National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for dissolved gas supersaturation

  1. Review of dissolved gas supersaturation literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitkamp, D.E.; Katz, M.

    1980-11-01

    Dissolved gas supersaturation is a condition that results from natural and human-caused processes. Supersaturation can result in gas bubble disease which has been described in a wide variety of fishes and invertebrates. In recent years dissolved gas supersaturation resulting from dams and thermal discharges has produced mortalities of fish in several cases. This review discusses most of the available literature dealing with dissolved gas supersaturation and the recorded cases of gas bubble disease.

  2. A review of dissolved gas supersaturation literature

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Weitkamp, D.E.; Katz, M.

    1980-11-01

    Gas bubble disease in a condition that affects aquatic animals residing in fresh or marine waters that are supersaturated with atmospheric gases. The majority of research concerning dissolved gas supersaturation has been stimulated by a serious supersaturation problem that was first observed in the Columbia and Snake river systems in 1970. Available literature dealing with dissolved gas supersaturation and recorded cases of gas bubble disease are reviewed. The causes of supersaturation, the organisms affected by supersaturation, factors influencing susceptibility of aquatic organisms to gas bubble disease, and various other related topics are explored.

  3. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neitzel, Duane A.

    2009-09-14

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including changes in pressure as they pass through turbines and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). To examine pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists conducted specific tests using a hyperbaric chamber. Tests were designed to simulate Kaplan turbine passage conditions and to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes, with and without the complication of fish being acclimated to gas-supersaturated water.

  4. Laboratory studies of the effects of pressure and dissolved gas supersaturation on turbine-passed fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, C. S.; Amidan, B. G.; Cada, G. F.

    2001-03-01

    Designing advanced turbine systems requires knowledge of environmental conditions that injure or kill fish such as the stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes fish experience during turbine passage and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). The objective of this study was to examine the relative importance of pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality. Specific tests were designed to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes typical of turbine passage, with and without the complication of the fish being acclimated to gas supersaturated water. The study investigated the responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to these two stresses, both singly and in combination.

  5. Seasonal changes in dissolved-gas supersaturation in the Sacramento River and possible effects on striped bass

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colt, J.

    1984-09-01

    Dissolved-gad supersaturation levels were monitored in the Sacramento River system in central California during 1981-1982. Gas supersaturation was highest in the spring when temperature and flow were increasing rapidly, and was caused primarily by inflows of highly supersaturated water from the American and Feather rivers. During high runoff, air entrained by falls and rapids can produce supersaturation. Rapid heating can produce gas supersaturation because the solubility of gases is reduced at higher temperatures. Entrainment of air at dams does not appear to be responsible for gas supersaturation in these two rivers, although the dams may have an influence on dissolved gas levels in the Sacramento River. Gas supersaturation in the Sacramento-San Joaquin River system may adversely affect the eggs and larvae of wild striped bass Morone saxatilis and salmonids in hatcheries. The siting of salmonid hatcheries below large dams insures that hatchery fish will be exposed to high levels of gas supersaturation. Because larval striped bass are positively phototactic, they are at greater risk than fish that are found lower in the water column. 48 references, 4 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Effects of Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Fish Residing in the Snake and Columbia Rivers, 1996 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrank, Boyd P.

    1998-03-01

    Increased spill at dams has commonly brought dissolved gas supersaturation higher than levels established by state and federal water quality criteria in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. These increased spill volumes are intended to provide safe passage for migrating juvenile salmon. However, dissolved gas supersaturation resulting from spill in past decades has led to gas bubble disease (GBD) in fish. Therefore, during the period of high spill in 1996, the authors monitored the prevalence and severity of gas bubble disease by sampling resident fish in Priest Rapids Reservoir and downstream from Bonneville, Priest Rapids, and Ice Harbor Dams.

  7. Migration depths of adult steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss in relation to dissolved gas supersaturation in a regulated river system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Caudill, Christopher C.; keefer, matthew L.; Peery, Christopher A.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2010-04-01

    Adult steelhead tagged with archival transmitters primarily migrated through a large river corridor at depths > 2 m, interspersed with frequent but short (< 5 min) periods closer to the surface. The recorded swimming depths and behaviours probably provided adequate hydrostatic compensation for the encountered supersaturated dissolved gas conditions and probably limited development of gas bubble disease (GBD). Results parallel those from a concurrent adult Chinook salmon study, except steelhead experienced greater seasonal variability and were more likely to have depth-uncompensated supersaturation exposure in some dam tailraces, perhaps explaining the higher incidence of GBD in this species.

  8. Effects of Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Fish Residing in the Snake and Columbia Rivers, 1997 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ryan, Brad A.

    1998-04-01

    Large amounts of spill at dams has commonly generated levels of dissolved gas supersaturation that are higher than levels established by state and federal agencies setting criteria for acceptable water quality in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. Large spill volumes are sometimes provided voluntarily to increase the proportion of migrating juvenile salmon that pass dams through nonturbine routes. However, total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) resulting from spill in past decades has led to gas bubble disease (GBD) in fish. Therefore, during the period of high spill in 1997, the authors monitored the prevalence and severity of gas bubble disease by sampling resident fish in Ice Harbor reservoir and downstream from Ice Harbor and Bonneville Dams.

  9. Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, Cary S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Cada, G F.

    2001-03-23

    The objective of this study was to examine the relative importance of pressure changes as a source of turbine-passage injury and mortality. Specific tests were designed to quantify the response of fish to rapid pressure changes typical of turbine passage, with and without the complication of the fish being acclimated to gas supersaturated water. We investigated the responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), and bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus) to these two stresses, both singly and in combination.

  10. Impacts of individual fish movement patterns on estimates of mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation in the Columbia River Basin.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Richmond, Marshall C.; Fidler, Larry E.

    2002-12-31

    Spatial and temporal distributions of dissolved gases in the Columbia and Snake rivers vary due to many factors including river channel and dam geometries, operational decisions, and natural variations in flow rates. As a result, the dissolved gas exposure histories experienced by migrating juvenile salmonids can vary significantly among individual fish. A discrete, particle-based model of individual fish movements and dissolved gas exposure history has been developed and applied to examine the effects of such variability on estimates of fish mortality. The model, called the Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator or FINS, is linked to a two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) hydrodynamic simulator that quantifies local water velocity, temperature, and dissolved gas levels as a function of river flow rates and dam operations. Simulated gas exposure histories are then input to biological mortality models to predict the effects of various river configurations on fish injury and mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation. This model framework provides a critical linkage between hydrodynamic models of the river system and models of biological effects. FINS model parameters were estimated and validated based on observations of individual fish movements collected using radiotelemetry methods during 1997 and 1998. The model was then used to simulate exposure histories under selected operational scenarios. We compare mortality rates estimated using the FINS model approach (incorporating individual behavior and spatial and temporal variability) to those estimated using average exposure times and levels as is done in traditional lumped-parameter model approaches.

  11. Estimating Adult Chinook Salmon Exposure to Dissolved Gas Supersaturation Downstream of Hydroelectric Dams Using Telemetry and Hydrodynamic Models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, Eric L.; Clabough, Tami S.; Peery, Christopher A.; Bennett, David H.; bjornn, Theodore C.; Caudill, Christopher C.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2007-11-01

    Gas bubble disease (GBD) has been recognized for years as a potential problem for fishes in the Columbia River basin. GBD results from exposure to gas supersaturated water created by discharge over dam spillways. Spill typically creates a downstream plume of water with high total dissolved gas supersaturation (TDGS) that may be positioned along either shore or mid-channel, depending on dam operations. We obtained spatial data on fish migration paths and migration depths for 228 adult spring and summer Chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, during 2000. Migration paths were compared to output from a two-dimensional hydrodynamic and dissolved gas model to estimate the potential for GBD expression and to test for behavioral avoidance of the high TDGS plume in unrestrained fish migrating under field conditions. Consistent with our previous estimates using single-location estimates of TDGS, we observed salmon swam sufficiently deep in the water column to receive complete hydrostatic compensation 95.9% of time spent in the Bonneville tailrace and 88.1% of the time in the Ice Harbor tailrace. The majority of depth uncompensated exposure occurred at TDGS levels > 115%. Adult spring and summer Chinook salmon tended to migrate near the shoreline. Adults moved into the high dissolved gas plume as often as they moved out of it downstream of Bonneville Dam, providing no evidence that adults moved laterally to avoid areas with elevated dissolved gas levels. The strong influence of dam operations on the position of the high-TDGS plume and shoreline-orientation behaviors of adults suggest that exposure of adult salmonids to high-TDGS conditions may be minimized using operational conditions that direct the plume mid-channel, particularly during periods of high discharge and spill. More generally, our approach illustrates the potential for combined field and modeling efforts to estimate the fine-scale environmental conditions encountered by fishes in natural and regulated rivers.

  12. Simulated Passage Through A Modified Kaplan Turbine Pressure Regime: A Supplement to "Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, Cary S.; Amidan, Brett G.; Cada, G. F.

    2002-03-15

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage and dissolved gas supersaturation (resulting from the release of water from the spillway). The responses of fall Chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to these two stresses, both singly and in combination, were investigated in the laboratory. A previous test series (Abernethy et al. 2001) evaluated the effects of passage through a Kaplan turbine under the ?worst case? pressure conditions. For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a Kaplan turbine under a more ?fish-friendly? mode of operation. The results were compared to results from Abernethy et al. (2001). Fish were exposed to total dissolved gas (TDG) levels of 100%, 120%, or 135% of saturation for 16-22 hours at either surface (101 kPa) or 30 ft (191 kPa) of pressure, then held at surface pressure at 100% saturation for a 48-hour observation period. Sensitivity of fall Chinook salmon to gas supersaturation was slightly higher than in the previous test series, with 15% mortality for surface-acclimated fish at 120% TDG, compared to 0% in the previous tests.

  13. Atmospheric gas supersaturation: educational and research needs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouck, G.R.; D'Aoust, B.; Ebel, W.J.; Rulifson, R.

    1980-11-01

    There still is need for research on gas supersaturation as it relates to gas bubble disease. Better methods are required for both measurement and treatment of gas-supersaturated water. We must understand more about physiological and ecosystem responses to high gas pressures if existing tolerance data for individual species are to be applied accurately to field or fish-cultural situations. A better training program is needed for scientists, engineers, and facility operators involved in the monitoring and mitigation of gas-supersaturated waters.

  14. Review of Current Literature and Research on Gas Supersaturation and Gas Bubble Trauma: Special Publication Number 1, 1986.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Colt, John; Bouck, Gerald R.; Fidler, Larry

    1986-12-01

    This report presents recently published information and on-going research on the various areas of gas supersaturation. Growing interest in the effects of chronic gas supersaturation on aquatic animals has been due primarily to heavy mortality of salmonid species under hatchery conditions. Extensive examination of affected animals has failed to consistently identify pathogenic organisms. Water quality sampling has shown that chronic levels of gas supersaturation are commonly present during a significant period of the year. Small marine fish larvae are significantly more sensitive to gas supersaturation than salmonids. Present water quality criteria for gas supersaturation are not adequate for the protection of either salmonids under chronic exposure or marine fish larvae, especially in aquaria or hatcheries. To increase communication between interested parties in the field of gas supersaturation research and control, addresses and telephone numbers of all people responding to the questionnaire are included. 102 refs.

  15. Changes in Gas Bubble Disease Signs and Survival of Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Experimentally Exposed to Supersaturated Gasses, 1995-1996 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Absolon, Randall F.

    1997-11-01

    Research conducted in 1996 to evaluate (1) changes in GBD signs in juvenile salmonids resulting from passage through turbine intakes and bypass systems, and (2) relative survival during migration through the lower Snake River for juvenile salmonids experimentally exposed to supersaturation of dissolved gas.

  16. Vertical responses of Atlantic croaker to gas supersaturation and temperature change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chamberlain, G.W.; Neill, W.H.; Romanowsky, P.A.; Strawn, K.

    1980-11-01

    Vertical responses of juvenile Atlantic croakers (Micropogon undulatus) to acute supersaturation of nitrogen and oxygen and to changing temperature were observed in a 2.5-m-tall test cylinder supplied with flowing estuarine water. Supersaturation of nitrogen caused an initial upward movement of fish, although a compensatory downward response seemed to occur after 2 to 4 hours of exposure. Supersaturation of oxygen resulted in an almost immediate downward movement of fish. Abrupt upward displacement of fish followed water-temperature changes, especially increases. Similarities between the behavior of croakers in these experiments and the behavior of other physoclists after swim-bladder volume manipulation suggested that gas supersaturation caused the swim bladders of our fish to inflate, resulting first in upward drift and then in downward swimming to restore neutral buoyancy. A nonlinear response model incorporating this hypothesis accounted for 62% of the variation (over all experiments) in mean vertical displacement of the croakers. Supersaturation-induced inflation of the swim bladder may provide physoclistous fishes a direct mechanism for avoiding gas bubble disease by stimulating the fish to descend to a depth at which no gas has a relative saturation value greater than 100%.

  17. Review of Monitoring Plans for Gas Bubble Disease Signs and Gas Supersaturation Levels on the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fidler, Larry; Elston, Ralph; Colt, John

    1994-07-01

    Montgomery Watson was retained by the Bonneville Power Administration to evaluate the monitoring program for gas bubble disease signs and dissolved gas supersaturation levels on the Columbia and Snake rivers. The results of this evaluation will provide the basis for improving protocols and procedures for future monitoring efforts. Key study team members were Dr. John Colt, Dr. Larry Fidler, and Dr. Ralph Elston. On the week of June 6 through 10, 1994 the study team visited eight monitoring sites (smolt, adult, and resident fish) on the Columbia and Snake rivers. Additional protocol evaluations were conducted at the Willard Field Station (National Biological Survey) and Pacific Northwest Laboratories at Richland (Battelle). On June 13 and 14, 1994, the study team visited the North Pacific Division office of the U.S. Corps of Engineers and the Fish Passage Center to collect additional information and data on the monitoring programs. Considering the speed at which the Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring Program was implemented this year, the Fish Passage Center and cooperating Federal, State, and Tribal Agencies have been doing an incredible job. Thirty-one specific recommendations are presented in this report and are summarized in Section 14.

  18. Gas atomization synthesis of refractory or intermetallic compounds and supersaturated solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Iver E. (Ames, IA); Lograsso, Barbara K. (Ames, IA); Ellis, Timothy W. (Ames, IA)

    1994-01-01

    A metallic melt is atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the composition of the atomizing gas are selected such that the gas and melt react in the atomization spray zone to form a refractory or intermetallic compound in the as-atomized powder particles. A metallic melt is also atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas mixture gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the ratio of a reactive gas to a carrier gas are selected to form powder particles comprising a supersaturated solid solution of the atomic species of the reactive gas in the particles. The powder particles are then heat treated to precipitate dispersoids in-situ therein to form a dispersion strengthened material.

  19. Gas atomization synthesis of refractory or intermetallic compounds and supersaturated solid solutions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, I.E.; Lograsso, B.K.; Ellis, T.W.

    1994-11-29

    A metallic melt is atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the composition of the atomizing gas are selected such that the gas and melt react in the atomization spray zone to form a refractory or intermetallic compound in the as-atomized powder particles. A metallic melt is also atomized using a high pressure atomizing gas mixture gas wherein the temperature of the melt and the ratio of a reactive gas to a carrier gas are selected to form powder particles comprising a supersaturated solid solution of the atomic species of the reactive gas in the particles. The powder particles are then heat treated to precipitate dispersoids in-situ therein to form a dispersion strengthened material. 9 figures.

  20. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Fishes of the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McGrath, Kathy E.; Dawley, Earl; Geist, David R.

    2006-03-31

    Gas supersaturation problems generated by spill from dams on the Columbia River were first identified in the 1960s. Since that time, considerable research has been conducted on effects of gas supersaturation on aquatic life, primarily juvenile salmonids. Also since that time, modifications to dam structures and operations have reduced supersaturated gas levels produced by the dams. The limit for total dissolved gas saturation (TDGS) as mandated by current Environmental Protection Agency water quality standards is 110%. State management agencies issue limited waivers to water quality, allowing production of levels of up to 120% TDGS to facilitate the downstream migration of juvenile salmonids. Recently, gas supersaturation as a water quality issue has resurfaced as concerns have grown regarding chronic effects of spill-related total dissolved gas on salmonids, including incubating embryos and larvae, resident fish species, and other aquatic organisms. Because of current concerns, and because the last comprehensive review of research on supersaturation effects on fishes was conducted in 1997, we reviewed recent supersaturation literature to identify new or ongoing issues that may not be adequately addressed by the current 110% TDGS limit and the 120% TDGS water quality waiver. We found that recent work supports older research indicating that short-term exposure to levels up to 120% TDGS does not produce acute effects on migratory juvenile or adult salmonids when compensating depths are available. Monitoring programs at Snake and Columbia river dams from 1995 to the early 2000s documented a low incidence of significant gas bubble disease or mortality in Columbia River salmonids, resident fishes, or other taxa. We did, however, identify five areas of concern in which total dissolved gas levels lower than water quality limits may produce sublethal effects on fishes of the Columbia River. These areas of concern are 1) sensitive and vulnerable species or life stages, 2) long-term chronic or multiple exposure, 3) vulnerable habitats and reaches, 4) effects on incubating fish in hyporheic habitats, and 5) community and ecosystem effects. Although some of these areas of concern may have been identified previously in earlier works, we suggest that consideration of the issues is warranted to avoid detrimental impacts on aquatic resources of the Columbia River system. We discuss these issues and provide recommendations to regulatory and management agencies based on our review of recent literature. In general, we recommend that additional attention be directed toward resolving the uncertainties within these five areas.

  1. Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

  2. New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade...

  3. ,"New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease...

  4. ,"Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  5. ,"Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

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    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  6. ,"Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  7. ,"Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

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    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  8. ,"Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  9. ,"Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  10. ,"Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion...

  11. ,"West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  12. ,"Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas,...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  13. ,"California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  14. ,"Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

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    Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  15. ,"New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  16. Nebraska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) No Data Available For This Series - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016 Referring Pages: Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation, as of Dec. 31 Nebraska Associated-Dissolved Natural

  17. PREDICTION OF TOTAL DISSOLVED GAS EXCHANGE AT HYDROPOWER DAMS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hadjerioua, Boualem; Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-07-01

    Total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in waters released at hydropower dams can cause gas bubble trauma in fisheries resulting in physical injuries and eyeball protrusion that can lead to mortality. Elevated TDG pressures in hydropower releases are generally caused by the entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin. The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. These dam operations are constrained by state and federal water quality standards for TDG saturation which balance the benefits of spillway operations designed for Endangered Species Act (ESA)-listed fisheries versus the degradation to water quality as defined by TDG saturation. In the 1970s, the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), under the federal Clean Water Act (Section 303(d)), established a criterion not to exceed the TDG saturation level of 110% in order to protect freshwater and marine aquatic life. The states of Washington and Oregon have adopted special water quality standards for TDG saturation in the tailrace and forebays of hydropower facilities on the Columbia and Snake Rivers where spillway operations support fish passage objectives. The physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been studied throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and routine water quality monitoring programs. These data have been used to quantify the relationship between project operations, structural properties, and TDG exchange. These data have also been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange to support real-time TDG management decisions. These empirically based predictive models have been developed for specific projects and account for both the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant exchange in route to the next downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the general finding from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow the formulation of optimal daily water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. A generalized TDG exchange model can also be applied to other hydropower dams that affect TDG pressures in tailraces and can be used to develop alternative operational and structural measures to minimize TDG generation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases. TDG data from hydropower facilities located throughout the northwest region of the United States will be used to identify relationships between TDG exchange and relevant dependent variables. Data analysis and regression techniques will be used to develop predictive TDG exchange expressions for various structural categories.

  18. Total Dissolved Gas Monitoring in Chum Salmon Spawning Gravels Below Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Geist, David R.; Panther, Jennifer L.; Dawley, Earl

    2007-01-30

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted research to determine whether total dissolved gas concentrations are elevated in chum salmon redds during spring spill operations at Bonneville Dam. The study involved monitoring the total dissolved gas levels at egg pocket depth and in the river at two chum salmon spawning locations downstream from Bonneville Dam. Dissolved atmospheric gas supersaturation generated by spill from Bonneville Dam may diminish survival of chum (Oncorhynchus keta) salmon when sac fry are still present in the gravel downstream from Bonneville Dam. However, no previous work has been conducted to determine whether total dissolved gas (TDG) levels are elevated during spring spill operations within incubation habitats. The guidance used by hydropower system managers to provide protection for pre-emergent chum salmon fry has been to limit TDG to 105% after allowing for depth compensation. A previous literature review completed in early 2006 shows that TDG levels as low as 103% have been documented to cause mortality in sac fry. Our study measured TDG in the incubation environment to evaluate whether these levels were exceeded during spring spill operations. Total dissolved gas levels were measured within chum salmon spawning areas near Ives Island and Multnomah Falls on the Columbia River. Water quality sensors screened at egg pocket depth and to the river were installed at both sites. At each location, we also measured dissolved oxygen, temperature, specific conductance, and water depth to assist with the interpretation of TDG results. Total dissolved gas was depth-compensated to determine when levels were high enough to potentially affect sac fry. This report provides detailed descriptions of the two study sites downstream of Bonneville Dam, as well as the equipment and procedures employed to monitor the TDG levels at the study sites. Results of the monitoring at both sites are then presented in both text and graphics. The findings and recommendations for further research are discussed, followed by a listing of the references cited in the report.

  19. Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 14 1980's 34 12 27 31 14 25 41 13 28 39 1990's 22 14 11 9 11 32 28 31 17 54 2000's 19 19 20 14 12 14 19 15 9 78 2010's 10 104 7 19 18 - = No

  20. Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 67 1980's 73 66 74 80 114 105 66 61 71 105 1990's 126 108 85 53 43 27 47 51 47 31 2000's 35 26 33 27 20 20 21 30 45 38 2010's 36 62 62 43 58 - = No Data Reported; --

  1. Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 51 1980's 122 89 81 108 77 91 98 97 101 68 1990's 86 66 61 53 55 53 51 42 52 67 2000's 70 85 94 112 130 161 195 219 197 312 2010's 302 270 289 304 325 - = No Data

  2. Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 108 1980's 122 99 86 64 90 81 69 62 69 57 1990's 53 45 55 59 117 110 119 112 106 100 2000's 93 96 102 92 88 87 50 110 1 7 2010's 30 2 0 1 0 - = No Data Reported; -- =

  3. Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2 1980's 11 14 12 19 17 13 17 19 19 22 1990's 8 10 8 6 47 27 24 26 20 29 2000's 27 25 25 25 19 30 36 34 34 32 2010's 111 98 93 44 49 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  4. Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 765 1980's 916 1,040 832 775 690 632 567 488 249 237 1990's 241 192 160 120 134 133 255 287 183 260 2000's 186 168 159 139 107 98 90 73 78 53

  5. Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 733 1980's 883 758 719 824 774 689 577 569 491 432 1990's 408 437 352 328 357 326 347 281 228 227 2000's 214 159 214 269 193 153 192 179 148 77 2010's 72 77 94 125 108

  6. Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 13 1980's 23 25 1990's 25 23 30 46 56 44 38 30 28 27 2000's 29 26 31 32 32 29 18 20 19 29 2010's 38 48 100 46 141 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  7. Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 166 1980's 194 184 174 194 189 157 150 145 157 145 1990's 67 136 133 93 85 104 89 56 38 41 2000's 39 30 38 37 40 46 44 37 12 20 2010's 29 46 82 135 189 - = No Data

  8. California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 307 1980's 265 265 325 344 256 254 261 243 220 233 1990's 228 220 196 135 145 109 120 129 116 233 2000's 244 185 197

  9. California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 175 1980's 207 162 103 114 162 185 149 155 158 141 1990's 110 120 100 108 108 115 112 143 153 174 2000's 203

  10. California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 249 1980's 307 1,110 1,249 1,312 1,252 1990's 1,229 995 987 976 1,077 1,195 1,151 498 437 488 2000's 500 490 459 456 412 776 756

  11. Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 9 1980's 11 14 14 21 78 67 22 21 8 19 1990's 23 20 10 8 9 36 47 92 79 96 2000's 157 168 137 164 125 134 151 130 127 133 2010's 144 134 125 269 299 - = No Data

  12. Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,038 1980's 1,374 1,228 1,060 959 867 710 691 691 616 581 1990's 573 572 624 502 611 879 824 850 794 713 2000's 652 488 561 450 362 384 347 365 223 362 2010's 334 318

  13. Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 3,360 2,391 2,128 1,794 1,741 1990's 1,554 1,394 1,167 926 980 1,001 1,039 1,016 911 979 2000's 807 796 670 586 557 588 561 641 1,235 1,072 2010's 679 639 773 870 908

  14. California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,253 1980's 2,713 2,664 2,465 2,408 2,270 2,074 2,006 2,033 1,947 1,927 1990's 1,874 1,818 1,738 1,676 1,386

  15. California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,961 1980's 3,345 2,660 2,663 2,546 2,507 1990's 2,400 2,213 2,093 1,982 1,698 1,619 1,583 1,820 1,879 2,150 2000's 2,198 1,922 1,900 1,810 2,006 2,585 2,155 2,193

  16. Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 181 1980's 200 259 206 173 208 167 190 219 177 236 1990's 510 682 762 1,162 1,088 1,072 1,055 533 772 781 2000's 960 1,025 1,097 1,186 1,293 1,326 1,541 1,838 2,010

  17. Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,246 1980's 2,252 2,441 2,426 2,269 2,244 2,149 2,191 2,017 1,894 1,785 1990's 1,820 1,406 1,483 1,550 1,342 1,228 1,023 1,015 1,196 1,238 2000's 1,113 1,109 1,177

  18. Prediction of Total Dissolved Gas (TDG) at Hydropower Dams throughout the Columbia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pasha, MD Fayzul K; Hadjerioua, Boualem; Stewart, Kevin M; Bender, Merlynn; Schneider, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The network of dams throughout the Columbia River Basin (CRB) are managed for irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage that frequently result in both voluntary and involuntary spillway releases. The entrainment of air in spillway releases and the subsequent exchange of atmospheric gasses into solution during passage through the stilling basin cause elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) saturation. Physical processes that affect TDG exchange at hydropower facilities have been characterized throughout the CRB in site-specific studies and at real-time water quality monitoring stations. These data have been used to develop predictive models of TDG exchange which are site specific and account for the fate of spillway and powerhouse flows in the tailrace channel and resultant transport and exchange in route to the downstream dam. Currently, there exists a need to summarize the findings from operational and structural TDG abatement programs conducted throughout the CRB and for the development of a generalized prediction model that pools data collected at multiple projects with similar structural attributes. A generalized TDG exchange model can be tuned to specific projects and coupled with water regulation models to allow for the formulation of optimal water regulation schedules subject to water quality constraints for TDG supersaturation. It is proposed to develop a methodology for predicting TDG levels downstream of hydropower facilities with similar structural properties as a function of a set of variables that affect TDG exchange; such as tailwater depth, spill discharge and pattern, project head, and entrainment of powerhouse releases.

  19. New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves...

  20. Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1990's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000's 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2010's 0 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release Date: 12/31/2016

  1. Total Dissolved Gas Effects on Incubating Chum Salmon Below Bonneville Dam

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Carter, Kathleen M.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Dawley, Earl M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Elston, Ralph A.; Vavrinec, John

    2009-01-29

    At the request of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE; Portland District), Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) undertook a project in 2006 to look further into issues of total dissolved gas (TDG) supersaturation in the lower Columbia River downstream of Bonneville Dam. In FY 2008, the third year of the project, PNNL conducted field monitoring and laboratory toxicity testing to both verify results from 2007 and answer some additional questions about how salmonid sac fry respond to elevated TDG in the field and the laboratory. For FY 2008, three objectives were 1) to repeat the 2006-2007 field effort to collect empirical data on TDG from the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites; 2) to repeat the static laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry to verify 2007 results and to expose wild chum salmon fry to incremental increases in TDG, above those of the static test, until external symptoms of gas bubble disease were clearly present; and 3) to assess physiological responses to TDG levels in wild chum salmon sac fry incubating below Bonneville Dam during spill operations. This report summarizes the tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of the three objectives. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the monitoring methodology and results are provided in Appendices A and B included on the compact disc bound inside the back cover of the printed version of this report.

  2. ,"Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  3. ,"Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  4. ,"Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved...

  5. Effects of hydrostatic pressure on steelhead survival in air-supersaturated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Knittel, M.D.; Chapman, G.A.; Garton, R.R.

    1980-11-01

    Juvenile steelheads (Salmo gairdneri) were placed in cages and suspended at various depths in water supersaturated with air at levels from 120 to 140% of normal atmospheric gas pressure. Survival times of fish held at 10, 50, and 100 cm depth increased with increasing depth at a given level of supersaturation. When the hydrostatic pressure (7.4 mm Hg per 10 cm of water depth) was subtracted from the excess gas pressure (relative to surface barometric pressure) mortality curves (times to 50% mortality versus excess gas pressure) for fish at all three depths essentially coincided. The significant measure of supersaturation appears to be the pressure of dissolved gases in excess of the sum of barometric and hydrostatic pressures. Steelheads held near the surface in supersaturated water for a near-lethal period and then lowered to a depth providing total hydrostatic compensation appeared to recover completely in about 2 hours. The longer fish remained at depth, the longer their survival time when they subsequently were reexposed to surface conditions.

  6. Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator (FINS): A particle-based model of juvenile salmonid movement and dissolved gas exposure history in the Columbia River Basin

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Scheibe, Timothy D.; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2002-01-30

    This paper describes a numerical model of juvenile salmonid migration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers. The model, called the Fish Individual-based Numerical Simulator or FINS, employs a discrete, particle-based approach to simulate the migration and history of exposure to dissolved gases of individual fish. FINS is linked to a two-dimensional (vertically-averaged) hydrodynamic simulator that quantifies local water velocity, temperature, and dissolved gas levels as a function of river flow rates and dam operations. Simulated gas exposure histories can be input to biological mortality models to predict the effects of various river configurations on fish injury and mortality due to dissolved gas supersaturation. Therefore, FINS serves as a critical linkage between hydrodynamic models of the river system and models of biological impacts. FINS was parameterized and validated based on observations of individual fish movements collected using radiotelemetry methods during 1997 and 1998. A quasi-inverse approach was used to decouple fish swimming movements from advection with the local water velocity, allowing inference of time series of non-advective displacements of individual fish from the radiotelemetry data. Statistical analyses of these displacements are presented, and confirm that strong temporal correlation of fish swimming behavior persists in some cases over several hours. A correlated random-walk model was employed to simulate the observed migration behavior, and parameters of the model were estimated that lead to close correspondence between predictions and observations.

  7. Changes in Gas Bubble Disease Signs for Migrating Juvenile Salmonids Experimentally Exposed to Supersaturated Gasses, 1996-1997 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Absolon, Randall F.

    1999-03-01

    This study was designed to answer the question of whether gas bubble disease (GBD) signs change as a result of the hydrostatic conditions juvenile salmonids encounter when they enter the turbine intake of hydroelectric projects during their downstream migration.

  8. Analysis of supersaturated air in natural waters and reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Aoust, B.G.; Clark, M.J.R.

    1980-11-01

    Supersaturation of water by air or other gases can be caused by temperature increase, air or gas injection by pressurized pumping, or turbulent injection by falling water that traps air. The physics of supersaturation are outlined, and alternative sampling and analysis techniques used to evaluate the extent of supersaturation are described. These techniques range from complex, exacting procedures commonly used in the biomedical analytical laboratory to simple, portable methods suited to field application or continuous monitoring. Analytical techniques tested during 1976-78 in the Columbia and Snake river system, both of which were seriously supersaturated as a result of entrainment of air into water spilling over hydroelectric dams, are comparatively evaluated.

  9. Total dissolved gas prediction and optimization in RiverWare

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stewart, Kevin M.; Witt, Adam M.; Hadjerioua, Boualem

    2015-09-01

    Management and operation of dams within the Columbia River Basin (CRB) provides the region with irrigation, hydropower production, flood control, navigation, and fish passage. These various system-wide demands can require unique dam operations that may result in both voluntary and involuntary spill, thereby increasing tailrace levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) which can be fatal to fish. Appropriately managing TDG levels within the context of the systematic demands requires a predictive framework robust enough to capture the operationally related effects on TDG levels. Development of the TDG predictive methodology herein attempts to capture the different modes of hydro operation, thereby making it a viable tool to be used in conjunction with a real-time scheduling model such as RiverWare. The end result of the effort will allow hydro operators to minimize system-wide TDG while meeting hydropower operational targets and constraints. The physical parameters such as spill and hydropower flow proportions, accompanied by the characteristics of the dam such as plant head levels and tailrace depths, are used to develop the empirically-based prediction model. In the broader study, two different models are developed a simplified and comprehensive model. The latter model incorporates more specific bubble physics parameters for the prediction of tailrace TDG levels. The former model is presented herein and utilizes an empirically based approach to predict downstream TDG levels based on local saturation depth, spillway and powerhouse flow proportions, and entrainment effects. Representative data collected from each of the hydro projects is used to calibrate and validate model performance and the accuracy of predicted TDG uptake. ORNL, in conjunction with IIHR - Hydroscience & Engineering, The University of Iowa, carried out model adjustments to adequately capture TDG levels with respect to each plant while maintaining a generalized model configuration. Validation results indicate excellent model performance with coefficient of determination values exceeding 92% for all sites. This approach enables model extension to an increasingly wider array of hydropower plants, i.e., with the proper data input, TDG uptake can be calculated independent of actual physical component design. The TDG model is used as a module in the systematic optimization framework of RiverWare, a river and reservoir modeling tool used by federal agencies, public utility districts, and other dam owners and operators to forecast, schedule, and manage hydropower assets. The integration and testing of the TDG module within RiverWare, led by University of Colorado s Center for Advanced Decision Support for Water and Environmental Systems (CADSWES), will allow users to generate optimum system schedules based on the minimization of TDG. Optimization analysis and added value will be quantified as system wide reductions in TDG achieved while meeting existing hydropower constraints. Future work includes the development of a method to predict downstream reservoir forebay TDG levels as a function of upstream reservoir tailrace TDG values based on river hydrodynamics, hydro operations, and reservoir characteristics. Once implemented, a holistic model that predicts both TDG uptake and transport will give hydropower operators valuable insight into how system-wide environmental effects can be mitigated while simultaneously balancing stakeholder interests.

  10. Variations in dissolved gas compositions of reservoir fluids...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    distinct regions of single-phase (liquid) reservoir are present and possess distinctive gas and liquid compositions. Relationships in soluble and insoluble gases preclude...

  11. Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 474 320 541 522 532 494 1990's 446 407 691 574 679 891 794 1,228 1,224 1,383 2000's 1,395 1,406 1,267

  12. Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 167 1980's 185 139 112 132 110 115 132 115 103 101 1990's 114 115 94 93 75 67 82 51 60 52 2000's 40 105 66 85 80 83 82 83 85 83 2010's 79 127 326 433 657 - = No Data Reported;

  13. Louisiana - South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana - South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,304 1980's 2,134 1,871 1,789 1,582 1,488 1,792 1,573 1,380 1,338 1,273 1990's 1,106 995 853 649 678 720 627 599 630 599

  14. Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Louisiana State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 449 251 260 207 231 1990's 207 207 154 157 168 148 157 130 98 120 2000's 129 145 84 79 61 63 56 65 686 513 2010's 107 51 128 88 68 - = No

  15. California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) California State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 226 1980's 160 244 232 221 206 1990's 188 55 59 63 59 56 47 54 39 58 2000's 86 80 85 76 85 89 85 79 54 53 2010's 63 79 65 75 76 - = No Data

  16. Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 209 1980's 172 180 216 175 170 260 241 205 204 251 1990's 333 401 361 191 151 248 446 68 51 67 2000's 69 43 47 48 45 57 61 72 60 67 2010's 267

  17. Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 0 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 484 1980's 546 456 489 537 617 560 537 482 424 364 1990's 311 298 396 264 264 254 253 227 234 241 2000's 289 255 271 252 249 253 316 436

  18. Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 955 1980's 921 806 780 747 661 570 517 512 428 430 1990's 407 352 308 288 299 245 252 235 204 202 2000's 115 65 70 81

  19. Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,416 1980's 1,292 1,005 890 765 702 684 596 451 393 371 1990's 301 243 228 215 191 209 246 368 394 182 2000's 176 140

  20. Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 62 1980's 75 44 47 52 44 40 69 118 101 136 1990's 116 89 126 141 148 47 53 68 89 49 2000's 128 83 65 62 58 51 57 50 40 21 2010's 8 40 53 177

  1. Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 868 1980's 954 869 881 943 938 874 822 811 728 695 1990's 668 638 606 607 547 611 562 578 580 545 2000's 464 412 400 387 402 344 276 247 412

  2. Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 234 1980's 332 292 214 338 292 276 244 282 264 196 1990's 214 157 170 187 181 276 232 260 204 190 2000's 114 88 57 69 76 73 74 62 68 102

  3. Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 653 1980's 520 685 704 705 776 780 666 737 727 721 1990's 768 759 748 633 631 640 692 596 557 616 2000's 693 634 737 927 994 1,037 1,196

  4. Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 175 1980's 249 274 299 255 274 290 263 267 241 212 1990's 214 200 184 178 148 138 121 147 199 180 2000's 209 124 140 125 110 126 105 139 158

  5. Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1980's 25 24 24 10 20 19 1990's 17 8 7 4 3 7 6 10 5 6 2000's 1 2 5 6 9 3 1 3 5 3 2010's 3 5 6 3 0 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  6. New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 151 1980's 156 150 146 180 194 181 214 213 259 178 1990's 184 156 127 107 97 119 108 106 98 92 2000's 115 99 103 89 90 98 82 87 86 82 2010's

  7. North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 201 1980's 239 253 248 257 267 331 293 276 266 313 1990's 334 243 266 274 275 263 255 257 261 250 2000's 264 270 315 316 320 343 357 417 484 1,070 2010's 1,717

  8. Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,047 1980's 1,417 800 984 1,635 1,178 938 898 594 480 589 1990's 371 376 381 343 315 355 399 391 342 402 2000's 469 340 346 304 208 184 174 101 99 97 2010's 90 74 223 314 208 - =

  9. Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 367 1980's 414 335 325 360 341 391 410 471 475 442 1990's 455 469 309 289 286 277 301 310 209 321 2000's 348 303 359 299 290 308 317 368 321 601 2010's 631 909 1,001 895 872 - =

  10. West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 76 1980's 122 63 83 86 73 73 65 150 141 98 1990's 86 159 198 190 133 74 71 59 43 88 2000's 98 48 21 23 20 19 16 16 23 24 2010's 29 52 21 70 32 - = No Data

  11. The effects of total dissolved gas on chum salmon fry survival, growth, gas bubble disease, and seawater tolerance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geist, David R.; Linley, Timothy J.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Deng, Zhiqun

    2013-02-01

    Chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta alevin developing in gravel habitats downstream of Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River are exposed to elevated levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) when water is spilled at the dam to move migrating salmon smolts downstream to the Pacific Ocean. Current water quality criteria for the management of dissolved gas in dam tailwaters were developed primarily to protect salmonid smolts and are assumed to be protective of alevin if adequate depth compensation is provided. We studied whether chum salmon alevin exposed to six levels of dissolved gas ranging from 100% to 130% TDG at three development periods between hatch and emergence (hereafter early, middle, and late stage) suffered differential mortality, growth, gas bubble disease, or seawater tolerance. Each life stage was exposed for 50 d (early stage), 29 d (middle stage), or 16 d (late stage) beginning at 13, 34, and 37 d post-hatch, respectively, through 50% emergence. The mortality for all stages from exposure to emergence was estimated to be 8% (95% confidence interval (CI) of 4% to 12%) when dissolved gas levels were between 100% and 117% TDG. Mortality significantly increased as dissolved gas levels rose above 117% TDG,; with the lethal concentration that produced 50% mortality (LC50 ) was estimated to be 128.7% TDG (95% CI of 127.2% to 130.2% TDG) in the early and middle stages. By contrast, there was no evidence that dissolved gas level significantly affected growth in any life stage except that the mean wet weight at emergence of early stage fish exposed to 130% TDG was significantly less than the modeled growth of unexposed fish. The proportion of fish afflicted with gas bubble disease increased with increasing gas concentrations and occurred most commonly in the nares and gastrointestinal tract. Early stage fish exhibited higher ratios of filament to lamellar gill chloride cells than late stage fish, and these ratios increased and decreased for early and late stage fish, respectively, as gas levels increased; however, there were no significant differences in mortality between life stages after 96 h in seawater. The study results suggest that current water quality guidelines for the management of dissolved gas appear to offer a conservative level of protection to chum salmon alevin incubating in gravel habitat downstream of Bonneville Dam.

  12. On-line fast response device and method for measuring dissolved gas in a fluid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tutu, Narinder Kumar (Manorville, NY)

    2011-01-11

    A method and device for the measurement of dissolved gas within a fluid. The fluid, substantially a liquid, is pumped into a pipe. The flow of the fluid is temporally restricted, creating one or more low pressure regions. A measurement indicative of trapped air is taken before and after the restriction. The amount of dissolved air is calculated from the difference between the first and second measurements. Preferably measurements indicative of trapped air is obtained from one or more pressure transducers, capacitance transducers, or combinations thereof. In the alternative, other methods such as those utilizing x-rays or gamma rays may also be used to detect trapped air. Preferably, the fluid is a hydraulic fluid, whereby dissolved air in the fluid is detected.

  13. Lower 48 States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Lower 48 States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 32,208 1980's 33,443 32,870 31,268 31,286 30,282 29,515 28,684 27,457 26,609 26,611 1990's 26,242 25,088 24,701 23,551 23,913 24,532 24,715 24,666

  14. Alaska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Alaska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 27,217 1980's 28,567 28,676 30,814 30,408 30,356 31,092 30,893 30,732 6,269 6,198 1990's 6,927 6,729 6,723 6,494 6,487 6,265 6,080 7,716 7,275 7,209 2000's 6,768 6,592 6,376

  15. Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,513 1980's 2,429 2,080 1,881 1,784 1,756 1,537 1,405 1,296 1,226 1,148 1990's 1,056 1,123 1,206 1,159 1,063 960

  16. Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 2,645 1980's 2,569 2,630 2,908 3,014 2,932 3,004 3,076 2,898 3,072 3,128 1990's 3,068 2,770 2,742 2,562 2,751 2,834 2,981 3,144 2,820 3,175

  17. Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Texas - RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,485 1980's 1,396 1,486 1,420 1,301 1,272 1,314 1,275 1,271 1,267 1,534 1990's 1,526 1,521 1,585 1,451 1,572 1,318 1,276 1,206 1,097 1,513

  18. U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 6,773 6,487 6,315 6,120 6,738 7,471 7,437 7,913 7,495 7,093 2000's 7,010 8,649 8,090 7,417 6,361 5,904 4,835 4,780 5,106 5,223 2010's 5,204

  19. New Mexico - East Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico - East Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,672 1980's 1,533 1,499 1,374 1,323 1,375 1,309 1,232 1,232 1,194 1,200 1990's 1,251 1,398 1,470 1,478 1,544 1,559 1,585 1,314 1,345 1,486 2000's

  20. New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,823 1980's 1,689 1,649 1,520 1,503 1,569 1,490 1,446 1,445 1,453 1,378 1990's 1,435 1,554 1,597 1,585 1,641 1,678 1,693 1,420 1,443 1,578 2000's 1,588 1,447 1,482

  1. Table 12. Associated-dissolved natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, an

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-dissolved natural gas proved reserves, reserves changes, and production, wet after lease separation, 2014" "billion cubic feet" ,,"Changes in Reserves During 2014" ,"Published",,,,,,,,"New Reservoir" ,"Proved",,"Revision","Revision",,,,"New Field","Discoveries","Estimated","Proved"

  2. Simulated passage through a modified Kaplan turbine pressure regime: A supplement to "Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, C. S.; Amidan, B. G.; Cada, G. F.

    2002-04-01

    A previous test series (Abernethy et al. 2001) evaluated the effects of passage through a Kaplan turbine under the “worst case” pressure conditions. For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a Kaplan turbine under a more “fish-friendly” mode of operation. The results were compared to results from Abernethy et al. (2001). These data indicate that altered operating conditions that raise the nadir (low point) of the turbine passage pressure regime could reduce the injury and mortality rates of fish during turbine passage. Fall Chinook salmon were not injured or killed when subjected to the modified pressure scenario. Bluegills were more sensitive to pressure effects than fall Chinook salmon, but injury and mortality rates were lower under the modified Kaplan pressure regime. This improvement was particularly significant among fish that were acclimated to greater water pressures (traveling at greater depth).

  3. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New Field Discoveries (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 193 1980's 365 335 161 220 156 143 88 110 67 208 1990's 141 69 13 245 530 248 222 1,360 107 394 2000's 387 1,287 229 447 34 119 40 46 107 263 2010's 102 611 151 63 327 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not

  4. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 264 1980's 369 271 365 326 296 341 189 155 339 174 1990's 250 334 292 163 202 634 338 187 218 424 2000's 249 477 331 124 97 79 65 73 820 169 2010's 186 160 229 581 584 -

  5. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Acquisitions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 6,586 845 908 1,062 987 2,071 1,960 1,350 938 678 2010's 2,469 1,884 2,150 2,843 4,589 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date:

  6. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Adjustments (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,925 1980's 1,053 -1,079 843 1,564 -486 695 425 177 437 415 1990's 57 257 567 -302 163 345 164 262 -706 143 2000's -605 499 499 202 -21 126 -54 276 455 877 2010's -482 390 385 -649 1,396 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA =

  7. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Reserves in Nonproducing Reservoirs, Wet (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1990's 5,289 5,631 5,477 5,639 2000's 5,195 6,628 6,573 5,903 5,416 6,271 6,045 6,890 6,680 7,615 2010's 9,099 13,260 19,550 22,218 27,240 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid

  8. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Estimated Production from Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 3,405 1980's 3,405 3,316 3,248 3,355 3,518 3,454 3,443 3,351 3,192 3,099 1990's 2,936 2,968 3,031 2,868 2,907 2,886 2,938 3,022 3,136 3,313 2000's 3,299 3,193 2,988 2,855 2,742

  9. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Extensions (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 1,139 1980's 1,861 1,537 1,351 977 1,182 1,099 758 542 498 760 1990's 615 737 760 867 850 857 991 1,116 727 586 2000's 2,683 1,194 852 817 907 1,032 810 1,098 1,488 2,669 2010's 2,660 5,957 10,030 9,630 9,962 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not

  10. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Decreases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,209 1980's 2,941 2,561 4,516 3,815 2,999 3,163 2,903 2,755 27,612 3,130 1990's 2,571 3,479 1,844 2,723 3,002 2,328 2,013 3,241 3,937 8,705 2000's 4,546 3,232 2,637 2,790 3,170 2,034 2,782 1,804 7,385 2,698 2010's 3,964

  11. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Revision Increases (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 4,517 1980's 5,283 4,349 5,580 3,695 4,313 4,308 3,856 3,734 4,152 4,603 1990's 4,804 3,698 2,850 3,239 4,519 3,527 3,234 4,925 5,005 11,226 2000's 3,884 3,259 3,587 3,044 4,009 3,281 5,372 5,400 2,943 5,522 2010's 4,983

  12. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Reserves Sales (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 2000's 6,921 1,145 1,064 1,040 1,004 1,655 1,726 1,115 662 564 2010's 1,146 1,338 1,131 1,733 4,058 - = No Data Reported; -- = Not Applicable; NA = Not Available; W = Withheld to avoid disclosure of individual company data. Release Date: 11/19/2015 Next Release

  13. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9 1970's 59,425 1980's 62,010 61,546 62,082 61,694 60,638 60,607 59,577 58,189 32,878 32,809 1990's 33,169 31,817 31,424 30,045 30,400 30,797 30,795 32,382 30,660 31,415 2000's 29,833 29,824 29,541 28,552 27,649 28,236 29,640 32,668 29,023 33,383

  14. ,"New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  15. ,"North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  16. ,"Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  17. ,"Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  18. ,"Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  19. ,"Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  20. ,"Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  1. ,"Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  2. ,"Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  3. ,"Alaska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Alaska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  4. ,"Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  5. ,"California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  6. ,"Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  7. ,"Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  8. ,"Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  9. ,"Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  10. ,"Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana - North Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  11. ,"Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  12. ,"Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  13. ,"Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Miscellaneous States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  14. ,"Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  15. ,"Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  16. Effects of Total Dissolved Gas on Chum Salmon Fry Incubating in the Lower Columbia River

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arntzen, Evan V.; Hand, Kristine D.; Geist, David R.; Murray, Katherine J.; Panther, Jenny; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Dawley, Earl M.; Elston, Ralph A.

    2008-01-30

    This report describes research conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in FY 2007 for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Portland District, to characterize the effects of total dissolved gas (TDG) on the incubating fry of chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) in the lower Columbia River. The tasks conducted and results obtained in pursuit of three objectives are summarized: * to conduct a field monitoring program at the Ives Island and Multnomah Falls study sites, collecting empirical data on TDG to obtain a more thorough understanding of TDG levels during different river stage scenarios (i.e., high-water year versus low-water year) * to conduct laboratory toxicity tests on hatchery chum salmon fry at gas levels likely to occur downstream from Bonneville Dam * to sample chum salmon sac fry during Bonneville Dam spill operations to determine if there is a physiological response to TDG levels. Chapter 1 discusses the field monitoring, Chapter 2 reports the findings of the laboratory toxicity tests, and Chapter 3 describes the field-sampling task. Each chapter contains an objective-specific introduction, description of the study site and methods, results of research, and discussion of findings. Literature cited throughout this report is listed in Chapter 4. Additional details on the study methdology and results are provided in Appendixes A through D.

  17. Avoidance responses of salmon and trout to air-supersaturated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stevens, D.G.; Nebeker, A.V.; Baker, R.J.

    1980-11-01

    Coho (Oncorhynchus kisutch), sockeye (O. nerka), and chinook (O. tschawystcha) salmon smolts, and rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) avoided air-supersaturated water when tested in a shallow round tank. Steelheads (S. gairdneri) did not consistently avoid the supersaturated water and died from gas bubble disease. The salmon and rainbow trout generally avoided 145 and 125% saturation but did not always avoid 115%. Territorial activity reduced avoidance by steelheads and rainbow trout.

  18. ,"U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release Date:","11/19/2015" ,"Next Release

  19. ,"Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Louisiana and Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Louisiana and Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic

  20. Analysis of supersaturated air in natural waters and reservoirs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Aoust, B.G.; Clark, M.J.R.

    1980-11-01

    Supersaturation of air or other gases in water can be caused by a temperature increase, air or gas injection by pressurized pumping, or turbulent injection by falling water which traps air when spills are allowed by hydroelectric projects. Evaluation of this problem requires both an understanding of the physics of the situation and practical knowledge of a number of alternative techniques for analysis. These range from complex, exacting procedures commonly used in the biomedical analytical laboratory to simple, portable methods well suited to use in the field or continuous monitoring. The authors have reviewed and refined several of these methods, have developed others, and have compared relevant techniques in the field and laboratory.

  1. Variations in dissolved gas compositions of reservoir fluids from the Coso geothermal field

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Williams, Alan E.; Copp, John F.

    1991-01-01

    Gas concentrations and ratios in 110 analyses of geothermal fluids from 47 wells in the Coso geothermal system illustrate the complexity of this two-phase reservoir in its natural state. Two geographically distinct regions of single-phase (liquid) reservoir are present and possess distinctive gas and liquid compositions. Relationships in soluble and insoluble gases preclude derivation of these waters from a common parent by boiling or condensation alone. These two regions may represent two limbs of fluid migration away from an area of two-phase upwelling. During migration, the upwelling fluids mix with chemically evolved waters of moderately dissimilar composition. CO{sub 2} rich fluids found in the limb in the southeastern portion of the Coso field are chemically distinct from liquids in the northern limb of the field. Steam-rich portions of the reservoir also indicate distinctive gas compositions. Steam sampled from wells in the central and southwestern Coso reservoir is unusually enriched in both H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2}. Such a large enrichment in both a soluble and insoluble gas cannot be produced by boiling of any liquid yet observed in single-phase portions of the field. In accord with an upflow-lateral mixing model for the Coso field, at least three end-member thermal fluids having distinct gas and liquid compositions appear to have interacted (through mixing, boiling and steam migration) to produce the observed natural state of the reservoir.

  2. Feasibility Study for Evaluating Cumulative Exposure of Downstream Migrant Juvenile Salmonids to Total Dissolved Gas. Final Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, C.Scott; Dauble, Dennis D.; Johnson, Robert L.

    1997-11-01

    A feasibility study was initiated to determine if downstream migrant salmonids could be monitored to determine potential relationships between total dissolved gas (TDG) exposure and signs of gas bubble trauma (GBT). The primary objectives were to: (1) establish logistical requirements for in-river monitoring of TDG exposure, including net pen design, deployment, and navigation constraints; (2) resolve uncertainties associated with effects of the net pen on fish behavior; (3) test the accuracy and precision of in-river monitoring equipment used to measure fish distribution and water quality; and (4) determine the application of hydrologic/flow models to predictions of TDG exposure. In-river measurements included water velocity, boat position, and selected water quality parameters (temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, depth, conductivity). Fish distribution within the net pen was monitored using scanning sonar, and a split-beam echo sounder was used to evaluate vertical distribution of fish m in the river adjacent to the net pen. Three test drifts were conducted from late July through late August. The studies demonstrated that it was feasible to assemble and deploy a large net pen for mobile monitoring of TDG exposure. Accurate monitoring of vertical and lateral distribution of smolts was performed, and diel differences in behavior were documented. Further, the fish sounded in response to researcher activity on the perimeter platform. Thus, in-transit monitoring for GBT or mortality would affect fish depth distribution and exposure to TDG. Principal recommendations for future studies are directed at improving maneuverability of the net pen in adverse weather conditions and applying new acoustics technology to simultaneously collect fish distribution data from within and outside of the pen. 6 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Etiology of gas bubble disease

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bouck, G.R.

    1980-11-01

    Gas bubble disease is a noninfectious, physically induced process caused by uncompensated hyperbaric pressure of total dissolved gases. When pressure compensation is inadequate, dissolved gases may form emboli (in blood) and emphysema (in tissues). The resulting abnormal physical presence of gases can block blood vessels (hemostasis) or tear tissues, and may result in death. Population mortality is generally skewed, in that the median time to death occurs well before the average time to death. Judged from mortality curves, three stages occur in gas bubble disease: (1) a period of gas pressure equilibrium, nonlethal cavitation, and increasing morbidity; (2) a period of rapid and heavy mortality; and (3) a period of protracted survival, despite lesions, and dysfunction that eventually terminates in total mortality. Safe limits for gas supersaturation depend on species tolerance and on factors that differ among hatcheries and rivers, between continuous and intermittent exposures, and across ranges of temperature and salinity.

  4. ,"New Mexico - East Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico - East Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  5. ,"New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","New Mexico - West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  6. ,"U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","U.S. Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  7. ,"California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  8. ,"California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - Los Angeles Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014

  9. ,"California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California - San Joaquin Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014

  10. ,"California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","California Federal Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  11. ,"Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Gulf of Mexico Federal Offshore - Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014

  12. ,"Louisiana - South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Louisiana - South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  13. ,"Lower 48 States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)" ,"Click worksheet name or tab at bottom for data" ,"Worksheet Name","Description","# Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Lower 48 States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation, Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2014 ,"Release

  14. Fish Passage Through a Simulated Horizontal Bulb Turbine Pressure Regime: A Supplement to"Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, Cary S. ); Amidan, Brett G. ); Cada, G F.

    2003-07-31

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the"worst case" pressure conditions and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized. For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the"worst case" pressure conditions and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized. For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Both fish species were acclimated for 16-22 hours at either surface (101 kPa; 1 atm) or 30 ft (191 kPa; 1.9 atm) of pressure in a hyperbaric chamber before exposure to a pressure scenario simulating passage through a horizontal bulb turbine. The simulation was as follows: gradual pressure increase to about 2 atm of pressure, followed by a sudden (0.4 second) decrease in pressure to either 0.7 or 0.95 atm, followed by gradual return to 1 atm (surface water pressure). Following the exposure, fish were held at surface pressure for a 48-hour post exposure observation period. No fall chinook salmon died during or after exposure to the horizontal bulb turbine passage pressures, and no injuries were observed during the 48-hour post exposure observation period. As with the previous test series, it cannot be determined whether fall chinook salmon acclimated to the greater water pressure during the pretest holding period. For bluegill sunfish exposed to the horizontal bulb turbine turbine-passage pressures, only one fish died and injuries were less severe and less common than for bluegills subjected to either the"worst case" pressure or modified Kaplan turbine pressure conditions in previous tests. Injury rates for bluegills were higher at 0.7 atm nadir than for the 0.95 atm nadir. However, injuries were limited to minor internal hemorrhaging. Bluegills did not suffer swim bladder rupture in any tested scenarios. Tests indicated that for most of the cross-sectional area of a horizontal bulb turbine, pressure changes occurring during turbine passage are not harmful to fall chinook salmon and only minimally harmful to bluegill. However, some areas within a horizontal bulb turbine may have extreme pressure conditions that would be harmful to fish. These scenarios were not tested because they represent a small cross-sectional area of the turbine compared to the centerline pressures scenarios used in these tests.

  15. Fish passage through a simulated horizontal bulb turbine pressure regime: A supplement to "Laboratory Studies of the Effects of Pressure and Dissolved Gas Supersaturation on Turbine-Passed Fish"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abernethy, C. S.; Amidan, B. G.; Cada, G. F.

    2003-07-01

    Migratory and resident fish in the Columbia River Basin are exposed to stresses associated with hydroelectric power production, including pressure changes during turbine passage. The responses of fall chinook salmon and bluegill sunfish to rapid pressure change was investigated at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Previous test series evaluated the effects of passage through a vertical Kaplan turbine under the “worst case” pressure conditions (Abernethy et al. 2001) and under less severe conditions where pressure changes were minimized (Abernethy et al. 2002). For this series of tests, pressure changes were modified to simulate passage through a horizontal bulb turbine, commonly installed at low-head dams. The results were compared to results from previous test series. Tests indicated that for most of the cross-sectional area of a horizontal bulb turbine, pressure changes occurring during turbine passage are not harmful to fall chinook salmon and only minimally harmful to bluegill. However, some areas within a horizontal bulb turbine may have extreme pressure conditions that would be harmful to fish. These scenarios were not tested because they represent a small cross-sectional area of the turbine compared to the centerline pressures scenarios used in these tests.

  16. Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud Scheme in the Community Atmosphere Model A process-based treatment of ice supersaturation and ice-nucleation is implemented in the National Center for

  17. Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Global Simulations of Ice nucleation and Ice Supersaturation with an Improved Cloud ... Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ...

  18. Gas bubble disease in smallmouth bass and northern squawfish from the Snake and Columbia Rivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, J.C.; Becker, C.D.

    1980-11-01

    In 1975 and 1976, 179 smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieui) and 85 northern squawfish (Ptychocheilus oregonensis) were collected by angling from the lower Snake and mid-Columbia rivers, southeastern Washington. All fish were examined externally for gas bubble syndrome. Emboli were found beneath membranes of the opercula, body, and fins of 72% of the smallmouth bass and 84% of the northern squawfish. Hemorrhage was also noted on the caudal, anal, and pectoral fins of several smallmouth bass. Presence of gas bubble syndrome corresponded to the spring runoff when total dissolved gas supersaturations in river water exceeded 115%.

  19. Low-Temperature Colossal Supersaturation of Stainless Steels | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Temperature Colossal Supersaturation of Stainless Steels Low-Temperature Colossal Supersaturation of Stainless Steels New Process Improves Hardness and Corrosion Resistance of Stainless Steel Components Austenitic stainless steels in the 300 Series are the primary materials used for a very broad range of applications when corrosion resistance is needed in aqueous solutions at ambient temperatures. While austenitic stainless steels have excellent corrosion-resistance properties,

  20. Dissolution of Danazol Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Supersaturation and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase Behavior as a Function of Drug Loading and Polymer Type (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Dissolution of Danazol Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Supersaturation and Phase Behavior as a Function of Drug Loading and Polymer Type Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Dissolution of Danazol Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Supersaturation and Phase Behavior as a Function of Drug Loading and Polymer Type Authors: Jackson, Matthew J. ; Kestur, Umesh S. ; Hussain, Munir A. ; Taylor, Lynne S.

  1. Gas Bubble Disease Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids : Annual Report 1996.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maule, Alec G.; Beeman, John W.; Hans, Karen M.; Mesa, M.G.; Haner, P.; Warren, J.J.

    1997-10-01

    This document describes the project activities 1996--1997 contract year. This report is composed of three chapters which contain data and analyses of the three main elements of the project: field research to determine the vertical distribution of migrating juvenile salmonids, monitoring of juvenile migrants at dams on the Snake and Columbia rivers, and laboratory experiments to describe the progression of gas bubble disease signs leading to mortality. The major findings described in this report are: A miniature pressure-sensitive radio transmitter was found to be accurate and precise and, after compensation for water temperature, can be used to determine the depth of tagged-fish to within 0.32 m of the true depth (Chapter 1). Preliminary data from very few fish suggest that depth protects migrating juvenile steelhead from total dissolved gas supersaturation (Chapter 1). As in 1995, few fish had any signs of gas bubble disease, but it appeared that prevalence and severity increased as fish migrated downstream and in response to changing gas supersaturation (Chapter 2). It appeared to gas bubble disease was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids when total dissolved gas supersaturation was < 120% (Chapter 2). Laboratory studies suggest that external examinations are appropriate for determining the severity of gas bubble disease in juvenile salmonids (Chapter 3). The authors developed a new method for examining gill arches for intravascular bubbles by clamping the ventral aorta to reduce bleeding when arches were removed (Chapter 3). Despite an outbreak of bacterial kidney disease in the experimental fish, the data indicate that gas bubble disease is a progressive trauma that can be monitored (Chapter 3).

  2. Comparative responses of speckled dace and cutthroat trout to air-supersaturated water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nebeker, A.V.; Hauck, A.K.; Baker, F.D.; Weitz, S.L.

    1980-11-01

    Speckled dace (Rhinichthys osculus) are more tolerant of air-supersaturated water than adult or juvenile cutthroat trout (Salmo clarki). Speckled dace were tested in concentrations from 110 to 142% saturation and had a 96-hour median lethal concentration (LC50) of 140%, a 7-day LC50 of 137%, and 2-week LC50's of 129 and 131% saturation. The estimated mean threshold concentration, based on time to 50% death (TM50), was 123% saturation. The speckled dace also exhibited consistent external signs of gas bubble disease. Cutthroat trout were tested from 111 to 130% saturation and had 96-hour LC50's of 119 and 120% (adults) and 119 and 119% (juveniles) saturation. Estimated mean threshold concentrations (from TM50 values) were 117% (adults) and 114% (juveniles) saturation. Signs of gas bubble disease exhibited by the cutthroat trout were similar to those seen with other salmonids examined in earlier studies.

  3. ,"Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Associated-Dissolved...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease...

  4. ,"Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,...

  5. ,"Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,...

  6. ,"Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Worksheet Name","Description"," Of Series","Frequency","Latest Data for" ,"Data 1","Texas - RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease Separation,...

  7. Gas bubble disease: introduction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fickeisen, D.H.; Schneider, M.J.; Wedemeyer, G.A.

    1980-11-01

    In 1970, gas bubble disease was identified as a serious problem affecting salmonids in the Columbia and Snake river systems. The source of supersaturation was entrainment of air into water spilling over hydroelectric dams. Regional research projects focusing on tolerance bioassays were immediately implemented. Since then, the scope of gas bubble disease research has broadened to include problems in other aquatic systems, with other species. Emphasis has shifted from defining tolerance limits in bioassay systems to exploring behavioral and physiological aspects. Various methods of degasifying supersaturated water have been developed.

  8. Dissolver vessel bottom assembly

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kilian, Douglas C.

    1976-01-01

    An improved bottom assembly is provided for a nuclear reactor fuel reprocessing dissolver vessel wherein fuel elements are dissolved as the initial step in recovering fissile material from spent fuel rods. A shock-absorbing crash plate with a convex upper surface is disposed at the bottom of the dissolver vessel so as to provide an annular space between the crash plate and the dissolver vessel wall. A sparging ring is disposed within the annular space to enable a fluid discharged from the sparging ring to agitate the solids which deposit on the bottom of the dissolver vessel and accumulate in the annular space. An inlet tangential to the annular space permits a fluid pumped into the annular space through the inlet to flush these solids from the dissolver vessel through tangential outlets oppositely facing the inlet. The sparging ring is protected against damage from the impact of fuel elements being charged to the dissolver vessel by making the crash plate of such a diameter that the width of the annular space between the crash plate and the vessel wall is less than the diameter of the fuel elements.

  9. Process for coal liquefaction in staged dissolvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roberts, George W. (Emmaus, PA); Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Skinner, Ronald W. (Allentown, PA)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a pasting oil, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. In accordance with the improved process, the first dissolver is operated at a higher temperature than the second dissolver. This temperature sequence produces improved product selectivity and permits the incorporation of sufficient hydrogen in the solvent for adequate recycle operations.

  10. Supersaturating silicon with transition metals by ion implantation and pulsed laser melting

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Recht, Daniel; Aziz, Michael J.; Smith, Matthew J.; Grade?ak, Silvija; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Williams, James S.; Sullivan, Joseph T.; Winkler, Mark T.; Buonassisi, Tonio; Mathews, Jay; Warrender, Jeffrey M.

    2013-09-28

    We investigate the possibility of creating an intermediate band semiconductor by supersaturating Si with a range of transition metals (Au, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pd, Pt, W, and Zn) using ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting (PLM). Structural characterization shows evidence of either surface segregation or cellular breakdown in all transition metals investigated, preventing the formation of high supersaturations. However, concentration-depth profiling reveals that regions of Si supersaturated with Au and Zn are formed below the regions of cellular breakdown. Fits to the concentration-depth profile are used to estimate the diffusive speeds, v{sub D,} of Au and Zn, and put lower bounds on v{sub D} of the other metals ranging from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 4} m/s. Knowledge of v{sub D} is used to tailor the irradiation conditions and synthesize single-crystal Si supersaturated with 10{sup 19} Au/cm{sup 3} without cellular breakdown. Values of v{sub D} are compared to those for other elements in Si. Two independent thermophysical properties, the solute diffusivity at the melting temperature, D{sub s}(T{sub m}), and the equilibrium partition coefficient, k{sub e}, are shown to simultaneously affect v{sub D}. We demonstrate a correlation between v{sub D} and the ratio D{sub s}(T{sub m})/k{sub e}{sup 0.67}, which is exhibited for Group III, IV, and V solutes but not for the transition metals investigated. Nevertheless, comparison with experimental results suggests that D{sub s}(T{sub m})/k{sub e}{sup 0.67} might serve as a metric for evaluating the potential to supersaturate Si with transition metals by PLM.

  11. Severe gas bubble disease in a warmwater fishery in the midwestern United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crunkilton, R.L.; Czarnezki, J.M.; Trial, L.

    1980-11-01

    Gas bubble disease below Harry S. Truman Dam, sited on the upper Osage River and spilling into Lake of the Ozarks, caused the largest fish kill on record in Missouri. This is the first recorded evidence of serious supersaturation in the Midwest. Total gas saturation levels up to 139% killed nearly a half million fish in the upper 85 km of the Osage Arm, Lake of the Ozarks, during April to June, 1978 and 1979. Gas supersaturation occurred throughout the 150 km of this main-stem reservoir. Nitrogen was the primary gas responsible for gas bubble disease mortalities. Pelagic and near-shore species suffered the earliest and heaviest mortalities, but fish characteristic of deeper waters were increasingly killed as supersaturation persisted. Instream cage bioassays defined the zone of lethal supersaturation. Significant mortality occurred in bottom-dwelling fish of several species, due to long-term intermittent exposure. Susceptibility to gas bubble disease was related to fish size.

  12. Process for coal liquefaction by separation of entrained gases from slurry exiting staged dissolvers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Givens, Edwin N. (Bethlehem, PA); Ying, David H. S. (Macungie, PA)

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved liquefaction process by which coal is converted to a low ash and low sulfur carbonaceous material that can be used as a fuel in an environmentally acceptable manner without costly gas scrubbing equipment. In the process, coal is slurried with a solvent, passed through a preheater and at least two dissolvers in series in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures. Solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals are separated from the condensed dissolver effluent. In accordance with the improved process, fresh hydrogen is fed to each dissolver and the entrained gas from each dissolver is separated from the slurry phase and removed from the reactor system before the condensed phase is passed to the next dissolver in the series. In accordance with another process, the feeds to the dissolvers are such that the top of each downstream dissolver is used as a gas-liquid separator.

  13. Upper ocean model of dissolved atmospheric gases. Final report for the period 1 August 1991--31 May 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schudlich, R.; Emerson, S.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes results from three years of funding for a modelling study of processes controlling the distribution of metabolic chemical tracers in surface waters. We determined concentrations of the gases O{sub 2}, Ar, N{sub 2}, and the stable isotope ratio ({sup 18}O/{sup 16}O) of molecular oxygen in surface waters at Station ALOHA in conjunction with the Global Ocean Flux Study (GOFS) Hawaiian Ocean Time-series project during the years 1989- 90 and 1992-93. Under this contract we have incorporated chemical tracers into an existing ocean mixed-layer model to simulate the physical processes controlling the distribution and seasonal cycle of dissolved gases in the upper ocean. The broad background of concurrent chemical, physical, and biological measurements at Station ALOHA provides enough redundancy of ``ground truth`` to assess the model`s accuracy. Biological oxygen production estimated from modelled chemical tracers agrees with estimates based on measurement of carbon fluxes into the deep ocean and nitrate fluxes into the upper ocean during 1989-90 and 1992-93, verifying for the first time the utility of chemical tracers for determining biological fluxes in the ocean. Our results suggest that in the euphotic zone (the upper 100 m of the ocean), the net biological O{sub 2} production is 1.0-2. 0 moles m{sup -2}yr{sup - 1}. Inert gas (Ar, N{sub 2}) supersaturation levels show that air and bubble injection are important modes of air-sea gas transfer in the Station ALOHA region.

  14. An Effective Continuum Model for the Gas Evolution in Internal Steam Drives

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tsimpanogiannis, Ioannis N.; Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2002-06-11

    This report examines the gas phase growth from a supersaturated, slightly compressible, liquid in a porous medium, driven by heat transfer and controlled by the application of a constant-rate decline of the system pressure.

  15. Low temperature bainitic ferrite: Evidence of carbon super-saturation and tetragonality

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Garcia-Mateo, C.; Jimenez, J. A.; Yen, Hung-Wei; Miller, Michael K.; Morales-Rivas, L; Kuntz, M; Ringer, S. P.; Yang, Jer-Ren; Caballero, Francesca G.

    2015-03-31

    Experimental evidence indicates that bainitic ferrite formed by transformation at low temperatures (200–350 °C) includes quantities of carbon in solid solution far beyond those expected from para-equilibrium. A change in the conventional symmetry of the bainitic ferrite lattice from cubic to tetragonal explains the abnormal solid solubility detected. This carbon supersaturation was measured by atom probe tomography, and the tetragonality of the bainitic ferrite, was characterized by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and high resolution transmission electron microscopy.

  16. Severe gas bubble disease in a warmwater fishery in the midwestern united states

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crunkilton, R.L.; Czarnezki, J.M.; Trial, L.

    1980-11-01

    Supersaturation of the water of the Osage River below the Harry S. Truman Dam resulted in an epidemic of gas bubble disease that caused the largest fish kill in the history of Missouri. This is the first recorded evidence of serious supersaturation in the midwestern U.S. Total gas saturation levels up to 139% killed nearly 500,000 fish in the Osage River and the Lake of the Ozarks during April-May 1978. Nitrogen was the primary gas responsible for gas bubble disease mortalities. Instream cage bioassays defined the zone of lethal supersaturation. Significant mortality occurred in pelagic and near-shore species, deepwater species, and bottom-dwelling species. Susceptibility to disease was related to fish size.

  17. Understanding Ice Supersaturation, Particle Growth, and Number Concentration in Cirrus Clouds

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Comstock, Jennifer M.; Lin, Ruei-Fong; Starr, David O.; Yang, P.

    2008-12-10

    Many factors control the ice supersaturation and microphysical properties in cirrus clouds. We explore the effects of dynamic forcing, ice nucleation mechanisms, and ice crystal growth rate on the evolution and distribution of water vapor and cloud properties in cirrus clouds using a detailed microphysical model and remote sensing measurements obtained at the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility located near Lamont, OK. To help understand dynamic scales important in cirrus formation, we force the model using both large-scale forcing derived using ARM variational analysis, and mean mesoscale velocity derived from radar Doppler velocity measurements. Both heterogeneous and homogeneous nucleation processes are explored, where we have implemented a rigorous classical theory heterogeneous nucleation scheme to compare with empirical representations. We evaluate model simulations by examining both bulk cloud properties and distributions of measured radar reflectivity, lidar extinction, and water vapor profiles, as well as retrieved cloud microphysical properties. This approach allows for independent verification of both the large and small particle modes of the particle size distribution. Our results suggest that mesoscale variability is the primary mechanism needed to reproduce observed quantities, while nucleation mechanism is secondary. Slow ice crystal growth tends to overestimate the number of small ice crystals, but does not seem to influence bulk properties such as ice water path and cloud thickness. The most realistic simulations as compared with observations are forced using mesoscale waves, include fast ice crystal growth, and initiate ice by either homogeneous or heterogeneous nucleation. Ice crystal number concentrations on the order of 10-100 L-1 produce results consistent with both lidar and radar observations during a cirrus event observed on 7 December 1999, which has an optical depth range typical of midlatitude cirrus.

  18. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility ofmore » the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.« less

  19. Quantitative Chromatographic Determination of Dissolved Elemental Sulfur in the Non-aqueous Electrolyte for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Dong; Yang, Xiao-Qing; Zhang, Xuran; Li, Chao; McKinnon, Meaghan E.; Sadok, Rachel G.; Qu, Deyu; Yu, Xiqian; Lee, Hung-Sui; Qu, Deyang

    2014-12-02

    A fast and reliable analytical method is reported for the quantitative determination of dissolved elemental sulfur in non-aqueous electrolytes for Li-S batteries. By using high performance liquid chromatography with a UV detector, the solubility of S in 12 different pure solvents and in 22 different electrolytes was determined. It was found that the solubility of elemental sulfur is dependent on the Lewis basicity, the polarity of solvents and the salt concentration in the electrolytes. In addition, the S content in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S battery was successfully determined by the proposed HPLC/UV method. Thus, the feasibility of the method to the online analysis for a Li-S battery is demonstrated. Interestingly, the S was found super-saturated in the electrolyte recovered from a discharged Li-S cell.

  20. Gas Bubble Trauma Monitoring and Research of Juvenile Salmonids, 1994-1995 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hans, Karen M.

    1997-07-01

    This report describes laboratory and field monitoring studies of gas bubble trauma (GBT) in migrating juvenile salmonids in the Snake and Columbia rivers. The first chapter describes laboratory studies of the progression of GBT signs leading to mortality and the use of the signs for GBT assessment. The progression and severity of GBT signs in juvenile salmonids exposed to different levels of total dissolved gas (TDG) and temperatures was assessed and quantified. Next, the prevalence, severity, and individual variation of GBT signs was evaluated to attempt to relate them to mortality. Finally, methods for gill examination in fish exposed to high TDG were developed and evaluated. Primary findings were: (1) no single sign of GBT was clearly correlated with mortality, but many GBT signs progressively worsened; (2) both prevalence and severity of GBT signs in several tissues is necessary; (3) bubbles in the lateral line were the earliest sign of GBT, showed progressive worsening, and had low individual variation but may develop poorly during chronic exposures; (4) fin bubbles had high prevalence, progressively worsened, and may be a persistent sign of GBT; and (5) gill bubbles appear to be the proximate cause of death but may only be relevant at high TDG levels and are difficult to examine. Chapter Two describes monitoring results of juvenile salmonids for signs of GBT. Emigrating fish were collected and examined for bubbles in fins and lateral lines. Preliminary findings were: (1) few fish had signs of GBT, but prevalence and severity appeared to increase as fish migrated downstream; (2) there was no apparent correlation between GBT signs in the fins, lateral line, or gills; (3) prevalence and severity of GBT was suggestive of long-term, non-lethal exposure to relatively low level gas supersaturated water; and (4) it appeared that GBT was not a threat to migrating juvenile salmonids. 24 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  1. ARM - Lesson Plans: Dissolved Gases in Water

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Dissolved Gases in Water Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Lesson Plans: Dissolved Gases in Water Objective The objective of this activity is to prove that ocean water can absorb greenhouse gases and to demonstrate that what appears to be clear water is actually a complex

  2. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, as of Dec. 31 Data Series: Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 Adjustments Revision Increases Revision Decreases Sales Acquisitions Extensions New Field Discoveries New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields Estimated Production Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 View History U.S. 33,383 35,746 42,823 53,156 58,490 69,117 1979-2014

  3. Miscellaneous Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation 78 10 104 7 19 18 1979-2014 Adjustments 42 -70 66 -97 -5 2 1979-2014 Revision Increases 53 1 46 1 19 1 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 13 0 9 0 0 2 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 2 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 13 1 8 1 2 2

  4. Mississippi Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation 8 36 62 62 43 58 1979-2014 Adjustments 22 11 37 -3 -14 15 1979-2014 Revision Increases 7 10 13 13 6 7 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 20 12 17 8 8 13 1979-2014 Sales 10 6 0 1 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 2 0 3 0 2 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 4 3 9 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 2 0 1 1 0 1 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 2 1979-2014 Estimated Production 8 7 8 9 6 8

  5. Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation, as of Dec. 31 33,383 35,746 42,823 53,156 58,490 69,117 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 5,223 5,204 5,446 5,864 5,530 5,334 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 731 722 711 652 264 243 1979-2014 Louisiana & Alabama 3,863 3,793 4,196 4,358 4,293 4,253 1981-2014 Texas 629 689 539 854 973 838 1981-2014 Alaska 8,093 7,896 8,535 8,672 6,428 5,851 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 25,290 27,850 34,288 44,484 52,062 63,266 1979-2014 Alabama 29 38 48 100 46 141 1979-2014 Arkansas 20 29 46 82 135

  6. Pennsylvania Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation 33 144 134 125 269 299 1979-2014 Adjustments 12 -54 -137 5 -80 41 1979-2014 Revision Increases 3 10 156 30 222 111 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 11 18 24 38 18 95 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 12 83 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 9 5 44 1 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 10 10 14 11 24 28

  7. NM, West Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    82 105 143 142 137 226 1979-2014 Adjustments 12 7 71 23 -39 -29 1979-2014 Revision Increases 4 32 12 11 14 36 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 14 8 34 22 10 26 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 25 1...

  8. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Estimated Production, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation 2,556 2,445 2,722 3,393 4,114 5,277 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 659 564 514 535 562 615 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 36 28 31 22 21 21 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 522 468 415 411 435 464 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 101 68 68 102 106 130 1981-2014 Alaska 225 174 176 172 181 204 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 2,331 2,271 2,546 3,221 3,933 5,073 1979-2014 Alabama 5 6 8 17 9 17 1979-2014 Arkansas 4 4 6 9 9 10 1979-2014 California 171 186 260 155 157 147

  9. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Reserves Acquisitions, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation 678 2,469 1,884 2,150 2,843 4,589 2000-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 21 250 56 297 315 83 2000-2014 Pacific (California) 0 0 0 12 11 0 2000-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 12 222 49 279 263 80 2000-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 9 28 7 6 41 3 2000-2014 Alaska 0 0 51 0 1 161 2000-2014 Lower 48 States 678 2,469 1,833 2,150 2,842 4,428 2000-2014 Alabama 0 0 20 0 0 0 2000-2014 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 79 2000-2014 California 58 0 11 4 65 1,068 2000-2014 Coastal Region Onshore 0 0 0

  10. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Reserves Adjustments, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation 877 -482 390 385 -649 1,396 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 12 -14 -22 -165 -73 138 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 1 1 -1 -51 14 1 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 7 -14 -21 -94 -94 135 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 4 -1 0 -20 7 2 1981-2014 Alaska 1 -1 -1 -2 1 -1 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 876 -481 391 387 -650 1,397 1979-2014 Alabama 5 13 3 57 -65 20 1979-2014 Arkansas 12 -3 24 38 -23 -20 1979-2014 California 6 7 929 -580 -33 7 1979-2014 Coastal Region Onshore

  11. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Reserves Extensions, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation ,669 2,660 5,957 10,030 9,630 9,962 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 90 87 32 229 243 94 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 90 54 32 146 166 80 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 0 33 0 83 77 14 1981-2014 Alaska 0 2 3 14 17 8 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 2,669 2,658 5,954 10,016 9,613 9,954 1979-2014 Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 2 1979-2014 Arkansas 0 4 0 11 1 0 1979-2014 California 470 12 74 8 5 0 1979-2014 Coastal Region Onshore 0 0 1 1

  12. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Reserves Revision Decreases, Wet After

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Lease Separation 2,698 3,964 5,953 6,250 9,821 10,160 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 517 879 1,393 1,242 830 1,794 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 7 5 18 14 387 20 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 442 841 1,152 1,140 360 884 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 68 33 223 88 83 890 1981-2014 Alaska 5 260 79 198 2,120 553 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 2,693 3,704 5,874 6,052 7,701 9,607 1979-2014 Alabama 1 4 0 6 0 0 1979-2014 Arkansas 0 0 13 9 4 0 1979-2014 California 139 389 1,927

  13. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Reserves Revision Increases, Wet After

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Lease Separation 5,522 4,983 8,088 8,162 8,534 13,264 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 854 1,028 1,583 1,894 829 1,701 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 71 23 39 16 6 19 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 693 907 1,410 1,489 623 812 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 90 98 134 389 200 870 1981-2014 Alaska 1,696 236 843 495 38 179 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 3,826 4,747 7,245 7,667 8,496 13,085 1979-2014 Alabama 11 6 2 18 20 76 1979-2014 Arkansas 5 12 50 5 88 14 1979-2014 California

  14. CA, Coastal Region Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation 168 178 172 303 282 269 1979-2014 Adjustments 2 2 15 2 -8 3 1979-2014 Revision Increases 42 38 21 157 14 24 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 14 17 31 17 15 23 1979-2014 Sales 0 1 0 0 1 56 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 1 52 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 1 1 1 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 12 12 12 12 13 13

  15. California Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation ,314 2,282 2,532 1,847 1,776 1,987 1979-2014 Adjustments 6 7 929 -580 -33 7 1979-2014 Revision Increases 177 525 1,424 485 161 547 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 139 389 1,927 452 38 187 1979-2014 Sales 4 1 1 0 76 1,079 2000-2014 Acquisitions 58 0 11 4 65 1,068 2000-2014 Extensions 470 12 74 8 5 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 4 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 1 2 2 1979-2014 Estimated Production 171 186 260 155 157 147

  16. Federal Offshore, Pacific (California) Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation 731 722 711 652 264 243 1979-2014 Adjustments 1 1 -1 -51 14 1 1979-2014 Revision Increases 71 23 39 16 6 19 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 7 5 18 14 387 20 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 11 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 12 11 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 36 28 31 22 21 21

  17. ,"Nebraska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas, Wet After Lease...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves (Billion Cubic Feet)",1,"Annual",2013 ,"Release Date:","11192015" ,"Next Release Date:","12312016" ,"Excel File Name:","resepg0r41snebcfa.xls" ,"Available ...

  18. New York Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 11 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0...

  19. CA, San Joaquin Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Revision Increases 95 467 1,382 319 126 513 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 97 367 1,892 403 18 146 1979-2014 Sales 4 0 0 0 38 1,004 2000-2014 Acquisitions 58 0 0 4 27 995...

  20. Theory, electro-optical design, testing, and calibration of a prototype atmospheric supersaturation, humidity, and temperature sensor. Final report Mar 81-Jul 82

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nelson, L.D.

    1982-07-15

    A new infrared differential absorption - passive thermal emission based instrument designed to make accurate in-cloud measurements of absolute humidity, air temperature, relative humidity, and ice and water supersaturations has been developed. Absolute humidity is measured by the differential infrared absorption of a broad-band light beam between 2.45 microns wavelength and the strongly absorbing water vapor band at 2.67 microns. Air temperature is sensed by a passive radiometric measurement of the Planck's law radiance emitted by carbon dioxide molecules in their very intense emission band at 4.25 microns. Significant operational advantages over previous 14-16 micron band radiometers are achieved. These non-contact optical measurements of absolute humidity and true air temperature can then be combined to yield relative humidity values with respect to both water and ice which remain valid in condensing supersaturated conditions and in spite of hydrometeors in the sample volume.

  1. New York Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    196 281 253 184 144 143 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 196 271 245 178 138 138 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease...

  2. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-10-05

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1989, and production volumes for the year 1989 for the total United States and for selected states and state sub-divisions. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production reported separately. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. 28 refs., 9 figs., 15 tabs.

  3. FLOWSHEET EVALUATION FOR THE DISSOLVING AND NEUTRALIZATION OF SODIUM REACTOR EXPERIMENT USED NUCLEAR FUEL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, W. E.; Hansen, E. K.; Shehee, T. C.

    2012-10-30

    This report includes the literature review, hydrogen off-gas calculations, and hydrogen generation tests to determine that H-Canyon can safely dissolve the Sodium Reactor Experiment (SRE; thorium fuel), Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR; aluminum alloy fuel), and Denmark Reactor (DR-3; silicide fuel, aluminum alloy fuel, and aluminum oxide fuel) assemblies in the L-Bundles with respect to the hydrogen levels in the projected peak off-gas rates. This is provided that the number of L-Bundles charged to the dissolver is controlled. Examination of SRE dissolution for potential issues has aided in predicting the optimal batching scenario. The calculations detailed in this report demonstrate that the FNR, SRE, and DR-3 used nuclear fuel (UNF) are bounded by MURR UNF and may be charged using the controls outlined for MURR dissolution in a prior report.

  4. Yucca Mountain Area Saturated Zone Dissolved Organic Carbon Isotopic Data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas, James; Decker, David; Patterson, Gary; Peterman, Zell; Mihevc, Todd; Larsen, Jessica; Hershey, Ronald

    2007-06-25

    Groundwater samples in the Yucca Mountain area were collected for chemical and isotopic analyses and measurements of water temperature, pH, specific conductivity, and alkalinity were obtained at the well or spring at the time of sampling. For this project, groundwater samples were analyzed for major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC). The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) performed all the fieldwork on this project including measurement of water chemistry field parameters and sample collection. The major ions dissolved in the groundwater, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) were analyzed by the USGS. All preparation and processing of samples for DOC carbon isotopic analyses and geochemical modeling were performed by the Desert Research Institute (DRI). Analysis of the DOC carbon dioxide gas produced at DRI to obtain carbon-13 and carbon-14 values was conducted at the University of Arizona Accelerator Facility (a NSHE Yucca Mountain project QA qualified contract facility). The major-ion chemistry, deuterium, oxygen-18, and carbon isotopes of DIC were used in geochemical modeling (NETPATH) to determine groundwater sources, flow paths, mixing, and ages. The carbon isotopes of DOC were used to calculate groundwater ages that are independent of DIC model corrected carbon-14 ages. The DIC model corrected carbon-14 calculated ages were used to evaluate groundwater travel times for mixtures of water including water beneath Yucca Mountain. When possible, groundwater travel times were calculated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient sample sites. DOC carbon-14 groundwater ages were also calculated for groundwaters in the Yucca Mountain area. When possible, groundwater travel times were estimated for groundwater flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient groundwater sample sites using the DOC calculated groundwater ages. The DIC calculated groundwater ages were compared with DOC calculated groundwater ages and both of these ages were compared to travel times developed in ground-water flow and transport models. If nuclear waste is stored in Yucca Mountain, the saturated zone is the final barrier against the release of radionuclides to the environment. The most recent rendition of the TSPA takes little credit for the presence of the saturated zone and is a testament to the inadequate understanding of this important barrier. If radionuclides reach the saturated zone beneath Yucca Mountain, then there is a travel time before they would leave the Yucca Mountain area and flow down gradient to the Amargosa Valley area. Knowing how long it takes groundwater in the saturated zone to flow from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas is critical information for potential radionuclide transport. Radionuclide transport in groundwater may be the quickest pathway for radionuclides in the proposed Yucca Mountain repository to reach land surface by way of groundwater pumped in Amargosa Valley. An alternative approach to ground-water flow and transport models to determine the travel time of radionuclides from beneath Yucca Mountain to down gradient areas in the saturated zone is by carbon-14 dating of both inorganic and organic carbon dissolved in the groundwater. A standard method of determining ground-water ages is to measure the carbon-13 and carbon-14 of DIC in the groundwater and then correct the measured carbon-14 along a flow path for geochemical reactions that involve carbon containing phases. These geochemical reactions are constrained by carbon-13 and isotopic fractionations. Without correcting for geochemical reactions, the ground-water ages calculated from only the differences in carbon-14 measured along a flow path (assuming the decrease in carbon-14 is due strictly to radioactive decay) could be tens of thousands of years too old. The computer program NETPATH, developed by the USGS, is the best geochemical program for correcting carbon-14 activities for geochemical r

  5. Method for dissolving delta-phase plutonium

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Karraker, David G. (1600 Sherwood Pl., SE., Aiken, SC 29801)

    1992-01-01

    A process for dissolving plutonium, and in particular, delta-phase plutonium. The process includes heating a mixture of nitric acid, hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) and potassium fluoride to a temperature between 40.degree. and 70.degree. C., then immersing the metal in the mixture. Preferably, the nitric acid has a concentration of not more than 2M, the HAN approximately 0.66M, and the potassium fluoride 0.1M. Additionally, a small amount of sulfamic acid, such as 0.1M can be added to assure stability of the HAN in the presence of nitric acid. The oxide layer that forms on plutonium metal may be removed with a non-oxidizing acid as a pre-treatment step.

  6. DISSOLVED CONCENTRATION LIMITS OF RADIOACTIVE ELEMENTS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    P. Bernot

    2005-07-13

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate dissolved concentration limits (also referred to as solubility limits) of elements with radioactive isotopes under probable repository conditions, based on geochemical modeling calculations using geochemical modeling tools, thermodynamic databases, field measurements, and laboratory experiments. The scope of this activity is to predict dissolved concentrations or solubility limits for elements with radioactive isotopes (actinium, americium, carbon, cesium, iodine, lead, neptunium, plutonium, protactinium, radium, strontium, technetium, thorium, and uranium) relevant to calculated dose. Model outputs for uranium, plutonium, neptunium, thorium, americium, and protactinium are provided in the form of tabulated functions with pH and log fCO{sub 2} as independent variables, plus one or more uncertainty terms. The solubility limits for the remaining elements are either in the form of distributions or single values. Even though selection of an appropriate set of radionuclides documented in Radionuclide Screening (BSC 2002 [DIRS 160059]) includes actinium, transport of Ac is not modeled in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) model because of its extremely short half-life. Actinium dose is calculated in the TSPA-LA by assuming secular equilibrium with {sup 231}Pa (Section 6.10); therefore, Ac is not analyzed in this report. The output data from this report are fundamental inputs for TSPA-LA used to determine the estimated release of these elements from waste packages and the engineered barrier system. Consistent modeling approaches and environmental conditions were used to develop solubility models for the actinides discussed in this report. These models cover broad ranges of environmental conditions so they are applicable to both waste packages and the invert. Uncertainties from thermodynamic data, water chemistry, temperature variation, and activity coefficients have been quantified or otherwise addressed.

  7. Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is commonly measured in water and is an important parameter for understanding carbonate equilibrium, carbon cycling, and water-rock interaction. ...

  8. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1997 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wood, John H.; Grape, Steven G.; Green, Rhonda S.

    1998-12-01

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1997, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1997. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1997 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  9. Production of biodiesel using expanded gas solvents

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ginosar, Daniel M; Fox, Robert V; Petkovic, Lucia M

    2009-04-07

    A method of producing an alkyl ester. The method comprises providing an alcohol and a triglyceride or fatty acid. An expanding gas is dissolved into the alcohol to form a gas expanded solvent. The alcohol is reacted with the triglyceride or fatty acid in a single phase to produce the alkyl ester. The expanding gas may be a nonpolar expanding gas, such as carbon dioxide, methane, ethane, propane, butane, pentane, ethylene, propylene, butylene, pentene, isomers thereof, and mixtures thereof, which is dissolved into the alcohol. The gas expanded solvent may be maintained at a temperature below, at, or above a critical temperature of the expanding gas and at a pressure below, at, or above a critical pressure of the expanding gas.

  10. Methanex, Hoechst Celanese dissolve methanol partnership

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, G.D.L.

    1993-03-31

    One of the many joint venture alliances recently announced in the petrochemical sector is ending in divorce. Hoechst Celanese Chemical (Dallas) and Methanex Corp. (Vancouver) are in the process of dissolving the partnership they had formed to restart Hoechst Celanese's methanol plant at Clear Lake, TX. Hoechst Celanese says it is actively seeking replacement partners and has several likely prospects, while Methanex is concentrating on its other ventures. Those include its just-completed acquisition of Fletcher Challenge's (Auckland, NZ) methanol business and a joint venture with American Cyanamid to convert an ammonia plant at Fortier, LA to methanol. Methanex will still be the world's largest producer of methanol. Officially, the negotiations between Methanex and Hoechst Celanese just broke down over the last month or so,' says Steve Yurich, operations manager for the Clear Lake plant. Market sources, however, say that Methanex found itself with too many irons in the fire' and pulled out before it ran into financial or perhaps even antitrust difficulties.

  11. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R.K.; Im, K.H.

    1996-04-02

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines. 13 figs.

  12. Method for removing metal vapor from gas streams

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ahluwalia, R. K. (6440 Hillcrest Dr., Burr Ridge, IL 60521); Im, K. H. (925 Lehigh Cir., Naperville, IL 60565)

    1996-01-01

    A process for cleaning an inert gas contaminated with a metallic vapor, such as cadmium, involves withdrawing gas containing the metallic contaminant from a gas atmosphere of high purity argon; passing the gas containing the metallic contaminant to a mass transfer unit having a plurality of hot gas channels separated by a plurality of coolant gas channels; cooling the contaminated gas as it flows upward through the mass transfer unit to cause contaminated gas vapor to condense on the gas channel walls; regenerating the gas channels of the mass transfer unit; and, returning the cleaned gas to the gas atmosphere of high purity argon. The condensing of the contaminant-containing vapor occurs while suppressing contaminant particulate formation, and is promoted by providing a sufficient amount of surface area in the mass transfer unit to cause the vapor to condense and relieve supersaturation buildup such that contaminant particulates are not formed. Condensation of the contaminant is prevented on supply and return lines in which the contaminant containing gas is withdrawn and returned from and to the electrorefiner and mass transfer unit by heating and insulating the supply and return lines.

  13. Miscellaneous Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    349 363 393 233 188 185 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 271 353 270 219 169 167 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 78 10 104 7 19 18 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 349 350 379 222 179 17

  14. Mississippi Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    22 858 868 612 600 563 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 884 822 806 550 557 505 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 38 36 62 62 43 58 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 917 853 860 607 595 558

  15. Montana Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    93 959 792 616 590 686 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 681 657 522 327 286 361 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 312 302 270 289 304 325 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 976 944 778 602 575 667

  16. Federal Offshore, Pacific (California) Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dec. 31 740 725 711 652 264 243 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 9 3 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 731 722 711 652 264 243 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 739 724 710 651 261 240

  17. Florida Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 56 6 16 15 0 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 0 26 4 16 14 0 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 7 30 2 0 1 0 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 7 56 6 16 15 0

  18. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves, 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1993-10-18

    This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1992, as well as production volumes for the United States, and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1992. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), its two major components (nonassociated and associated-dissolved gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, two components of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, have their reserves and production data presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1992 is provided.

  19. Neptunium estimation in dissolver and high-level-waste solutions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pathak, P.N.; Prabhu, D.R.; Kanekar, A.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2008-07-01

    This papers deals with the optimization of the experimental conditions for the estimation of {sup 237}Np in spent-fuel dissolver/high-level waste solutions using thenoyltrifluoroacetone as the extractant. (authors)

  20. Gas-sensing optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, Tomas B. (Livermore, CA)

    1988-01-01

    An optrode is provided for sensing dissolved gases or volatile components of a solution. A fiber optic is provided through which light from an associated light source is transmitted from a first end to a second end. A bubble forming means, such as a tube, is attached to the second end of the fiber optic, and an indicator material is disposed in cooperation with the bubble forming means adjacent to the second end of the fiber optic such that it is illuminated by light emanating from the second end. The bubble forming means causes a gas bubble to form whenever the optrode is immersed in the fluid. The gas bubble separates the indicator material from the fluid. Gases, or other volatile components, of the fluid are sensed as they diffuse across the gas bubble from the fluid to the indicator material.

  1. Gas-sensing optrode

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hirschfeld, T.B.

    1988-04-12

    An optrode is provided for sensing dissolved gases or volatile components of a solution. A fiber optic is provided through which light from an associated light source is transmitted from a first end to a second end. A bubble forming means, such as a tube, is attached to the second end of the fiber optic, and an indicator material is disposed in cooperation with the bubble forming means adjacent to the second end of the fiber optic such that it is illuminated by light emanating from the second end. The bubble forming means causes a gas bubble to form whenever the optrode is immersed in the fluid. The gas bubble separates the indicator material from the fluid. Gases, or other volatile components, of the fluid are sensed as they diffuse across the gas bubble from the fluid to the indicator material. 3 figs.

  2. Gas bubble disease in smallmouth bass and northern squawfish from the Snake and Columbia Rivers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Montgomery, J.C.; Becker, C.D.

    1980-11-01

    Supersaturation of the Columbia and Snake River systems was caused by entrainment of air into water spilling over hydroelectric dams. Total gas saturations of 100% or more have occurred during the spring in each river system. External signs of gas bubble diseases were noted in adult Smallmouth bass and northern squawfish collected from the lower Snake and mid-Columbia rivers during 1975-76. Emboli occurred beneath membranes of the opercula body, and fins of 72% of the smallmouth bass and 84% of the northern squawfish. Hemorrhage was also noted on the caudal, anal, and pectoral fins of several fish.

  3. LA, State Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    728 386 519 519 420 341 1981-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 215 279 468 391 332 273 1981-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 513 107 51 128 88 68 1981-2014 Dry Natural Gas 701 371 502 502 402 327 1981-2014 Natural Gas Liquids (Million Barrels) 1981

  4. Simulation Analysis for HB-Line Dissolver Mixing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, S

    2006-03-22

    In support of the HB-Line Engineering agitator mixing project, flow pattern calculations have been made for a 90{sup o} apart and helical pitch agitator submerged in a flat tank containing dissolver baskets. The work is intended to determine maximum agitator speed to keep the dissolver baskets from contacting the agitator for the nominal tank liquid level. The analysis model was based on one dissolver basket located on the bottom surface of the flat tank for a conservative estimate. The modeling results will help determine acceptable agitator speeds and tank liquid levels to ensure that the dissolver basket is kept from contacting the agitator blade during HB-Line dissolver tank operations. The numerical modeling and calculations have been performed using a computational fluid dynamics approach. Three-dimensional steady-state momentum and continuity equations were used as the basic equations to estimate fluid motion driven by an agitator with four 90{sup o} pitched blades or three flat blades. Hydraulic conditions were fully turbulent (Reynolds number about 1 x 10{sup 5}). A standard two-equation turbulence model ({kappa},{var_epsilon}), was used to capture turbulent eddy motion. The commercial finite volume code, Fluent [5], was used to create a prototypic geometry file with a non-orthogonal mesh. Hybrid meshing was used to fill the computational region between the round-edged tank bottom and agitator regions. The nominal calculations and a series of sensitivity runs were made to investigate the impact of flow patterns on the lifting behavior of the dissolver basket. At high rotational speeds and low tank levels, local turbulent flow reaches the critical condition for the dissolver basket to be picked up from the tank floor and to touch the agitator blades during the tank mixing operations. This is not desirable in terms of mixing performance. The modeling results demonstrate that the flow patterns driven by the agitators considered here are not strong enough to lift up the dissolver basket for the agitator speeds up to 2500 rpm. The results also show that local velocity magnitudes for the three-blade flat plate agitator are at maximum three times smaller than the helical fourblade one. Table 5 and Table 6 summarize the results.

  5. Use of iron salts to control dissolved sulfide in trunk sewers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Padival, N.A.; Kimbell, W.A. [County Sanitation District of Los Angeles County, Whittier, CA (United States); Redner, J.A. [County Sanitation District of Los Angeles County, Compton, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Sewer headspace H{sub 2}S reduction by precipitating dissolved sulfide in wastewater was investigated using iron salt (FeCl{sub 3} and FeCl{sub 2}). Full-scale experiments were conducted in a 40-km (25 mi) sewer with an average flow of 8.7 m{sup 3}/s (200 mgd). Results were sensitive to total Fe dosages and Fe(III)/Fe(II) blend ratios injected. A concentration of 16 mg/L total Fe and a blend ratio of 1.9:1 [Fe(III):Fe(II)] reduced dissolved sulfide levels by 97%. Total sulfide and headspace H{sub 2}S were reduced by 63% and 79%, respectively. Liquid and gas-phase sulfide reductions were largely due to the effective precipitation of sulfide with Fe(III) and Fe(II) and the limited volatilization of H{sub 2}S, respectively. Oxidation of sulfide in the presence of Fe(II) and minute amounts of O{sub 2} may have occurred. A combination of Fe(III) and Fe(II) proved more effective than either salt alone. By using excess Fe(III), dissolved sulfide can be reduced to undetectable levels. No specific relation between the concentration of Fe or Fe(III)/Fe(II) blend ratio and sewer crown pH was inferred. Iron salts may retard crown corrosion rates by precipitating free sulfide and reducing its release to the sewer headspace as H{sub 2}S. A mechanism to inhibit certain responsible bacteria was not established in the 40-km (25 mi) sewer.

  6. Influence of the Al distribution on the structure, elastic properties, and phase stability of supersaturated Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mayrhofer, P. H.; Music, D.; Schneider, J. M.

    2006-11-01

    Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N films and/or their alloys are employed in many industrial applications due to their excellent mechanical and thermal properties. Synthesized by plasma-assisted vapor deposition, Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is reported to crystallize in the cubic NaCl (c) structure for AlN mole fractions below 0.4-0.91, whereas at larger Al contents the hexagonal ZnS-wurtzite (w) structure is observed. Here we use ab initio calculations to analyze the effect of composition and Al distribution on the metal sublattice on phase stability, structure, and elastic properties of c-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N and w-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N. We show that the phase stability of supersaturated c-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N not only depends on the chemical composition but also on the Al distribution of the metal sublattice. An increase of the metastable solubility limit of AlN in c-Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N from 0.64 to 0.74 is obtained by decreasing the number of Ti-Al bonds. This can be understood by considering the Al distribution induced changes of the electronic structure, bond energy, and configurational entropy. This may in part explain the large variation of the metastable solubility limit reported in the literature.

  7. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, R.J.

    1988-06-16

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub x/ is described. The method involves prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO/sub x/ and SO/sub 2/, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO/sub x/ is removed as N/sub 2/ gas or nitrogen sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a valuable sulfate salt. 4 figs.

  8. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, John B. L. (Naperville, IL); Doctor, Richard D. (Glen Ellyn, IL); Wingender, Ronald J. (Deerfield, IL)

    1986-01-01

    A method of simultaneously removing SO.sub.2 and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO.sub.2 and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled.

  9. Flue gas desulfurization/denitrification using metal-chelate additives

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Harkness, J.B.L.; Doctor, R.D.; Wingender, R.J.

    1985-08-05

    A method of simultaneously removing SO/sub 2/ and NO from oxygen-containing flue gases resulting from the combustion of carbonaceous material by contacting the flue gas with an aqueous scrubber solution containing an aqueous sulfur dioxide sorbent and an active metal chelating agent which promotes a reaction between dissolved SO/sub 2/ and dissolved NO to form hydroxylamine N-sulfonates. The hydroxylamine sulfonates are then separated from the scrubber solution which is recycled. 3 figs.

  10. Coal beneficiation by gas agglomeration

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wheelock, Thomas D.; Meiyu, Shen

    2003-10-14

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  11. Coal Beneficiation by Gas Agglomeration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thomas D. Wheelock; Meiyu Shen

    2000-03-15

    Coal beneficiation is achieved by suspending coal fines in a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water under atmospheric conditions to form small agglomerates of the fines adhered by the gas bubbles. The agglomerates are separated, recovered and resuspended in water. Thereafter, the pressure on the suspension is increased above atmospheric to deagglomerate, since the gas bubbles are then re-dissolved in the water. During the deagglomeration step, the mineral matter is dispersed, and when the pressure is released, the coal portion of the deagglomerated gas-saturated water mixture reagglomerates, with the small bubbles now coming out of the solution. The reagglomerate can then be separated to provide purified coal fines without the mineral matter.

  12. TX, State Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    64 131 118 94 59 42 1981-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 161 128 113 88 56 42 1981-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 3 3 5 6 3 0 1981-2014 Dry Natural Gas 164 131 118 94 59 42 1981

  13. CA, Coastal Region Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    169 180 173 305 284 277 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 1 2 1 2 2 8 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 168 178 172 303 282 269 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 163 173 165 290 266 261

  14. CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    91 92 102 98 90 84 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 91 92 102 98 90 84 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 84 87 97 93 86 8

  15. CA, State Offshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    57 66 82 66 75 76 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 4 3 3 1 0 0 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 53 63 79 65 75 76 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 57 66 82 66 75 76

  16. Dissolving the mineral calcite: Reaction front instability | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory calcite: Reaction front instability Share Topic Programs Chemical sciences & engineering Synchrotron radiation X-ray imaging & holography Using the X-ray Reflection Interfacial Microscope powered by the Advanced Photon Source, researchers can both watch and drive the nanoscale changes of the surface of a calcite mineral as it dissolves in real-time. In this image, researchers observe distortions in the reaction front (the boundary between the blue and red regions)

  17. Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled release experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater...

  18. US crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1996 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-12-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1996, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1996. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1996 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  19. U.S. crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids reserves 1995 annual report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The EIA annual reserves report series is the only source of comprehensive domestic proved reserves estimates. This publication is used by the Congress, Federal and State agencies, industry, and other interested parties to obtain accurate estimates of the Nation`s proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids. These data are essential to the development, implementation, and evaluation of energy policy and legislation. This report presents estimates of proved reserves of crude oil, natural gas, and natural gas liquids as of December 31, 1995, as well as production volumes for the US and selected States and State subdivisions for the year 1995. Estimates are presented for the following four categories of natural gas: total gas (wet after lease separation), nonassociated gas and associated-dissolved gas (which are the two major types of wet natural gas), and total dry gas (wet gas adjusted for the removal of liquids at natural gas processing plants). In addition, reserve estimates for two types of natural gas liquids, lease condensate and natural gas plant liquids, are presented. Also included is information on indicated additional crude oil reserves and crude oil, natural gas, and lease condensate reserves in nonproducing reservoirs. A discussion of notable oil and gas exploration and development activities during 1995 is provided. 21 figs., 16 tabs.

  20. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D. (Livermore, CA); Bourcier, William L. (Livermore, CA)

    2010-11-09

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  1. Carbon ion pump for removal of carbon dioxide from combustion gas and other gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.

    2014-08-19

    A novel method and system of separating carbon dioxide from flue gas is introduced. Instead of relying on large temperature or pressure changes to remove carbon dioxide from a solvent used to absorb it from flue gas, the ion pump method, as disclosed herein, dramatically increases the concentration of dissolved carbonate ion in solution. This increases the overlying vapor pressure of carbon dioxide gas, permitting carbon dioxide to be removed from the downstream side of the ion pump as a pure gas. The ion pumping may be obtained from reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, thermal desalination methods, or an ion pump system having an oscillating flow in synchronization with an induced electric field.

  2. Ohio Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    896 832 758 1,235 3,201 7,193 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 799 742 684 1,012 2,887 6,985 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 97 90 74 223 314 208 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 896 832 758 1,233 3,161 6,72

  3. Alabama Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 9 38 48 100 46 141 1979-2014 Adjustments 5 13 3 57 -65 20 1979-2014 Revision Increases 11 6 2 18 20 76 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 1 4 0 6 0 0 1979-2014 Sales 0 2 9 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 20 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 2 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 2 2 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 14 1979-2014 Estimated Production 5 6 8 17 9 17

  4. Alaska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 8,093 7,896 8,535 8,672 6,428 5,851 1979-2014 Adjustments 1 -1 -1 -2 1 -1 1979-2014 Revision Increases 1,696 236 843 495 38 179 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 5 260 79 198 2,120 553 1979-2014 Sales 1 0 2 0 0 167 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 51 0 1 161 2000-2014 Extensions 0 2 3 14 17 8 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 225 174 176 172 181 204

  5. Arkansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 0 29 46 82 135 189 1979-2014 Adjustments 12 -3 24 38 -23 -20 1979-2014 Revision Increases 5 12 50 5 88 14 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 13 9 4 0 1979-2014 Sales 5 0 38 0 0 9 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 79 2000-2014 Extensions 0 4 0 11 1 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 4 4 6 9 9 10

  6. Michigan Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 77 72 77 94 125 108 1979-2014 Adjustments -28 4 2 -8 39 0 1979-2014 Revision Increases 39 10 6 35 8 3 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 105 13 12 8 4 7 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 1 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 1 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 19 0 14 7 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 9 0 0 1 3 1 1979-2014 Estimated Production 5 6 5 10 15 14

  7. Montana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 12 302 270 289 304 325 1979-2014 Adjustments 84 -38 -33 -3 -5 2 1979-2014 Revision Increases 126 40 32 26 51 15 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 65 31 34 20 43 49 1979-2014 Sales 3 29 45 4 4 2 2000-2014 Acquisitions 3 30 45 4 4 1 2000-2014 Extensions 5 41 14 38 37 79 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 7 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 1 1 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 35 24 19 22 25 25

  8. NM, East Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 1,900 2,108 2,409 2,677 3,276 4,457 1979-2014 Adjustments 158 -110 -51 -24 -112 200 1979-2014 Revision Increases 298 198 323 644 775 1,137 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 285 241 180 422 493 571 1979-2014 Sales 64 57 101 243 23 4 2000-2014 Acquisitions 66 319 138 70 28 45 2000-2014 Extensions 233 270 361 478 599 697 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 3 2 0 1 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 2 0 1 98 4 1979-2014 Estimated Production 175 173 192 238 273 328

  9. Nebraska Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 2011 2012 2013 View History Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 0 0 0 2011-2013 Adjustments -2 0 0 2011-2013 Revision Increases 1 0 0 2011-2013 Revision Decreases 0 0 0 2011-2013 Sales 0 0 0 2011-2013 Acquisitions 0 0 0 2011-2013 Extensions 0 0 0 2011-2013 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 2011-2013 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 2011-2013 Estimated Production 0 0 0 2011-2013

  10. New Mexico Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation 1,982 2,213 2,552 2,819 3,413 4,683 1979-2014 Adjustments 170 -103 20 -1 -151 171 1979-2014 Revision Increases 302 230 335 655 789 1,173 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 299 249 214 444 503 597 1979-2014 Sales 64 57 126 244 34 4 2000-2014 Acquisitions 66 319 163 70 29 56 2000-2014 Extensions 233 270 362 478 650 809 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 3 2 0 1 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 2 0 1 98 4 1979-2014 Estimated Production 181 181 204 250 284 343

  11. North Dakota Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation 1,070 1,717 2,511 3,869 5,990 6,742 1979-2014 Adjustments 47 0 -18 -37 -201 -52 1979-2014 Revision Increases 245 705 609 1,028 1,229 960 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 83 546 385 311 710 794 1979-2014 Sales 2 51 125 264 15 626 2000-2014 Acquisitions 1 128 186 228 430 363 2000-2014 Extensions 444 475 638 929 1,708 1,306 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 7 28 11 9 1 4 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 6 3 18 25 11 42 1979-2014 Estimated Production 79 95 140 249 332

  12. North Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation 73 98 82 179 192 1979-2014 Adjustments -15 33 33 -2 2 25 1979-2014 Revision Increases 6 10 12 11 87 60 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 9 6 5 13 8 65 1979-2014 Sales 2 6 51 1 0 2 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 51 0 31 12 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 2 1 1 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 2 1 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 7 12 15 13 16 18

  13. Ohio Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 97 90 74 223 314 208 1979-2014 Adjustments 2 -57 -12 123 -129 -35 1979-2014 Revision Increases 13 5 4 44 108 24 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 8 1 0 10 5 82 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 1 2000-2014 Acquisitions 1 54 0 0 0 7 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 7 134 4 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 1 1 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 5 6 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 10 8 8 20 24 24

  14. Oklahoma Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation ,092 1,309 2,254 3,696 4,530 6,961 1979-2014 Adjustments 172 -178 -23 -86 -28 98 1979-2014 Revision Increases 361 177 237 315 647 1,280 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 158 103 221 663 990 1,060 1979-2014 Sales 241 70 274 14 153 82 2000-2014 Acquisitions 67 90 61 319 186 352 2000-2014 Extensions 52 398 1,287 1,764 1,274 2,003 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 2 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 7 4 220 330 1979-2014 Estimated Production 119 97 129 197 324

  15. TX, RRC District 1 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 67 267 900 2,625 3,676 4,698 1979-2014 Adjustments -2 -15 -15 70 156 140 1979-2014 Revision Increases 4 29 119 335 488 702 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 3 16 64 215 172 397 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 10 5 82 42 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 6 9 12 126 65 2000-2014 Extensions 14 148 601 1,599 771 902 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 63 22 38 2 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 2 1 11 16 1979-2014 Estimated Production 6 15 31 110 249 36

  16. TX, RRC District 10 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 610 569 898 934 1,084 1,214 1979-2014 Adjustments 20 -20 -24 42 2 48 1979-2014 Revision Increases 89 97 293 84 219 219 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 49 193 41 310 384 310 1979-2014 Sales 8 0 40 0 13 41 2000-2014 Acquisitions 18 8 6 49 248 133 2000-2014 Extensions 106 124 204 261 159 206 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 18 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 48 57 69 90 99 125

  17. TX, RRC District 2 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation 72 134 924 1,999 2,292 2,722 1979-2014 Adjustments 15 -13 57 23 -56 44 1979-2014 Revision Increases 8 35 61 230 388 272 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 30 15 21 157 652 198 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 8 1 81 578 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 3 235 42 118 595 2000-2014 Extensions 11 67 440 1,022 769 515 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 12 1 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 86 53 23 114 1979-2014 Estimated Production 16 16 60 137 216 33

  18. TX, RRC District 3 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation 476 466 399 464 797 723 1979-2014 Adjustments -14 34 1 81 145 -256 1979-2014 Revision Increases 69 98 58 74 280 128 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 57 54 52 57 104 70 1979-2014 Sales 34 40 43 18 29 17 2000-2014 Acquisitions 57 11 6 30 60 62 2000-2014 Extensions 38 7 9 14 47 154 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 8 0 11 4 3 12 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 1 3 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 70 66 57 64 72 87

  19. TX, RRC District 4 Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation 96 91 61 99 63 191 1979-2014 Adjustments 5 -1 11 97 -42 -8 1979-2014 Revision Increases 14 14 25 24 35 38 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 32 13 23 30 24 16 1979-2014 Sales 0 1 34 50 11 1 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 1 4 4 2 114 2000-2014 Extensions 1 9 0 9 13 14 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 19 14 13 16 9 13

  20. TX, RRC District 5 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 21 8 40 53 177 185 1979-2014 Adjustments 43 -12 7 8 -16 -30 1979-2014 Revision Increases 7 2 31 3 196 29 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 65 2 2 23 40 4 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 4 0 0 14 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 4 20 0 41 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 10 2 1 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 4 1 4 5 18 15

  1. TX, RRC District 6 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 451 458 471 522 639 383 1979-2014 Adjustments 16 13 38 1 -53 28 1979-2014 Revision Increases 85 23 34 220 78 57 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 34 37 25 119 81 23 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 24 49 9 343 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 4 19 18 47 60 2000-2014 Extensions 23 37 0 29 173 42 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 1 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 51 33 30 49 38 77

  2. TX, RRC District 7B Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 02 121 133 180 227 277 1979-2014 Adjustments -3 39 -27 66 -59 44 1979-2014 Revision Increases 16 9 39 23 161 30 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 4 14 12 22 34 5 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 1 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 21 0 1 0 2000-2014 Extensions 37 0 6 0 0 4 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 2 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 12 15 15 19 24 2

  3. TX, RRC District 7C Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation ,706 1,930 2,379 3,076 3,401 4,659 1979-2014 Adjustments 13 41 -11 210 -78 218 1979-2014 Revision Increases 224 228 388 234 459 1,308 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 59 92 264 460 660 1,168 1979-2014 Sales 18 392 143 39 95 40 2000-2014 Acquisitions 56 338 301 84 133 296 2000-2014 Extensions 203 205 309 774 660 956 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 2 11 0 53 121 1 1979-2014 Estimated Production 97 115 131 159 215

  4. TX, RRC District 8 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 3,490 4,328 5,082 6,654 7,400 9,095 1979-2014 Adjustments 134 178 -357 339 148 58 1979-2014 Revision Increases 433 575 783 841 1,053 2,161 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 292 532 484 763 1,000 1,487 1979-2014 Sales 102 285 153 165 526 757 2000-2014 Acquisitions 119 805 485 686 545 770 2000-2014 Extensions 341 376 759 1,048 1,019 1,585 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 1 0 4 8 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 25 2 1 2 26 38 1979-2014 Estimated Production

  5. TX, RRC District 8A Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 246 1,170 1,258 1,260 1,315 1,304 1979-2014 Adjustments 76 -67 -12 13 12 2 1979-2014 Revision Increases 168 141 202 111 174 140 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 96 59 33 35 58 56 1979-2014 Sales 8 12 17 30 38 5 2000-2014 Acquisitions 17 4 34 25 43 6 2000-2014 Extensions 2 7 8 16 23 8 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 1 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 1 1 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 107 90 95 100 101 106

  6. TX, RRC District 9 Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 422 585 957 1,161 1,093 1,477 1979-2014 Adjustments -76 11 -48 -88 36 342 1979-2014 Revision Increases 16 199 61 53 76 106 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 18 10 8 21 314 5 1979-2014 Sales 6 2 17 5 6 2 2000-2014 Acquisitions 69 4 27 24 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 302 5 419 352 236 61 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 11 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 23 44 73 111 96 118

  7. TX, State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 3 3 5 6 3 0 1981-2014 Adjustments -1 18 -1 9 -3 -1 1981-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 5 2 0 1 1981-2014 Revision Decreases 1 21 1 2 0 3 1981-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 4 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2014 Estimated Production 0 1 1 8 0 0 1981

  8. Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 8,762 10,130 13,507 19,033 22,167 26,928 1981-2014 Adjustments 226 206 -381 871 192 629 1981-2014 Revision Increases 1,133 1,450 2,099 2,234 3,607 5,191 1981-2014 Revision Decreases 740 1,058 1,030 2,214 3,523 3,742 1981-2014 Sales 176 732 493 363 890 1,840 2000-2014 Acquisitions 336 1,188 1,151 994 1,323 2,142 2000-2014 Extensions 1,078 985 2,755 5,134 3,872 4,448 1981-2014 New Field Discoveries 21 64 49 51 5 12 1981-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 27 13 90 111 204

  9. Utah Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 601 631 909 1,001 895 872 1979-2014 Adjustments 4 -15 38 -22 -12 11 1979-2014 Revision Increases 190 117 190 106 53 327 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 2 61 48 55 213 378 1979-2014 Sales 4 0 6 11 173 24 2000-2014 Acquisitions 66 6 4 23 202 33 2000-2014 Extensions 59 20 150 102 95 84 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 2 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 33 37 50 51 58 78 1979

  10. Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 2008 2009 2010 2014 View History Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 Adjustments 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 1982-2014 Estimated Production 0 0 0 0 1982

  11. West Virginia Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation 24 29 52 21 70 32 1979-2014 Adjustments 8 -3 -1 -16 114 -29 1979-2014 Revision Increases 0 3 26 0 2 1 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 5 2 6 13 59 6 1979-2014 Sales 0 7 26 0 0 1 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 14 33 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 3 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 2 3 3 2 8 3

  12. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas New Field Discoveries, Wet After Lease

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Separation, 263 102 611 151 63 327 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 214 6 524 65 54 303 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 25 6 524 65 54 303 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 189 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2014 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 263 102 611 151 63 327 1979-2014 Alabama 0 2 2 0 0 0 1979-2014 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 California 0 0 0 4 0 0 1979-2014 Coastal Region Onshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Los Angeles Basin

  13. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields,

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Wet After Lease Separation 169 186 160 229 581 584 1979-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 122 150 42 80 12 7 1990-2014 Pacific (California) 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 81 138 42 29 12 7 1981-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 41 12 0 51 0 0 1981-2014 Alaska 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Lower 48 States 169 186 160 229 581 584 1979-2014 Alabama 0 0 0 0 0 14 1979-2014 Arkansas 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 California 0 0 0 1 2 2 1979-2014 Coastal Region Onshore 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Los

  14. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Reserves Sales, Wet After Lease Separation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    564 1,146 1,338 1,131 1,733 4,058 2000-2014 Federal Offshore U.S. 20 83 66 205 322 113 2000-2014 Pacific (California) 0 0 0 0 11 0 2000-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Louisiana & Alabama) 20 74 66 201 294 109 2000-2014 Gulf of Mexico (Texas) 0 9 0 4 17 4 2000-2014 Alaska 1 0 2 0 0 167 2000-2014 Lower 48 States 563 1,146 1,336 1,131 1,733 3,891 2000-2014 Alabama 0 2 9 0 0 0 2000-2014 Arkansas 5 0 38 0 0 9 2000-2014 California 4 1 1 0 76 1,079 2000-2014 Coastal Region Onshore 0 1 0 0 1 56 2000-2014 Los

  15. U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 3,383 35,746 42,823 53,156 58,490 69,117 1979-2014 Adjustments 877 -482 390 385 -649 1,396 1979-2014 Revision Increases 5,522 4,983 8,088 8,162 8,534 13,264 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 2,698 3,964 5,953 6,250 9,821 10,160 1979-2014 Sales 564 1,146 1,338 1,131 1,733 4,058 2000-2014 Acquisitions 678 2,469 1,884 2,150 2,843 4,589 2000-2014 Extensions 2,669 2,660 5,957 10,030 9,630 9,962 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 263 102 611 151 63 327 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old

  16. CA, Los Angeles Basin Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation 91 92 102 98 90 84 1979-2014 Adjustments 4 3 6 12 -9 10 1979-2014 Revision Increases 38 9 12 9 9 6 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 25 5 4 18 3 17 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 37 6 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 3 0 37 8 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 2 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 7 6 7 7 7 7

  17. CA, State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 63 79 65 75 76 1979-2014 Adjustments 2 0 1 0 3 2 1979-2014 Revision Increases 2 11 9 0 12 4 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 3 0 0 14 2 1 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 1 0 0 13 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 8 0 0 13 2000-2014 Extensions 2 3 3 4 0 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 2 2 1979-2014 Estimated Production 4 4 4 4 5 6

  18. Colorado Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 1,882 2,371 2,518 3,448 4,280 5,482 1979-2014 Adjustments 14 68 -38 -32 35 118 1979-2014 Revision Increases 11 142 122 514 332 1,317 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 185 71 269 243 291 262 1979-2014 Sales 9 2 19 1 5 36 2000-2014 Acquisitions 10 160 5 169 184 30 2000-2014 Extensions 165 318 506 717 811 339 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 6 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 134 126 160 200 234 304

  19. Federal Offshore U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 5,223 5,204 5,446 5,864 5,530 5,334 1990-2014 Adjustments 12 -14 -22 -165 -73 138 1990-2014 Revision Increases 854 1,028 1,583 1,894 829 1,701 1990-2014 Revision Decreases 517 879 1,393 1,242 830 1,794 1990-2014 Sales 20 83 66 205 322 113 2000-2014 Acquisitions 21 250 56 297 315 83 2000-2014 Extensions 90 87 32 229 243 94 1990-2014 New Field Discoveries 214 6 524 65 54 303 1990-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 122 150 42 80 12 7 1990-2014 Estimated

  20. Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease Separation 629 689 539 854 973 838 1981-2014 Adjustments 4 -1 0 -20 7 2 1981-2014 Revision Increases 90 98 134 389 200 870 1981-2014 Revision Decreases 68 33 223 88 83 890 1981-2014 Sales 0 9 0 4 17 4 2000-2014 Acquisitions 9 28 7 6 41 3 2000-2014 Extensions 0 33 0 83 77 14 1981-2014 New Field Discoveries 189 0 0 0 0 0 1981-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 41 12 0 51 0 0 1981-2014 Estimated Production 101 68 68 102 106 130

  1. Florida Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 7 30 2 0 1 0 1979-2014 Adjustments 6 31 -28 -2 1 -2 1979-2014 Revision Increases 0 0 0 0 0 39 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 0 0 0 0 0 38 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 0 8 0 0 0 0

  2. Kansas Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 83 79 127 326 433 657 1979-2014 Adjustments -5 -2 -4 81 -106 -6 1979-2014 Revision Increases 21 18 20 41 35 95 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 9 15 9 50 68 129 1979-2014 Sales 0 1 1 1 2 7 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 3 1 0 23 23 2000-2014 Extensions 1 3 53 153 257 282 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 1 0 5 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 10 11 12 30 32 34

  3. Kentucky Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 32 111 98 93 44 49 1979-2014 Adjustments 0 2 0 -2 1 0 1979-2014 Revision Increases 2 70 5 1 1 11 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 4 0 17 3 50 4 1979-2014 Sales 0 0 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Acquisitions 0 8 0 0 0 0 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 0 1 1 1 1 2

  4. LA, South Onshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 506 499 490 563 603 648 1979-2014 Adjustments 75 37 -16 97 -16 95 1979-2014 Revision Increases 72 111 190 87 80 65 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 115 142 132 135 131 135 1979-2014 Sales 14 17 29 18 4 36 2000-2014 Acquisitions 14 48 25 13 31 62 2000-2014 Extensions 67 26 26 104 141 58 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 1 0 2 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 1 2 2 1 14 13 1979-2014 Estimated Production 65 72 75 77 75 79

  5. LA, State Offshore Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    After Lease Separation 13 107 51 128 88 68 1981-2014 Adjustments -1 -352 -56 64 -25 -21 1981-2014 Revision Increases 38 23 23 61 16 9 1981-2014 Revision Decreases 175 23 7 48 30 12 1981-2014 Sales 0 65 10 0 0 3 2000-2014 Acquisitions 4 21 0 9 0 18 2000-2014 Extensions 0 0 3 8 13 0 1981-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 0 0 1 1981-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 2 14 0 0 0 0 1981-2014 Estimated Production 41 24 9 17 14 12 1981

  6. Louisiana Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 1,072 679 639 773 870 908 1981-2014 Adjustments 59 -282 -39 159 -39 99 1981-2014 Revision Increases 116 144 225 159 183 134 1981-2014 Revision Decreases 299 171 144 196 169 212 1981-2014 Sales 16 88 90 19 4 41 2000-2014 Acquisitions 18 69 76 22 62 92 2000-2014 Extensions 67 26 29 114 155 59 1981-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 0 0 1 0 3 1981-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 5 17 2 1 14 13 1981-2014 Estimated Production 113 108 99 107 105 109 1981

  7. Lower 48 States Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Lease Separation 25,290 27,850 34,288 44,484 52,062 63,266 1979-2014 Adjustments 876 -481 391 387 -650 1,397 1979-2014 Revision Increases 3,826 4,747 7,245 7,667 8,496 13,085 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 2,693 3,704 5,874 6,052 7,701 9,607 1979-2014 Sales 563 1,146 1,336 1,131 1,733 3,891 2000-2014 Acquisitions 678 2,469 1,833 2,150 2,842 4,428 2000-2014 Extensions 2,669 2,658 5,954 10,016 9,613 9,954 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 263 102 611 151 63 327 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries

  8. ,"U.S. Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,"Next Release Date:","12312016" ,"Excel File Name:","ngenradngdcunusa.xls" ...28,,,857,248,634,2886 35246,30795,164,3234,2013,,,991,222,338,2938 35611,32382,262,4925,32...

  9. Wyoming Associated-Dissolved Natural Gas Proved Reserves, Wet After Lease

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Separation 362 334 318 706 802 1,280 1979-2014 Adjustments 35 -4 8 103 -68 187 1979-2014 Revision Increases 157 44 60 62 103 58 1979-2014 Revision Decreases 30 81 99 61 173 153 1979-2014 Sales 9 17 17 4 55 25 2000-2014 Acquisitions 19 54 21 17 19 97 2000-2014 Extensions 5 14 45 323 324 434 1979-2014 New Field Discoveries 0 1 0 0 0 0 1979-2014 New Reservoir Discoveries in Old Fields 0 0 0 0 11 0 1979-2014 Estimated Production 38 39 34 52 65 120

  10. Spectroscopic and thermodynamic properties of molecular hydrogen dissolved in water at pressures up to 200 MPa

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borysow, Jacek Rosso, Leonardo del; Celli, Milva; Ulivi, Lorenzo; Moraldi, Massimo

    2014-04-28

    We have measured the Raman Q-branch of hydrogen in a solution with water at a temperature of about 280 K and at pressures from 20 to 200 MPa. From a least-mean-square fitting analysis of the broad Raman Q-branch, we isolated the contributions from the four lowest individual roto-vibrational lines. The vibrational lines were narrower than the pure rotational Raman lines of hydrogen dissolved in water measured previously, but significantly larger than in the gas. The separations between these lines were found to be significantly smaller than in gaseous hydrogen and their widths were slightly increasing with pressure. The lines were narrowing with increasing rotational quantum number. The Raman frequencies of all roto-vibrational lines were approaching the values of gas phase hydrogen with increasing pressure. Additionally, from the comparison of the integrated intensity signal of Q-branch of hydrogen to the integrated Raman signal of the water bending mode, we have obtained the concentration of hydrogen in a solution with water along the 280 K isotherm. Hydrogen solubility increases slowly with pressure, and no deviation from a smooth behaviour was observed, even reaching thermodynamic conditions very close to the transition to the stable hydrogen hydrate. The analysis of the relative hydrogen concentration in solution on the basis of a simple thermodynamic model has allowed us to obtain the molar volume for the hydrogen gas/water solution. Interestingly, the volume relative to one hydrogen molecule in solution does not decrease with pressure and, at high pressure, is larger than the volume pertinent to one molecule of water. This is in favour of the theory of hydrophobic solvation, for which a larger and more stable structure of the water molecules is expected around a solute molecule.

  11. Exhaust gas clean up process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Richard J. (McMurray, PA)

    1989-01-01

    A method of cleaning an exhaust gas containing particulates, SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x includes prescrubbing with water to remove HCl and most of the particulates, scrubbing with an aqueous absorbent containing a metal chelate and dissolved sulfite salt to remove NO.sub.x and SO.sub.2, and regenerating the absorbent solution by controlled heating, electrodialysis and carbonate salt addition. The NO.sub.x is removed as N.sub.2 or nitrogen-sulfonate ions and the oxides of sulfur are removed as a vaulable sulfate salt.

  12. Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on CO{sub 2}

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Analysis (Conference) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Conference: Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on CO{sub 2} Analysis Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on CO{sub 2} Analysis Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is commonly measured in water and is an important parameter for understanding carbonate equilibrium, carbon cycling, and water-rock interaction. While accurate measurements

  13. Measurements of gas sorption from seawater and the influence of gas release on open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) system performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Penney, T.R.; Althof, J.A.

    1985-06-01

    The technical community has questioned the validity and cost-effectiveness of open-cycle ocean thermal energy conversion (OC-OTEC) systems because of the unknown effect of noncondensable gas on heat exchanger performance and the power needed to run vacuum equipment to remove this gas. To date, studies of seawater gas desorption have not been prototypical for system level analysis. This study gives preliminary gas desorption data on a vertical spout, direct contact evaporator and multiple condenser geometries. Results indicate that dissolved gas can be substantially removed before the seawater enters the heat exchange process, reducing the uncertainty and effect of inert gas on heat exchanger performance.

  14. Oklahoma Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    24,207 28,182 29,937 28,714 28,900 34,319 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 23,115 26,873 27,683 25,018 24,370 27,358 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 1,092 1,309 2,254 3,696 4,530 6,961 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 22,769 26,345 27,830 26,599 26,873 31,778 1977-2014 Natural Gas Liquids (Million Barrels) 1979-2008

  15. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,018 14,068 26,719 36,543 50,078 60,443 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 6,885 13,924 26,585 36,418 49,809 60,144 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 133 144 134 125 269 299 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 6,985 13,960 26,529 36,348 49,674 59,873 1977-2014 Natural Gas Liquids (Million Barrels) 1979-1981

  16. Texas Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    85,034 94,287 104,454 93,475 97,921 105,955 1981-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 76,272 84,157 90,947 74,442 75,754 79,027 1981-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 8,762 10,130 13,507 19,033 22,167 26,928 1981-2014 Dry Natural Gas 80,424 88,997 98,165 86,924 90,349 97,154 1981-2014 Natural Gas Liquids (Million Barrels) 1981

  17. Utah Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,411 7,146 8,108 7,775 7,057 6,970 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 6,810 6,515 7,199 6,774 6,162 6,098 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 601 631 909 1,001 895 872 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 7,257 6,981 7,857 7,548 6,829 6,685 1977-2014 Natural Gas Liquids (Million Barrels) 1979

  18. Louisiana Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    0,970 29,517 30,545 22,135 20,389 23,258 1981-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 19,898 28,838 29,906 21,362 19,519 22,350 1981-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 1,072 679 639 773 870 908 1981-2014 Dry Natural Gas 20,688 29,277 30,358 21,949 20,164 22,975 1981-2014 Natural Gas Liquids (Million Barrels) 1981

  19. Freeze drying for gas chromatography stationary phase deposition

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sylwester, Alan P. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-01-02

    The present disclosure relates to methods for deposition of gas chromatography (GC) stationary phases into chromatography columns, for example gas chromatography columns. A chromatographic medium is dissolved or suspended in a solvent to form a composition. The composition may be inserted into a chromatographic column. Alternatively, portions of the chromatographic column may be exposed or filled with the composition. The composition is permitted to solidify, and at least a portion of the solvent is removed by vacuum sublimation.

  20. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye Z. [Newton, MA

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  1. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, Arye (Newton, MA)

    1988-01-01

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing.

  2. Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  3. Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Colorado Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  4. Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nebraska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  5. Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Missouri Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  6. Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Michigan Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  7. Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Kentucky Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  8. Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Tennessee Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  9. Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Pennsylvania Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  10. Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Mississippi Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  11. Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oklahoma Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  12. Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Illinois Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  13. Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Arkansas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  14. Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Maryland Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  15. Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Louisiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  16. Dissolved oxygen and pH relationships in northern Australian mangrove waterways

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boto, K.G.; Bunt, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    Consistent, highly significant linear correlations (R2 greater than or equal to 0.8) between pH and dissolved oxygen levels have been found in northern Australian mangrove waterways. These properties seem to be influenced by dissolved organic matter, mainly polyphenolic compounds, present in the creeks and tidal channel waters.

  17. Process automation using combinations of process and machine control technologies with application to a continuous dissolver

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, B.B.: Yarbro, O.O.

    1991-01-01

    Operation of a continuous rotary dissolver, designed to leach uranium-plutonium fuel from chopped sections of reactor fuel cladding using nitric acid, has been automated. The dissolver is a partly continuous, partly batch process that interfaces at both ends with batchwise processes, thereby requiring synchronization of certain operations. Liquid acid is fed and flows through the dissolver continuously, whereas chopped fuel elements are fed to the dissolver in small batches and move through the compartments of the dissolver stagewise. Sequential logic (or machine control) techniques are used to control discrete activities such as the sequencing of isolation valves. Feedback control is used to control acid flowrates and temperatures. Expert systems technology is used for on-line material balances and diagnostics of process operation. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  18. Slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Aines, Roger D.; Bourcier, William L.; Viani, Brian

    2013-01-29

    A slurried solid media for simultaneous water purification and carbon dioxide removal from gas mixtures includes the steps of dissolving the gas mixture and carbon dioxide in water providing a gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture; adding a porous solid media to the gas, carbon dioxide, water mixture forming a slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media; heating the slurry of gas, carbon dioxide, water, and porous solid media producing steam; and cooling the steam to produce purified water and carbon dioxide.

  19. Regulatory approaches for addressing dissolved oxygen concerns at hydropower facilities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peterson, Mark J.; Cada, Glenn F.; Sale, Michael J.; Eddlemon, Gerald K.

    2003-03-01

    Low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are a common water quality problem downstream of hydropower facilities. At some facilities, structural improvements (e.g. installation of weir dams or aerating turbines) or operational changes (e.g., spilling water over the dam) can be made to improve DO levels. In other cases, structural and operational approaches are too costly for the project to implement or are likely to be of limited effectiveness. Despite improvements in overall water quality below dams in recent years, many hydropower projects are unable to meet state water quality standards for DO. Regulatory agencies in the U.S. are considering or implementing dramatic changes in their approach to protecting the quality of the Nation’s waters. New policies and initiatives have emphasized flexibility, increased collaboration and shared responsibility among all parties, and market-based, economic incentives. The use of new regulatory approaches may now be a viable option for addressing the DO problem at some hydropower facilities. This report summarizes some of the regulatory-related options available to hydropower projects, including negotiation of site-specific water quality criteria, use of biological monitoring, watershed-based strategies for the management of water quality, and watershed-based trading. Key decision points center on the health of the local biological communities and whether there are contributing impacts (i.e., other sources of low DO effluents) in the watershed. If the biological communities downstream of the hydropower project are healthy, negotiation for site-specific water quality standards or biocriteria (discharge performance criteria based on characteristics of the aquatic biota) might be pursued. If there are other effluent dischargers in the watershed that contribute to low DO problems, watershed-scale strategies and effluent trading may be effective. This report examines the value of regulatory approaches by reviewing their use in other

  20. Molecular simulation of a model of dissolved organic matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sutton, Rebecca; Sposito, Garrison; Diallo, Mamadou S.; Schulten,Hans-Rolf

    2004-11-08

    A series of atomistic simulations was performed to assess the ability of the Schulten dissolved organic matter (DOM) molecule, a well-established model humic molecule, to reproduce the physical and chemical behavior of natural humic substances. The unhydrated DOM molecule had a bulk density value appropriate to humic matter, but its Hildebrand solubility parameter was lower than the range of current experimental estimates. Under hydrated conditions, the DOM molecule went through conformational adjustments that resulted in disruption of intramolecular hydrogen bonds (H-bonds), although few water molecules penetrated the organic interior. The radius of gyration of the hydrated DOM molecule was similar to those measured for aquatic humic substances. To simulate humic materials under aqueous conditions with varying pH levels, carboxyl groups were deprotonated, and hydrated Na{sup +} or Ca{sup 2+} were added to balance the resulting negative charge. Because of intrusion of the cation hydrates, the model metal- humic structures were more porous, had greater solvent-accessible surface areas, and formed more H-bonds with water than the protonated, hydrated DOM molecule. Relative to Na{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+} was both more strongly bound to carboxylate groups and more fully hydrated. This difference was attributed to the higher charge of the divalent cation. The Ca-DOM hydrate, however, featured fewer H-bonds than the Na-DOM hydrate, perhaps because of the reduced orientational freedom of organic moieties and water molecules imposed by Ca{sup 2+}. The present work is, to our knowledge, the first rigorous computational exploration regarding the behavior of a model humic molecule under a range of physical conditions typical of soil and water systems.

  1. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.Z.

    1990-12-25

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  2. Gas separating

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gollan, A.

    1988-03-29

    Feed gas is directed tangentially along the non-skin surface of gas separation membrane modules comprising a cylindrical bundle of parallel contiguous hollow fibers supported to allow feed gas to flow from an inlet at one end of a cylindrical housing through the bores of the bundled fibers to an outlet at the other end while a component of the feed gas permeates through the fibers, each having the skin side on the outside, through a permeate outlet in the cylindrical casing. 3 figs.

  3. Alabama Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,948 2,724 2,570 2,304 1,670 2,121 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,919 2,686 2,522 2,204 1,624 1,980 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 29 38 48 100 46 141 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,871 2,629 2,475 2,228 1,597 2,036

  4. Alaska Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    9,183 8,917 9,511 9,667 7,383 6,805 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 1,090 1,021 976 995 955 954 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 8,093 7,896 8,535 8,672 6,428 5,851 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 9,101 8,838 9,424 9,579 7,316 6,745

  5. Arkansas Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    10,872 14,181 16,374 11,039 13,524 12,795 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 10,852 14,152 16,328 10,957 13,389 12,606 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 20 29 46 82 135 189 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 10,869 14,178 16,370 11,035 13,518 12,789

  6. Michigan Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,805 2,975 2,549 1,781 1,839 1,873 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,728 2,903 2,472 1,687 1,714 1,765 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 77 72 77 94 125 108 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,763 2,919 2,505 1,750 1,807 1,845

  7. NM, East Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,558 4,720 4,884 4,833 5,108 6,434 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,658 2,612 2,475 2,156 1,832 1,977 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 1,900 2,108 2,409 2,677 3,276 4,457 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 4,141 4,226 4,379 4,386 4,633 5,799

  8. North Dakota Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,213 1,869 2,652 3,974 6,081 6,787 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 143 152 141 105 91 45 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 1,070 1,717 2,511 3,869 5,990 6,742 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 1,079 1,667 2,381 3,569 5,420 6,034

  9. North Louisiana Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    17,273 26,136 27,411 18,467 17,112 19,837 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 17,220 26,063 27,313 18,385 16,933 19,645 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 53 73 98 82 179 192 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 17,143 26,030 27,337 18,418 17,044 19,722

  10. Virginia Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,091 3,215 2,832 2,579 2,373 2,800 1982-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 3,091 3,215 2,832 2,579 2,373 2,800 1982-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 0 0 0 1982-2014 Dry Natural Gas 3,091 3,215 2,832 2,579 2,373 2,800 1982-2014

  11. California Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    ,926 2,785 3,042 2,119 2,023 2,260 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 612 503 510 272 247 273 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 2,314 2,282 2,532 1,847 1,776 1,987 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,773 2,647 2,934 1,999 1,887 2,107

  12. Colorado Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    4,081 25,372 26,151 21,674 23,533 21,992 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 22,199 23,001 23,633 18,226 19,253 16,510 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 1,882 2,371 2,518 3,448 4,280 5,482 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 23,058 24,119 24,821 20,666 22,381 20,851

  13. Kansas Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    3,500 3,937 3,747 3,557 3,772 4,606 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 3,417 3,858 3,620 3,231 3,339 3,949 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 83 79 127 326 433 657 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 3,279 3,673 3,486 3,308 3,592 4,359

  14. Kentucky Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,919 2,785 2,128 1,515 1,794 1,753 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,887 2,674 2,030 1,422 1,750 1,704 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 32 111 98 93 44 49 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,782 2,613 2,006 1,408 1,663 1,611

  15. West Virginia Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    6,090 7,163 10,532 14,881 23,209 31,153 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 6,066 7,134 10,480 14,860 23,139 31,121 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 24 29 52 21 70 32 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 5,946 7,000 10,345 14,611 22,765 29,432

  16. Wyoming Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    36,748 36,526 36,930 31,636 34,576 28,787 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 36,386 36,192 36,612 30,930 33,774 27,507 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 362 334 318 706 802 1,280 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 35,283 35,074 35,290 30,094 33,618 27,553

  17. Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    release experiment (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled release experiment Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effect of dissolved CO2 on a shallow groundwater system: A controlled release experiment Authors: Trautz, R. C. ; Pugh, J. D. ; Varadharajan, C. ; Zheng, L. ; Bianchi, M. ; Nico, P. S. ; Spycher, N. F. ; Newell, D. L. ; Esposito, R. A. ; Wu, Y. ; Dafflon, B. ; Hubbard, S. S. ; Birkholzer, J. T. Publication

  18. Method of Determining the Extent to which a Nickel Structure has been Attached by a Fluorine-Containing Gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusie, James P.

    2004-07-13

    The method of determining the extent to which a nickel structure has been attacked by a halogen containing gas to which it has been exposed which comprises preparing a quantity of water substantially free from dissolved oxygen, passing ammonia gas through a cuprammonium solution to produce ammonia substantially free from oxygen, dissolving said oxygen-free ammonia in said water to produce a saturated aqueous ammonia solution free from uncombined oxygen, treating at least a portion of said nickel structure of predetermined weight with said solution to dissolve nickel compounds from the surface of said structure without dissolving an appreciable amount of said nickel and analyzing the resulting solution to determine the quantity of said nickel compounds that was associated with said said portion of said structure to determine the proportion of combined nickel in said nickel structure.

  19. Method of determining the extent to which a nickel structure has been attached by a fluorine-containing gas

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brusie, James P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    2004-07-13

    The method of determining the extent to which a nickel structure has been attacked by a halogen containing gas to which it has been exposed which comprises preparing a quantity of water substantially free from dissolved oxygen, passing ammonia gas through a cuprammonium solution to produce ammonia substantially free from oxygen, dissolving said oxygen-free ammonia in said water to produce a saturated aqueous ammonia solution free from uncombined oxygen, treating at least a portion of said nickel structure of predetermined weight with said solution to dissolve nickel compounds from the surface of said structure without dissolving an appreciable amount of said nickel and analyzing the resulting solution to determine the quantity of said nickel compounds that was associated with said said portion of said structure to determine the proportion of combined nickel in said nickel structure.

  20. COAL CLEANING BY GAS AGGLOMERATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    T.D. Wheelock

    1999-03-01

    The technical feasibility of a gas agglomeration method for cleaning coal was demonstrated by means of bench-scale tests conducted with a mixing system which enabled the treatment of ultra-fine coal particles with a colloidal suspension of microscopic gas bubbles in water. A suitable suspension of microbubbles was prepared by first saturating water with air or carbon dioxide under pressure then reducing the pressure to release the dissolved gas. The formation of microbubbles was facilitated by agitation and a small amount of i-octane. When the suspension of microbubbles and coal particles was mixed, agglomeration was rapid and small spherical agglomerates were produced. Since the agglomerates floated, they were separated from the nonfloating tailings in a settling chamber. By employing this process in numerous agglomeration tests of moderately hydrophobic coals with 26 wt.% ash, it was shown that the ash content would be reduced to 6--7 wt.% while achieving a coal recovery of 75 to 85% on a dry, ash-free basis. This was accomplished by employing a solids concentration of 3 to 5 w/w%, an air saturation pressure of 136 to 205 kPa (5 to 15 psig), and an i-octane concentration of 1.0 v/w% based on the weight of coal.

  1. Morphology of Gas Release in Physical Simulants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Daniel, Richard C.; Burns, Carolyn A.; Crawford, Amanda D.; Hylden, Laura R.; Bryan, Samuel A.; MacFarlan, Paul J.; Gauglitz, Phillip A.

    2014-07-03

    This report documents testing activities conducted as part of the Deep Sludge Gas Release Event Project (DSGREP). The testing described in this report focused on evaluating the potential retention and release mechanisms of hydrogen bubbles in underground radioactive waste storage tanks at Hanford. The goal of the testing was to evaluate the rate, extent, and morphology of gas release events in simulant materials. Previous, undocumented scoping tests have evidenced dramatically different gas release behavior from simulants with similar physical properties. Specifically, previous gas release tests have evaluated the extent of release of 30 Pa kaolin and 30 Pa bentonite clay slurries. While both materials are clays and both have equivalent material shear strength using a shear vane, it was found that upon stirring, gas was released immediately and completely from bentonite clay slurry while little if any gas was released from the kaolin slurry. The motivation for the current work is to replicate these tests in a controlled quality test environment and to evaluate the release behavior for another simulant used in DSGREP testing. Three simulant materials were evaluated: 1) a 30 Pa kaolin clay slurry, 2) a 30 Pa bentonite clay slurry, and 3) Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) Simulant (a simulant designed to support DSGREP RT instability testing. Entrained gas was generated in these simulant materials using two methods: 1) application of vacuum over about a 1-minute period to nucleate dissolved gas within the simulant and 2) addition of hydrogen peroxide to generate gas by peroxide decomposition in the simulants over about a 16-hour period. Bubble release was effected by vibrating the test material using an external vibrating table. When testing with hydrogen peroxide, gas release was also accomplished by stirring of the simulant.

  2. Apparatus and method for excluding gas from a liquid

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Murphy, Jr., Robert J. (Bellaire, TX)

    1985-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an apparatus and method for preventing diffusion of a gas under high pressure into the bulk of a liquid filling a substantially closed chamber. This apparatus and method is particularly useful in connection with test devices for testing fluid characteristics under harsh conditions of extremely high pressure and high temperature. These devices typically pressurize the liquid by placing the liquid in pressure and fluid communication with a high pressure inert gas. The apparatus and method of the present invention prevent diffusion of the pressurizing gas into the bulk of the test liquid by decreasing the chamber volume at a rate sufficient to maintain the bulk of the liquid free of absorbed or dissolved gas by expelling that portion of the liquid which is contaminated by the pressurizing gas.

  3. Gas sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schmid, Andreas K.; Mascaraque, Arantzazu; Santos, Benito; de la Figuera, Juan

    2014-09-09

    A gas sensor is described which incorporates a sensor stack comprising a first film layer of a ferromagnetic material, a spacer layer, and a second film layer of the ferromagnetic material. The first film layer is fabricated so that it exhibits a dependence of its magnetic anisotropy direction on the presence of a gas, That is, the orientation of the easy axis of magnetization will flip from out-of-plane to in-plane when the gas to be detected is present in sufficient concentration. By monitoring the change in resistance of the sensor stack when the orientation of the first layer's magnetization changes, and correlating that change with temperature one can determine both the identity and relative concentration of the detected gas. In one embodiment the stack sensor comprises a top ferromagnetic layer two mono layers thick of cobalt deposited upon a spacer layer of ruthenium, which in turn has a second layer of cobalt disposed on its other side, this second cobalt layer in contact with a programmable heater chip.

  4. Dissolution of Danazol Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Supersaturation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sponsoring Org: USDOE Office of Science (SC) Country of Publication: United States Language: ENGLISH Word Cloud More Like This Full Text Journal Articles DOI: 10.1021...

  5. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, Stuart K. (Denver, CO); Hames, Bonnie R. (Westminster, CO); Myers, Michele D. (Dacono, CO)

    1998-01-01

    A method for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  6. Method of separating lignocellulosic material into lignin, cellulose and dissolved sugars

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Black, S.K.; Hames, B.R.; Myers, M.D.

    1998-03-24

    A method is described for separating lignocellulosic material into (a) lignin, (b) cellulose, and (c) hemicellulose and dissolved sugars. Wood or herbaceous biomass is digested at elevated temperature in a single-phase mixture of alcohol, water and a water-immiscible organic solvent (e.g., a ketone). After digestion, the amount of water or organic solvent is adjusted so that there is phase separation. The lignin is present in the organic solvent, the cellulose is present in a solid pulp phase, and the aqueous phase includes hemicellulose and any dissolved sugars.

  7. U.S. Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    283,879 317,647 348,809 322,670 353,994 388,841 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 250,496 281,901 305,986 269,514 295,504 319,724 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 33,383 35,746 42,823 53,156 58,490 69,117 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 272,509 304,625 334,067 308,036 338,264 368,704 1925-2014 Natural Gas Liquids (Million Barrels) 1979

  8. U.S. Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    283,879 317,647 348,809 322,670 353,994 388,841 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 250,496 281,901 305,986 269,514 295,504 319,724 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 33,383 35,746 42,823 53,156 58,490 69,117 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 272,509 304,625 334,067 308,036 338,264 368,704 1925-2014 Natural Gas Liquids (Million Barrels) 1979

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    natural gas demand, thereby contributing to larger net injections of natural gas into storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases The Natural Gas Annual 2006: The Energy...

  10. NETL: Natural Gas Resources

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Resources Useful for heating, manufacturing, and as chemical feedstock, natural gas has the added benefit of producing fewer greenhouse gas emissions than other fossil...

  11. Natural Gas Applications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas Applications. If you need assistance viewing this page, please call (202) 586-8800. Energy Information Administration Home Page Home > Natural Gas > Natural Gas Applications...

  12. Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves as of Dec. 31

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Million Barrels) Data Series: Wet NG Wet Nonassociated NG Wet Associated-Dissolved NG Dry Natural Gas Natural Gas Liquids Period: Annual Download Series History Download Series History Definitions, Sources & Notes Definitions, Sources & Notes Show Data By: Data Series Area 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 View History U.S. 7,459 7,928 8,165 8,472 9,143 9,275 1979-2008 Federal Offshore U.S. 725 721 696 653 624 548 1981-2008 Pacific (California) 8 8 8 4 4 1 1979-2008 Gulf of Mexico 717 713

  13. Natural Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear Energy Nuclear

  14. ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures"

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Census Division, 1999" ,"Natural Gas Consumption",,,"Natural Gas Expenditures" ,"per Building (thousand cubic feet)","per Square Foot (cubic feet)","per Worker (thousand cubic...

  15. Method of dissolving metal oxides with di- or polyphosphonic acid and a redundant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Horwitz, Earl P. (Argonne, IL); Chiarizia, Renato (Argonne, IL)

    1996-01-01

    A method of dissolving metal oxides using a mixture of a di- or polyphosphonic acid and a reductant wherein each is present in a sufficient amount to provide a synergistic effect with respect to the dissolution of metal oxides and optionally containing corrosion inhibitors and pH adjusting agents.

  16. Natural Gas Basics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    NREL Clean Cities

    2010-04-01

    Fact sheet answers questions about natural gas production and use in transportation. Natural gas vehicles are also described.

  17. Recovery of tritium dissolved in sodium at the steam generator of fast breeder reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Oya, Y.; Oda, T.; Tanaka, S.; Okuno, K.

    2008-07-15

    The tritium recovery technique in steam generators for fast breeder reactors using the double pipe concept was proposed. The experimental system for developing an effective tritium recovery technique was developed and tritium recovery experiments using Ar gas or Ar gas with 10-10000 ppm oxygen gas were performed using D{sub 2} gas instead of tritium gas. It was found that deuterium permeation through two membranes decreased by installing the double pipe concept with Ar gas. By introducing Ar gas with 10000 ppm oxygen gas, the concentration of deuterium permeation through two membranes decreased by more than 1/200, compared with the one pipe concept, indicating that most of the deuterium was scavenged by Ar gas or reacted with oxygen to form a hydroxide. However, most of the hydroxide was trapped at the surface of the membranes because of the short duration of the experiment. (authors)

  18. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  19. Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources Natural Gas Regulation - Other Gas-Related Information Sources The single largest source of energy information...

  20. TX, RRC District 1 Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    523 2,599 6,127 9,141 8,118 12,431 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 1,456 2,332 5,227 6,516 4,442 7,733 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 67 267 900 2,625 3,676 4,698 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 1,398 2,399 5,910 8,868 7,784 11,945

  1. TX, RRC District 10 Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,594 8,484 8,373 8,007 7,744 8,354 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 6,984 7,915 7,475 7,073 6,660 7,140 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 610 569 898 934 1,084 1,214 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 6,882 7,663 7,513 7,253 7,034 7,454

  2. TX, RRC District 2 Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    909 2,235 3,690 5,985 6,640 7,524 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 1,837 2,101 2,766 3,986 4,348 4,802 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 72 134 924 1,999 2,292 2,722 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 1,800 2,090 3,423 5,462 5,910 6,559

  3. TX, RRC District 3 Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,802 2,774 2,490 2,429 2,592 2,483 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,326 2,308 2,091 1,965 1,795 1,760 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 476 466 399 464 797 723 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,616 2,588 2,260 2,154 2,307 2,19

  4. TX, RRC District 4 Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,057 7,392 10,054 9,566 11,101 12,482 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 6,961 7,301 9,993 9,467 11,038 12,291 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 96 91 61 99 63 191 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 6,728 7,014 9,458 8,743 9,640 11,057

  5. TX, RRC District 5 Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    22,623 24,694 28,187 17,640 19,531 18,155 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 22,602 24,686 28,147 17,587 19,354 17,970 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 21 8 40 53 177 185 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 22,343 24,363 27,843 17,331 19,280 17,880

  6. TX, RRC District 6 Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    13,257 15,416 15,995 11,726 12,192 12,023 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 12,806 14,958 15,524 11,204 11,553 11,640 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 451 458 471 522 639 383 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 12,795 14,886 15,480 11,340 11,655 11,516

  7. TX, RRC District 7B Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,424 2,625 3,887 3,363 3,267 2,695 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,322 2,504 3,754 3,183 3,040 2,418 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 102 121 133 180 227 277 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,077 2,242 3,305 2,943 2,787 2,290

  8. TX, RRC District 7C Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    5,430 5,432 5,236 5,599 5,584 7,103 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 3,724 3,502 2,857 2,523 2,183 2,444 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 1,706 1,930 2,379 3,076 3,401 4,659 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 4,827 4,787 4,475 4,890 4,800 6,422

  9. TX, RRC District 8 Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7,440 8,105 8,088 8,963 9,715 11,575 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 3,950 3,777 3,006 2,309 2,315 2,480 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 3,490 4,328 5,082 6,654 7,400 9,095 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 6,672 7,206 7,039 7,738 8,629 9,742

  10. TX, RRC District 8A Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    1,289 1,228 1,289 1,280 1,338 1,328 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 43 58 31 20 23 24 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 1,246 1,170 1,258 1,260 1,315 1,304 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 1,218 1,164 1,226 1,214 1,269 1,257

  11. TX, RRC District 9 Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    11,522 13,172 10,920 9,682 10,040 9,760 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 11,100 12,587 9,963 8,521 8,947 8,283 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 422 585 957 1,161 1,093 1,477 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 10,904 12,464 10,115 8,894 9,195 8,791

  12. CA, San Joaquin Basin Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,609 2,447 2,685 1,650 1,574 1,823 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 607 498 506 269 245 265 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 2,002 1,949 2,179 1,381 1,329 1,558 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,469 2,321 2,590 1,550 1,460 1,69

  13. Federal Offshore U.S. Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,856 12,120 10,820 9,853 8,567 8,968 1990-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 7,633 6,916 5,374 3,989 3,037 3,634 1990-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 5,223 5,204 5,446 5,864 5,530 5,334 1990-2014 Dry Natural Gas 12,552 11,765 10,420 9,392 8,193 8,527 1990

  14. Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Louisiana & Alabama Natural Gas Reserves

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Summary as of Dec. 31 9,665 9,250 8,555 7,704 6,795 7,280 1981-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 5,802 5,457 4,359 3,346 2,502 3,027 1981-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 3,863 3,793 4,196 4,358 4,293 4,253 1981-2014 Dry Natural Gas 9,362 8,896 8,156 7,291 6,482 6,890

  15. Federal Offshore, Gulf of Mexico, Texas Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Dec. 31 2,451 2,145 1,554 1,497 1,508 1,445 1981-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 1,822 1,456 1,015 643 535 607 1981-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 629 689 539 854 973 838 1981-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,451 2,145 1,554 1,450 1,450 1,397

  16. LA, South Onshore Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    2,969 2,995 2,615 3,149 2,857 3,080 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 2,463 2,496 2,125 2,586 2,254 2,432 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 506 499 490 563 603 648 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 2,844 2,876 2,519 3,029 2,718 2,92

  17. Lower 48 States Natural Gas Reserves Summary as of Dec. 31

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    274,696 308,730 339,298 313,003 346,611 382,036 1979-2014 Natural Gas Nonassociated, Wet After Lease Separation 249,406 280,880 305,010 268,519 294,549 318,770 1979-2014 Natural Gas Associated-Dissolved, Wet After Lease Separation 25,290 27,850 34,288 44,484 52,062 63,266 1979-2014 Dry Natural Gas 263,408 295,787 324,643 298,457 330,948 361,959

  18. Industrial Gas Turbines

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    A gas turbine is a heat engine that uses high-temperature, high-pressure gas as the working fluid. Part of the heat supplied by the gas is converted directly into mechanical work. High-temperature,...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of the Alaska gas pipeline. The opening of ANWR might reduce the gas resource risk of building an Alaska gas pipeline, as the area has an estimated 3.6 trillion cubic...

  20. Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Huston, Gregg C. (LaBelle, PA)

    1992-01-01

    A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

  1. Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Shale gas is natural gas trapped inside formations of shale - fine grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas. Just a few years ago, much of this resource was considered uneconomical to produce. But Office of Fossil Energy (FE) research helped refine cost-effective horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing technologies, protective environmental practices and data development, making hundreds of trillions of cubic feet of gas technically recoverable where

  2. Modeling Leaking Gas Plume Migration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Silin, Dmitriy; Patzek, Tad; Benson, Sally M.

    2007-08-20

    In this study, we obtain simple estimates of 1-D plume propagation velocity taking into account the density and viscosity contrast between CO{sub 2} and brine. Application of the Buckley-Leverett model to describe buoyancy-driven countercurrent flow of two immiscible phases leads to a transparent theory predicting the evolution of the plume. We obtain that the plume does not migrate upward like a gas bubble in bulk water. Rather, it stretches upward until it reaches a seal or until the fluids become immobile. A simple formula requiring no complex numerical calculations describes the velocity of plume propagation. This solution is a simplification of a more comprehensive theory of countercurrent plume migration that does not lend itself to a simple analytical solution (Silin et al., 2006). The range of applicability of the simplified solution is assessed and provided. This work is motivated by the growing interest in injecting carbon dioxide into deep geological formations as a means of avoiding its atmospheric emissions and consequent global warming. One of the potential problems associated with the geologic method of sequestration is leakage of CO{sub 2} from the underground storage reservoir into sources of drinking water. Ideally, the injected green-house gases will stay in the injection zone for a geologically long time and eventually will dissolve in the formation brine and remain trapped by mineralization. However, naturally present or inadvertently created conduits in the cap rock may result in a gas leak from primary storage. Even in supercritical state, the carbon dioxide viscosity and density are lower than those of the indigenous formation brine. Therefore, buoyancy will tend to drive the CO{sub 2} upward unless it is trapped beneath a low permeability seal. Theoretical and experimental studies of buoyancy-driven supercritical CO{sub 2} flow, including estimation of time scales associated with plume evolution, are critical for developing technology, monitoring policy, and regulations for carbon dioxide geologic sequestration protecting the sources of potable water.

  3. Gas scrubbing liquids

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lackey, Walter J. (Oak Ridge, TN); Lowrie, Robert S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Sease, John D. (Knoxville, TN)

    1981-01-01

    Fully chlorinated and/or fluorinated hydrocarbons are used as gas scrubbing liquids for preventing noxious gas emissions to the atmosphere.

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Sources & Uses Petroleum & Other Liquids Crude oil, gasoline, heating oil, diesel, propane, and other liquids including biofuels and natural gas liquids. Natural Gas...

  5. ,"Total Natural Gas Consumption

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas Consumption (billion cubic feet)",,,,,"Natural Gas Energy Intensity (cubic feetsquare foot)" ,"Total ","Space Heating","Water Heating","Cook- ing","Other","Total ","Space...

  6. Natural gas dehydration apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wijmans, Johannes G; Ng, Alvin; Mairal, Anurag P

    2006-11-07

    A process and corresponding apparatus for dehydrating gas, especially natural gas. The process includes an absorption step and a membrane pervaporation step to regenerate the liquid sorbent.

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    , 2008 Next Release: July 10, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 25, natural gas spot prices...

  8. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    6 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  9. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    7 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  10. Historical Natural Gas Annual

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    8 The Historical Natural Gas Annual contains historical information on supply and disposition of natural gas at the national, regional, and State level as well as prices at...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    cooling demand for natural gas. Meanwhile, it became increasingly clear that Hurricane Frances likely would not pose a significant threat to natural gas production in the Gulf of...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    more from the system than they nominate. Other pipeline companies, such as CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company and Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline Corporation, both...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    that had been in place since February 1. Other pipeline companies, such as CenterPoint Energy Gas Transmission Company and Southern Star Central Gas Pipeline Corporation, both...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    strong price contango during the report week, mitigated withdrawals of natural gas from storage. Other Market Trends: EIA Releases New Report on U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions:...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas vehicles. The Department of Energys Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy reports that there were 841 compressed natural gas (CNG) fuel stations and 41...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    5, 2009 Next Release: July 2, 2009 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the Week Ending Wednesday, June 24, 2009) Natural gas...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    ability to process gas. The company's Main Pass 260 line to Pascagoula Gas Plant in Jackson, Mississippi, will not be available for transportation services. While the plant is...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Market Trends: MMS Announces New Incentives for Gulf Gas Production: The Minerals Management Service (MMS) unveiled proposed new incentives to increase deep gas production...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2008 Next Release: November 6, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview (For the week ending Wednesday, October 29) Natural gas...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    9, 2008 Next Release: June 26, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Since Wednesday, June 11, natural gas spot prices...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    prices using spot prices from producing areas, plus an allowance for interstate natural gas pipeline and local distribution company charges to transport the gas to market. Such a...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Weekly Underground Natural Gas Storage Report. The sample change occurred over a transition period that began with the release of the Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report (WNGSR)...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    June 12, 2008 Overview Prices Storage Other Market Trends Natural Gas Transportation Update Overview Spot gas at most market locations (outside the Rocky Mountain Region) traded...

  4. Derivation and calibration of semi-empirical gas geothermometers for Mahanagdong Geothermal Project, Philippines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sanchez, D.R.

    1996-12-31

    The dissolved CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2} gases in Mahanagdong aquifer fluids are controlled by specific gas-mineral equilibria. At temperature range of 250 to 310 {degrees}C, CO{sub 2} is buffered by clinozoisite + K-feldspar + calcite + muscovite (illite) + quartz mineral assemblage. For H{sub 2}S and H{sub 2} dissolved gases, they are more likely buffered by pyrrhotite + pyrite + magnetite mineral assemblage at similar temperature range. Calibration of five Mahanagdong (MG) gas geothermometers is presented, three of which used CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}S, and H{sub 2} concentration in steam. The remaining two use CO{sub 2}/H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S/H{sub 2} ratios. The calibration is based on the relation between gas content of drillhole discharges and measured aquifer temperatures. After establishing the gas content in the aquifer, gas concentrations were computed in steam after adiabatic boiling to atmospheric condition (100 {degrees}C), to obtain gas geothermometry functions. These functions could also be used in evaluating fraction of steam condensation and temperature of phase separation. A demonstration given the Mahanagdong fumarole data, indicates that there is generally a fair relation between computed temperatures using Mahanagdong gas geothermometers and the actual field trend`s temperatures.

  5. Variable C : N : P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Letscher, R. T.; Moore, J. K.; Teng, Y. -C.; Primeau, F.

    2015-01-12

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the ocean's biological carbon pump by providing an advective/mixing pathway for ~ 20% of export production. DOM is known to have a stoichiometry depleted in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compared to the particulate organic matter pool, a fact that is often omitted from biogeochemical ocean general circulation models. However the variable C : N : P stoichiometry of DOM becomes important when quantifying carbon export from the upper ocean and linking the nutrient cycles of N and P with that of carbon. Here we utilize recent advances in DOM observationalmore » data coverage and offline tracer-modeling techniques to objectively constrain the variable production and remineralization rates of the DOM C : N : P pools in a simple biogeochemical-ocean model of DOM cycling. The optimized DOM cycling parameters are then incorporated within the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) component of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) and validated against the compilation of marine DOM observations. The optimized BEC simulation including variable DOM C : N : P cycling was found to better reproduce the observed DOM spatial gradients than simulations that used the canonical Redfield ratio. Global annual average export of dissolved organic C, N, and P below 100 m was found to be 2.28 Pg C yr-1 (143 Tmol C yr-1, 16.4 Tmol N yr-1, and 1 Tmol P yr-1, respectively, with an average export C : N : P stoichiometry of 225 : 19 : 1 for the semilabile (degradable) DOM pool. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export contributed ~ 25% of the combined organic C export to depths greater than 100 m.« less

  6. Development of a SREX flowsheet for the separation of strontium from dissolved INEEL zirconium calcine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, J.D.; Wood, D.J.; Todd, T.A.

    1999-01-01

    Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning {sup 90}Sr from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. These laboratory results were used to develop a flowsheet for countercurrent testing of the SREX process with dissolved pilot plant calcine. Testing was performed using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors which are installed in the Remote Analytical Laboratory hot cell. Dissolved Run No.64 pilot plant calcine spiked with {sup 85}Sr was used as feed solution for the testing. The flowsheet tested consisted of an extraction section (0.15 M 4{prime},4{prime}(5{prime})-di-(tert-butylcyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.5 M TBP in Isopar-L.), a 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} scrub section to remove extracted K from the SREX solvent, a 0.01 M HNO{sub 3} strip section for the removal of Sr from the SREX solvent, a 0.25 M Na2CO{sub 3} wash section to remove degradation products from the solvent, and a 0.1 M HNO{sub 3} rinse section. The behavior of {sup 85}Sr, Na, K, Al, B, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zr was evaluated. The described flowsheet successfully extracted {sup 85}Sr from the dissolved pilot plant calcine with a removal efficiency of 99.6%. Distribution coefficients for {sup 85}Sr ranged from 3.6 to 4.5 in the extraction section. With these distribution coefficients a removal efficiency of approximately >99.99% was expected. It was determined that the lower than expected removal efficiency can be attributed to a stage efficiency of only 60% in the extraction section. Extracted K was effectively scrubbed from the SREX solvent with the 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} resulting in only 6.4% of the K in the HLW strip product. Sodium was not extracted from the dissolved calcine by the SREX solvent; however, the use of a 1.0 M NaNO{sub 3} scrub solution resulted in a Na concentration of 70 mg/L (12.3% of the feed concentration) in the HLW strip product. Al, B, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zr were determined to be essentially inextractable.

  7. Development of a SREX Flowsheet for the Separation of Strontium from Dissolved INEEL Zirconium Calcine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Law, Jack Douglas; Wood, David James; Todd, Terry Allen

    1999-02-01

    Laboratory experimentation has indicated that the SREX process is effective for partitioning 90 Sr from acidic radioactive waste solutions located at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center. These laboratory results were used to develop a flowsheet for countercurrent testing of the SREX process with dissolved pilot plant calcine. Testing was performed using 24 stages of 2-cm diameter centrifugal contactors which are installed in the Remote Analytical Laboratory hot cell. Dissolved Run #64 pilot plant calcine spiked with 85 Sr was used as feed solution for the testing. The flowsheet tested consisted of an extraction section (0.15 M 4',4'(5')-di-(tert-butylcyclohexo)-18-crown-6 and 1.5 M TBP in Isopar-L.), a 1.0 M NaNO3 scrub section to remove extracted K from the SREX solvent, a 0.01 M HNO3 strip section for the removal of Sr from the SREX solvent, a 0.25 M Na2CO3 wash section to remove degradation products from the solvent, and a 0.1 M HNO3 rinse section. The behavior of 85 Sr, Na, K, Al, B, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zr was evaluated. The described flowsheet successfully extracted 85 Sr from the dissolved pilot plant calcine with a removal efficiency of 99.6%. Distribution coefficients for 85 Sr ranged from 3.6 to 4.5 in the extraction section. With these distribution coefficients a removal efficiency of approximately >99.99% was expected. It was determined that the lower than expected removal efficiency can be attributed to a stage efficiency of only 60% in the extraction section. Extracted K was effectively scrubbed from the SREX solvent with the 1.0 M NaNO3 resulting in only 6.4% of the K in the HLW strip product. Sodium was not extracted from the dissolved calcine by the SREX solvent; however, the use of a 1.0 M NaNO3 scrub solution resulted in a Na concentration of 70 mg/L (12.3% of the feed concentration) in the HLW strip product. Al, B, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Zr were determined to be essentially inextractable.

  8. Foam-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2015-06-02

    Foam-based adsorbents and a related method of manufacture are provided. The foam-based adsorbents include polymer foam with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the foam-based adsorbents includes irradiating polymer foam, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Foam-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  9. The effect of the use of plastic sampling containers on laboratory measurements of dissolved oxygen

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fehring, J.P.

    1990-10-01

    Dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations are often used to define the water quality of a stream or reservoir. In the Tennessee Valley, there is a commonly held belief that water quality in general, and DO in particular, is declining in TVA reservoirs. In 1980, TVA conducted a study of DO trends in the tailraces of Tennessee River Dams and found a downward trend in most reservoirs, with the greatest decrease in the downstream reservoirs. This report examines a change in sampling procedures which may have contributed to the perception of declining DO. 6 refs., 3 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Subsurface Monitor for Dissolved Inorganic Carbon at Geological Sequestration Site Phase 1 SBIR Final Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng Wu

    2012-08-03

    Phase I research of this SBIR contract has yielded anticipated results and enable us to develop a practical new instrument to measure the Dissolved Inorganic Carbons (DIC) as well as Supercritical (SC) CO2 in underground brine water at higher sensitivity, lower cost, higher frequency and longer period of time for the Monitoring, Verification & Accounting (MVA) of CO2 sequestration as well as Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). We show that reduced cost and improved performance are possible; both future and emerging market exist for the proposed new instrument.

  11. Compressed gas manifold

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD); Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas storage cell interconnecting manifold including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and a port for connecting the compressed gas storage cells to a motor vehicle power source and to a refueling adapter. The manifold is mechanically and pneumatically connected to a compressed gas storage cell by a bolt including a gas passage therein.

  12. Noble gas magnetic resonator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Walker, Thad Gilbert; Lancor, Brian Robert; Wyllie, Robert

    2014-04-15

    Precise measurements of a precessional rate of noble gas in a magnetic field is obtained by constraining the time averaged direction of the spins of a stimulating alkali gas to lie in a plane transverse to the magnetic field. In this way, the magnetic field of the alkali gas does not provide a net contribution to the precessional rate of the noble gas.

  13. Method for production of hydrocarbons from hydrates

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McGuire, Patrick L. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1984-01-01

    A method of recovering natural gas entrapped in frozen subsurface gas hydrate formations in arctic regions. A hot supersaturated solution of CaCl.sub.2 or CaBr.sub.2, or a mixture thereof, is pumped under pressure down a wellbore and into a subsurface hydrate formation so as to hydrostatically fracture the formation. The CaCl.sub.2 /CaBr.sub.2 solution dissolves the solid hydrates and thereby releases the gas entrapped therein. Additionally, the solution contains a polymeric viscosifier, which operates to maintain in suspension finely divided crystalline CaCl.sub.2 /CaBr.sub.2 that precipitates from the supersaturated solution as it is cooled during injection into the formation.

  14. Future of Natural Gas

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Natural Gas Bill Eisele, CEM SC Electric & Gas Co Hosted by: FEDERAL UTILITY PARTNERSHIP WORKING GROUP SEMINAR November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral. Florida Agenda * Gas Facts * Supply vs. Capacity * Sources * Consumption * Pipeline system * Gas Interruptions - Operational Flow Orders * Pricing Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 5-6, 2014 Cape Canaveral, FL Sources of Natural Gas * Mine * Import * Remove from storage Federal Utility Partnership Working Group November 5-6,

  15. Photochemical Oxidation of Dissolved Elemental Mercury by Carbonate Radicals in Water

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    He, Feng; Zhao, Wenrong; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury [Hg(0)] affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially in natural freshwaters containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by various reactive ionic species [e.g., DOM, HCO3-, NO3-] and free radicals in a creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH=8) under simulated solar irradiation. We report a high Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) in the presence of both HCO3- and NO3-, whereas HCO3-, NO3-, or DOM alone increased the oxidation rate slightly (k = 0.1 0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO ) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify that carbonate radicals (CO3 -) primarily drive the Hg(0) photooxidation, whereas addition of DOM resulted in a 2-fold decrease in Hg(0) oxidation. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3 - radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and fate in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.

  16. Photochemical Oxidation of Dissolved Elemental Mercury by Carbonate Radicals in Water

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Feng; Zhao, Wenrong; Liang, Liyuan; Gu, Baohua

    2014-01-01

    Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury [Hg(0)] affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially in natural freshwaters containing dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by various reactive ionic species [e.g., DOM, HCO3-, NO3-] and free radicals in a creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH=8) under simulated solar irradiation. We report a high Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) in the presence of both HCO3- and NO3-, whereas HCO3-,more » NO3-, or DOM alone increased the oxidation rate slightly (k = 0.1 0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO ) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we identify that carbonate radicals (CO3 -) primarily drive the Hg(0) photooxidation, whereas addition of DOM resulted in a 2-fold decrease in Hg(0) oxidation. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3 - radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and fate in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.« less

  17. Removal of dissolved humic acid from water by photocatalytic oxidation using a silver orthophosphate semiconductor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hatakeyama, Keisuke; Okuda, Masukazu; Kuki, Takahiro; Esaka, Takao

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ? The photocatalytic property of a silver orthophosphate (Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) was investigated for humic acid degradation. ? The Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} shows high photocatalytic activity under visible light. ? The photocatalytic activity was greatly improved by employing the precipitation method. -- Abstract: In order to remove dissolved organic matter such as humic acid from water, a silver orthophosphate (Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4}) was newly employed as a heterogeneous photocatalyst. Here, Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} was prepared by simple ion-exchange and precipitation methods, and the physico-chemical properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction, ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, particle distribution measurements and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) analysis. The degradation of humic acid was faster over Ag{sub 3}PO{sub 4} catalyst than over conventional TiO{sub 2} (P-25). The total photocatalytic properties were improved by employing not an ion-exchange method but a precipitation method; humic acid degradation was performed with a removal ratio of dissolved organic carbon of 75% under visible light (? = 451 nm) for 2-h irradiation.

  18. Photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury by carbonate radicals in water

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    He, Feng; Gu, Baohua; Zhao, Weirong; Liang, Liyuan

    2014-11-11

    In this study, photochemical oxidation of dissolved elemental mercury, Hg(0), affects mercury chemical speciation and its transfer at the water-air interface in the aquatic environment. The mechanisms and factors that control Hg(0) photooxidation, however, are not completely understood, especially concerning the role of dissolved organic matter (DOM) and carbonate (CO32-) in natural freshwaters. Here, we evaluate Hg(0) photooxidation rates affected by reactive ionic species (e.g., DOM, CO32-, and NO3–) and free radicals in creek water and a phosphate buffer solution (pH 8) under simulated solar irradiation. The Hg(0) photooxidation rate (k = 1.44 h-1) is much higher in the presencemore » of both CO32- and NO3- than in the presence of CO32-, NO3-, or DOM alone (k = 0.1–0.17 h-1). Using scavengers and enhancers for singlet oxygen (1O2) and hydroxyl (HO•) radicals, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we found that carbonate radicals (CO3•-) primarily drive Hg(0) photooxidation. The addition of DOM to the solution of CO32- and NO3- decreased the oxidation rate by half. This study identifies an unrecognized pathway of Hg(0) photooxidation by CO3•- radicals and the inhibitory effect of DOM, which could be important in assessing Hg transformation and the fate of Hg in water containing carbonate such as hard water and seawater.« less

  19. Corrosion Testing of Carbon Steel in Oxalic Acid that Contains Dissolved Iron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wiersma, Bruce J.; Mickalonis, John I.; Subramanian, Karthik H.

    2012-10-11

    Radioactive liquid waste has been stored in underground carbon steel tanks for nearly 60 years at the Savannah River Site. The site is currently in the process of removing the waste from these tanks in order to place it into vitrified, stable state for longer term storage. The last stage in the removal sequence is a chemical cleaning step that breaks up and dissolves metal oxide solids that cannot be easily pumped out of the tank. Oxalic acid (OA) will be used to chemically clean the tanks after waste retrieval is completed. The waste tanks at SRS were constructed from carbon steel materials and thus are vulnerable to corrosion in acidic media. In addition to structural impacts, the impact of corrosion on the hydrogen generated during the process must be assessed. Electrochemical and coupon immersion tests were used to investigate the corrosion mechanism at anticipated process conditions. The testing showed that the corrosion rates were dependent upon the reduction of the iron species that had dissolved in solution. Initial corrosion rates were elevated due to the reduction of the ferric species to ferrous species. At later times, as the ferric species depleted, the corrosion rate decreased. On the other hand, the hydrogen evolution reaction became more dominant.

  20. Alabama Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Alabama Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  1. Ohio Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Ohio Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  2. Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Wyoming Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  3. Texas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Texas Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  4. Indiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Indiana Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  5. New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells ...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) New York Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  6. Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Alaska Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  7. North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) North Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  8. West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) West Virginia Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  9. South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) South Dakota Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4...

  10. Oregon Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Oregon Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  11. U.S. Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) U.S. Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  12. Nevada Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Nevada Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  13. Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Utah Natural Gas Number of Gas and Gas Condensate Wells (Number of Elements) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5...

  14. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Combined Natural Gas Transportation

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Maps Combined Natural Gas Transportation Maps About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 2007/2008 with selected updates U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Map of U.S. Natural Gas Pipeline Network Major Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors Map of Major Natural Gas Supply Basins Relative to Natural Gas Pipeline Transportation Corridors see related text enlarge see related text enlarge U.S. Regional Breakdown

  15. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Pipeline Mileage...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Mileage by State About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Estimated Natural Gas Pipeline Mileage in the...

  16. EIA - Natural Gas Pipeline Network - Natural Gas Transmission...

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Transmission Path Diagram About U.S. Natural Gas Pipelines - Transporting Natural Gas based on data through 20072008 with selected updates Natural Gas Transmission Path Natural...

  17. World Natural Gas Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1994-12-01

    RAMSGAS, the Research and Development Analysis Modeling System World Natural Gas Model, was developed to support planning of unconventional gaseoues fuels research and development. The model is a scenario analysis tool that can simulate the penetration of unconventional gas into world markets for oil and gas. Given a set of parameter values, the model estimates the natural gas supply and demand for the world for the period from 1980 to 2030. RAMSGAS is based onmore » a supply/demand framwork and also accounts for the non-renewable nature of gas resources. The model has three fundamental components: a demand module, a wellhead production cost module, and a supply/demand interface module. The demand for gas is a product of total demand for oil and gas in each of 9 demand regions and the gas share. Demand for oil and gas is forecast from the base year of 1980 through 2030 for each demand region, based on energy growth rates and price-induced conservation. For each of 11 conventional and 19 unconventional gas supply regions, wellhead production costs are calculated. To these are added transportation and distribution costs estimates associated with moving gas from the supply region to each of the demand regions and any economic rents. Based on a weighted average of these costs and the world price of oil, fuel shares for gas and oil are computed for each demand region. The gas demand is the gas fuel share multiplied by the total demand for oil plus gas. This demand is then met from the available supply regions in inverse proportion to the cost of gas from each region. The user has almost complete control over the cost estimates for each unconventional gas source in each year and thus can compare contributions from unconventional resources under different cost/price/demand scenarios.« less

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage was 2,414 Bcf as of Friday, January 9,...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage was 821 Bcf as of May 2, according to...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Natural gas stocks stood at 2,155 Bcf as of Friday, July 9,...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage as of September 2 totaled 2,669 Bcf,...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the Northeast were expected to be in the single digits. Prices off Transcontinental Gas Pipe Line in New York and Algonquin Gas Transmission in the New England region yesterday...

  3. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, C.M.

    1996-12-10

    A microminiature gas chromatograph ({mu}GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode. 7 figs.

  4. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    by 14.4 percent. During this period, U.S. manufacturers used less petroleum and coal in manufacturing processes. This expansion of gas use occurred although natural gas prices to...

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    withdrawal from working gas storage reported last Thursday. A contributing factor to the run-up in natural gas prices could be climbing crude oil prices, which rallied late last...

  6. EIA - Natural Gas Publications

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    these data from 2005 to 2009 are presented for each State. (12282010) U.S. Crude Oil, Natural Gas, and Natural Gas Liquids Proved Reserves: 2009 National and State...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    week's gas markets. As of Friday, May 11, 2001, the spot price of natural gas at the Henry Hub dropped 0.24 from the previous Friday to 4.25 per MMBtu. The NYMEX price of...

  8. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the August 2011 natural gas contract price also lost ground over the week, closing at 4.217 per MMBtu on Wednesday. The natural gas rotary rig...

  9. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX), the August 2011 natural gas contract price also lost ground over the week, closing at 4.315 per MMBtu on Wednesday. The natural gas rotary rig...

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    of natural gas into storage. However, shut-in natural gas production in the Gulf of Mexico reduced available current supplies, and so limited net injections during the report...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    while the OFO was in effect. Pacific Gas and Electric Company extended a systemwide high-inventory OFO on its California Gas Transmission system through Saturday, July 5. It was...

  12. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    the OFO customers who delivered more than 110 percent of their actual gas usage into the system would be assessed for charges. Pacific Gas and Electric Company issued a...

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage...

  14. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A4 of the Annual Energy Review 2002. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in...

  15. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in storage...

  16. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gas in storage, as well as decreases in the price of crude oil. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage increased to 2,905 Bcf as of...

  17. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas in...

  18. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of natural gas into storage, despite robust inventories. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage increased to 3,258 Bcf as of...

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    to withdraw natural gas from storage to meet current demand. Wellhead Prices Annual Energy Review More Price Data Storage Working gas in storage decreased to 2,406 Bcf as of...

  20. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Btu per cubic foot as published in Table A2 of the Annual Energy Review 2001. Source: Energy Information Administration, Office of Oil and Gas. Storage: Working gas inventories...

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Working gas in storage was 3,121 Bcf as of Friday, Oct 24, 2003, according to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report. This is 2.7...

  2. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    gas in combination with water. Gas hydrate is thought to exist in great abundance in nature and has the potential to be a significant new energy source to meet future energy...

  3. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    heating-related demand for natural gas that limited the size of the net addition to storage. The economic incentives for storing natural gas for next winter are considerably...

  4. Microminiature gas chromatograph

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yu, Conrad M. (Antioch, CA)

    1996-01-01

    A microminiature gas chromatograph (.mu.GC) comprising a least one silicon wafer, a gas injector, a column, and a detector. The gas injector has a normally closed valve for introducing a mobile phase including a sample gas in a carrier gas. The valve is fully disposed in the silicon wafer(s). The column is a microcapillary in silicon crystal with a stationary phase and is mechanically connected to receive the mobile phase from the gas injector for the molecular separation of compounds in the sample gas. The detector is mechanically connected to the column for the analysis of the separated compounds of sample gas with electronic means, e.g., ion cell, field emitter and PIN diode.

  5. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    on Thursday, May 9, 2002. A sample of EIA's report can be seen at: Weekly Gas Storage Test Page. The Natural Gas Weekly Market Update report will convert to the new data series...

  6. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    The report provides an overview of U.S. international trade in 2008 as well as historical data on natural gas imports and exports. Net natural gas imports accounted for only 13...

  7. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    of 1 Tcf from the 1994 estimate of 51 Tcf. Ultimate potential for natural gas is a science-based estimate of the total amount of conventional gas in the province and is an...

  8. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, John F. (601 Oakwood Loop, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87123)

    1992-01-01

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits (24 and 26) which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing (14), where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers (10 and 12) and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor.

  9. Recirculating rotary gas compressor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Weinbrecht, J.F.

    1992-02-25

    A positive displacement, recirculating Roots-type rotary gas compressor is described which operates on the basis of flow work compression. The compressor includes a pair of large diameter recirculation conduits which return compressed discharge gas to the compressor housing, where it is mixed with low pressure inlet gas, thereby minimizing adiabatic heating of the gas. The compressor includes a pair of involutely lobed impellers and an associated port configuration which together result in uninterrupted flow of recirculation gas. The large diameter recirculation conduits equalize gas flow velocities within the compressor and minimize gas flow losses. The compressor is particularly suited to applications requiring sustained operation at higher gas compression ratios than have previously been feasible with rotary pumps, and is particularly applicable to refrigeration or other applications requiring condensation of a vapor. 12 figs.

  10. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    10 (next release 2:00 p.m. on March 17) Natural gas spot prices increased this week (Wednesday to Wednesday, March 2-9) as a late season cold front moved into major gas-consuming...

  11. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    next heating season. Net injections reported in today's release of EIA's Weekly Natural Gas Storage Report brought natural gas storage supplies to 2,163 Bcf as of Friday, June 1,...

  12. Natural gas annual 1996

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1997-09-01

    This document provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience. The 1996 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas from it`s production to it`s end use.

  13. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    delivery volumes. Northern Natural Gas Company issued a system overrun limitation (SOL) for all market-area zones for gas day February 21, 2008. The SOL was the result of...

  14. Real-time determination of lubricant concentrations dissolved in alternative refrigerants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cavestri, R.C.; Schafer, W.R.

    1999-07-01

    A methodology was developed and used to measure both polyolester lubricant concentrations in solution with R-134a and R-407C and mineral oils in solution with R-123. This method is unaffected by changes in pressure, temperature, refrigerant type, and lubricant type. The concentration of dissolved lubricant was measured in three alternative refrigerants with two different synthetic polyolesters and two different mineral oils over a temperature range of 68 F (20 C) to 140 F (60 C) and a concentration range of 0 to 6% w/w. The evaluation methods included density, viscosity, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Measurements of viscosity and density were performed on an oscillating body viscometer. Lubricant concentrations determined by HPLC compared favorably with the ASHRAE Standard 41.1 method (ASHRAE 1984). Circulating lubricant, miscible and immiscible, concentration in identical R-407C operating systems was also measured to demonstrate the practical application of the test method.

  15. Landfill Gas | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Gas Jump to: navigation, search TODO: Add description List of Landfill Gas Incentives Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLandfillGas&oldid267173...

  16. Variable C : N : P stoichiometry of dissolved organic matter cycling in the Community Earth System Model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Letscher, R. T.; Moore, J. K.; Teng, Y. -C.; Primeau, F.

    2014-06-16

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) plays an important role in the ocean's biological carbon pump by providing an advective/mixing pathway for ~ 20% of export production. DOM is known to have a stoichiometry depleted in nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) compared to the particulate organic matter pool, a~fact that is often omitted from biogeochemical-ocean general circulation models. However the variable C : N : P stoichiometry of DOM becomes important when quantifying carbon export from the upper ocean and linking the nutrient cycles of N and P with that of carbon. Here we utilize recent advances in DOM observational data coveragemore » and offline tracer-modeling techniques to objectively constrain the variable production and remineralization rates of the DOM C / N / P pools in a simple biogeochemical-ocean model of DOM cycling. The optimized DOM cycling parameters are then incorporated within the Biogeochemical Elemental Cycling (BEC) component of the Community Earth System Model and validated against the compilation of marine DOM observations. The optimized BEC simulation including variable DOM C : N : P cycling was found to better reproduce the observed DOM spatial gradients than simulations that used the canonical Redfield ratio. Global annual average export of dissolved organic C, N, and P below 100 m was found to be 2.28 Pg C yr-1 (143 Tmol C yr-1), 16.4 Tmol N yr-1, and 1 Tmol P yr-1, respectively with an average export C : N : P stoichiometry of 225 : 19 : 1 for the semilabile (degradable) DOM pool. DOC export contributed ~ 25% of the combined organic C export to depths greater than 100 m.« less

  17. Natural gas annual 1995

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-11-01

    The Natural Gas Annual provides information on the supply and disposition of natural gas to a wide audience including industry, consumers, Federal and State agencies, and educational institutions. The 1995 data are presented in a sequence that follows natural gas (including supplemental supplies) from its production to its end use. This is followed by tables summarizing natural gas supply and disposition from 1991 to 1995 for each Census Division and each State. Annual historical data are shown at the national level.

  18. Residual gas analysis device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Thornberg, Steven M. (Peralta, NM)

    2012-07-31

    A system is provided for testing the hermeticity of a package, such as a microelectromechanical systems package containing a sealed gas volume, with a sampling device that has the capability to isolate the package and breach the gas seal connected to a pulse valve that can controllably transmit small volumes down to 2 nanoliters to a gas chamber for analysis using gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy diagnostics.

  19. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels | Prices | States | International | Country Analysis...

  20. ARM - Methane Gas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Methane Gas Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Methane Gas Methane gas is another naturally occurring greenhouse gas. It is produced as a result of microbial activity in the absence of oxygen. Pre-industrial concentrations of methane were about 700 ppb and in 1994 they were up

  1. Natural Gas Weekly Update

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Independence Avenue, SW Washington, DC 20585 . Home | Petroleum | Gasoline | Diesel | Propane | Natural Gas | Electricity | Coal | Nuclear Renewables | Alternative Fuels |...

  2. Static gas expansion cooler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guzek, J.C.; Lujan, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a cooler for television cameras and other temperature sensitive equipment. The cooler uses compressed gas ehich is accelerated to a high velocity by passing it through flow passageways having nozzle portions which expand the gas. This acceleration and expansion causes the gas to undergo a decrease in temperature thereby cooling the cooler body and adjacent temperature sensitive equipment.

  3. Natural gas industry directory

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1999-11-01

    This directory has information on the following: associations and organizations; exploration and production; gas compression; gas processors; gathering and transmission companies; liquefied natural gas; local distribution companies; marketing firms; regulatory agencies; service companies; suppliers and manufacturers; and regional buyer`s guide.

  4. Valve for gas centrifuges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hahs, C.A.; Rurbage, C.H.

    1982-03-17

    The invention is pneumatically operated valve assembly for simulatenously (1) closing gas-transfer lines connected to a gas centrifuge or the like and (2) establishing a recycle path between two on the lines so closed. The value assembly is especially designed to be compact, fast-acting, reliable, and comparatively inexpensive. It provides large reductions in capital costs for gas-centrifuge cascades.

  5. Method for treating a nuclear process off-gas stream

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pence, Dallas T.; Chou, Chun-Chao

    1984-01-01

    Disclosed is a method for selectively removing and recovering the noble gas and other gaseous components typically emitted during nuclear process operations. The method is adaptable and useful for treating dissolver off-gas effluents released during reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels whereby to permit radioactive contaminant recovery prior to releasing the remaining off-gases to the atmosphere. Briefly, the method sequentially comprises treating the off-gas stream to preliminarily remove NO.sub.x, hydrogen and carbon-containing organic compounds, and semivolatile fission product metal oxide components therefrom; adsorbing iodine components on silver-exchanged mordenite; removing water vapor carried by said stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing the carbon dioxide components of said off-gas stream by means of a molecular sieve; selectively removing xenon in gas phase by passing said stream through a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from oxygen by means of a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite; selectively separating krypton from the bulk nitrogen stream using a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchanged mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; concentrating the desorbed krypton upon a molecular sieve comprising silver-exchange mordenite cooled to about -140.degree. to -160.degree. C.; and further cryogenically concentrating, and the recovering for storage, the desorbed krypton.

  6. Inert gas rejection device for zinc-halogen battery systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hammond, Michael J.; Arendell, Mark W.

    1981-01-01

    An electrolytic cell for separating chlorine gas from other (foreign) gases, having an anode, a cathode assembly, an aqueous electrolyte, a housing, and a constant voltage power supply. The cathode assembly is generally comprised of a dense graphite electrode having a winding channel formed in the face opposing the anode, a gas impermeable (but liquid permeable) membrane sealed into the side of the cathode electrode over the channel, and a packing of graphite particles contained in the channel of the cathode electrode. The housing separates and parallelly aligns the anode and cathode assembly, and provides a hermetic seal for the cell. In operation, a stream of chlorine and foreign gases enters the cell at the beginning of the cathode electrode channel. The chlorine gas is dissolved into the electrolyte and electrochemically reduced into chloride ions. The chloride ions disfuse through the gas impermeable membrane, and are electrochemically oxidized at the anode into purified chlorine gas. The foreign gases do not participate in the above electrochemical reactions, and are vented from the cell at the end of the cathode electrode channel.

  7. Natural gas leak mapper

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reichardt, Thomas A. (Livermore, CA); Luong, Amy Khai (Dublin, CA); Kulp, Thomas J. (Livermore, CA); Devdas, Sanjay (Albany, CA)

    2008-05-20

    A system is described that is suitable for use in determining the location of leaks of gases having a background concentration. The system is a point-wise backscatter absorption gas measurement system that measures absorption and distance to each point of an image. The absorption measurement provides an indication of the total amount of a gas of interest, and the distance provides an estimate of the background concentration of gas. The distance is measured from the time-of-flight of laser pulse that is generated along with the absorption measurement light. The measurements are formated into an image of the presence of gas in excess of the background. Alternatively, an image of the scene is superimosed on the image of the gas to aid in locating leaks. By further modeling excess gas as a plume having a known concentration profile, the present system provides an estimate of the maximum concentration of the gas of interest.

  8. Gas revenue increasingly significant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Megill, R.E.

    1991-09-01

    This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities.

  9. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, Kwan H. (Lisle, IL); Ahluwalia, Rajesh K. (Clarendon Hills, IL)

    1985-01-01

    A process and apparatus for removing sulfur oxide from combustion gas to form Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 and for reducing the harmful effects of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 on auxiliary heat exchangers in which a sodium compound is injected into the hot combustion gas forming liquid Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 in a gas-gas reaction and the resultant gas containing Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 is cooled to below about 1150.degree. K. to form particles of Na.sub.2 SO.sub.4 prior to contact with at least one heat exchanger with the cooling being provided by the recycling of combustion gas from a cooled zone downstream from the introduction of the cooling gas.

  10. Gas Hydrate Storage of Natural Gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rudy Rogers; John Etheridge

    2006-03-31

    Environmental and economic benefits could accrue from a safe, above-ground, natural-gas storage process allowing electric power plants to utilize natural gas for peak load demands; numerous other applications of a gas storage process exist. A laboratory study conducted in 1999 to determine the feasibility of a gas-hydrates storage process looked promising. The subsequent scale-up of the process was designed to preserve important features of the laboratory apparatus: (1) symmetry of hydrate accumulation, (2) favorable surface area to volume ratio, (3) heat exchanger surfaces serving as hydrate adsorption surfaces, (4) refrigeration system to remove heat liberated from bulk hydrate formation, (5) rapid hydrate formation in a non-stirred system, (6) hydrate self-packing, and (7) heat-exchanger/adsorption plates serving dual purposes to add or extract energy for hydrate formation or decomposition. The hydrate formation/storage/decomposition Proof-of-Concept (POC) pressure vessel and supporting equipment were designed, constructed, and tested. This final report details the design of the scaled POC gas-hydrate storage process, some comments on its fabrication and installation, checkout of the equipment, procedures for conducting the experimental tests, and the test results. The design, construction, and installation of the equipment were on budget target, as was the tests that were subsequently conducted. The budget proposed was met. The primary goal of storing 5000-scf of natural gas in the gas hydrates was exceeded in the final test, as 5289-scf of gas storage was achieved in 54.33 hours. After this 54.33-hour period, as pressure in the formation vessel declined, additional gas went into the hydrates until equilibrium pressure/temperature was reached, so that ultimately more than the 5289-scf storage was achieved. The time required to store the 5000-scf (48.1 hours of operating time) was longer than designed. The lower gas hydrate formation rate is attributed to a lower heat transfer rate in the internal heat exchanger than was designed. It is believed that the fins on the heat-exchanger tubes did not make proper contact with the tubes transporting the chilled glycol, and pairs of fins were too close for interior areas of fins to serve as hydrate collection sites. A correction of the fabrication fault in the heat exchanger fin attachments could be easily made to provide faster formation rates. The storage success with the POC process provides valuable information for making the process an economically viable process for safe, aboveground natural-gas storage.

  11. U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic...

    Annual Energy Outlook [U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA)]

    Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet) U.S. Natural Gas Supplemental Gas - Refinery Gas (Million Cubic Feet) Decade Year-0 Year-1 Year-2 Year-3 Year-4 Year-5 Year-6 Year-7 Year-8 Year-9...

  12. Flue gas desulfurization

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Im, K.H.; Ahluwalia, R.K.

    1984-05-01

    The invention involves a combustion process in which combustion gas containing sulfur oxide is directed past a series of heat exchangers to a stack and in which a sodium compound is added to the combustion gas in a temparature zone of above about 1400 K to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Preferably, the temperature is above about 1800 K and the sodium compound is present as a vapor to provide a gas-gas reaction to form Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ as a liquid. Since liquid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ may cause fouling of heat exchanger surfaces downstream from the combustion zone, the process advantageously includes the step of injecting a cooling gas downstream of the injection of the sodium compound yet upstream of one or more heat exchangers to cool the combustion gas to below about 1150 K and form solid Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. The cooling gas is preferably a portion of the combustion gas downstream which may be recycled for cooling. It is further advantageous to utilize an electrostatic precipitator downstream of the heat exchangers to recover the Na/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. It is also advantageous in the process to remove a portion of the combustion gas cleaned in the electrostatic precipitator and recycle that portion upstream to use as the cooling gas. 3 figures.

  13. Analysis of environmental issues related to small-scale hydroelectric development. VI. Dissolved oxygen concentrations below operating dams

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cada, G.F.; Kumar, K.D.; Solomon, J.A.; Hildebrand, S.G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an effort aimed at determining whether or not water quality degradation, as exemplified by dissolved oxygen concentrations, is a potentially significant issue affecting small-scale hydropower development in the US. The approach was to pair operating hydroelectric sites of all sizes with dissolved oxygen measurements from nearby downstream US Geological Survey water quality stations (acquired from the WATSTORE data base). The USGS data were used to calculate probabilities of non-compliance (PNCs), i.e., the probabilities that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the discharge waters of operating hydroelectric dams will drop below 5 mg/l. PNCs were estimated for each site, season (summer vs remaining months), and capacity category (less than or equal to 30 MW vs >30 MW). Because of the low numbers of usable sites in many states, much of the subsequent analysis was conducted on a regional basis. During the winter months (November through June) all regions had low mean PNCs regardless of capacity. Most regions had higher mean PNCs in summer than in winter, and summer PNCs were greater for large-scale than for small-scale sites. Among regions, the highest mean summer PNCs were found in the Great Basin, the Southeast, and the Ohio Valley. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the effects of season and capacity on potential dissolved oxygen problems, cumulative probability distributions of PNC were developed for selected regions. This analysis indicates that low dissolved oxygen concentrations in the tailwaters below operating hydroelectric projects are a problem largely confined to large-scale facilities.

  14. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    from the United States | Department of Energy Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Perspective on Exporting Liquefied Natural Gas from the United States This analysis calculates the life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for regional coal and imported natural gas power in Europe and Asia. The primary research questions are as follows: *How does exported liquefied natural gas (LNG) from the U.S. compare

  15. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1985-12-31

    An apparatus is disclosed for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area. 3 figs.

  16. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, Daniel (Los Alamos, NM)

    1985-01-01

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  17. Gas shielding apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brandt, D.

    1984-06-05

    An apparatus for preventing oxidation by uniformly distributing inert shielding gas over the weld area of workpieces such as pipes being welded together. The apparatus comprises a chamber and a gas introduction element. The chamber has an annular top wall, an annular bottom wall, an inner side wall and an outer side wall connecting the top and bottom walls. One side wall is a screen and the other has a portion defining an orifice. The gas introduction element has a portion which encloses the orifice and can be one or more pipes. The gas introduction element is in fluid communication with the chamber and introduces inert shielding gas into the chamber. The inert gas leaves the chamber through the screen side wall and is dispersed evenly over the weld area.

  18. Critical evaluation and modeling of algal harvesting using dissolved air flotation. DAF Algal Harvesting Modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhang, Xuezhi; Hewson, John C.; Amendola, Pasquale; Reynoso, Monica; Sommerfeld, Milton; Chen, Yongsheng; Hu, Qiang

    2014-07-14

    In our study, Chlorella zofingiensis harvesting by dissolved air flotation (DAF) was critically evaluated with regard to algal concentration, culture conditions, type and dosage of coagulants, and recycle ratio. Harvesting efficiency increased with coagulant dosage and leveled off at 81%, 86%, 91%, and 87% when chitosan, Al3+, Fe3+, and cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) were used at dosages of 70, 180, 250, and 500 mg g-1, respectively. The DAF efficiency-coagulant dosage relationship changed with algal culture conditions. In evaluating the influence of the initial algal concentration and recycle ratio revealed that, under conditions typical for algal harvesting, we found that itmore » is possible that the number of bubbles is insufficient. A DAF algal harvesting model was developed to explain this observation by introducing mass-based floc size distributions and a bubble limitation into the white water blanket model. Moreover, the model revealed the importance of coagulation to increase floc-bubble collision and attachment, and the preferential interaction of bubbles with larger flocs, which limited the availability of bubbles to the smaller sized flocs. The harvesting efficiencies predicted by the model agree reasonably with experimental data obtained at different Al3+ dosages, algal concentrations, and recycle ratios. Based on this modeling, critical parameters for efficient algal harvesting were identified.« less

  19. Fiber-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Janke, Christopher J; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2014-05-13

    A fiber-based adsorbent and a related method of manufacture are provided. The fiber-based adsorbent includes polymer fibers with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight over known fibers to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. The polymer fibers include a circular morphology in some embodiments, having a mean diameter of less than 15 microns, optionally less than about 1 micron. In other embodiments, the polymer fibers include a non-circular morphology, optionally defining multiple gear-shaped, winged-shaped or lobe-shaped projections along the length of the polymer fibers. A method for forming the fiber-based adsorbents includes irradiating high surface area polymer fibers, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting the grafted fibers with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. High surface area fiber-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  20. The effect of Sequoyah Nuclear Plant on dissolved oxygen in Chickamauga Reservoir

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Butkus, S.R.; Shiao, M.C.; Yeager, B.L.

    1990-09-01

    During the summer of 1985, the Tennessee Division of Water Pollution Control and the Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency measured dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations downstream from the Sequoyah Nuclear Plant (SQN) discharge mixing zone that were below the state criterion for DO. The Tennessee General Water Quality Criteria'' specifies that DO should be a minimum of 5.0 mg/l measured at a depth of 5 feet for the protection of fish and aquatic life. The Tennessee Valley Authority developed the present study to answer general concerns about reservoir conditions and potential for adverse effects on aquatic biota. Four objectives were defined for this study: (1) to better define the extent and duration of the redistribution of DO in the reservoir, (2) to better understand DO dynamics within the mixing zone, (3) to determine whether DO is being lost (or added) as the condenser cooling water passes through the plant, and (4) to evaluate the potential for impact on aquatic life in the reservoir.