sub s} plot showed an upward deviation from linearity below {alpha}{sub s} = 0.5, suggesting that the presence of micropores becomes more predominant with the extent of the activation. Activation increased noticeably the pore volume and the surface area (the maximum value: 2600 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}) without change of the basic network structure of primary particles. Activated carbon aerogels had a bimodal pore size distribution of uniform micropores and mesopores. 16 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. ATK - Supersonic Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Castrogiovanni, Anthony (ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO) [ACEnT Laboratories, President and CEO; Calayag, Bon (ATK, Program Manager) [ATK, Program Manager

    2014-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

    ATK and ACEnt Laboratories, with the help of ARPA-E funding, have taken an aerospace problem, supersonic condensation, and turned it into a viable clean energy solution for carbon capture.

  2. Lead carbonate scintillator materials

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Derenzo, S.E.; Moses, W.W.

    1991-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

    Improved radiation detectors containing lead carbonate or basic lead carbonate as the scintillator element are disclosed. Both of these scintillators have been found to provide a balance of good stopping power, high light yield and short decay constant that is superior to other known scintillator materials. The radiation detectors disclosed are favorably suited for use in general purpose detection and in medical uses. 3 figures.

  3. Carbon dioxide removal process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, Richard W.; Da Costa, Andre R.; Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2003-11-18T23:59:59.000Z

    A process and apparatus for separating carbon dioxide from gas, especially natural gas, that also contains C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons. The invention uses two or three membrane separation steps, optionally in conjunction with cooling/condensation under pressure, to yield a lighter, sweeter product natural gas stream, and/or a carbon dioxide stream of reinjection quality and/or a natural gas liquids (NGL) stream.

  4. Carbon based prosthetic devices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Devlin, D.J.; Carroll, D.W.; Barbero, R.S.; Archuleta, T. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (US); Klawitter, J.J.; Ogilvie, W.; Strzepa, P. [Ascension Orthopedics (US); Cook, S.D. [Tulane Univ., New Orleans, LA (US). School of Medicine

    1998-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

    This is the final report of a one-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The project objective was to evaluate the use of carbon/carbon-fiber-reinforced composites for use in endoprosthetic devices. The application of these materials for the metacarpophalangeal (MP) joints of the hand was investigated. Issues concerning mechanical properties, bone fixation, biocompatibility, and wear are discussed. A system consisting of fiber reinforced materials with a pyrolytic carbon matrix and diamond-like, carbon-coated wear surfaces was developed. Processes were developed for the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) of pyrolytic carbon into porous fiber preforms with the ability to tailor the outer porosity of the device to provide a surface for bone in-growth. A method for coating diamond-like carbon (DLC) on the articulating surface by plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was developed. Preliminary results on mechanical properties of the composite system are discussed and initial biocompatibility studies were performed.

  5. Carbon Characterization Laboratory Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    David Swank; William Windes; D.C. Haggard; David Rohrbaugh; Karen Moore

    2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The newly completed Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Carbon Characterization Laboratory (CCL) is located in Lab-C20 of the Idaho National Laboratory Research Center. This laboratory was established under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project to support graphite research and development activities. The CCL is designed to characterize and test carbon-based materials such as graphite, carbon-carbon composites, and silicon-carbide composite materials. The laboratory is fully prepared to measure material properties for nonirradiated carbon-based materials. Plans to establish the laboratory as a radiological facility within the next year are definitive. This laboratory will be modified to accommodate irradiated materials, after which it can be used to perform material property measurements on both irradiated and nonirradiated carbon-based material. Instruments, fixtures, and methods are in place for preirradiation measurements of bulk density, thermal diffusivity, coefficient of thermal expansion, elastic modulus, Young’s modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson ratio, and electrical resistivity. The measurement protocol consists of functional validation, calibration, and automated data acquisition.

  6. Measurement of carbon capture efficiency and stored carbon leakage

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Keeling, Ralph F.; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2013-01-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Data representative of a measured carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) concentration and of a measured oxygen (O.sub.2) concentration at a measurement location can be used to determine whether the measured carbon dioxide concentration at the measurement location is elevated relative to a baseline carbon dioxide concentration due to escape of carbon dioxide from a source associated with a carbon capture and storage process. Optionally, the data can be used to quantify a carbon dioxide concentration increase at the first location that is attributable to escape of carbon dioxide from the source and to calculate a rate of escape of carbon dioxide from the source by executing a model of gas-phase transport using at least the first carbon dioxide concentration increase. Related systems, methods, and articles of manufacture are also described.

  7. 942 Inorganic Chemistry, Vol. 10, No. 5, 1971 solid (mp 43" with slight decomposition), which is sensitive to

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Bodner, George M.

    is sensitive to air and water. I t is soluble in carbon tetrachloride, trichloro- fluoromethane, and benzene but insoluble in butane. The infrared spectrum (4000-200 cm-l) in carbon tetrachloride showed the following

  8. Mechanisms of Organic-inorganic Interactions in Soils and Aqueous Environments Elucidated using Calorimetric Techniques 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey, Omar R.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ]. Biochars belong to the char/charcoal- BC category of continuum and can be produced from a number of different biomass feedstocks [50, 73, 74, 78-83]. Components of the BC continuum all have high carbon content, and are dominated by aromatic structures...

  9. Investigation of Anion-pi Interactions in Inorganic, Organic and Biological Systems

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Funck, Edward Sterling

    2012-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

    omitted for the sake of clarity. Copper atoms (teal), carbon atoms (gray), nitrogen atoms (blue), phosphorus atoms (pink), fluorine atoms (yellow). ................................................................. 46 2.10 Mass spectrum showing [Cu... the olefin and the anion. ............................................................... 73 3.4 Sum of the energies predicted by NBO for the charge transfer interactions between the fluorine lone pairs and the antibonding orbitals of the olefins...

  10. Mechanisms of Organic-inorganic Interactions in Soils and Aqueous Environments Elucidated using Calorimetric Techniques

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Harvey, Omar R.

    2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

    ]. Biochars belong to the char/charcoal- BC category of continuum and can be produced from a number of different biomass feedstocks [50, 73, 74, 78-83]. Components of the BC continuum all have high carbon content, and are dominated by aromatic structures...

  11. WESTCARB Carbon Atlas

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (known as WESTCARB) was established in Fall 2003. It is one of seven research partnerships co-funded by DOE to characterize regional carbon sequestration opportunities and conduct pilot-scale validation tests. The California Energy Commission manages WESTCARB and is a major co-funder. WESTCARB is characterizing the extent and capacity of geologic formations capable of storing CO2, known as sinks. Results are entered into a geographic information system (GIS) database, along with the location of major CO2-emitting point sources in each of the six WESTCARB states, enabling researchers and the public to gauge the proximity of candidate CO2 storage sites to emission sources and the feasibility of linking them via pipelines. Specifically, the WESTCARB GIS database (also known as the carbon atlas) stores layers of geologic information about potential underground storage sites, such as porosity and nearby fault-lines and aquifers. Researchers use these data, along with interpreted geophysical data and available oil and gas well logs to estimate the region's potential geologic storage capacity. The database also depicts existing pipeline routes and rights-of-way and lands that could be off-limits, which can aid the development of a regional carbon management strategy. The WESTCARB Carbon Atlas, which is accessible to the public, provides a resource for public discourse on practical solutions for regional CO2 management. A key WESTCARB partner, the Utah Automated Geographic Reference Center, has developed data serving procedures to enable the WESTCARB Carbon Atlas to be integrated with those from other regional partnerships, thereby supporting the U.S. Department of Energy's national carbon atlas, NATCARB

  12. Direct determination of the local Hamaker constant of inorganic surfaces based on scanning force microscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Krajina, Brad A.; Kocherlakota, Lakshmi S.; Overney, René M., E-mail: roverney@u.washington.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1750 (United States)

    2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

    The energetics involved in the bonding fluctuations between nanometer-sized silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) probes and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) could be quantified directly and locally on the submicron scale via a time-temperature superposition analysis of the lateral forces between scanning force microscopy silicon dioxide probes and inorganic sample surfaces. The so-called “intrinsic friction analysis” (IFA) provided direct access to the Hamaker constants for HOPG and MoS{sub 2}, as well as the control sample, calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). The use of scanning probe enables nanoscopic analysis of bonding fluctuations, thereby overcoming challenges associated with larger scale inhomogeneity and surface roughness common to conventional techniques used to determine surface free energies and dielectric properties. A complementary numerical analysis based on optical and electron energy loss spectroscopy and the Lifshitz quantum electrodynamic theory of van der Waals interactions is provided and confirms quantitatively the IFA results.

  13. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 3, Inorganic instrumental methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

    The methods cover: C in solutions, F (electrode), elements by atomic emission spectrometry, inorganic anions by ion chromatography, Hg in water/solids/sludges, As, Se, Bi, Pb, data calculations for SST (single shell tank?) samples, Sb, Tl, Ag, Pu, O/M ratio, ignition weight loss, pH value, ammonia (N), Cr(VI), alkalinity, U, C sepn. from soil/sediment/sludge, Pu purif., total N, water, C and S, surface Cl/F, leachable Cl/F, outgassing of Ge detector dewars, gas mixing, gas isotopic analysis, XRF of metals/alloys/compounds, H in Zircaloy, H/O in metals, inpurity extraction, reduced/total Fe in glass, free acid in U/Pu solns, density of solns, Kr/Xe isotopes in FFTF cover gas, H by combustion, MS of Li and Cs isotopes, MS of lanthanide isotopes, GC operation, total Na on filters, XRF spectroscopy QC, multichannel analyzer operation, total cyanide in water/solid/sludge, free cyanide in water/leachate, hydrazine conc., ICP-MS, {sup 99}Tc, U conc./isotopes, microprobe analysis of solids, gas analysis, total cyanide, H/N{sub 2}O in air, and pH in soil.

  14. Carbon Fuel Particles Used in Direct Carbon Conversion Fuel Cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2008-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  15. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2012-01-24T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  16. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F.; Cherepy, Nerine

    2012-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  17. Carbon fuel particles used in direct carbon conversion fuel cells

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cooper, John F. (Oakland, CA); Cherepy, Nerine (Oakland, CA)

    2011-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

    A system for preparing particulate carbon fuel and using the particulate carbon fuel in a fuel cell. Carbon particles are finely divided. The finely dividing carbon particles are introduced into the fuel cell. A gas containing oxygen is introduced into the fuel cell. The finely divided carbon particles are exposed to carbonate salts, or to molten NaOH or KOH or LiOH or mixtures of NaOH or KOH or LiOH, or to mixed hydroxides, or to alkali and alkaline earth nitrates.

  18. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott J; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-10-29T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  19. Chemically modified carbonic anhydrases useful in carbon capture systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Novick, Scott; Alvizo, Oscar

    2013-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

    The present disclosure relates to chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides and soluble compositions, homogenous liquid formulations comprising them. The chemically modified carbonic anhydrase polypeptides have improved properties relative to the same carbonic anhydrase polypeptide that is not chemically modified including the improved properties of increased activity and/or stability in the presence of amine compounds, ammonia, or carbonate ion. The present disclosure also provides methods of preparing the chemically modified polypeptides and methods of using the chemically modified polypeptides for accelerating the absorption of carbon dioxide from a gas stream into a solution as well as for the release of the absorbed carbon dioxide for further treatment and/or sequestering.

  20. activated carbon composites: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  1. ammonium carbonates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  2. a537 carbon steel: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  3. americium carbonates: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  4. affecting carbon tetrachloride: Topics by E-print Network

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    T300: C strength 4340 steel, carbon-carbon composite, and Carbon-Silicon Carbide composite were tested to examine materials. MATERIALS AND DESIRED DATA Carbon-Carbon...

  5. A Study of Electrochemical Reduction of Ethylene and PropyleneCarbonate Electrolytes on Graphite Using ATR-FTIR Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhuang, Guorong V.; Yang, Hui; Blizanac, Berislav; Ross Jr.,Philip N.

    2005-05-12T23:59:59.000Z

    We present results testing the hypothesis that there is a different reaction pathway for the electrochemical reduction of PC versus EC-based electrolytes at graphite electrodes with LiPF6 as the salt in common. We examined the reduction products formed using ex-situ Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in attenuated total reflection (ATR) geometry. The results show the pathway for reduction of PC leads nearly entirely to lithium carbonate as the solid product (and presumably ethylene gas as the co-product) while EC follows a path producing a mixture of organic and inorganic compounds. Possible explanations for the difference in reaction pathway are discussed.

  6. Hybrid inorganic-organic, organic charge transfer, and radical based compounds with chalcofulvalene donors and organic acceptors

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Reinheimer, Eric Wade

    2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

    HYBRID INORGANIC-ORGANIC, ORGANIC CHARGE TRANSFER, AND RADICAL BASED COMPOUNDS WITH CHALCOFULVALENE DONORS AND ORGANIC ACCEPTORS A Dissertation by ERIC WADE REINHEIMER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies... COMPOUNDS WITH CHALCOFULVALENE DONORS AND ORGANIC ACCEPTORS A Dissertation by ERIC WADE REINHEIMER Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree...

  7. Identifying sources of dissolved organic carbon in agriculturally dominated rivers using radiocarbon age dating: Sacramento–San Joaquin River Basin, California

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Sickman, James O.; DiGiorgio, Carol L.; Lee Davisson, M.; Lucero, Delores M.; Bergamaschi, Brian

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    peat soils, Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta, California: implications for drinking-water quality. Water-Resources

  8. PII S0016-7037(99)00335-X Sedimentary sources of old high molecular weight dissolved organic carbon from the ocean

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Guo, Laodong

    and Bruland, 1988; Rue and Bruland, 1997). The processes which control the cycling of DOC in the ocean

  9. Assessment of temporal patterns in dissolved organic carbon in Tempe Town Lake Monica M. Palta1 and Hilairy E.Hartnett1,2

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hall, Sharon J.

    · Explore potential for monitoring some component of phytoplankton/community respiration or NPP that can symbols, city of Tempe Time Series Data · Tempe Town Lake was constructed in 1999, and provides recreation

  10. Carbon contamination topography analysis of EUV masks

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Fan, Y.-J.

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    induced carbon contamination of extreme ultraviolet optics,"and A. Izumi. "Carbon contamination of EL'V mask: filmEffect of Carbon Contamination on the Printing Performance

  11. Carbon Trading Protocols for Geologic Sequestration

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Hoversten, Shanna

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    H. , 2005, IPCC: Carbon Capture and Storage: Technical05CH11231. INTRODUCTION Carbon capture and storage (CCS)Development Mechanism CCS: Carbon Capture and Storage C02e:

  12. Sandia National Laboratories: Carbon Capture & Storage

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Carbon Capture & Storage High-Pressure and High-Temperature Neutron Reflectometry Cell for Solid-Fluid Interface Studies On February 21, 2013, in Carbon Capture, Carbon Capture &...

  13. ASSESSMENT OF HOUSEHOLD CARBON FOOTPRINT REDUCTION POTENTIALS

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Masanet, Eric

    2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    of  American household carbon footprint. ” Ecological and  limitations) of carbon footprint estimates toward of the art in carbon footprint analyses for California, 

  14. On carbon footprints and growing energy use

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Oldenburg, C.M.

    2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    On carbon footprints and growing energy use Curtis M.reductions in the carbon footprint of a growing organizationhis own organization's carbon footprint and answers this

  15. Carbon nanotubes : synthesis, characterization, and applications

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Deck, Christian Peter

    2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    around Surface-Attached Carbon Nanotubes. Ind. Eng. Chem.the flexural rigidity of carbon nanotube ensembles. AppliedNanotechnology in Carbon Materials. Acta Metallurgica, 1997.

  16. Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Participatory Carbon Monitoring: Operational Guidance for National REDD+ Carbon Accounting Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Participatory Carbon...

  17. Prediction of heat of melting and heat capacity of inorganic liquids by the method of group contributions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, J.D. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Eakman, J.M. [University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States); Montoya, M.M. [New Mexico State Univ., Las Cruces, NM (United States)

    1997-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

    Complex salts and salt/oxide combinations are being considered for the immobilization and storage or disposal of hazardous or radioactive wastes. There is very little information concerning such fundamental properties as heat of fusion and heat capacities for many of these inorganic materials. This work focuses on the use of elements or simple functional groups to estimate some of these fundamental thermodynamic properties for a variety of inorganic compounds. The major emphasis will be on properties for a variety of inorganic compounds. The major emphasis will be on properties for which some ancillary information may be easily measured, but which may be very difficult to measure directly. An example of such a property is the heat of fusion (or melting). The melting temperature for most pure materials is relatively easy to measure. However, the actual amount of energy required to liquefy, or conversely, the amount of energy which must be removed to solidify those same materials has not been measured. Similarly, important properties such as heat capacities of liquids are unavailable for many compounds. Such information is essential in the chemical industry and are paramount for chemical engineers if they are to design, build and operate plants and facilities in an economical and efficient manner.

  18. Removal mechanisms of organic and inorganic solutes in raw, upland drinking water by nanofiltration: influence of solute-solute and solute-membrane interactions 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    De Munari, Annalisa; Munari, Annalisa de

    2012-11-29T23:59:59.000Z

    Nanofiltration (NF) membranes have been applied successfully for the removal of inorganic and organic pollutants, including micropollutants, from drinking water for the past two decades. However, a complete and quantitative ...

  19. Effect of chronic inhalation of inorganic arsenic on the risk of stillbirth in a community surrounding an agriculture chemical production facility: a hospital-based study 

    E-Print Network [OSTI]

    Ihrig, Melanie M

    1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

    EFFECT OF CHRONIC INHALATION OF INORGANIC ARSENIC ON THE RISK OF STILLBIRTH IN A COMMUNITY SURROUNDING AN AGRICULTURE CHEMICAL PRODUCTION FACILITY: A HOSPITAL-BASED STUDY A Thesis by MELANIE M. IHRIG Submitted to the Office of Graduate...

  20. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Uranyl and Uranyl Carbonate Adsorption at Alumino-silicate Surfaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kerisit, Sebastien N.; Liu, Chongxuan

    2014-03-03T23:59:59.000Z

    Adsorption at mineral surfaces is a critical factor controlling the mobility of uranium(VI) in aqueous environments. Therefore, molecular dynamics (MD) simulations were performed to investigate uranyl(VI) adsorption onto two neutral alumino-silicate surfaces, namely the orthoclase (001) surface and the octahedral aluminum sheet of the kaolinite (001) surface. Although uranyl preferentially adsorbed as a bi-dentate innersphere complex on both surfaces, the free energy of adsorption at the orthoclase surface (-15 kcal mol-1) was significantly more favorable than that at the kaolinite surface (-3 kcal mol-1), which was attributed to differences in surface functional groups and to the ability of the orthoclase surface to dissolve a surface potassium ion upon uranyl adsorption. The structures of the adsorbed complexes compared favorably with X-ray absorption spectroscopy results. Simulations of the adsorption of uranyl complexes with up to three carbonate ligands revealed that uranyl complexes coordinated to up to 2 carbonate ions are stable on the orthoclase surface whereas uranyl carbonate surface complexes are unfavored at the kaolinite surface. Combining the MD-derived equilibrium adsorption constants for orthoclase with aqueous equilibrium constants for uranyl carbonate species indicates the presence of adsorbed uranium complexes with one or two carbonates in alkaline conditions, in support of current uranium(VI) surface complexation models.