National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for displacement flow power

  1. The effect of expansion-ratio limitations on positive-displacement, total-flow geothermal power systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DiPippo, R.

    1982-02-01

    Combined steam-turbine/positive-displacement engine (PDE) geothermal power systems are analyzed thermodynamically and compared with optimized reference flash-steam plants. Three different configurations of combined systems are considered. Treated separately are the cases of self-flowing and pumped wells. Two strategies are investigated that help overcome the inherent expansion-ratio limitation of PDE's: pre-flashing and pre-mixing. Parametrically-obtained results show the required minimum PDE efficiency for the combined system to match the reference plant for various sets of design conditions.

  2. Structural power flow measurement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Falter, K.J.; Keltie, R.F.

    1988-12-01

    Previous investigations of structural power flow through beam-like structures resulted in some unexplained anomalies in the calculated data. In order to develop structural power flow measurement as a viable technique for machine tool design, the causes of these anomalies needed to be found. Once found, techniques for eliminating the errors could be developed. Error sources were found in the experimental apparatus itself as well as in the instrumentation. Although flexural waves are the carriers of power in the experimental apparatus, at some frequencies longitudinal waves were excited which were picked up by the accelerometers and altered power measurements. Errors were found in the phase and gain response of the sensors and amplifiers used for measurement. A transfer function correction technique was employed to compensate for these instrumentation errors.

  3. Reactor power for large displacement autonomous underwater vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 21 SPECIFIC NUCLEAR REACTORS AND ASSOCIATED PLANTS autonomous underwater vehicle; reactor power Word Cloud More ...

  4. Free Flow Power Corporation | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Corporation Jump to: navigation, search Name: Free Flow Power Corporation Address: 239 Causeway St Suite 300 Place: Gloucester, Massachusetts Zip: 1930 Sector: Marine and...

  5. gtp_flow_power_estimator.xlsx

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This simple spreadsheet model estimates either the flow rate required to produce a specified level of power output, or the power output that can be produced from a specified flow rate.

  6. Magnetic Amplifier for Power Flow Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-24

    GENI Project: ORNL is developing an electromagnet-based, amplifier-like device that will allow for complete control over the flow of power within the electric grid. To date, complete control of power flow within the grid has been prohibitively expensive. ORNL’s controller could provide a reliable, cost-effective solution to this problem. The team is combining two types of pre-existing technologies to assist in flow control, culminating in a prototype iron-based magnetic amplifier. Ordinarily, such a device would require expensive superconductive wire, but the magnetic iron core of ORNL’s device could serve as a low-cost alternative that is equally adept at regulating power flow.

  7. Optimal Power Flow Pursuit - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Electricity Transmission Electricity Transmission Find More Like This Return to Search Optimal Power Flow Pursuit National Renewable Energy Laboratory Contact NREL About This Technology Technology Marketing Summary The desire to improve grid resiliency and enable a sustainable capacity expansion has led to the growth of distributed energy resources (DERs) and the utilization of renewable energy sources. DER allows for smaller amounts of aggregate energy to meet

  8. Distributed Power Flow Control: Distributed Power Flow Control using Smart Wires for Energy Routing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-04-24

    GENI Project: Smart Wire Grid is developing a solution for controlling power flow within the electric grid to better manage unused and overall transmission capacity. The 300,000 miles of high-voltage transmission line in the U.S. today are congested and inefficient, with only around 50% of all transmission capacity utilized at any given time. Increased consumer demand should be met in part with more efficient and an economical power flow. Smart Wire Grid’s devices clamp onto existing transmission lines and control the flow of power within—much like how internet routers help allocate bandwidth throughout the web. Smart wires could support greater use of renewable energy by providing more consistent control over how that energy is routed within the grid on a real-time basis. This would lessen the concerns surrounding the grid’s inability to effectively store intermittent energy from renewables for later use.

  9. Power Flow Controller for Renewables: Transformer-less Unified Power Flow Controller for Wind and Solar Power Transmission

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-02-08

    GENI Project: MSU is developing a power flow controller to improve the routing of electricity from renewable sources through existing power lines. The fast, innovative, and lightweight circuitry that MSU is incorporating into its controller will eliminate the need for a separate heavy and expensive transformer, as well as the construction of new transmission lines. MSU’s controller is better suited to control power flows from distributed and intermittent wind and solar power systems than traditional transformer-based controllers are, so it will help to integrate more renewable energy into the grid. MSU‘s power flow controller can be installed anywhere in the existing grid to optimize energy transmission and help reduce transmission congestion.

  10. Equivalent Relaxations of Optimal Power Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, S; Low, SH; Teeraratkul, T; Hassibi, B

    2015-03-01

    Several convex relaxations of the optimal power flow (OPF) problem have recently been developed using both bus injection models and branch flow models. In this paper, we prove relations among three convex relaxations: a semidefinite relaxation that computes a full matrix, a chordal relaxation based on a chordal extension of the network graph, and a second-order cone relaxation that computes the smallest partial matrix. We prove a bijection between the feasible sets of the OPF in the bus injection model and the branch flow model, establishing the equivalence of these two models and their second-order cone relaxations. Our results imply that, for radial networks, all these relaxations are equivalent and one should always solve the second-order cone relaxation. For mesh networks, the semidefinite relaxation and the chordal relaxation are equally tight and both are strictly tighter than the second-order cone relaxation. Therefore, for mesh networks, one should either solve the chordal relaxation or the SOCP relaxation, trading off tightness and the required computational effort. Simulations are used to illustrate these results.

  11. Primus Power's Flow Battery Powered by $11 Million in Private Investment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    | Department of Energy Primus Power's Flow Battery Powered by $11 Million in Private Investment Primus Power's Flow Battery Powered by $11 Million in Private Investment June 14, 2011 - 10:00am Addthis Primus Power's energy cell stack. | Photo Courtesy of Primus Power Primus Power's energy cell stack. | Photo Courtesy of Primus Power Kristina Pflanz Writer & Contractor, Advanced Research Projects Agency - Energy What does this mean for me? Will make renewable energy sources, such as solar

  12. Solving the power flow equations: a monotone operator approach...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Technical Report: Solving the power flow equations: a monotone operator approach Citation ... In this paper, we solve this problem using the theory of monotone operators. We show that ...

  13. Computing an operating parameter of a unified power flow controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, David G; Robinett, III, Rush D

    2015-01-06

    A Unified Power Flow Controller described herein comprises a sensor that outputs at least one sensed condition, a processor that receives the at least one sensed condition, a memory that comprises control logic that is executable by the processor; and power electronics that comprise power storage, wherein the processor causes the power electronics to selectively cause the power storage to act as one of a power generator or a load based at least in part upon the at least one sensed condition output by the sensor and the control logic, and wherein at least one operating parameter of the power electronics is designed to facilitate maximal transmittal of electrical power generated at a variable power generation system to a grid system while meeting power constraints set forth by the electrical power grid.

  14. Power flow control using distributed saturable reactors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dimitrovski, Aleksandar D.

    2016-02-13

    A magnetic amplifier includes a saturable core having a plurality of legs. Control windings wound around separate legs are spaced apart from each other and connected in series in an anti-symmetric relation. The control windings are configured in such a way that a biasing magnetic flux arising from a control current flowing through one of the plurality of control windings is substantially equal to the biasing magnetic flux flowing into a second of the plurality of control windings. The flow of the control current through each of the plurality of control windings changes the reactance of the saturable core reactor by driving those portions of the saturable core that convey the biasing magnetic flux in the saturable core into saturation. The phasing of the control winding limits a voltage induced in the plurality of control windings caused by a magnetic flux passing around a portion of the saturable core.

  15. EERE Success Story-Free Flow Power Partners to Improve Hydrokinetic...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Free Flow Power Partners to Improve Hydrokinetic Turbine Performance and Cost EERE Success Story-Free Flow Power Partners to Improve Hydrokinetic Turbine Performance and Cost April ...

  16. Research on stochastic power-flow study methods. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heydt, G. T.

    1981-01-01

    A general algorithm to determine the effects of uncertainty in bus load and generation on the output of conventional power flow analysis is presented. The use of statistical moments is presented and developed as a means for representing the stochastic process. Statistical moments are used to describe the uncertainties, and facilitate the calculations of single and multivarlate probability density functions of input and output variables. The transformation of the uncertainty through the power flow equations is made by the expansion of the node equations in a multivariate Taylor series about an expected operating point. The series is truncated after the second order terms. Since the power flow equations are nonlinear, the expected values of output quantities is in general not the solution to the conventional load flow problem using expected values of input quantities. The second order transformation offers a correction vector and allows the consideration of larger uncertainties which have caused significant error in the current linear transformation algorithms. Voltage controlled busses are included with consideration of upper and lower limits. The finite reactive power available at generation sites, and fixed ranges of transformer tap movement may have a significant effect on voltage and line power flow statistics. A method is given which considers limitation constraints in the evaluation of all output quantities. The bus voltages, line power flows, transformer taps, and generator reactive power requirements are described by their statistical moments. Their values are expressed in terms of the probability that they are above or below specified limits, and their expected values given that they do fall outside the limits. Thus the algorithm supplies information about severity of overload as well as probability of occurrence. An example is given for an eleven bus system, evaluating each quantity separately. The results are compared with Monte Carlo simulation.

  17. Dynamic Power Flow Controller: Compact Dynamic Phase Angle Regulators for Transmission Power Routing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2012-01-03

    GENI Project: Varentec is developing compact, low-cost transmission power controllers with fractional power rating for controlling power flow on transmission networks. The technology will enhance grid operations through improved use of current assets and by dramatically reducing the number of transmission lines that have to be built to meet increasing contributions of renewable energy sources like wind and solar. The proposed transmission controllers would allow for the dynamic control of voltage and power flow, improving the grid’s ability to dispatch power in real time to the places where it is most needed. The controllers would work as fail-safe devices whereby the grid would be restored to its present operating state in the event of a controller malfunction instead of failing outright. The ability to affordably and dynamically control power flow with adequate fail-safe switchgear could open up new competitive energy markets which are not possible under the current regulatory structure and technology base.

  18. Application of Newton's optimal power flow in voltage/reactive power control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bjelogrlic, M.; Babic, B.S. ); Calovic, M.S. ); Ristanovic, P. )

    1990-11-01

    This paper considers an application of Newton's optimal power flow to the solution of the secondary voltage/reactive power control in transmission networks. An efficient computer program based on the latest achievements in the sparse matrix/vector techniques has been developed for this purpose. It is characterized by good robustness, accuracy and speed. A combined objective function appropriate for various system load levels with suitable constraints, for treatment of the power system security and economy is also proposed. For the real-time voltage/reactive power control, a suboptimal power flow procedure has been derived by using the reduced set of control variables. This procedure is based on the sensitivity theory applied to the determination of zones for the secondary voltage/reactive power control and corresponding reduced set of regulating sources, whose reactive outputs represent control variables in the optimal power flow program. As a result, the optimal power flow program output becomes a schedule to be used by operators in the process of the real-time voltage/reactive power control in both normal and emergency operating states.

  19. Exact Convex Relaxation of Optimal Power Flow in Radial Networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gan, LW; Li, N; Topcu, U; Low, SH

    2015-01-01

    The optimal power flow (OPF) problem determines a network operating point that minimizes a certain objective such as generation cost or power loss. It is nonconvex. We prove that a global optimum of OPF can be obtained by solving a second-order cone program, under a mild condition after shrinking the OPF feasible set slightly, for radial power networks. The condition can be checked a priori, and holds for the IEEE 13, 34, 37, 123-bus networks and two real-world networks.

  20. Primary Side Power Flow Control of Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, John M; Onar, Omer C; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan

    2015-01-01

    Various noncontacting methods of plug-in electric vehicle charging are either under development or now deployed as aftermarket options in the light-duty automotive market. Wireless power transfer (WPT) is now the accepted term for wireless charging and is used synonymously for inductive power transfer and magnetic resonance coupling. WPT technology is in its infancy; standardization is lacking, especially on interoperability, center frequency selection, magnetic fringe field suppression, and the methods employed for power flow regulation. This paper proposes a new analysis concept for power flow in WPT in which the primary provides frequency selection and the tuned secondary, with its resemblance to a power transmission network having a reactive power voltage control, is analyzed as a transmission network. Analysis is supported with experimental data taken from Oak Ridge National Laboratory s WPT apparatus. This paper also provides an experimental evidence for frequency selection, fringe field assessment, and the need for low-latency communications in the feedback path.

  1. Primary-Side Power Flow Control of Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, John M.; Onar, Omer C.; Chinthavali, Madhu

    2014-12-22

    Various noncontacting methods of plug-in electric vehicle charging are either under development or now deployed as aftermarket options in the light-duty automotive market. Wireless power transfer (WPT) is now the accepted term for wireless charging and is used synonymously for inductive power transfer and magnetic resonance coupling. WPT technology is in its infancy; standardization is lacking, especially on interoperability, center frequency selection, magnetic fringe field suppression, and the methods employed for power flow regulation. This paper proposes a new analysis concept for power flow in WPT in which the primary provides frequency selection and the tuned secondary, with its resemblance to a power transmission network having a reactive power voltage control, is analyzed as a transmission network. Analysis is supported with experimental data taken from Oak Ridge National Laboratory s WPT apparatus. Lastly, this paper also provides an experimental evidence for frequency selection, fringe field assessment, and the need for low-latency communications in the feedback path.

  2. Probabilistic Vulnerability Assessment Based on Power Flow and Voltage Distribution

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ma, Jian; Huang, Zhenyu; Wong, Pak C.; Ferryman, Thomas A.

    2010-04-30

    Risk assessment of large scale power systems has been an important problem in power system reliability study. Probabilistic technique provides a powerful tool to solve the task. In this paper, we present the results of a study on probabilistic vulnerability assessment on WECC system. Cumulant based expansion method is applied to obtain the probabilistic distribution function (PDF) and cumulative distribution function (CDF) of power flows on transmission lines and voltage. Overall risk index based on the system vulnerability analysis is calculated using the WECC system. The simulation results based on WECC system is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the method. The methodology can be applied to the risk analysis on large scale power systems.

  3. Magnetic Amplifier-Based Power-Flow Controller

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Dimitrovski, Aleksandar; Li, Zhi; Ozpineci, Burak

    2015-02-05

    The concept of the magnetic amplifier, a common electromagnetic device in electronic applications in the past, has seldom been used in power systems. In this paper, we introduce the magnetic amplifier-based power-flow controller (MAPFC), an innovative low-cost device that adopts the idea of the magnetic amplifier for power-flow control applications. The uniqueness of MAPFC is in the use of the magnetization of the ferromagnetic core, shared by an ac and a dc winding, as the medium to control the ac winding reactance inserted in series with the transmission line to be controlled. Large power flow in the line can bemore » regulated by the small dc input to the dc winding. Moreover, a project on the R&D of an MAPFC has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the University of Tennessee-Knoxville, and Waukesha Electric Systems, Inc. since early 2012. Findings from the project are presented along with some results obtained in a laboratory environment.« less

  4. Magnetic Amplifier-Based Power-Flow Controller

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dimitrovski, Aleksandar; Li, Zhi; Ozpineci, Burak

    2015-02-05

    The concept of the magnetic amplifier, a common electromagnetic device in electronic applications in the past, has seldom been used in power systems. In this paper, we introduce the magnetic amplifier-based power-flow controller (MAPFC), an innovative low-cost device that adopts the idea of the magnetic amplifier for power-flow control applications. The uniqueness of MAPFC is in the use of the magnetization of the ferromagnetic core, shared by an ac and a dc winding, as the medium to control the ac winding reactance inserted in series with the transmission line to be controlled. Large power flow in the line can be regulated by the small dc input to the dc winding. Moreover, a project on the R&D of an MAPFC has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and conducted by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the University of Tennessee-Knoxville, and Waukesha Electric Systems, Inc. since early 2012. Findings from the project are presented along with some results obtained in a laboratory environment.

  5. Resistive Network Optimal Power Flow: Uniqueness and Algorithms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tan, CW; Cai, DWH; Lou, X

    2015-01-01

    The optimal power flow (OPF) problem minimizes the power loss in an electrical network by optimizing the voltage and power delivered at the network buses, and is a nonconvex problem that is generally hard to solve. By leveraging a recent development on the zero duality gap of OPF, we propose a second-order cone programming convex relaxation of the resistive network OPF, and study the uniqueness of the optimal solution using differential topology, especially the Poincare-Hopf Index Theorem. We characterize the global uniqueness for different network topologies, e.g., line, radial, and mesh networks. This serves as a starting point to design distributed local algorithms with global behaviors that have low complexity, are computationally fast, and can run under synchronous and asynchronous settings in practical power grids.

  6. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, Marshall G.

    1985-01-01

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  7. Water displacement mercury pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nielsen, M.G.

    1984-04-20

    A water displacement mercury pump has a fluid inlet conduit and diffuser, a valve, a pressure cannister, and a fluid outlet conduit. The valve has a valve head which seats in an opening in the cannister. The entire assembly is readily insertable into a process vessel which produces mercury as a product. As the mercury settles, it flows into the opening in the cannister displacing lighter material. When the valve is in a closed position, the pressure cannister is sealed except for the fluid inlet conduit and the fluid outlet conduit. Introduction of a lighter fluid into the cannister will act to displace a heavier fluid from the cannister via the fluid outlet conduit. The entire pump assembly penetrates only a top wall of the process vessel, and not the sides or the bottom wall of the process vessel. This insures a leak-proof environment and is especially suitable for processing of hazardous materials.

  8. OPF incorporating load models maximizing net revenue. [Optimal Power Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dias, L.G.; El-Hawary, M.E. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-02-01

    Studies of effects of load modeling in optimal power flow studies using minimum cost and minimum loss objective reveal that a main disadvantage of cost minimization is the reduction of the objective via a reduction in the power demand. This inevitably results in lowering the total revenue and in most cases, reducing net revenue as well. An alternative approach for incorporating load models in security-constrained OPF (SCOPF) studies apparently avoids reducing the total power demand for the intact system, but reduces the voltages. A study of the behavior of conventional OPF solutions in the presence of loads not controlled by ULTC's shows that this result in a reducing the total power demand for the intact system. In this paper, the authors propose an objective that avoids the tendency to lower the total power demand, total revenue and net revenue, for OPF neglecting contingencies (normal OPF), as well as for security-constrained OPF. The minimum cost objective is modified by subtracting the total power demand from the total fuel cost. This is equivalent to maximizing the net revenue.

  9. Free Flow Power Partners to Improve Hydrokinetic Turbine Performance and Cost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Free Flow Power is working to enable American utilities to generate power from river sites not suited to conventional hydropower generation.

  10. EERE Success Story—Free Flow Power Partners to Improve Hydrokinetic Turbine Performance and Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Free Flow Power is working to enable American utilities to generate power from river sites not suited to conventional hydropower generation.

  11. 220 kV SSSC device for power flow control (Smart Grid Project...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    20 kV SSSC device for power flow control (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name 220 kV SSSC device for power flow control Country Spain Headquarters Location...

  12. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR You are accessing a document from the Department of ...

  13. Solving the power flow equations: a monotone operator approach

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dvijotham, Krishnamurthy; Low, Steven; Chertkov, Michael

    2015-07-21

    The AC power flow equations underlie all operational aspects of power systems. They are solved routinely in operational practice using the Newton-Raphson method and its variants. These methods work well given a good initial “guess” for the solution, which is always available in normal system operations. However, with the increase in levels of intermittent generation, the assumption of a good initial guess always being available is no longer valid. In this paper, we solve this problem using the theory of monotone operators. We show that it is possible to compute (using an offline optimization) a “monotonicity domain” in the space of voltage phasors. Given this domain, there is a simple efficient algorithm that will either find a solution in the domain, or provably certify that no solutions exist in it. We validate the approach on several IEEE test cases and demonstrate that the offline optimization can be performed tractably and the computed “monotonicity domain” includes all practically relevant power flow solutions.

  14. Primary-Side Power Flow Control of Wireless Power Transfer for Electric Vehicle Charging

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Miller, John M.; Onar, Omer C.; Chinthavali, Madhu

    2014-12-22

    Various noncontacting methods of plug-in electric vehicle charging are either under development or now deployed as aftermarket options in the light-duty automotive market. Wireless power transfer (WPT) is now the accepted term for wireless charging and is used synonymously for inductive power transfer and magnetic resonance coupling. WPT technology is in its infancy; standardization is lacking, especially on interoperability, center frequency selection, magnetic fringe field suppression, and the methods employed for power flow regulation. This paper proposes a new analysis concept for power flow in WPT in which the primary provides frequency selection and the tuned secondary, with its resemblancemore » to a power transmission network having a reactive power voltage control, is analyzed as a transmission network. Analysis is supported with experimental data taken from Oak Ridge National Laboratory s WPT apparatus. Lastly, this paper also provides an experimental evidence for frequency selection, fringe field assessment, and the need for low-latency communications in the feedback path.« less

  15. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  16. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pollock, George G.

    1997-01-01

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  17. Lateral displacement and rotational displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duden, Thomas

    2014-04-22

    A position measuring sensor formed from opposing sets of capacitor plates measures both rotational displacement and lateral displacement from the changes in capacitances as overlapping areas of capacitors change. Capacitances are measured by a measuring circuit. The measured capacitances are provided to a calculating circuit that performs calculations to obtain angular and lateral displacement from the capacitances measured by the measuring circuit.

  18. Power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Divan, Deepakraj M.; Kandula, Rajendra Prasad; Prasai, Anish

    2016-03-08

    A power flow controller with a fractionally rated back-to-back (BTB) converter is provided. The power flow controller provide dynamic control of both active and reactive power of a power system. The power flow controller inserts a voltage with controllable magnitude and phase between two AC sources at the same frequency; thereby effecting control of active and reactive power flows between the two AC sources. A transformer may be augmented with a fractionally rated bi-directional Back to Back (BTB) converter. The fractionally rated BTB converter comprises a transformer side converter (TSC), a direct-current (DC) link, and a line side converter (LSC). By controlling the switches of the BTB converter, the effective phase angle between the two AC source voltages may be regulated, and the amplitude of the voltage inserted by the power flow controller may be adjusted with respect to the AC source voltages.

  19. Communications and control for electric power systems: Power flow classification for static security assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niebur, D.; Germond, A.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the classification of power system states using an artificial neural network model, Kohonen's self-organizing feature map. The ultimate goal of this classification is to assess power system static security in real-time. Kohonen's self-organizing feature map is an unsupervised neural network which maps N-dimensional input vectors to an array of M neurons. After learning, the synaptic weight vectors exhibit a topological organization which represents the relationship between the vectors of the training set. This learning is unsupervised, which means that the number and size of the classes are not specified beforehand. In the application developed in the paper, the input vectors used as the training set are generated by off-line load-flow simulations. The learning algorithm and the results of the organization are discussed.

  20. Communications and control for electric power systems: Power flow classification for static security assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Niebur, D.; Germond, A.

    1993-02-01

    This report investigates the classification of power system states using an artificial neural network model, Kohonen`s self-organizing feature map. The ultimate goal of this classification is to assess power system static security in real-time. Kohonen`s self-organizing feature map is an unsupervised neural network which maps N-dimensional input vectors to an array of M neurons. After learning, the synaptic weight vectors exhibit a topological organization which represents the relationship between the vectors of the training set. This learning is unsupervised, which means that the number and size of the classes are not specified beforehand. In the application developed in the paper, the input vectors used as the training set are generated by off-line load-flow simulations. The learning algorithm and the results of the organization are discussed.

  1. Time series power flow analysis for distribution connected PV generation.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Broderick, Robert Joseph; Quiroz, Jimmy Edward; Ellis, Abraham; Reno, Matthew J.; Smith, Jeff; Dugan, Roger

    2013-01-01

    Distributed photovoltaic (PV) projects must go through an interconnection study process before connecting to the distribution grid. These studies are intended to identify the likely impacts and mitigation alternatives. In the majority of the cases, system impacts can be ruled out or mitigation can be identified without an involved study, through a screening process or a simple supplemental review study. For some proposed projects, expensive and time-consuming interconnection studies are required. The challenges to performing the studies are twofold. First, every study scenario is potentially unique, as the studies are often highly specific to the amount of PV generation capacity that varies greatly from feeder to feeder and is often unevenly distributed along the same feeder. This can cause location-specific impacts and mitigations. The second challenge is the inherent variability in PV power output which can interact with feeder operation in complex ways, by affecting the operation of voltage regulation and protection devices. The typical simulation tools and methods in use today for distribution system planning are often not adequate to accurately assess these potential impacts. This report demonstrates how quasi-static time series (QSTS) simulation and high time-resolution data can be used to assess the potential impacts in a more comprehensive manner. The QSTS simulations are applied to a set of sample feeders with high PV deployment to illustrate the usefulness of the approach. The report describes methods that can help determine how PV affects distribution system operations. The simulation results are focused on enhancing the understanding of the underlying technical issues. The examples also highlight the steps needed to perform QSTS simulation and describe the data needed to drive the simulations. The goal of this report is to make the methodology of time series power flow analysis readily accessible to utilities and others responsible for evaluating

  2. Free Flow Power Partners to Improve Hydrokinetic Turbine Performance...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    to evaluate and optimize the technical and environmental performance and cost factors of its hydrokinetic SmarTurbines(tm)-turbines that generate energy from free-flowing rivers. ...

  3. Displacer for Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brown, A. T.

    1985-12-24

    In a Stirling engine and the like, a displacer piston having a plurality of internal baffles and insulation so as to prevent undesired heat transfer across the displacer piston.

  4. Experimental and theoretical analysis of the performance of Stirling engine with pendulum type displacer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isshiki, Seita; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Takanose, Eiichiro; Igawa, Yoshiharu

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the detailed experimental and theoretical performance of new type Stirling engine with pendulum type displacer (PDSE) which was proposed last year. This kind of engine has a pendulum type displacer suspended by the hinge shaft, and swings right and left in displacer space. The present paper mainly discusses the PDSE-3B which is an atmospheric 30[W] engine heated by fuel and cooled by water. It is clear that power required to provide a pendulum type displacer motion is expressed as a simple equation consisting of viscous flow loss term proportional to the square of rotational speed and dynamic pressure loss term proportional to the cube of rotational speed. It is also clear that theoretical engine power defined as the difference between experimental indicated power and power required to provide pendulum type displacer motion agrees well with the experimental engine power. It is also clear that measured Nusselt number of regenerator`s wire meshes agreed with the equation of previous study. In conclusion, PDSE is considered effective for measuring many aspects of performance of the Stirling engine.

  5. A MILP-Based Distribution Optimal Power Flow Model for Microgrid Operation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Guodong; Starke, Michael R; Zhang, Xiaohu; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a distribution optimal power flow (D-OPF) model for the operation of microgrids. The proposed model minimizes not only the operating cost, including fuel cost, purchasing cost and demand charge, but also several performance indices, including voltage deviation, network power loss and power factor. It co-optimizes the real and reactive power form distributed generators (DGs) and batteries considering their capacity and power factor limits. The D-OPF is formulated as a mixed-integer linear programming (MILP). Numerical simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed model.

  6. Precision displacement reference system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Dubois, Robert R.; Strother, Jerry D.

    2000-02-22

    A precision displacement reference system is described, which enables real time accountability over the applied displacement feedback system to precision machine tools, positioning mechanisms, motion devices, and related operations. As independent measurements of tool location is taken by a displacement feedback system, a rotating reference disk compares feedback counts with performed motion. These measurements are compared to characterize and analyze real time mechanical and control performance during operation.

  7. High Average Power Laser Gain Medium With Low Optical Distortion Using A Transverse Flowing Liquid Host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.; Ault, Earl R.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2005-07-05

    A high average power, low optical distortion laser gain media is based on a flowing liquid media. A diode laser pumping device with tailored irradiance excites the laser active atom, ion or molecule within the liquid media. A laser active component of the liquid media exhibits energy storage times longer than or comparable to the thermal optical response time of the liquid. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for mixing and circulating the lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump, a diffuser, and a heat exchanger. A liquid flow gain cell includes flow straighteners and flow channel compression.

  8. Overview of BGE`s fossil power flow accelerated corrosion inspection program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klein, P.A.; Guanti, R.J.

    1996-07-01

    An inspection program was developed for Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC) screening of piping components in BGE`s Fossil Power Plants. Details of the overall inspection process and rationale for identifying the most susceptible components for FAC wall thinning are presented. Inspection results are discussed and a list of component types illustrating a high susceptibility to wall thinning due to FAC is included.

  9. Optical displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carr, Dustin W.

    2008-04-08

    An optical displacement sensor is disclosed which uses a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) coupled to an optical cavity formed by a moveable membrane and an output mirror of the VCSEL. This arrangement renders the lasing characteristics of the VCSEL sensitive to any movement of the membrane produced by sound, vibrations, pressure changes, acceleration, etc. Some embodiments of the optical displacement sensor can further include a light-reflective diffractive lens located on the membrane or adjacent to the VCSEL to control the amount of lasing light coupled back into the VCSEL. A photodetector detects a portion of the lasing light from the VCSEL to provide an electrical output signal for the optical displacement sensor which varies with the movement of the membrane.

  10. Regularization of Feedwater Flow Rate Evaluation for Venturi Meter Fouling Problem in Nuclear Power Plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gribok, Andrei V.; Attieh, Ibrahim K.; Hines, J. Wesley; Uhrig, Robert E.

    2001-04-15

    Inferential sensing is a method that can be used to evaluate parameters of a physical system based on a set of measurements related to these parameters. The most common method of inferential sensing uses mathematical models to infer a parameter value from correlated sensor values. However, since inferential sensing is an inverse problem, it can produce inconsistent results due to minor perturbations in the data. This research shows that regularization can be used in inferential sensing to produce consistent results. Data from Florida Power Corporation's Crystal River nuclear power plant (NPP) are used to give an important example of monitoring NPP feedwater flow rate.

  11. A critical review of displacement ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, X.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1998-10-01

    This paper reviews several aspects of the performance of displacement ventilation: temperature distribution, flow distribution, contaminant distribution, comfort, energy and cost analysis, and design guidelines. Ventilation rate, cooling load, heat source, wall characteristics, space height, and diffuser type have major impacts on the performance of displacement ventilation. Some of the impacts can be estimated by simple equations, but many are still unknown. Based on current findings, displacement ventilation systems without cooled ceiling panels can be used for space with a cooling load up to 13 Btu/(h{center_dot}ft{sup 2}) (40 W/m{sup 2}). Energy consumed by HVAC systems depends on control strategies. The first costs of the displacement ventilation system are similar to those of a mixing ventilation system. The displacement system with cooled ceiling panels can remove a higher cooling load, but the first costs are higher as well. The design guidelines of displacement ventilation developed in Scandinavian countries need to be clarified and extended so that they can be used for US buildings. This paper outlines the research needed to develop design guidelines for US buildings.

  12. Flow simulation of the Component Development Integration Facility magnetohydrodynamic power train system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report covers application of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) computer codes to simulation and analysis of components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train system at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF). Major components of the system include a 50-MWt coal-fired, two-stage combustor and an MHD channel. The combustor, designed and built by TRW, includes a deswirl section between the first and the second-stage combustor and a converging nozzle following the second-stage combustor, which connects to the MHD channel. ANL used computer codes to simulate and analyze flow characteristics in various components of the MHD system. The first-stage swirl combustor was deemed a mature technology and, therefore, was not included in the computer simulation. Several versions of the ICOMFLO computer code were used for the deswirl section and second-stage combustor. The MGMHD code, upgraded with a slag current leakage submodel, was used for the MHD channel. Whenever possible data from the test facilities were used to aid in calibrating parameters in the computer code, to validate the computer code, or to set base-case operating conditions for computations with the computer code. Extensive sensitivity and parametric studies were done on cold-flow mixing in the second-stage combustor, reacting flow in the second-stage combustor and converging nozzle, and particle-laden flow in the deswirl zone of the first-stage combustor, the second-stage combustor, and the converging nozzle. These simulations with subsequent analysis were able to show clearly in flow patterns and various computable measures of performance a number of sensitive and problematical areas in the design of the power train. The simulations of upstream components also provided inlet parameter profiles for simulation of the MHD power generating channel. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

  13. Transverse flowing liquid Kerr cell for high average power laser Q-switching and for direct modulation of high power laser beams.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Comaskey, Brian J.

    2004-12-07

    A fluid flow concept is applied in an optical apparatus to define a high gain stand-off, fast electro-optical q-switch which is highly impervious to high average power optical loads.

  14. Study of multi-phase flow characteristics in an MHD power train

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1993-08-01

    Computer simulation was used to predict two-phase flow processes in the CDIF MHD power train system. The predictions were used to evaluate the effects of operating and design parameters on the performance of the system and a parametric evaluation provides information to enhance the performance of the system. Major components of the system under investigation are the two-stage combustor, the converging/diverging nozzle, the supersonic MHD channel, and the diffuser. Flow in each component was simulated using a computer code. Integrating the computer codes, the two-phase flow processes in the system was calculated. Recently, the computer codes were used to investigate problems of nozzle erosion and the non-uniform iron oxide coverage on the cathode wall in the channel. A limited parametric study was conducted. The results indicated that (1) among the three nozzle geometries under investigation a {number_sign}5 nozzle has the smoothest flow development in the nozzle and has the lowest droplet deposition on wall and (2) smaller particle size and lower injection velocity tend to disperse the iron oxide particles more uniformly in the nozzle.

  15. AVTA: Vehicle to Grid Power Flow Regulations and Building Codes Review

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    The Vehicle Technologies Office's Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity carries out testing on a wide range of advanced vehicles and technologies on dynamometers, closed test tracks, and on-the-road. These results provide benchmark data that researchers can use to develop technology models and guide future research and development. The following report is a review of Vehicle-to-Grid power flow regulations and building codes, as informed by the AVTA's testing on plug-in electric vehicle charging equipment. This research was conducted by Idaho National Laboratory.

  16. Property:DisplacementMeasurement | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    String Description MHK Displacement Measurement Categories Used in FormTemplate MHKSensor & MHKInstrument Allows Values 3-axis (Displacement);2-axis (Displacement);1-axis...

  17. Variable displacement blower

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bookout, Charles C.; Stotts, Robert E.; Waring, Douglass R.; Folsom, Lawrence R.

    1986-01-01

    A blower having a stationary casing for rotatably supporting a rotor assembly having a series of open ended chambers arranged to close against the surrounding walls of the casing. Pistons are slidably mounted within each chamber with the center of rotation of the pistons being offset in regard to the center of rotation of the rotor assembly whereby the pistons reciprocate in the chambers as the rotor assembly turns. As inlet port communicates with the rotor assembly to deliver a working substance into the chamber as the pistons approach a top dead center position in the chamber while an outlet port also communicates with the rotor to exhaust the working substance as the pistons approach a bottom dead center position. The displacement of the blower is varied by adjusting the amount of eccentricity between the center of rotation of the pistons and the center of rotation of the rotor assembly.

  18. Formation of a laminar electron flow for 300 GHz high-power pulsed gyrotron

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yamaguchi, Yuusuke; Tatematsu, Yoshinori; Saito, Teruo; Ikeda, Ryosuke; Mudiganti, Jagadish C.; Ogawa, Isamu; Idehara, Toshitaka [Research Center for Development of Far-Infrared Region, University of Fukui, 3-9-1 Bunkyo, Fukui-shi 910-8507 (Japan)

    2012-11-15

    This paper describes the design of a triode magnetron injection gun for use in a 200 kW, 300 GHz gyrotron. As power and frequency increase, the performance of the gyrotron becomes quite sensitive to the quality of the electron beam. Formation of a laminar electron flow is essential for the realization of a high quality beam with a small velocity spread. In this study, a new method is developed for a quantitative evaluation of the laminarity and is applied to optimize the electrode design. The laminarity depends not only on conventional design parameters such as the cathode slant angle but also on the spatial distribution of the electric field along the beam trajectory. In the optimized design, the velocity pitch factors, {alpha}, larger than 1.2 are obtained at 65 kV, 10 A with spreads, {Delta}{alpha}, less than 5%.

  19. A programmatic approach to piping flow-accelerated corrosion in fossil power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zysk, G.W.; McBrine, W.J.; Sinha, S.K.

    1996-12-01

    Pipe wall thinning in fossil plant piping systems has been recognized as an important industry problem which should be investigated. This is evident by an observed trend of industry failures and documented cases of high energy pipe wall thinning. Nuclear plants typically have developed extensive Flow-Accelerated Corrosion programs in recent years. However, the inherent design, operational, and regulatory differences between Fossil and Nuclear power plants warrants a programmatic approach specific to non-nuclear plants. This paper suggests a phased investigative approach for Fossil plants which allows for short term risk reduction, but also establishes a long term strategy to further reduce risk, understand the extent of the problem and appropriately consider mitigating actions.

  20. The shallow water equations as a hybrid flow model for the numerical and experimental analysis of hydro power stations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ostermann, Lars; Seidel, Christian

    2015-03-10

    The numerical analysis of hydro power stations is an important method of the hydraulic design and is used for the development and optimisation of hydro power stations in addition to the experiments with the physical submodel of a full model in the hydraulic laboratory. For the numerical analysis, 2D and 3D models are appropriate and commonly used.The 2D models refer mainly to the shallow water equations (SWE), since for this flow model a large experience on a wide field of applications for the flow analysis of numerous problems in hydraulic engineering already exists. Often, the flow model is verified by in situ measurements. In order to consider 3D flow phenomena close to singularities like weirs, hydro power stations etc. the development of a hybrid fluid model is advantageous to improve the quality and significance of the global model. Here, an extended hybrid flow model based on the principle of the SWE is presented. The hybrid flow model directly links the numerical model with the experimental data, which may originate from physical full models, physical submodels and in-situ measurements. Hence a wide field of application of the hybrid model emerges including the improvement of numerical models and the strong coupling of numerical and experimental analysis.

  1. Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2008-01-21

    A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 34.5 kPa, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.114 m{sup 3}/hr.

  2. Simulation of three-dimensional multi-phase flow characteristics in the deswirl section of the CDIF MHD power train

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Petrick, M.

    1994-06-01

    A three-dimensional, two-phase, turbulent flow computer code was used to predict flow characteristics of seed particles and coal gas in the deswirl section of the CDIF MHD power train system. Seed material which has a great effect on the overall performance of the MHD system is injected in the deswirl against the swirling coal gas flow coming from the first stage combustor. While testing the MHD system, excessive seed material (70% more than theoretical value) was required to achieve design operating conditions. Calculations show that the swirling coal gas flow turns a 90 degree angle to minimize the swirl motion before entering a second stage combustor and many seed particles are too slow to react to the flow turning and deposit on the walls of the deswirl section. Some seed material deposited on the walls is covered by slag layer and removed from the gas flow. The reduction of seed material in the gas flow decreases MHD power generation significantly. A computational experiment was conducted and its results show that seed injection on the wall can be minimized by simply changing the seed injection and an optimum location was identified. If seed is injected from the location of choice, the seed deposition is reduced by a factor of 10 compared to the original case.

  3. Regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Isshiki, Naotsugu; Watanabe, Hiroichi; Raggi, L.; Isshiki, Seita; Hirata, Koichi

    1996-12-31

    A few rotary displacer Stirling engines in which the displacer has one gas pocket space at one side and rotates in a main enclosed cylinder, which is heated from one side and cooled from opposite side without any regenerator, have been studied for some time by the authors. The authors tried to improve this engine by equipping it with a regenerator, because without a regenerator, pressure oscillation and efficiency are too small. Here, several types of regenerative rotary displacer piston Stirling engines are proposed. One is the contra-rotating tandem two disc type displacer engine using axial heat conduction through side walls or by heat pipes and another is a single disc type with circulating fluid regenerator or heat pipes. Stirling engines of this new rotary displacer type are thought to attain high speed. Here, experimental results of the original rotary displacer Stirling engine without a regenerator, and one contra-rotating tandem displacer engine with side wall regenerator by axial heat conduction are reported accompanied with a discussion of the results.

  4. Borehole optical lateral displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lewis, R.E.

    1998-10-20

    There is provided by this invention an optical displacement sensor that utilizes a reflective target connected to a surface to be monitored to reflect light from a light source such that the reflected light is received by a photoelectric transducer. The electric signal from the photoelectric transducer is then imputed into electronic circuitry to generate an electronic image of the target. The target`s image is monitored to determine the quantity and direction of any lateral displacement in the target`s image which represents lateral displacement in the surface being monitored. 4 figs.

  5. Suction-recirculation device for stabilizing particle flows within a solar powered solid particle receiver

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kolb, Gregory J.

    2012-02-07

    A suction-recirculation device for stabilizing the flow of a curtain of blackened heat absorption particles falling inside of a solar receiver with an open aperture. The curtain of particles absorbs the concentrated heat from a solar mirror array reflected up to the receiver on a solar power tower. External winds entering the receiver at an oblique angle can destabilize the particle curtain and eject particles. A fan and ductwork is located behind the back wall of the receiver and sucks air out through an array of small holes in the back wall. Any entrained particles are separated out by a conventional cyclone device. Then, the air is recirculated back to the top of the receiver by injecting the recycled air through an array of small holes in the receiver's ceiling and upper aperture front wall. Since internal air is recirculated, heat losses are minimized and high receiver efficiency is maintained. Suction-recirculation velocities in the range of 1-5 m/s are sufficient to stabilize the particle curtain against external wind speeds in excess of 10 m/s.

  6. Displacement sensing system and method

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VunKannon, Jr., Robert S

    2006-08-08

    A displacement sensing system and method addresses demanding requirements for high precision sensing of displacement of a shaft, for use typically in a linear electro-dynamic machine, having low failure rates over multi-year unattended operation in hostile environments. Applications include outer space travel by spacecraft having high-temperature, sealed environments without opportunity for servicing over many years of operation. The displacement sensing system uses a three coil sensor configuration, including a reference and sense coils, to provide a pair of ratio-metric signals, which are inputted into a synchronous comparison circuit, which is synchronously processed for a resultant displacement determination. The pair of ratio-metric signals are similarly affected by environmental conditions so that the comparison circuit is able to subtract or nullify environmental conditions that would otherwise cause changes in accuracy to occur.

  7. Low flow fume hood

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bell, Geoffrey C.; Feustel, Helmut E.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.

    2002-01-01

    A fume hood is provided having an adequate level of safety while reducing the amount of air exhausted from the hood. A displacement flow fume hood works on the principal of a displacement flow which displaces the volume currently present in the hood using a push-pull system. The displacement flow includes a plurality of air supplies which provide fresh air, preferably having laminar flow, to the fume hood. The displacement flow fume hood also includes an air exhaust which pulls air from the work chamber in a minimally turbulent manner. As the displacement flow produces a substantially consistent and minimally turbulent flow in the hood, inconsistent flow patterns associated with contaminant escape from the hood are minimized. The displacement flow fume hood largely reduces the need to exhaust large amounts of air from the hood. It has been shown that exhaust air flow reductions of up to 70% are possible without a decrease in the hood's containment performance. The fume hood also includes a number of structural adaptations which facilitate consistent and minimally turbulent flow within a fume hood.

  8. Performance evaluation and design guidelines for displacement ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, X.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1999-07-01

    This paper evaluates the performance of traditional displacement ventilation systems for small offices, large offices with partitions, classrooms, and industrial workshops under US thermal and flow boundary conditions, such as a high cooling load. With proper design, displacement ventilation can maintain a thermally comfortable environment that has a low air velocity, a small temperature difference between the head and foot level, and a low percentage of dissatisfied people. Compared with conventional mixing ventilation, displacement ventilation may provide better indoor air quality in the occupied zone when the contaminant sources are associated with the heat sources. The mean age of air is younger, and the ventilation effectiveness is higher. Based on results from Scandinavian countries and the authors' investigation of US buildings, this paper presents guidelines for designing displacement ventilation in the US.

  9. Nanorod Niobium Oxide as Powerful Catalysts for an All Vanadium Redox Flow Battery

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Bin; Gu, Meng; Nie, Zimin; Wei, Xiaoliang; Wang, Chong M.; Sprenkle, Vincent L.; Wang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Graphite felts (GFs), as typical electrode materials for all vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs), limit the cell operation to low current density because of their poor kinetic reversibility and electrochemical activity. Here, in order to address this issue we report an electrocatalyst, Nb2O5, decorating the surface of GFs to reduce the activation barrier for redox conversion. Nb2O5 nanofibers with monoclinic phases are synthesized by hydrothermal method and deposited on GFs, which is confirmed to have catalytic effects towards redox couples of V(II)/V(III) at the negative side and V(IV)/V(V) at the positive side, and thus applied in both electrodes of VRB cells. Due to the low conductivity of Nb2O5, the performance of electrodes heavily depends on the nano size and uniform distribution of catalysts on GFs surfaces. The addition of the water-soluble compounds containing W element into the precursor solutions facilitates the precipitation of nanofibers on the GFs. Accordingly, an optimal amount of W-doped Nb2O5 nanofibers with weaker agglomeration and better distribution on GFs surfaces are obtained, leading to significant improvement of the electrochemical performances of VRB cells particularly under the high power operation. The corresponding energy efficiency is enhanced by 10.7 % under the operation of high charge/discharge current density (150 mA•cm-2) owing to faster charge transfer as compared with that without catalysts. These results suggest that Nb2O5 based nanofibers-decorating GFs hold great promise as high-performance electrodes for VRB applications.

  10. Flow reversal power limit for the HFBR (Technical Report) | SciTech...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The experiments were single channel flow reversal tests under a range of conditions. The analytical phase involved simulations of the tests to benchmark the physical models and ...

  11. Pore-scale simulation of liquid CO2 displacement of water using a two-phase lattice Boltzmann model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Haihu; Valocchi, Albert J.; Werth, Charles J.; Kang, Oinjun; Oostrom, Martinus

    2014-11-01

    A lattice Boltzmann color-fluid model, which was recently proposed by Liu et al. [H. Liu, A.J. Valocchi, and Q. Kang. Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for immiscible two-phase flow simulations. Phys. Rev. E, 85:046309, 2012.] based on a concept of continuum surface force, is improved to simulate immiscible two-phase flows in porous media. The new improvements allow the model to account for different kinematic viscosities of both fluids and to model fluid-solid interactions. The capability and accuracy of this model is first validated by two benchmark tests: a layered two-phase flow with a viscosity ratio, and a dynamic capillary intrusion. This model is then used to simulate liquid CO2 (LCO2) displacing water in a dual-permeability pore network. The extent and behavior of LCO2 preferential flow (i.e., fingering) is found to depend on the capillary number (Ca), and three different displacement patterns observed in previous micromodel experiments are reproduced. The predicted variation of LCO2 saturation with Ca, as well as variation of specific interfacial length with LCO2 saturation, are both in good agreement with the experimental observations. To understand the effect of heterogeneity on pore-scale displacement, we also simulate LCO2 displacing water in a randomly heterogeneous pore network, which has the same size and porosity as the dual-permeability pore network. In comparison to the dual-permeability case, the transition from capillary fingering to viscous fingering occurs at a higher Ca, and LCO2 saturation is higher at low Ca but lower at high Ca. In either pore network, the LCO2-water specific interfacial length is found to obey a power-law dependence on LCO2 saturation.

  12. Rotor component displacement measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mercer, Gary D.; Li, Ming C.; Baum, Charles R.

    2003-05-27

    A measuring system for measuring axial displacement of a tube relative to an axially stationary component in a rotating rotor assembly includes at least one displacement sensor adapted to be located normal to a longitudinal axis of the tube; an insulated cable system adapted for passage through the rotor assembly; a rotatable proximitor module located axially beyond the rotor assembly to which the cables are connected; and a telemetry system operatively connected to the proximitor module for sampling signals from the proximitor module and forwarding data to a ground station.

  13. Free displacer and Ringbom displacer for a Malone refrigerator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Brown, A.O.

    1994-05-01

    Malone refrigeration uses a liquid near its critical point (instead of the customary gas) as the working fluid in a Stirling, Brayton, or similar regenerative or recuperative cycle. Thus far, we have focused on the Stirling cycle, to avoid the difficult construction of the high-pressure-difference counterflow recuperator required for a Brayton machine. Our first Malone refrigerator used liquid propylene (C{sub 3}H{sub 6}) in a double-acting 4-cylinder Stirling configuration. First measurements with a free displacer used in a liquid working fluid are presented. The displacer was operated both in harmonic mode and in Ringbom mode, in liquid carbon dioxide. The results are in reasonable agreement with expectations.

  14. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1996-01-01

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board.

  15. Transient digitizer with displacement current samplers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-05-21

    A low component count, high speed sample gate, and digitizer architecture using the sample gates is based on use of a signal transmission line, a strobe transmission line and a plurality of sample gates connected to the sample transmission line at a plurality of positions. The sample gates include a strobe pickoff structure near the strobe transmission line which generates a charge displacement current in response to propagation of the strobe signal on the strobe transmission line sufficient to trigger the sample gate. The sample gate comprises a two-diode sampling bridge and is connected to a meandered signal transmission line at one end and to a charge-holding cap at the other. The common cathodes are reverse biased. A voltage step is propagated down the strobe transmission line. As the step propagates past a capacitive pickoff, displacement current i=c(dv/dT), flows into the cathodes, driving the bridge into conduction and thereby charging the charge-holding capacitor to a value related to the signal. A charge amplifier converts the charge on the charge-holding capacitor to an output voltage. The sampler is mounted on a printed circuit board, and the sample transmission line and strobe transmission line comprise coplanar microstrips formed on a surface of the substrate. Also, the strobe pickoff structure may comprise a planar pad adjacent the strobe transmission line on the printed circuit board. 16 figs.

  16. Ventilation by stratification and displacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skaaret, E.

    1983-03-01

    Ventilation effectiveness is not one single index which can be used for classifying ventilating systems. It is shown that a system has different effectivenesses depending on the characteristics of the pollution sources. A transient ventilation effectiveness can be used to generally characterize the system behavior during transient conditions. This index is, for a given system, dependent only on the thermal conditions. Using the different concepts of ventilation effectiveness and knowledge of the nature of the diffusion process it is concluded that the mixing principle in ventilation is not the best one. The displacement principle working vertical-up (air supply directly to the zone of occupation) is generally working much better. Density stratification improves the efficiency. Conditions for stable thermal stratification is dealt with. Room heating systems are concluded to be based on the radiant heating principle. A no recirculating displacement solution using a heat exchanger is claimed to be energy efficient. Research work which substantiated the different conclusions is referenced.

  17. Optimal Power Flow of Multiple Energy Carriers(Geidl and Andersson...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    topics related to ESI Posted: 15 Nov 2012 - 13:55 by Qinsun Qinsun Prospects for Nuclear Power(Davis 2012) Posted: 15 Nov 2012 - 13:36 by Qinsun 1 of 4 Groups Menu You...

  18. Improving Power Production in Acetate-Fed Microbial Fuel Cells via Enrichment of Exoelectrogenic Organisms in Flow-Through Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borole, Abhijeet P; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Vishnivetskaya, Tatiana A; Leak, David; Andras, Calin

    2009-01-01

    An exoelectrogenic, biofilm-forming microbial consortium was enriched in an acetate-fed microbial fuel cell (MFC) using a flow-through anode coupled to an air-cathode. Multiple parameters known to improve MFC performance were integrated in one design including electrode spacing, specific electrode surface area, flow-through design, minimization of dead volume within anode chamber, and control of external resistance. In addition, continuous feeding of carbon source was employed and the MFC was operated at intermittent high flows to enable removal of non-biofilm forming organisms over a period of six months. The consortium enriched using the modified design and operating conditions resulted in a power density of 345 W m-3 of net anode volume (3650 mW m-2), when coupled to a ferricyanide cathode. The enriched consortium included -, -, -Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. Members of the order Rhodocyclaceae and Burkholderiaceae (Azospira spp. (49%), Acidovorax spp. (11%) and Comamonas spp. (7%)), dominated the microbial consortium. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis based on primers selective for Archaea suggested a very low abundance of methanogens. Limiting the delivery of the carbon source via continuous feeding corresponding to the maximum cathodic oxidation rates permitted in the flow-through, air-cathode MFC resulted in coulombic efficiencies reaching 88 5.7%.

  19. Fast-wave Power Flow Along SOL Field Lines In NSTX nd The Associated Power Deposition Profile Across The SOL In Front Of The Antenna

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perkins, Roy

    2013-06-21

    Fast-wave heating and current drive efficiencies can be reduced by a number of processes in the vicinity of the antenna and in the scrape off layer (SOL). On NSTX from around 25% to more than 60% of the high-harmonic fast-wave power can be lost to the SOL regions, and a large part of this lost power flows along SOL magnetic field lines and is deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling. We show that field-line mapping matches the location of heat deposition on the lower divertor, albeit with a portion of the heat outside of the predictions. The field-line mapping can then be used to partially reconstruct the profile of lost fast-wave power at the midplane in front of the antenna, and the losses peak close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS) as well as the antenna. This profile suggests a radial standing-wave pattern formed by fast-wave propagation in the SOL, and this hypothesis will be tested on NSTX-U. Advanced RF codes must reproduce these results so that such codes can be used to understand this edge loss and to minimize RF heat deposition and erosion in the divertor region on ITER.

  20. TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION; POWER SUBSTATIONS; CAPITALIZED...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    AND DISTRIBUTION; POWER SUBSTATIONS; CAPITALIZED COST; CALCULATION METHODS; PLANNING; COST ESTIMATION; MATHEMATICAL MODELS The displacement or deferral of substation...

  1. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, John

    1999-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  2. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, J.

    1995-05-30

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 29 figs.

  3. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, J.

    1999-04-06

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically. 23 figs.

  4. Interferometric fiber optic displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Farah, John

    1995-01-01

    A method is presented to produce a change in the optical path length in the gap between two single mode optical fibers proportional to the lateral displacement of either fiber end normal to its axis. This is done with the use of refraction or diffraction at the interface between a guiding and non-guiding media to change the direction of propagation of the light in the gap. A method is also presented for laying a waveguide on a cantilever so that the displacement of the tip of the cantilever produces a proportional path length change in the gap by distancing the waveguide from the neutral axis of the cantilever. The fiber is supported as a cantilever or a waveguide is deposited on a micromachined cantilever and incorporated in an interferometer which is made totally on a silicon substrate with the use of integrated-optic technology. A resonant element in the form of a micro-bridge is incorporated in the ridge waveguide and produces a frequency output which is readily digitizeable and immune to laser frequency noise. Finally, monolithic mechanical means for phase modulation are provided on the same sensor substrate. This is done by vibrating the cantilever or micro-bridge either electrically or optically.

  5. Variable delivery, fixed displacement pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sommars, Mark F.

    2001-01-01

    A variable delivery, fixed displacement pump comprises a plurality of pistons reciprocated within corresponding cylinders in a cylinder block. The pistons are reciprocated by rotation of a fixed angle swash plate connected to the pistons. The pistons and cylinders cooperate to define a plurality of fluid compression chambers each have a delivery outlet. A vent port is provided from each fluid compression chamber to vent fluid therefrom during at least a portion of the reciprocal stroke of the piston. Each piston and cylinder combination cooperates to close the associated vent port during another portion of the reciprocal stroke so that fluid is then pumped through the associated delivery outlet. The delivery rate of the pump is varied by adjusting the axial position of the swash plate relative to the cylinder block, which varies the duration of the piston stroke during which the vent port is closed.

  6. Displaced electrode process for welding

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Heichel, L.J.

    1975-08-26

    A method is described for the butt-welding of a relatively heavy mass to a relatively small mass such as a thin-wall tube. In butt-welding heat is normally applied at the joint between the two pieces which are butt-welded together. The application of heat at the joint results in overheating the tube which causes thinning of the tube walls and porosity in the tube material. This is eliminated by displacing the welding electrode away from the seam toward the heavier mass so that heat is applied to the heavy mass and not at the butt seam. Examples of the parameters used in welding fuel rods are given. The cladding and end plugs were made of Zircalloy. The electrode used was of 2 percent thoriated tungsten. (auth)

  7. Evaluation of two-phase relative permeability and capillary pressure relations for unstable displacements in a pore network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehoff, Karl J.; Oostrom, Martinus; Zhang, Changyong; Grate, Jay W.

    2012-10-29

    A series of displacement experiments was conducted using five wetting-nonwetting immiscible fluid pairs in a homogenous and uniform pore network. The micromodel was initially saturated with either polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG) or water as a wetting fluid, which was subsequently displaced by a nonwetting fluid (dodecane, hexadecane, or mineral oil) at different flow rates. The experiments were designed to allow determinations of nonwetting fluid relative permeabilities ( ), fluid saturations ( ), and capillary pressure heads ( ). In the displacements, nonwetting fluid saturations increased with increasing flow rates for all five fluid pairs, and viscous fingering, capillary fingering, and stable displacement were observed. Viscous fingering occurred when PEG was displaced by either dodecane or hexadecane. For the water displacements, capillary fingers were observed at low capillary numbers. Due to unstable fingering phenomena, values for the PEG displacements were smaller than for the water displacements. A fitting exercise using the Brooks-Corey (1964) relationship showed that the fitted entry pressure heads are reasonably close to the computed entry pressure head. The fitted pore geometry factor, ?? values for the displacements are considerably lower than what is expected for displacements in homogeneous, highly uniform, porous systems, demonstrating the impact of unstable displacement on the apparent value of ?. It was shown that a continuum-based multiphase model could be used to predict the average behavior for wetting fluid drainage in a pore network as long as independently fitted - and - relations are used. The use of a coupled approach through the Brooks-Corey pore geometry factor underpredicts observed values.

  8. Nonlinear power flow feedback control for improved stability and performance of airfoil sections

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, David G.; Robinett, III, Rush D.

    2013-09-03

    A computer-implemented method of determining the pitch stability of an airfoil system, comprising using a computer to numerically integrate a differential equation of motion that includes terms describing PID controller action. In one model, the differential equation characterizes the time-dependent response of the airfoil's pitch angle, .alpha.. The computer model calculates limit-cycles of the model, which represent the stability boundaries of the airfoil system. Once the stability boundary is known, feedback control can be implemented, by using, for example, a PID controller to control a feedback actuator. The method allows the PID controller gain constants, K.sub.I, K.sub.p, and K.sub.d, to be optimized. This permits operation closer to the stability boundaries, while preventing the physical apparatus from unintentionally crossing the stability boundaries. Operating closer to the stability boundaries permits greater power efficiencies to be extracted from the airfoil system.

  9. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer using low-power laser source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graves, Steven W.; Habbersett, Robert C.

    2014-07-01

    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  10. System and method for measuring particles in a sample stream of a flow cytometer using a low power laser source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graves, Steven W; Habbersett, Robert C

    2013-10-22

    A system and method for analyzing a particle in a sample stream of a flow cytometer or the like. The system has a light source, such as a laser pointer module, for generating a low powered light beam and a fluidics apparatus which is configured to transport particles in the sample stream at substantially low velocity through the light beam for interrogation. Detectors, such as photomultiplier tubes, are configured to detect optical signals generated in response to the light beam impinging the particles. Signal conditioning circuitry is connected to each of the detectors to condition each detector output into electronic signals for processing and is designed to have a limited frequency response to filter high frequency noise from the detector output signals.

  11. Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ADVANCED MANUFACTURING OFFICE Displacing Natural Gas Consumption and Lowering Emissions By ... full advantage of op- portunity fuels and thereby reduce their natural gas consumption. ...

  12. Optimization and Analysis of High-Power Hydrogen/Bromine-Flow Batteries for Grid-Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cho, KT; Albertus, P; Battaglia, V; Kojic, A; Srinivasan, V; Weber, AZ

    2013-10-07

    For storage of grid-scale electrical energy, redox-flow batteries (RFBs) are considered promising technologies. This paper explores the influence of electrolyte composition and ion transport on cell performance by using an integrated approach of experiments and cost modeling. In particular, the impact of the area-specific resistance on system capability is elucidated for the hydrogen/bromine RFB. The experimental data demonstrate very good performance with 1.46 W cm(-2) peak power and 4 A cm(-2) limiting current density at ambient conditions for an optimal cell design and reactant concentrations. The data and cost model results show that higher concentrations of RFB reactants do not necessarily result in lower capital cost as there is a tradeoff between cell performance and storage (tank) requirements. In addition, the discharge time and overall efficiency demonstrate nonlinear effects on system cost, with a 3 to 4 hour minimum discharge time showing a key transition to a plateau in terms of cost for typical RFB systems. The presented results are applicable to many different RFB chemistries and technologies and highlight the importance of ohmic effects and associated area-specific resistance on RFB viability.

  13. Keeping the Power Flowing

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department is working closely with our federal, state and industry partners to protect our energy critical infrastructure from cyber attacks.

  14. Theoretical and experimental study on regenerative rotary displacer Stirling engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raggi, L.; Katsuta, Masafumi; Isshiki, Naotsugu; Isshiki, Seita

    1997-12-31

    Recently a quite new type of hot air engine called rotary displacer engine, in which the displacer is a rotating disk enclosed in a cylinder, has been conceived and developed. The working gas, contained in a notch excavated in the disk, is heated and cooled alternately, on account of the heat transferred through the enclosing cylinder that is heated at one side and cooled at the opposite one. The gas temperature oscillations cause the pressure fluctuations that get out mechanical power acting on a power piston. In order to attempt to increase the performances for this kind of engine, the authors propose three different regeneration methods. The first one comprises two coaxial disks that, revolving in opposite ways, cause a temperature gradient on the cylinder wall and a regenerative axial heat conduction through fins shaped on the cylinder inner wall. The other two methods are based on the heat transferred by a proper closed circuit that in one case has a circulating liquid inside and in the other one is formed by several heat pipes working each one for different temperatures. An engine based on the first principle, the Regenerative Tandem Contra-Rotary Displacer Stirling Engine, has been realized and experimented. In this paper experimental results with and without regeneration are reported comparatively with a detailed description of the unity. A basic explanation of the working principle of this engine and a theoretical analysis investigating the main influential parameters for the regenerative effect are done. This new rotating displacer Stirling engines, for their simplicity, are expected to attain high rotational speed especially for applications as demonstration and hobby unities.

  15. Northwest, the Bonneville Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    voltage power lines that move large amounts of power from hydroelectric projects and power plants to urban centers hundreds of miles away. To keep the electricity flowing safely...

  16. Models for prediction of temperature difference and ventilation effectiveness with displacement ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, X.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1999-07-01

    Displacement ventilation may provide better indoor air quality than mixing ventilation. Proper design of displacement ventilation requires information concerning the air temperature difference between the head and foot level of a sedentary person and the ventilation effectiveness at the breathing level. This paper presents models to predict the air temperature difference and the ventilation effectiveness, based on a database of 56 cases with displacement ventilation. The database was generated by using a validated CFD program and covers four different types of US buildings: small offices, large offices with partitions, classrooms, and industrial workshops under different thermal and flow boundary conditions. Both the maximum cooling load that can be removed by displacement ventilation and the ventilation effectiveness are shown to depend on the heat source type and ventilation rate in a room.

  17. Reactor power for large displacement autonomous underwater vehicles...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Research Org: Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States) Sponsoring Org: USDOE Country of Publication: United States Language: English Subject: 21 ...

  18. Convenient formulations for immiscible displacement in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Civan, F.

    1996-12-31

    Convenient formulations of the immiscible displacement in porous media are presented and applied for waterflooding. The macroscopic equation of continuity for immiscible displacement is derived by porous media averaging. Richardson`s approach and the fractional flow formulation are extended and generalized for anisotropic and heterogeneous porous media. The integral transformations according to Douglas et al and the coordinate transformations presented in this paper lead to differential equations which do not involve the variable fluid and porous media properties explicitly in the differential operators. Fractional flow and unit end-point mobility ratio formulations are also derived for specific applications to reduce the computational requirements and accomplish rapid simulation of waterflooding of petroleum reservoirs. It is demonstrated by typical examples that the resulting equations can be discretized and solved more conveniently and accurately than the conventional formulation which require cumbersome discretization formulae for mixed derivatives involving the fluid and porous media properties. Therefore, the convenient formulations offer potential advantages over the usual formulation used in the simulation of waterflooding such as improved accuracy and reduced computational effort.

  19. TWO-PHASE FLOW STUDIES IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PRIMARY CIRCUITS USING THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL THERMAL-HYDRAULIC CODE BAGIRA.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    KOHURT, P. , KALINICHENKO, S.D.; KROSHILIN, A.E.; KROSHILIN, V.E.; SMIRNOV, A.V.

    2006-06-04

    In this paper we present recent results of the application of the thermal-hydraulic code BAGIRA to the analysis of complex two-phase flows in nuclear power plants primary loops. In particular, we performed benchmark numerical simulation of an integral LOCA experiment performed on a test facility modeling the primary circuit of VVER-1000. In addition, we have also analyzed the flow patterns in the VVER-1000 steam generator vessel for stationary and transient operation regimes. For both of these experiments we have compared the numerical results with measured data. Finally, we demonstrate the capabilities of BAGIRA by modeling a hypothetical severe accident for a VVER-1000 type nuclear reactor. The numerical analysis, which modeled all stages of the hypothetical severe accident up to the complete ablation of the reactor cavity bottom, shows the importance of multi-dimensional flow effects.

  20. Transport-driven scrape-off layer flows and the x-point dependence of the L-H power threshold in Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LaBombard, B.; Rice, J.E.; Hubbard, A.E.; Hughes, J.W.; Greenwald, M.; Granetz, R.S.; Irby, J.H.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Marmar, E.S.; Marr, K.; Mossessian, D.; Parker, R.; Rowan, W.; Smick, N.; Snipes, J.A.; Terry, J.L.; Wolfe, S.M.; Wukitch, S.J.

    2005-05-15

    Factor of {approx}2 higher power thresholds for low- to high-confinement mode transitions (L-H) with unfavorable x-point topologies in Alcator C-Mod [Phys. Plasmas 1, 1511 (1994)] are linked to flow boundary conditions imposed by the scrape-off layer (SOL). Ballooning-like transport drives flow along magnetic field lines from low- to high-field regions with toroidal direction dependent on upper/lower x-point balance; the toroidal rotation of the confined plasma responds, exhibiting a strong counter-current rotation when Bx{nabla}B points away from the x point. Increased auxiliary heating power (rf, no momentum input) leads to an L-H transition at approximately twice the edge electron pressure gradient when Bx{nabla}B points away. As gradients rise prior to the transition, toroidal rotation ramps toward the co-current direction; the H mode is seen when the counter-current rotation imposed by the SOL flow becomes compensated. Remarkably, L-H thresholds in lower-limited discharges are identical to lower x-point discharges; SOL flows are also found similar, suggesting a connection.

  1. Episodic jet power extracted from a spinning black hole surrounded by a neutrino-dominated accretion flow in gamma-ray bursts

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cao, Xinwu [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Liang, En-Wei [Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Yuan, Ye-Fei, E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn, E-mail: yfyuan@ustc.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy, University of Sciences and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China)

    2014-07-10

    It was suggested that the relativistic jets in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powered via the Blandford-Znajek (BZ) mechanism or the annihilation of neutrinos and anti-neutrinos from a neutrino cooling-dominated accretion flow (NDAF). The advection and diffusion of the large-scale magnetic field of an NDAF is calculated, and the external magnetic field is found to be dragged inward efficiently by the accretion flow for a typical magnetic Prandtl number P{sub m}=?/??1. The maximal BZ jet power can be ?10{sup 53}-10{sup 54} erg s{sup 1} for an extreme Kerr black hole, if an external magnetic field with 10{sup 14} Gauss is advected by the NDAF. This is roughly consistent with the field strength of the disk formed after a tidal disrupted magnetar. The accretion flow near the black hole horizon is arrested by the magnetic field if the accretion rate is below than a critical value for a given external field. The arrested accretion flow fails to drag the field inward and the field strength decays, and then the accretion re-starts, which leads to oscillating accretion. The typical timescale of such episodic accretion is of an order of one second. This can qualitatively explain the observed oscillation in the soft extended emission of short-type GRBs.

  2. Research and development studies for MHD/coal power flow train components. Technical progress report, 1 September 1979-31 August 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bloom, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The aim of this program is to contribute to certain facets of the development of the MHD/coal power system, and particularly the CDIF of DOE with regard to its flow train. Consideration is given specifically to the electrical power take-off, the diagnostic and instrumentation systems, the combustor and MHD channel technology, and electrode alternatives. Within the constraints of the program, high priorities were assigned to the problems of power take-off and the related characteristics of the MHD channel, and to the establishment of a non-intrusive, laser-based diagnostic system. The next priority was given to the combustor modeling and to a significantly improved analysis of particle combustion. Separate abstracts were prepared for nine of the ten papers included. One paper was previously included in the data base. (WHK)

  3. Designing for thermal comfort in combined chilled ceiling/displacement ventilation environments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loveday, D.L.; Hodder, S.G.; Jeal, L.D.; Parsons, K.C.; Taki, A.H.

    1998-10-01

    This paper presents general guidance on designing for thermal comfort in combined chilled ceiling/displacement ventilation environments. Thermal comfort measurements involving 184 human subjects were carried out in a laboratory-based test room, constructed to resemble a normal office and equipped with a combined chilled ceiling and wall-mounted displacement ventilation system. Room characterization tests revealed that the chilled ceiling has a detrimental effect upon displacement flow, suppressing the stratified boundary layer at ceiling temperatures of 18 C--21 C and destroying displacement flow all together at low ceiling temperatures (14 C--16 C). Reduction in ceiling temperature was found to increase local air velocities at heights of 0.1 m and 1.1 m above the floor, showing further evidence of mixing, though there was an insignificant effect on local discomfort due to draft, as measured by subjective responses and by draft rating assessment. ISO Standard 7730 (1995) is shown to be valid, without modification, for predicting the thermal comfort of sedentary occupants performing office work in combined chilled ceiling/displacement ventilation environments. The vertical radiant asymmetry induced by a cooled ceiling does not significantly affect the thermal comfort of desk-seated occupants; this, together with relative humidity, is shown to require no additional comfort-related design limitations beyond those already in the literature and beyond the prevention of ceiling surface condensation.

  4. Process Flow Chart for Immobilizing of Radioactive High Concentration Sodium Hydroxide Product from the Sodium Processing Facility at the BN-350 Nuclear power plant in Aktau, Kazakhstan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Burkitbayev, M.; Omarova, K.; Tolebayev, T.; Galkin, A.; Bachilova, N.; Blynskiy, A.; Maev, V.; Wells, D.; Herrick, A.; Michelbacher, J.

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a joint research investigations carried out by the group of Kazakhstan, British and American specialists in development of a new material for immobilization of radioactive 35% sodium hydroxide solutions from the sodium coolant processing facility of the BN-350 nuclear power plant. The resulting solid matrix product, termed geo-cement stone, is capable of isolating long lived radionuclides from the environment. The physico-mechanical properties of geo-cement stone have been investigated and the flow chart for its production verified in a full scale experiments. (author)

  5. Some considerations of the design of displacers for Ringbom Stirling engines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fauvel, O.R.; Kentfield, J.A.C.; Walker, G.

    1984-08-01

    The Ringbom Stirling engine is a hybrid of the kinematic Stirling engine having shaft output power and variable speed and of the free piston engine in which the components are driven by changes in working space pressure. Experiments with Ringbom Stirling engines have led to the suspicion that the 'weak link' of the engine is the free displacer. This paper examines some of the factors which must be addressed in the design of displacers for these engines with reference to the thermal, pressure, and dynamical considerations.

  6. Lattice Boltzmann simulation of immiscible fluid displacement in porous media: Homogeneous versus heterogeneous pore network

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Haihu; Zhang, Yonghao; Valocchi, Albert J.

    2015-05-15

    Injection of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into geological formations is a promising approach to reduce greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. Predicting the amount of CO{sub 2} that can be captured and its long-term storage stability in subsurface requires a fundamental understanding of multiphase displacement phenomena at the pore scale. In this paper, the lattice Boltzmann method is employed to simulate the immiscible displacement of a wetting fluid by a non-wetting one in two microfluidic flow cells, one with a homogeneous pore network and the other with a randomly heterogeneous pore network. We have identified three different displacement patterns, namely, stable displacement, capillary fingering, and viscous fingering, all of which are strongly dependent upon the capillary number (Ca), viscosity ratio (M), and the media heterogeneity. The non-wetting fluid saturation (S{sub nw}) is found to increase nearly linearly with logCa for each constant M. Increasing M (viscosity ratio of non-wetting fluid to wetting fluid) or decreasing the media heterogeneity can enhance the stability of the displacement process, resulting in an increase in S{sub nw}. In either pore networks, the specific interfacial length is linearly proportional to S{sub nw} during drainage with equal proportionality constant for all cases excluding those revealing considerable viscous fingering. Our numerical results confirm the previous experimental finding that the steady state specific interfacial length exhibits a linear dependence on S{sub nw} for either favorable (M ? 1) or unfavorable (M < 1) displacement, and the slope is slightly higher for the unfavorable displacement.

  7. Code System to Calculate Waste-Isolation Flow and Transport.

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1999-10-18

    Version 00 SWIFT solves the coupled or individual equations governing fluid flow, heat transport, brine displacement, and radionuclide displacement in geologic media. Fluid flow may be transient or steady state. One, two, or three dimensions are available, and transport of radionuclides chains is possible.

  8. Modeling and Validation of Performance Limitations for the Optimal Design of Interferometric and Intensity-Modulated Fiber Optic Displacement Sensors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Moro, Erik A.

    2012-06-07

    Optical fiber sensors offer advantages over traditional electromechanical sensors, making them particularly well-suited for certain measurement applications. Generally speaking, optical fiber sensors respond to a desired measurand through modulation of an optical signal's intensity, phase, or wavelength. Practically, non-contacting fiber optic displacement sensors are limited to intensity-modulated and interferometric (or phase-modulated) methodologies. Intensity-modulated fiber optic displacement sensors relate target displacement to a power measurement. The simplest intensity-modulated sensor architectures are not robust to environmental and hardware fluctuations, since such variability may cause changes in the measured power level that falsely indicate target displacement. Differential intensity-modulated sensors have been implemented, offering robustness to such intensity fluctuations, and the speed of these sensors is limited only by the combined speed of the photodetection hardware and the data acquisition system (kHz-MHz). The primary disadvantages of intensity-modulated sensing are the relatively low accuracy (?m-mm for low-power sensors) and the lack of robustness, which consequently must be designed, often with great difficulty, into the sensor's architecture. White light interferometric displacement sensors, on the other hand, offer increased accuracy and robustness. Unlike their monochromatic-interferometer counterparts, white light interferometric sensors offer absolute, unambiguous displacement measurements over large displacement ranges (cm for low-power, 5 mW, sources), necessitating no initial calibration, and requiring no environmental or feedback control. The primary disadvantage of white light interferometric displacement sensors is that their utility in dynamic testing scenarios is limited, both by hardware bandwidth and by their inherent high-sensitivity to Doppler-effects. The decision of whether to use either an intensity

  9. Hybrid staging of a Lysholm positive displacement engine with two Westinghouse two stage impulse Curtis turbines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Parker, D.A.

    1982-06-01

    The University of California at Berkeley has tested and modeled satisfactorly a hybrid staged Lysholm engine (positive displacement) with a two stage Curtis wheel turbine. The system operates in a stable manner over its operating range (0/1-3/1 water ratio, 120 psia input). Proposals are made for controlling interstage pressure with a partial admission turbine and volume expansion to control mass flow and pressure ratio for the Lysholm engine.

  10. Optical inverse-square displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, Robert D.; Kychakoff, George

    1989-01-01

    This invention comprises an optical displacement sensor that uses the inverse-square attenuation of light reflected from a diffused surface to calculate the distance from the sensor to the reflecting surface. Light emerging from an optical fiber or the like is directed onto the surface whose distance is to be measured. The intensity I of reflected light is angle dependent, but within a sufficiently small solid angle it falls off as the inverse square of the distance from the surface. At least a pair of optical detectors are mounted to detect the reflected light within the small solid angle, their ends being at different distances R and R+.DELTA.R from the surface. The distance R can then be found in terms of the ratio of the intensity measurements and the separation length as ##EQU1##

  11. Optical inverse-square displacement sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Howe, R.D.; Kychakoff, G.

    1989-09-12

    This invention comprises an optical displacement sensor that uses the inverse-square attenuation of light reflected from a diffused surface to calculate the distance from the sensor to the reflecting surface. Light emerging from an optical fiber or the like is directed onto the surface whose distance is to be measured. The intensity I of reflected light is angle dependent, but within a sufficiently small solid angle it falls off as the inverse square of the distance from the surface. At least a pair of optical detectors are mounted to detect the reflected light within the small solid angle, their ends being at different distances R and R + [Delta]R from the surface. The distance R can then be found in terms of the ratio of the intensity measurements and the separation length as given in an equation. 10 figs.

  12. Fact #663: February 21, 2011 Clean Cities Program Petroleum Displacement

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Estimates for 2009 | Department of Energy 3: February 21, 2011 Clean Cities Program Petroleum Displacement Estimates for 2009 Fact #663: February 21, 2011 Clean Cities Program Petroleum Displacement Estimates for 2009 Each year, estimates are made of the amount of petroleum that is displaced by the efforts of the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities Program. These estimates are based on data provided by Clean Cities Coalition coordinators around the country and serve as an indicator of

  13. Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elasticall...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Phase-field Modeling of Displacive Phase Transformations in Elastically Anisotropic and Inhomogeneous Polycrystals Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Phase-field Modeling...

  14. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, D.J.; McNamee, M.J.

    1985-07-18

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT), a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  15. Gage for measuring displacements in rock samples

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Holcomb, David J.; McNamee, Michael J.

    1986-01-01

    A gage for measuring diametral displacement within a rock sample for use in a rock mechanics laboratory and in the field, comprises a support ring housing a linear variable differential transformer, a mounting screw, and a leaf spring. The mounting screw is adjustable and defines a first point of contact with the rock sample. The leaf spring has opposite ends fixed to the inner periphery of the mounting ring. An intermediate portion of the leaf spring projecting radially inward from the ring is formed with a dimple defining a second point of contact with the sample. The first and second points of contact are diametrically opposed to each other. The LVDT is mounted in the ring with its axis parallel to the line of measurement and its core rod received in the dimple of the leaf spring. Any change in the length of the line between the first and second support points is directly communicated to the LVDT. The leaf spring is rigid to completely support lateral forces so that the LVDT is free of all load for improved precision.

  16. Modified Newmark model for seismic displacements of compliant slopes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kramer, S.L.; Smith, M.W.

    1997-07-01

    Newmark sliding block analyses are widely used for estimation of permanent displacements of slopes in earthquakes. The conventional Newmark model, however, neglects the dynamic response of the material above a potential failure surface. Decoupled procedures have been developed to account for that response, but they neglect the effects of permanent displacements on the response. A modified Newmark analysis that considers the dynamic response, including the effects of permanent displacements, of the material above the failure surface is presented. The modified Newmark analysis shows that the decoupled approach produces somewhat conservative estimates of permanent displacements for stiff and/or shallow failure masses, but that it may produce unconservative estimates for failure masses that are soft and/or deep. Many slopes of large, lined landfills may fall into this latter category. The notion of a slope spectrum, which illustrates the effect of the natural period of a potential failure mass on permanent slope displacement, is also introduced.

  17. Enviro Hurdles: Instream Flow | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Enviro Hurdles: Instream Flow File 76enviornlbevelhimer4.pptx More Documents & Publications Instream Flow Project Development and Demonstration of Advanced Forecasting, Power ...

  18. Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn how hydroelectric power, or hydropower, captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns it into electricity for our homes and businesses.

  19. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power Overview Unique Capabilities * SEAWOLF laboratoryfield oscillatory-flow sediment transport testing * Sandia Lake Facility - potential for large scale wave testing * ...

  20. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... technology with sub-optimal market penetration - ... CostsUsage-e.g. lighting power density greater than 1.1 W... Variable Refrigerant Flow, 12.13 Condensing ...

  1. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... Sustaining Maintain optimal subsurface conditions over ... Gas 28% Coal 18% Nuclear Power 8% Renewable Energy 10% ... Fractures and Fluid Flow Ability to adaptively ...

  2. Calibrating bead displacements in optical tweezers using acousto-optic deflectors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vermeulen, Karen C.; Mameren, Joost van; Stienen, Ger J.M.; Peterman, Erwin J.G.; Wuite, Gijs J.L.; Schmidt, Christoph F.

    2006-01-15

    Displacements of optically trapped particles are often recorded using back-focal-plane interferometry. In order to calibrate the detector signals to displacements of the trapped object, several approaches are available. One often relies either on scanning a fixed bead across the waist of the laser beam or on analyzing the power spectrum of movements of the trapped bead. Here, we introduce an alternative method to perform this calibration. The method consists of very rapidly scanning the laser beam across the solvent-immersed, trapped bead using acousto-optic deflectors while recording the detector signals. It does not require any knowledge of solvent viscosity and bead diameter, and works in all types of samples, viscous or viscoelastic. Moreover, it is performed with the same bead as that used in the actual experiment. This represents marked advantages over established methods.

  3. Floor-supply displacement air-conditioning: Laboratory experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akimoto, Takashi; Nobe, Tatsuo; Tanabe, Shinichi; Kimura, Kenichi

    1999-07-01

    The results of laboratory measurements on the performance of a floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system in comparison to a displacement ventilation system with a side-wall-mounted diffuser and a ceiling-based distribution system are described. Thermal stratification was observed, as there were greater vertical air temperature differences in both of the displacement systems than in the ceiling-based system. The floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system produced a uniformly low air velocity at each measurement height, while a rather high air velocity near the floor was observed for the displacement ventilation system with a sidewall-mounted diffuser. Local mean age of air of the floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system was lower than that of the other systems, especially in the lower part of the room. According to the simulation results, the floor-supply displacement air-conditioning system with outdoor air cooling requires 34% less energy than the conventional air-conditioning system with outdoor air cooling.

  4. Thermoelectric Generator (TEG) Fuel Displacement Potential using

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Energy Presentation given at DEER 2006, August 20-24, 2006, Detroit, Michigan. Sponsored by the U.S. DOE's EERE FreedomCar and Fuel Partnership and 21st Century Truck Programs. 2006_deer_fairbanks.pdf (7.06 MB) More Documents & Publications High-Efficiency Quantum-Well Thermoelectrics for Waste Heat Power Generation Quantum Well Thermoelectrics and Waste Heat Recovery High Temperature Thermoelectric Materials Engine-in-the-Loop and Simulation | Department of Energy

    Assessment of

  5. Engineering research on positive displacement gas expanders. Phase I technical report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lord, R. E.

    1984-02-01

    A research, design, and development program related to positive displacement gas expanders is reported. The objective of this program is to develop and demonstrate a more cost effective gas expander for use in those waste heat recovery systems which utilize an Organic Rankine Cycle. To provide a lower cost machine, the gas expander uses a positive displacement concept, rather than a turbine as currently used. Several positive displacement machine concepts were examined, and various performance measures have been developed for each of the concepts. The machine concepts were: single and multiple cylinder reciprocators, radial piston, roller piston, sliding vane, trochoidal, helical screw, and lobed rotor. For each of the concepts, designs were generated for machines operating with three different sets of operating conditions. These designs were then used to develop measures of efficiency and cost, and to examine other characteristics of the machines, such as development risk and ability to operate with different flow, pressure, and temperature levels. Based upon an evaluation of these characteristics, a specific concept was selected for further development. This concept is a double acting, single cylinder reciprocating machine with crossheads and ceramic liners.

  6. Adsorption, Desorption, and Displacement Kinetics of H2O and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    CO2. The onset of CO2 displacement by H2O occurs between 65 and 75 K. Authors: Smith, R. Scott ; Li, Zhenjun ; Dohnalek, Zdenek ; Kay, Bruce D. Publication Date:...

  7. Adsorption, Desorption, and Displacement Kinetics of H2O and...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    4 H2O to 3 CO2 molecules is needed to displace CO2 from the TiO2(110) surface. Authors: Smith, R. Scott ; Li, Zhenjun ; Chen, Long ; Dohnalek, Zdenek ; Kay, Bruce D. Publication...

  8. Measurement of Transient Atomic-scale Displacements in Thin Films...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurement of Transient Atomic-scale Displacements in Thin Films with Picosecond and ... The inset shows a streak camera measurement of the x-ray pulse duration. Ultrafast x-ray ...

  9. LANSCE | Lujan Center | Highlights | Local iron displacements and

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    magnetoelastic coupling in a spin-ladder compound Local iron displacements and magnetoelastic coupling in a spin-ladder compound Hypothesis: Is magnetoelastic coupling in [FeX4]-based materials, an important ingredient in the emergence of superconductivity? Lujan Center: Combined Total Scattering and magnetic structure determination (HIPD-NPDF) The study of local, average and magnetic structure shows the existenceof highly correlated local iron (Fe) displacements in the spin-ladder iron

  10. EERE PowerPoint 97-2004 Template: Green Version

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... temperature that matched reported flow and power production - Modeled steam flow using turbine (choked flow) and assuming lowest reported well head temperature corresponded ...

  11. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Low power factor is expensive and inefficient. Many utility companies charge an additional fee if your power factor is less than 0.95. Low power factor also reduces your electrical system’s distribution capacity by increasing current flow and causing voltage drops. This fact sheet describes power factor and explains how you can improve your power factor to reduce electric bills and enhance your electrical system’s capacity.

  12. Acoustic recovery of lost power in pulse tube refrigerators

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Swift, G.W.; Gardner, D.L.; Backhaus, S.

    1999-02-01

    In an efficient Stirling-cycle cryocooler, the cold piston or displacer recovers power from the gas. This power is dissipated into heat in the orifice of an orifice pulse tube refrigerator, decreasing system efficiency. Recovery of some of this power in a pulse tube refrigerator, without sacrificing the simplicity and reliability inherent in a system with no cold moving parts, is described in this paper. In one method of such power recovery, the hot ends of both the regenerator and the pulse tube are connected to the front of the piston driving the refrigerator. Experimental data is presented demonstrating this method using a thermoacoustic driver instead of a piston driver. Control of time-averaged mass flux through the refrigerator is crucial to this power recovery, lest the refrigerator{close_quote}s cooling power be overwhelmed by a room-temperature mass flux. Two methods are demonstrated for control of mass flux: a barrier method, and a hydrodynamic method based on turbulent irreversible flow. At {minus}55{degree}C, the refrigerator provided cooling with 9{percent} of the Carnot coefficient of performance. With straightforward improvements, similar refrigerators should achieve efficiencies greater than those of prior pulse tube refrigerators and prior standing-wave thermoacoustic refrigerators, while maintaining the advantages of no moving parts. {copyright} {ital 1999 Acoustical Society of America.}

  13. Eddy current gauge for monitoring displacement using printed circuit coil

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Visioli, Jr., Armando J.

    1977-01-01

    A proximity detection system for non-contact displacement and proximity measurement of static or dynamic metallic or conductive surfaces is provided wherein the measurement is obtained by monitoring the change in impedance of a flat, generally spiral-wound, printed circuit coil which is excited by a constant current, constant frequency source. The change in impedance, which is detected as a corresponding change in voltage across the coil, is related to the eddy current losses in the distant conductive material target. The arrangement provides for considerable linear displacement range with increased accuracies, stability, and sensitivity over the entire range.

  14. EMERY BIOMASS GASIFICATION POWER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benjamin Phillips; Scott Hassett; Harry Gatley

    2002-11-27

    Emery Recycling Corporation (now Emery Energy Company, LLC) evaluated the technical and economical feasibility of the Emery Biomass Gasification Power System (EBGPS). The gasifier technology is owned and being developed by Emery. The Emery Gasifier for this project was an oxygen-blown, pressurized, non-slagging gasification process that novelly integrates both fixed-bed and entrained-flow gasification processes into a single vessel. This unique internal geometry of the gasifier vessel will allow for tar and oil destruction within the gasifier. Additionally, the use of novel syngas cleaning processes using sorbents is proposed with the potential to displace traditional amine-based and other syngas cleaning processes. The work scope within this project included: one-dimensional gasifier modeling, overall plant process modeling (ASPEN), feedstock assessment, additional analyses on the proposed syngas cleaning process, plant cost estimating, and, market analysis to determine overall feasibility and applicability of the technology for further development and commercial deployment opportunities. Additionally, the project included the development of a detailed technology development roadmap necessary to commercialize the Emery Gasification technology. Process modeling was used to evaluate both combined cycle and solid oxide fuel cell power configurations. Ten (10) cases were evaluated in an ASPEN model wherein nine (9) cases were IGCC configurations with fuel-to-electricity efficiencies ranging from 38-42% and one (1) case was an IGFC solid oxide case where 53.5% overall plant efficiency was projected. The cost of electricity was determined to be very competitive at scales from 35-71 MWe. Market analysis of feedstock availability showed numerous market opportunities for commercial deployment of the technology with modular capabilities for various plant sizes based on feedstock availability and power demand.

  15. Estimation of steady-state and transcient power distributions for the RELAP analyses of the 1963 loss-of-flow and loss-of-pressure tests at BR2.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dionne, B.; Tzanos, C. P.

    2011-05-23

    To support the safety analyses required for the conversion of the Belgian Reactor 2 (BR2) from highly-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, the simulation of a number of loss-of-flow tests, with or without loss of pressure, has been undertaken. These tests were performed at BR2 in 1963 and used instrumented fuel assemblies (FAs) with thermocouples (TC) imbedded in the cladding as well as probes to measure the FAs power on the basis of their coolant temperature rise. The availability of experimental data for these tests offers an opportunity to better establish the credibility of the RELAP5-3D model and methodology used in the conversion analysis. In order to support the HEU to LEU conversion safety analyses of the BR2 reactor, RELAP simulations of a number of loss-of-flow/loss-of-pressure tests have been undertaken. Preliminary analyses showed that the conservative power distributions used historically in the BR2 RELAP model resulted in a significant overestimation of the peak cladding temperature during the transient. Therefore, it was concluded that better estimates of the steady-state and decay power distributions were needed to accurately predict the cladding temperatures measured during the tests and establish the credibility of the RELAP model and methodology. The new approach ('best estimate' methodology) uses the MCNP5, ORIGEN-2 and BERYL codes to obtain steady-state and decay power distributions for the BR2 core during the tests A/400/1, C/600/3 and F/400/1. This methodology can be easily extended to simulate any BR2 core configuration. Comparisons with measured peak cladding temperatures showed a much better agreement when power distributions obtained with the new methodology are used.

  16. Method, apparatus and system for controlling fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McMurtrey, Ryan D.; Ginosar, Daniel M.; Burch, Joesph V.

    2007-10-30

    A system, apparatus and method of controlling the flow of a fluid are provided. In accordance with one embodiment of the present invention, a flow control device includes a valve having a flow path defined therethrough and a valve seat in communication with the flow path with a valve stem disposed in the valve seat. The valve stem and valve seat are cooperatively configured to cause mutual relative linear displacement thereof in response to rotation of the valve stem. A gear member is coupled with the rotary stem and a linear positioning member includes a portion which complementarily engages the gear member. Upon displacement of the linear positioning member along a first axis, the gear member and rotary valve stem are rotated about a second axis and the valve stem and valve seat are mutually linearly displaced to alter the flow of fluid through the valve.

  17. Potential displacement of petroleum imports by solar energy technologies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    DeLeon, P.; Jackson, B.L.; McNown, R.F.; Mahrenholz, G.J.

    1980-05-01

    The United States currently imports close to half of its petroleum requirements. This report delineates the economic, social, and political costs of such a foreign oil dependency. These costs are often intangible, but combined they clearly constitute a greater price for imported petroleum than the strictly economic cost. If we can assume that imported oil imposes significant socioeconomic costs upon the American economy and society, one way to reduce these costs is to develop alternative, domestic energy sources - such as solar energy technologies - which can displace foreign petroleum. The second half of this report estimates that by the year 2000, solar energy technologies can displace 3.6 quads of petroleum. This figure includes solar energy applications in utilities, industrial and agricultural process heat, and transportation. The estimate can be treated as a lower bound; if the United States were to achieve the proposed goal of 20 quads by 2000, the amount of displaced oil probably would be greater. Although all the displaced oil would not be imported, the reduction in imported petroleum would relieve many of the conditions that increase the present cost of foreign oil to the American consumer.

  18. Flowing effects in gas lasers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhi, G.

    1984-05-01

    Currently accepted theory states that saturation intensity and gain (or optical power density) increase without limit with the increase of the flow speed. These conclusions are not true. It is shown instead that they tend to be limiting values with the increase of flow speed. The variations of the parameters mentioned above with flow speed are presented.

  19. Power inverters

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miller, David H.; Korich, Mark D.; Smith, Gregory S.

    2011-11-15

    Power inverters include a frame and a power module. The frame has a sidewall including an opening and defining a fluid passageway. The power module is coupled to the frame over the opening and includes a substrate, die, and an encasement. The substrate includes a first side, a second side, a center, an outer periphery, and an outer edge, and the first side of the substrate comprises a first outer layer including a metal material. The die are positioned in the substrate center and are coupled to the substrate first side. The encasement is molded over the outer periphery on the substrate first side, the substrate second side, and the substrate outer edge and around the die. The encasement, coupled to the substrate, forms a seal with the metal material. The second side of the substrate is positioned to directly contact a fluid flowing through the fluid passageway.

  20. Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics pore-scale simulations of unstable immiscible flow in porous media

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bandara, Dunusinghe Mudiyanselage Uditha C.; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Oostrom, Martinus; Palmer, Bruce J.; Grate, Jay W.; Zhang, Changyong

    2013-12-01

    We have conducted a series of high-resolution numerical experiments using the Pair-Wise Force Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (PF-SPH) multiphase flow model. First, we derived analytical expressions relating parameters in the PF-SPH model to the surface tension and static contact angle. Next, we used the model to study viscous fingering, capillary fingering, and stable displacement of immiscible fluids in porous media for a wide range of capillary numbers and viscosity ratios. We demonstrated that the steady state saturation profiles and the boundaries of viscous fingering, capillary fingering, and stable displacement regions compare favorably with micromodel laboratory experimental results. For displacing fluid with low viscosity, we observed that the displacement pattern changes from viscous fingering to stable displacement with increasing injection rate. When a high viscosity fluid is injected, transition behavior from capillary fingering to stable displacement occurred as the flow rate was increased. These observation also agree with the results of the micromodel laboratory experiments.

  1. Power Tower System Concentrating Solar Power Basics | Department...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    The cool heat-transfer fluid exiting the turbine flows into a steam condenser to be cooled and sent back up the tower to the receiver. In power tower concentrating solar power ...

  2. Verdant Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    10044 Sector: Marine and Hydrokinetic Product: A systems integrator and a developer of free-flow turbine systems that generates utility and village scale electric power from...

  3. Gas miscible displacement enhanced oil recovery: Technology status report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1986-10-01

    Gas miscible displacement enhanced oil recovery research is conducted by the US Department of Energy's Morgantown Energy Technology Center to advance the application of miscible carbon dioxide flooding. This research is an integral part of a multidisciplinary effort to improve the technology for producing additional oil from US resources. This report summarizes the problems of the technology and the 1986 results of the ongoing research that was conducted to solve those problems. Poor reservoir volumetric sweep efficiency is the major problem associated with gas flooding and all miscible displacements. This problem results from the channeling and viscous fingering that occur due to the large differences between viscosity or density of the displacing and displaced fluids (i.e., carbon dioxide and oil, respectively). Simple modeling and core flooding studies indicate that, because of differences in fluid viscosities, breakthrough can occur after only 30% of the total pore volume (PV) of the rock has been injected with gas, while field tests have shown breakthrough occurring much earlier. The differences in fluid densities lead to gravity segregation. The lower density carbon dioxide tends to override the residual fluids in the reservoir. This process would be considerably more efficient if a larger area of the reservoir could be contacted by the gas. Current research has focused on the mobility control, computer simulation, and reservoir heterogeneity studies. Three mobility control methods have been investigated: (1) the use of polymers for direct thickening of high-density carbon dioxide, (2) mobile ''foam-like dispersions'' of carbon dioxide and an aqueous surfactant, and (3) in situ deposition of chemical precipitates. 22 refs., 14 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Impact of E × B flow shear on turbulence and resulting power fall-off width in H-mode plasmas in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Q. Q. Zhong, F. C. E-mail: fczhong@dhu.edu.cn; Jia, M. N.; Xu, G. S. E-mail: fczhong@dhu.edu.cn; Wang, L.; Wang, H. Q.; Chen, R.; Yan, N.; Liu, S. C.; Chen, L.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, J. B.

    2015-06-15

    The power fall-off width in the H-mode scrape-off layer (SOL) in tokamaks shows a strong inverse dependence on the plasma current, which was noticed by both previous multi-machine scaling work [T. Eich et al., Nucl. Fusion 53, 093031 (2013)] and more recent work [L. Wang et al., Nucl. Fusion 54, 114002 (2014)] on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. To understand the underlying physics, probe measurements of three H-mode discharges with different plasma currents have been studied in this work. The results suggest that a higher plasma current is accompanied by a stronger E×B shear and a shorter radial correlation length of turbulence in the SOL, thus resulting in a narrower power fall-off width. A simple model has also been applied to demonstrate the suppression effect of E×B shear on turbulence in the SOL and shows relatively good agreement with the experimental observations.

  5. Compliant displacement-multiplying apparatus for microelectromechanical systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kota, Sridhar; Rodgers, M. Steven; Hetrick, Joel A.

    2001-01-01

    A pivotless compliant structure is disclosed that can be used to increase the geometric advantage or mechanical advantage of a microelectromechanical (MEM) actuator such as an electrostatic comb actuator, a capacitive-plate electrostatic actuator, or a thermal actuator. The compliant structure, based on a combination of interconnected flexible beams and cross-beams formed of one or more layers of polysilicon or silicon nitride, can provide a geometric advantage of from about 5:1 to about 60:1 to multiply a 0.25-3 .mu.m displacement provided by a short-stroke actuator so that such an actuator can be used to generate a displacement stroke of about 10-34 .mu.m to operate a ratchet-driven MEM device or a microengine. The compliant structure has less play than conventional displacement-multiplying devices based on lever arms and pivoting joints, and is expected to be more reliable than such devices. The compliant structure and an associated electrostatic or thermal actuator can be formed on a common substrate (e.g. silicon) using surface micromachining.

  6. General displaced SU(1, 1) number states: Revisited

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dehghani, A. E-mail: a-dehghani@tabrizu.ac.ir

    2014-04-15

    The most general displaced number states, based on the bosonic and an irreducible representation of the Lie algebra symmetry of su(1, 1) and associated with the Calogero-Sutherland model are introduced. Here, we utilize the Barut-Girardello displacement operator instead of the Klauder-Perelomov counterpart, to construct new kind of the displaced number states which can be classified in nonlinear coherent states regime, too, with special nonlinearity functions. They depend on two parameters, and can be converted into the well-known Barut-Girardello coherent and number states, respectively, depending on which of the parameters equal to zero. A discussion of the statistical properties of these states is included. Significant are their squeezing properties and anti-bunching effects which can be raised by increasing the energy quantum number. Depending on the particular choice of the parameters of the above scenario, we are able to determine the status of compliance with flexible statistics. Major parts of the issue is spent on something that these states, in fact, should be considered as new kind of photon-added coherent states, too. Which can be reproduced through an iterated action of a creation operator on new nonlinear Barut-Girardello coherent states. Where the latter carry, also, outstanding statistical features.

  7. Study on the applicability of the desk displacement ventilation concept

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loomans, M.G.L.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper summarizes an experimental and numerical study into a ventilation concept that combines displacement ventilation with task conditioning, the so-called desk displacement ventilation (DDV) concept. The study uses steady-state and transient results to discuss the applicability of the DDV concept for standard office room configurations. The evaluation of the concept focuses on the micro/macroclimate and thermal comfort. Results show that the separation between micro- and macroclimate, a characteristic of task conditioning, is less pronounced. Furthermore, the thermal comfort conditions at the desk limit the cooling capacity of a DDV system. Finally, the transient characteristics of the concept do not conform to stated requirements for task conditioning systems. The main conclusion, therefore, is that there is no particular advantage in sitting close to a displacement ventilation unit. An improvement of the DDV system is proposed by incorporating a parallel system that provides the fresh air near head level. The improvement of the combined system has been investigated using computational fluid dynamics.

  8. Sandia Energy - Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a Tremendous Success Home Renewable Energy News Concentrating Solar Power Solar Molten Nitrate Salt Initial Flow Testing is a Tremendous...

  9. Thermoelectric power generator for variable thermal power source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bell, Lon E; Crane, Douglas Todd

    2015-04-14

    Traditional power generation systems using thermoelectric power generators are designed to operate most efficiently for a single operating condition. The present invention provides a power generation system in which the characteristics of the thermoelectrics, the flow of the thermal power, and the operational characteristics of the power generator are monitored and controlled such that higher operation efficiencies and/or higher output powers can be maintained with variably thermal power input. Such a system is particularly beneficial in variable thermal power source systems, such as recovering power from the waste heat generated in the exhaust of combustion engines.

  10. Particle sorter comprising a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Renzi, Ronald F.

    2012-04-24

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices utilizing a fluid displacer in a closed-loop fluid circuit.

  11. Characterization of heat loads from mitigated and unmitigated vertical displacement events in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hollmann, E. M.; Moyer, R. A.; Commaux, N.; Jernigan, T. J.; Eidietis, N. W.; Humphreys, D. A.; Strait, E. J.; Wesley, J. C.; Lasnier, C. J.; Pitts, R. A.; Sugihara, M.; Watkins, J.

    2013-06-15

    Experiments have been conducted on the DIII-D tokamak to study the distribution and repeatability of heat loads and vessel currents resulting from vertical displacement events (VDEs). For unmitigated VDEs, the radiated power fraction appears to be of order 50%, with the remaining power dominantly conducted to the vessel walls. Shot-to-shot scatter in heat loads measured at one toroidal location is not large (<50%), suggesting that toroidal asymmetries in conducted heat loads are not large. Conducted heat loads are clearly observed during the current quench (CQ) of both mitigated and unmitigated disruptions. Significant poloidal asymmetries in heat loads and radiated power are often observed in the experiments but are not yet understood. Energy dissipated resistively in the conducting walls during the CQ appears to be small (<5%). The mitigating effect of neon massive gas injection (MGI) as a function of MGI trigger delay has also been studied. Improved mitigation is observed as the MGI trigger delay is decreased. For sufficiently early MGI mitigation, close to 100% radiated energy and a reduction of roughly a factor 2 in vessel forces is achieved.

  12. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, Gunnar I.; Dietz, Russell N.

    1994-01-01

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons.

  13. Carbonaceous adsorbent regeneration and halocarbon displacement by hydrocarbon gases

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Senum, G.I.; Dietz, R.N.

    1994-04-05

    This invention describes a process for regeneration of halocarbon bearing carbonaceous adsorbents through which a carbonaceous adsorbent is contacted with hydrocarbon gases, preferably propane, butane and pentane at near room temperatures and at atmospheric pressure. As the hydrocarbon gases come in contact with the adsorbent, the hydrocarbons displace the halocarbons by physical adsorption. As a result of using this process, the halocarbon concentration and the hydrocarbon eluant is increased thereby allowing for an easier recovery of pure halocarbons. By using the process of this invention, carbonaceous adsorbents can be regenerated by an inexpensive process which also allows for subsequent re-use of the recovered halocarbons. 8 figures.

  14. Multiphase Flow and Cavern Abandonment in Salt

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ehgartner, Brian; Tidwell, Vince

    2001-02-13

    This report will explore the hypothesis that an underground cavity in gassy salt will eventually be gas filled as is observed on a small scale in some naturally occurring salt inclusions. First, a summary is presented on what is known about gas occurrences, flow mechanisms, and cavern behavior after abandonment. Then, background information is synthesized into theory on how gas can fill a cavern and simultaneously displace cavern fluids into the surrounding salt. Lastly, two-phase (gas and brine) flow visualization experiments are presented that demonstrate some of the associated flow mechanisms and support the theory and hypothesis that a cavity in salt can become gas filled after plugging and abandonment

  15. US energy flow, 1991

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Borg, I.Y.; Briggs, C.K.

    1992-06-01

    Trends in energy consumption and assessment of energy sources are discussed. Specific topics discussed include: energy flow charts; comparison of energy use with 1990 and earlier years; supply and demand of fossil fuels (oils, natural gas, coal); electrical supply and demand; and nuclear power.

  16. Enhanced electrocaloric effect in displacive-type organic ferroelectrics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ding, L. J. Zhong, Y.; Fan, S. W.; Zhu, L. Y.

    2015-08-07

    We explore the intrinsic feature of electrocaloric effect (ECE) accompanied by ferroelectric (FE)-paraelectric (PE) transition for displacive-type organic ferroelectrics using Green's function theory. It is demonstrated that decreasing elastic constant K or increasing spin-lattice coupling λ can enhance the ECE, as well as polarization P and transition temperature T{sub C}. Indeed, one expects that the optimal operating temperature for solid-state refrigeration is around room temperature, at which the ECE achieves its maximum. As T{sub C} is tuned to ∼310 K, it presents larger ECE response and remanent polarization with lower coercive field for smaller K value, suggesting that well flexible displacive-type organic ferroelectrics are excellent candidates both for electric cooling and data storage in the design of nonvolatile FE random-access memories. Furthermore, in an electric field, it provides a bridge between a Widom line that denotes FE-PE crossover above T{sub C} and a metaelectric transition line below T{sub C} that demonstrates an FE switching behavior with an antiparallel field.

  17. STRONG C{sup +} EMISSION IN GALAXIES AT z? 1-2: EVIDENCE FOR COLD FLOW ACCRETION POWERED STAR FORMATION IN THE EARLY UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brisbin, Drew; Ferkinhoff, Carl; Nikola, Thomas; Parshley, Stephen; Spoon, Henrik; Stacey, Gordon J.; Hailey-Dunsheath, Steven; Verma, Aprajita

    2015-01-20

    We have recently detected the [C II] 157.7 ?m line in eight star-forming galaxies at redshifts 1 to 2 using the redshift (z) Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS). Our sample targets star formation dominant sources detected in PAH emission. This represents a significant addition to [C II] observations during the epoch of peak star formation. We have augmented this survey with observations of the [O I] 63 ?m line and far infrared photometry from the PACS and SPIRE Herschel instruments as well as Spitzer IRS spectra from the literature showing PAH features. Our sources exhibit above average gas heating efficiency, many with both [O I]/FIR and [C II]/FIR of ?1% or more. The relatively strong [C II] emission is consistent with our sources being dominated by star formation powered photo-dissociation regions, extending to kiloparsec scales. We suggest that the star formation mode in these systems follows a Schmidt-Kennicutt law similar to local systems, but at a much higher rate due to molecular gas surface densities 10-100times that of local star-forming systems. The source of the high molecular gas surface densities may be the infall of neutral gas from the cosmic web. In addition to the high [C II]/FIR values, we also find high [C II]/PAH ratios and, in at least one source, a cool dust temperature. This source, SWIRE 4-5, bears a resemblance in these diagnostics to shocked regions of Stephan's Quintet, suggesting that another mode of [C II] excitation in addition to normal photoelectric heating may be contributing to the observed [C II] line.

  18. Fluid mechanics experiments in oscillatory flow. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Seume, J.; Friedman, G.; Simon, T.W.

    1992-03-01

    Results of a fluid mechanics measurement program is oscillating flow within a circular duct are present. The program began with a survey of transition behavior over a range of oscillation frequency and magnitude and continued with a detailed study at a single operating point. Such measurements were made in support of Stirling engine development. Values of three dimensionless parameters, Re{sub max}, Re{sub W}, and A{sub R}, embody the velocity amplitude, frequency of oscillation and mean fluid displacement of the cycle, respectively. Measurements were first made over a range of these parameters which included operating points of all Stirling engines. Next, a case was studied with values of these parameters that are representative of the heat exchanger tubes in the heater section of NASA`s Stirling cycle Space Power Research Engine (SPRE). Measurements were taken of the axial and radical components of ensemble-averaged velocity and rms-velocity fluctuation and the dominant Reynolds shear stress, at various radial positions for each of four axial stations. In each run, transition from laminar to turbulent flow, and in reverse, were identified and sufficient data was gathered to propose the transition mechanism. Models of laminar and turbulent boundary layers were used to process the data into wall coordinates and to evaluate skin friction coefficients. Such data aids in validating computational models and is useful in comparing oscillatory flow characteristics to those of fully-developed steady flow. Data were taken with a contoured entry to each end of the test section and with flush square inlets so that the effects of test section inlet geometry on transition and turbulence are documented. The following is presented in two-volumes. Volume I contains the text of the report including figures and supporting appendices. Volume II contains data reduction program listings and tabulated data (including its graphical presentation).

  19. Instream Flow Project | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Instream Flow Project Instream Flow Project As a part of the Department of Energy's Water Power Program, the Instream Flow Project was carried out by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory to develop tools aimed at defining environmental flow needs for hydropower operations. Characterizing Sub-Daily Flow Regimes May 2014 (1.41 MB) Updating the U.S. Hydrologic Classification July 2013 (1.26 MB) A Holistic Framework for Environmental

  20. Theoretic base of Edge Local Mode triggering by vertical displacements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Z. T.; He, Z. X.; Wang, Z. H.; Wu, N.; Tang, C. J.

    2015-05-15

    Vertical instability is studied with R-dependent displacement. For Solovev's configuration, the stability boundary of the vertical instability is calculated. The pressure gradient is a destabilizing factor which is contrary to Rebhan's result. Equilibrium parallel current density, j{sub //}, at plasma boundary is a drive of the vertical instability similar to Peeling-ballooning modes; however, the vertical instability cannot be stabilized by the magnetic shear which tends towards infinity near the separatrix. The induced current observed in the Edge Local Mode (ELM) triggering experiment by vertical modulation is derived. The theory provides some theoretic explanation for the mitigation of type-I ELMS on ASDEX Upgrade. The principle could be also used for ITER.

  1. Experimental study on the floor-supply displacement ventilation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akimoto, Takashi; Nobe, Tatsuo; Takebayashi, Yoshihisa

    1995-12-31

    These results are presented from a research project to investigate the effects of a floor-supply displacement ventilation system with practical indoor heat loads. The experiments were performed in an experimental chamber (35.2 m{sup 2}) located in a controlled environment chamber. Temperature distributions were measured at seven heights throughout the experimental chamber for each test condition. Data were analyzed to observe thermal stratification as affected by lighting, occupants, and heat loads (personal computers), and its disruption caused by walking and change of air volume. In addition, airflow characteristics and ventilation efficiencies were investigated using a smoke machine, tobacco smoke, dust for industrial testing, and a tracer gas (CO{sub 2}) step-up procedure.

  2. Measurements and computations of room airflow with displacement ventilation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yuan, X.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R.; Hu, Y.; Yang, X.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents a set of detailed experimental data of room airflow with displacement ventilation. These data were obtained from a new environmental test facility. The measurements were conducted for three typical room configurations: a small office, a large office with partitions, and a classroom. The distributions of air velocity, air velocity fluctuation, and air temperature were measured by omnidirectional hot-sphere anemometers, and contaminant concentrations were measured by tracer gas at 54 points in the rooms. Smoke was used to observe airflow. The data also include the wall surface temperature distribution, air supply parameters, and the age of air at several locations in the rooms. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program with the Re-Normalization Group (RNG) {kappa}-{epsilon} model was also used to predict the indoor airflow. The agreement between the computed results and measured data of air temperature and velocity is good. However, some discrepancies exist in the computed and measured concentrations and velocity fluctuation.

  3. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2002-10-08

    In this report, the thrust areas include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  4. Mechanical Analysis of High Power Internally Cooled Annular Fuel...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Mechanical Analysis of High Power Internally Cooled Annular Fuel Annular fuel with internal flow is proposed to allow higher power density in pressurized water reactors. The ...

  5. Flow chamber

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor

    2011-01-18

    A flow chamber having a vacuum chamber and a specimen chamber. The specimen chamber may have an opening through which a fluid may be introduced and an opening through which the fluid may exit. The vacuum chamber may have an opening through which contents of the vacuum chamber may be evacuated. A portion of the flow chamber may be flexible, and a vacuum may be used to hold the components of the flow chamber together.

  6. Regeneration of strong-base anion-exchange resins by sequential chemical displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brown, Gilbert M.; Gu, Baohua; Moyer, Bruce A.; Bonnesen, Peter V.

    2002-01-01

    A method for regenerating strong-base anion exchange resins utilizing a sequential chemical displacement technique with new regenerant formulation. The new first regenerant solution is composed of a mixture of ferric chloride, a water-miscible organic solvent, hydrochloric acid, and water in which tetrachloroferrate anion is formed and used to displace the target anions on the resin. The second regenerant is composed of a dilute hydrochloric acid and is used to decompose tetrachloroferrate and elute ferric ions, thereby regenerating the resin. Alternative chemical displacement methods include: (1) displacement of target anions with fluoroborate followed by nitrate or salicylate and (2) displacement of target anions with salicylate followed by dilute hydrochloric acid. The methodology offers an improved regeneration efficiency, recovery, and waste minimization over the conventional displacement technique using sodium chloride (or a brine) or alkali metal hydroxide.

  7. Reacting Flow

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  8. Mexicos Regulatory Engagement in Bulk Electric Power System...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ......... 40 3.3.3 Power Flow and Contingency Planning ......... 17 Figure 5. Optimal replacement age. ...

  9. Flow instability and flow reversal in heated annular multichannels with initial downward flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerrero, H.N.; Hart, C.M.

    1992-12-31

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented regarding the stability of initial downward flow of single phase water in parallel annular channels of the Savannah River Site (SRS) fuel assembly. The test was performed on an electrically heated prototypic mockup of a Mark-22 fuel assembly. The test conditions consisted of mass fluxes, from 98--294 kg/m{sup 2}-sec, and inlet water temperatures of 25{degrees}C and 40{degrees}C. With increased power to the heaters, flow instability was detected, characterized by flow fluctuations and flow redistribution among subchannels of the outer flow channel. With increased power, a condition was observed indicating local subchannel flow reversals where certain subchannel fluid temperatures were high at the inlet and low at the exit. With additional power increased, a critical heat flux condition was observed indicating local subchannel flow reversals where certain subchannel fluid temperatures were high at the inlet and low at the exit. With additional power increases, a critical heat flux condition was reached in the outer channel.

  10. Flow instability and flow reversal in heated annular multichannels with initial downward flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Guerrero, H.N.; Hart, C.M.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical results are presented regarding the stability of initial downward flow of single phase water in parallel annular channels of the Savannah River Site (SRS) fuel assembly. The test was performed on an electrically heated prototypic mockup of a Mark-22 fuel assembly. The test conditions consisted of mass fluxes, from 98--294 kg/m[sup 2]-sec, and inlet water temperatures of 25[degrees]C and 40[degrees]C. With increased power to the heaters, flow instability was detected, characterized by flow fluctuations and flow redistribution among subchannels of the outer flow channel. With increased power, a condition was observed indicating local subchannel flow reversals where certain subchannel fluid temperatures were high at the inlet and low at the exit. With additional power increased, a critical heat flux condition was observed indicating local subchannel flow reversals where certain subchannel fluid temperatures were high at the inlet and low at the exit. With additional power increases, a critical heat flux condition was reached in the outer channel.

  11. DOE's Office of Science Sets up Program to Aid Scientists Displaced by

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hurricane Katrina | Department of Energy Sets up Program to Aid Scientists Displaced by Hurricane Katrina DOE's Office of Science Sets up Program to Aid Scientists Displaced by Hurricane Katrina September 9, 2005 - 10:08am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -- The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science has established a program to assist scientists displaced by the effects of Hurricane Katrina. "Our colleagues in science have historically been a close-knit, generous community," wrote

  12. Freeze-In dark matter with displaced signatures at colliders

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Co, Raymond T.; D’Eramo, Francesco; Hall, Lawrence J.; Pappadopulo, Duccio

    2015-12-11

    Dark matter, X, may be generated by new physics at the TeV scale during an early matter-dominated (MD) era that ends at temperature T{sub R}≪ TeV. Compared to the conventional radiation-dominated (RD) results, yields from both Freeze-Out and Freeze-In processes are greatly suppressed by dilution from entropy production, making Freeze-Out less plausible while allowing successful Freeze-In with a much larger coupling strength. Freeze-In is typically dominated by the decay of a particle B of the thermal bath, B→X. For a large fraction of the relevant cosmological parameter space, the decay rate required to produce the observed dark matter abundance leads to displaced signals at LHC and future colliders, for any m{sub X} in the range keV displaced decays, h-tilde→ha-tilde, Za-tilde and h-tilde{sup ±}→W{sup ±}a-tilde. The scale of axion physics, f, is predicted to be in the range (3×10{sup 8}−10{sup 12}) GeV and, over much of this range, can be extracted from the decay length.

  13. Dynamic displacements of the RHIC dipole cold mass with injection molded composite posts during quench conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sondericker, J. Wolf, L.J.

    1991-02-01

    The new design of the RHIC dipole magnets incorporate helium containment bellows having a convolution diameter of only 7.63 inches. The present bellows are 12.80 inches in diameter. The smaller bellows present a substantially reduced pressure area which can be expected to reduce proportionately the end force on the cold mass during a quench. But, the objection was raised that the smaller bellows would present greater obstruction to the helium flow during a quench thereby producing higher pressure differentials. This analysis was undertaken to address these assertions by predicting the dynamic displacements of the cold mass using the latest test data on the stiffness of the IMC posts, pressure-time histories acquired from the recent full cell tests of RHIC magnets, and the dimensions of the new expansion joints. The analysis treated the cold mass as an elastic body having a saggittal curvature. The technique of normal mode expansion of a lumped-parameter system was used to obtain the results and conclusions reported herein.

  14. Static atomic displacements in a CdTe epitaxial layer on a GaAs substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horning, R.D.; Staudenmann, J.

    1987-05-25

    A (001)CdTe epitaxial layer on a (001)GaAs substrate was studied by x-ray diffraction between 10 and 360 K. The CdTe growth took place at 380 /sup 0/C in a vertical gas flow metalorganic chemical vapor deposition reactor. Lattice parameters and integrated intensities of both the substrate and the epitaxial layer using the (00l) and (hhh) Bragg reflections reveal three important features. Firstly, the GaAs substrate does not exhibit severe strain after deposition and it is as perfect as a bulk GaAs. Secondly, the CdTe unit cell distorts tetragonally with a/sub perpendicular/>a/sub parallel/ below 300 K. The decay of the (00l) reflection intensities as a function of the temperature yields a Debye temperature of 142 K, the same value as for bulk CdTe. Thirdly, a temperature-dependent isotropic static displacement of the Cd and the Te atoms is introduced to account for the anomalous behavior of the (hhh) intensities.

  15. Characterization of trapped gas saturation and heterogeneity in core samples using miscible-displacement experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Jikich, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    Trapped gas saturation and permeability heterogeneity were evaluated in Berea cores at reservoir conditions, using standard miscible displacement experiments, with and without surfactants. Pressure and production history were influenced by core heterogeneity and foam lamellae formation when aqueous surfactant was present in the core. A simple dispersion model and a three-coefficient dispersion-capacitance model (Coates-Smith) were fit to the experimental data. The dispersion-capacitance model successfully matched the experiments in which foam lamella formed, while the simple dispersion model was used only for determining initial core flow heterogeneity. The objective of the dispersion-capacitance model was to estimate trapped gas saturations; however longitudinal dispersion and mass transfer also were examined. The results show that the dispersion-capacitance model accurately fits trapped gas saturation controlled by rock heterogeneities and foam lamellae for lamella generating mechanisms that allow a continuous gas phase (leave-behind lamellae). The practical applications resulting from this study can aid in core sample selection and scaling short laboratory corefloods to field dimensions for applications to foam stimulation and underground storage of natural gas.

  16. Apparatus and method for suppressing vibration and displacement of a bellows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1984-01-01

    Flexible bellows are utilized between two systems, such as a pumping system and a process station, to partially absorb system vibrations and to compensate for misalignment between the systems. It is common practice to either clamp a rigid spacer between flanges of the two systems to separate them from each other, or to maintain the bellows in unsupported relationship between these systems. In the former bellows arrangement, the rigid spacer transmits vibratory energy between the two systems and the bellows tends to function as an undamped or underdamped unit that resonates at its own frequency to create additional vibratory energy, transmitted to the systems. In the latter, unsupported bellows arrangement, the pressure differential prevalent between the fluid flowing through the bellows and ambient normally causes extension or retraction of the bellows and resulting misalignment problems. The present invention substantially solves the above vibration and misalignment problems by providing an inflatable tube in surrounding relationship about a bellows to suppress vibration and displacement thereof. A method for isolating first and second systems from each other to prevent the transmission of vibratory energy therebetween comprises the steps of attaching at least one flexible bellows between the systems, surrounding the bellows with an inflatable tube, and maintaining a predetermined pressure in the tube to urge the tube in flexible contact with at least some of the convolutions of the bellows.

  17. Apparatus and method for suppressing vibration and displacement of a bellows

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kuklo, Thomas C.

    1985-01-01

    Flexible bellows are utilized between two systems, such as a pumping system and a process station, to partially absorb system vibrations and to compensate for misalignment between the systems. It is common practice to either clamp a rigid spacer between flanges of the two systems (FIG. 3B) to separate them from each other, or to maintain the bellows in unsupported relationship between these systems (FIG. 4B). In the former bellows arrangement, the rigid spacer transmits vibratory energy between the two systems and the bellows tends to function as an undamped or underdamped unit that resonates at its own frequency to create additional vibratory energy, transmitted to the systems. In the latter, unsupported bellows arrangement (FIG. 4B), the pressure differential prevalent between the fluid flowing through the bellows and ambient normally causes extension or retraction of the bellows and resulting misalignment problems. The present invention substantially solves the above vibration and misalignment problems by providing an inflatable tube (20) in surrounding relationship about a bellows (14) to suppress vibration and displacement thereof. A method for isolating first and second systems (11,12) from each other to prevent the transmission of vibratory energy therebetween comprises the steps of attaching at least one flexible bellows (14) between the systems (11,12), surrounding the bellows with an inflatable tube (20), and maintaining a predetermined pressure in the tube (20) to urge the tube in flexible contact with at least some of the convolutions of the bellows (14).

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2015: Fuel Displacement Potential of Advanced Technologies under Different Thermal Conditions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Presentation given by Argonne National Laboratory at 2015 DOE Hydrogen and Fuel Cells Program and Vehicle Technologies Office Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting about fuel displacement...

  19. Chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Manginell, Ronald P.; Frye-Mason, Gregory C.

    2003-01-01

    A chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be used to accurately measure fluid flow rate in a microanalytical system. The thermal flow sensor can be operated in either constant temperature or constant power mode and variants thereof. The chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor can be fabricated with the same MEMS technology as the rest of the microanlaytical system. Because of its low heat capacity, low-loss, and small size, the chemical preconcentrator with integral thermal flow sensor is fast and efficient enough to be used in battery-powered, portable microanalytical systems.

  20. Kink modes and surface currents associated with vertical displacement events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Manickam, Janardhan; Boozer, Allen; Gerhardt, Stefan

    2012-08-15

    The fast termination phase of a vertical displacement event (VDE) in a tokamak is modeled as a sequence of shrinking equilibria, where the core current profile remains constant so that the safety-factor at the axis, q{sub axis}, remains fixed and the q{sub edge} systematically decreases. At some point, the n = 1 kink mode is destabilized. Kink modes distort the magnetic field lines outside the plasma, and surface currents are required to nullify the normal component of the B-field at the plasma boundary and maintain equilibrium at finite pressure. If the plasma touches a conductor, the current can be transferred to the conductor, and may be measurable by the halo current monitors. This report describes a practical method to model the plasma as it evolves during a VDE, and determine the surface currents, needed to maintain equilibrium. The main results are that the onset conditions for the disruption are that the growth-rate of the n = 1 kink exceeds half the Alfven time and the associated surface current needed to maintain equilibrium exceeds one half of the core plasma current. This occurs when q{sub edge} drops below a low integer, usually 2. Application to NSTX provides favorable comparison with non-axisymmetric halo-current measurements. The model is also applied to ITER and shows that the 2/1 mode is projected to be the most likely cause of the final disruption.

  1. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2014-04-23

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid.

  2. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Wang, Wei; Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2014-06-12

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid.

  3. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary PowerEnergy Conversion EfficiencyWater Power Water Power Tara Camacho-Lopez 2016-06-01T22:32:54+00:00 Enabling a successful water power industry. Hydropower ...

  4. Electric Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Electric Power From incandescent bulbs to fluorescents to LEDs, <a href="/node/772396">learn more</a> about the long history of the light bulb. From incandescent bulbs to fluorescents to LEDs, learn more about the long history of the light bulb. Electricity -- the flow of electrical power -- is a secondary energy source, generated by the conversion of primary sources of energy, like fossil, nuclear, wind or solar. Keeping the power flowing to American homes and

  5. Oscillatory motion based measurement method and sensor for measuring wall shear stress due to fluid flow

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Armstrong, William D.; Naughton, Jonathan; Lindberg, William R.

    2008-09-02

    A shear stress sensor for measuring fluid wall shear stress on a test surface is provided. The wall shear stress sensor is comprised of an active sensing surface and a sensor body. An elastic mechanism mounted between the active sensing surface and the sensor body allows movement between the active sensing surface and the sensor body. A driving mechanism forces the shear stress sensor to oscillate. A measuring mechanism measures displacement of the active sensing surface relative to the sensor body. The sensor may be operated under periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor measurably changes the amplitude or phase of the motion of the active sensing surface, or changes the force and power required from a control system in order to maintain constant motion. The device may be operated under non-periodic excitation where changes in the nature of the fluid properties or the fluid flow over the sensor change the transient motion of the active sensor surface or change the force and power required from a control system to maintain a specified transient motion of the active sensor surface.

  6. Alkaline assisted thermal oil recovery: Kinetic and displacement studies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saneie, S.; Yortsos, Y.C.

    1993-06-01

    This report deals with two major issues of chemical assisted flooding - the interaction of caustic, one of the proposed additives to steam flood, with the reservoir rock, and the displacement of oil by a chemical flood at elevated temperatures. A mathematical model simulating the kinetics of silica dissolution and hydroxyl ion consumption in a typical alkaline flooding environment is first developed. The model is based on the premise that dissolution occurs via hydrolysis of active sites through the formation of an intermediate complex, which is in equilibrium with the silicic acid in solution. Both static (batch) and dynamic (core flood) processes are simulated to examine the sensitivity of caustic consumption and silica dissolution to process parameters, and to determine rates of propagation of pH values. The model presented provides a quantitative description of the quartz-alkali interaction in terms of pH, salinity, ion exchange properties, temperature and contact time, which are of significant importance in the design of soluble silicate flooding processes. The modeling of an adiabatic hot waterflood assisted by the simultaneous injection of a chemical additive is next presented. The model is also applicable to the hot alkaline flooding under conditions of negligible adsorption of the generated anionic surfactant and of hydroxide adsorption being Langmuirian. The theory of generalized simple waves (coherence ) is used to develop solutions for the temperature, concentration, and oil saturation profiles, as well as the oil recovery curves. It is shown that, for Langmuir adsorption kinetics, the chemical resides in the heated region of the reservoir if its injection concentration is below a critical value, and in the unheated region if its concentration exceeds this critical value. Results for a chemical slug injection in a tertiary recovery process indicate recovery performance is maximized when chemical resides in the heated region of the reservior.

  7. HELM(tm) Flow - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Analysis Energy Analysis Find More Like This Return to Search HELM(tm) Flow Holomorphic Embedded Load flow Method Battelle Memorial Institute Contact BMI About This Technology Publications: PDF Document Publication HELM(tm) Flow Brochure (1,017 KB) PDF Document Publication US Patent 7519506B2 (159 KB) PDF Document Publication US Patent 7979239B (172 KB) Technology Marketing Summary HELM(tm) Flow is a simulation and analysis tool for transmission and distribution power systems. It provides

  8. Pressure balanced drag turbine mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dacus, Michael W.; Cole, Jack H.

    1982-01-01

    The density of the fluid flowing through a tubular member may be measured by a device comprising a rotor assembly suspended within the tubular member, a fluid bearing medium for the rotor assembly shaft, independent fluid flow lines to each bearing chamber, and a scheme for detection of any difference between the upstream and downstream bearing fluid pressures. The rotor assembly reacts to fluid flow both by rotation and axial displacement; therefore concurrent measurements may be made of the velocity of blade rotation and also bearing pressure changes, where the pressure changes may be equated to the fluid momentum flux imparted to the rotor blades. From these parameters the flow velocity and density of the fluid may be deduced.

  9. Pressure balanced drag turbine mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dacus, M.W.; Cole, J.H.

    1980-04-23

    The density of the fluid flowing through a tubular member may be measured by a device comprising a rotor assembly suspended within the tubular member, a fluid bearing medium for the rotor assembly shaft, independent fluid flow lines to each bearing chamber, and a scheme for detection of any difference between the upstream and downstream bearing fluid pressures. The rotor assembly reacts to fluid flow both by rotation and axial displacement; therefore concurrent measurements may be made of the velocity of blade rotation and also bearing pressure changes, where the pressure changes may be equated to the fluid momentum flux imparted to the rotor blades. From these parameters the flow velocity and density of the fluid may be deduced.

  10. Flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lipka, Stephen M.; Swartz, Christopher R.

    2016-02-23

    An electrolyte system for a flow battery has an anolyte including [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.3- and [Fe(CN).sub.6].sup.4- and a catholyte including Fe.sup.2+ and Fe.sup.3+.

  11. Efficiency combined cycle power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pavel, J.; Meyers, G.A.; Baldwin, T.S.

    1990-06-12

    This patent describes a method of operating a combined cycle power plant. It comprises: flowing exhaust gas from a combustion turbine through a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG); flowing feed water through an economizer section of the HRSG at a flow rate and providing heated feed water; flowing a first portion of the heated feed water through an evaporator section of the HRSG and producing saturated steam at a production rate, the flow rate of the feed water through the economizer section being greater than required to sustain the production rate of steam in the evaporator section; flowing fuel for the turbine through a heat exchanger; and, flowing a second portion of the heated feed water provided by the economizer section through the heat exchanger then to an inlet of the economizer section, thereby heating the fuel flowing through the heat exchanger.

  12. Piezoelectric axial flow microvalve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gemmen, Randall; Thornton, Jimmy; Vipperman, Jeffrey S.; Clark, William W.

    2007-01-09

    This invention is directed to a fuel cell operable with a quantity of fuel and a quantity of an oxidizer to produce electrical power, the fuel cell including a fuel cell body including a labyrinth system structured to permit the fuel and the oxidizer to flow therethrough; at least a first catalyst in fluid communication with the labyrinth; and at least a first microvalve operably disposed within at least a portion of the labyrinth. The microvalve utilizes a deflectable member operable upon the application of a voltage from a voltage source. The microvalve includes an elongated flow channel formed therein and extending substantially longitudinally between the first and second ends to permit substantially longitudinal flow of the fluid therethrough and between the first and second ends; and the deflectable member disposed on the valve body, the deflectable member including at least a first piezoelectric portion that is piezoelectrically operable to deflect the deflectable member between an open position and a closed position upon the application of a voltage, the deflectable member in the closed position being operable to resist the flow of the fluid through the flow channel.

  13. Two-Phase Flow within Geological Flow Analogies--A Computational Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, G.; Smith, D.H.; Ferer, M.V.; Richards, M.; Bromhal, G.S.

    2006-10-01

    Displacement of a viscous fluid in heterogeneous geological media by a less viscous one does not evacuate 100% of the defending fluid due to capillary and viscous fingering. This is of importance in geological flows that are encountered in secondary oil recovery and carbon dioxide sequestration in saturated brine fields. Hele-Shaw and pore/throat cells are commonly used to study this in the labratory. Numerical simulations of this flow phenomenon with pore-throat models have been prevalent for over two decades. This current work solves the full Navier-Stokes equations of conservation within random pore-throat geometries with varying properties to study the resulting flow properties. Verification of the solution method is performed by comparison of the model predictions with the available experimental data in the literature. Experimental flows in a pore-throat cell with a known geometrical structure are shown to be in good agreement with the model. Dynamic comparisons to a computational pore-throat model have been shown to be in good agreement as well. There are also additional two-phase immiscible flow patterns that can be identified from the current solutions for which the corresponding laboratory counter part or the pore-throat model predictions are not available. The identification of these flow patterns may allow more accurate modeling of fluid displacement on the reservoir scale.

  14. Buoyancy-driven flow excursions in fuel assemblies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laurinat, J.E.; Paul, P.K.; Menna, J.D.

    1995-09-01

    A power limit criterion was developed for a postulated Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA) in one of the recently shut down heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. These reactors were cooled by recirculating heavy water moderator downward through channels in cylindrical fuel tubes. Powers were limited to safeguard against a flow excursion in one of more of these parallel channels. During-full-power operation, limits safeguarded against a boiling flow excursion. At low flow rates, during the addition of emergency cooling water, buoyant forces reverse the flow in one of the coolant channels before boiling occurs. As power increased beyond the point of flow reversal, the maximum wall temperature approaches the fluid saturation temperature, and a thermal excursion occurs. The power limit criterion for low flow rates was the onset of flow reversal. To determine conditions for flow reversal, tests were performed in a mock-up of a fuel assembly that contained two electrically heated concentric tubes surrounded by three flow channels. These tests were modeled using a finite difference thermal-hydraulic code. According to code calculations, flow reversed in the outer flow channel before the maximum wall temperature reached the local fluid saturation temperature. Thermal excursions occurred when the maximum wall temperature approximately equaled the saturation temperature. For a postulated LOPA, the flow reversal criterion for emergency cooling water addition was more limiting than the boiling excursion criterion for full power operation. This criterion limited powers to 37% of the limiting power for previous long-term reactor operations.

  15. 1987 Overview of the free-piston Stirling technology for space power application

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Slaby, J.G.; Alger, D.L.

    1994-09-01

    An overview is presented of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Lewis Research Center free-piston Stirling engine activities directed toward space-power application. Free-piston Stirling technology is applicable for both solar and nuclear powered systems. As such, NASA Lewis serves as the project office to manage the newly initiated NASA SP-100 Advanced Technology Program. This 5-yr program provides the technology thrust for providing significant component and subsystem options for increased efficiency, reliability and survivability, and power output growth at reduced specific mass. One of the major elements of the program is the development of advanced power conversion concepts of which the Stirling cycle is a viable growth candidate. Under this program the status of the 25 kWe opposed-piston Space Power Demonstrator Engine (SPDE) is presented. Included in the SPDE discussion are comparisons between predicted and experimental engine performance, enhanced performance resulting from regenerator modification, increased operating stroke brought about by isolating the gas bearing flow between the displacer and power piston, identifying excessive energy losses and recommending corrective action, and a better understanding of linear alternator design and operation. Technology work is also conducted on heat exchanger concepts, both design and fabrication, to minimize the number of joints as well as to enhance performance. Design parameters and conceptual design features are also presented for a 25 kWe, single-cylinder free-piston Stirling space-power converter. A cursory comparison is presented showing the mass benefits that a Stirling system has over a Brayton system for the same peak temperature and output power.

  16. Breakthrough Flow Battery Cell Stack: Transformative Electrochemical Flow Storage System (TEFSS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-09

    GRIDS Project: UTRC is developing a flow battery with a unique design that provides significantly more power than today's flow battery systems. A flow battery is a cross between a traditional battery and a fuel cell. Flow batteries store their energy in external tanks instead of inside the cell itself. Flow batteries have traditionally been expensive because the battery cell stack, where the chemical reaction takes place, is costly. In this project, UTRC is developing a new stack design that achieves 10 times higher power than today’s flow batteries. This high power output means the size of the cell stack can be smaller, reducing the amount of expensive materials that are needed. UTRC’s flow battery will reduce the cost of storing electricity for the electric grid, making widespread use feasible.

  17. Direct cooled power electronics substrate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. [Knoxville, TN

    2010-09-14

    The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

  18. Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Displacement Cascades in Single and Polycrystalline Zirconia

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Du Jincheng

    2009-03-10

    Displacement cascades in zirconia have been studied using classical molecular dynamics simulations. Polycrystalline zirconia with nano-meter grains were created using Voronoi polyhedra construction and studied in comparison with single crystalline zirconia. The results show that displacement cascades with similar kinetic energy generated larger number of displaced atoms in polycrystalline than in the single crystal structure. The fraction of atoms with coordination number change was also higher in polycrystalline zirconia that was explained to be due to the diffusion of oxygen and relaxation at grain boundaries.

  19. Note: Seesaw actuation of atomic force microscope probes for improved imaging bandwidth and displacement range

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Torun, H.; Torello, D.; Degertekin, F. L.

    2011-08-15

    The authors describe a method of actuation for atomic force microscope (AFM) probes to improve imaging speed and displacement range simultaneously. Unlike conventional piezoelectric tube actuation, the proposed method involves a lever and fulcrum ''seesaw'' like actuation mechanism that uses a small, fast piezoelectric transducer. The lever arm of the seesaw mechanism increases the apparent displacement range by an adjustable gain factor, overcoming the standard tradeoff between imaging speed and displacement range. Experimental characterization of a cantilever holder implementing the method is provided together with comparative line scans obtained with contact mode imaging. An imaging bandwidth of 30 kHz in air with the current setup was demonstrated.

  20. Perovskite Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Perovskite Power 1663 Los Alamos science and technology magazine Latest Issue:October 2015 past issues All Issues submit Perovskite Power A breakthrough in the production of...

  1. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Water Power Sandia's 117-scale WEC device with being tested in the maneuvering and ... EC, News, Renewable Energy, Water Power Sandia National Laboratories Uses Its Wave Energy ...

  2. Displacing oil and gas with coal: Constraints and opportunities

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Langley, V.E.

    1982-01-01

    It is obvious that a major result of the oil supply interruptions of the 1970s was to dramatically increase the competitiveness of coal as an industrial and utility fuel. In fact, between 1973 and 1981, coal's share of the energy feed to the electric utility industry did increase from 43 to 52 percent. However, given the actual market place incentives, this increase is not a remarkable improvement, and reflects the fact that disappointingly few existing units have been converted from oil to coal. In the wake of the 1973 embargo, the passage of the Energy Supply and Coordination Act of 1974 (''ENSECA'') and the Power Plant and Industrial Fuel Use Act (''FUA'') provided the Executive Branch with the power to mandate the conversion of oil and gas units to coal. However, ENSECA lacked strong enforcement provisions and there resulted few conversions other than those which were made voluntarily on purely economic grounds. As a result, in 1978, Congress enacted the Fuel Use Act which placed the burden of proof upon owners to demonstrate that a specified coal convertible unit could not be converted.

  3. Flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    van den Engh, Ger

    1995-01-01

    A Faraday cage enclosing the flow chamber of a cytometer and ground planes associated with each field deflection plate in concert therewith inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates and increases forces applied to a charged event passing therethrough for accurate focus thereof while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard.

  4. Flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, G.

    1995-11-07

    A Faraday cage is described which encloses the flow chamber of a cytometer. Ground planes associated with each field deflection plate inhibit electric fields from varying the charge on designated events/droplets and further concentrates. They also increase forces applied to a passing charged event for accurate focus while concomitantly inhibiting a potential shock hazard. 4 figs.

  5. DOE's Office of Science Sets up Program to Aid Scientists Displaced...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Science Sets up Program to Aid Scientists Displaced by Hurricane Katrina September 9, 2005 - 10:08am Addthis WASHINGTON, DC -- The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Science ...

  6. Beyond a Billion: Clean Cities Coaliations Have Displaced More Than a Billion Gallons of Gasoline

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2005-10-01

    In 2004, DOE's Clean Cities achieved a milestone - displacing the equivalent of more than 1 billion gallons of gasoline since 1994. This fact sheet describes how Clean Cities achieved this goal.

  7. Improving Petroleum Displacement Potential of PHEVs Using Enhanced Charging Scenarios: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markel, T.; Smith, K.; Pesaran, A. A.

    2009-05-01

    Describes NREL's R&D on the petroleum displacement potential of plug-in hybrid vehicles; vehicles charged during the day would save about 5% more fuel than those charged at night.

  8. Concentrating Solar Power: Power Towers

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    This video provides an overview of the principles, applications, and benefits of generating electricity using power towers, a concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. A brief animation explains...

  9. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, Vincent M.; Martens, Jon S.; Zipperian, Thomas E.

    1995-01-01

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs). Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics.

  10. Superconducting flux flow digital circuits

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-02-14

    A NOR/inverter logic gate circuit and a flip flop circuit implemented with superconducting flux flow transistors (SFFTs) are disclosed. Both circuits comprise two SFFTs with feedback lines. They have extremely low power dissipation, very high switching speeds, and the ability to interface between Josephson junction superconductor circuits and conventional microelectronics. 8 figs.

  11. Self-regulating flow control device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Humphreys, Duane A.

    1984-01-01

    A variable, self-regulating valve having a hydraulic loss coefficient proportional to a positive exponential power of the flow rate. The device includes two objects in a flow channel and structure which assures that the distance between the two objects is an increasing function of the flow rate. The range of spacing between the objects is such that the hydraulic resistance of the valve is an increasing function of the distance between the two objects so that the desired hydraulic loss coefficient as a function of flow rate is obtained without variation in the flow area.

  12. Generator powered electrically heated diesel particulate filter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gonze, Eugene V; Paratore, Jr., Michael J

    2014-03-18

    A control circuit for a vehicle powertrain includes a switch that selectivity interrupts current flow between a first terminal and a second terminal. A first power source provides power to the first terminal and a second power source provides power to the second terminal and to a heater of a heated diesel particulate filter (DPF). The switch is opened during a DPF regeneration cycle to prevent the first power source from being loaded by the heater while the heater is energized.

  13. Reactive power compensator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, Mohamed A.; Venkata, Subrahmanyam S.; Chen, Mingliang; Andexler, George; Huang, Tony

    1992-01-01

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation.

  14. Reactive Power Compensator.

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Venkata, S.S.; Chen, M.; Andexler, G.; Huang, T.

    1992-07-28

    A system and method for determining and providing reactive power compensation for an inductive load. A reactive power compensator (50,50') monitors the voltage and current flowing through each of three distribution lines (52a, 52b, 52c), which are supplying three-phase power to one or more inductive loads. Using signals indicative of the current on each of these lines when the voltage waveform on the line crosses zero, the reactive power compensator determines a reactive power compensator capacitance that must be connected to the lines to maintain a desired VAR level, power factor, or line voltage. Alternatively, an operator can manually select a specific capacitance for connection to each line, or the capacitance can be selected based on a time schedule. The reactive power compensator produces control signals, which are coupled through optical fibers (102/106) to a switch driver (110, 110') to select specific compensation capacitors (112) for connections to each line. The switch driver develops triggering signals that are supplied to a plurality of series-connected solid state switches (350), which control charge current in one direction in respect to ground for each compensation capacitor. During each cycle, current flows from ground to charge the capacitors as the voltage on the line begins to go negative from its positive peak value. The triggering signals are applied to gate the solid state switches into a conducting state when the potential on the lines and on the capacitors reaches a negative peak value, thereby minimizing both the potential difference and across the charge current through the switches when they begin to conduct. Any harmonic distortion on the potential and current carried by the lines is filtered out from the current and potential signals used by the reactive power compensator so that it does not affect the determination of the required reactive compensation. 26 figs.

  15. Origin, distribution, and movement of brine in the Permian Basin (U. S. A. ). A model for displacement of connate brine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bein, A.; Dutton, A.R. )

    1993-06-01

    Na-Cl, halite Ca-Cl, and gypsum Ca-Cl brines with salinities from 45 to >300 g/L are identified and mapped in four hydrostratigraphic units in the Permian Basin area beneath western Texas and Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico, providing spatial and lithologic constraints on the interpretation of the origin and movement of brine. Na-Cl brine is derived from meteoric water as young as 5-10 Ma that dissolved anhydrite and halite, whereas Ca-Cl brine is interpreted to be ancient, modified-connate Permian brine that now is mixing with, and being displaced by, the Na-Cl brine. Displacement fronts appear as broad mixing zones with no significant salinity gradients. Evolution of Ca-Cl brine composition from ideal evaporated sea water is attributed to dolomitization and syndepositional recycling of halite and bittern salts by intermittent influx of fresh water and sea water. Halite Ca-Cl brine in the evaporite section in the northern part of the basin differs from gypsum Ca-Cl brine in the south-central part in salinity and Na/Cl ratio and reflects segregation between halite- and gypsum-precipitating lagoons during the Permian. Ca-Cl brine moved downward through the evaporite section into the underlying Lower Permian and Pennsylvanian marine section that is now the deep-basin brine aquifer, mixing there with pre-existing sea water. Buoyancy-driven convection of brine dominated local flow for most of basin history, with regional advection governed by topographically related forces dominant only for the past 5 to 10 Ma. 71 refs., 11 figs.

  16. Power electronics cooling apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sanger, Philip Albert; Lindberg, Frank A.; Garcen, Walter

    2000-01-01

    A semiconductor cooling arrangement wherein a semiconductor is affixed to a thermally and electrically conducting carrier such as by brazing. The coefficient of thermal expansion of the semiconductor and carrier are closely matched to one another so that during operation they will not be overstressed mechanically due to thermal cycling. Electrical connection is made to the semiconductor and carrier, and a porous metal heat exchanger is thermally connected to the carrier. The heat exchanger is positioned within an electrically insulating cooling assembly having cooling oil flowing therethrough. The arrangement is particularly well adapted for the cooling of high power switching elements in a power bridge.

  17. Ultrasensitive measurement of MEMS cantilever displacement sensitivity below the shot noise limit

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pooser, Raphael C; Lawrie, Benjamin J

    2015-01-01

    The displacement of micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMs) cantilevers is used to measure a variety of phe- nomena in devices ranging from force microscopes for single spin detection[1] to biochemical sensors[2] to un- cooled thermal imaging systems[3]. The displacement readout is often performed optically with segmented de- tectors or interference measurements. Until recently, var- ious noise sources have limited the minimum detectable displacement in MEMs systems, but it is now possible to minimize all other sources[4] so that the noise level of the coherent light eld, called the shot noise limit (SNL), becomes the dominant source. Light sources dis- playing quantum-enhanced statistics below this limit are available[5, 6], with applications in gravitational wave astronomy[7] and bioimaging[8], but direct displacement measurements of MEMS cantilevers below the SNL have been impossible until now. Here, we demonstrate the rst direct measurement of a MEMs cantilever displace- ment with sub-SNL sensitivity, thus enabling ultratrace sensing, imaging, and microscopy applications. By com- bining multi-spatial-mode quantum light sources with a simple dierential measurement, we show that sub-SNL MEMs displacement sensitivity is highly accessible com- pared to previous eorts that measured the displacement of macroscopic mirrors with very distinct spatial struc- tures crafted with multiple optical parametric ampliers and locking loops[9]. We apply this technique to a com- mercially available microcantilever in order to detect dis- placements 60% below the SNL at frequencies where the microcantilever is shot-noise-limited. These results sup- port a new class of quantum MEMS sensor whose ulti- mate signal to noise ratio is determined by the correla- tions possible in quantum optics systems.

  18. Online Image-based Monitoring of Soft-tissue Displacements for Radiation Therapy of the Prostate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schlosser, Jeffrey; Department of Bioengineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA ; Salisbury, Kenneth; Department of Surgery, Stanford University, Stanford, CA ; Hristov, Dimitre

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: Emerging prolonged, hypofractionated radiotherapy regimens rely on high-dose conformality to minimize toxicity and thus can benefit from image guidance systems that continuously monitor target position during beam delivery. To address this need we previously developed, as a potential add-on device for existing linear accelerators, a novel telerobotic ultrasound system capable of real-time, soft-tissue imaging. Expanding on this capability, the aim of this work was to develop and characterize an image-based technique for real-time detection of prostate displacements. Methods and Materials: Image processing techniques were implemented on spatially localized ultrasound images to generate two parameters representing prostate displacements in real time. In a phantom and five volunteers, soft-tissue targets were continuously imaged with a customized robotic manipulator while recording the two tissue displacement parameters (TDPs). Variations of the TDPs in the absence of tissue displacements were evaluated, as was the sensitivity of the TDPs to prostate translations and rotations. Robustness of the approach to probe force was also investigated. Results: With 95% confidence, the proposed method detected in vivo prostate displacements before they exceeded 2.3, 2.5, and 2.8 mm in anteroposterior, superoinferior, and mediolateral directions. Prostate pitch was detected before exceeding 4.7 Degree-Sign at 95% confidence. Total system time lag averaged 173 ms, mostly limited by ultrasound acquisition rate. False positives (FPs) (FP) in the absence of displacements did not exceed 1.5 FP events per 10 min of continuous in vivo imaging time. Conclusions: The feasibility of using telerobotic ultrasound for real-time, soft-tissue-based monitoring of target displacements was confirmed in vivo. Such monitoring has the potential to detect small clinically relevant intrafractional variations of the prostate position during beam delivery.

  19. NEUTRONIC REACTOR POWER PLANT

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Metcalf, H.E.

    1962-12-25

    This patent relates to a nuclear reactor power plant incorporating an air-cooled, beryllium oxide-moderated, pebble bed reactor. According to the invention means are provided for circulating a flow of air through tubes in the reactor to a turbine and for directing a sidestream of the circu1ating air through the pebble bed to remove fission products therefrom as well as assist in cooling the reactor. (AEC)

  20. Stationary Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Stationary Power - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced Nuclear

  1. Microsoft PowerPoint - Pete H's 2008 SWPA Conf Pres(NWK Proj...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Hoists Repair Project, Harry S. Truman Power Plant * Water Supply Storage Reallocation, ... coordination (i.e. flood control, power plant, and minimum flow releases) * MOA ...

  2. Displacement per Atom, Primary Knocked-on Atoms Produced in an Atomic Solid Target

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-07-01

    Version 00 DART calculates the total number of displacements, primary knocked-on atoms, recoil spectra, displacement cross sections and displacement per atoms rates in a poly atomic solid target, composed of many different isotopes, using ENDF/B-VI derived cross sections. To calculate these values, different incident particles were considered: neutrons, ions and electrons. The user needs only to specify an incident particle energy spectrum and the composition of the target. The number of displaced atoms is calculatedmore » within the Binary Collision Approximation framework. To calculate the number of displacements the DART code does not use the classical NRT dpa analytical formula, which is only appropriate for projectile and target of the same mass. It numerically solves the linearized Boltzmann equation for a polyatomic target. It can be a useful tool to select the nature and energy of ions or electrons in particle accelerators or electron microscopes to mimic the primary damage induced by neutron irradiation in nuclear plants or fission facilities. Nuclear data: • Typically any ENDFB format evaluation may be used. This package includes the ENDFB-VI nuclear data library. Energy ranges: • Neutron or ion : 10E-11 to 20 MeV Data library distributed with DART v1.0: • ENDFB-VI nuclear data library« less

  3. Power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yakymyshyn, Christopher Paul; Hamilton, Pamela Jane; Brubaker, Michael Allen

    2007-12-04

    A modular, low weight impedance dropping power supply with battery backup is disclosed that can be connected to a high voltage AC source and provide electrical power at a lower voltage. The design can be scaled over a wide range of input voltages and over a wide range of output voltages and delivered power.

  4. A Tariff for Reactive Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J; Li, Fangxing; Tufon, Christopher; Isemonger, Alan

    2008-07-01

    Two kinds of power are required to operate an electric power system: real power, measured in watts, and reactive power, measured in volt-amperes reactive or VARs. Reactive power supply is one of a class of power system reliability services collectively known as ancillary services, and is essential for the reliable operation of the bulk power system. Reactive power flows when current leads or lags behind voltage. Typically, the current in a distribution system lags behind voltage because of inductive loads such as motors. Reactive power flow wastes energy and capacity and causes voltage droop. To correct lagging power flow, leading reactive power (current leading voltage) is supplied to bring the current into phase with voltage. When the current is in phase with voltage, there is a reduction in system losses, an increase in system capacity, and a rise in voltage. Reactive power can be supplied from either static or dynamic VAR sources. Static sources are typically transmission and distribution equipment, such as capacitors at substations, and their cost has historically been included in the revenue requirement of the transmission operator (TO), and recovered through cost-of-service rates. By contrast, dynamic sources are typically generators capable of producing variable levels of reactive power by automatically controlling the generator to regulate voltage. Transmission system devices such as synchronous condensers can also provide dynamic reactive power. A class of solid state devices (called flexible AC transmission system devices or FACTs) can provide dynamic reactive power. One specific device has the unfortunate name of static VAR compensator (SVC), where 'static' refers to the solid state nature of the device (it does not include rotating equipment) and not to the production of static reactive power. Dynamic sources at the distribution level, while more costly would be very useful in helping to regulate local voltage. Local voltage regulation would reduce

  5. WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    get curren WATER POWER SOLAR POWER WIND POWER Be part of the Clean Energy Generation! YOUR HOUSE BIOMASS ENERGY GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Clean energy can come from the sun. 2 The energy in wind can make electricity. We can make energy with moving water. Bioenergy comes from plants we can turn into fuel. Logs Wood Chips Straw Corn Switchgrass We can use energy from the earth to heat and cool our homes. Check out these cool websites to learn more about clean energy! Energy Information Administration

  6. Solar Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Solar Power Solar Power Project Opportunities Abound in the Region The WIPP site is receives abundant solar energy with 6-7 kWh/sq meter power production potential As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the WIPP site enjoys abundant year-round sunshine. With an average solar power production potential of 6-7 kWh/sq meter per day, one exciting project being studied for location at WIPP is a 30-50 MW Solar Power Tower: The American Solar Energy Society (ASES) is is a national trade

  7. Synthesis of Shape-Anisotropic Nanomaterials using Spontaneous Galvanic Displacement Reactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Leong, G. J.; Strand, M.; Schulze, M.; Maloney, D.; Larson, D.; Alia, S.; Perry, K.; Neyerlin, K. C.; Pivovar, B.; Wise, A. M.; Toney, M.; Richards, R. M.

    2013-01-01

    The direct synthesis of nanostructures using wet chemical reduction methods has had a major impact on catalysis and materials design. However, no mechanism has yet been reported that explicitly provides growth parameters for shapes and sizes as a function of desired metals, making it difficult to directly synthesize shaped particles from specific metals. There have been reports in the literature using this method to obtain core-shell, porous cage-like and irregular structures, however only one report proposing a mechanism of the displacement process exists, which does not explain surface and bulk morphology changes as a function of reaction condition. Here, we demonstrate the use of small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS), and microscopy to study the Ag-to-Pt displacement process of nanoparticles, nanowires and nanoplates at known intervals throughout the reaction. Obtaining a fundamental understanding of the displacement process will allow us to tune composition, morphology, and thus electronic properties of novel materials.

  8. Very compact, high-stability electrostatic actuator featuring contact-free self-limiting displacement

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rodgers, M. Steven (Albuquerque, NM); Miller, Samuel L. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2003-01-01

    A compact electrostatic actuator is disclosed for microelectromechanical (MEM) applications. The actuator utilizes stationary and moveable electrodes, with the stationary electrodes being formed on a substrate and the moveable electrodes being supported above the substrate on a frame. The frame provides a rigid structure which allows the electrostatic actuator to be operated at high voltages (up to 190 Volts) to provide a relatively large actuation force compared to conventional electrostatic comb actuators which are much larger in size. For operation at its maximum displacement, the electrostatic actuator is relatively insensitive to the exact value of the applied voltage and provides a self-limiting displacement.

  9. Theoretical/experimental considerations about oil displacement by water in a fractured porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perez-Rosales, C.; Cruz-Hernandez, J.; Samaniego-V., F.

    1994-12-31

    Based upon observations made with a two-dimension porous cell, which allows direct visualization of fluid displacement processes, theoretical formulations were established for explaining oil displacement by water in a fractured porous medium. The theory rests on the idea that fluids are transported essentially through the fractures by a convective process, whereas water inflow to the matrix blocks is carried out by a dispersive process which depends on the difference between fracture and matrix water saturation. With these considerations, a derivation is presented of an expression for water saturation as a function of distance and time. Agreement between theory and experiment is reasonably good.

  10. Comparison of binary collision approximation and molecular dynamics for displacement cascades in GaAs.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Foiles, Stephen Martin

    2011-10-01

    The predictions of binary collision approximation (BCA) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of displacement cascades in GaAs are compared. There are three issues addressed in this work. The first is the optimal choice of the effective displacement threshold to use in the BCA calculations to obtain the best agreement with MD results. Second, the spatial correlations of point defects are compared. This is related to the level of clustering that occurs for different types of radiation. Finally, the size and structure of amorphous zones seen in the MD simulations is summarized. BCA simulations are not able to predict the formation of amorphous material.

  11. Coupled double-layer Fano resonance photonic crystal filters with lattice-displacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shuai, Yichen; Zhao, Deyin; Singh Chadha, Arvinder; Zhou, Weidong; Seo, Jung-Hun; Ma, Zhenqiang; Yang, Hongjun; Semerane, Inc., Arlington, Texas 76010 ; Fan, Shanhui

    2013-12-09

    We present here ultra-compact high-Q Fano resonance filters with displaced lattices between two coupled photonic crystal slabs, fabricated with crystalline silicon nanomembrane transfer printing and aligned e-beam lithography techniques. Theoretically, with the control of lattice displacement between two coupled photonic crystal slabs layers, optical filter Q factors can approach 211 000 000 for the design considered here. Experimentally, Q factors up to 80 000 have been demonstrated for a filter design with target Q factor of 130 000.

  12. Control voltage and power fluctuations when connecting wind farms

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berinde, Ioan Bălan, Horia Oros, Teodora Susana

    2015-12-23

    Voltage, frequency, active power and reactive power are very important parameters in terms of power quality. These parameters are followed when connecting any power plant, the more the connection of wind farms. Connecting wind farms to the electricity system must not cause interference outside the limits set by regulations. Modern solutions for fast and automatic voltage control and power fluctuations using electronic control systems of reactive power flows. FACTS (Flexible Alternating Current Transmision System) systems, established on the basis of power electronic circuits ensure control of electrical status quantities to achieve the necessary transfer of power to the power grid. FACTS devices can quickly control parameters and sizes of state power lines, such as impedance line voltages and phase angles of the voltages of the two ends of the line. Their use can lead to improvement in power system operation by increasing the transmission capacity of power lines, power flow control lines, improved static and transient stability reserve.

  13. Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Hydroelectric Power Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power Addthis Description Learn how hydropower captures the kinetic energy of flowing water and turns it into electricity for our homes and businesses. Topic Water Text Version Below is the text version for the Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power video: The video opens with the words "Energy 101: Hydroelectric Power." This is followed by a montage of rivers and streams, then a shot of an older water wheel. People have been capturing the energy

  14. Power Electronics Thermal Control (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Narumanchi, S.

    2010-05-05

    Thermal management plays an important part in the cost of electric drives in terms of power electronics packaging. Very promising results have been obtained by using microporous coatings and skived surfaces in conjunction with single-phase and two-phase flows. Sintered materials and thermoplastics with embedded fibers show significant promise as thermal interface materials, or TIMs. Appropriate cooling technologies depend on the power electronics package application and reliability.

  15. Wind Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Wind Power As the accompanying map of New Mexico shows, the best wind power generation potential near WIPP is along the Delaware Mountain ridge line of the southern Guadalupe Mountains, about 50-60 miles southwest. The numeric grid values indicate wind potential, with a range from 1 (poor) to 7 (superb). Just inside Texas in the southern Guadalupe Mountains, the Delaware Mountain Wind Power Facility in Culbertson County, Texas currently generates over 30 MW, and could be expanded to a 250 MW

  16. Microsoft PowerPoint - MVD Hydrokinetics, SW Regional Hydropower...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ... BUILDING STRONG 9 Confidential Information of Free Flow Power Corporation II. 25 Projects on Lower Mississippi River 2009 2009 * FFP filed for Preliminary Permits in June * ...

  17. Projects To Develop Novel Monitoring Networks for Advanced Power...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    ... nonlinear optimizing for optimal sensor placement (OSP) to ... components in coal-fired power plants. (DOE share: ... properties of an entrained flow gasifier refractory wall ...

  18. EERE PowerPoint 97-2004 Template: Green Version

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nevada, USA) has increased power output of its nearby ... decisions regarding optimal EGS reservoir development ... to effectively couple fluid flow, geochemistry, and ...

  19. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ... Geochemistry Geoscience SubTER Carbon Sequestration Program Leadership EnergyWater Nexus ...

  20. Power LCAT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2012-08-15

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  1. Power LCAT

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Drennen, Thomas

    2014-06-27

    POWER LCAT is a software tool used to compare elements of efficiency, cost, and environmental effects between different sources of energy.

  2. Determination of the displacement energy of O, Si and Zr under electron beam irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, Philip D; Weber, William J; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2012-01-01

    The response of nanocrystalline, stabilizer-free cubic zirconia thin films on a Si substrate to electron beam irradiation with energies of 4, 110 and 200 keV and fluences up to {approx}1.5 x 10{sup 22} e m{sup -2} has been studied to determine the displacement energies. The 110 and 200 keV irradiations were performed in situ using a transmission electron microscope; the 4 keV irradiations were performed ex situ using an electron gun. In all three irradiations, no structural modification of the zirconia was observed, despite the high fluxes and fluences. However the Si substrate on which the zirconia film was deposited was amorphized under the 200 keV electron irradiation. Examination of the electron-solid interactions reveals that the kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the silicon lattice is sufficient to cause atomic displacements, resulting in amorphization. The kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the oxygen sub-lattice of the zirconia may be sufficient to induce defect production, however, no evidence of defect production was observed. The displacement cross-section value of Zr was found to be {approx}400 times greater than that of O indicating that the O atoms are effectively screened from the electrons by the Zr atoms, and, therefore, the displacement of O is inefficient.

  3. Determination of the Displacement Energies of O, Si and Zr Under Electron Beam Irradiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edmondson, P. D.; Weber, William J.; Namavar, Fereydoon; Zhang, Yanwen

    2012-03-01

    The response of nanocrystalline, stabilizer-free cubic zirconia thin films on a Si substrate to electron beam irradiation with energies of 4, 110 and 200 keV and fluences up to ~1.5 x 10e m has been studied to determine the displacement energies. The 110 and 200 keV irradiations were performed in situ using a transmission electron microscope; the 4 keV irradiations were performed ex situ using an electron gun. In all three irradiations, no structural modification of the zirconia was observed, despite the high fluxes and fluences. However the Si substrate on which the zirconia film was deposited was amorphized under the 200 keV electron irradiation. Examination of the electronsolid interactions reveals that the kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the silicon lattice is sufficient to cause atomic displacements, resulting in amorphization. The kinetic energy transfer from the 200 keV electrons to the oxygen sub-lattice of the zirconia may be sufficient to induce defect production, however, no evidence of defect production was observed. The displacement cross-section value of Zr was found to be ~400 times greater than that of O indicating that the O atoms are effectively screened from the electrons by the Zr atoms, and, therefore, the displacement of O is inefficient.

  4. Criteria for design of the Yucca Mountain structures, systems and components for fault displacement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Stepp, C.; Hossain, Q.; Nesbit, S.; Hardy, M.

    1995-12-31

    The DOE intends to design the Yucca Mountain high-level waste facility structures, systems and components (SSCs) for fault displacements to provide reasonable assurance that they will meet the preclosure safety performance objectives established by 10 CFR Part 60. To the extent achievable, fault displacement design of the facility will follow guidance provided in the NRC Staff Technical Position. Fault avoidance will be the primary design criterion, especially for spatially compact or clustered SSCs. When fault avoidance is not reasonably achievable, expected to be the case for most spatially extended SSCs, engineering design procedures and criteria or repair and rehabilitation actions, depending on the SSC`s importance to safety, are provided. SSCs that have radiological safety importance will be designed for fault displacements that correspond to the hazard exceedance frequency equal to their established seismic safety performance goals. Fault displacement loads are generally localized and may cause local inelastic response of SSCs. For this reason, the DOE intends to use strain-based design acceptance criteria similar to the strain-based criteria used to design nuclear plant SSCs for impact and impulsive loads.

  5. EERE PowerPoint 97-2004 Template: Green Version

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    * GWe growth in geothermal power in the U.S. requires power ... of high (conductive) heat flow in the western U.S. have ... 180 and 200 C are optimal; pumps presently will not ...

  6. Radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Baker, John; Collins, Leland F.; Kuklo, Thomas C.; Micali, James V.

    1992-01-01

    A radiation beam calorimetric power measurement system for measuring the average power of a beam such as a laser beam, including a calorimeter configured to operate over a wide range of coolant flow rates and being cooled by continuously flowing coolant for absorbing light from a laser beam to convert the laser beam energy into heat. The system further includes a flow meter for measuring the coolant flow in the calorimeter and a pair of thermistors for measuring the temperature difference between the coolant inputs and outputs to the calorimeter. The system also includes a microprocessor for processing the measured coolant flow rate and the measured temperature difference to determine the average power of the laser beam.

  7. Microsoft PowerPoint - Buechler.ppt

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... posted on the NYISO website, at: https:www.nyiso.compublicservicesplanningcon gestioncost.jsp 20 Bulk Power Flows 21 0 30 60 90 120 150 11 126 220 316 410 55 530 6...

  8. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    2001-05-29

    This report is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  9. Investigation of Multiscale and Multiphase Flow, Transport and Reaction in Heavy Oil Recovery Processes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Yanis C.

    2001-08-07

    This project is an investigation of various multi-phase and multiscale transport and reaction processes associated with heavy oil recovery. The thrust areas of the project include the following: Internal drives, vapor-liquid flows, combustion and reaction processes, fluid displacements and the effect of instabilities and heterogeneities and the flow of fluids with yield stress. These find respective applications in foamy oils, the evolution of dissolved gas, internal steam drives, the mechanics of concurrent and countercurrent vapor-liquid flows, associated with thermal methods and steam injection, such as SAGD, the in-situ combustion, the upscaling of displacements in heterogeneous media and the flow of foams, Bingham plastics and heavy oils in porous media and the development of wormholes during cold production.

  10. Power system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hickam, Christopher Dale

    2008-03-18

    A power system includes a prime mover, a transmission, and a fluid coupler having a selectively engageable lockup clutch. The fluid coupler may be drivingly connected between the prime mover and the transmission. Additionally, the power system may include a motor/generator drivingly connected to at least one of the prime mover and the transmission. The power-system may also include power-system controls configured to execute a control method. The control method may include selecting one of a plurality of modes of operation of the power system. Additionally, the control method may include controlling the operating state of the lockup clutch dependent upon the mode of operation selected. The control method may also include controlling the operating state of the motor/generator dependent upon the mode of operation selected.

  11. GEOTHERMAL POWER GENERATION PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Boyd, Tonya

    2013-12-01

    Oregon Institute of Technology (OIT) drilled a deep geothermal well on campus (to 5,300 feet deep) which produced 196oF resource as part of the 2008 OIT Congressionally Directed Project. OIT will construct a geothermal power plant (estimated at 1.75 MWe gross output). The plant would provide 50 to 75 percent of the electricity demand on campus. Technical support for construction and operations will be provided by OIT’s Geo-Heat Center. The power plant will be housed adjacent to the existing heat exchange building on the south east corner of campus near the existing geothermal production wells used for heating campus. Cooling water will be supplied from the nearby cold water wells to a cooling tower or air cooling may be used, depending upon the type of plant selected. Using the flow obtained from the deep well, not only can energy be generated from the power plant, but the “waste” water will also be used to supplement space heating on campus. A pipeline will be construction from the well to the heat exchanger building, and then a discharge line will be construction around the east and north side of campus for anticipated use of the “waste” water by facilities in an adjacent sustainable energy park. An injection well will need to be drilled to handle the flow, as the campus existing injection wells are limited in capacity.

  12. Low volume flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meixler, Lewis D.

    1993-01-01

    The low flow monitor provides a means for determining if a fluid flow meets a minimum threshold level of flow. The low flow monitor operates with a minimum of intrusion by the flow detection device into the flow. The electrical portion of the monitor is externally located with respect to the fluid stream which allows for repairs to the monitor without disrupting the flow. The electronics provide for the adjustment of the threshold level to meet the required conditions. The apparatus can be modified to provide an upper limit to the flow monitor by providing for a parallel electronic circuit which provides for a bracketing of the desired flow rate.

  13. Economizer control assembly for regulating the volume flow of outdoor ambient air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Michaels, D.D. Jr.

    1984-10-23

    An economizer assembly is disclosed wherein a sliding door is utilized for covering an outdoor ambient air opening allowing outdoor ambient air flow into a space to be conditioned. A motor shaft arrangement connected via a rotating drive rod is utilized to slidably displace the door to any position necessary to effectively regulate air flow. The utilization of this economizer control arrangement with a rooftop type air conditioning unit is further disclosed.

  14. Flow Battery Technology

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of windsolar power generation (load leveling), minimize the electrical loads during peak demand (peak shaving), or act as an uninterruptable power supply during power outages. ...

  15. Thaw flow control for liquid heat transport systems

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kirpich, Aaron S.

    1989-01-01

    In a liquid metal heat transport system including a source of thaw heat for use in a space reactor power system, the thaw flow throttle or control comprises a fluid passage having forward and reverse flow sections and a partition having a plurality of bleed holes therein to enable fluid flow between the forward and reverse sections. The flow throttle is positioned in the system relatively far from the source of thaw heat.

  16. Electric power substation capital costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dagle, J.E.; Brown, D.R.

    1997-12-01

    The displacement or deferral of substation equipment is a key benefit associated with several technologies that are being developed with the support of the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. This could occur, for example, as a result of installing a distributed generating resource within an electricity distribution system. The objective of this study was to develop a model for preparing preliminary estimates of substation capital costs based on rudimentary conceptual design information. The model is intended to be used by energy systems analysts who need ``ballpark`` substation cost estimates to help establish the value of advanced utility technologies that result in the deferral or displacement of substation equipment. This cost-estimating model requires only minimal inputs. More detailed cost-estimating approaches are recommended when more detailed design information is available. The model was developed by collecting and evaluating approximately 20 sets of substation design and cost data from about 10 US sources, including federal power marketing agencies and private and public electric utilities. The model is principally based on data provided by one of these sources. Estimates prepared with the model were compared with estimated and actual costs for the data sets received from the other utilities. In general, good agreement (for conceptual level estimating) was found between estimates prepared with the cost-estimating model and those prepared by the individual utilities. Thus, the model was judged to be adequate for making preliminary estimates of typical substation costs for US utilities.

  17. MSET modeling of Crystal River-3 venturi flow meters.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bockhorst, F. K.; Gross, K. C.; Herzog, J. P.; Wegerich, S. W.

    1998-01-05

    The analysis of archived Crystal River-3 feedwater flow data reveals a slow and steady degradation of the flow meter measurements during the 1992/1993 operating cycle. MSET can reliably estimate the true flow rate and quantify the degree of departure between the indicated signal and the true flow rate with high accuracy. The MSET computed flow rate could, in principle, be used to provide an improved estimate of the reactor power and hence avoid the revenue loss associated with derating the reactor based on a faulty feedwater flow rate indication.

  18. solar power

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    9%2A en Solar power purchase for DOE laboratories http:nnsa.energy.govmediaroompressreleasessolarpower

  19. Water Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ...016-03-01T17:12:00+00:00 March 1st, 2016|News, News & Events, Water Power, Workshops|0 Comments Read More Wave energy distribution example Permalink Gallery Sandia releases 2nd ...

  20. High energy density redox flow device

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chiang, Yet-Ming; Carter, W. Craig; Ho, Bryan Y; Duduta, Mihai; Limthongkul, Pimpa

    2014-05-13

    Redox flow devices are described in which at least one of the positive electrode or negative electrode-active materials is a semi-solid or is a condensed ion-storing electroactive material, and in which at least one of the electrode-active materials is transported to and from an assembly at which the electrochemical reaction occurs, producing electrical energy. The electronic conductivity of the semi-solid is increased by the addition of conductive particles to suspensions and/or via the surface modification of the solid in semi-solids (e.g., by coating the solid with a more electron conductive coating material to increase the power of the device). High energy density and high power redox flow devices are disclosed. The redox flow devices described herein can also include one or more inventive design features. In addition, inventive chemistries for use in redox flow devices are also described.

  1. Comparison of energy consumption between displacement and mixing ventilation systems for different U.S. buildings and climates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, S.; Chen, Q.; Glicksman, L.R.

    1999-07-01

    A detailed computer simulation method was used to compare the energy consumption of a displacement ventilation system with that of a mixing ventilation system for three types of US buildings: a small office, a classroom, and an industrial workshop. The study examined five typical climatic regions as well as different building zones. It was found that a displacement ventilation system may use more fan energy and less chiller and boiler energy than a mixing ventilation system. The total energy consumption is slightly less using a displacement ventilation system. Both systems can use a similarly sized boiler. However, a displacement ventilation system requires a larger air-handling unit and a smaller chiller than the mixing ventilation system. The overall first costs are lower for the displacement ventilation if the system is applied for the core region of a building.

  2. Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels The ...

  3. Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Flow distribution channels to control flow in process channels You are ...

  4. Power combiner

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Arnold, Mobius; Ives, Robert Lawrence

    2006-09-05

    A power combiner for the combining of symmetric and asymmetric traveling wave energy comprises a feed waveguide having an input port and a launching port, a reflector for reflecting launched wave energy, and a final waveguide for the collection and transport of launched wave energy. The power combiner has a launching port for symmetrical waves which comprises a cylindrical section coaxial to the feed waveguide, and a launching port for asymmetric waves which comprises a sawtooth rotated about a central axis.

  5. Oscillating fluid power generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, David C

    2014-02-25

    A system and method for harvesting the kinetic energy of a fluid flow for power generation with a vertically oriented, aerodynamic wing structure comprising one or more airfoil elements pivotably attached to a mast. When activated by the moving fluid stream, the wing structure oscillates back and forth, generating lift first in one direction then in the opposite direction. This oscillating movement is converted to unidirectional rotational movement in order to provide motive power to an electricity generator. Unlike other oscillating devices, this device is designed to harvest the maximum aerodynamic lift forces available for a given oscillation cycle. Because the system is not subjected to the same intense forces and stresses as turbine systems, it can be constructed less expensively, reducing the cost of electricity generation. The system can be grouped in more compact clusters, be less evident in the landscape, and present reduced risk to avian species.

  6. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... ETC.) ...... 20 1C IMPACT OF PHYSICS ON THE FLOW (RADIATION, MOISTURE, ETC.) ... shear across scales, global scale physics, flow forcing, coupling kilometer-scale ...

  7. Multiphase flow calculation software

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fincke, James R.

    2003-04-15

    Multiphase flow calculation software and computer-readable media carrying computer executable instructions for calculating liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of high void fraction multiphase flows. The multiphase flow calculation software employs various given, or experimentally determined, parameters in conjunction with a plurality of pressure differentials of a multiphase flow, preferably supplied by a differential pressure flowmeter or the like, to determine liquid and gas phase mass flow rates of the high void fraction multiphase flows. Embodiments of the multiphase flow calculation software are suitable for use in a variety of applications, including real-time management and control of an object system.

  8. EIN Cash Flow Model

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EIN Cash Flow Model Energy Independence Now (EIN) Objectives Identify financial risks in early hydrogen infrastructure systems and illustrate hydrogen station cash flows under a ...

  9. CASL - Lift Forces in Bubbly Flows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lift Forces in Bubbly Flows The dynamics of two-phase (gas/liquid) bubbly flows are complex: bubbles deform and disperse; large latent heats and heat capacity differentials influence local boiling; and relatively small changes in heated surface temperatures yield order of magnitude changes in boiling complexity. Because the local void volume has a direct feedback effect on reactor neutron flux and fuel rod power production, prediction of local boiling rates and bulk boiling effects in nuclear

  10. Method for imparting resistance to axial displacement of convolutions in a convoluted catalyst substrate

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Pignon, T.E.

    1984-02-21

    A method for imparting resistance to axial displacement of convolutions in a convoluted substrate of the type comprising spirally wound superimposed plain and corrugated strips of metal which are suitable for use in supporting a catalyst in a catalyst unit in which the substrate is washcoated with a layer of refractory metal oxide and is useful for the purification of exhaust gases, especially exhaust gases from a motor vehicle. The method comprises making one or more weld runs across an end face of the substrate so as to weld together the plain and corrugated strips at points where they are contiguous. Even though only a minority of such points of contiguity are welded, the substrate becomes adequately resistant to axial displacing forces generated by exhaust gases passing through the substrate. The substrate may be washcoated prior to making the weld runs.

  11. Measurement of Transient Atomic-scale Displacements in Thin Films with

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Picosecond and Femtometer Resolution | Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource Measurement of Transient Atomic-scale Displacements in Thin Films with Picosecond and Femtometer Resolution Saturday, May 31, 2014 Figure 1 Fig. 1. Fractional changes in (a) PZT, (b) Bi and (c) BFO lattice spacings Dd/d measured with the (003), (222) and (220) reflections, respectively, collected in the short-pulse low-a mode. The inset shows a streak camera measurement of the x-ray pulse duration. Ultrafast

  12. Substrate decomposition in galvanic displacement reaction: Contrast between gold and silver nanoparticle formation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghosh, Tapas; Satpati, Biswarup

    2015-06-24

    We have investigated substrate decomposition during formation of silver and gold nanoparticles in galvanic displacement reaction on germanium surfaces. Silver and gold nanoparticles were synthesized by electroless deposition on sputter coated germanium thin film (∼ 200 nm) grown initially on silicon substrate. The nanoparticles formation and the substrate corrosion were studied using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy.

  13. POWER GRID RELIABILITY AND SECURITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bose, Anjan; Venkatasubramanian, Vaithianathan; Hauser, Carl; Bakken, David; Anderson, David; Zhao, Chuanlin; Liu, Dong; Yang, Tao; Meng, Ming; Zhang, Lin; Ning, Jiawei; Tashman, Zaid

    2014-09-30

    This project has led to the development of a real-time simulation platform for electric power grids called Grid Simulator or GridSim for simulating the dynamic and information network interactions of large- scale power systems. The platform consists of physical models of power system components including synchronous generators, loads and control, which are simulated using a modified commercial power simulator namely Transient Stability Analysis Tool (TSAT) [1] together with data cleanup components, as well as an emulated substation level and wide-area power analysis components. The platform also includes realistic representations of communication network middleware that can emulate the real-time information flow back and forth between substations and control centers in wide-area power systems. The platform has been validated on a realistic 6000-bus model of the western American power system. The simulator GridSim developed in this project is the first of its kind in its ability to simulate real-time response of large-scale power grids, and serves as a cost effective real-time stability and control simulation platform for power industry.

  14. Displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Zujun Huang, Shaoyan; Liu, Minbo; Xiao, Zhigang; He, Baoping; Yao, Zhibin; Sheng, Jiangkun

    2014-07-15

    The experiments of displacement damage effects on CMOS APS image sensors induced by neutron irradiation from a nuclear reactor are presented. The CMOS APS image sensors are manufactured in the standard 0.35 ?m CMOS technology. The flux of neutron beams was about 1.33 10{sup 8} n/cm{sup 2}s. The three samples were exposed by 1 MeV neutron equivalent-fluence of 1 10{sup 11}, 5 10{sup 11}, and 1 10{sup 12} n/cm{sup 2}, respectively. The mean dark signal (K{sub D}), dark signal spike, dark signal non-uniformity (DSNU), noise (V{sub N}), saturation output signal voltage (V{sub S}), and dynamic range (DR) versus neutron fluence are investigated. The degradation mechanisms of CMOS APS image sensors are analyzed. The mean dark signal increase due to neutron displacement damage appears to be proportional to displacement damage dose. The dark images from CMOS APS image sensors irradiated by neutrons are presented to investigate the generation of dark signal spike.

  15. Defect structures induced by high-energy displacement cascades in γ uranium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miao, Yinbin; Beeler, Benjamin; Deo, Chaitanya; Baskes, Michael I.; Okuniewski, Maria A.; Stubbins, James F.

    2015-01-01

    Displacement cascade simulations were conducted for the c uranium system based on molecular dynamics. A recently developed modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential was employed to replicate the atomic interactions while an embedded atom method (EAM) potential was adopted to help characterize the defect structures induced by the displacement cascades. The atomic displacement process was studied by providing primary knock-on atoms (PKAs) with kinetic energies from 1 keV to 50 keV. The influence of the PKA incident direction was examined. The defect structures were analyzed after the systems were fully relaxed. The states of the self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) were categorized into various types of dumbbells, the crowdion, and the octahedral interstitial. The voids were determined to have a polyhedral shape with {110} facets. The size distribution of the voids was also obtained. The results of this study not only expand the knowledge of the microstructural evolution in irradiated c uranium, but also provide valuable references for the radiation-induced defects in uranium alloy fuels.

  16. Visualization and simulation of immiscible displacement in fractured systems using micromodels: Steam injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yortsos, Y.C.

    1995-07-01

    A study of steam and hot water injection processes in micromodel geometries that mimic a matrix-fracture system was undertaken. The followings were observed: Light components existing in the crude oil generated a very high efficient gas-drive at elevated temperatures. This gas generation in conjunction with natural surfactant existing in the crude oil, lead to the formation of a foam in the fracture and to improved displacement in the matrix. We observed that the steam enters the fracture and the matrix depending on whether the steam rate exceeds or not the critical values. The resulting condensed water also moves preferentially into the matrix or the fracture depending on the corresponding capillary number. Since steam is a non-wetting phase as a vapor, but becomes a wetting phase when condensed in a water-wet system, steam injection involves both drainage and imbibition. It was found that all of the oil trapped by the condensed water can be mobilized and recovered when in contact with steam. We also examined hot-water displacement. In comparison with cold-water experiments at the same capillary number, a higher sweep efficiency for both light and heavy oils was observed. It was found that the loam generated in the fracture during hot-water injection, is more stable than in steamflooding. Nonetheless, hot-water injection resulted into less efficient displacement in its absence.

  17. Application Note: Power Grid Modeling With Xyce.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sholander, Peter E.

    2015-06-01

    This application note describes how to model steady-state power flows and transient events in electric power grids with the SPICE-compatible Xyce TM Parallel Electronic Simulator developed at Sandia National Labs. This application notes provides a brief tutorial on the basic devices (branches, bus shunts, transformers and generators) found in power grids. The focus is on the features supported and assumptions made by the Xyce models for power grid elements. It then provides a detailed explanation, including working Xyce netlists, for simulating some simple power grid examples such as the IEEE 14-bus test case.

  18. Redox Flow Batteries: An Engineering Perspective

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chalamala, Babu R.; Soundappan, Thiagarajan; Fisher, Graham R.; Anstey, Mitchell A.; Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Perry, Mike L.

    2014-10-01

    Redox flow batteries are well suited to provide modular and scalable energy storage systems for a wide range of energy storage applications. In this paper, we review the development of redox flow battery technology including recent advances in new redox active materials and systems. We discuss cost, performance, and reliability metrics that are critical for deployment of large flow battery systems. The technology, while relatively young, has the potential for significant improvement through reduced materials costs, improved energy and power efficiency, and significant reduction in the overall system cost.

  19. Ionization based multi-directional flow sensor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Chorpening, Benjamin T.; Casleton, Kent H.

    2009-04-28

    A method, system, and apparatus for conducting real-time monitoring of flow (airflow for example) in a system (a hybrid power generation system for example) is disclosed. The method, system and apparatus measure at least flow direction and velocity with minimal pressure drop and fast response. The apparatus comprises an ion source and a multi-directional collection device proximate the ion source. The ion source is configured to generate charged species (electrons and ions for example). The multi-directional collection source is configured to determine the direction and velocity of the flow in real-time.

  20. Nuclear-Coupled Flow Instabilities and Their Effects on Dryout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. Ishii; X. Sunn; S. Kuran

    2004-09-27

    Nuclear-coupled flow/power oscillations in boiling water reactors (BWRs) are investigated experimentally and analytically. A detailed literature survey is performed to identify and classify instabilities in two-phase flow systems. The classification and the identification of the leading physical mechanisms of the two-phase flow instabilities are important to propose appropriate analytical models and scaling criteria for simulation. For the purpose of scaling and the analysis of the nonlinear aspects of the coupled flow/power oscillations, an extensive analytical modeling strategy is developed and used to derive both frequency and time domain analysis tools.

  1. Cleco Power- Power Miser New Home Program

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Louisiana's Cleco Power offers energy efficiency incentives to eligible customers. Cleco Power offers a rate discount for residential customers building homes that meet the Power Miser Program...

  2. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1999-02-02

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under fill pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  3. Portable wastewater flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hunter, Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus.

  4. Fusion Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power www.pppl.gov FACT SHEET FUSION POWER Check us out on YouTube. http://www.youtube.com/ppplab Find us on Facebook. http://www.facebook.com/PPPLab Follow us on Twitter. @PPPLab Access our RSS feed @PPPLab Deuterium Electron Proton Hydrogen Tritium Neutron For centuries, the way in which the sun and stars produce their energy remained a mystery to man. During the twentieth century, scientists discovered that they produce their energy by the fusion process. E=mc 2 , Albert Einstein's familiar

  5. Soluble Lead Flow Battery: Soluble Lead Flow Battery Technology

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: General Atomics is developing a flow battery technology based on chemistry similar to that used in the traditional lead-acid battery found in nearly every car on the road today. Flow batteries store energy in chemicals that are held in tanks outside the battery. When the energy is needed, the chemicals are pumped through the battery. Using the same basic chemistry as a traditional battery but storing its energy outside of the cell allows for the use of very low cost materials. The goal is to develop a system that is far more durable than today’s lead-acid batteries, can be scaled to deliver megawatts of power, and which lowers the cost of energy storage below $100 per kilowatt hour.

  6. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lal, Amit; Li, Hui; Blanchard, James P.; Henderson, Douglass L.

    2002-01-01

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  7. Star Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2014-10-17

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  8. Star Power

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    None

    2014-11-18

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory has released ''Star Power,'' a new informational video that uses dramatic and beautiful images and thought-provoking interviews to highlight the importance of the Laboratory's research into magnetic fusion.

  9. Dynamic Simulation Nuclear Power Plants

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1992-03-03

    DSNP (Dynamic Simulator for Nuclear Power-Plants) is a system of programs and data files by which a nuclear power plant, or part thereof, can be simulated. The acronym DSNP is used interchangeably for the DSNP language, the DSNP libraries, the DSNP precompiler, and the DSNP document generator. The DSNP language is a special-purpose, block-oriented, digital-simulation language developed to facilitate the preparation of dynamic simulations of a large variety of nuclear power plants. It is amore » user-oriented language that permits the user to prepare simulation programs directly from power plant block diagrams and flow charts by recognizing the symbolic DSNP statements for the appropriate physical components and listing these statements in a logical sequence according to the flow of physical properties in the simulated power plant. Physical components of nuclear power plants are represented by functional blocks, or modules. Many of the more complex components are represented by several modules. The nuclear reactor, for example, has a kinetic module, a power distribution module, a feedback module, a thermodynamic module, a hydraulic module, and a radioactive heat decay module. These modules are stored in DSNP libraries in the form of a DSNP subroutine or function, a block of statements, a macro, or a combination of the above. Basic functional blocks such as integrators, pipes, function generators, connectors, and many auxiliary functions representing properties of materials used in nuclear power plants are also available. The DSNP precompiler analyzes the DSNP simulation program, performs the appropriate translations, inserts the requested modules from the library, links these modules together, searches necessary data files, and produces a simulation program in FORTRAN.« less

  10. Influence of qubit displacements on quantum logic operations in a silicon-based quantum computer with constant interaction

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kamenev, D. I.; Berman, G. P.; Tsifrinovich, V. I.

    2006-10-15

    The errors caused by qubit displacements from their prescribed locations in an ensemble of spin chains are estimated analytically and calculated numerically for a quantum computer based on phosphorus donors in silicon. We show that it is possible to polarize (initialize) the nuclear spins even with displaced qubits by using controlled-NOT gates between the electron and nuclear spins of the same phosphorus atom. However, a controlled-NOT gate between the displaced electron spins is implemented with large error because of the exponential dependence of exchange interaction constant on the distance between the qubits. If quantum computation is implemented on an ensemble of many spin chains, the errors can be small if the number of chains with displaced qubits is small.

  11. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-06-10

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  12. Power superconducting power transmission cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ashworth, Stephen P.

    2003-01-01

    The present invention is for a compact superconducting power transmission cable operating at distribution level voltages. The superconducting cable is a conductor with a number of tapes assembled into a subconductor. These conductors are then mounted co-planarly in an elongated dielectric to produce a 3-phase cable. The arrangement increases the magnetic field parallel to the tapes thereby reducing ac losses.

  13. Wettability and Oil Recovery by Imbibition and Viscous Displacement from Fractured and Heterogeneous Carbonates

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norman R. Morrow; Jill Buckley

    2006-04-01

    About one-half of U.S. oil reserves are held in carbonate formations. The remaining oil in carbonate reservoirs is regarded as the major domestic target for improved oil recovery. Carbonate reservoirs are often fractured and have great complexity even at the core scale. Formation evaluation and prediction is often subject to great uncertainty. This study addresses quantification of crude oil/brine/rock interactions and the impact of reservoir heterogeneity on oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition and viscous displacement from pore to field scale. Wettability-alteration characteristics of crude oils were measured at calcite and dolomite surfaces and related to the properties of the crude oils through asphaltene content, acid and base numbers, and refractive index. Oil recovery was investigated for a selection of limestones and dolomites that cover over three orders of magnitude in permeability and a factor of four variation in porosity. Wettability control was achieved by adsorption from crude oils obtained from producing carbonate reservoirs. The induced wettability states were compared with those measured for reservoir cores. The prepared cores were used to investigate oil recovery by spontaneous imbibition and viscous displacement. The results of imbibition tests were used in wettability characterization and to develop mass transfer functions for application in reservoir simulation of fractured carbonates. Studies of viscous displacement in carbonates focused on the unexpected but repeatedly observed sensitivity of oil recovery to injection rate. The main variables were pore structure, mobility ratio, and wettability. The potential for improved oil recovery from rate-sensitive carbonate reservoirs by increased injection pressure, increased injectivity, decreased well spacing or reduction of interfacial tension was evaluated.

  14. Update of distillers grains displacement ratios for corn ethanol life-cycle analysis.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arora, S.; Wu, M.; Wang, M.; Energy Systems

    2011-02-01

    Production of corn-based ethanol (either by wet milling or by dry milling) yields the following coproducts: distillers grains with solubles (DGS), corn gluten meal (CGM), corn gluten feed (CGF), and corn oil. Of these coproducts, all except corn oil can replace conventional animal feeds, such as corn, soybean meal, and urea. Displacement ratios of corn-ethanol coproducts including DGS, CGM, and CGF were last updated in 1998 at a workshop at Argonne National Laboratory on the basis of input from a group of experts on animal feeds, including Prof. Klopfenstein (University of Nebraska, Lincoln), Prof. Berger (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign), Mr. Madson (Rapheal Katzen International Associates, Inc.), and Prof. Trenkle (Iowa State University) (Wang 1999). Table 1 presents current dry milling coproduct displacement ratios being used in the GREET model. The current effort focuses on updating displacement ratios of dry milling corn-ethanol coproducts used in the animal feed industry. Because of the increased availability and use of these coproducts as animal feeds, more information is available on how these coproducts replace conventional animal feeds. To glean this information, it is also important to understand how industry selects feed. Because of the wide variety of available feeds, animal nutritionists use commercial software (such as Brill Formulation{trademark}) for feed formulation. The software recommends feed for the animal on the basis of the nutritional characteristics, availability, and price of various animal feeds, as well as on the nutritional requirements of the animal (Corn Refiners Association 2006). Therefore, feed formulation considers both the economic and the nutritional characteristics of feed products.

  15. Improving Light Water Reactor Fuel Reliability Via Flow-Induced...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Improving Light Water Reactor Fuel Reliability Via Flow-Indu... Failures of the fuel rod elements used to power U.S. nuclear ... and a recognized bottleneck to optimal fuel utilization. ...

  16. Selective two-step titration of thorium by sulfate displacement of the diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid complex

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kiefer, P.

    1980-07-01

    Thorium and other metals are complexed with excess diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) at pH 1.4, the excess DTPA is titrated with Bi(III) to a xylenol orange end point, sulfate is added to complex Th(IV), and the displaced DTPA again is titrated with Bi(III). Of 61 metal ions and nonmetal anions tested, only Ga(III), Sc(III), tungstate, citrate, oxalate, and thiosulfate interfere seriously. Lesser interferences are In(III), Zr(IV), V(IV), and permanganate. The standard deviation is 2 ..mu..g for 56 to 840 ..mu..g Th.

  17. Note: Phase retrieval method for analyzing single-phase displacement interferometry data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, X. H.; Zeng, X. L.; Fan, D.; Liu, Q. C.; Bie, B. X.; Zhou, X. M. Luo, S. N.

    2014-02-15

    We present a phase retrieval method (PRM) for analyzing single-phase displacement interferometry measurements on rapidly changing velocity histories, including photon Doppler velocimetry (PDV). PRM identifies the peaks and valleys as well as zero-crossing points in a PDV time series, performs normalization and extracts point-by-point phase and thus velocity information. PRM does not require a wide time window as in sliding window Fourier transformation, and thus improves the effective temporal resolution. This method is implemented in analyzing PDV data obtained from gas gun experiments, and validated against simultaneous measurements with velocity interferometer system for any reflector.

  18. Power supply

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hart, Edward J.; Leeman, James E.; MacDougall, Hugh R.; Marron, John J.; Smith, Calvin C.

    1976-01-01

    An electric power supply employs a striking means to initiate ferroelectric elements which provide electrical energy output which subsequently initiates an explosive charge which initiates a second ferroelectric current generator to deliver current to the coil of a magnetic field current generator, creating a magnetic field around the coil. Continued detonation effects compression of the magnetic field and subsequent generation and delivery of a large output current to appropriate output loads.

  19. FlowServe

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power ...

  20. Non-axisymmetric Flows

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to be different than the classical Sweet-Parker picture with symmetric inward flows. ... . 60 5 Reconnection Flow Patterns 64 5.1 Sweet-Parker and tearing reconnection . . . . . ...

  1. Wave-operated power plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghesquiere, H.

    1980-08-12

    This wave-operated power plant comprises a perforated caisson breakwater in which propellers, or turbines, are mounted in the perforations or openings and drives hydraulic pumps connected thereto, which in turn drives a hydraulic motor coupled to an electric generator. One-way flap valves are mounted in the openings. Some of said flap valves allow the rushing waves to enter the caisson, while the other flap valves allow the water to flow out of the caisson.

  2. Ultrasonic flow metering system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gomm, Tyler J.; Kraft, Nancy C.; Mauseth, Jason A.; Phelps, Larry D.; Taylor, Steven C.

    2002-01-01

    A system for determining the density, flow velocity, and mass flow of a fluid comprising at least one sing-around circuit that determines the velocity of a signal in the fluid and that is correlatable to a database for the fluid. A system for determining flow velocity uses two of the inventive circuits with directional transmitters and receivers, one of which is set at an angle to the direction of flow that is different from the others.

  3. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Miller, John M; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  4. Characterizing absolute piezoelectric microelectromechanical system displacement using an atomic force microscope

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, J. Chapman, S.

    2014-08-14

    Piezoresponse Force Microscopy (PFM) is a popular tool for the study of ferroelectric and piezoelectric materials at the nanometer level. Progress in the development of piezoelectric MEMS fabrication is highlighting the need to characterize absolute displacement at the nanometer and Ångstrom scales, something Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) might do but PFM cannot. Absolute displacement is measured by executing a polarization measurement of the ferroelectric or piezoelectric capacitor in question while monitoring the absolute vertical position of the sample surface with a stationary AFM cantilever. Two issues dominate the execution and precision of such a measurement: (1) the small amplitude of the electrical signal from the AFM at the Ångstrom level and (2) calibration of the AFM. The authors have developed a calibration routine and test technique for mitigating the two issues, making it possible to use an atomic force microscope to measure both the movement of a capacitor surface as well as the motion of a micro-machine structure actuated by that capacitor. The theory, procedures, pitfalls, and results of using an AFM for absolute piezoelectric measurement are provided.

  5. Transport-reaction model for defect and carrier behavior within displacement cascades in gallium arsenide

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wampler, William R.; Myers, Samuel M.

    2014-02-01

    A model is presented for recombination of charge carriers at displacement damage in gallium arsenide, which includes clustering of the defects in atomic displacement cascades produced by neutron or ion irradiation. The carrier recombination model is based on an atomistic description of capture and emission of carriers by the defects with time evolution resulting from the migration and reaction of the defects. The physics and equations on which the model is based are presented, along with details of the numerical methods used for their solution. The model uses a continuum description of diffusion, field-drift and reaction of carriers and defects within a representative spherically symmetric cluster. The initial radial defect profiles within the cluster were chosen through pair-correlation-function analysis of the spatial distribution of defects obtained from the binary-collision code MARLOWE, using recoil energies for fission neutrons. Charging of the defects can produce high electric fields within the cluster which may influence transport and reaction of carriers and defects, and which may enhance carrier recombination through band-to-trap tunneling. Properties of the defects are discussed and values for their parameters are given, many of which were obtained from density functional theory. The model provides a basis for predicting the transient response of III-V heterojunction bipolar transistors to pulsed neutron irradiation.

  6. Boundary displacement measurements using multi-energy soft x-rays

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tritz, K. Stutman, D.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Sabbagh, S.

    2014-11-15

    The Multi-Energy Soft X-ray (ME-SXR) system on NSTX provides radial profiles of soft X-ray emission, measured through a set of filters with varying thickness, which have been used to reconstruct the electron temperature on fast time scales (∼10 kHz). In addition to this functionality, here we show that the ME-SXR system can be used to measure the boundary displacement of the NSTX plasma with a few mm spatial resolution during magnetohydrodyamic (MHD) activity. Boundary displacement measurements can serve to inform theoretical predictions of neoclassical toroidal viscosity, and will be used to investigate other edge phenomena on NSTX-U. For example, boundary measurements using filtered SXR measurements can provide information on pedestal steepness and dynamic evolution leading up to and during edge localized modes (ELMs). Future applications include an assessment of a simplified, filtered SXR edge detection system as well as its suitability for real-time non-magnetic boundary feedback for ELMs, MHD, and equilibrium position control.

  7. Electron phonon coupling in Ni-based binary alloys with application to displacement cascade modeling

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Samolyuk, German D.; Stocks, George Malcolm; Stoller, Roger E.

    2016-04-01

    Energy transfer between lattice atoms and electrons is an important channel of energy dissipation during displacement cascade evolution in irradiated materials. On the assumption of small atomic displacements, the intensity of this transfer is controlled by the strength of electron–phonon (el–ph) coupling. The el–ph coupling in concentrated Ni-based alloys was calculated using electronic structure results obtained within the coherent potential approximation. It was found that Ni0.5Fe0.5, Ni0.5Co0.5 and Ni0.5Pd0.5 are ordered ferromagnetically, whereas Ni0.5Cr0.5 is nonmagnetic. Since the magnetism in these alloys has a Stoner-type origin, the magnetic ordering is accompanied by a decrease of electronic density of states atmore » the Fermi level, which in turn reduces the el–ph coupling. Thus, the el–ph coupling values for all alloys are approximately 50% smaller in the magnetic state than for the same alloy in a nonmagnetic state. As the temperature increases, the calculated coupling initially increases. After passing the Curie temperature, the coupling decreases. The rate of decrease is controlled by the shape of the density of states above the Fermi level. Introducing a two-temperature model based on these parameters in 10 keV molecular dynamics cascade simulation increases defect production by 10–20% in the alloys under consideration.« less

  8. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, Andrew R.; Rodgers, John C.; Ortiz, Carlos A.; Nelson, David C.

    1994-01-01

    Elbow mass flow meter. The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity.

  9. Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind Awards Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind ...

  10. Solar Power for Tanzania

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Christine; Gerace, Jay; Mehner, Nicole; Mohamed, Sharif; Reiss, Kelly

    1999-12-06

    Condensed list of products and activities: 8 educational posters and 1 informational brochure (all original illustrations and text); a business plan with micro-agreements; corporation created called Tanzanian Power, LLC; business feasibility study developed with the University of Albany; Hampshire College collaborated in project development; research conducted seeking similar projects in underdeveloped countries; Citibank proposal submitted (but rejected); cleaned and sent PV panels to Tanzania; community center built in Tanzania; research and list provided to Robinson for educational TV videos and product catalogs; networked with Chase Manhattan Bank for new solar panels; maintained flow of information among many people (stateside and Tanzania); wrote and sent press releases and other outreach information. Several families purchased panels.

  11. Lateral flow strip assay

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Miles, Robin R.; Benett, William J.; Coleman, Matthew A.; Pearson, Francesca S.; Nasarabadi, Shanavaz L.

    2011-03-08

    A lateral flow strip assay apparatus comprising a housing; a lateral flow strip in the housing, the lateral flow strip having a receiving portion; a sample collection unit; and a reagent reservoir. Saliva and/or buccal cells are collected from an individual using the sample collection unit. The sample collection unit is immersed in the reagent reservoir. The tip of the lateral flow strip is immersed in the reservoir and the reagent/sample mixture wicks up into the lateral flow strip to perform the assay.

  12. A Conductivity Relationship for Steady-state Unsaturated Flow Processes under Optimal Flow Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, H. H.

    2010-09-15

    Optimality principles have been used for investigating physical processes in different areas. This work attempts to apply an optimal principle (that water flow resistance is minimized on global scale) to steady-state unsaturated flow processes. Based on the calculus of variations, we show that under optimal conditions, hydraulic conductivity for steady-state unsaturated flow is proportional to a power function of the magnitude of water flux. This relationship is consistent with an intuitive expectation that for an optimal water flow system, locations where relatively large water fluxes occur should correspond to relatively small resistance (or large conductance). Similar results were also obtained for hydraulic structures in river basins and tree leaves, as reported in other studies. Consistence of this theoretical result with observed fingering-flow behavior in unsaturated soils and an existing model is also demonstrated.

  13. Power optics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Apollonov, V V

    2014-02-28

    By using the theory we developed in the early 1970s, a broad range of phenomena is considered for an optical surface of a solid body that is exposed to radiation arbitrarily varying in time and producing temperature fields, thermoelastic stresses and thermal deformations on the surface layer. The examination is based on the relations (which are similar to Duhamel's integral formula from the theory of heat conduction) between the quantities characterising the thermal stress state in any nonstationary regimes of energy input into a solid. A peculiar feature of the analysis of the thermal stress state in this case consists in the fact that this relation comprises time as a parameter, which in turn is a consequence of incoherence of the quasi-stationary problem of thermoelasticity. This phenomenon is particularly important for the optics of high-power, high-pulse repetition rate lasers, which are being actively developed. In the review, we have recently published in Laser Physics, the thermal stress state of a solid is analysed. In this state, time is treated as an independent variable used in differentiation. Such an approach greatly reduces the applicability of the method. The review published contains data on the use of capillary porous structures made of various materials with different degrees of the surface development. Moreover, such structures can be efficiently employed to increase the heat exchange at a temperature below the boiling point of the coolant. In the present review we discuss the dependences of the limiting laser intensities on the duration of a pulse or a pulse train, corresponding to the three stages of the state of the reflecting surface and leading to unacceptable elastic deformations of the surface, to the plastic yield of the material accompanied by the formation of residual stresses and to the melting of the surface layer. We also analyse the problem of heat exchange in the surface layer with a liquid metal coolant pumped through it. The

  14. Isolated and soft-switched power converter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Adams, Donald Joe

    2002-01-01

    An isolated and soft-switched power converter is used for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion. The power converter includes two resonant tank circuits coupled back-to-back through an isolation transformer. Each resonant tank circuit includes a pair of resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, a pair of tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and a pair of switching devices with anti-parallel clamping diodes coupled in series as resonant switches and clamping devices for the resonant leg. The power converter is well suited for DC/DC and DC/DC/AC power conversion applications in which high-voltage isolation, DC to DC voltage boost, bidirectional power flow, and a minimal number of conventional switching components are important design objectives. For example, the power converter is especially well suited to electric vehicle applications and load-side electric generation and storage systems, and other applications in which these objectives are important. The power converter may be used for many different applications, including electric vehicles, hybrid combustion/electric vehicles, fuel-cell powered vehicles with low-voltage starting, remote power sources utilizing low-voltage DC power sources, such as photovoltaics and others, electric power backup systems, and load-side electric storage and generation systems.

  15. POWER REACTOR

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Zinn, W.H.

    1958-07-01

    A fast nuclear reactor system ls described for producing power and radioactive isotopes. The reactor core is of the heterogeneous, fluid sealed type comprised of vertically arranged elongated tubular fuel elements having vertical coolant passages. The active portion is surrounded by a neutron reflector and a shield. The system includes pumps and heat exchangers for the primary and secondary coolant circuits. The core, primary coolant pump and primary heat exchanger are disposed within an irapenforate tank which is filled with the primary coolant, in this case a liquid metal such as Na or NaK, to completely submerge these elements. The tank is completely surrounded by a thick walled concrete shield. This reactor system utilizes enriched uranium or plutonium as the fissionable material, uranium or thorium as a diluent and thorium or uranium containing less than 0 7% of the U/sup 235/ isotope as a fertile material.

  16. Power oscillator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gitsevich, Aleksandr

    2001-01-01

    An oscillator includes an amplifier having an input and an output, and an impedance transformation network connected between the input of the amplifier and the output of the amplifier, wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to provide suitable positive feedback from the output of the amplifier to the input of the amplifier to initiate and sustain an oscillating condition, and wherein the impedance transformation network is configured to protect the input of the amplifier from a destructive feedback signal. One example of the oscillator is a single active element device capable of providing over 70 watts of power at over 70% efficiency. Various control circuits may be employed to match the driving frequency of the oscillator to a plurality of tuning states of the lamp.

  17. Power management system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Algrain, Marcelo C.; Johnson, Kris W.; Akasam, Sivaprasad; Hoff, Brian D.

    2007-10-02

    A method of managing power resources for an electrical system of a vehicle may include identifying enabled power sources from among a plurality of power sources in electrical communication with the electrical system and calculating a threshold power value for the enabled power sources. A total power load placed on the electrical system by one or more power consumers may be measured. If the total power load exceeds the threshold power value, then a determination may be made as to whether one or more additional power sources is available from among the plurality of power sources. At least one of the one or more additional power sources may be enabled, if available.

  18. Characterization of trapped gas saturation and heterogeneity in core sampling using miscible-displacement experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, D.H.; Jikich, S.A.

    1994-12-31

    Trapped gas saturation and permeability heterogeneity were evaluated in Berea cores at reservoir conditions, using standard miscible displacement experiments, with and without surfactants. Pressure and production history were influenced by core heterogeneity and foam lamellae formation when aqueous surfactant was present in the core. The objective of the dispersion-capacitance model was to estimate trapped gas saturations; however longitudinal dispersion and mass transfer also were examined. The results show that the dispersion-capacitance model accurately fits trapped gas saturation controlled by rock heterogeneities and foam lamellae for lamella generating mechanisms that allow a continuous gas phase (leave-behind lamellae). The practical applications resulting from this study can aid in core sample selection and scaling short laboratory corefloods to field dimensions for applications to foam stimulation and underground storage of natural gas.

  19. ?AMG based on Weighted Matching for Systems of Elliptic PDEs Arising From Displacement and Mixed Methods

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Ambra, P.; Vassilevski, P. S.

    2014-05-30

    Adaptive Algebraic Multigrid (or Multilevel) Methods (?AMG) are introduced to improve robustness and efficiency of classical algebraic multigrid methods in dealing with problems where no a-priori knowledge or assumptions on the near-null kernel of the underlined matrix are available. Recently we proposed an adaptive (bootstrap) AMG method, ?AMG, aimed to obtain a composite solver with a desired convergence rate. Each new multigrid component relies on a current (general) smooth vector and exploits pairwise aggregation based on weighted matching in a matrix graph to define a new automatic, general-purpose coarsening process, which we refer to as the compatible weighted matching. In this work, we present results that broaden the applicability of our method to different finite element discretizations of elliptic PDEs. In particular, we consider systems arising from displacement methods in linear elasticity problems and saddle-point systems that appear in the application of the mixed method to Darcy problems.

  20. Clip gage attachment for frictionless measurement of displacement during high-temperature mechanical testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, D.J.

    1994-01-04

    An attachment for placement between a test specimen and a remote clip gage extensometer providing improved fracture toughness tests of materials at elevated temperature is described. Using a cylindrical tube and axial rod in new relationship, the device transfers the displacement signal of the fracture toughness test specimen directly to a clip gage extensometer located outside the high temperature furnace. Virtually frictionless operation is assured by having the test specimen center one end of the rod in one end of the tube, while the clip gage extensometer arms center the other end of the rod in the other end of the tube. By providing positive control over both ends of both rod and tube, the attachment may be operated in orientations other than vertical. 1 figure.

  1. Clip gage attachment for frictionless measurement of displacement during high-temperature mechanical testing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Alexander, David J.

    1994-01-01

    An attachment for placement between a test specimen and a remote clip gage extensometer providing improved fracture toughness tests of materials at elevated temperature. Using a cylindrical tube and axial rod in new relationship, the device transfers the displacement signal of the fracture toughness test specimen directly to a clip gage extensometer located outside the high temperature furnace. Virtually frictionless operation is assured by having the test specimen center one end of the rod in one end of the tube, while the clip gage extensometer arms center the other end of the rod in the other end of the tube. By providing positive control over both ends of both rod and tube, the attachment may be operated in orientations other than vertical.

  2. Distant optical detection of small rotations and displacements by means of chiral liquid crystals

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shibaev, Petr V. E-mail: shibayev@fordham.edu; Troisi, Juliana; Reddy, Kathryn; Iljin, Andrey

    2014-01-15

    The paper describes novel chiral viscoelastic liquid crystalline mixtures and their application for the detection of small rotational displacements of two plates confining cholesteric liquid crystals (CLC). The mixtures are characterized by extremely high viscosities and stability of the selective reflection band (SRB) at ambient temperatures. Even a small rotation applied to the chiral liquid crystal (CLC) cell results in dramatic changes of the reflective properties of sandwiched CLC films. The angle and direction of rotation as well as the magnitude of CLC's shear deformation can be determined for a variety of experimental geometries, each of which is characterized by its own response function. The proposed model explains changes in the reflection spectra for different experimental geometries and relates them to the angle of rotation and magnitude of shear. The method was tested for a detection of small rotations from a distance of up to 50 m and allows for resolving small rotations of the order of fractions of degrees.

  3. Solar thermal power system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bennett, Charles L.

    2010-06-15

    A solar thermal power generator includes an inclined elongated boiler tube positioned in the focus of a solar concentrator for generating steam from water. The boiler tube is connected at one end to receive water from a pressure vessel as well as connected at an opposite end to return steam back to the vessel in a fluidic circuit arrangement that stores energy in the form of heated water in the pressure vessel. An expander, condenser, and reservoir are also connected in series to respectively produce work using the steam passed either directly (above a water line in the vessel) or indirectly (below a water line in the vessel) through the pressure vessel, condense the expanded steam, and collect the condensed water. The reservoir also supplies the collected water back to the pressure vessel at the end of a diurnal cycle when the vessel is sufficiently depressurized, so that the system is reset to repeat the cycle the following day. The circuital arrangement of the boiler tube and the pressure vessel operates to dampen flow instabilities in the boiler tube, damp out the effects of solar transients, and provide thermal energy storage which enables time shifting of power generation to better align with the higher demand for energy during peak energy usage periods.

  4. Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems,

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    2007 | Department of Energy Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 Survey of Emissions Models for Distributed Combined Heat and Power Systems, 2007 The models surveyed in this study vary in design, scope, and detail, but they all seek to capture the functions of an energy economy and use knowledge of economic interactions to simulate the effects of economic and policy changes. In this 2007 document, Integrated Planning Model (IPM), Average Displaced

  5. Method and system for advancement of a borehole using a high power laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moxley, Joel F.; Land, Mark S.; Rinzler, Charles C.; Faircloth, Brian O.; Zediker, Mark S.

    2014-09-09

    There is provided a system, apparatus and methods for the laser drilling of a borehole in the earth. There is further provided with in the systems a means for delivering high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to advance such boreholes deep into the earth and at highly efficient advancement rates, a laser bottom hole assembly, and fluid directing techniques and assemblies for removing the displaced material from the borehole.

  6. Control scheme for power modulation of a free piston Stirling engine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dhar, Manmohan

    1989-01-01

    The present invention relates to a control scheme for power modulation of a free-piston Stirling engine-linear alternator power generator system. The present invention includes connecting an autotransformer in series with a tuning capacitance between a linear alternator and a utility grid to maintain a constant displacement to piston stroke ratio and their relative phase angle over a wide range of operating conditions.

  7. Turbulence at Hydroelectric Power Plants and its Potential Effects on Fish.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cada, Glenn F.; Odeh, Mufeed

    2001-01-01

    The fundamental influence of fluid dynamics on aquatic organisms is receiving increasing attention among aquatic ecologists. For example, the importance of turbulence to ocean plankton has long been a subject of investigation (Peters and Redondo 1997). More recently, studies have begun to emerge that explicitly consider the effects of shear and turbulence on freshwater invertebrates (Statzner et al. 1988; Hart et al. 1996) and fishes (Pavlov et al. 1994, 1995). Hydraulic shear stress and turbulence are interdependent natural fluid phenomena that are important to fish, and consequently it is important to develop an understanding of how fish sense, react to, and perhaps utilize these phenomena under normal river flows. The appropriate reaction to turbulence may promote movement of migratory fish or prevent displacement of resident fish. It has been suggested that one of the adverse effects of flow regulation by hydroelectric projects is the reduction of normal turbulence, particularly in the headwaters of reservoirs, which can lead to disorientation and slowing of migration (Williams et al. 1996; Coutant et al. 1997; Coutant 1998). On the other hand, greatly elevated levels of shear and turbulence may be injurious to fish; injuries can range from removal of the mucous layer on the body surface to descaling to torn opercula, popped eyes, and decapitation (Neitzel et al. 2000a,b). Damaging levels of fluid stress can occur in a variety of circumstances in both natural and man-made environments. This paper discusses the effects of shear stress and turbulence on fish, with an emphasis on potentially damaging levels in man-made environments. It defines these phenomena, describes studies that have been conducted to understand their effects, and identifies gaps in our knowledge. In particular, this report reviews the available information on the levels of turbulence that can occur within hydroelectric power plants, and the associated biological effects. The final section

  8. Vehicle Technologies Office: Power Electronics Research and Development |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Power Electronics Research and Development Vehicle Technologies Office: Power Electronics Research and Development To reach the EV Everywhere Grand Challenge goal, the Vehicle Technologies Office (VTO) is supporting research and development (R&D) to lower the cost and improve the performance of power electronics in electric drive vehicles. Vehicle power electronics primarily process and control the flow of electrical energy in hybrid and plug-in electric vehicles,

  9. Polyoxometalate flow battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Travis M.; Pratt, Harry D.

    2016-03-15

    Flow batteries including an electrolyte of a polyoxometalate material are disclosed herein. In a general embodiment, the flow battery includes an electrochemical cell including an anode portion, a cathode portion and a separator disposed between the anode portion and the cathode portion. Each of the anode portion and the cathode portion comprises a polyoxometalate material. The flow battery further includes an anode electrode disposed in the anode portion and a cathode electrode disposed in the cathode portion.

  10. Solids mass flow determination

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Macko, Joseph E.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for determining the mass flow rate of solids mixed with a transport fluid to form a flowing mixture. A temperature differential is established between the solids and fluid. The temperature of the transport fluid prior to mixing, the temperature of the solids prior to mixing, and the equilibrium temperature of the mixture are monitored and correlated in a heat balance with the heat capacities of the solids and fluid to determine the solids mass flow rate.

  11. Microsoft PowerPoint - Bryan Hydro Conf 11 Jun 09.ppt

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power, regulation of Red River flows, improvement of navigation, and recreation. ... Exceeded compliance goals. 4-year averages exceed compliance goals. - Red River: 625 ...

  12. Excess flow shutoff valve

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Kiffer, Micah S.; Tentarelli, Stephen Clyde

    2016-02-09

    Excess flow shutoff valve comprising a valve body, a valve plug, a partition, and an activation component where the valve plug, the partition, and activation component are disposed within the valve body. A suitable flow restriction is provided to create a pressure difference between the upstream end of the valve plug and the downstream end of the valve plug when fluid flows through the valve body. The pressure difference exceeds a target pressure difference needed to activate the activation component when fluid flow through the valve body is higher than a desired rate, and thereby closes the valve.

  13. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Engh, G. van den; Esposito, R.J.

    1996-01-09

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane. 8 figs.

  14. Multiple sort flow cytometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Van den Engh, Ger (Seattle, WA); Esposito, Richard J. (Seattle, WA)

    1996-01-01

    A flow cytometer utilizes multiple lasers for excitation and respective fluorescence of identified dyes bonded to specific cells or events to identify and verify multiple events to be sorted from a sheath flow and droplet stream. Once identified, verified and timed in the sheath flow, each event is independently tagged upon separation from the flow by an electrical charge of +60, +120, or +180 volts and passed through oppositely charged deflection plates with ground planes to yield a focused six way deflection of at least six events in a narrow plane.

  15. New Mexico Heat Flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Kelley

    2015-10-21

    This is an updated and simplified version of the New Mexico heat flow data already on the NGDS that was used for Play Fairway analysis.

  16. Analysis of pure electrical and cogeneration steam power plants

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Albar, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    General Electric's method of steam turbine performance was used with pure electrical and with cogeneration power plants at various flow rates. Comparisons were made for two cases: (1) the same amount of heat is added to each boiler and the amount of electrical power generated is compared; and (2) when each plant should produce the same amount of electric power and the amount of heat added to each boiler is compared. Cogeneration is energetically more efficient than pure electrical plant. Correlations for the dependence of heat rate, power generated, heat added to throttle flow ratio were obtained from this work.

  17. Design, construction and evaluation of a simulated geothermal flow system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mackanic, J.C.

    1980-07-28

    A system was designed and built to simulate the flow from a geothermal well. The simulated flow will be used to power a Lysholm engine, the performance of which will then be evaluated for different simulated geothermal flows. Two main subjects are covered: 1) the design, construction and evaluation of the behavior of the system that simulates the geothermal flow; included in that topic is a discussion of the probable behavior of the Lysholm engine when it is put into operation, and 2) the investigation of the use of dynamic modeling techniques to determine whether they can provide a suitable means for predicting the behavior of the system.

  18. Inductively coupled plasma torch with laminar flow cooling

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rayson, Gary D.; Shen, Yang

    1991-04-30

    An improved inductively coupled gas plasma torch. The torch includes inner and outer quartz sleeves and tubular insert snugly fitted between the sleeves. The insert includes outwardly opening longitudinal channels. Gas flowing through the channels of the insert emerges in a laminar flow along the inside surface of the outer sleeve, in the zone of plasma heating. The laminar flow cools the outer sleeve and enables the torch to operate at lower electrical power and gas consumption levels additionally, the laminar flow reduces noise levels in spectroscopic measurements of the gaseous plasma.

  19. WINDExchange: Buying Wind Power

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Buying Wind Power Individuals, communities, businesses, and government entities may decide that buying wind power to supply their energy needs is the right fit. There are several ways to purchase wind power. Green Power Marketing Green power marketing refers to green power being offered by multiple suppliers in a competitive marketplace. In states that have established retail competition, customers may be able to purchase green power from a competitive supplier. Learn more about green power

  20. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Southeastern Federal Power Alliance - September 29, 2015 Proprietary and Confidential * ... Power Corporation 2 Proprietary and Confidential Generating Facilities Rocky Mountain ...

  1. High average power laser using a transverse flowing liquid host

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R.; Comaskey, Brian J.; Kuklo, Thomas C.

    2003-07-29

    A laser includes an optical cavity. A diode laser pumping device is located within the optical cavity. An aprotic lasing liquid containing neodymium rare earth ions fills the optical cavity. A circulation system that provides a closed loop for circulating the aprotic lasing liquid into and out of the optical cavity includes a pump and a heat exchanger.

  2. MHK Technologies/FRI El Sea Power System | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    FRI El Sea Power System.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization FRI EL Sea Power S r l Technology Type Click here Axial Flow Turbine Technology Description The device is...

  3. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governing equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.

  4. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convection–diffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluid–fluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governingmore » equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convection–diffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.« less

  5. Flow regimes for fluid injection into a confined porous medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zheng, Zhong; Guo, Bo; Christov, Ivan C.; Celia, Michael A.; Stone, Howard A.

    2015-02-24

    We report theoretical and numerical studies of the flow behaviour when a fluid is injected into a confined porous medium saturated with another fluid of different density and viscosity. For a two-dimensional configuration with point source injection, a nonlinear convectiondiffusion equation is derived to describe the time evolution of the fluidfluid interface. In the early time period, the fluid motion is mainly driven by the buoyancy force and the governing equation is reduced to a nonlinear diffusion equation with a well-known self-similar solution. In the late time period, the fluid flow is mainly driven by the injection, and the governing equation is approximated by a nonlinear hyperbolic equation that determines the global spreading rate; a shock solution is obtained when the injected fluid is more viscous than the displaced fluid, whereas a rarefaction wave solution is found when the injected fluid is less viscous. In the late time period, we also obtain analytical solutions including the diffusive term associated with the buoyancy effects (for an injected fluid with a viscosity higher than or equal to that of the displaced fluid), which provide the structure of the moving front. Numerical simulations of the convectiondiffusion equation are performed; the various analytical solutions are verified as appropriate asymptotic limits, and the transition processes between the individual limits are demonstrated.

  6. Power Right. Power Smart. Efficient Computer Power Supplies and Monitors.

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Learn about energy-efficient power supplies that can help you reduce energy consumption and lower your energy costs.

  7. Microelectromechanical flow control apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Okandan, Murat

    2009-06-02

    A microelectromechanical (MEM) flow control apparatus is disclosed which includes a fluid channel formed on a substrate from a first layer of a nonconducting material (e.g. silicon nitride). A first electrode is provided on the first layer of the nonconducting material outside the flow channel; and a second electrode is located on a second layer of the nonconducting material above the first layer. A voltage applied between the first and second electrodes deforms the fluid channel to increase its cross-sectional size and thereby increase a flow of a fluid through the channel. In certain embodiments of the present invention, the fluid flow can be decreased or stopped by applying a voltage between the first electrode and the substrate. A peristaltic pumping of the fluid through the channel is also possible when the voltage is applied in turn between a plurality of first electrodes and the substrate. A MEM flow control assembly can also be formed by providing one or more MEM flow control devices on a common substrate together with a submicron filter. The MEM flow control assembly can optionally include a plurality of pressure sensors for monitoring fluid pressure and determining flow rates through the assembly.

  8. Elbow mass flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McFarland, A.R.; Rodgers, J.C.; Ortiz, C.A.; Nelson, D.C.

    1994-08-16

    The present invention includes a combination of an elbow pressure drop generator and a shunt-type mass flow sensor for providing an output which gives the mass flow rate of a gas that is nearly independent of the density of the gas. For air, the output is also approximately independent of humidity. 3 figs.

  9. Cone-beam breast computed tomography with a displaced flat panel detector array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mettivier, Giovanni; Russo, Paolo; Lanconelli, Nico; Meo, Sergio Lo

    2012-05-15

    Purpose: In cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and in particular in cone-beam breast computed tomography (CBBCT), an important issue is the reduction of the image artifacts produced by photon scatter and the reduction of patient dose. In this work, the authors propose to apply the detector displacement technique (also known as asymmetric detector or ''extended view'' geometry) to approach this goal. Potentially, this type of geometry, and the accompanying use of a beam collimator to mask the unirradiated half-object in each projection, permits some reduction of radiation dose with respect to conventional CBBCT and a sizeable reduction of the overall amount of scatter in the object, for a fixed contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Methods: The authors consider a scan configuration in which the projection data are acquired from an asymmetrically positioned detector that covers only one half of the scan field of view. Monte Carlo simulations and measurements, with their CBBCT laboratory scanner, were performed using PMMA phantoms of cylindrical (70-mm diameter) and hemiellipsoidal (140-mm diameter) shape simulating the average pendant breast, at 80 kVp. Image quality was evaluated in terms of contrast, noise, CNR, contrast-to-noise ratio per unit of dose (CNRD), and spatial resolution as width of line spread function for high contrast details. Results: Reconstructed images with the asymmetric detector technique deviate less than 1% from reconstruction with a conventional symmetric detector (detector view) and indicate a reduction of the cupping artifact in CT slices. The maximum scatter-to-primary ratio at the center of the phantom decreases by about 50% for both small and large diameter phantoms (e.g., from 0.75 in detector view to 0.40 in extended view geometry at the central axis of the 140-mm diameter PMMA phantom). Less cupping produces an increase of the CT number accuracy and an improved image detail contrast, but the associated increase of noise observed may

  10. Hydrogen-Bromine Flow Battery: Hydrogen Bromine Flow Batteries for Grid Scale Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: LBNL is designing a flow battery for grid storage that relies on a hydrogen-bromine chemistry which could be more efficient, last longer and cost less than today’s lead-acid batteries. Flow batteries are fundamentally different from traditional lead-acid batteries because the chemical reactants that provide their energy are stored in external tanks instead of inside the battery. A flow battery can provide more energy because all that is required to increase its storage capacity is to increase the size of the external tanks. The hydrogen-bromine reactants used by LBNL in its flow battery are inexpensive, long lasting, and provide power quickly. The cost of the design could be well below $100 per kilowatt hour, which would rival conventional grid-scale battery technologies.

  11. An approximation technique for jet impingement flow

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Najafi, Mahmoud; Fincher, Donald; Rahni, Taeibi; Javadi, KH.; Massah, H.

    2015-03-10

    The analytical approximate solution of a non-linear jet impingement flow model will be demonstrated. We will show that this is an improvement over the series approximation obtained via the Adomian decomposition method, which is itself, a powerful method for analysing non-linear differential equations. The results of these approximations will be compared to the Runge-Kutta approximation in order to demonstrate their validity.

  12. U.S. Electricity Flow, 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electricity Flow, 2015 quadrillion Btu 1 Blast furnace gas and other manufactured and waste gases derived from fossil fuels. 2 Batteries, chemicals, hydrogen, pitch, purchased steam, sulfur, miscellaneous technologies, and non-renewable waste (municipal solid waste from nonbiogenic sources, and tire-derived fuels). 3 Electric energy used in the operation of power plants. 4 Transmission and distribution losses (electricity losses that occur between the point of genera- tion and delivery to the

  13. U.S. Energy Flow, 2015

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Flow, 2015 quadrillion Btu 1 Includes lease condensate. 2 Natural gas plant liquids. 3 Conventional hydroelectric power, biomass, geothermal, solar, and wind. 4 Crude oil and petroleum products. Includes imports into the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. 5 Natural gas, coal, coal coke, biofuels, and electricity. 6 Adjustments, losses, and unaccounted for. 7 Natural gas only; excludes supplemental gaseous fuels. 8 Petroleum products, including natural gas plant liquids, and crude oil burned as fuel. 9

  14. Power Services (pbl/about)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    About Power Services > About Power Services Power Services Home Page Other Related Web Sites Power Services Organization Power Services Financial Information Tribal Affairs Office...

  15. An engine with means for changing the phase angle between displacer and working pistons: Its thermo dynamic cycle compared to the ideal Stirling cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayala V., E.

    1984-08-01

    This paper describes a heat engine comprising a displacer piston actuated by the pressure changes accomplished by the working piston combined with the force exerted by the pressure of a spring against the piston which can be changed to modify the phase angle between the displacer and working pistons. A gas cooler is arranged in an independent closed loop circuit that is put into operation between the end of the expansion stroke and the beginning of the compression stroke. The working cylinder is connected to the cold end of the displacer cylinder through an auxiliary cooler and to the end of the displacer cylinder through the heat regenerator and the heater.

  16. Plasma column displacement measurements by modified Rogowski sine-coil and Biot-Savart/magnetic flux equation solution on IR-T1 tokamak

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Razavi, M.; Mollai, M.; Khorshid, P.; Nedzelskiy, I.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2010-05-15

    The modified Rogowski sine-coil (MRSC) has been designed and implemented for the plasma column horizontal displacement measurements on small IR-T1 tokamak. MRSC operation has been examined on test assembly and tokamak. Obtained results show high sensitivity to the plasma column horizontal displacement and negligible sensitivity to the vertical displacement; linearity in wide, {+-}0.1 m, range of the displacements; and excellent, 1.5%, agreement with the results of numerical solution of Biot-Savart and magnetic flux equations.

  17. Estimated Water Flows in 2005: United States

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C A; Belles, R D; Simon, A J

    2011-03-16

    Flow charts depicting water use in the United States have been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of water use patterns. Approximately 410,500 million gallons per day of water are managed throughout the United States for use in farming, power production, residential, commercial, and industrial applications. Water is obtained from four major resource classes: fresh surface-water, saline (ocean) surface-water, fresh groundwater and saline (brackish) groundwater. Water that is not consumed or evaporated during its use is returned to surface bodies of water. The flow patterns are represented in a compact 'visual atlas' of 52 state-level (all 50 states in addition to Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands) and one national water flow chart representing a comprehensive systems view of national water resources, use, and disposition.

  18. Energy Storage for the Power Grid

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Imhoff, Carl; Vaishnav, Dave

    2014-07-01

    The iron vanadium redox flow battery was developed by researchers at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as a solution to large-scale energy storage for the power grid. This technology provides the energy industry and the nation with a reliable, stable, safe, and low-cost storage alternative for a cleaner, efficient energy future.

  19. Calibrating feedwater flow nozzles in-situ

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Caudill, M.; Diaz-Tous, I.; Murphy, S.; Leggett, M.; Crandall, C.

    1996-05-01

    This paper presents a new method for in-situ calibration of feedwater flow nozzles wherein feedwater flow is determined indirectly by performing a high accuracy heat balance around the highest-pressure feedwater heater. It is often difficult to reliably measure feedwater flow. Over the life of a power plant, the feedwater nozzle can accumulate deposits, erode, or suffer other damage that can render the original nozzle calibration inaccurate. Recalibration of installed feedwater flow nozzles is expensive and time consuming. Traditionally, the nozzle is cut out of the piping and sent to a laboratory for recalibration, which can be an especially difficult, expensive, and time-consuming task when involving high pressure feedwater lines. ENCOR-AMERICA, INC. has developed an accurate and cost-effective method of calibrating feedwater nozzles in-situ as previously reported at the 1994 EPRI Heat Rate Improvement Conference. In this method, feedwater flow and differential pressure across the nozzle are measured concurrently. The feedwater flow is determined indirectly by performing a heat balance around the highest-pressure feedwater heater. Extraction steam to the feedwater heater is measured by use of a high accuracy turbine flowmeter. The meters used have been calibrated at an independent laboratory with a primary or secondary device traceable to the NIST. In this paper, a new variation on the above method is reported. The new approach measures the heater drains and vent flows instead of the extraction steam flow. Test theory and instrumentation will be discussed. Results of in-situ feedwater nozzle calibration tests performed at two units owned by Tri-State Generation and Transmission Association will be presented.

  20. Scaled Experimental Modeling of VHTR Plenum Flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ICONE 15

    2007-04-01

    Abstract The Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is the leading candidate for the Next Generation Nuclear Power (NGNP) Project in the U.S. which has the goal of demonstrating the production of emissions free electricity and hydrogen by 2015. Various scaled heated gas and water flow facilities were investigated for modeling VHTR upper and lower plenum flows during the decay heat portion of a pressurized conduction-cooldown scenario and for modeling thermal mixing and stratification (thermal striping) in the lower plenum during normal operation. It was concluded, based on phenomena scaling and instrumentation and other practical considerations, that a heated water flow scale model facility is preferable to a heated gas flow facility and to unheated facilities which use fluids with ranges of density to simulate the density effect of heating. For a heated water flow lower plenum model, both the Richardson numbers and Reynolds numbers may be approximately matched for conduction-cooldown natural circulation conditions. Thermal mixing during normal operation may be simulated but at lower, but still fully turbulent, Reynolds numbers than in the prototype. Natural circulation flows in the upper plenum may also be simulated in a separate heated water flow facility that uses the same plumbing as the lower plenum model. However, Reynolds number scaling distortions will occur at matching Richardson numbers due primarily to the necessity of using a reduced number of channels connected to the plenum than in the prototype (which has approximately 11,000 core channels connected to the upper plenum) in an otherwise geometrically scaled model. Experiments conducted in either or both facilities will meet the objectives of providing benchmark data for the validation of codes proposed for NGNP designs and safety studies, as well as providing a better understanding of the complex flow phenomena in the plenums.

  1. In-situ calibration of feedwater flow nozzles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Murphy, S.; Mateos, M.; Crandall, C.

    1995-06-01

    Feedwater flow is often the most difficult power-plant parameter to measure reliably. Over the life of a power plant, the feedwater nozzle can accumulate deposits, erode, or suffer other damage that can render the original nozzle calibration inaccurate. Recalibration of installed feedwater flow nozzles is expensive and time consuming. Traditionally, the nozzle is cut out of the thick wall feedwater piping and send to a laboratory for recalibration--an especially difficult, expensive, and time-consuming task in high-pressure lines. ENCOR-AMERICA, Inc. has developed an accurate and cost-effective method of in-situ calibration of feedwater nozzles by measuring (concurrently) feedwater flow and differential pressure across the nozzle at various flow rates. During the tests, feedwater flow is determined indirectly. Extraction steam to the highest pressure feedwater heater is measured by use of a high-accuracy turbine flowmeter. This meter is calibrated in an independent laboratory with a primary or secondary device traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The feedwater flow is then calculated by performing a heat balance around the feedwater heater. This paper discusses test theory and instrumentation. Also presented are test results of an in-situ feedwater nozzle calibration test performed at Montana Power Company`s Colstrip Unit 2 Power Plant.

  2. Bonneville Power Administration 1991 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-01-01

    Congress enacted the Bonneville Project Act in 1937, creating the Bonneville Power Administration to market and transmit the power produced by Bonneville Dam on the Columbia River. Since then, Congress has directed BPA to sell at wholesale the power produced at a total of 30 Federal dams in the Pacific Northwest, and to acquire conservation and generating resources sufficient to meet the needs of BPA`s customer utilities. The dams and the electrical system are known as the Federal Columbia River Power System. Bonneville sells wholesale power to public and private utilities, rural cooperatives, large industries, and Federal agencies. BPA also sells or exchanges power with utilities in California. BPA uses revenues from the sale of power and transmission services to recover its own expenses, to repay the Federal investment in the power system, and to pay for the resources it has acquired. BPA pays for operation and maintenance expenses at the Federal dams and at non-Federal power plants. It also pays for irrigation benefits of Federal projects allocated to power to repay, and for fish and wildlife projects which offset damage to these resources by the Federal hydropower system. This document is the 1991 statement of budget, financial statement, cash flows, capitalization, expenses, and projects. An organization chart is included.

  3. System and method for generating a displacement with ultra-high accuracy using a fabry-perot interferometer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McIntyre, Timothy J.

    1994-01-01

    A system and method for generating a desired displacement of an object, i.e., a target, from a reference position with ultra-high accuracy utilizes a Fabry-Perot etalon having an expandable tube cavity for resolving, with an Iodine stabilized laser, displacements with high accuracy and for effecting (as an actuator) displacements of the target. A mechanical amplifier in the form of a micropositioning stage has a platform and a frame which are movable relative to one another, and the tube cavity of the etalon is connected between the platform and frame so that an adjustment in length of the cavity effects a corresponding, amplified movement of the frame relative to the cavity. Therefore, in order to provide a preselected magnitude of displacement of the stage frame relative to the platform, the etalon tube cavity is adjusted in length by a corresponding amount. The system and method are particularly well-suited for use when calibrating a high accuracy measuring device.

  4. Displacement Fields and Self-Energies of Circular and Polygonal Dislocation Loops in Homogeneous and Layered Anisotropic Solids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gao, Yanfei; Larson, Ben C.

    2015-06-19

    There are large classes of materials problems that involve the solutions of stress, displacement, and strain energy of dislocation loops in elastically anisotropic solids, including increasingly detailed investigations of the generation and evolution of irradiation induced defect clusters ranging in sizes from the micro- to meso-scopic length scales. Based on a two-dimensional Fourier transform and Stroh formalism that are ideal for homogeneous and layered anisotropic solids, we have developed robust and computationally efficient methods to calculate the displacement fields for circular and polygonal dislocation loops. Using the homogeneous nature of the Green tensor of order -1, we have shown that the displacement and stress fields of dislocation loops can be obtained by numerical quadrature of a line integral. In addition, it is shown that the sextuple integrals associated with the strain energy of loops can be represented by the product of a pre-factor containing elastic anisotropy effects and a universal term that is singular and equal to that for elastic isotropic case. Furthermore, we have found that the self-energy pre-factor of prismatic loops is identical to the effective modulus of normal contact, and the pre-factor of shear loops differs from the effective indentation modulus in shear by only a few percent. These results provide a convenient method for examining dislocation reaction energetic and efficient procedures for numerical computation of local displacements and stresses of dislocation loops, both of which play integral roles in quantitative defect analyses within combined experimental–theoretical investigations.

  5. Electric power 2007

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2007-07-01

    Subjects covered include: power industry trends - near term fuel strategies - price/quality/delivery/opportunity; generating fleet optimization and plant optimization; power plant safety and security; coal power plants - upgrades and new capacity; IGCC, advanced combustion and CO{sub 2} capture technologies; gas turbine and combined cycle power plants; nuclear power; renewable power; plant operations and maintenance; power plant components - design and operation; environmental; regulatory issues, strategies and technologies; and advanced energy strategies and technologies. The presentations are in pdf format.

  6. A Rac1--GDP trimer complex binds zinc with tetrahedral and octahedral coordination, displacing magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prehna, G.; Stebbins, C

    2007-01-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases represent well characterized signaling molecules that regulate many cellular functions such as actin cytoskeletal arrangement and the cell cycle by acting as molecular switches. A Rac1-GDP-Zn complex has been crystallized in space group P3221 and its crystal structure has been solved at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. These trigonal crystals reveal the unexpected ability of Rac1 to coordinate Zn atoms in a tetrahedral fashion by use of its biologically relevant switch I and switch II regions. Upon coordination of zinc, the switch I region is stabilized in the GDP-bound conformation and contributes to a Rac1 trimer in the asymmetric unit. Zinc coordination causes switch II to adopt a novel conformation with a symmetry-related molecule. Additionally, zinc was found to displace magnesium from its octahedral coordination at switch I, although GDP binding remained stable. This structure represents the first reported Rac1-GDP-Zn complex, which further underscores the conformational flexibility and versatility of the small GTPase switch regions.

  7. A Rac1-GDP Trimer Complex Binds Zinc with Tetrahedral and Octahedral Coordination, Displacing Magnesium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prehna,G.; Stebbins, E.

    2007-01-01

    The Rho family of small GTPases represent well characterized signaling molecules that regulate many cellular functions such as actin cytoskeletal arrangement and the cell cycle by acting as molecular switches. A Rac1-GDP-Zn complex has been crystallized in space group P3{sub 2}21 and its crystal structure has been solved at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution. These trigonal crystals reveal the unexpected ability of Rac1 to coordinate Zn atoms in a tetrahedral fashion by use of its biologically relevant switch I and switch II regions. Upon coordination of zinc, the switch I region is stabilized in the GDP-bound conformation and contributes to a Rac1 trimer in the asymmetric unit. Zinc coordination causes switch II to adopt a novel conformation with a symmetry-related molecule. Additionally, zinc was found to displace magnesium from its octahedral coordination at switch I, although GDP binding remained stable. This structure represents the first reported Rac1-GDP-Zn complex, which further underscores the conformational flexibility and versatility of the small GTPase switch regions.

  8. Process for the displacement of cyanide ions from metal-cyanide complexes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Barbara F.; Robinson, Thomas W.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to water-soluble polymers and the use of such water-soluble polymers in a process for the displacement of the cyanide ions from the metal ions within metal-cyanide complexes. The process waste streams can include metal-cyanide containing electroplating waste streams, mining leach waste streams, mineral processing waste streams, and related metal-cyanide containing waste streams. The metal ions of interest are metals that give very strong complexes with cyanide, mostly iron, nickel, and copper. The physical separation of the water-soluble polymer-metal complex from the cyanide ions can be accomplished through the use of ultrafiltration. Once the metal-cyanide complex is disrupted, the freed cyanide ions can be recovered for reuse or destroyed using available oxidative processes rendering the cyanide nonhazardous. The metal ions are released from the polymer, using dilute acid, metal ion oxidation state adjustment, or competing chelating agents, and collected and recovered or disposed of by appropriate waste management techniques. The water-soluble polymer can then be recycled. Preferred water-soluble polymers include polyethyleneimine and polyethyleneimine having a catechol or hydroxamate group.

  9. Expanded beam deflection method for simultaneous measurement of displacement and vibrations of multiple microcantilevers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nieradka, K.; MaloziePc, G.; Kopiec, D.; Gotszalk, T.

    2011-10-15

    Here we present an extension of optical beam deflection (OBD) method for measuring displacement and vibrations of an array of microcantilevers. Instead of focusing on the cantilever, the optical beam is either focused above or below the cantilever array, or focused only in the axis parallel to the cantilevers length, allowing a wide optical line to span multiple cantilevers in the array. Each cantilever reflects a part of the incident beam, which is then directed onto a photodiode array detector in a manner allowing distinguishing between individual beams. Each part of reflected beam behaves like a single beam of roughly the same divergence angle in the bending sensing axis as the incident beam. Since sensitivity of the OBD method depends on the divergence angle of deflected beam, high sensitivity is preserved in proposed expanded beam deflection (EBD) method. At the detector, each spot's position is measured at the same time, without time multiplexing of light sources. This provides real simultaneous readout of entire array, unavailable in most of competitive methods, and thus increases time resolution of the measurement. Expanded beam can also span another line of cantilevers allowing monitoring of specially designed two-dimensional arrays. In this paper, we present first results of application of EBD method to cantilever sensors. We show how thermal noise resolution can be easily achieved and combined with thermal noise based resonance frequency measurement.

  10. Tank depletion flow controller

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Georgeson, Melvin A.

    1976-10-26

    A flow control system includes two bubbler tubes installed at different levels within a tank containing such as radioactive liquid. As the tank is depleted, a differential pressure transmitter monitors pressure differences imparted by the two bubbler tubes at a remote, shielded location during uniform time intervals. At the end of each uniform interval, balance pots containing a dense liquid are valved together to equalize the pressures. The resulting sawtooth-shaped signal generated by the differential pressure transmitter is compared with a second sawtooth signal representing the desired flow rate during each time interval. Variations in the two signals are employed by a control instrument to regulate flow rate.

  11. Shroud leakage flow discouragers

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bailey, Jeremy Clyde; Bunker, Ronald Scott

    2002-01-01

    A turbine assembly includes a plurality of rotor blades comprising a root portion, an airfoil having a pressure sidewall and a suction sidewall, and a top portion having a cap. An outer shroud is concentrically disposed about said rotor blades, said shroud in combination with said tip portions defining a clearance gap. At least one circumferential shroud leakage discourager is disposed within the shroud. The leakage discourager(s) increase the flow resistance and thus reduce the flow of hot gas flow leakage for a given pressure differential across the clearance gap to improve overall turbine efficiency.

  12. Wind power: executive summary on research on network wind power over the Pacific Northwest. Progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baker, R.W.; Hewson, E.W.

    1980-10-01

    This research in FY80 is composed of six primary tasks. These tasks include data collection and analysis, wind flow studies around an operational wind turbine generator (WTG), kite anemometer calibration, wind flow analysis and prediction, the Klickitat County small wind energy conversion system (SWECS) program, and network wind power analysis. The data collection and analysis task consists of four sections, three of which deal with wind flow site surveys and the fourth with collecting and analyzing wind data from existing data stations.

  13. DIRECT FUEL CELL/TURBINE POWER PLANT

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2003-05-22

    Project activities were focused on the design and construction the sub-scale hybrid Direct Fuel Cell/turbine (DFC/T{reg_sign}) power plant and modification of a Capstone Simple Cycle Model 330 microturbine. The power plant design work included preparation of system flow sheet and performing computer simulations based on conservation of mass and energy. The results of the simulation analyses were utilized to prepare data sheets and specifications for balance-of-plant equipment. Process flow diagram (PFD) and piping and instrumentation diagrams (P&ID) were also completed. The steady state simulation results were used to develop design information for modifying the control functions, and for sizing the heat exchangers required for recuperating the waste heat from the power plant. Line and valve sizes for the interconnecting pipes between the microturbine and the heat recuperators were also identified.

  14. Catalytic combustor for integrated gasification combined cycle power plant

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bachovchin, Dennis M.; Lippert, Thomas E.

    2008-12-16

    A gasification power plant 10 includes a compressor 32 producing a compressed air flow 36, an air separation unit 22 producing a nitrogen flow 44, a gasifier 14 producing a primary fuel flow 28 and a secondary fuel source 60 providing a secondary fuel flow 62 The plant also includes a catalytic combustor 12 combining the nitrogen flow and a combustor portion 38 of the compressed air flow to form a diluted air flow 39 and combining at least one of the primary fuel flow and secondary fuel flow and a mixer portion 78 of the diluted air flow to produce a combustible mixture 80. A catalytic element 64 of the combustor 12 separately receives the combustible mixture and a backside cooling portion 84 of the diluted air flow and allows the mixture and the heated flow to produce a hot combustion gas 46 provided to a turbine 48. When fueled with the secondary fuel flow, nitrogen is not combined with the combustor portion.

  15. Low pressure stagnation flow reactor with a flow barrier

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Vosen, Steven R.

    2001-01-01

    A flow barrier disposed at the periphery of a workpiece for achieving uniform reaction across the surface of the workpiece, such as a semiconductor wafer, in a stagnation flow reactor operating under the conditions of a low pressure or low flow rate. The flow barrier is preferably in the shape of annulus and can include within the annular structure passages or flow channels for directing a secondary flow of gas substantially at the surface of a semiconductor workpiece. The flow barrier can be constructed of any material which is chemically inert to reactive gases flowing over the surface of the semiconductor workpiece.

  16. Pressure and flow characteristics of restrictive flow orifice...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    an RFO to limit the maximum system flow to acceptable limits within the flow capacity of the relief valve, thereby enhancing the overpressure protection of laboratory equipment. ...

  17. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  18. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  19. Complex Flow Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    none,

    2012-05-01

    This report documents findings from a workshop on the impacts of complex wind flows in and out of wind turbine environments, the research needs, and the challenges of meteorological and engineering modeling at regional, wind plant, and wind turbine scales.

  20. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbur, Emin Caglan

    2015-10-27

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  1. Electrochemical flow capacitors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gogotsi, Yury; Presser, Volker; Kumbar, Emin Caglan

    2015-11-05

    The present invention generally relates to devices for energy storage technologies, and more particularly to electrochemical flow capacitor systems and applications. In some aspects, these flow capacitors have at least one electrode comprising a non-stationary solid or semi-solid composition comprising supercapacitive particles and an electrolytic solvent in electrical communication with at least one current collector, and energy is stored and/or released by charging and/or discharging the electrode(s).

  2. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-03-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  3. Magnetically stimulated fluid flow patterns

    ScienceCinema (OSTI)

    Martin, Jim; Solis, Kyle

    2014-08-06

    Sandia National Laboratories' Jim Martin and Kyle Solis explain research on the effects of magnetic fields on fluid flows and how they stimulate vigorous flows. Fluid flow is a necessary phenomenon in everything from reactors to cooling engines in cars.

  4. Chapter 4: Advancing Clean Electric Power Technologies | Geothermal Power Technology Assessment

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Geothermal Power Chapter 4: Technology Assessments Introduction Geothermal power taps into earth's internal heat as an energy source. While geothermal currently constitutes less than 1% of total U.S. electricity generation, 1 it is regionally much more significant in the western United States. Vast amounts of heat are contained in the interior of the earth from the slow decay of radioactive elements and the heat remaining from earth's formation. This heat flows to the surface at low rates

  5. ClearEdge Power

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    From This To This To This ClearEdge5 - Delivering Smart Energy Today Combined heat and power 5kWh distributed power system CE5 converts natural gas into power and heat without ...

  6. Power Supply Challenges

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Confidential DC Power Seth Paradise 28 February 2014 Power Solutions 1 Confidential Power-One Overview * 40+ Years in AC to DC, DC to DC and Inverters * Key Markets: - Industrial - ...

  7. Biomass: Potato Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to 40 minutes Summary: Students assemble a potato battery that will power a digital clock. ... BIOPOWER - POTATO POWER Purpose: Can a potato power a clock? Materials: A potato A ...

  8. Cost and Performance Model for Redox Flow Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viswanathan, Vilayanur V.; Crawford, Aladsair J.; Stephenson, David E.; Kim, Soowhan; Wang, Wei; Li, Bin; Coffey, Greg W.; Thomsen, Edwin C.; Graff, Gordon L.; Balducci, Patrick J.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Sprenkle, Vincent L.

    2014-02-01

    A cost model was developed for all vanadium and iron-vanadium redox flow batteries. Electrochemical performance modeling was done to estimate stack performance at various power densities as a function of state of charge. This was supplemented with a shunt current model and a pumping loss model to estimate actual system efficiency. The operating parameters such as power density, flow rates and design parameters such as electrode aspect ratio, electrolyte flow channel dimensions were adjusted to maximize efficiency and minimize capital costs. Detailed cost estimates were obtained from various vendors to calculate cost estimates for present, realistic and optimistic scenarios. The main drivers for cost reduction for various chemistries were identified as a function of the energy to power ratio of the storage system. Levelized cost analysis further guided suitability of various chemistries for different applications.

  9. Power Right. Power Smart. Efficient Computer Power Supplies and...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    power supplies, limited to data center server applications. 80 Plus recently ... Again Going for the Gold (Computer) Ultra Energy Efficient Data Center Saves NREL 200,000

  10. WINDExchange: Selling Wind Power

    Wind Powering America (EERE)

    Market Sectors Printable Version Bookmark and Share Utility-Scale Wind Distributed Wind Motivations for Buying Wind Power Buying Wind Power Selling Wind Power Selling Wind Power Owners of wind turbines interconnected directly to the transmission or distribution grid, or that produce more power than the host consumes, can sell wind power as well as other generation attributes. Wind-Generated Electricity Electricity generated by wind turbines can be used to cover on-site energy needs

  11. Two-Phase Flow Simulations through Experimentally Studied Porous Media Analogies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, G.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-07-01

    The amount of CO2 that can be sequestered in deep brine reservoirs is dependant on fluid-fluid-solid interactions within heterogeneous porous media. Displacement of an in-place fluid by a less viscous invading fluid does not displace 100% of the defending fluid, due to capillary and viscous fingering. This has been studied experimentally and numerically with the use of pore-throat flow cells and pore-level models, respectively, in the last two decades. This current work solves the full Navier-Stokes and continuity equations in a random pore-throat geometry using the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. To verify that the VOF model can be accurately applied within narrow apertures, qualitative agreement with the well-documented phenomenon of viscous fingering in a Hele-Shaw cell is first presented. While this motion is similar to the fingering observed in geological media, the random structure of rock restricts flow patterns not captured by flow in Hele-Shaw cells. To mimic this heterogeneous natural geometry, a novel experimental flowcell was created. Experiments of constant-rate injection of air into the water saturated model are described. This situation, where a non-wetting, invading fluid displaces a surface-wetting, more-viscous fluid, is known as drainage. As the injection flow rate was increased, a change from stable displacement fronts to dendritic fingering structures was observed, with a corresponding decrease in the fractal dimension of the interface and a decrease in the final saturation of invading air. Predictions of the VOF computational modeling within the same flowcell geometry are then shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. Percent saturation and the fractal dimension of the invading fluid were calculated from the numerical model and shown to be similar to the experimental findings for air invasion of a watersaturated domain. The fluid properties (viscosity and density) were than varied and the viscosity ratio and capillary number

  12. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, Narayan; Ingersoll, David

    1995-01-01

    Electrolytes for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids.

  13. Electrolytes for power sources

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Doddapaneni, N.; Ingersoll, D.

    1995-01-03

    Electrolytes are disclosed for power sources, particularly alkaline and acidic power sources, comprising benzene polysulfonic acids and benzene polyphosphonic acids or salts of such acids. 7 figures.

  14. Concentrating Solar Power (CSP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  15. Power Towers for Utilities

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas ...

  16. BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    exit signs, kitchen equipment, network power management, power strips, showerheads, clothes washers, water heaters and ag stock tanks. Check IM for detailed requirements. c....

  17. Power System Dispatcher (Trainer)

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration Rocky Mountain Region Power System Operations Transmission Switching (J4100) 5555...

  18. Southwestern Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    FOIAPrivacy Act Submit a FOIA Request DOE FOIA Requester Service Center Electronic Reading Room FOIA Links Power Marketing Administrations' FOIA Links Bonneville Power ...

  19. Wireless Power Transmission

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... A typical photovoltaic system has planar solar arrays for power generation and chemical batteries to store excess solar array energy during periods of sunlight and provide power ...

  20. Supervisory Power System Dispatcher

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration Rocky Mountain Region Power System Operations, J4800 Transmission Scheduling &...

  1. Wind & Water Power Newsletter

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Water Power Newsletter - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact ... Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 ...

  2. Bonneville Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    agreement (Agreement) between the BC Hydro and Power uthority (BCH) and the Bonneville Power Administration (BP A), jointly the Parties, which BA for accounting purposes is...

  3. BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    October 2013 (Revised 060914) United States Department of Energy Bonneville Power Administration 905 N.E. 11th Avenue Portland, OR 97232 Bonneville Power Administration's 2014...

  4. power conversion efficiency

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power conversion efficiency - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations ... Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar ...

  5. 10 MWe power cycle

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    MWe power cycle - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  6. concentrating solar power plant

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    power plant - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy ...

  7. Western Area Power Administration

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Power Administration Follow-up to Nov. 25, 2008 Transition ... Southwestern Power Administration CONSTRUCTION BUDGET ITEM DESCRIPTION FY 2009* MICROWAVE ...

  8. High Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control | Department of Energy Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow Control High Flux Microchannel Solar Receiver Development with Adaptive Flow Control This presentation was delivered at the SunShot Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) Program Review 2013, held April 23-25, 2013 near Phoenix, Arizona. csp_review_meeting_042313_drost.pdf (1.81 MB) More Documents & Publications Microchannel Receiver Development - FY12 Q4 Microchannel Receiver Development - FY13 Q2

  9. Optimization of a Virtual Power Plant to Provide Frequency Support.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Neely, Jason C.; Johnson, Jay; Gonzalez, Sigifredo; Lave, Matthew Samuel; Delhotal, Jarod James

    2015-12-01

    Increasing the penetration of distributed renewable sources, including photovoltaic (PV) sources, poses technical challenges for grid management. The grid has been optimized over decades to rely upon large centralized power plants with well-established feedback controls, but now non-dispatchable, renewable sources are displacing these controllable generators. This one-year study was funded by the Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot program and is intended to better utilize those variable resources by providing electric utilities with the tools to implement frequency regulation and primary frequency reserves using aggregated renewable resources, known as a virtual power plant. The goal is to eventually enable the integration of 100s of Gigawatts into US power systems.

  10. Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Flex power perspectives of indirect power system control through dynamic power price (Smart Grid Project) Jump to: navigation, search Project Name Flex power perspectives of...

  11. Indiabulls Power Ltd formerly Sophia Power Company | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Indiabulls Power Ltd formerly Sophia Power Company Jump to: navigation, search Name: Indiabulls Power Ltd. (formerly Sophia Power Company) Place: New Delhi, Delhi (NCT), India Zip:...

  12. Brookfield Renewable Power Corp formerly Brascan Power Corp ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Brookfield Renewable Power Corp formerly Brascan Power Corp Jump to: navigation, search Name: Brookfield Renewable Power Corp (formerly Brascan Power Corp) Place: Toronto, Ontario,...

  13. High Power Laser Innovation Sparks Geothermal Power Potential...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    High Power Laser Innovation Sparks Geothermal Power Potential High Power Laser Innovation Sparks Geothermal Power Potential May 29, 2015 - 11:02am Addthis The Energy Department's ...

  14. Hydrogen Power Inc formerly Hydrogen Power International and...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Inc formerly Hydrogen Power International and Equitex Inc Jump to: navigation, search Name: Hydrogen Power, Inc. (formerly Hydrogen Power International and Equitex Inc.)...

  15. Delmarva Power Light Company Delmarva Power | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Delmarva Power Light Company Delmarva Power Jump to: navigation, search Name: Delmarva Power & Light Company (Delmarva Power) Place: Wilmington, Delaware Zip: 19886 Product:...

  16. ENER G Combined Power formerly Combined Power Ltd | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ENER G Combined Power formerly Combined Power Ltd Jump to: navigation, search Name: ENER.G Combined Power (formerly Combined Power Ltd) Place: United Kingdom Product: Specialises...

  17. Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV Jump to: navigation, search Name: Karnataka Power Corporation Limited and National Thermal Power Corporation JV...

  18. Direct FuelCell/Turbine Power Plant

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hossein Ghezel-Ayagh

    2004-11-19

    This report includes the progress in development of Direct Fuel Cell/Turbine. (DFC/T.) power plants for generation of clean power at very high efficiencies. The DFC/T power system is based on an indirectly heated gas turbine to supplement fuel cell generated power. The DFC/T power generation concept extends the high efficiency of the fuel cell by utilizing the fuel cell's byproduct heat in a Brayton cycle. Features of the DFC/T system include: electrical efficiencies of up to 75% on natural gas, 60% on coal gas, minimal emissions, simplicity in design, direct reforming internal to the fuel cell, reduced carbon dioxide release to the environment, and potential cost competitiveness with existing combined cycle power plants. FCE successfully completed testing of the pre-alpha sub-MW DFC/T power plant. This power plant was constructed by integration of a 250kW fuel cell stack and a microturbine. Following these proof-of-concept tests, a stand-alone test of the microturbine verified the turbine power output expectations at an elevated (representative of the packaged unit condition) turbine inlet temperature. Preliminary design of the packaged sub-MW alpha DFC/T unit has been completed and procurement activity has been initiated. The preliminary design of a 40 MW power plant including the key equipment layout and the site plan was completed. A preliminary cost estimate for the 40 MW DFC/T plant has also been prepared. The tests of the cascaded fuel cell concept for achieving high fuel utilizations were completed. The tests demonstrated that the concept results in higher power plant efficiency. Alternate stack flow geometries for increased power output/fuel utilization capabilities are also being evaluated.

  19. Flow in Porous Media: Experiments and Simulations with Application to CO2 Sequestration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Crandall, D.M.; Ahmadi, G.; Smith, D.H.

    2007-09-01

    The amount of carbon dioxide that can be sequestered in reservoirs is dependent on fluid-fluid-solid interactions within porous rock. Displacement of an in-place fluid by a less viscous invading fluid does not evacuate 100 percent of the defending fluid, due to capillary and viscous fingering. This has been studied over the past decades experimentally and numerically with pore-throat flow cells and pore-level models, respectively. This current work examines immiscible two-phase displacements within a novel flowcell and extends this experimental work with a computational fluid dynamics model within the same random pore-throat geometry using the Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. A new, experimental flowcell is described and experiments of constant-rate injection of air into the water-saturated cell are shown. The flowcell is weakly water wetting with a static contact angle measured as 76°. The motion of the invading fingers is shown to obey the well defined fingering structures observed in pore level numerical models of drainage; namely, dendritic fingers at high flow rates and a more stable invasion at low rates. An increase in the fractal dimension (Df) of the interface and a decrease in the final saturation of invading air was noted with increasing flow rate. VOF modeling within the same flowcell geometry is then discussed. Percent saturation and the Df of the invading fluid were calculated from the numerical model and shown to be in good agreement with the experimental findings of air invasion into a water saturated domain. The fluid properties (viscosity and density) were than varied and the viscosity ratio (M) between fluids and capillary number (Ca) of the flow are shown to affect the percent of displaced fluid, with lower Ca and higher M displacing a greater amount of the wetting fluid. Finally, the fluid-fluid-surface conditions of the numerical model were changed to show the effect on the percent saturation and Df for the case of a weakly water repellent

  20. Displacement Fields and Self-Energies of Circular and Polygonal Dislocation Loops in Homogeneous and Layered Anisotropic Solids

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gao, Yanfei; Larson, Ben C.

    2015-06-19

    There are large classes of materials problems that involve the solutions of stress, displacement, and strain energy of dislocation loops in elastically anisotropic solids, including increasingly detailed investigations of the generation and evolution of irradiation induced defect clusters ranging in sizes from the micro- to meso-scopic length scales. Based on a two-dimensional Fourier transform and Stroh formalism that are ideal for homogeneous and layered anisotropic solids, we have developed robust and computationally efficient methods to calculate the displacement fields for circular and polygonal dislocation loops. Using the homogeneous nature of the Green tensor of order -1, we have shown thatmore » the displacement and stress fields of dislocation loops can be obtained by numerical quadrature of a line integral. In addition, it is shown that the sextuple integrals associated with the strain energy of loops can be represented by the product of a pre-factor containing elastic anisotropy effects and a universal term that is singular and equal to that for elastic isotropic case. Furthermore, we have found that the self-energy pre-factor of prismatic loops is identical to the effective modulus of normal contact, and the pre-factor of shear loops differs from the effective indentation modulus in shear by only a few percent. These results provide a convenient method for examining dislocation reaction energetic and efficient procedures for numerical computation of local displacements and stresses of dislocation loops, both of which play integral roles in quantitative defect analyses within combined experimental–theoretical investigations.« less

  1. Assessment of the Economic Benefits from Reactive Power Compensation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Fangxing; Kueck, John D; Rizy, D Tom; Tolbert, Leon M; Zhang, Wenjuan

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. power industry is under great pressure to provide reactive power or Var support. Although it is generally known that there are technical benefits for utilities and industrial customers to provide local reactive power support, a thorough quantitative investigation of the economic benefit is greatly needed. This paper seeks to provide a quantitative approach to evaluate the benefits from local reactive power compensation. This paper investigates the benefits including reduced losses, shifting reactive power flow to real power flow, and increased transfer capability. These benefits are illustrated with a simple two-bus model and then presented with a more complicated model using Optimal Power Flow. Tests are conducted on a system with seven buses in two areas. These simulations show that the economic benefits can be significant, if compared with capacity payment to central generators or power factor penalties applied to utilities. This economic value may give utilities a better understanding of the Var benefits to assist their cost-benefit analysis for Var compensation. In addition, since the economic benefits are significant, this paper suggests that the future reactive power market should consider local Var providers.

  2. Formation of the compression zone in a plasma flow generated by a magnetoplasma compressor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Solyakov, D. G. Petrov, Yu. V.; Garkusha, I. E.; Chebotarev, V. V.; Ladygina, M. S.; Cherednichenko, T. N.; Morgal, Ya. I.; Kulik, N. V.; Staltsov, V. V.; Eliseev, D. V.

    2013-12-15

    Processes occurring in a plasma flow generated by a magnetoplasma compressor (MPC) during the formation of the compression zone are discussed. The paper presents results of measurements of the spatial distribution of the electric current in the plasma flow, the temporal and spatial (along the flow) distributions of the plasma density, and the profiles of the velocity of individual flow layers along the system axis. The spatial distribution of the electromagnetic force in the flow is analyzed. It is shown that the plasma flow is decelerated when approaching the compression zone and reaccelerated after passing it. In this case, the plasma flow velocity decreases from ? = (23) 10{sup 7} cm/s at the MPC output to ? < 10{sup 6} cm/s in the region of maximum compression and then again increases to 10{sup 7} cm/s at a distance of 1517 cm from the MPC output. In some MPC operating modes, a displacement of the magnetic field from the compression zone and the formation of toroidal electric current vortices in the plasma flow after passing the compression zone were detected.

  3. Electrocapturing flow cell

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morozov, Victor

    2011-04-05

    A flow cell for electrophoretically-assisted capturing analytes from a flow. The flow cell includes a specimen chamber, a first membrane, a second membrane, a first electrode chamber, and a second electrode chamber. The specimen chamber may have a sample inlet and a sample outlet. A first portion of the first membrane may be coupled to a first portion of the specimen chamber. A first portion of the second membrane may be coupled to a second portion of the specimen chamber. The first electrode chamber may be configured to accept a charge. A portion of the first electrode chamber may be coupled to a second portion of the first membrane. A second electrode chamber may be configured to accept an opposite charge. A portion of the second electrode chamber may be coupled to a second portion of the second membrane.

  4. Microwave fluid flow meter

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Billeter, Thomas R.; Philipp, Lee D.; Schemmel, Richard R.

    1976-01-01

    A microwave fluid flow meter is described utilizing two spaced microwave sensors positioned along a fluid flow path. Each sensor includes a microwave cavity having a frequency of resonance dependent upon the static pressure of the fluid at the sensor locations. The resonant response of each cavity with respect to a variation in pressure of the monitored fluid is represented by a corresponding electrical output which can be calibrated into a direct pressure reading. The pressure drop between sensor locations is then correlated as a measure of fluid velocity. In the preferred embodiment the individual sensor cavities are strategically positioned outside the path of fluid flow and are designed to resonate in two distinct frequency modes yielding a measure of temperature as well as pressure. The temperature response can then be used in correcting for pressure responses of the microwave cavity encountered due to temperature fluctuations.

  5. Measurement of fluid rotation, dilation, and displacement in particle image velocimetry using a Fourier–Mellin cross-correlation

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Giarra, Matthew N.; Charonko, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2015-02-05

    Traditional particle image velocimetry (PIV) uses discrete Cartesian cross correlations (CCs) to estimate the displacements of groups of tracer particles within small subregions of sequentially captured images. However, these CCs fail in regions with large velocity gradients or high rates of rotation. In this paper, we propose a new PIV correlation method based on the Fourier–Mellin transformation (FMT) that enables direct measurement of the rotation and dilation of particle image patterns. In previously unresolvable regions of large rotation, our algorithm significantly improves the velocity estimates compared to traditional correlations by aligning the rotated and stretched particle patterns prior to performingmore » Cartesian correlations to estimate their displacements. Furthermore, our algorithm, which we term Fourier–Mellin correlation (FMC), reliably measures particle pattern displacement between pairs of interrogation regions with up to ±180° of angular misalignment, compared to 6–8° for traditional correlations, and dilation/compression factors of 0.5–2.0, compared to 0.9–1.1 for a single iteration of traditional correlations.« less

  6. Measurement of fluid rotation, dilation, and displacement in particle image velocimetry using a Fourier–Mellin cross-correlation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Giarra, Matthew N.; Charonko, John J.; Vlachos, Pavlos P.

    2015-02-05

    Traditional particle image velocimetry (PIV) uses discrete Cartesian cross correlations (CCs) to estimate the displacements of groups of tracer particles within small subregions of sequentially captured images. However, these CCs fail in regions with large velocity gradients or high rates of rotation. In this paper, we propose a new PIV correlation method based on the Fourier–Mellin transformation (FMT) that enables direct measurement of the rotation and dilation of particle image patterns. In previously unresolvable regions of large rotation, our algorithm significantly improves the velocity estimates compared to traditional correlations by aligning the rotated and stretched particle patterns prior to performing Cartesian correlations to estimate their displacements. Furthermore, our algorithm, which we term Fourier–Mellin correlation (FMC), reliably measures particle pattern displacement between pairs of interrogation regions with up to ±180° of angular misalignment, compared to 6–8° for traditional correlations, and dilation/compression factors of 0.5–2.0, compared to 0.9–1.1 for a single iteration of traditional correlations.

  7. Power Purchase Agreements

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Presentation covers the power purchase agreements taken from the FEMP Alternative Finance Options (AFO) webinar.

  8. Southwestern Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Schedules Skip Navigation Links Excess Energy Hydro Peaking Power Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Dam Electric Cooperative (Rayburn) Hydro Power and Energy Sold to Sam Rayburn Municipal Power Agency (Willis) Non-Federal Transmission/Interconnection Facilities Service Contact swparates@swpa.gov Last Updated: January 05, 2016

  9. Offshore Wind Power USA

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Offshore Wind Power USA conference provides the latest offshore wind market updates and forecasts.

  10. Power Tower | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Power Tower Power Tower DOE funds solar research and development (R&D) in power tower (central receiver) systems as one of four concentrating solar ...

  11. Flow line sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nicholls, Colin I.

    1992-07-14

    An on-line product sampling apparatus and method for measuring product samples from a product stream (12) in a flow line (14) having a sampling aperture (11), includes a sampling tube (18) for containing product samples removed from flow line (14). A piston (22) removes product samples from the product stream (12) through the sampling aperture (11) and returns samples to product stream (12). A sensor (20) communicates with sample tube (18), and senses physical properties of samples while the samples are within sample tube (18). In one embodiment, sensor (20) comprises a hydrogen transient nuclear magnetic resonance sensor for measuring physical properties of hydrogen molecules.

  12. Concentrating Solar Power Projects | Concentrating Solar Power...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SolarPACES, an international program of the International Energy Agency, furthers collaborative development, testing, and marketing of concentrating solar power plants. Activities ...

  13. Western Area Power Administration. Combined power system financial statements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1998-02-26

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Western Area Power Administration`s combined power system statements of assets, Federal investment and liabilities, and the related combined statements of revenues, expenses and accumulated net revenues, and cash flows. The auditors` report on Westerns internal control structure disclosed three new reportable conditions concerning the lack of: (1) a reconciliation of stores inventory from subsidiary ledgers to summary financial information, (2) communication of interest during construction and related adjustments to interest on Federal investment, and (3) a system to prevent and detect power billing errors. None of the conditions were considered to be material weaknesses. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans. The auditors` report on Western`s compliance with laws and regulations also disclosed two new instances of noncompliance. Western failed to calculate nonreimbursable expenses in accordance with the Grand Canyon Protection Act and had an unexplained difference in gross Federal investment balances used to calculate interest on Federal investment. Western provided concurrence and corrective action plans for the instances.

  14. Uncertainty in BWR power during ATWS events

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Diamond, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to improve our understanding of BWR conditions following the closure of main steam isolation valves and the failure of reactor trip. Of particular interest was the power during the period when the core had reached a quasi-equilibrium condition with a natural circulation flow rate determined by the water level in the downcomer. Insights into the uncertainity in the calculation of this power with sophisticated computer codes were quantified using a simple model which relates power to the principal thermal-hydraulic variables and reactivity coefficients; the latter representing the link between the thermal-hydraulics and the neutronics. Assumptions regarding the uncertainty in these variables and coefficients were then used to determine the uncertainty in power.

  15. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Robin Bedilion Senior Technical Leader, Technology Innovation Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) 2016 EIA Energy Conference July 12, 2016 The Need for Flexible Generation in the Bulk Power System 2 © 2016 Electric Power Research Institute, Inc. All rights reserved. Electric Power Research Institute EPRI Mission Advancing safe, reliable, affordable and environmentally responsible electricity for society through global

  16. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Industry Reliability: Automotive Power Module Perspective Zhenxian Liang R&D Staff Power Electronics and Electric Machinery Group OAK RIDGE NATIONAL LABORATORY 2360 Cherahala Boulevard Knoxville, Tennessee 37932 TEL: (865) 946-1467 FAX: (865) 946-1262 EMAIL: liangz@ornl.gov http://peemrc.ornl.gov 2013 PV System Symposium April 30, 2013, Santa Clara, CA 2 Outline * Introduction Power Electronics in Electric Drive Vehicles Automotive Power Electronics Module Operation Automotive Power

  17. Flow and axial dispersion in a sinusoidal-walled tube: Effects of inertial and unsteady flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Perkins, William A.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Lambert, Adam; Wood, Brian D.

    2013-12-01

    Dispersion in porous media flows has been the subject of much experimental, theoretical and numerical study. Here we consider a wavy-walled tube (a three-dimensional tube with sinusoidally-varying diameter) as a simplified conceptualization of flow in porous media, where constrictions represent pore throats and expansions pore bodies. A theoretical model for effective (macroscopic) longitudinal dispersion in this system has been developed by volume averaging the microscale velocity field. Direct numerical simulation using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods was used to compute velocity fields by solving the Navier-Stokes equations, and also to numerically solve the volume averaging closure problem, for a range of Reynolds numbers (Re) spanning the low-Re to inertial flow regimes, including one simulation at Re = 449 for which unsteady flow was observed. Dispersion values were computed using both the volume averaging solution and a random walk particle tracking method, and results of the two methods were shown to be consistent. Our results are compared to experimental measurements of dispersion in porous media and to previous theoretical results for the low-Re, Stokes flow regime. In the steady inertial regime we observe an power-law increase in effective longitudinal dispersion (DL) with Re, consistent with previous results. This rapid rate of increase is caused by trapping of solute in expansions due to flow separation (eddies). For the unsteady case (Re = 449), the rate of increase of DL with Re was smaller than that observed at lower Re. Velocity fluctuations in this regime lead to increased rates of solute mass transfer between the core flow and separated flow regions, thus diminishing the amount of tailing caused by solute trapping in eddies and thereby reducing longitudinal dispersion.

  18. Silicon Valley Power and Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority Win 2014 Public Power Wind Awards

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    The Energy Department and the American Public Power Association named Oklahoma Municipal Power Authority and Silicon Valley Power as the winners of the 2014 Public Power Wind Awards.

  19. Flow cytometry apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the construction directs flat cells near to the area of one dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates.

  20. Flow cytometry apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Pinkel, D.

    1987-11-30

    An obstruction across the flow chamber creates a one-dimensional convergence of a sheath fluid. A passageway in the obstruction directs flat cells near to the area of one-dimensional convergence in the sheath fluid to provide proper orientation of flat cells at fast rates. 6 figs.

  1. Active Power Control from Wind Power (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ela, E.; Brooks, D.

    2011-04-01

    In order to keep the electricity grid stable and the lights on, the power system relies on certain responses from its generating fleet. This presentation evaluates the potential for wind turbines and wind power plants to provide these services and assist the grid during critical times.

  2. High power fast ramping power supplies

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marneris,I.; Bajon, E.; Bonati, R.; Sandberg, J.; Roser, T.; Tsoupas, N.

    2009-05-04

    Hundred megawatt level fast ramping power converters to drive proton and heavy ion machines are under research and development at accelerator facilities in the world. This is a leading edge technology. There are several topologies to achieve this power level. Their advantages and related issues will be discussed.

  3. Magnetospheric structure of rotation powered pulsars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arons, J. California Univ., Livermore, CA . Inst. of Geophysics and Planetary Physics)

    1991-01-07

    I survey recent theoretical work on the structure of the magnetospheres of rotation powered pulsars, within the observational constraints set by their observed spindown, their ability to power synchrotron nebulae and their ability to produce beamed collective radio emission, while putting only a small fraction of their energy into incoherent X- and gamma radiation. I find no single theory has yet given a consistent description of the magnetosphere, but I conclude that models based on a dense outflow of pairs from the polar caps, permeated by a lower density flow of heavy ions, are the most promising avenue for future research. 106 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  4. Polk power station syngas cooling system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jenkins, S.D.

    1995-01-01

    Tampa Electric Company (TEC) is in the site development and construction phase of the new Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. This will be the first unit at a new site and will use Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Technology. The unit will utilize Texaco`s oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification, along with combined cycle power generation, to produce nominal 260MW. Integral to the gasification process is the syngas cooling system. The design, integration, fabrication, transportation, and erection of this equipment have provided and continue to provide major challenges for this project.

  5. First measurements of Hiro currents in vertical displacement event in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xiong, Hao; Xu, Guosheng; Wang, Huiqian; Zakharov, Leonid E.; Li, Xujing

    2015-06-15

    Specially designed tiles were setup in the 2012 campaign of the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST), to directly measure the toroidal surface currents during the disruptions. Hiro currents with direction opposite to the plasma currents have been observed, confirming the sign prediction by the Wall Touching Vertical Mode (WTVM) theory and numerical simulations. During the initial phase of the disruption, when the plasma begins to touch the wall, the surface currents can be excited by WTVM along the plasma facing tile surface, varying with the mode magnitude. The currents are not observed in the cases when the plasma moves away from the tile surface. This discovery addresses the importance of the plasma motion into the wall in vertical disruptions. WTVM, acting as a current generator, forces the Hiro currents to flow through the gaps between tiles. This effect, being overlooked so far in disruption analysis, may damage the edges of the tiles and is important for the ITER device.

  6. Study of flow fields induced by surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator in low-pressure air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Che, Xueke E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn; Nie, Wansheng; Tian, Xihui; Hou, Zhiyong; He, Haobo; Zhou, Penghui; Zhou, Siyin; Yang, Chao; Shao, Tao E-mail: st@mail.iee.ac.cn

    2014-04-15

    Surface dielectric barrier discharge (SDBD) is a promising method for a flow control. Flow fields induced by a SDBD actuator driven by the ac voltage in static air at low pressures varying from 1.0 to 27.7?kPa are measured by the particle image velocimetry method. The influence of the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude on the induced flow fields is studied. The results show that three different classes of flow fields (wall jet flow field, complex flow field, and vortex-shape flow field) can be induced by the SDBD actuator in the low-pressure air. Among them, the wall jet flow field is the same as the tangential jet at atmospheric pressure, which is, together with the vertical jet, the complex flow field. The vortex-shape flow field is composed of one vertical jet which points towards the wall and two opposite tangential jets. The complex and the vortex-shape flow fields can be transformed to the wall jet flow field when the applied ac voltage frequency and magnitude are changed. It is found that the discharge power consumption increases initially, decreases, and then increases again at the same applied ac voltage magnitude when the air pressure decreases. The tangential velocity of the wall jet flow field increases when the air pressure decreases. It is however opposite for the complex flow field. The variation of the applied ac voltage frequency influences differently three different flow fields. When the applied ac voltage magnitude increases at the same applied ac voltage frequency, the maximal jet velocity increases, while the power efficiency increases only initially and then decreases again. The discharge power shows either linear or exponential dependences on the applied ac voltage magnitude.

  7. Controls of Wellbore Flow Regimes on Pump Effluent Composition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    James Martin-Hayden; plummer; Sanford Britt

    2014-01-01

    Where well water and formation water are compositionally different or heterogeneous, pump effluent composition will vary due to partial mixing and transport induced by pumping. Investigating influences of purging and sampling methodology on composition variability requires quantification of wellbore flow regimes and mixing. As a basis for this quantification, analytical models simulating Poiseuille flow were developed to calculate flow paths and travel times. Finite element modeling was used to incorporate influences of mixing. Parabolic velocity distributions within the screened interval accelerate with cumulative inflow approaching the pump intake while an annulus of inflowing formation water contracts uniformly to displace an axial cylinder of pre-pumping well water as pumping proceeds. Increased dispersive mixing forms a more diffuse formation water annulus and the contribution of formation water to pump effluent increases more rapidly. Models incorporating viscous flow and diffusion scale mixing show that initially pump effluent is predominantly pre-pumping well water and compositions vary most rapidly. After two screen volumes of pumping, 94% of pump effluent is inflowing formation water. Where the composition of formation water and pre-pumping well water are likely to be similar, pump effluent compositions will not vary significantly and may be collected during early purging or with passive sampling. However, where these compositions are expected to be considerably different or heterogeneous, compositions would be most variable during early pumping, that is, when samples are collected during low-flow sampling. Purging of two screen volumes would be required to stabilize the content and collect a sample consisting of 94% formation water.

  8. Oahu Groundwater Flow Model

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Nicole Lautze

    2015-01-01

    Groundwater flow model for the island of Oahu. Data is from the following sources: Rotzoll, K., A.I. El-Kadi. 2007. Numerical Ground-Water Flow Simulation for Red Hill Fuel Storage Facilities, NAVFAC Pacific, Oahu, Hawaii - Prepared TEC, Inc. Water Resources Research Center, University of Hawaii, Honolulu.; Whittier, R.B., K. Rotzoll, S. Dhal, A.I. El-Kadi, C. Ray, G. Chen, and D. Chang. 2004. Hawaii Source Water Assessment Program Report – Volume VII – Island of Oahu Source Water Assessment Program Report. Prepared for the Hawaii Department of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. University of Hawaii, Water Resources Research Center. Updated 2008.; and Whittier, R. and A.I. El-Kadi. 2009. Human and Environmental Risk Ranking of Onsite Sewage Disposal Systems – Final. Prepared by the University of Hawaii, Dept. of Geology and Geophysics for the State of Hawaii Dept. of Health, Safe Drinking Water Branch. December 2009.

  9. Microfluidic gas flow profiling using remote detection NMR

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hilty, Christian; McDonnell, Erin; Granwehr, Josef; Pierce,Kimberly; Han, Song-I Han; Pines, Alexander

    2005-05-06

    Miniaturized fluid handling devices have recently attracted considerable interest in many areas of science1. Such microfluidic chips perform a variety of functions, ranging from analysis of biological macromolecules2,3 to catalysis of reactions and sensing in the gas phase4,5. To enable precise fluid handling, accurate knowledge of the flow properties within these devices is important. Due to low Reynolds numbers, laminar flow is usually assumed. However, either by design or unintentionally, the flow characteristic in small channels is often altered, for example by surface interactions, viscous and diffusional effects, or electrical potentials. Therefore, its prediction is not always straight-forward6-8. Currently, most microfluidic flow measurements rely on optical detection of markers9,10, requiring the injection of tracers and transparent devices. Here, we show profiles of microfluidic gas flow in capillaries and chip devices obtained by NMR in the remote detection modality11,12. Through the transient measurement of dispersion13, NMR is well adaptable for non-invasive, yet sensitive determination of the flow field and provides a novel and potentially more powerful tool to profile flow in capillaries and miniaturized flow devices.

  10. TEP process flow diagram

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilms, R Scott; Carlson, Bryan; Coons, James; Kubic, William

    2008-01-01

    This presentation describes the development of the proposed Process Flow Diagram (PFD) for the Tokamak Exhaust Processing System (TEP) of ITER. A brief review of design efforts leading up to the PFD is followed by a description of the hydrogen-like, air-like, and waterlike processes. Two new design values are described; the mostcommon and most-demanding design values. The proposed PFD is shown to meet specifications under the most-common and mostdemanding design values.

  11. Power production and ADS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Raja, Rajendran; /Fermilab

    2010-03-01

    We describe the power production process in Accelerator Driven Sub-critical systems employing Thorium-232 and Uranium-238 as fuel and examine the demands on the power of the accelerator required.

  12. Power System Dispatcher

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    (See Frequently Asked Questions for more information). Where would I be working? Western Area Power Administration Sierra Nevada Region Power Systems Operation N4000 114 Parkshore Drive Folsom, CA...

  13. Southwestern Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sam Rayburn Dam Project Hydroelectric Power Rate Increase (Part B4.3) Robert Douglas Willis Hydropower Project Hydroelectric Power Rate Increase (Part B4.3) Springfield-Nixa-Tabler...

  14. PowerPoint Presentation

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    self-heated) burning plasma. It aims to generate fusion power 30 times the levels produced to date and to exceed the external power applied to the plasma by at least a factor of ...

  15. Space Solar Power Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Arif, H.; Barbosa, H.; Bardet, C.; Baroud, M.; Behar, A.; Berrier, K.; Berthe, P.; Bertrand, R.; Bibyk, I.; Bisson, J.; Bloch, L.; Bobadilla, G.; Bourque, D.; Bush, L.; Carandang, R.; Chiku, T.; Crosby, N.; De Seixas, M.; De Vries, J.; Doll, S.; Dufour, F.; Eckart, P.; Fahey, M.; Fenot, F.; Foeckersperger, S.; Fontaine, J.E.; Fowler, R.; Frey, H.; Fujio, H.; Gasa, J.M.; Gleave, J.; Godoe, J.; Green, I.; Haeberli, R.; Hanada, T.; Ha

    1992-08-01

    Information pertaining to the Space Solar Power Program is presented on energy analysis; markets; overall development plan; organizational plan; environmental and safety issues; power systems; space transportation; space manufacturing, construction, operations; design examples; and finance.

  16. Underwater power generator

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowley, W.W.

    1983-05-10

    Apparatus and method for generating electrical power by disposing a plurality of power producing modules in a substantially constant velocity ocean current and mechanically coupling the output of the modules to drive a single electrical generator is disclosed.

  17. Vampire Power and Gaming

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    There's something out there known as vampire power. Basically, many appliances that continue using power (and thus continue add to your energy bill in some way, shape or form) even when they are turned off.

  18. Wide Bandgap Power Electronics

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ... coal power plant. 463 In addition to power savings, an important benefit of using high frequency GaN electronics is that the 464 adapter size can be reduced by 10x. Consumers ...

  19. Reducing Power Factor Cost

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    ... The presence of both in the same circuit results in the continuous alternating transfer of ... In the diagram below, the power triangle shows an initial 0.70 power factor for a 100-kW ...

  20. Green Power Purchase Plan

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Class I renewable energy resources include solar, wind, new sustainable biomass, landfill gas, fuel cells (using renewable or non-renewable fuels), ocean thermal power, wave or tidal power, low...

  1. Electric Power Monthly

    Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

    Electric Power Monthly Data for January 2016 | Release Date: March 25, 2016 | Next ... Revisions made to the March 2016 Electric Power Monthly: March 30, 2016 Tables 2.8.A-B ...

  2. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, J.C.; Hardee, H.C.; Striker, R.P.

    1984-01-09

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packet-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  3. Convective heat flow probe

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, James C.; Hardee, Harry C.; Striker, Richard P.

    1985-01-01

    A convective heat flow probe device is provided which measures heat flow and fluid flow magnitude in the formation surrounding a borehole. The probe comprises an elongate housing adapted to be lowered down into the borehole; a plurality of heaters extending along the probe for heating the formation surrounding the borehole; a plurality of temperature sensors arranged around the periphery of the probe for measuring the temperature of the surrounding formation after heating thereof by the heater elements. The temperature sensors and heater elements are mounted in a plurality of separate heater pads which are supported by the housing and which are adapted to be radially expanded into firm engagement with the walls of the borehole. The heat supplied by the heater elements and the temperatures measured by the temperature sensors are monitored and used in providing the desired measurements. The outer peripheral surfaces of the heater pads are configured as segments of a cylinder and form a full cylinder when taken together. A plurality of temperature sensors are located on each pad so as to extend along the length and across the width thereof, with a heating element being located in each pad beneath the temperature sensors. An expansion mechanism driven by a clamping motor provides expansion and retraction of the heater pads and expandable packer-type seals are provided along the probe above and below the heater pads.

  4. PowerPoint Presentation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    made from laser ablated plastic laminates - Selective bio-amplification - Magnetic valve system facilitate chamber communication - Commercial lateral flow assay - Integrated ...

  5. BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    large projects once specific, pre- identified milestones have been reached. The cash flow provided by progress payments can be important to ensure large custom projects...

  6. SOUTHWESTERN POWER ADMINISTRATION

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9/01 SOUTHWESTERN POWER ADMINISTRATION CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION (CX) DETERMINATION BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PROPOSED ACTION: Hydroelectric Power Rate Increase for the Integrated System of Hydropower Projects. PROPOSED BY: Southwestern Power Administration. NUMBER AND TITLE OF THE CATEGORICAL EXCLUSION BEING APPLIED: ( 10 CFR 1021, Appendix B to Subpart D, 1-1-03 Edition, Part B4.3 - Electric power marketing rate changes. REGULATORY REQUIREMENTS IN 10 CFR 1021.410(B): (1) The proposed action fits within

  7. Nuclear Power & Engineering

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power & Engineering - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Energy Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  8. Power with STEAM

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    » Power with STEAM Power with STEAM ROSES outreach program inspires New Mexico African-American youth to envision themselves working as scientists and professionals August 18, 2016 Students at Power with STEAM 2016 The Lab's first Power with STEAM program event, held recently at the Bradbury Science Museum, brought students and some interns in the Los Alamos student programs together for fun and learning. Contacts Michelle B. Lee (505) 667-3624 Email Reaching out to New Mexico's

  9. Concentrating Solar Power

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2008-09-01

    Summarizes the goals and activities of the DOE Solar Energy Technologies Program efforts within its concentrating solar power subprogram.

  10. Power Electronics Block Set

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2008-12-31

    The software consists of code that will allow rapid prototyping of advanced power electronics for use in renewable energy systems.

  11. Southwestern Power Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    January 29, 2015 Stockton Power Plant Back Online Refurbished Stockton Turbine Southwestern Administrator Chris Turner and Kansas City District Commander COL Andrew Sexton dedicate the new turbine at Stockton Power Plant. After a catastrophic failure and nearly two years of major equipment replacement work, the Stockton Power Plant in Stockton, Missouri, is back online, generating low-cost, renewable hydropower and energy for electric consumers in the marketing region of Southwestern Power

  12. Green Power Purchasing

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Note: The green power purchasing goal has a target date of 2011. It has not been increased subsequently.

  13. Clean Fuels/Power

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing ... Heavy Duty Fuels DISI Combustion HCCISCCI Fundamentals Spray Combustion Modeling ...

  14. PowerPoint Presentation

    U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

    David Sun, PhD david.sun@power.alstom.com Power Automation & Controls, Alstom Power Session: Intelligent Electric Systems Smart Power Future of Energy Sustainability © ALSTOM 2011. All rights reserved. Information contained in this document is provided without liability for information purposes only and is subject to change without notice. No representation or warranty is given or to be implied as to the completeness of information or fitness for any particular purpose. Reproduction, use or

  15. NREL Helps Clean Cities Displace Billions of Gallons of Petroleum, One Vehicle at a Time (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    2010-10-01

    With more than 15 years and nearly 3 billion gallons of displaced petroleum under its belt, the Clean Cities program relies on the support and expertise of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). An initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Clean Cities creates public-private partnerships with a common mission: to reduce petroleum consumption in the transportation sector. Since the inception of Clean Cities in 1993, NREL has played a central role in supporting the program, an effort that stems from the laboratory's strategy to put scientific innovation into action in the marketplace.

  16. Eddy current position indicating apparatus for measuring displacements of core components of a liquid metal nuclear reactor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Day, Clifford K.; Stringer, James L.

    1977-01-01

    Apparatus for measuring displacements of core components of a liquid metal fast breeder reactor by means of an eddy current probe. The active portion of the probe is located within a dry thimble which is supported on a stationary portion of the reactor core support structure. Split rings of metal, having a resistivity significantly different than sodium, are fixedly mounted on the core component to be monitored. The split rings are slidably positioned around, concentric with the probe and symmetrically situated along the axis of the probe so that motion of the ring along the axis of the probe produces a proportional change in the probes electrical output.

  17. Concentrating Solar Power Projects | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects Concentrating Solar Power Projects

  18. Power Plant Cycling Costs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, N.; Besuner, P.; Lefton, S.; Agan, D.; Hilleman, D.

    2012-07-01

    This report provides a detailed review of the most up to date data available on power plant cycling costs. The primary objective of this report is to increase awareness of power plant cycling cost, the use of these costs in renewable integration studies and to stimulate debate between policymakers, system dispatchers, plant personnel and power utilities.

  19. Wind power soars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Flavin, C.

    1996-12-31

    Opinions on the world market for wind power are presented in this paper. Some data for global wind power generating capacity are provided. European and other markets are discussed individually. Estimated potential for wind power is given for a number of countries. 3 figs.

  20. Virtual Flow Simulator

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-10-05

    Virtual Flow Simulator (VFS) is a state-of-the-art computational fluid mechanics (CFD) package that is capable of simulating multi-physics/multi-phase flows with the most advanced turbulence models (RANS, LES) over complex terrains. The flow solver is based on the Curvilinear Immersed Boundary (CURVIB) method to handle geometrically complex and moving domains. Different modules of the VFS package can provide different simulation capabilities for specific applications ranging from the fluid-structure interaction (FSI) of solid and deformable bodies, themore » two-phase free surface flow solver based on the level set method for ocean waves, sediment transport models in rivers and the large-scale models of wind farms based on actuator lines and surfaces. All numerical features of VFS package have been validated with known analytical and experimental data as reported in the related journal articles. VFS package is suitable for a broad range of engineering applications within different industries. VFS has been used in different projects with applications in wind and hydrokinetic energy, offshore and near-shore ocean studies, cardiovascular and biological flows, and natural streams and river morphodynamics. Over the last decade, the development of VFS has been supported and assisted with the help of various United States companies and federal agencies that are listed in the sponsor lists. In this version, VFS-Wind contains all the necessary modeling tools for wind energy applications, including land-based and offshore wind farms. VFS is highly scalable to run on either desktop computers or high performance clusters (up to 16,000 CPUs). This released version comes with a detailed user’s manual and a set of case studies designed to facilitate the learning of the various aspects of the code in a comprehensive manner. The included documentation and support material has been elaborated in a collaboration effort with Sandia National Labs under the contract DE-EE0005482

  1. Radial flow pulse jet mixer

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    VanOsdol, John G.

    2013-06-25

    The disclosure provides a pulse jet mixing vessel for mixing a plurality of solid particles. The pulse jet mixing vessel is comprised of a sludge basin, a flow surface surrounding the sludge basin, and a downcoming flow annulus between the flow surface and an inner shroud. The pulse jet mixing vessel is additionally comprised of an upper vessel pressurization volume in fluid communication with the downcoming flow annulus, and an inner shroud surge volume separated from the downcoming flow annulus by the inner shroud. When the solid particles are resting on the sludge basin and a fluid such as water is atop the particles and extending into the downcoming flow annulus and the inner shroud surge volume, mixing occurs by pressurization of the upper vessel pressurization volume, generating an inward radial flow over the flow surface and an upwash jet at the center of the sludge basin.

  2. Energy flow in passive and active 3D cochlear model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Yanli; Steele, Charles; Puria, Sunil

    2015-12-31

    Energy flow in the cochlea is an important characteristic of the cochlear traveling wave, and many investigators, such as von Békésy and Lighthill, have discussed this phenomenon. Particularly after the discovery of the motility of the outer hair cells (OHCs), the nature of the power gain of the cochlea has been a fundamental research question. In the present work, direct three-dimensional (3D) calculations of the power on cross sections of the cochlea and on the basilar membrane are performed based on a box model of the mouse cochlea. The distributions of the fluid pressure and fluid velocity in the scala vestibuli are presented. The power output from the OHCs and the power loss due to fluid viscous damping are calculated along the length of the cochlea. This work provides a basis for theoretical calculations of the power gain of the OHCs from mechanical considerations.

  3. User's manual for the Sandia Waste-Isolation Flow and Transport model (SWIFT).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reeves, Mark; Cranwell, Robert M.

    1981-11-01

    This report describes a three-dimensional finite-difference model (SWIFT) which is used to simulate flow and transport processes in geologic media. The model was developed for use by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission in the analysis of deep geologic nuclear waste-disposal facilities. This document, as indicated by the title, is a user's manual and is intended to facilitate the use of the SWIFT simulator. Mathematical equations, submodels, application notes, and a description of the program itself are given herein. In addition, a complete input data guide is given along with several appendices which are helpful in setting up a data-input deck. Computer code SWIFT (Sandia Waste Isolation, Flow and Transport Model) is a fully transient, three-dimensional model which solves the coupled equations for transport in geologic media. The processes considered are: (1) fluid flow; (2) heat transport; (3) dominant-species miscible displacement; and (4) trace-species miscible displacement. The first three processes are coupled via fluid density and viscosity. Together they provide the velocity field on which the fourth process depends.

  4. Estimation of fracture flow parameters through numerical analysis of hydromechanical pressure pulses

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cappa, F.; Guglielmi, Y.; Rutqvist, J.; Tsang, C.-F.; Thoraval, A.

    2008-03-16

    The flow parameters of a natural fracture were estimated by modeling in situ pressure pulses. The pulses were generated in two horizontal boreholes spaced 1 m apart vertically and intersecting a near-vertical highly permeable fracture located within a shallow fractured carbonate reservoir. Fracture hydromechanical response was monitored using specialized fiber-optic borehole equipment that could simultaneously measure fluid pressure and fracture displacements. Measurements indicated a significant time lag between the pressure peak at the injection point and the one at the second measuring point, located 1 m away. The pressure pulse dilated and contracted the fracture. Field data were analyzed through hydraulic and coupled hydromechanical simulations using different governing flow laws. In matching the time lag between the pressure peaks at the two measuring points, our hydraulic models indicated that (1) flow was channeled in the fracture, (2) the hydraulic conductivity tensor was highly anisotropic, and (3) the radius of pulse influence was asymmetric, in that the pulse travelled faster vertically than horizontally. Moreover, our parametric study demonstrated that the fluid pressure diffusion through the fracture was quite sensitive to the spacing and orientation of channels, hydraulic aperture, storativity and hydraulic conductivity. Comparison between hydraulic and hydromechanical models showed that the deformation significantly affected fracture permeability and storativity, and consequently, the fluid pressure propagation, suggesting that the simultaneous measurements of pressure and mechanical displacement signals could substantially improve the interpretation of pulse tests during reservoir characterization.

  5. Comparative flow measurements: Grand Coulee pumping-generating plant unit P/G9. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heigel, L.; Lewey, A.B.; Greenwood, J.B.

    1986-10-01

    In extensive testing, two acoustic flow measurement systems compared well in accuracy and repeatability with conventional methods at a power plant at Grand Coulee Dam. Acoustic flow measurement systems offer utilities an inexpensive, real-time method for optimizing hydro plant efficiency.

  6. Multimegawatt space power reactors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dearien, J.A.; Whitbeck, J.F.

    1989-01-01

    In response to the need of the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) and long range space exploration and extra-terrestrial basing by the National Air and Space Administration (NASA), concepts for nuclear power systems in the multi-megawatt levels are being designed and evaluated. The requirements for these power systems are being driven primarily by the need to minimize weight and maximize safety and reliability. This paper will discuss the present requirements for space based advanced power systems, technological issues associated with the development of these advanced nuclear power systems, and some of the concepts proposed for generating large amounts of power in space. 31 figs.

  7. Modeling shrouded stator cavity flows in axial-flow compressors

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wellborn, S.R.; Tolchinsky, I.; Okiishi, T.H.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments and computational analyses were completed to understand the nature of shrouded stator cavity flows. From this understanding, a one-dimensional model of the flow through shrouded stator cavities was developed. This model estimates the leakage mass flow, temperature rise, and angular momentum increase through the cavity, given geometry parameters and the flow conditions at the interface between the cavity and primary flow path. This cavity model consists of two components, one that estimates the flow characteristics through the labyrinth seals and the other that predicts the transfer of momentum due to windage. A description of the one-dimensional model is given. The incorporation and use of the one-dimensional model in a multistage compressor primary flow analysis tool is described. The combination of this model and the primary flow solver was used to reliably simulate the significant impact on performance of the increase of hub seal leakage in a twelve-stage axial-flow compressor. Observed higher temperatures of the hub region fluid, different stage matching, and lower overall efficiencies and core flow than expected could be correctly linked to increased hub seal clearance with this new technique. The importance of including these leakage flows in compressor simulations is shown.

  8. AN INTELLIGENT SENSOR FRAMEWORK FOR THE POWER GRID

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Akyol, Bora A.; Haack, Jereme N.; Tews, Cody W.; Carpenter, Brandon J.; Kulkarni, Anand V.; Craig, Philip A.

    2011-08-10

    The number of sensors connected to the electric power system is expected to grow by several orders of magnitude by 2020. However, the information networks which will transmit and analyze the resulting data are ill-equipped to handle the resulting volume with reliable real-time delivery. Without the ability to manage and use this data, deploying sensors such as phasor measurement units in the transmission system and smart meters in the distribution system will not result in the desired improvements in the power grid. The ability to exploit the massive data being generated by new sensors would allow for more efficient flow of power and increased survivability of the grid. Additionally, the power systems of today are not capable of managing two-way power flow to accommodate distributed generation capabilities due to concerns about system stability and lack of system flexibility. The research that we are performing creates a framework to add 'intelligence' to the sensors and actuators being used today in the electric power system. Sensors that use our framework will be capable of sharing information through the various layers of the electric power system to enable two-way information flow to help facilitate integration of distributed resources. Several techniques are considered including use of peer-to-peer communication as well as distributed agents.

  9. Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger Scalable Low-head Axial-type Venturi-flow Energy Scavenger 68e_pi_nmsu_prasad.ppt (4.89 MB) More Documents & Publications CX-011410: Categorical Exclusion Determination Water Power Program Peer Review Meeting Agenda Laboratory Demonstration of a New American Low-Head Hydropower Turbine

  10. Flow Characteristics Analysis of Widows' Creek Type Control Valve for Steam Turbine Control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yoo, Yong H.; Sohn, Myoung S.; Suh, Kune Y.

    2006-07-01

    The steam turbine converts the kinetic energy of steam to mechanical energy of rotor blades in the power conversion system of fossil and nuclear power plants. The electric output from the generator of which the rotor is coupled with that of the steam turbine depends on the rotation velocity of the steam turbine bucket. The rotation velocity is proportional to the mass flow rate of steam entering the steam turbine through valves and nozzles. Thus, it is very important to control the steam mass flow rate for the load following operation of power plants. Among various valves that control the steam turbine, the control valve is most significant. The steam flow rate is determined by the area formed by the stem disk and the seat of the control valve. While the ideal control valve linearly controls the steam mass flow rate with its stem lift, the real control valve has various flow characteristic curves pursuant to the stem lift type. Thus, flow characteristic curves are needed to precisely design the control valves manufactured for the operating conditions of nuclear power plants. OMEGA (Optimized Multidimensional Experiment Geometric Apparatus) was built to experimentally study the flow characteristics of steam flowing inside the control valve. The Widows' Creek type control valve was selected for reference. Air was selected as the working fluid in the OMEGA loop to exclude the condensation effect in this simplified approach. Flow characteristic curves were plotted by calculating the ratio of the measured mass flow rate versus the theoretical mass flow rate of the air. The flow characteristic curves are expected to be utilized to accurately design and operate the control valve for fossil as well as nuclear plants. (authors)

  11. Gas flow meter and method for measuring gas flow rate

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Robertson, Eric P.

    2006-08-01

    A gas flow rate meter includes an upstream line and two chambers having substantially equal, fixed volumes. An adjustable valve may direct the gas flow through the upstream line to either of the two chambers. A pressure monitoring device may be configured to prompt valve adjustments, directing the gas flow to an alternate chamber each time a pre-set pressure in the upstream line is reached. A method of measuring the gas flow rate measures the time required for the pressure in the upstream line to reach the pre-set pressure. The volume of the chamber and upstream line are known and fixed, thus the time required for the increase in pressure may be used to determine the flow rate of the gas. Another method of measuring the gas flow rate uses two pressure measurements of a fixed volume, taken at different times, to determine the flow rate of the gas.

  12. NREL: Concentrating Solar Power Research - Power Block R&D

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Power block research at NREL focuses on assessing the potential of advanced power cycles to integrate with concentrating solar power (CSP) systems. This research increases the ...

  13. Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer Review - Power Electronic...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Power Electronics (PE) Systems Presentations Energy Storage & Power Electronics 2008 Peer ... Compact SiC-Based Power Converter System - Timothy Lin, Aegis.pdf (370.13 KB) ...

  14. Multimode power processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, G.A.; O'Sullivan, J.A.

    1999-07-27

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources. 31 figs.

  15. Multimode power processor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    O'Sullivan, George A.; O'Sullivan, Joseph A.

    1999-01-01

    In one embodiment, a power processor which operates in three modes: an inverter mode wherein power is delivered from a battery to an AC power grid or load; a battery charger mode wherein the battery is charged by a generator; and a parallel mode wherein the generator supplies power to the AC power grid or load in parallel with the battery. In the parallel mode, the system adapts to arbitrary non-linear loads. The power processor may operate on a per-phase basis wherein the load may be synthetically transferred from one phase to another by way of a bumpless transfer which causes no interruption of power to the load when transferring energy sources. Voltage transients and frequency transients delivered to the load when switching between the generator and battery sources are minimized, thereby providing an uninterruptible power supply. The power processor may be used as part of a hybrid electrical power source system which may contain, in one embodiment, a photovoltaic array, diesel engine, and battery power sources.

  16. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, D.E.; Lee, S.G.

    1996-08-06

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics. 4 figs.

  17. High-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hardt, David E.; Lee, Steven G.

    1996-01-01

    A high-bandwidth continuous-flow arc furnace for stream welding applications includes a metal mass contained in a crucible having an orifice. A power source charges an electrode for generating an arc between the electrode and the mass. The arc heats the metal mass to a molten state. A pressurized gas source propels the molten metal mass through the crucible orifice in a continuous stream. As the metal is ejected, a metal feeder replenishes the molten metal bath. A control system regulates the electrode current, shielding gas pressure, and metal source to provide a continuous flow of molten metal at the crucible orifice. Independent control over the electrode current and shield gas pressure decouples the metal flow temperature and the molten metal flow rate, improving control over resultant weld characteristics.

  18. Precision laser surveying instrument using atmospheric turbulence compensation by determining the absolute displacement between two laser beam components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on sighting measurements are compensated for by adjusting any sighting measurements using a correction factor that does not depend on atmospheric state conditions such as temperature, pressure, density or turbulence. The correction factor is accurately determined using a precisely measured physical separation between two color components of a light beam (or beams) that has been generated using either a two-color laser or two lasers that project different colored beams. The physical separation is precisely measured by fixing the position of a short beam pulse and measuring the physical separation between the two fixed-in-position components of the beam. This precisely measured physical separation is then used in a relationship that includes the indexes of refraction for each of the two colors of the laser beam in the atmosphere through which the beam is projected, thereby to determine the absolute displacement of one wavelength component of the laser beam from a straight line of sight for that projected component of the beam. This absolute displacement is useful to correct optical measurements, such as those developed in surveying measurements that are made in a test area that includes the same dispersion effects of the atmosphere on the optical measurements. The means and method of the invention are suitable for use with either single-ended systems or a double-ended systems.

  19. Local pressure gradients due to incipience of boiling in subcooled flows

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ruggles, A.E.; McDuffee, J.L.

    1995-09-01

    Models for vapor bubble behavior and nucleation site density during subcooled boiling are integrated with boundary layer theory in order to predict the local pressure gradient and heat transfer coefficient. Models for bubble growth rate and bubble departure diameter are used to scale the movement of displaced liquid in the laminar sublayer. An added shear stress, analogous to a turbulent shear stress, is derived by considering the liquid movement normal to the heated surface. The resulting mechanistic model has plausible functional dependence on wall superheat, mass flow, and heat flux and agrees well with data available in the literature.

  20. Optimization and Control of Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lesieutre, Bernard C.; Molzahn, Daniel K.

    2014-10-17

    The analysis and optimization needs for planning and operation of the electric power system are challenging due to the scale and the form of model representations. The connected network spans the continent and the mathematical models are inherently nonlinear. Traditionally, computational limits have necessitated the use of very simplified models for grid analysis, and this has resulted in either less secure operation, or less efficient operation, or both. The research conducted in this project advances techniques for power system optimization problems that will enhance reliable and efficient operation. The results of this work appear in numerous publications and address different application problems include optimal power flow (OPF), unit commitment, demand response, reliability margins, planning, transmission expansion, as well as general tools and algorithms.