National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for discrete atmospheric conditions

  1. Graph-theoretic analysis of discrete-phase-space states for condition change detection and quantification of information

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M.

    2014-09-16

    Data collected from devices and human condition may be used to forewarn of critical events such as machine/structural failure or events from brain/heart wave data stroke. By monitoring the data, and determining what values are indicative of a failure forewarning, one can provide adequate notice of the impending failure in order to take preventive measures. This disclosure teaches a computer-based method to convert dynamical numeric data representing physical objects (unstructured data) into discrete-phase-space states, and hence into a graph (structured data) for extraction of condition change.

  2. Description of Atmospheric Conditions at the Pierre Auger Observatory using the Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Ahlers, M.; Ahn, E.J.; Albuquerque, I.F.M.; Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Allen, J.; Allison, P.; Almela, A.; Alvarez Castillo, J.; /Mexico U., ICN /Santiago de Compostela U.

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric conditions at the site of a cosmic ray observatory must be known for reconstructing observed extensive air showers. The Global Data Assimilation System (GDAS) is a global atmospheric model predicated on meteorological measurements and numerical weather predictions. GDAS provides altitude-dependent profiles of the main state variables of the atmosphere like temperature, pressure, and humidity. The original data and their application to the air shower reconstruction of the Pierre Auger Observatory are described. By comparisons with radiosonde and weather station measurements obtained on-site in Malargue and averaged monthly models, the utility of the GDAS data is shown.

  3. Sulfur capture by oil shale ashes under atmospheric and pressurized FBC conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yrjas, K.P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi Univ., Turku (Finland). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Kuelaots, I.; Ots, A. [Tallinn Technical Univ. (Estonia). Thermal Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    When oil shale contains large quantities of limestone, a significant auto-absorption of sulfur is possible under suitable conditions. The sulfur capture by oil shale ashes has been studied using a pressurized thermogravimetric apparatus. The chosen experimental conditions were typical for atmospheric and pressurized fluidized bed combustion. The Ca/S molar ratios in the two oil shales studied were 8 (Estonian) and 10 (Israeli). The samples were first burned in a gas atmosphere containing O{sub 2} and N{sub 2} (and CO{sub 2} if pressurized). After the combustion step, SO{sub 2} was added and sulfation started. The results with the oil shales were compared to those obtained with an oil shale cyclone ash from the Narva power plant in Estonia. In general, the results from the sulfur capture experiments under both atmospheric and pressurized conditions showed that the oil shale cannot only capture its own sulfur but also significant amounts of additional sulfur of another fuel if the fuels are mixed together. For example from the runs at atmospheric pressure, the conversion of CaO to CaSO{sub 4} was about 70% for Israeli oil shale and about 55% for Estonian oil shale (850 C). For the cyclone ash the corresponding conversion was about 20%. In comparison it could be mentioned that under the same conditions the conversions of natural limestones are about 30%. The reason the cyclone ash was a poor sulfur absorbent was probably due to its temperature history. In Narva the oil shale was burned at a significantly higher temperature (1,400 C) than was used in the experiments (750 C and 850 C). This caused the ash to sinter and the reactive surface area of the cyclone ash was therefore decreased.

  4. Remote Raman - laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) geochemical investigation under Venus atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clegg, Sanuel M; Barefield, James E; Humphries, Seth D; Wiens, Roger C; Vaniman, D. T.; Sharma, S. K.; Misra, A. K.; Dyar, M. D.; Smrekar, S. E.

    2010-12-13

    The extreme Venus surface temperatures ({approx}740 K) and atmospheric pressures ({approx}93 atm) create a challenging environment for surface missions. Scientific investigations capable of Venus geochemical observations must be completed within hours of landing before the lander will be overcome by the harsh atmosphere. A combined remote Raman - LIBS (Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) instrument is capable of accomplishing the geochemical science goals without the risks associated with collecting samples and bringing them into the lander. Wiens et al. and Sharma et al. demonstrated that both analytical techniques can be integrated into a single instrument capable of planetary missions. The focus of this paper is to explore the capability to probe geologic samples with Raman - LIBS and demonstrate quantitative analysis under Venus surface conditions. Raman and LIBS are highly complementary analytical techniques capable of detecting both the mineralogical and geochemical composition of Venus surface materials. These techniques have the potential to profoundly increase our knowledge of the Venus surface composition, which is currently limited to geochemical data from Soviet Venera and VEGA landers that collectively suggest a surface composition that is primarily tholeiitic basaltic with some potentially more evolved compositions and, in some locations, K-rich trachyandesite. These landers were not equipped to probe the surface mineralogy as can be accomplished with Raman spectroscopy. Based on the observed compositional differences and recognizing the imprecise nature of the existing data, 15 samples were chosen to constitute a Venus-analog suite for this study, including five basalts, two each of andesites, dacites, and sulfates, and single samples of a foidite, trachyandesite, rhyolite, and basaltic trachyandesite under Venus conditions. LIBS data reduction involved generating a partial least squares (PLS) model with a subset of the rock powder standards to quantitatively determine the major elemental abundance of the remaining samples. PLS analysis suggests that the major element compositions can be determined with root mean square errors ca. 5% (absolute) for SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}(total), MgO, and CaO, and ca. 2% or less for TiO{sub 2}, Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MnO, K{sub 2}O, and Na{sub 2}O. Finally, the Raman experiments have been conducted under supercritical CO{sub 2} involving single-mineral and mixed-mineral samples containing talc, olivine, pyroxenes, feldspars, anhydrite, barite, and siderite. The Raman data have shown that the individual minerals can easily be identified individually or in mixtures.

  5. Microwave plasma based single step method for free standing graphene synthesis at atmospheric conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tatarova, E.; Henriques, J.; Dias, A.; Ferreira, C. M.; Luhrs, C. C.; Phillips, J.; Abrashev, M. V.

    2013-09-23

    Microwave atmospheric pressure plasmas driven by surface waves were used to synthesize graphene sheets from vaporized ethanol molecules carried through argon plasma. In the plasma, ethanol decomposes creating carbon atoms that form nanostructures in the outlet plasma stream, where external cooling/heating was applied. It was found that the outlet gas stream temperature plays an important role in the nucleation processes and the structural quality of the produced nanostructures. The synthesis of few layers (from one to five) graphene has been confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Raman spectral studies were conducted to determine the ratio of the 2D to G peaks (>2). Disorder D-peak to G-peak intensity ratio decreases when outlet gas stream temperature decreases.

  6. A STUDY ON LEGIONELLA PNEUMOPHILA, WATER CHEMISTRY, AND ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS IN COOLING TOWERS AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Smith, C.; Brigmon, R.

    2009-10-20

    Legionnaires disease is a pneumonia caused by the inhalation of the bacterium Legionella pneumophila. The majority of illnesses have been associated with cooling towers since these devices can harbor and disseminate the bacterium in the aerosolized mist generated by these systems. Historically, Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling towers have had occurrences of elevated levels of Legionella in all seasons of the year and in patterns that are difficult to predict. Since elevated Legionella in cooling tower water are a potential health concern a question has been raised as to the best control methodology. In this work we analyze available chemical, biological, and atmospheric data to determine the best method or key parameter for control. The SRS 4Q Industrial Hygiene Manual, 4Q-1203, 1 - G Cooling Tower Operation and the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program, states that 'Participation in the SRNL Legionella Sampling Program is MANDATORY for all operating cooling towers'. The resulting reports include L. pneumophila concentration information in cells/L. L. pneumophila concentrations >10{sup 7} cells/L are considered elevated and unsafe so action must be taken to reduce these densities. These remedial actions typically include increase biocide addition or 'shocking'. Sometimes additional actions are required if the problem persists including increase tower maintenance (e.g. cleaning). Evaluation of 14 SRS cooling towers, seven water quality parameters, and five Legionella serogroups over a three-plus year time frame demonstrated that cooling tower water Legionella densities varied widely though out this time period. In fact there was no one common consistent significant variable across all towers. The significant factors that did show up most frequently were related to suspended particulates, conductivity, pH, and dissolved oxygen, not chlorine or bromine as might be expected. Analyses of atmospheric data showed that there were more frequent significant elevated Legionella concentrations when the dew point temperature was high--a summertime occurrence. However, analysis of the three years of Legionella monitoring data of the 14 different SRS Cooling Towers demonstrated that elevated concentrations are observed at all temperatures and seasons. The objective of this study is to evaluate the ecology of L. pneumophila including serogroups and population densities, chemical, and atmospheric data, on cooling towers at SRS to determine whether relationships exist among water chemistry, and atmospheric conditions. The goal is to more fully understand the conditions which inhibit or encourage L. pneumophila growth and supply this data and associated recommendations to SRS Cooling Tower personnel for improved management of operation. Hopefully this information could then be used to help control L. pneumophila growth more effectively in SRS cooling tower water.

  7. Discrete Element Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF CLOUDS IN TITAN'S TROPICAL ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Griffith, Caitlin A.; Penteado, Paulo; Rodriguez, Sebastien; Baines, Kevin H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Sotin, Christophe; Clark, Roger; Nicholson, Phil; Jaumann, Ralf

    2009-09-10

    Images of Titan's clouds, possible over the past 10 years, indicate primarily discrete convective methane clouds near the south and north poles and an immense stratiform cloud, likely composed of ethane, around the north pole. Here we present spectral images from Cassini's Visual Mapping Infrared Spectrometer that reveal the increasing presence of clouds in Titan's tropical atmosphere. Radiative transfer analyses indicate similarities between summer polar and tropical methane clouds. Like their southern counterparts, tropical clouds consist of particles exceeding 5 {mu}m. They display discrete structures suggestive of convective cumuli. They prevail at a specific latitude band between 8 deg. - 20 deg. S, indicative of a circulation origin and the beginning of a circulation turnover. Yet, unlike the high latitude clouds that often reach 45 km altitude, these discrete tropical clouds, so far, remain capped to altitudes below 26 km. Such low convective clouds are consistent with the highly stable atmospheric conditions measured at the Huygens landing site. Their characteristics suggest that Titan's tropical atmosphere has a dry climate unlike the south polar atmosphere, and despite the numerous washes that carve the tropical landscape.

  9. Adding Complex Terrain and Stable Atmospheric Condition Capability to the Simulator for On/Offshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.

    2013-06-01

    This presentation describes changes made to NREL's OpenFOAM-based wind plant aerodynamics solver so that it can compute the stably stratified atmospheric boundary layer and flow over terrain. Background about the flow solver, the Simulator for Off/Onshore Wind Farm Applications (SOWFA) is given, followed by details of the stable stratification/complex terrain modifications to SOWFA, along with some preliminary results calculations of a stable atmospheric boundary layer and flow over a simple set of hills.

  10. Using Mesoscale Weather Model Output as Boundary Conditions for Atmospheric Large-Eddy Simulations and Wind-Plant Aerodynamic Simulations (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Churchfield, M. J.; Michalakes, J.; Vanderwende, B.; Lee, S.; Sprague, M. A.; Lundquist, J. K.; Moriarty, P. J.

    2013-10-01

    Wind plant aerodynamics are directly affected by the microscale weather, which is directly influenced by the mesoscale weather. Microscale weather refers to processes that occur within the atmospheric boundary layer with the largest scales being a few hundred meters to a few kilometers depending on the atmospheric stability of the boundary layer. Mesoscale weather refers to large weather patterns, such as weather fronts, with the largest scales being hundreds of kilometers wide. Sometimes microscale simulations that capture mesoscale-driven variations (changes in wind speed and direction over time or across the spatial extent of a wind plant) are important in wind plant analysis. In this paper, we present our preliminary work in coupling a mesoscale weather model with a microscale atmospheric large-eddy simulation model. The coupling is one-way beginning with the weather model and ending with a computational fluid dynamics solver using the weather model in coarse large-eddy simulation mode as an intermediary. We simulate one hour of daytime moderately convective microscale development driven by the mesoscale data, which are applied as initial and boundary conditions to the microscale domain, at a site in Iowa. We analyze the time and distance necessary for the smallest resolvable microscales to develop.

  11. Constraint analysis for variational discrete systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dittrich, Bianca; Höhn, Philipp A.; Institute for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Utrecht, Leuvenlaan 4, NL-3584 CE Utrecht

    2013-09-15

    A canonical formalism and constraint analysis for discrete systems subject to a variational action principle are devised. The formalism is equivalent to the covariant formulation, encompasses global and local discrete time evolution moves and naturally incorporates both constant and evolving phase spaces, the latter of which is necessary for a time varying discretization. The different roles of constraints in the discrete and the conditions under which they are first or second class and/or symmetry generators are clarified. The (non-) preservation of constraints and the symplectic structure is discussed; on evolving phase spaces the number of constraints at a fixed time step depends on the initial and final time step of evolution. Moreover, the definition of observables and a reduced phase space is provided; again, on evolving phase spaces the notion of an observable as a propagating degree of freedom requires specification of an initial and final step and crucially depends on this choice, in contrast to the continuum. However, upon restriction to translation invariant systems, one regains the usual time step independence of canonical concepts. This analysis applies, e.g., to discrete mechanics, lattice field theory, quantum gravity models, and numerical analysis.

  12. Analysis and experimental study on formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse atmospheric pressure air plasmas in repetitive pulse mode

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Li, Lee Liu, Lun; Liu, Yun-Long; Bin, Yu; Ge, Ya-Feng; Lin, Fo-Chang

    2014-01-14

    Atmospheric air diffuse plasmas have enormous application potential in various fields of science and technology. Without dielectric barrier, generating large-scale air diffuse plasmas is always a challenging issue. This paper discusses and analyses the formation mechanism of cold homogenous plasma. It is proposed that generating stable diffuse atmospheric plasmas in open air should meet the three conditions: high transient power with low average power, excitation in low average E-field with locally high E-field region, and multiple overlapping electron avalanches. Accordingly, an experimental configuration of generating large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas is designed. Based on runaway electron theory, a low duty-ratio, high voltage repetitive nanosecond pulse generator is chosen as a discharge excitation source. Using the wire-electrodes with small curvature radius, the gaps with highly non-uniform E-field are structured. Experimental results show that the volume-scaleable, barrier-free, homogeneous air non-thermal plasmas have been obtained between the gap spacing with the copper-wire electrodes. The area of air cold plasmas has been up to hundreds of square centimeters. The proposed formation conditions of large-scale barrier-free diffuse air plasmas are proved to be reasonable and feasible.

  13. Discrete dark matter

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hirsch, M.; Morisi, S.; Peinado, E.; Valle, J. W. F. [AHEP Group, Institut de Fisica Corpuscular--C.S.I.C./Universitat de Valencia, Edificio Institutos de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-12-01

    We propose a new motivation for the stability of dark matter (DM). We suggest that the same non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetry which accounts for the observed pattern of neutrino oscillations, spontaneously breaks to a Z{sub 2} subgroup which renders DM stable. The simplest scheme leads to a scalar doublet DM potentially detectable in nuclear recoil experiments, inverse neutrino mass hierarchy, hence a neutrinoless double beta decay rate accessible to upcoming searches, while {theta}{sub 13}=0 gives no CP violation in neutrino oscillations.

  14. ASSESSMENT OF 90SR AND 137CS PENETRATION INTO REINFORCED CONCRETE (EXTENT OF 'DEEPENING') UNDER NATURAL ATMOSPHERIC CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Farfan, E.; Jannik, T.

    2011-10-01

    When assessing the feasibility of remediation following the detonation of a radiological dispersion device or improvised nuclear device in a large city, several issues should be considered including the levels and characteristics of the radioactive contamination, the availability of resources required for decontamination, and the planned future use of the city's structures and buildings. Currently, little is known about radionuclide penetration into construction materials in an urban environment. Knowledge in this area would be useful when considering costs of a thorough decontamination of buildings, artificial structures, and roads in an affected urban environment. Pripyat, a city substantially contaminated by the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident in April 1986, may provide some answers. The main objective of this study was to assess the depth of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs penetration into reinforced concrete structures in a highly contaminated urban environment under natural weather conditions. Thirteen reinforced concrete core samples were obtained from external surfaces of a contaminated building in Pripyat. The concrete cores were drilled to obtain sample layers of 0-5, 5-10, 10-15, 15-20, 20-30, 30-40, and 40-50 mm. Both {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs were detected in the entire 0-50 mm profile of the reinforced cores sampled. In most of the cores, over 90% of the total {sup 137}Cs inventory and 70% of the total {sup 90}Sr inventory was found in the first 0-5 mm layer of the reinforced concrete. {sup 90}Sr had penetrated markedly deeper into the reinforced concrete structures than {sup 137}Cs.

  15. Investigation of nitrogen dilution effects on the laminar burning velocity and flame stability of syngas fuel at atmospheric condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Prathap, C.; Ray, Anjan; Ravi, M.R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2008-10-15

    The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of dilution with nitrogen on the laminar burning velocity and flame stability of syngas fuel (50% H{sub 2}-50% CO by volume)-air (21% O{sub 2}-79% N{sub 2} by volume) mixtures. The syngas fuel composition considered in this work comprised x% N{sub 2} by volume and (100-x)% an equimolar mixture of CO and H{sub 2}. The proportion x (i.e., %N{sub 2}) was varied from 0 to 60% while the H{sub 2}/CO ratio was always kept as unity. Spherically expanding flames were generated by centrally igniting homogeneous fuel-air gas mixtures in a 40-L cylindrical combustion chamber fitted with optical windows. Shadowgraphy technique with a high-speed imaging camera was used to record the propagating spherical flames. Unstretched burning velocity was calculated following the Karlovitz theory for weakly stretched flames. Also, Markstein length was calculated to investigate the flame stability conditions for the fuel-air mixtures under consideration. Experiments were conducted for syngas fuel with different nitrogen proportions (0-60%) at 0.1 MPa (absolute), 302{+-}3K, and equivalence ratios ranging from 0.6 to 3.5. All the measurements were compared with the numerical predictions obtained using RUN-1DL and PREMIX with a contemporary chemical kinetic scheme. Dilution with nitrogen in different proportions in syngas resulted in (a) decrease in laminar burning velocity due to reduction in heat release and increase in heat capacity of unburned gas mixture and hence the flame temperature, (b) shift in occurrence of peak laminar burning velocity from {phi}=2.0 for 0% N{sub 2} dilution to {phi}=1.4 for 60% N{sub 2} dilution, (c) augmentation of the coupled effect of flame stretch and preferential diffusion on laminar burning velocity, and (d) shift in the equivalence ratio for transition from stable to unstable flames from {phi}=0.6 for 0% N{sub 2} dilution to {phi}=1.0 for 60% N{sub 2} dilution. The present work also indicated that if the fuel mole fraction in the wide range of fuel-air mixtures investigated is less than 22%, then those fuel mixtures are in the unstable regime with regard to preferential diffusion. (author)

  16. An experimental study on sub-cooled flow boiling CHF of R134a at low pressure condition with atmospheric pressure (AP) plasma assisted surface modification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Seung Jun; Zou, Ling; Jones, Barclay G.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, sub-cooled flow boiling critical heat flux tests at low pressure were conducted in a rectangular flow channel with one uniformly heated surface, using simulant fluid R-134a as coolant. The experiments were conducted under the following conditions: (1) inlet pressure (P) of 400-800 kPa, (2) mass flux (G) of 124-248 kg/m2s, (3) inlet sub-cooling enthalpy (ΔHi) of 12~ 26 kJ/kg. Parametric trends of macroscopic system parameters (G, P, Hi) were examined by changing inlet conditions. Those trends were found to be generally consistent with previous understandings of CHF behavior at low pressure condition (i.e. reduced pressure less than 0.2). A fluid-to-fluid scaling model was utilized to convert the test data obtained with the simulant fluid (R-134a) into the prototypical fluid (water). The comparison between the converted CHF of equivalent water and CHF look-up table with same operation conditions were conducted, which showed good agreement. Furthermore, the effect of surface wettability on CHF was also investigated by applying atmospheric pressure plasma (AP-Plasma) treatment to modify the surface characteristic. With AP-Plasma treatment, the change of microscopic surface characteristic was measured in terms of static contact angle. The static contact angle was reduced from 80° on original non-treated surface to 15° on treated surface. An enhancement of 18% on CHF values under flow boiling conditions were observed on AP-Plasma treated surfaces compared to those on non-treated heating surfaces.

  17. Atmospheric Chemistry

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    competencies Atmospheric Chemistry Atmospheric Chemistry is the study of the composition of the atmosphere, the sources and fates of gases and particles in air, and changes induced...

  18. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, Roland L. (Bloomfield, CO); Cannon, Theodore W. (Golden, CO)

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions.

  19. Atmospheric optical calibration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hulstrom, R.L.; Cannon, T.W.

    1988-10-25

    An atmospheric optical calibration system is provided to compare actual atmospheric optical conditions to standard atmospheric optical conditions on the basis of aerosol optical depth, relative air mass, and diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio. An indicator can show the extent to which the actual conditions vary from standard conditions. Aerosol scattering and absorption properties, diffuse horizontal skylight to global horizontal photon flux ratio, and precipitable water vapor determined on a real-time basis for optical and pressure measurements are also used to generate a computer spectral model and for correcting actual performance response of a photovoltaic device to standard atmospheric optical condition response on a real-time basis as the device is being tested in actual outdoor conditions. 7 figs.

  20. SNAP:SN (Discrete Ordinates) Application Proxy

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Application Proxy SNAP serves as a proxy application to model the performance of a modern discrete ordinates neutral particle transport application. June 29, 2013 software SNAP...

  1. Final Report for DOE grant DE-FG02-07ER64432 "New Grid and Discretization Technologies for Ocean and Ice Simulations"

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gunzburger, Max

    2013-03-12

    The work reported is in pursuit of these goals: high-quality unstructured, non-uniform Voronoi and Delaunay grids; improved finite element and finite volume discretization schemes; and improved finite element and finite volume discretization schemes. These are sought for application to spherical and three-dimensional applications suitable for ocean, atmosphere, ice-sheet, and other climate modeling applications.

  2. Discrete symmetries and de Sitter spacetime

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cotăescu, Ion I. Pascu, Gabriel

    2014-11-24

    Aspects of the ambiguity in defining quantum modes on de Sitter spacetime using a commuting system composed only of differential operators are discussed. Discrete symmetries and their actions on the wavefunction in commonly used coordinate charts are reviewed. It is argued that the system of commuting operators can be supplemented by requiring the invariance of the wavefunction to combined discrete symmetries- a criterion which selects a single state out of the α-vacuum family. Two such members of this family are singled out by particular combined discrete symmetries- states between which exists a well-known thermality relation.

  3. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH uptake ...

  4. Running Parallel Discrete Event Simulators on Sierra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Barnes, P. D.; Jefferson, D. R.

    2015-12-03

    In this proposal we consider porting the ROSS/Charm++ simulator and the discrete event models that run under its control so that they run on the Sierra architecture and make efficient use of the Volta GPUs.

  5. Multi-scale Atmospheric Modeling of Green House Gas Dispersion in Complex Terrain. Atmospheric Methane at Four Corners

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Costigan, Keeley Rochelle; Dubey, Manvendra Krishna

    2015-07-10

    Atmospheric models are compared in collaboration with LANL and the University of Michigan to understand emissions and the condition of the atmosphere from a model perspective.

  6. Electroless plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Anton

    1978-01-01

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles by electroless techniques. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with each other for a time sufficient for such to occur.

  7. Electrolytic plating apparatus for discrete microsized particles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mayer, Anton

    1976-11-30

    Method and apparatus are disclosed for electrolytically producing very uniform coatings of a desired material on discrete microsized particles. Agglomeration or bridging of the particles during the deposition process is prevented by imparting a sufficiently random motion to the particles that they are not in contact with a powered cathode for a time sufficient for such to occur.

  8. Thermal depinning of fluxons in discrete Josephson rings

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mazo, J. J.; Naranjo, F.; Segall, K.

    2008-11-01

    We study the thermal depinning of single fluxons in rings made of Josephson junctions. Due to thermal fluctuations a fluxon can be excited from its energy minima and move through the array, causing a voltage across each junction. We find that for the initial depinning, the fluxon behaves as a single particle and follows a Kramers-type escape law. However, under some conditions this single-particle description breaks down. At low values of the discreteness parameter and low values of the damping, the depinning rate is larger than what the single-particle result would suggest. In addition, for some values of the parameters the fluxon can undergo low-voltage diffusion before switching to the high-voltage whirling mode. This type of diffusion is similar to phase diffusion in a single junction but occurs without frequency-dependent damping. We study the switching to the whirling state as well.

  9. Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    1991-11-20

    The Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) is a real-time emergency response modeling capability designed to advise Emergency Managers of the path, timing, and projected impacts from an atmospheric release. TRAC evaluates the effects of both radiological and non-radiological hazardous substances, gases and particulates. Using available surface and upper air meteorological information, TRAC realistically treats complex sources and atmospheric conditions, such as those found in mountainous terrain. TRAC calculates atmospheric concentration, deposition, and dose for more thanmore » 25,000 receptor locations within 80 km of the release point. Human-engineered output products support critical decisions on the type, location, and timing of protective actions for workers and the public during an emergency.« less

  10. Compartmentalization analysis using discrete fracture network models

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    La Pointe, P.R.; Eiben, T.; Dershowitz, W.; Wadleigh, E.

    1997-08-01

    This paper illustrates how Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) technology can serve as a basis for the calculation of reservoir engineering parameters for the development of fractured reservoirs. It describes the development of quantitative techniques for defining the geometry and volume of structurally controlled compartments. These techniques are based on a combination of stochastic geometry, computational geometry, and graph the theory. The parameters addressed are compartment size, matrix block size and tributary drainage volume. The concept of DFN models is explained and methodologies to compute these parameters are demonstrated.

  11. Construction of Discrete Time Shadow Price

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rogala, Tomasz Stettner, Lukasz

    2015-12-15

    In the paper expected utility from consumption over finite time horizon for discrete time markets with bid and ask prices and strictly concave utility function is considered. The notion of weak shadow price, i.e. an illiquid price, depending on the portfolio, under which the model without bid and ask price is equivalent to the model with bid and ask price is introduced. Existence and the form of weak shadow price is shown. Using weak shadow price usual (called in the paper strong) shadow price is then constructed.

  12. ARM - Atmospheric Heat Budget

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    ListAtmospheric Heat Budget Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge ... Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Atmospheric Heat Budget The average temperature of the ...

  13. Computational studies for plasma filamentation by magnetic field in atmospheric microwave discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Takahashi, Masayuki; Ohnishi, Naofumi

    2014-12-01

    Plasma filamentation is induced by an external magnetic field in an atmospheric discharge using intense microwaves. A discrete structure is obtained at low ambient pressure if a strong magnetic field of more than 1 T is applied, due to the suppression of electron diffusion, whereas a diffusive pattern is generated with no external field. Applying a magnetic field can slow the discharge front propagation due to magnetic confinement of the electron transport. If the resonance conditions are satisfied for electron cyclotron resonance and its higher harmonics, the propagation speed increases because the heated electrons easily ionize neutral particles. The streamer velocity and the pattern of the microwave plasma are positively controlled by adjusting two parameters—the electron diffusion coefficient and the ionization frequency—through the resonance process and magnetic confinement, and hot, dense filamentary plasma can be concentrated in a compact volume to reduce energy loss in a plasma device like a microwave rocket.

  14. Discrete phase space based on finite fields (Journal Article...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: Discrete phase space based on finite fields Citation Details In-Document ... OSTI Identifier: 20649890 Resource Type: Journal Article Resource Relation: Journal Name: ...

  15. (Small) resonant non-gaussianities: signatures of a discrete...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    field theory of inflation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: (Small) resonant non-gaussianities: signatures of a discrete shift symmetry in the effective field theory of ...

  16. DNA Origami Directed Self-Assembly of Discrete Silver Nanoparticle...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    as spatially addressable templates to organize noble-metal nanoparticles of silver and gold into well-defined discrete architectures visualized by TEM. Date of online publication:...

  17. HODIF:High-Order Discretizations, Interpolations and

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2006-06-20

    This software, a library, contains FORTRAN77 subroutines to calculate first and second derivatives up to 8th order, interpolations (1D and 2D) up to 10th order and filters up to 14th order. Only even orders are addressed and finite-difference stencils are implemented on a vertex-centered mesh. The primary aim of this library is to be used in block-structured adaptive mesh simulations where high order is desired. The interpolants in this library are essentially designed to domore » prolongations and restrictions between levels of rfinement - however, they assume that the refinement ratio is 2. The filters are provided to remove high wavenumber content from solutions in case Runge phenomenon occurs - a common occurrence in case of marginal resolution of the solution. Details of the derivation and use are to be found in "Using high-order methods on adaptively refined block-structured meshes - discretizations, interpolations and filters", by J. Ray, C.A. Kennedy, S. Lefantzi and H.N. Najm, Sandia Technical Report, SAND2005-7981. The software comes with a User's Guide and examples how to use it.« less

  18. Atmosphere to Electrons

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Atmosphere to Electrons Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow 2 Atmosphere to Electrons Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) research initiative is focused on improving the performance and reliability of wind plants by establishing an unprecedented under- standing of how the Earth's atmosphere interacts with the wind plants and developing innovative technologies to maximize energy extraction from the wind. The A2e initiative

  19. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan -

  20. Discrete Calderon's projections on parallelepipeds and their application to computing exterior magnetic fields for FRC plasmas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kansa, E.; Shumlak, U.; Tsynkov, S.

    2013-02-01

    Confining dense plasma in a field reversed configuration (FRC) is considered a promising approach to fusion. Numerical simulation of this process requires setting artificial boundary conditions (ABCs) for the magnetic field because whereas the plasma itself occupies a bounded region (within the FRC coils), the field extends from this region all the way to infinity. If the plasma is modeled using single fluid magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), then the exterior magnetic field can be considered quasi-static. This field has a scalar potential governed by the Laplace equation. The quasi-static ABC for the magnetic field is obtained using the method of difference potentials, in the form of a discrete Calderon boundary equation with projection on the artificial boundary shaped as a parallelepiped. The Calderon projection itself is computed by convolution with the discrete fundamental solution on the three-dimensional Cartesian grid.

  1. Discrete Feature Approach for Heterogeneous Reservoir Production Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dershowitz, William S.; Curran, Brendan; Einstein, Herbert; LaPointe, Paul; Shuttle, Dawn; Klise, Kate

    2002-07-26

    The report presents summaries of technology development for discrete feature modeling in support of the improved oil recovery (IOR) for heterogeneous reservoirs. In addition, the report describes the demonstration of these technologies at project study sites.

  2. Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, Bert; Najm, Habib N.

    2014-10-22

    Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components to avoid negative probability values. The numerical construction at the interface between the discrete and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. As a result, the performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.

  3. Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Safta, Cosmin Sargsyan, Khachik Debusschere, Bert Najm, Habib N.

    2015-01-15

    Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker–Planck equation. The Fokker–Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components. The numerical construction at the interface between the discrete and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. The performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.

  4. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Glish, Gary L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above.

  5. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  6. ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The "other" Washington ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Credits to Credits to * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace *

  7. Discrete Feature Approach for Heterogeneous Reservoir Production Enhancement

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dershowitz, William S.; Cladouhos, Trenton

    2001-09-06

    This progress report describes activities during the period January 1, 1999 to June 30, 1999. Work was carried out on 21 tasks. The major activity during the reporting period was the development and preliminary application of discrete fracture network (DFN) models for Stoney Point, South Oregon Basin, and North Oregon Basins project study sites. In addition, research was carried out on analysis algorithms for discrete future orientation.

  8. Community Atmosphere Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2004-10-18

    The Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) is an atmospheric general circulation model that solves equations for atmospheric dynamics and physics. CAM is an outgrowth of the Community Climate Model at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) and was developed as a joint collaborative effort between NCAR and several DOE laboratories, including LLNL. CAM contains several alternative approaches for advancing the atmospheric dynamics. One of these approaches uses a finite-volume method originally developed by personnel atmore » NASNGSFC, We have developed a scalable version of the finite-volume solver for massively parallel computing systems. FV-CAM is meant to be used in conjunction with the Community Atmosphere Model. It is not stand-alone.« less

  9. SWiFT site atmospheric characterization

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kelley, Christopher Lee; Ennis, Brandon Lee

    2016-01-01

    Historical meteorological tall tower data are analyzed from the Texas Tech University 200 m tower to characterize the atmospheric trends of the Scaled Wind Farm Technologies (SWiFT) site. In this report the data are analyzed to reveal bulk atmospheric trends, temporal trends and correlations of atmospheric variables. Through this analysis for the SWiFT turbines the site International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) classification is determined to be class III-C. Averages and distributions of atmospheric variables are shown, revealing large fluctuations and the importance of understanding the actual site trends as opposed to simply using averages. The site is significantly directional with the average wind speed from the south, and particularly so in summer and fall. Site temporal trends are analyzed from both seasonal (time of the year) to daily (hour of the day) perspectives. Atmospheric stability is seen to vary most with time of day and less with time of year. Turbulence intensity is highly correlated with stability, and typical daytime unstable conditions see double the level of turbulence intensity versus that experienced during the average stable night. Shear, veer and atmospheric stability correlations are shown, where shear and veer are both highest for stable atmospheric conditions. An analysis of the Texas Tech University tower anemometer measurements is performed which reveals the extent of the tower shadow effects and sonic tilt misalignment.

  10. An efficient permeability scaling-up technique applied to the discretized flow equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urgelli, D.; Ding, Yu

    1997-08-01

    Grid-block permeability scaling-up for numerical reservoir simulations has been discussed for a long time in the literature. It is now recognized that a full permeability tensor is needed to get an accurate reservoir description at large scale. However, two major difficulties are encountered: (1) grid-block permeability cannot be properly defined because it depends on boundary conditions; (2) discretization of flow equations with a full permeability tensor is not straightforward and little work has been done on this subject. In this paper, we propose a new method, which allows us to get around both difficulties. As the two major problems are closely related, a global approach will preserve the accuracy. So, in the proposed method, the permeability up-scaling technique is integrated in the discretized numerical scheme for flow simulation. The permeability is scaled-up via the transmissibility term, in accordance with the fluid flow calculation in the numerical scheme. A finite-volume scheme is particularly studied, and the transmissibility scaling-up technique for this scheme is presented. Some numerical examples are tested for flow simulation. This new method is compared with some published numerical schemes for full permeability tensor discretization where the full permeability tensor is scaled-up through various techniques. Comparing the results with fine grid simulations shows that the new method is more accurate and more efficient.

  11. Hybrid discrete/continuum algorithms for stochastic reaction networks

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Safta, Cosmin; Sargsyan, Khachik; Debusschere, Bert; Najm, Habib N.

    2014-10-22

    Direct solutions of the Chemical Master Equation (CME) governing Stochastic Reaction Networks (SRNs) are generally prohibitively expensive due to excessive numbers of possible discrete states in such systems. To enhance computational efficiency we develop a hybrid approach where the evolution of states with low molecule counts is treated with the discrete CME model while that of states with large molecule counts is modeled by the continuum Fokker-Planck equation. The Fokker-Planck equation is discretized using a 2nd order finite volume approach with appropriate treatment of flux components to avoid negative probability values. The numerical construction at the interface between the discretemore » and continuum regions implements the transfer of probability reaction by reaction according to the stoichiometry of the system. As a result, the performance of this novel hybrid approach is explored for a two-species circadian model with computational efficiency gains of about one order of magnitude.« less

  12. Ensemble Atmospheric Dispersion Modeling

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Addis, R.P.

    2002-06-24

    Prognostic atmospheric dispersion models are used to generate consequence assessments, which assist decision-makers in the event of a release from a nuclear facility. Differences in the forecast wind fields generated by various meteorological agencies, differences in the transport and diffusion models, as well as differences in the way these models treat the release source term, result in differences in the resulting plumes. Even dispersion models using the same wind fields may produce substantially different plumes. This talk will address how ensemble techniques may be used to enable atmospheric modelers to provide decision-makers with a more realistic understanding of how both the atmosphere and the models behave.

  13. Methodology for characterizing modeling and discretization uncertainties in computational simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    ALVIN,KENNETH F.; OBERKAMPF,WILLIAM L.; RUTHERFORD,BRIAN M.; DIEGERT,KATHLEEN V.

    2000-03-01

    This research effort focuses on methodology for quantifying the effects of model uncertainty and discretization error on computational modeling and simulation. The work is directed towards developing methodologies which treat model form assumptions within an overall framework for uncertainty quantification, for the purpose of developing estimates of total prediction uncertainty. The present effort consists of work in three areas: framework development for sources of uncertainty and error in the modeling and simulation process which impact model structure; model uncertainty assessment and propagation through Bayesian inference methods; and discretization error estimation within the context of non-deterministic analysis.

  14. Topological horseshoes in travelling waves of discretized nonlinear wave equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Yi-Chiuan; Chen, Shyan-Shiou; Yuan, Juan-Ming

    2014-04-15

    Applying the concept of anti-integrable limit to coupled map lattices originated from space-time discretized nonlinear wave equations, we show that there exist topological horseshoes in the phase space formed by the initial states of travelling wave solutions. In particular, the coupled map lattices display spatio-temporal chaos on the horseshoes.

  15. Effects of Changing Atmospheric Conditions on Wind Turbine Performance (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clifton, A.

    2012-12-01

    Multi-megawatt, utility-scale wind turbines operate in turbulent and dynamic winds that impact turbine performance in ways that are gradually becoming better understood. This poster presents a study made using a turbulent flow field simulator (TurbSim) and a Turbine aeroelastic simulator (FAST) of the response of a generic 1.5 MW wind turbine to changing inflow. The turbine power output is found to be most sensitive to wind speed and turbulence intensity, but the relationship depends on the wind speed with respect to the turbine's rated wind speed. Shear is found to be poorly correlated to power. A machine learning method called 'regression trees' is used to create a simple model of turbine performance that could be used as part of the wind resource assessment process. This study has used simple flow fields and should be extended to more complex flows, and validated with field observations.

  16. Security Conditions

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2004-07-08

    This Notice ensures that DOE uniformly meets the requirements of the Homeland Security Advisory System outlined in Homeland Security Presidential Directive-3, Threat Conditions and Associated Protective Measures, dated 3-11-02, and provides responses specified in Presidential Decision Directive 39, U.S. Policy on Counterterrorism (U), dated 6-21-95. It cancels DOE N 473.8, Security Conditions, dated 8-7-02. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels DOE N 473.8

  17. Condition assessment of nonlinear processes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hively, Lee M.; Gailey, Paul C.; Protopopescu, Vladimir A.

    2002-01-01

    There is presented a reliable technique for measuring condition change in nonlinear data such as brain waves. The nonlinear data is filtered and discretized into windowed data sets. The system dynamics within each data set is represented by a sequence of connected phase-space points, and for each data set a distribution function is derived. New metrics are introduced that evaluate the distance between distribution functions. The metrics are properly renormalized to provide robust and sensitive relative measures of condition change. As an example, these measures can be used on EEG data, to provide timely discrimination between normal, preseizure, seizure, and post-seizure states in epileptic patients. Apparatus utilizing hardware or software to perform the method and provide an indicative output is also disclosed.

  18. Three-dimensional discrete ordinates reactor assembly calculations on GPUs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Evans, Thomas M; Joubert, Wayne; Hamilton, Steven P; Johnson, Seth R; Turner, John A; Davidson, Gregory G; Pandya, Tara M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we describe and demonstrate a discrete ordinates sweep algorithm on GPUs. This sweep algorithm is nested within a multilevel comunication-based decomposition based on energy. We demonstrated the effectiveness of this algorithm on detailed three-dimensional critical experiments and PWR lattice problems. For these problems we show improvement factors of 4 6 over conventional communication-based, CPU-only sweeps. These sweep kernel speedups resulted in a factor of 2 total time-to-solution improvement.

  19. Multifractal analysis of time series generated by discrete Ito equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Telesca, Luciano; Czechowski, Zbigniew; Lovallo, Michele

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we show that discrete Ito equations with short-tail Gaussian marginal distribution function generate multifractal time series. The multifractality is due to the nonlinear correlations, which are hidden in Markov processes and are generated by the interrelation between the drift and the multiplicative stochastic forces in the Ito equation. A link between the range of the generalized Hurst exponents and the mean of the squares of all averaged net forces is suggested.

  20. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, Otto A.; Stencel, Joseph R.

    1990-01-01

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The mixture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H.sub.2 or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  1. Differential atmospheric tritium sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Griesbach, O.A.; Stencel, J.R.

    1987-10-02

    An atmospheric tritium sampler is provided which uses a carrier gas comprised of hydrogen gas and a diluting gas, mixed in a nonexplosive concentration. Sample air and carrier gas are drawn into and mixed in a manifold. A regulator meters the carrier gas flow to the manifold. The air sample/carrier gas mixture is pulled through a first moisture trap which adsorbs water from the air sample. The moisture then passes through a combustion chamber where hydrogen gas in the form of H/sub 2/ or HT is combusted into water. The manufactured water is transported by the air stream to a second moisture trap where it is adsorbed. The air is then discharged back into the atmosphere by means of a pump.

  2. Discrete-Time Pricing and Optimal Exercise of American Perpetual Warrants in the Geometric Random Walk Model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vanderbei, Robert J.; P Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I nar, Mustafa C.; Bozkaya, Efe B.

    2013-02-15

    An American option (or, warrant) is the right, but not the obligation, to purchase or sell an underlying equity at any time up to a predetermined expiration date for a predetermined amount. A perpetual American option differs from a plain American option in that it does not expire. In this study, we solve the optimal stopping problem of a perpetual American option (both call and put) in discrete time using linear programming duality. Under the assumption that the underlying stock price follows a discrete time and discrete state Markov process, namely a geometric random walk, we formulate the pricing problem as an infinite dimensional linear programming (LP) problem using the excessive-majorant property of the value function. This formulation allows us to solve complementary slackness conditions in closed-form, revealing an optimal stopping strategy which highlights the set of stock-prices where the option should be exercised. The analysis for the call option reveals that such a critical value exists only in some cases, depending on a combination of state-transition probabilities and the economic discount factor (i.e., the prevailing interest rate) whereas it ceases to be an issue for the put.

  3. ANALYTICAL MODELS OF EXOPLANETARY ATMOSPHERES. I. ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS VIA THE SHALLOW WATER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heng, Kevin; Workman, Jared E-mail: jworkman@coloradomesa.edu

    2014-08-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical, and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension, and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag, and magnetic drag), and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag acts non-uniformly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulations of atmospheric circulation. We also find that hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction have dissimilar phase signatures and affect the flow in fundamentally different ways, implying that using Rayleigh drag to mimic magnetic drag is inaccurate. We exhaustively lay down the theoretical formalism (dispersion relations, governing equations, and time-dependent wave solutions) for a broad suite of models. In all situations, we derive the steady state of an atmosphere, which is relevant to interpreting infrared phase and eclipse maps of exoplanetary atmospheres. We elucidate a pinching effect that confines the atmospheric structure to be near the equator. Our suite of analytical models may be used to develop decisively physical intuition and as a reference point for three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulations of atmospheric circulation.

  4. Analyzing Atmospheric Neutrino Oscillations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escamilla, J.; Ernst, D. J.; Latimer, D. C.

    2007-10-26

    We provide a pedagogic derivation of the formula needed to analyze atmospheric data and then derive, for the subset of the data that are fully-contained events, an analysis tool that is quantitative and numerically efficient. Results for the full set of neutrino oscillation data are then presented. We find the following preliminary results: 1.) the sub-dominant approximation provides reasonable values for the best fit parameters for {delta}{sub 32}, {theta}{sub 23}, and {theta}{sub 13} but does not quantitatively provide the errors for these three parameters; 2.) the size of the MSW effect is suppressed in the sub-dominant approximation; 3.) the MSW effect reduces somewhat the extracted error for {delta}{sub 32}, more so for {theta}{sub 23} and {theta}{sub 13}; 4.) atmospheric data alone constrains the allowed values of {theta}{sub 13} only in the sub-dominant approximation, the full three neutrino calculations requires CHOOZ to get a clean constraint; 5.) the linear in {theta}{sub 13} terms are not negligible; and 6.) the minimum value of {theta}{sub 13} is found to be negative, but at a statistically insignificant level.

  5. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gero, Jonathan; Ermold, Brian; Gaustad, Krista; Koontz, Annette; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth’s atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols. The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3–19.2 μm (520–3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3–25.0 μm (400–3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using ARM Mobile

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Future Directions of the ARM Science Program (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility fixed and mobile sites ...

  8. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    "atmospheric radiation measurement" Find + Advanced Search Advanced Search All Fields: "atmospheric radiation measurement" Title: Full Text: Bibliographic Data: Creator ...

  9. Discrete physics: Practice, representation and rules of correspondence

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Noyes, H.P.

    1988-07-01

    We make a brief historical review of some aspects of modern physics which we find most significant in our own endeavor. We discuss the ''Yukawa Vertices'' of elementary particle theory as used in laboratory practice, second quantized field theory, analytic S-Matrix theory and in our own approach. We review the conserved quantum numbers in the Standard Model of quarks and leptons. This concludes our presentation of the ''E-frame.'' We try to develop a self-consistent representation of our theory. We have already claimed that this approach provides a discrete reconciliation between the formal (representational) aspects of quantum mechanics and relativity. Also discussed are rules of correspondence connecting the formalism to the practice of physics by using the counter paradigm and event-based coordinates to construct relativistic quantum mechanics in a new way. 31 refs., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Breaking discrete symmetries in the effective field theory of inflation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cannone, Dario; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2015-08-03

    We study the phenomenon of discrete symmetry breaking during the inflationary epoch, using a model-independent approach based on the effective field theory of inflation. We work in a context where both time reparameterization symmetry and spatial diffeomorphism invariance can be broken during inflation. We determine the leading derivative operators in the quadratic action for fluctuations that break parity and time-reversal. Within suitable approximations, we study their consequences for the dynamics of linearized fluctuations. Both in the scalar and tensor sectors, we show that such operators can lead to new direction-dependent phases for the modes involved. They do not affect the power spectra, but can have consequences for higher correlation functions. Moreover, a small quadrupole contribution to the sound speed can be generated.

  11. Bright discrete solitons in spatially modulated DNLS systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Horne, R. L.; Whitaker, N.; Hoq, Q. E.; Kip, D.

    2015-08-04

    In the present work, we revisit the highly active research area of inhomogeneously nonlinear defocusing media and consider the existence, spectral stability and nonlinear dynamics of bright solitary waves in them. We use the anti-continuum limit of vanishing coupling as the starting point of our analysis, enabling in this way a systematic characterization of the branches of solutions. Our stability findings and bifurcation characteristics reveal the enhanced robustness and wider existence intervals of solutions with a broader support, culminating in the 'extended' solution in which all sites are excited. Our eigenvalue predictions are corroborated by numerical linear stability analysis. In conclusion, the dynamics also reveal a tendency of the solution profiles to broaden, in line with the above findings. These results pave the way for further explorations of such states in discrete systems, including in higher dimensional settings.

  12. 3D imaging of semiconductor components by discrete laminography

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Batenburg, K. J.; Palenstijn, W. J.; Sijbers, J.

    2014-06-19

    X-ray laminography is a powerful technique for quality control of semiconductor components. Despite the advantages of nondestructive 3D imaging over 2D techniques based on sectioning, the acquisition time is still a major obstacle for practical use of the technique. In this paper, we consider the application of Discrete Tomography to laminography data, which can potentially reduce the scanning time while still maintaining a high reconstruction quality. By incorporating prior knowledge in the reconstruction algorithm about the materials present in the scanned object, far more accurate reconstructions can be obtained from the same measured data compared to classical reconstruction methods. We present a series of simulation experiments that illustrate the potential of the approach.

  13. Origin of coherent structures in a discrete chaotic medium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rabinovich, M.I.; Torres, J.J.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R.; Varona, P.; Huerta, R.; Weidman, P.

    1999-08-01

    Using as an example a large lattice of locally interacting Hindmarsh-Rose chaotic neurons, we disclose the origin of ordered structures in a discrete nonequilibrium medium with fast and slow chaotic oscillations. The origin of the ordering mechanism is related to the appearance of a periodic average dynamics in the group of chaotic neurons whose individual slow activity is significantly synchronized by the group mean field. Introducing the concept of a {open_quotes}coarse grain{close_quotes} as a cluster of neuron elements with periodic averaged behavior allows consideration of the dynamics of a medium composed of these clusters. A study of this medium reveals spatially ordered patterns in the periodic and slow dynamics of the coarse grains that are controlled by the average intensity of the fast chaotic pulsation. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  14. Bright discrete solitons in spatially modulated DNLS systems

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Horne, R. L.; Whitaker, N.; Hoq, Q. E.; Kip, D.

    2015-08-04

    In the present work, we revisit the highly active research area of inhomogeneously nonlinear defocusing media and consider the existence, spectral stability and nonlinear dynamics of bright solitary waves in them. We use the anti-continuum limit of vanishing coupling as the starting point of our analysis, enabling in this way a systematic characterization of the branches of solutions. Our stability findings and bifurcation characteristics reveal the enhanced robustness and wider existence intervals of solutions with a broader support, culminating in the 'extended' solution in which all sites are excited. Our eigenvalue predictions are corroborated by numerical linear stability analysis. Inmore » conclusion, the dynamics also reveal a tendency of the solution profiles to broaden, in line with the above findings. These results pave the way for further explorations of such states in discrete systems, including in higher dimensional settings.« less

  15. Development and Application of Compatible Discretizations of Maxwell's Equations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    White, D; Koning, J; Rieben, R

    2005-05-27

    We present the development and application of compatible finite element discretizations of electromagnetics problems derived from the time dependent, full wave Maxwell equations. We review the H(curl)-conforming finite element method, using the concepts and notations of differential forms as a theoretical framework. We chose this approach because it can handle complex geometries, it is free of spurious modes, it is numerically stable without the need for filtering or artificial diffusion, it correctly models the discontinuity of fields across material boundaries, and it can be very high order. Higher-order H(curl) and H(div) conforming basis functions are not unique and we have designed an extensible C++ framework that supports a variety of specific instantiations of these such as standard interpolatory bases, spectral bases, hierarchical bases, and semi-orthogonal bases. Virtually any electromagnetics problem that can be cast in the language of differential forms can be solved using our framework. For time dependent problems a method-of-lines scheme is used where the Galerkin method reduces the PDE to a semi-discrete system of ODE's, which are then integrated in time using finite difference methods. For time integration of wave equations we employ the unconditionally stable implicit Newmark-Beta method, as well as the high order energy conserving explicit Maxwell Symplectic method; for diffusion equations, we employ a generalized Crank-Nicholson method. We conclude with computational examples from resonant cavity problems, time-dependent wave propagation problems, and transient eddy current problems, all obtained using the authors massively parallel computational electromagnetics code EMSolve.

  16. ORISE: Climate and Atmospheric Research

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oak Ridge Institute for Science Education Climate and Atmospheric Research Conducting climate research focused on issues of national and global importance is one of the primary objectives of the Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Division (ATDD)-a field division of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. ORAU partners with ATDD-and in collaboration with scientists and engineers from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) as well as government agencies, universities, and private

  17. NETL SOFC: Atmospheric Pressure Systems

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Pressure Systems ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURE SYSTEMS (INDUSTRY TEAMS)-This key technology focuses on the design, scaleup, and integration of the SOFC technology, ultimately resulting in atmospheric-pressure modules suitable to serve as the building blocks for distributed-generation, commercial, and utility-scale power systems. Activities include fabrication, testing, post-test analysis of cells; integrating cells into stacks; and the development and validation testing of progressively

  18. ARM - Sources of Atmospheric Carbon

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Outreach Home Room News Publications Traditional Knowledge Kiosks Barrow, Alaska Tropical Western Pacific Site Tours Contacts Students Study Hall About ARM Global Warming FAQ Just for Fun Meet our Friends Cool Sites Teachers Teachers' Toolbox Lesson Plans Sources of Atmospheric Carbon Atmospheric carbon represented a steady state system, where influx equaled outflow, before the Industrial Revolution. Currently, it is no longer a steady state system because the

  19. Optimizing parameters for predicting the geochemical behavior and performance of discrete fracture networks in geothermal systems

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Optimizing parameters for predicting the geochemical behavior and performance of discrete fracture networks in geothermal systems presentation at the April 2013 peer review meeting held in Denver, Colorado.

  20. Discrete magic angle turning system, apparatus, and process for in situ magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Sears, Jr., Jesse A.; Hoyt, David W.; Wind, Robert A.

    2009-05-19

    Described are a "Discrete Magic Angle Turning" (DMAT) system, devices, and processes that combine advantages of both magic angle turning (MAT) and magic angle hopping (MAH) suitable, e.g., for in situ magnetic resonance spectroscopy and/or imaging. In an exemplary system, device, and process, samples are rotated in a clockwise direction followed by an anticlockwise direction of exactly the same amount. Rotation proceeds through an angle that is typically greater than about 240 degrees but less than or equal to about 360 degrees at constant speed for a time applicable to the evolution dimension. Back and forth rotation can be synchronized and repeated with a special radio frequency (RF) pulse sequence to produce an isotropic-anisotropic shift 2D correlation spectrum. The design permits tubes to be inserted into the sample container without introducing plumbing interferences, further allowing control over such conditions as temperature, pressure, flow conditions, and feed compositions, thus permitting true in-situ investigations to be carried out.

  1. Polyport atmospheric gas sampler

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guggenheim, S. Frederic

    1995-01-01

    An atmospheric gas sampler with a multi-port valve which allows for multi, sequential sampling of air through a plurality of gas sampling tubes mounted in corresponding gas inlet ports. The gas sampler comprises a flow-through housing which defines a sampling chamber and includes a gas outlet port to accommodate a flow of gases through the housing. An apertured sample support plate defining the inlet ports extends across and encloses the sampling chamber and supports gas sampling tubes which depend into the sampling chamber and are secured across each of the inlet ports of the sample support plate in a flow-through relation to the flow of gases through the housing during sampling operations. A normally closed stopper means mounted on the sample support plate and operatively associated with each of the inlet ports blocks the flow of gases through the respective gas sampling tubes. A camming mechanism mounted on the sample support plate is adapted to rotate under and selectively lift open the stopper spring to accommodate a predetermined flow of gas through the respective gas sampling tubes when air is drawn from the housing through the outlet port.

  2. Discrete Modeling of Early-Life Thermal Fracture in Ceramic Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spencer, Benjamin W.; Huang, Hai; Dolbow, John E.; Hales, Jason D.

    2015-03-01

    Fracturing of ceramic fuel pellets heavily influences performance of light water reactor (LWR) fuel. Early in the life of fuel, starting with the initial power ramp, large thermal gradients cause high tensile hoop and axial stresses in the outer region of the fuel pellets, resulting in the formation of radial and axial cracks. Circumferential cracks form due to thermal gradients that occur when the power is ramped down. These thermal cracks cause the fuel to expand radially, closing the pellet/cladding gap and enhancing the thermal conductance across that gap, while decreasing the effective conductivity of the fuel in directions normal to the cracking. At lower length scales, formation of microcracks is an important contributor to the decrease in bulk thermal conductivity that occurs over the life of the fuel as the burnup increases. Because of the important effects that fracture has on fuel performance, a realistic, physically based fracture modeling capability is essential to predict fuel behavior in a wide variety of normal and abnormal conditions. Modeling fracture within the context of the finite element method, which is based on continuous interpolations of solution variables, has always been challenging because fracture is an inherently discontinuous phenomenon. Work is underway at Idaho National Laboratory to apply two modeling techniques model fracture as a discrete displacement discontinuity to nuclear fuel: The extended finite element method (XFEM), and discrete element method (DEM). XFEM is based on the standard finite element method, but with enhancements to represent discontinuous behavior. DEM represents a solid as a network of particles connected by bonds, which can arbitrarily fail if a fracture criterion is reached. This paper presents initial results applying the aforementioned techniques to model fuel fracturing. This work has initially focused on early life behavior of ceramic LWR fuel. A coupled thermal-mechanical XFEM method that includes discontinuities in both temperature and displacement fields at crack locations has been developed and is being applied to thermal fracture of LWR fuel. A DEM model of coupled heat conduction and solid mechanics has been developed and used to simulate random initiation and propagation of thermally driven cracks during initial power cycles. This DEM model predicts the formation of realistic radial cracking patterns during power rise and circumferential cracks as power is ramped down. These initial results are very encouraging, and these techniques are expected to provide improved understanding of fuel behavior in a wide variety of conditions.

  3. Nonlinear symmetric stability of planetary atmospheres

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bowman, J.C.; Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-11-01

    The energy-Casimir method is applied to the problem of symmetric stability in the context of a compressible, hydrostatic planetary atmosphere with a general equation of state. Linear stability criteria for symmetric disturbances to a zonally symmetric baroclinic flow are obtained. In the special case of a perfect gas the results of Stevens (1983) are recovered. Nonlinear stability conditions are also obtained that, in addition to implying linear stability, provide an upper bound on a certain positive-definite measure of disturbance amplitude.

  4. Discrete Mathematical Approaches to Graph-Based Traffic Analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Joslyn, Cliff A.; Cowley, Wendy E.; Hogan, Emilie A.; Olsen, Bryan K.

    2014-04-01

    Modern cyber defense and anlaytics requires general, formal models of cyber systems. Multi-scale network models are prime candidates for such formalisms, using discrete mathematical methods based in hierarchically-structured directed multigraphs which also include rich sets of labels. An exemplar of an application of such an approach is traffic analysis, that is, observing and analyzing connections between clients, servers, hosts, and actors within IP networks, over time, to identify characteristic or suspicious patterns. Towards that end, NetFlow (or more generically, IPFLOW) data are available from routers and servers which summarize coherent groups of IP packets flowing through the network. In this paper, we consider traffic analysis of Netflow using both basic graph statistics and two new mathematical measures involving labeled degree distributions and time interval overlap measures. We do all of this over the VAST test data set of 96M synthetic Netflow graph edges, against which we can identify characteristic patterns of simulated ground-truth network attacks.

  5. Thermal Neutron Detectors with Discrete Anode Pad Readout

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu,B.; Schaknowski, N.A., Smith, G.C., DeGeronimo, G., Vernon, E.O.

    2008-10-19

    A new two-dimensional thermal neutron detector concept that is capable of very high rates is being developed. It is based on neutron conversion in {sup 3}He in an ionization chamber (unity gas gain) that uses only a cathode and anode plane; there is no additional electrode such as a Frisch grid. The cathode is simply the entrance window, and the anode plane is composed of discrete pads, each with their own readout electronics implemented via application specific integrated circuits. The aim is to provide a new generation of detectors with key characteristics that are superior to existing techniques, such as higher count rate capability, better stability, lower sensitivity to background radiation, and more flexible geometries. Such capabilities will improve the performance of neutron scattering instruments at major neutron user facilities. In this paper, we report on progress with the development of a prototype device that has 48 x 48 anode pads and a sensitive area of 24cm x 24cm.

  6. Enhancing Complex System Performance Using Discrete-Event Simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allgood, Glenn O; Olama, Mohammed M; Lake, Joe E

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we utilize discrete-event simulation (DES) merged with human factors analysis to provide the venue within which the separation and deconfliction of the system/human operating principles can occur. A concrete example is presented to illustrate the performance enhancement gains for an aviation cargo flow and security inspection system achieved through the development and use of a process DES. The overall performance of the system is computed, analyzed, and optimized for the different system dynamics. Various performance measures are considered such as system capacity, residual capacity, and total number of pallets waiting for inspection in the queue. These metrics are performance indicators of the system's ability to service current needs and respond to additional requests. We studied and analyzed different scenarios by changing various model parameters such as the number of pieces per pallet ratio, number of inspectors and cargo handling personnel, number of forklifts, number and types of detection systems, inspection modality distribution, alarm rate, and cargo closeout time. The increased physical understanding resulting from execution of the queuing model utilizing these vetted performance measures identified effective ways to meet inspection requirements while maintaining or reducing overall operational cost and eliminating any shipping delays associated with any proposed changes in inspection requirements. With this understanding effective operational strategies can be developed to optimally use personnel while still maintaining plant efficiency, reducing process interruptions, and holding or reducing costs.

  7. Entrainment of coarse grains using a discrete particle model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valyrakis, Manousos; Arnold, Roger B. Jr.

    2014-10-06

    Conventional bedload transport models and incipient motion theories relying on a time-averaged boundary shear stress are incapable of accounting for the effects of fluctuating near-bed velocity in turbulent flow and are therefore prone to significant errors. Impulse, the product of an instantaneous force magnitude and its duration, has been recently proposed as an appropriate criterion for quantifying the effects of flow turbulence in removing coarse grains from the bed surface. Here, a discrete particle model (DPM) is used to examine the effects of impulse, representing a single idealized turbulent event, on particle entrainment. The results are classified according to the degree of grain movement into the following categories: motion prior to entrainment, initial dislodgement, and energetic displacement. The results indicate that in all three cases the degree of particle motion depends on both the force magnitude and the duration of its application and suggest that the effects of turbulence must be adequately accounted for in order to develop a more accurate method of determining incipient motion. DPM is capable of simulating the dynamics of grain entrainment and is an appropriate tool for further study of the fundamental mechanisms of sediment transport.

  8. Phase retrieval with the transport-of-intensity equation in an arbitrarily-shaped aperture by iterative discrete cosine transforms

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Huang, Lei; Zuo, Chao; Idir, Mourad; Qu, Weijuan; Asundi, Anand

    2015-04-21

    A novel transport-of-intensity equation (TIE) based phase retrieval method is proposed with putting an arbitrarily-shaped aperture into the optical wavefield. In this arbitrarily-shaped aperture, the TIE can be solved under non-uniform illuminations and even non-homogeneous boundary conditions by iterative discrete cosine transforms with a phase compensation mechanism. Simulation with arbitrary phase, arbitrary aperture shape, and non-uniform intensity distribution verifies the effective compensation and high accuracy of the proposed method. Experiment is also carried out to check the feasibility of the proposed method in real measurement. Comparing to the existing methods, the proposed method is applicable for any types of phasemore » distribution under non-uniform illumination and non-homogeneous boundary conditions within an arbitrarily-shaped aperture, which enables the technique of TIE with hard aperture become a more flexible phase retrieval tool in practical measurements.« less

  9. The characteristics of local atmospheric circulation around the Wolsung NPP in Korea

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, G.B.; Lee, M.C.; Song, Y.I.

    1998-12-31

    The transport of air pollutants in coastal regions has been known to be strongly affected by the mesoscale atmospheric circulations such as sea-land breezes. These mesoscale atmospheric circulations depend on synoptic weather conditions. In this study, a three-dimensional sea-land breeze model was developed to evaluate the effects of the sea and land breezes on the atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials released from nuclear power plants in Korea. In the model, the hydrostatic primitive equations in the terrain-following coordinate system were used. The mesoscale atmospheric circulation simulation were carried out under various synoptic weather conditions for all seasons around the Wolsung nuclear power plant site.

  10. Fish Passage though Hydropower Turbines: Simulating Blade Strike using the Discrete Element Method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ

    2014-12-08

    mong the hazardous hydraulic conditions affecting anadromous and resident fish during their passage though turbine flows, two are believed to cause considerable injury and mortality: collision on moving blades and decompression. Several methods are currently available to evaluate these stressors in installed turbines, i.e. using live fish or autonomous sensor devices, and in reduced-scale physical models, i.e. registering collisions from plastic beads. However, a priori estimates with computational modeling approaches applied early in the process of turbine design can facilitate the development of fish-friendly turbines. In the present study, we evaluated the frequency of blade strike and nadir pressure environment by modeling potential fish trajectories with the Discrete Element Method (DEM) applied to fish-like composite particles. In the DEM approach, particles are subjected to realistic hydraulic conditions simulated with computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and particle-structure interactions—representing fish collisions with turbine blades—are explicitly recorded and accounted for in the calculation of particle trajectories. We conducted transient CFD simulations by setting the runner in motion and allowing for better turbulence resolution, a modeling improvement over the conventional practice of simulating the system in steady state which was also done here. While both schemes yielded comparable bulk hydraulic performance, transient conditions exhibited a visual improvement in describing flow variability. We released streamtraces (steady flow solution) and DEM particles (transient solution) at the same location from where sensor fish (SF) have been released in field studies of the modeled turbine unit. The streamtrace-based results showed a better agreement with SF data than the DEM-based nadir pressures did because the former accounted for the turbulent dispersion at the intake but the latter did not. However, the DEM-based strike frequency is more representative of blade-strike probability than the steady solution is, mainly because DEM particles accounted for the full fish length, thus resolving (instead of modeling) the collision event.

  11. Atmospheric science and power production

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Randerson, D.

    1984-07-01

    This is the third in a series of scientific publications sponsored by the US Atomic Energy Commission and the two later organizations, the US Energy Research and Development Adminstration, and the US Department of Energy. The first book, Meteorology and Atomic Energy, was published in 1955; the second, in 1968. The present volume is designed to update and to expand upon many of the important concepts presented previously. However, the present edition draws heavily on recent contributions made by atmospheric science to the analysis of air quality and on results originating from research conducted and completed in the 1970s. Special emphasis is placed on how atmospheric science can contribute to solving problems relating to the fate of combustion products released into the atmosphere. The framework of this book is built around the concept of air-quality modeling. Fundamentals are addressed first to equip the reader with basic background information and to focus on available meteorological instrumentation and to emphasize the importance of data management procedures. Atmospheric physics and field experiments are described in detail to provide an overview of atmospheric boundary layer processes, of how air flows around obstacles, and of the mechanism of plume rise. Atmospheric chemistry and removal processes are also detailed to provide fundamental knowledge on how gases and particulate matter can be transformed while in the atmosphere and how they can be removed from the atmosphere. The book closes with a review of how air-quality models are being applied to solve a wide variety of problems. Separate analytics have been prepared for each chapter.

  12. First collision source method for coupling Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates for localized source problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Alcouffe, R.E.

    1985-01-01

    A difficult class of problems for the discrete-ordinates neutral particle transport method is to accurately compute the flux due to a spatially localized source. Because the transport equation is solved for discrete directions, the so-called ray effect causes the flux at space points far from the source to be inaccurate. Thus, in general, discrete ordinates would not be the method of choice to solve such problems. It is better suited for calculating problems with significant scattering. The Monte Carlo method is suited to localized source problems, particularly if the amount of collisional interactions in minimal. However, if there are many scattering collisions and the flux at all space points is desired, then the Monte Carlo method becomes expensive. To take advantage of the attributes of both approaches, we have devised a first collision source method to combine the Monte Carlo and discrete-ordinates solutions. That is, particles are tracked from the source to their first scattering collision and tallied to produce a source for the discrete-ordinates calculation. A scattered flux is then computed by discrete ordinates, and the total flux is the sum of the Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates calculated fluxes. In this paper, we present calculational results using the MCNP and TWODANT codes for selected two-dimensional problems that show the effectiveness of this method.

  13. Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lacey, Ph.D, P.E., Ronald E.

    2012-07-16

    Discrete Event Modeling of Algae Cultivation and Harvesting at Commercial Scale: Capital Costs, Operating Costs, and System Bottlenecks

  14. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion...

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    6-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... DOESC-ARM-16-001 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility and Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science and Infrastructure Steering Committee CHARTER June 2012 DISCLAIMER ...

  17. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    9 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report ... DOESC-ARM-15-069 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations ...

  18. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric ...

  19. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) | Open...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Jump to: navigation, search Logo: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Name: National Oceanic and...

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ackerman, T

    2004-10-31

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM's Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

  1. Quantization of systems with temporally varying discretization. II. Local evolution moves

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Höhn, Philipp A.

    2014-10-15

    Several quantum gravity approaches and field theory on an evolving lattice involve a discretization changing dynamics generated by evolution moves. Local evolution moves in variational discrete systems (1) are a generalization of the Pachner evolution moves of simplicial gravity models, (2) update only a small subset of the dynamical data, (3) change the number of kinematical and physical degrees of freedom, and (4) generate a dynamical (or canonical) coarse graining or refining of the underlying discretization. To systematically explore such local moves and their implications in the quantum theory, this article suitably expands the quantum formalism for global evolution moves, constructed in Paper I [P. A. Höhn, “Quantization of systems with temporally varying discretization. I. Evolving Hilbert spaces,” J. Math. Phys. 55, 083508 (2014); e-print http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1401.6062 [gr-qc

  2. (Small) Resonant non-Gaussianities: Signatures of a Discrete Shift Symmetry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect (Small) Resonant non-Gaussianities: Signatures of a Discrete Shift Symmetry in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: (Small) Resonant non-Gaussianities: Signatures of a Discrete Shift Symmetry in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation We apply the Effective Field Theory of Inflation to study the case where the continuous shift symmetry of the Goldstone boson {pi} is

  3. (Small) Resonant non-Gaussianities: Signatures of a Discrete Shift Symmetry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Journal Article: (Small) Resonant non-Gaussianities: Signatures of a Discrete Shift Symmetry in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: (Small) Resonant non-Gaussianities: Signatures of a Discrete Shift Symmetry in the Effective Field Theory of Inflation We apply the Effective Field Theory of Inflation to study the case where the continuous shift symmetry of the Goldstone

  4. (Small) resonant non-gaussianities: signatures of a discrete shift symmetry

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    in the effective field theory of inflation (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect (Small) resonant non-gaussianities: signatures of a discrete shift symmetry in the effective field theory of inflation Citation Details In-Document Search Title: (Small) resonant non-gaussianities: signatures of a discrete shift symmetry in the effective field theory of inflation We apply the Effective Field Theory of Inflation to study the case where the continuous shift symmetry of the Goldstone boson π is

  5. Quantization of systems with temporally varying discretization. I. Evolving Hilbert spaces

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Höhn, Philipp A.

    2014-08-15

    A temporally varying discretization often features in discrete gravitational systems and appears in lattice field theory models subject to a coarse graining or refining dynamics. To better understand such discretization changing dynamics in the quantum theory, an according formalism for constrained variational discrete systems is constructed. While this paper focuses on global evolution moves and, for simplicity, restricts to flat configuration spaces R{sup N}, a Paper II [P. A. Höhn, “Quantization of systems with temporally varying discretization. II. Local evolution moves,” J. Math. Phys., e-print http://arxiv.org/abs/arXiv:1401.7731 [gr-qc].] discusses local evolution moves. In order to link the covariant and canonical picture, the dynamics of the quantum states is generated by propagators which satisfy the canonical constraints and are constructed using the action and group averaging projectors. This projector formalism offers a systematic method for tracing and regularizing divergences in the resulting state sums. Non-trivial coarse graining evolution moves lead to non-unitary, and thus irreversible, projections of physical Hilbert spaces and Dirac observables such that these concepts become evolution move dependent on temporally varying discretizations. The formalism is illustrated in a toy model mimicking a “creation from nothing.” Subtleties arising when applying such a formalism to quantum gravity models are discussed.

  6. The Discrete Equation Method (DEM) for Fully Compressible, Two-Phase Flows in Ducts of Spatially Varying Cross-Section

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    R. A. Berry; R. Saurel; O. LeMetayer

    2010-11-01

    For the simulation of light water nuclear reactor coolant flows, general two-phase models (valid for all volume fractions) have been generally used which, while allowing for velocity disequilibrium, normally force pressure equilibrium between the phases (see, for example, the numerous models of this type described in H. Städtke, Gasdynamic Aspects of Two-Phase Flow, Wiley-VCH, 2006). These equations are not hyperbolic, their physical wave dynamics are incorrect, and their solution algorithms rely on dubious truncation error induced artificial viscosity to render them numerically well posed over a portion of the computational spectrum. The inherent problems of the traditional approach to multiphase modeling, which begins with an averaged system of (ill-posed) partial differential equations (PDEs) which are then discretized to form a numerical scheme, are avoided by employing a new homogenization method known as the Discrete Equation Method (DEM) (R. Abgrall and R. Saurel, Discrete Equations for Physical and Numerical Compressible Multiphase Mixtures, J. Comp. Phys. 186, 361-396, 2003). This method results in well-posed hyperbolic systems, this property being important for transient flows. This also allows a clear treatment of non-conservative terms (terms involving interfacial variables and volume fraction gradients) permitting the solution of interface problems without conservation errors, this feature being important for the direct numerical simulation of two-phase flows. Unlike conventional methods, the averaged system of PDEs for the mixture are not used, and the DEM method directly obtains a well-posed discrete equation system from the single-phase conservation laws, producing a numerical scheme which accurately computes fluxes for arbitrary number of phases and solves non-conservative products. The method effectively uses a sequence of single phase Riemann problem solutions. Phase interactions are accounted for by Riemann solvers at each interface. Non-conservative terms are correctly approximated. Some of the closure relations missing from the traditional approach are automatically obtained. Lastly, the continuous equation system resulting from the discrete equations can be identified by taking the continuous limit with weak-wave assumptions. In this work, this approach is tested by constructing a DEM model for the flow of two compressible phases in 1-D ducts of spatially varying cross-section with explicit time integration. An analytical equation of state is included for both water vapor and liquid phases, and a realistic interphase mass transfer model is developed based on interphase heat transfer. A robust compliment of boundary conditions are developed and discussed. Though originally conceived as a first step toward implict time integration of the DEM method (to relieve time step size restrictions due to stiffness and to achieve tighter coupling of equations) in multidimensions, this model offers some unique capabilities for incorporation into next generation light water reactor safety analysis codes. We demonstrate, on a converging-diverging two-phase nozzle, that this well-posed, 2-pressure, 2-velocity DEM model can be integrated to a realistic and meaningful steady-state with both phases treated as compressible.

  7. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J. D.; Eller, A. S.D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; et al

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functionsmore » of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.« less

  8. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-04-14

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  9. Atmospheric benzenoid emissions from plants rival those from fossil fuels

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Misztal, P. K.; Hewitt, C. N.; Wildt, J.; Blande, J. D.; Eller, A. S.D.; Fares, S.; Gentner, D. R.; Gilman, J. B.; Graus, M.; Greenberg, J.; Guenther, A. B.; Hansel, A.; Harley, P.; Huang, M.; Jardine, K.; Karl, T.; Kaser, L.; Keutsch, F. N.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Lerner, B. M.; Li, T.; Mak, J.; Nölscher, A. C.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Sinha, V.; Thornton, B.; Warneke, C.; Wegener, F.; Werner, C.; Williams, J.; Worton, D. R.; Yassaa, N.; Goldstein, A. H.

    2015-07-13

    Despite the known biochemical production of a range of aromatic compounds by plants and the presence of benzenoids in floral scents, the emissions of only a few benzenoid compounds have been reported from the biosphere to the atmosphere. Here, using evidence from measurements at aircraft, ecosystem, tree, branch and leaf scales, with complementary isotopic labeling experiments, we show that vegetation (leaves, flowers, and phytoplankton) emits a wide variety of benzenoid compounds to the atmosphere at substantial rates. Controlled environment experiments show that plants are able to alter their metabolism to produce and release many benzenoids under stress conditions. The functions of these compounds remain unclear but may be related to chemical communication and protection against stress. We estimate the total global secondary organic aerosol potential from biogenic benzenoids to be similar to that from anthropogenic benzenoids (~10 Tg y-1), pointing to the importance of these natural emissions in atmospheric physics and chemistry.

  10. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; et al

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineralmore » cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.« less

  11. An active atmospheric methane sink in high Arctic mineral cryosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lau, Maggie C.Y.; Stackhouse, B.; Layton, Alice C.; Chauhan, Archana; Vishnivetskaya, T. A.; Chourey, Karuna; Mykytczuk, N. C.S.; Bennett, Phil C.; Lamarche-Gagnon, G.; Burton, N.; Renholm, J.; Hettich, R. L.; Pollard, W. H.; Omelon, C. R.; Medvigy, David M.; Pffifner, Susan M.; Whyte, L. G.; Onstott, T. C.

    2015-01-01

    The transition of Arctic carbon-rich cryosols into methane (CH₄)-emitting wetlands due to global warming is a rising concern. However, the spatially predominant mineral cryosols and their CH₄ emission potential are poorly understood. Fluxes measured in situ and estimated under laboratory conditions coupled with -omics analysis indicate (1) mineral cryosols in the Canadian high Arctic contain atmospheric CH₄-oxidizing bacteria; (2) the atmospheric CH⁺ uptake flux increases with ground temperature; and, as a result, (3) the atmospheric CH₄ sink strength will increase by a factor of 5-30 as the Arctic warms by 5-15 °C over a century. We demonstrated that acidic mineral cryosols have previously unrecognized potential of negative CH₄ feedback.

  12. Atmospheric dispersion modeling: Challenges of the Fukushima Daiichi response

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sugiyama, Gayle; Nasstrom, John; Pobanz, Brenda; Foster, Kevin; Simpson, Matthew; Vogt, Phil; Aluzzi, Fernando; Homann, Steve

    2012-05-01

    In this research, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) provided a wide range of predictions and analyses as part of the response to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident including: daily Japanese weather forecasts and atmospheric transport predictions to inform planning for field monitoring operations and to provide U.S. government agencies with ongoing situational awareness of meteorological conditions; estimates of possible dose in Japan based on hypothetical U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission scenarios of potential radionuclide releases to support protective action planning for U.S. citizens; predictions of possible plume arrival times and dose levels at U.S. locations; and source estimation and plume model refinement based on atmospheric dispersion modeling and available monitoring data.

  13. Multiple dynamical resonances in a discrete neuronal model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jiang Yu

    2005-05-01

    The conditions for the occurrence of different multiple resonances in an excitable neuron model are analyzed numerically. It is shown that the excitable system may display both stochastic and coherence resonance, in response to periodic stimuli in the presence of different intensities of additive and parametric noises. It is found that double coherence resonances may take place in the low-amplitude oscillation regimes, and coherence resonance may persists even in the weak oscillatory regimes for control parameters slightly larger than the Hopf bifurcation point, where the system is in the incipient stage of large-amplitude excitation regime.

  14. ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION OF BROWN DWARFS: JETS, VORTICES, AND TIME VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Xi; Showman, Adam P.

    2014-06-10

    A variety of observational evidence demonstrates that brown dwarfs exhibit active atmospheric circulations. In this study we use a shallow-water model to investigate the global atmospheric dynamics in the stratified layer overlying the convective zone on these rapidly rotating objects. We show that the existence and properties of the atmospheric circulation crucially depend on key parameters including the energy injection rate and radiative timescale. Under conditions of strong internal heat flux and weak radiative dissipation, a banded flow pattern comprised of east-west jet streams spontaneously emerges from the interaction of atmospheric turbulence with the planetary rotation. In contrast, when the internal heat flux is weak and/or radiative dissipation is strong, turbulence injected into the atmosphere damps before it can self-organize into jets, leading to a flow dominated by transient eddies and isotropic turbulence instead. The simulation results are not very sensitive to the form of the forcing. Based on the location of the transition between jet-dominated and eddy-dominated regimes, we suggest that many brown dwarfs may exhibit atmospheric circulations dominated by eddies and turbulence (rather than jets) due to the strong radiative damping on these worlds, but a jet structure is also possible under some realistic conditions. Our simulated light curves capture important features from observed infrared light curves of brown dwarfs, including amplitude variations of a few percent and shapes that fluctuate between single-peak and multi-peak structures. More broadly, our work shows that the shallow-water system provides a useful tool to illuminate fundamental aspects of the dynamics on these worlds.

  15. Atmospheric Chemistry and Air Pollution

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Gaffney, Jeffrey S.; Marley, Nancy A.

    2003-01-01

    Atmospheric chemistry is an important discipline for understanding air pollution and its impacts. This mini-review gives a brief history of air pollution and presents an overview of some of the basic photochemistry involved in the production of ozone and other oxidants in the atmosphere. Urban air quality issues are reviewed with a specific focus on ozone and other oxidants, primary and secondary aerosols, alternative fuels, and the potential for chlorine releases to amplify oxidant chemistry in industrial areas. Regional air pollution issues such as acid rain, long-range transport of aerosols and visibility loss, and the connections of aerosols to ozonemore » and peroxyacetyl nitrate chemistry are examined. Finally, the potential impacts of air pollutants on the global-scale radiative balances of gases and aerosols are discussed briefly.« less

  16. Light extinction in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Laulainen, N.

    1992-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles originating from natural sources, such as volcanos and sulfur-bearing gas emissions from the oceans, and from human sources, such as sulfur emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, strongly affect visual air quality and are suspected to significantly affect radiative climate forcing of the planet. During the daytime, aerosols obscure scenic vistas, while at night they diminish our ability to observe stellar objects. Scattering of light is the main means by which aerosols attenuate and redistribute light in the atmosphere and by which aerosols can alter and reduce visibility and potentially modify the energy balance of the planet. Trends and seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol loading, such as column-integrated light extinction or optical depth, and how they may affect potential climate change have been difficult to quantify because there have been few observations made of important aerosol optical parameters, such as optical depth, over the globe and over time and often these are of uneven quality. To address questions related to possible climate change, there is a pressing need to acquire more high-quality aerosol optical depth data. Extensive deployment of improved solar radiometers over the next few years will provide higher-quality extinction data over a wider variety of locations worldwide. An often overlooked source of turbidity data, however, is available from astronomical observations, particularly stellar photoelectric photometry observations. With the exception of the Project ASTRA articles published almost 20 years ago, few of these data ever appear in the published literature. This paper will review the current status of atmospheric extinction observations, as highlighted by the ASTRA work and augmented by more recent solar radiometry measurements.

  17. Two-phase flow modeling with discrete particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mortensen, G.A.; Trapp, J.A. |

    1992-03-23

    The design of efficient heat exchangers in which the working fluid changes phase requires accurate modeling of two-phase fluid flow. The local Navier-Stokes equations form the basic continuum equations for this flow situation. However, the local instantaneous model using these equations is intractable for afl but the simplest problems. AH the practical models for two-phase flow analysis are based on equations that have been averaged over control volumes. These models average out the detailed description within the control volumes and rely on flow regime maps to determine the distribution of the two phases within a control volume. Flow regime maps depend on steady state models and probably are not correct for dynamic models. Numerical simulations of the averaged two-phase flow models are usually performed using a two-fluid Eulerian description for the two phases. Eulerian descriptions have the advantage of having simple boundary conditions, but the disadvantage of introducing numerical diffusion, i.e., sharp interfaces are not maintained as the flow develops, but are diffused. Lagrangian descriptions have the advantage of being able to track sharp interfaces without diffusion, but they have the disadvantage of requiring more complicated boundary conditions. This paper describes a numerical scheme and attendant computer program, DISCON2, for the calculation of two-phase flows that does not require the use of flow regime maps. This model is intermediate between the intractable local instantaneous and the averaged two-fluid model. This new model uses a combination of an Eulerian and a Lagrangian representation of the two phases. The dispersed particles (bubbles or drops) are modeled individually using a large representative number of particles, each with their own Lagrangian description. The continuous phases (liquid or gas) use an Eulerian description.

  18. Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.

    1999-01-01

    Atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A .gamma.-mode, resonant-cavity plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two concentric cylindrical electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the annular region therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly shaping the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, no ions survive for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  19. DEFRA Global Atmosphere Dept | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Kingdom Zip: SW1E 6DE Product: Atmosphere research department of the UK Department of Food and Rural Affairs. References: DEFRA - Global Atmosphere Dept.1 This article is a...

  20. Air conditioning system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lowenstein, Andrew; Miller, Jeffrey; Gruendeman, Peter; DaSilva, Michael

    2005-02-01

    An air conditioner comprises a plurality of plates arranged in a successively stacked configuration with portions thereof having a spaced apart arrangement, and defining between successive adjacent pairs of plates at the spaced apart portions a first and second series of discrete alternating passages wherein a first air stream is passed through the first series of passages and a second air stream is passed through the second series of passages; and said stacked configuration of plates forming integrally therewith a liquid delivery means for delivering from a source a sufficient quantity of a liquid to the inside surfaces of the first series of fluid passages in a manner which provides a continuous flow of the liquid from a first end to a second end of the plurality of plates while in contact with the first air stream.

  1. Quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springston, Stephen R.; Lloyd, Judith; Zheng, Jun

    2007-10-23

    A method for the quantitative determination of atmospheric hydroperoxyl radical comprising: (a) contacting a liquid phase atmospheric sample with a chemiluminescent compound which luminesces on contact with hydroperoxyl radical; (b) determining luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample; and (c) comparing said luminescence intensity from the liquid phase atmospheric sample to a standard luminescence intensity for hydroperoxyl radical. An apparatus for automating the method is also included.

  2. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  3. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  4. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  5. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Wednesday, 29 June 2005 00:00 Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the

  6. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  7. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles Print Microscopic aerosol particles in the atmosphere contain carbonaceous components from mineral dust and combustion emissions released from around the world. How long these tiny particles remain in the atmosphere can have a huge impact on the global climate. Measurements based on high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused

  8. A Spatial Discretization Scheme for Solving the Transport Equation on Unstructured Grids of Polyhedra

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thompson, K.G.

    2000-11-01

    In this work, we develop a new spatial discretization scheme that may be used to numerically solve the neutron transport equation. This new discretization extends the family of corner balance spatial discretizations to include spatial grids of arbitrary polyhedra. This scheme enforces balance on subcell volumes called corners. It produces a lower triangular matrix for sweeping, is algebraically linear, is non-negative in a source-free absorber, and produces a robust and accurate solution in thick diffusive regions. Using an asymptotic analysis, we design the scheme so that in thick diffusive regions it will attain the same solution as an accurate polyhedral diffusion discretization. We then refine the approximations in the scheme to reduce numerical diffusion in vacuums, and we attempt to capture a second order truncation error. After we develop this Upstream Corner Balance Linear (UCBL) discretization we analyze its characteristics in several limits. We complete a full diffusion limit analysis showing that we capture the desired diffusion discretization in optically thick and highly scattering media. We review the upstream and linear properties of our discretization and then demonstrate that our scheme captures strictly non-negative solutions in source-free purely absorbing media. We then demonstrate the minimization of numerical diffusion of a beam and then demonstrate that the scheme is, in general, first order accurate. We also note that for slab-like problems our method actually behaves like a second-order method over a range of cell thicknesses that are of practical interest. We also discuss why our scheme is first order accurate for truly 3D problems and suggest changes in the algorithm that should make it a second-order accurate scheme. Finally, we demonstrate 3D UCBL's performance on several very different test problems. We show good performance in diffusive and streaming problems. We analyze truncation error in a 3D problem and demonstrate robustness in a coarsely discretized problem that contains sharp boundary layers. We also examine eigenvalue and fixed source problems with mixed-shape meshes, anisotropic scattering and multi-group cross sections. Finally, we simulate the MOX fuel assembly in the Advance Test Reactor.

  9. Soliton stability and collapse in the discrete nonpolynomial Schroedinger equation with dipole-dipole interactions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gligoric, Goran; Hadzievski, Ljupco; Maluckov, Aleksandra; Malomed, Boris A.

    2009-05-15

    The stability and collapse of fundamental unstaggered bright solitons in the discrete Schroedinger equation with the nonpolynomial on-site nonlinearity, which models a nearly one-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a deep optical lattice, are studied in the presence of the long-range dipole-dipole (DD) interactions. The cases of both attractive and repulsive contact and DD interaction are considered. The results are summarized in the form of stability-collapse diagrams in the parametric space of the model, which demonstrate that the attractive DD interactions stabilize the solitons and help to prevent the collapse. Mobility of the discrete solitons is briefly considered too.

  10. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Omega (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on

  11. INteroperable Tools for Rapid dEveloPment of compatible Discretizations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-12-02

    Intrepid is a library of interoperable tools for compatible discretizations of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs).Current version is intended primarily for application developers who want to reuse large parts of their existing code frameworks such as I/O, data structures, assembly routines, etc. while gaining access to advanced discretization capabilities provided by Intrepid. Intrepid2 is a performance portable version of Intrepid, that requires all input data types be Kokkos (performance-portability library from Trillions) multidimentional arrays. this restriction is needed for providing performance portability in Intrepid2 and break backward-compatibility of Intrepid.

  12. INteroperable Tools for Rapid dEveloPment of compatible Discretizations

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2015-12-02

    Intrepid is a library of interoperable tools for compatible discretizations of Partial Differential Equations (PDEs).Current version is intended primarily for application developers who want to reuse large parts of their existing code frameworks such as I/O, data structures, assembly routines, etc. while gaining access to advanced discretization capabilities provided by Intrepid. Intrepid2 is a performance portable version of Intrepid, that requires all input data types be Kokkos (performance-portability library from Trillions) multidimentional arrays. this restrictionmore » is needed for providing performance portability in Intrepid2 and break backward-compatibility of Intrepid.« less

  13. Unified theory of exactly and quasiexactly solvable ''discrete'' quantum mechanics. I. Formalism

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Odake, Satoru [Department of Physics, Shinshu University, Matsumoto 390-8621 (Japan); Sasaki, Ryu [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    We present a simple recipe to construct exactly and quasiexactly solvable Hamiltonians in one-dimensional ''discrete'' quantum mechanics, in which the Schroedinger equation is a difference equation. It reproduces all the known ones whose eigenfunctions consist of the Askey scheme of hypergeometric orthogonal polynomials of a continuous or a discrete variable. The recipe also predicts several new ones. An essential role is played by the sinusoidal coordinate, which generates the closure relation and the Askey-Wilson algebra together with the Hamiltonian. The relationship between the closure relation and the Askey-Wilson algebra is clarified.

  14. On constructing optimistic simulation algorithms for the discrete event system specification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nutaro, James J

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a Time Warp simulation algorithm for discrete event models that are described in terms of the Discrete Event System Specification (DEVS). The article shows how the total state transition and total output function of a DEVS atomic model can be transformed into an event processing procedure for a logical process. A specific Time Warp algorithm is constructed around this logical process, and it is shown that the algorithm correctly simulates a DEVS coupled model that consists entirely of interacting atomic models. The simulation algorithm is presented abstractly; it is intended to provide a basis for implementing efficient and scalable parallel algorithms that correctly simulate DEVS models.

  15. Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Data Archive () | Data Explorer

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Data Archive Title: Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) Data Archive The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Science Program (ASP) originally ...

  16. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere. (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radar range measurements in the atmosphere. Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Radar range measurements in the atmosphere. The earth's atmosphere affects the velocity of...

  17. A 3-Dimensional discrete fracture network generator to examine fracture-matrix interaction using TOUGH2

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ito, Kazumasa; Yongkoo, Seol

    2003-04-09

    Water fluxes in unsaturated, fractured rock involve the physical processes occurring at fracture-matrix interfaces within fracture networks. Modeling these water fluxes using a discrete fracture network model is a complicated effort. Existing preprocessors for TOUGH2 are not suitable to generate grids for fracture networks with various orientations and inclinations. There are several 3-D discrete-fracture-network simulators for flow and transport, but most of them do not capture fracture-matrix interaction. We have developed a new 3-D discrete-fracture-network mesh generator, FRACMESH, to provide TOUGH2 with information about the fracture network configuration and fracture-matrix interactions. FRACMESH transforms a discrete fracture network into a 3 dimensional uniform mesh, in which fractures are considered as elements with unique rock material properties and connected to surrounding matrix elements. Using FRACMESH, individual fractures may have uniform or random aperture distributions to consider heterogeneity. Fracture element volumes and interfacial areas are calculated from fracture geometry within individual elements. By using FRACMESH and TOUGH2, fractures with various inclinations and orientations, and fracture-matrix interaction, can be incorporated. In this paper, results of flow and transport simulations in a fractured rock block utilizing FRACMESH are presented.

  18. DISCRETE ELEMENT MODELING OF BLADE–STRIKE FREQUENCY AND SURVIVAL OF FISH PASSING THROUGH HYDROKINETIC TURBINES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ; Richmond, Marshall C.

    2014-04-17

    Evaluating the consequences from blade-strike of fish on marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbine blades is essential for incorporating environmental objectives into the integral optimization of machine performance. For instance, experience with conventional hydroelectric turbines has shown that innovative shaping of the blade and other machine components can lead to improved designs that generate more power without increased impacts to fish and other aquatic life. In this work, we used unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of turbine flow and discrete element modeling (DEM) of particle motion to estimate the frequency and severity of collisions between a horizontal axis MHK tidal energy device and drifting aquatic organisms or debris. Two metrics are determined with the method: the strike frequency and survival rate estimate. To illustrate the procedure step-by-step, an exemplary case of a simple runner model was run and compared against a probabilistic model widely used for strike frequency evaluation. The results for the exemplary case showed a strong correlation between the two approaches. In the application case of the MHK turbine flow, turbulent flow was modeled using detached eddy simulation (DES) in conjunction with a full moving rotor at full scale. The CFD simulated power and thrust were satisfactorily comparable to experimental results conducted in a water tunnel on a reduced scaled (1:8.7) version of the turbine design. A cloud of DEM particles was injected into the domain to simulate fish or debris that were entrained into the turbine flow. The strike frequency was the ratio of the count of colliding particles to the crossing sample size. The fish length and approaching velocity were test conditions in the simulations of the MHK turbine. Comparisons showed that DEM-based frequencies tend to be greater than previous results from Lagrangian particles and probabilistic models, mostly because the DEM scheme accounts for both the geometric aspects of the passage event ---which the probabilistic method does--- as well as the fluid-particle interactions ---which the Lagrangian particle method does. The DEM-based survival rates were comparable to laboratory results for small fish but not for mid-size fish because of the considerably different turbine diameters. The modeling framework can be used for applications that aim at evaluating the biological performance of MHK turbine units during the design phase and to provide information to regulatory agencies needed for the environmental permitting process.

  19. Regional Ecosystem-Atmosphere CO2 Exchange Via Atmospheric Budgets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

    2007-03-07

    Inversions of atmospheric CO2 mixing ratio measurements to determine CO2 sources and sinks are typically limited to coarse spatial and temporal resolution. This limits our ability to evaluate efforts to upscale chamber- and stand-level CO2 flux measurements to regional scales, where coherent climate and ecosystem mechanisms govern the carbon cycle. As a step towards the goal of implementing atmospheric budget or inversion methodology on a regional scale, a network of five relatively inexpensive CO2 mixing ratio measurement systems was deployed on towers in northern Wisconsin. Four systems were distributed on a circle of roughly 150-km radius, surrounding one centrally located system at the WLEF tower near Park Falls, WI. All measurements were taken at a height of 76 m AGL. The systems used single-cell infrared CO2 analyzers (Licor, model LI-820) rather than the siginificantly more costly two-cell models, and were calibrated every two hours using four samples known to within ± 0.2 ppm CO2. Tests prior to deployment in which the systems sampled the same air indicate the precision of the systems to be better than ± 0.3 ppm and the accuracy, based on the difference between the daily mean of one system and a co-located NOAA-ESRL system, is consistently better than ± 0.3 ppm. We demonstrate the utility of the network in two ways. We interpret regional CO2 differences using a Lagrangian parcel approach. The difference in the CO2 mixing ratios across the network is at least 2?3 ppm, which is large compared to the accuracy and precision of the systems. Fluxes estimated assuming Lagrangian parcel transport are of the same sign and magnitude as eddy-covariance flux measurements at the centrally-located WLEF tower. These results indicate that the network will be useful in a full inversion model. Second, we present a case study involving a frontal passage through the region. The progression of a front across the network is evident; changes as large as four ppm in one minute are captured. Influence functions, derived using a Lagrangian Particle Dispersion model driven by the CSU Regional Atmospheric Modeling System and nudged to NCEP reanalysis meteorological fields, are used to determine source regions for the towers. The influence functions are combined with satellite vegetation observations to interpret the observed trends in CO2 concentration. Full inversions will combine these elements in a more formal analytic framework.

  20. Atmospheric corrosion of lithium electrodes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, C.J.

    1981-10-01

    Atmospheric corrosion of lithium during lithium-cell assembly and the dry storage of cells prior to electrolyte fill has been found to initiate lithium corrosion pits and to form corrosion products. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate lithium pitting and the white floccullent corrosion products. Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA) and Auger spectroscopy in combination with X-ray diffraction were used to characterize lithium surfaces. Lithium surfaces with corrosion products were found to be high in carbonate content indicating the presence of lithium carbonate. Lithium electrodes dry stored in unfilled batteries were found to contain high concentration of lithium flouride a possible corrosion product from gaseous materials from the carbon monofluoride cathode. Future investigations of the corrosion phenomena will emphasize the effect of the corrosion products on the electrolyte and ultimate battery performance. The need to protect lithium electrodes from atmospheric exposure is commonly recognized to minimize corrosion induced by reaction with water, oxygen, carbon dioxide or nitrogen (1). Manufacturing facilities customarily limit the relative humidity to less than two percent. Electrodes that have been manufactured for use in lithium cells are typically stored in dry-argon containers. In spite of these precautions, lithium has been found to corrode over a long time period due to residual gases or slow diffusion of the same into storage containers. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of the lithium corrosion.

  1. National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center

  2. Bridge Condition Assessment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Condition and Performance Assessment Background How bridges respond to extreme loading conditions, such as during high winds and severe storms, and to the effects of aging, such as corrosion- and fatigue-induced cracking, is a major concern for the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). The FHWA is working to ensure that highway structures are safe and reliable under all service conditions, including potential structural, environmental, and human-generated threats. Role of High-Performance

  3. Terms and Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Tennessee

    Terms and Conditions Terms and Conditions As a premier national research and development laboratory, LANL seeks to do business with qualified companies that offer value and high quality products and services. Contact Small Business Office (505) 667-4419 Email Use information below as guideline to doing business An "Appendix SFA-1" contains FAR and DEAR Clauses that are incorporated by reference into a particular subcontract. "Exhibit A General Conditions" are the

  4. New and Improved Data Logging and Collection System for Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Tropical Western ... for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility, Tropical Western ...

  5. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): summary data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): ...

  6. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): engineering data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): ...

  7. An Ensemble-Constrained Variational Analysis of Atmospheric Forcing Data and Its Application

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Ensemble-Constrained Variational Analysis of Atmospheric Forcing Data and Its Application For original submission and image(s), see ARM Research Highlights http://www.arm.gov/science/highlights/ Research Highlight Clouds represent one of the largest uncertainties in current General Circulation Models (GCM) simulations. Studies have shown that the model discrepancies can come from deficiencies in the physical parameterization and uncertainties in the large- scale atmospheric condition. However,

  8. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Honolulu, Hawaii |

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Department of Energy Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Honolulu, Hawaii National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Honolulu, Hawaii Photo of a Staff Residence at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Hawaii The staff residences at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center in Hawaii now have solar water heating systems funded by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Center is part of the Department of Commerce's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (DOC-NOAA). New

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2012 (Program Document) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Program Document: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2012 Individual datastreams from instrumentation at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)

  10. Condition Assessment Information System

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2002-09-16

    CAIS2000 records, tracks and cost maintenance deficiencies associated with condition assessments of real property assets. Cost information is available for 39,000 items in the currenht RS Means, Facilities Construction Manual. These costs can, in turn, be rolled by by asset to produce the summary condition of an asset or site.

  11. Sea ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates. ... Title: Sea ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in ...

  12. PRECISION DETERMINATION OF ATMOSPHERIC EXTINCTION AT OPTICAL...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    State-of-the-art models of atmospheric radiation transport and modern codes are used to ... WA 98195 (United States) Department of Physics and Astronomy, Austin Peay State ...

  13. Correcting radar range measurements for atmospheric propagation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Correcting radar range measurements for atmospheric propagation effects. Abstract not provided. Authors: Doerry, Armin Walter Publication Date: 2013-12-01 OSTI Identifier: ...

  14. Session Papers Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program- Unmanned...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Session Papers Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program- Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle: The Follow-On Phase J. Vitko, Jr. ARM-UAV Technical Director Sandia National Laboratories ...

  15. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly ... are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest ...

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility Operations ... are collected and sent to the Data Management Facility (DMF) at Pacific Northwest ...

  17. Atmosphere to Electrons | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Research & Development » Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) is a multi-year U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) research initiative targeting significant reductions in the cost of wind energy through an improved understanding of the complex physics governing electricity generation by wind plants. The goal of A2e is to ensure future wind plants are sited, built, and operated in a way that produces the most cost-effective, usable

  18. Composition and Reactions of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    high-resolution scanning transmission x-ray images obtained at the ALS have revealed chemical reactions on and in atmospheric aerosol particles that caused particle growth while...

  19. ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Atmospheric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Furthermore, little is known on the climatology of drizzling or precipitating boundary layer clouds, their seasonal variability and their dependency on atmospheric parameters and ...

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report July 1-September 30, 2011 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate ...

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report January 1-March 31, 2012 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research ...

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate Research Facility...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report April 1-June 30, 2011 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Climate ...

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Operations...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Climate Research Facility Operations Quarterly Report October 1-December 31, 2011 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate ...

  4. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | DOE PAGES

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    measurement" 50 results for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" Full Text and Citations Filters Filter Search Results Everything (Citations and Full Text) (50 results) ...

  5. Atmospheric Response to Weddell Sea Open-Ocean Polynya

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodos, Travis; Weijer, Wilbert

    2015-07-02

    The atmospheric conditions associated with the rare Weddell Sea open ocean polynya are investigated. The polynya has not been seen since 1976, so data on the event is scarce. The CESM high resolution model is used to investigate multiple atmospheric variables. We analyze three years of polynyas, which are also compared to three years without a polynya. The surface temperature, sensible heat flux, latent heat flux, humidity, average wind speed, precipitation, longwave flux, and shortwave flux all increased over the polynya. The sensible heat flux had a higher magnitude than the latent heat flux because conduction and convection were the primary drivers of heat flux. A combination of increased latent heat flux and humidity led to an increase in precipitation. Increased longwave downwelling flux over the polynya indicated the presence of clouds over the polynya. Lastly, the sea level pressure was consistently lower over the polynya because of the presence of a thermal low generated by thermally driven convective updrafts.

  6. THE LOS ALAMOS NATIONAL LABORATORY ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DIFFUSION MODELS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    M. WILLIAMS

    1999-08-01

    The LANL atmospheric transport and diffusion models are composed of two state-of-the-art computer codes. The first is an atmospheric wind model called HOThlAC, Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric circulations. HOTMAC generates wind and turbulence fields by solving a set of atmospheric dynamic equations. The second is an atmospheric diffusion model called RAPTAD, Random Particle Transport And Diffusion. RAPTAD uses the wind and turbulence output from HOTMAC to compute particle trajectories and concentration at any location downwind from a source. Both of these models, originally developed as research codes on supercomputers, have been modified to run on microcomputers. Because the capability of microcomputers is advancing so rapidly, the expectation is that they will eventually become as good as today's supercomputers. Now both models are run on desktop or deskside computers, such as an IBM PC/AT with an Opus Pm 350-32 bit coprocessor board and a SUN workstation. Codes have also been modified so that high level graphics, NCAR Graphics, of the output from both models are displayed on the desktop computer monitors and plotted on a laser printer. Two programs, HOTPLT and RAPLOT, produce wind vector plots of the output from HOTMAC and particle trajectory plots of the output from RAPTAD, respectively. A third CONPLT provides concentration contour plots. Section II describes step-by-step operational procedures, specifically for a SUN-4 desk side computer, on how to run main programs HOTMAC and RAPTAD, and graphics programs to display the results. Governing equations, boundary conditions and initial values of HOTMAC and RAPTAD are discussed in Section III. Finite-difference representations of the governing equations, numerical solution procedures, and a grid system are given in Section IV.

  7. Video compression of coronary angiograms based on discrete wavelet transform with block classification

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ho, B.K.T.; Tsai, M.J.; Wei, J.; Ma, M.; Saipetch, P.

    1996-12-01

    A new method of video compression for angiographic images has been developed to achieve high compression ratio ({approximately}20:1) while eliminating block artifacts which leads to loss of diagnostic accuracy. This method adopts motion picture experts group`s (MPEG`s) motion compensated prediction to take advantage of frame to frame correlation. However, in contrast to MPEG, the error images arising from mismatches in the motion estimation are encoded by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) rather than block discrete cosine transform (DCT). Furthermore, the authors developed a classification scheme which label each block in an image as intra, error, or background type and encode it accordingly. This hybrid coding can significantly improve the compression efficiency in certain cases. This method can be generalized for any dynamic image sequences applications sensitive to block artifacts.

  8. Discretization error estimation and exact solution generation using the method of nearby problems.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sinclair, Andrew J.; Raju, Anil; Kurzen, Matthew J.; Roy, Christopher John; Phillips, Tyrone S.

    2011-10-01

    The Method of Nearby Problems (MNP), a form of defect correction, is examined as a method for generating exact solutions to partial differential equations and as a discretization error estimator. For generating exact solutions, four-dimensional spline fitting procedures were developed and implemented into a MATLAB code for generating spline fits on structured domains with arbitrary levels of continuity between spline zones. For discretization error estimation, MNP/defect correction only requires a single additional numerical solution on the same grid (as compared to Richardson extrapolation which requires additional numerical solutions on systematically-refined grids). When used for error estimation, it was found that continuity between spline zones was not required. A number of cases were examined including 1D and 2D Burgers equation, the 2D compressible Euler equations, and the 2D incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The discretization error estimation results compared favorably to Richardson extrapolation and had the advantage of only requiring a single grid to be generated.

  9. Terms and Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Terms and Conditions Network R&D Software-Defined Networking (SDN) Experimental Network Testbeds 100G SDN Testbed Testbed Description Proposal Process Terms and Conditions Dark Fiber Testbed Test Circuit Service Testbed Results Current Testbed Research Previous Testbed Research Performance (perfSONAR) Software & Tools Development Data for Researchers Partnerships Publications Workshops Contact Us Technical Assistance: 1 800-33-ESnet (Inside US) 1 800-333-7638 (Inside US) 1 510-486-7600

  10. Conditional data watchpoint management

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Burdick, Dean Joseph; Vaidyanathan, Basu

    2010-08-24

    A method, system and computer program product for managing a conditional data watchpoint in a set of instructions being traced is shown in accordance with illustrative embodiments. In one particular embodiment, the method comprises initializing a conditional data watchpoint and determining the watchpoint has been encountered. Upon that determination, examining a current instruction context associated with the encountered watchpoint prior to completion of the current instruction execution, further determining a first action responsive to a positive context examination; otherwise, determining a second action.

  11. NREL: Process Development and Integration Laboratory - Atmospheric

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Processing Platform Capabilities Research Process Development and Integration Laboratory Printable Version Atmospheric Processing Platform Capabilities The Atmospheric Processing platform in the Process Development and Integration Laboratory offers powerful capabilities with integrated tools for depositing, processing, and characterizing photovoltaic materials and devices. In particular, this platform focuses on different methods to deposit ("write") materials onto a variety of

  12. Deterministic absorbed dose estimation in computed tomography using a discrete ordinates method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, Edward T.; Liu, Xin; Hsieh, Jiang

    2015-07-15

    Purpose: Organ dose estimation for a patient undergoing computed tomography (CT) scanning is very important. Although Monte Carlo methods are considered gold-standard in patient dose estimation, the computation time required is formidable for routine clinical calculations. Here, the authors instigate a deterministic method for estimating an absorbed dose more efficiently. Methods: Compared with current Monte Carlo methods, a more efficient approach to estimating the absorbed dose is to solve the linear Boltzmann equation numerically. In this study, an axial CT scan was modeled with a software package, Denovo, which solved the linear Boltzmann equation using the discrete ordinates method. The CT scanning configuration included 16 x-ray source positions, beam collimators, flat filters, and bowtie filters. The phantom was the standard 32 cm CT dose index (CTDI) phantom. Four different Denovo simulations were performed with different simulation parameters, including the number of quadrature sets and the order of Legendre polynomial expansions. A Monte Carlo simulation was also performed for benchmarking the Denovo simulations. A quantitative comparison was made of the simulation results obtained by the Denovo and the Monte Carlo methods. Results: The difference in the simulation results of the discrete ordinates method and those of the Monte Carlo methods was found to be small, with a root-mean-square difference of around 2.4%. It was found that the discrete ordinates method, with a higher order of Legendre polynomial expansions, underestimated the absorbed dose near the center of the phantom (i.e., low dose region). Simulations of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions proved to be the most efficient computation method in the authors’ study. The single-thread computation time of the deterministic simulation of the quadrature set 8 and the first order of the Legendre polynomial expansions was 21 min on a personal computer. Conclusions: The simulation results showed that the deterministic method can be effectively used to estimate the absorbed dose in a CTDI phantom. The accuracy of the discrete ordinates method was close to that of a Monte Carlo simulation, and the primary benefit of the discrete ordinates method lies in its rapid computation speed. It is expected that further optimization of this method in routine clinical CT dose estimation will improve its accuracy and speed.

  13. Aerosol Radiative Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions.in Winter ZCAREX-2001

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Forcing Under Cloudless Conditions in Winter ZCAREX-2001 G. S. Golitsyn, I. A. Gorchakova, and I. I. Mokhov Institute of Atmospheric Physic Moscow, Russia Introduction Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) is estimated for winter clear-sky conditions from measurements during ZCAREX-2001-Cloud-Aerosol-Radiation Experiment in February-March, 2001 at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station (ZSS) of the A.M. Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics RAS. ARF in the shortwave range is determined by the difference

  14. Atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from China

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chang Lang; Shu Tao; Wenxin Liu; Yanxu Zhang; Staci Simonich

    2008-07-15

    A potential receptor influence function (PRIF) model, based on air mass forward trajectory calculations, was applied to simulate the atmospheric transport and outflow of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) emitted from China. With a 10 day atmospheric transport time, most neighboring countries and regions, as well as remote regions, were influenced by PAH emissions from China. Of the total annual PAH emission of 114 Gg, 92.7% remained within the boundary of mainland China. The geographic distribution of PRIFs within China was similar to the geographic distribution of the source regions, with high values in the North China Plain, Sichuan Basin, Shanxi, and Guizhou province. The Tarim basin and Sichuan basin had unfavorable meteorological conditions for PAH outflow. Of the PAH outflow from China (8092 tons or 7.1% of the total annual PAH emission), approximately 69.9% (5655 tons) reached no further than the offshore environment of mainland China and the South China Sea. Approximate 227, 71, 746, and 131 tons PAHs reached North Korea, South Korea, Russia-Mongolia region, and Japan, respectively, 2-4 days after the emission. Only 1.4 tons PAHs reached North America after more than 9 days. Interannual variation in the eastward PAH outflow was positively correlated to cold episodes of El Nino/Southern Oscillation. However, trans-Pacific atmospheric transport of PAHs from China was correlated to Pacific North America index (PNA) which is associated with the strength and position of westerly winds. 38 refs., 4 figs.

  15. NDE to Manage Atmospheric SCC in Canisters for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel: An Assessment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meyer, Ryan M.; Pardini, Allan F.; Cuta, Judith M.; Adkins, Harold E.; Casella, Andrew M.; Qiao, Hong; Larche, Michael R.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Doctor, Steven R.

    2013-09-01

    This report documents efforts to assess representative horizontal (Transuclear NUHOMS®) and vertical (Holtec HI-STORM) storage systems for the implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods or techniques to manage atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in canisters for dry storage of used nuclear fuel. The assessment is conducted by assessing accessibility and deployment, environmental compatibility, and applicability of NDE methods. A recommendation of this assessment is to focus on bulk ultrasonic and eddy current techniques for direct canister monitoring of atmospheric SCC. This assessment also highlights canister regions that may be most vulnerable to atmospheric SCC to guide the use of bulk ultrasonic and eddy current examinations. An assessment of accessibility also identifies canister regions that are easiest and more difficult to access through the ventilation paths of the concrete shielding modules. A conceivable sampling strategy for canister inspections is to sample only the easiest to access portions of vulnerable regions. There are aspects to performing an NDE inspection of dry canister storage system (DCSS) canisters for atmospheric SCC that have not been addressed in previous performance studies. These aspects provide the basis for recommendations of future efforts to determine the capability and performance of eddy current and bulk ultrasonic examinations for atmospheric SCC in DCSS canisters. Finally, other important areas of investigation are identified including the development of instrumented surveillance specimens to identify when conditions are conducive for atmospheric SCC, characterization of atmospheric SCC morphology, and an assessment of air flow patterns over canister surfaces and their influence on chloride deposition.

  16. History of Air Conditioning

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We take it for granted but what would life be like without the air conditioner? Once considered a luxury, this invention is now an essential, allowing us to cool everything from homes, businesses, businesses, data centers, laboratories and other buildings vital to our daily lives. Explore this timeline to learn some of the key dates in the history of air conditioning.

  17. Video monitoring of atmospheric icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wareing, J.B.; Chetwood, P.A.

    1995-12-31

    Over the past six years, EA Technology has been involved in the remote monitoring of test spans and samples of overhead transmission line conductors in the UK in areas chosen for their severe winter weather. The sites are unmanned and regularly suffer gales, blizzards and severe icing conditions. Test samples at the sites are monitored day and night using automate, computer and remotely controlled video and still cameras using both the visible and near infrared spectrum. Video and still picture data is stored on site for periodic collection. Meteorological and load force data is collected and also stored at these remote sites and is sent automatically by mobile phone link to a computer at the EA Technology center. All this data can also be monitored at any time at the center over 200 miles away.

  18. Sequential Window Diagnoser for Discrete-Event Systems Under Unreliable Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen-Chiao Lin; Humberto E. Garcia; David Thorsley; Tae-Sic Yoo

    2009-09-01

    This paper addresses the issue of counting the occurrence of special events in the framework of partiallyobserved discrete-event dynamical systems (DEDS). Developed diagnosers referred to as sequential window diagnosers (SWDs) utilize the stochastic diagnoser probability transition matrices developed in [9] along with a resetting mechanism that allows on-line monitoring of special event occurrences. To illustrate their performance, the SWDs are applied to detect and count the occurrence of special events in a particular DEDS. Results show that SWDs are able to accurately track the number of times special events occur.

  19. Lower and upper estimates on the excitation threshold for breathers in discrete nonlinear Schroedinger lattices

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cuevas, J.; Palmero, F.

    2009-11-15

    We propose analytical lower and upper estimates on the excitation threshold for breathers (in the form of spatially localized and time periodic solutions) in discrete nonlinear Schroedinger (DNLS) lattices with power nonlinearity. The estimation, depending explicitly on the lattice parameters, is derived by a combination of a comparison argument on appropriate lower bounds depending on the frequency of each solution with a simple and justified heuristic argument. The numerical studies verify that the analytical estimates can be of particular usefulness, as a simple analytical detection of the activation energy for breathers in DNLS lattices.

  20. Dissipative soliton dynamics in a discrete magnetic nano-dot chain

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lee, Kyeong-Dong; You, Chun-Yeol; Song, Hyon-Seok; Shin, Sung-Chul; Park, Byong-Guk

    2014-02-03

    Soliton dynamics is studied in a discrete magnetic nano-dot chain by means of micromagnetic simulations together with an analytic model equation. A soliton under a dissipative system is driven by an applied field. The field-driven dissipative soliton enhances its mobility nonlinearly, as the characteristic frequency and the intrinsic Gilbert damping decrease. During the propagation, the soliton emits spin waves which act as an extrinsic damping channel. The characteristic frequency, the maximum velocity, and the localization length of the soliton are found to be proportional to the threshold field, the threshold velocity, and the initial mobility, respectively.

  1. Global confinement and discrete dynamo activity in the MST reversed-field pinch

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    confinement and discrete dynamo activity in the MST reversed-field pinch* S. Hokin,+ A. Almagri, S. Assadi, J. Beckstead, G. Chartas, N. Cracker, M. Cudzinovic, D. Den Hat-tog, FL Dexter, D. Holly, S. Prager, T. Rempel, J. Sarff, E. Scime, W. Shen, C. Spragins, C. Sprott, G. Starr, M. Stoneking, and C. Watts University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53 706 R. Nebel Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (Received 10 December 1990; accepted 1 April 199 1) Results obtained

  2. Operating Experience Level 3, Atmospheric Dispersion Parameter...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    5 OE-3 2015-02: Atmospheric Dispersion Parameter (xQ) for Calculation of Co-located Worker Dose This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document informs the complex of the...

  3. Reducing the atmospheric impact of wet slaking

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    B.D. Zubitskii; G.V. Ushakov; B.G. Tryasunov; A.G.Ushakov

    2009-05-15

    Means of reducing the atmospheric emissions due to the wet slaking of coke are considered. One option, investigated here, is to remove residual active silt and organic compounds from the biologically purified wastewater sent for slaking, by coagulation and flocculation.

  4. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    2008-01-15

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  5. Atmospheric and Climate Science | Argonne National Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric and Climate Science Argonne research in aerosols, micro-meteorology, remote sensing, and atmospheric chemistry combined with our scalable, portable, high-performance climate and weather applications offer a unique look at the complexities of a dynamic planet. Changes in climate can affect biodiversity, the cost of food, our health, and even whole economies. Argonne is developing computational models and tools designed to shed light on complex biological processes and their economic,

  6. Technology evaluation for space station atmospheric leakage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lemon, D.K.; Friesel, M.A.; Griffin, J.W.; Skorpik, J.R.; Shepard, C.L.; Antoniak, Z.I.; Kurtz, R.J.

    1990-02-01

    A concern in operation of a space station is leakage of atmosphere through seal points and through the walls as a result of damage from particle (space debris and micrometeoroid) impacts. This report describes a concept for a monitoring system to detect atmosphere leakage and locate the leak point. The concept is based on analysis and testing of two basic methods selected from an initial technology survey of potential approaches. 18 refs., 58 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Air Activation Following an Atmospheric Explosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lowrey, Justin D.; McIntyre, Justin I.; Prichard, Andrew W.; Gesh, Christopher J.

    2013-03-13

    In addition to thermal radiation and fission products, nuclear explosions result in a very high flux of unfissioned neutrons. Within an atmospheric nuclear explosion, these neutrons can activate the various elemental components of natural air, potentially adding to the radioactive signature of the event as a whole. The goal of this work is to make an order-of-magnitude estimate of the total amount of air activation products that can result from an atmospheric nuclear explosion.

  8. Atmospheric State, Cloud Microphysics and Radiative Flux

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Mace, Gerald

    Atmospheric thermodynamics, cloud properties, radiative fluxes and radiative heating rates for the ARM Southern Great Plains (SGP) site. The data represent a characterization of the physical state of the atmospheric column compiled on a five-minute temporal and 90m vertical grid. Sources for this information include raw measurements, cloud property and radiative retrievals, retrievals and derived variables from other third-party sources, and radiative calculations using the derived quantities.

  9. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility | Argonne

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    National Laboratory Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Argonne scientists study climate change 1 of 22 Argonne scientists study climate change The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science provided $60 million in ARRA funding for climate research to the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility, a DOE national user facility that has been operating climate observing sites around the world for nearly two decades. These sites help scientists

  10. VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study () | Data...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study Title: VOCALS: The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) is an international ...

  11. Extreme Conditions Modeling

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Conditions Modeling - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power & Engineering Grid Modernization Battery Testing Nuclear Fuel Cycle Defense Waste Management Programs Advanced

  12. Fuel gas conditioning process

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lokhandwala, Kaaeid A.

    2000-01-01

    A process for conditioning natural gas containing C.sub.3+ hydrocarbons and/or acid gas, so that it can be used as combustion fuel to run gas-powered equipment, including compressors, in the gas field or the gas processing plant. Compared with prior art processes, the invention creates lesser quantities of low-pressure gas per unit volume of fuel gas produced. Optionally, the process can also produce an NGL product.

  13. Air conditioning apparatus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ouchi, Y.; Otoshi, Sh.

    1985-04-09

    The air conditioning apparatus according to the invention comprises an absorption type heat pump comprising a system including an absorber, a regenerator, a condenser and an evaporator. A mixture of lithium bromide and zinc chloride is used as an absorbent which is dissolved to form an absorbent solution into a mixed solvent having a ratio by weight of methanol to water, the ratio falling in a range between 0.1 and 0.3. Said solution is circulated through the system.

  14. High voltage pulse conditioning

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Springfield, Ray M.; Wheat, Jr., Robert M.

    1990-01-01

    Apparatus for conditioning high voltage pulses from particle accelerators in order to shorten the rise times of the pulses. Flashover switches in the cathode stalk of the transmission line hold off conduction for a determinable period of time, reflecting the early portion of the pulses. Diodes upstream of the switches divert energy into the magnetic and electrostatic storage of the capacitance and inductance inherent to the transmission line until the switches close.

  15. Atmospheric Neutrinos in the MINOS Far Detector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Howcroft, Caius L.F.

    2004-12-01

    The phenomenon of flavour oscillations of neutrinos created in the atmosphere was first reported by the Super-Kamiokande collaboration in 1998 and since then has been confirmed by Soudan 2 and MACRO. The MINOS Far Detector is the first magnetized neutrino detector able to study atmospheric neutrino oscillations. Although it was designed to detect neutrinos from the NuMI beam, it provides a unique opportunity to measure the oscillation parameters for neutrinos and anti-neutrinos independently. The MINOS Far Detector was completed in August 2003 and since then has collected 2.52 kton-years of atmospheric data. Atmospheric neutrino interactions contained within the volume of the detector are separated from the dominant background from cosmic ray muons. Thirty seven events are selected with an estimated background contamination of less than 10%. Using the detector's magnetic field, 17 neutrino events and 6 anti-neutrino events are identified, 14 events have ambiguous charge. The neutrino oscillation parameters for {nu}{sub {mu}} and {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} are studied using a maximum likelihood analysis. The measurement does not place constraining limits on the neutrino oscillation parameters due to the limited statistics of the data set analysed. However, this thesis represents the first observation of charge separated atmospheric neutrino interactions. It also details the techniques developed to perform atmospheric neutrino analyses in the MINOS Far Detector.

  16. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ARM) | U.S.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (Barrels per Calendar Day) Data Series: Total Number of Operable Refineries Number of Operating Refineries Number of Idle Refineries Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/CD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operable Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Operating Capacity (B/SD) Atmospheric Crude Oil Distillation Idle Capacity (B/SD) Vacuum

  17. Formation of atmospheric halos and applicability of geometric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Formation of atmospheric halos and applicability of geometric optics for calculating ... Title: Formation of atmospheric halos and applicability of geometric optics for ...

  18. Radar range measurements in the atmosphere. (Technical Report...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Models are presented for calculating atmospheric effects on radar range measurements, and compared against more elaborate atmospheric models. Authors: Doerry, Armin Walter ...

  19. Model-Observation "Data Cubes" for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Model-Observation "Data Cubes" for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility's ... Program through its Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility. 2. Data Cube ...

  20. A U. S. Department of Energy User Facility Atmospheric Radiation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S. Department of Energy User Facility AtmosphericRadiationMeasurement Climate Research Facility U.S. Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program DOESC-ARM...

  1. Session Papers Quality Measurement Experiments Within the Atmospheric...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Quality Measurement Experiments Within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program N. E. ... Introduction The general goal of the Atmospheric RadiationMeasurement (ARM) Program is to ...

  2. Modeling Workflow for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Workflow for the DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility's LES ARM Symbiotic ... and Environmental Research Program through its Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Facility. ...

  3. Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Doppler Lidar during XPIA: Field Campaign Report ... the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Doppler Lidar during XPIA: Field Campaign Report ...

  4. A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained by ... Title: A comparison between characteristics of atmospheric-pressure plasma jets sustained ...

  5. Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the atmosphere-ocean system to deforestation in the Indonesian Archipelago Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulated response of the atmosphere-ocean system to ...

  6. An Evaluation of the Nonlinearity Correction Applied to Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    An Evaluation of the Nonlinearity Correction Applied to Atmospheric Emitted Radiance ... Title: An Evaluation of the Nonlinearity Correction Applied to Atmospheric Emitted ...

  7. Global Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Atmospheric Pollution Forum Air Pollutant Emission Inventory Jump to: navigation, search Tool Summary LAUNCH TOOL Name: Global Atmospheric Pollution (GAP) Forum Air Pollutant...

  8. Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 Title: Aerosol specification in single-column Community Atmosphere Model version 5 Single-column model ...

  9. Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically Relevant Aqueous Liquid-Air Interfaces Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Simulation and Theory of Ions at Atmospherically...

  10. IDENTIFYING FRACTURE ORIGIN IN CERAMICS BY COMBINATION OF NONDESTRUCTIVE TESTING AND DISCRETE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Senapati, Rajeev; Zhang Jianmei

    2010-02-22

    Advanced ceramic materials have been extensively applied in aerospace, automobile and other industries. However, the reliability of the advanced ceramics is a major concern because of the brittle nature of the materials. In this paper, combination of nondestructive testing and numerical modeling Discrete Element Method is proposed to identify the fracture origin in ceramics. The nondestructive testing--laser scattering technology is first performed on the ceramic components to reveal the machining-induced damage such as cracks and the material-inherent flaws such as voids, then followed by the four point bending test. Discrete Element software package PFC{sup 2D} is used to simulate the four point bending test and try to identify where the fractures start. The numerical representation of the ceramic materials is done by generating a densely packed particle system using the specimen genesis procedure and then applying the suitable microparameters to the particle system. Simulation of four point bending test is performed on materials having no defects, materials having manufacturing-induced defects like cracks, and materials having material-inherent flaws like voids. The initiation and propagation of defects is modeled and the mean contact force on the loading ball is also plotted. The simulation prediction results are well in accordance with the nondestructive testing results.

  11. Multidimensional discrete compactons in nonlinear Schrödinger lattices with strong nonlinearity management

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    D'Ambroise, J.; Salerno, M.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.

    2015-11-19

    The existence of multidimensional lattice compactons in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the presence of fast periodic time modulations of the nonlinearity is demonstrated. By averaging over the period of the fast modulations, an effective averaged dynamical equation arises with coupling constants involving Bessel functions of the first and zeroth kinds. We show that these terms allow one to solve, at this averaged level, for exact discrete compacton solution configurations in the corresponding stationary equation. We focus on seven types of compacton solutions. Single-site and vortex solutions are found to be always stable in the parametric regimes we examined.more » We also found that other solutions such as double-site in- and out-of-phase, four-site symmetric and antisymmetric, and a five-site compacton solution are found to have regions of stability and instability in two-dimensional parametric planes, involving variations of the strength of the coupling and of the nonlinearity. We also explore the time evolution of the solutions and compare the dynamics according to the averaged equations with those of the original dynamical system. Finally, the possible observation of compactons in Bose-Einstein condensates loaded in a deep two-dimensional optical lattice with interactions modulated periodically in time is also discussed.« less

  12. Multidimensional discrete compactons in nonlinear Schrödinger lattices with strong nonlinearity management

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    D'Ambroise, J.; Salerno, M.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Abdullaev, F. Kh.

    2015-11-19

    The existence of multidimensional lattice compactons in the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation in the presence of fast periodic time modulations of the nonlinearity is demonstrated. By averaging over the period of the fast modulations, an effective averaged dynamical equation arises with coupling constants involving Bessel functions of the first and zeroth kinds. We show that these terms allow one to solve, at this averaged level, for exact discrete compacton solution configurations in the corresponding stationary equation. We focus on seven types of compacton solutions. Single-site and vortex solutions are found to be always stable in the parametric regimes we examined. We also found that other solutions such as double-site in- and out-of-phase, four-site symmetric and antisymmetric, and a five-site compacton solution are found to have regions of stability and instability in two-dimensional parametric planes, involving variations of the strength of the coupling and of the nonlinearity. We also explore the time evolution of the solutions and compare the dynamics according to the averaged equations with those of the original dynamical system. Finally, the possible observation of compactons in Bose-Einstein condensates loaded in a deep two-dimensional optical lattice with interactions modulated periodically in time is also discussed.

  13. Discrete Element Modeling Results of Proppant Rearrangement in the Cooke Conductivity Cell

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Earl Mattson; Hai Huang; Michael Conway; Lisa O'Connell

    2014-02-01

    The study of propped fracture conductivity began in earnest with the development of the Cooke cell which later became part of the initial API standard. Subsequent developments included a patented multicell design to conduct 4 tests in a press at the same time. Other modifications have been used by various investigators. Recent studies by the Stim-Lab proppant consortium have indicated that the flow field across a Cooke proppant conductivity testing cell may not be uniform as initially believed which resulted is significantly different conductivity results. Post test analysis of low temperature metal alloy injections at the termination of proppant testing prior to the release of the applied stress suggest that higher flow is to be expected along the sides and top of the proppant pack than compared to the middle of the pack. To evaluate these experimental findings, a physics-based two-dimensional (2-D) discrete element model (DEM) was developed and applied to simulate proppant rearrangement during stress loading in the Cooke conductivity cell and the resulting porosity field. Analysis of these simulations are critical to understanding the impact of modification to the testing cell as well as understanding key proppant conductivity issues such as how these effects are manifested in proppant concentration testing results. The 2-D DEM model was constructed to represent a realistic cross section of the Cooke cell with a distribution of four material properties, three that represented the Cooke cell (steel, sandstone,square rings), and one representing the proppant. In principle, Cooke cell materials can be approximated as assemblies of independent discrete elements (particles) of various sizes and material properties that interact via cohesive interactions, repulsive forces, and frictional forces. The macroscopic behavior can then be modeled as the collective behavior of many interacting discrete elements. This DEM model is particularly suitable for modeling proppant mechanical interactions subjected to an applied stress, where the experimental cell is represented as a cohesive body composed of a large number of discrete elements, and proppants can be modeled as the individual discrete particles with various sizes (following the proppant size distribution-density function used in the test) that exhibit no cohesive strength between the particles. Initial 2-D DEM modeling results suggest that proppant rearrangement and non-uniform stress distribution across the proppant pack results in significant non-uniform porosity distribution across the Cooke cell. Larger porosities develop along the edge of the proppant pack beneath the square ring seal and would result in a disproportionate higher flow field along these edges as compared to the middle of the proppant pack. These results suggest that reported conductivity values determined by the Cooke cell may be biased to overestimate the actual conductivity of the proppant at high stresses and that modifications to the standard Cooke cell will affect the magnitude of this bias.

  14. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Nenes, Athanasios; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-01-01

    Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM) to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 0.04 micrometers and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and an atmospheric system containing radioactive particles. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  15. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Nenes, Athanasios; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-01-01

    Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM) to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequentmore » effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 0.04 micrometers and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and an atmospheric system containing radioactive particles. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.« less

  16. Conditional sterility in plants

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Meagher, Richard B.; McKinney, Elizabeth; Kim, Tehryung

    2010-02-23

    The present disclosure provides methods, recombinant DNA molecules, recombinant host cells containing the DNA molecules, and transgenic plant cells, plant tissue and plants which contain and express at least one antisense or interference RNA specific for a thiamine biosynthetic coding sequence or a thiamine binding protein or a thiamine-degrading protein, wherein the RNA or thiamine binding protein is expressed under the regulatory control of a transcription regulatory sequence which directs expression in male and/or female reproductive tissue. These transgenic plants are conditionally sterile; i.e., they are fertile only in the presence of exogenous thiamine. Such plants are especially appropriate for use in the seed industry or in the environment, for example, for use in revegetation of contaminated soils or phytoremediation, especially when those transgenic plants also contain and express one or more chimeric genes which confer resistance to contaminants.

  17. Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Process And Applications

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter C. Kong; Myrtle

    2006-09-01

    This paper provides a general discussion of atmospheric-pressure plasma generation, processes, and applications. There are two distinct categories of atmospheric-pressure plasmas: thermal and nonthermal. Thermal atmospheric-pressure plasmas include those produced in high intensity arcs, plasma torches, or in high intensity, high frequency discharges. Although nonthermal plasmas are at room temperatures, they are extremely effective in producing activated species, e.g., free radicals and excited state atoms. Thus, both thermal and nonthermal atmosphericpressure plasmas are finding applications in a wide variety of industrial processes, e.g. waste destruction, material recovery, extractive metallurgy, powder synthesis, and energy conversion. A brief discussion of recent plasma technology research and development activities at the Idaho National Laboratory is included.

  18. The EMAP: Ecological indicators of condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Austin, H.K.

    1995-12-01

    In 1988, the Science Advisory Board to the EPA recommended a program to monitor ecological status and trends, as well as the development of innovative methods, for anticipating emerging environmental problems before a crisis. The multi-agency Environmental Monitoring And Assessment Program (EMAP) evolved with the following program elements: (1) a focus on environmental values and policy-relevant questions; (2) an activity that monitors indicators of ecological condition rather than individual stressors or pollutants; (3) an assessment-driven approach that provides probability-based, scientific results with known certainty; and (4) an activity that translates results into information useful to environmental policy makers and managers. Establishing baseline environmental conditions has received increasing attention with the growing awareness of impacts on human health and environmental integrity from global atmospheric change, acidic deposition, the loss of wetland habitats, and decreasing biodiversity. Monitoring programs can provide critical, quantitative results for scientific assessments of the complex effects of pollutants and natural changes on ecosystems. The goal of the EPA component of EMAP is to conduct research to develop place-based (e.g., large and small geographic scales) ecological monitoring and assessment. EPA/EMAP conducts research to develop and evaluate indicators of ecological condition and to detect in the long-term changes and trends in indicators and associated stresses and develops monitoring strategies to identify conditions of ecological resources in larger, high priority regions or in smaller, regional studies, such as watersheds. With its focus on long-term monitoring and assessment research and research on indicators of ecological condition, the EPA/EMAP can better determine where environmental programs are working to protect, improve, and maintain the quality of our nation`s ecological resources.

  19. Inverse scattering transform for the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation with nonzero boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Biondini, Gino; Kova?i?, Gregor

    2014-03-15

    The inverse scattering transform for the focusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation with non-zero boundary conditions at infinity is presented, including the determination of the analyticity of the scattering eigenfunctions, the introduction of the appropriate Riemann surface and uniformization variable, the symmetries, discrete spectrum, asymptotics, trace formulae and the so-called theta condition, and the formulation of the inverse problem in terms of a Riemann-Hilbert problem. In addition, the general behavior of the soliton solutions is discussed, as well as the reductions to all special cases previously discussed in the literature.

  20. Working with SRNL - Our Facilities - Atmospheric Technologies Center

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Technologies Center Working with SRNL Our Facilities - Atmospheric Technologies Center The SRNL Atmospheric Technologies Center has extensive capabilities for world-wide meteorological forecasts and real-time atmospheric transport modeling and assessment. Meteorological monitoring through this facility includes the collection, archival, and application of SRS meteorological data, and the technology to predict the transport and consequence of accidental hazardous material release to

  1. Our Dusty Atmosphere | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Dusty Atmosphere Our Dusty Atmosphere September 6, 2011 - 4:26pm Addthis A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory show the importance of including the small-scale effects of aerosols in climate modeling. | Image courtesy of PNNL A heavy layer of air pollution, a mix of aerosol particles and vapors, obscures the view over Mexico City. Two studies by the Pacific Northwest

  2. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, S.P.; Woods, R.W.

    1998-08-11

    A process is disclosed for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750 C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5--3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite. 2 figs.

  3. Controlled atmosphere for fabrication of cermet electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ray, Siba P.; Woods, Robert W.

    1998-01-01

    A process for making an inert electrode composite wherein a metal oxide and a metal are reacted in a gaseous atmosphere at an elevated temperature of at least about 750.degree. C. The metal oxide is at least one of the nickel, iron, tin, zinc and zirconium oxides and the metal is copper, silver, a mixture of copper and silver or a copper-silver alloy. The gaseous atmosphere has an oxygen content that is controlled at about 5-3000 ppm in order to obtain a desired composition in the resulting composite.

  4. Enumerating a Diverse Set of Building Designs Using Discrete Optimization: Preprint

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hale, E.; Long, N.

    2010-08-01

    Numerical optimization is a powerful method for identifying energy-efficient building designs. Automating the search process facilitates the evaluation of many more options than is possible with one-off parametric simulation runs. However, input data uncertainties and qualitative aspects of building design work against standard optimization formulations that return a single, so-called optimal design. This paper presents a method for harnessing a discrete optimization algorithm to obtain significantly different, economically viable building designs that satisfy an energy efficiency goal. The method is demonstrated using NREL's first-generation building analysis platform, Opt- E-Plus, and two example problems. We discuss the information content of the results, and the computational effort required by the algorithm.

  5. LAGRANGE SOLUTIONS TO THE DISCRETE-TIME GENERAL THREE-BODY PROBLEM

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Minesaki, Yukitaka

    2013-03-15

    There is no known integrator that yields exact orbits for the general three-body problem (G3BP). It is difficult to verify whether a numerical procedure yields the correct solutions to the G3BP because doing so requires knowledge of all 11 conserved quantities, whereas only six are known. Without tracking all of the conserved quantities, it is possible to show that the discrete general three-body problem (d-G3BP) yields the correct orbits corresponding to Lagrange solutions of the G3BP. We show that the d-G3BP yields the correct solutions to the G3BP for two special cases: the equilateral triangle and collinear configurations. For the triangular solution, we use the fact that the solution to the three-body case is a superposition of the solutions to the three two-body cases, and we show that the three bodies maintain the same relative distances at all times. To obtain the collinear solution, we assume a specific permutation of the three bodies arranged along a straight rotating line, and we show that the d-G3BP maintains the same distance ratio between two bodies as in the G3BP. Proving that the d-G3BP solutions for these cases are equivalent to those of the G3BP makes it likely that the d-G3BP and G3BP solutions are equivalent in other cases. To our knowledge, this is the first work that proves the equivalence of the discrete solutions and the Lagrange orbits.

  6. APEX - a Petri net process modeling tool built on a discrete-event simulation system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gish, J.W.

    1996-12-31

    APEX, the Animated Process Experimentation tool, provides a capability for defining, simulating and animating process models. Primarily constructed for the modeling and analysis of software process models, we have found that APEX is much more broadly applicable and is suitable for process modeling tasks outside the domain of software processes. APEX has been constructed as a library of simulation blocks that implement timed hierarchical colored Petri Nets. These Petri Net blocks operate in conjunction with EXTEND, a general purpose continuous and discrete-event simulation tool. EXTEND provides a flexible, powerful and extensible environment with features particularly suitable for the modeling of complex processes. APEX`s Petri Net block additions to EXTEND provide an inexpensive capability with well-defined and easily understood semantics that is a powerful, easy to use, flexible means to engage in process modeling and evaluation. The vast majority of software process research has focused on the enactment of software processes. Little has been said about the actual creation and evaluation of software process models necessary to support enactment. APEX has been built by the Software Engineering Process Technology Project at GTE Laboratories which has been focusing on this neglected area of process model definition and analysis. We have constructed high-level software lifecycle models, a set of models that demonstrate differences between four levels of the SEI Capability Maturity Model (CMM), customer care process models, as well as models involving more traditional synchronization and coordination problems such as producer-consumer and 2-phase commit. APEX offers a unique blend of technology from two different disciplines: discrete-event simulation and Petri Net modeling. Petri Nets provide a well-defined and rich semantics in a simple, easy to understand notation. The simulation framework allows for execution, animation, and measurement of the resultant models.

  7. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C.

    2012-10-15

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  8. Abiotic ozone and oxygen in atmospheres similar to prebiotic Earth

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D.; Segura, Antígona; Claire, Mark W.; Robinson, Tyler D.; Meadows, Victoria S.

    2014-09-10

    The search for life on planets outside our solar system will use spectroscopic identification of atmospheric biosignatures. The most robust remotely detectable potential biosignature is considered to be the detection of oxygen (O{sub 2}) or ozone (O{sub 3}) simultaneous to methane (CH{sub 4}) at levels indicating fluxes from the planetary surface in excess of those that could be produced abiotically. Here we use an altitude-dependent photochemical model with the enhanced lower boundary conditions necessary to carefully explore abiotic O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} production on lifeless planets with a wide variety of volcanic gas fluxes and stellar energy distributions. On some of these worlds, we predict limited O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} buildup, caused by fast chemical production of these gases. This results in detectable abiotic O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} features in the UV-visible, but no detectable abiotic O{sub 2} features. Thus, simultaneous detection of O{sub 3} and CH{sub 4} by a UV-visible mission is not a strong biosignature without proper contextual information. Discrimination between biological and abiotic sources of O{sub 2} and O{sub 3} is possible through analysis of the stellar and atmospheric context—particularly redox state and O atom inventory—of the planet in question. Specifically, understanding the spectral characteristics of the star and obtaining a broad wavelength range for planetary spectra should allow more robust identification of false positives for life. This highlights the importance of wide spectral coverage for future exoplanet characterization missions. Specifically, discrimination between true and false positives may require spectral observations that extend into infrared wavelengths and provide contextual information on the planet's atmospheric chemistry.

  9. An Evaluation of the Nonlinearity Correction Applied to Atmospheric Emitted

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Data Collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect An Evaluation of the Nonlinearity Correction Applied to Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Data Collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Evaluation of the Nonlinearity Correction Applied to Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Data Collected by the Atmospheric Radiation

  10. An Evaluation of the Nonlinearity Correction Applied to Atmospheric Emitted

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Data Collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect An Evaluation of the Nonlinearity Correction Applied to Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Data Collected by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An Evaluation of the Nonlinearity Correction Applied to Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Data Collected by the Atmospheric Radiation

  11. Atmosphere to Electrons Program Overview Presentation | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Atmosphere to Electrons Program Overview Presentation Atmosphere to Electrons Program Overview Presentation Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) is a new, multi-year, multi-stakeholder DOE research and development initiative tasked with improving wind plant performance and mitigating risk and uncertainty to achieve substantial reductions in the cost of wind energy. PDF icon Atmosphere to Electrons Overview.pdf More Documents & Publications External Merit Review for the Atmosphere to

  12. Atmospheric Line of Site Experiment (ALOSE) Final Campaign Summary

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric Line of Site Experiment (ALOSE) Final Campaign Summary Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Line of Site Experiment (ALOSE) Final Campaign Summary The Atmospheric Line of Site Experiment (ALOSE) was a project to produce best-estimate atmospheric state measurements at the: 1. DOE Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Clouds and Radiation Test-bed (CART) site located in Lamont, Oklahoma (11-14 December 2012) 2. Poker Flat

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger for the

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) () | Data Explorer Niamey, Niger for the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger for the Radiative Atmospheric Divergence using AMF, GERB and AMMA Stations (RADAGAST) The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  14. Standard Terms and Conditions | NREL

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Standard Terms and Conditions Documents related to NREL's standard terms and conditions for subcontracts or purchase orders are available below. Standard Terms and Conditions - Appendix B Appendix B-1 (07/11/14) Standard Terms and Conditions for (1) Cost Sharing, (2) Cost Reimbursement, and (3) Cost Plus Fixed Fee. Appendix B-2 (07/11/14) Standard Terms and Conditions for Fixed-Price or Fixed Unit-Price Level of Effort Research and Development Subcontracts for (1) Commercial Concerns, (2)

  15. Application of lidar to current atmospheric topics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sedlacek, A.J. III

    1996-12-31

    The goal of the conference was to address the various applications of lidar to topics of interest in the atmospheric community. Specifically, with the development of frequency-agile, all solid state laser systems, high-quantum-efficiency detectors, increased computational power along with new and more powerful algorithms, and novel detection schemes, the application of lidar to both old and new problems has expanded. This expansion is evidenced by the contributions to the proceedings, which demonstrate the progress made on a variety of atmospheric remote sensing problems, both theoretically and experimentally. The first session focused on aerosol, ozone, and temperature profile measurements from ground-based units. The second session, Chemical Detection, provided applications of lidar to the detection of atmospheric pollutants. Papers in the third session, Wind and Turbulence Measurements, described the Multi-center Airborne Coherent Atmospheric Wind Sensor (MACAWS) experiments, Doppler techniques for ground-based wind profiling and mesopause radial wind and temperature measurements utilizing a frequency-agile lidar system. The papers in the last two sessions, Recent Advanced in Lidar Technology and Techniques and Advanced Operational Lidars, provided insights into novel approaches, materials, and techniques that would be of value to the lidar community. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  16. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ``ventilation rate`` of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  17. Atmospheric dispersion in mountain valleys and basins

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allwine, K.J.

    1992-01-01

    The primary goal of the research is to further characterize and understand dispersion in valley and basin atmospheres. A secondary, and related goal, is to identify and understand the dominant physical processes governing this dispersion. This has been accomplished through a review of the current literature, and analyses of recently collected data from two field experiments. This work should contribute to an improved understanding of material transport in the atmospheric boundary layer. It was found that dispersion in a freely draining valley (Brush Creek valley, CO) atmosphere is much greater than in an enclosed basin (Roanoke, VA) atmosphere primarily because of the greater wind speeds moving past the release point and the greater turbulence levels. The development of a cold air pool in the Roanoke basin is the dominant process governing nighttime dispersion in the basin, while the nighttime dispersion in the Brush Creek valley is dominated by turbulent diffusion and plume confinement between the valley sidewalls. The interaction between valley flows and above ridgetops flows is investigated. A ventilation rate'' of material transport between the valley and above ridgetop flows is determined. This is important in regional air pollution modeling and global climate modeling. A simple model of dispersion in valleys, applicable through a diurnal cycle, is proposed.

  18. Connectivity To Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2001-02-26

    To establish DOE and NNSA connectivity to Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) for sites and facilities that have the potential for releasing hazardous materials sufficient to generate certain emergency declarations and to promote efficient use of resources for consequence assessment activities at DOE sites, facilities, operations, and activities in planning for and responding to emergency events. No cancellations.

  19. Atmospheric Science: Solving Challenges of Climate Change

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geffen, Charlette

    2015-08-05

    PNNL’s atmospheric science research provides data required to make decisions about challenges presented by climate change: Where to site power plants, how to manage water resources, how to prepare for severe weather events and more. Our expertise in fundamental observations and modeling is recognized among the national labs and the world.

  20. Phenomena of oscillations in atmospheric pressure direct current glow discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Fu-cheng; Yan, Wen; Wang, De-zhen

    2013-12-15

    Self-sustained oscillations in a dc glow discharge with a semiconductor layer at atmospheric pressure were investigated by means of a one-dimensional fluid model. It is found that the dc glow discharge initially becomes unstable in the subnormal glow region and gives rise to oscillations of plasma parameters. A variety of oscillations with one or more frequencies have been observed under different conditions. The discharge oscillates between the glow discharge mode and the Townsend discharge mode in the oscillations with large amplitude while operates in the subnormal glow discharge mode all the while in the oscillations with small amplitude. Fourier Transform spectra of oscillations reveal the transition mechanism between different oscillations. The effects of semiconductor conductivity on the oscillation frequency of the dominant mode, gas voltage, as well as the discharge current have also been analyzed.

  1. Pre/post-strike atmospheric assessment system (PAAS)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peglow, S. G., LLNL; Molitoris, J. D., LLNL

    1997-02-03

    The Pre/Post-Strike Atmospheric Assessment System was proposed to show the importance of local meteorological conditions in the vicinity of a site suspected of storing or producing toxic agents and demonstrate a technology to measure these conditions, specifically wind fields. The ability to predict the collateral effects resulting from an attack on a facility containing hazardous materials is crucial to conducting effective military operations. Our study approach utilized a combination of field measurements with dispersion modeling to better understand which variables in terrain and weather were most important to collateral damage predictions. To develop the PAAS wind-sensing technology, we utilized a combination of emergent and available technology from micro-Doppler and highly coherent laser systems. The method used for wind sensing is to probe the atmosphere with a highly coherent laser beam. As the beam probes, light is back-scattered from particles entrained in the air to the lidar transceiver and detected by the instrument. Any motion of the aerosols with a component along the beam axis leads to a Doppler shift of the received light. Scanning in a conical fashion about the zenith results in a more accurate and two-dimensional measurement of the wind velocity. The major milestones in the benchtop system development were to verify the design by demonstrating the technique in the laboratory, then scale the design down to a size consistent with a demonstrator unit which could be built to take data in the field. The micro-Doppler heterodyne system we developed determines absolute motion by optically mixing a reference beam with the return signal and has shown motion sensitivity to better than 1 cm/s. This report describes the rationale, technical approach and laboratory testing undertaken to demonstrate the feasibility and utility of a system to provide local meteorological data and predict atmospheric particulate motion. The work described herein was funded by the Laboratory Science and Technology Office as a part of the 1996 Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program facilities newsletter, November 2002.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdridge, D. J.

    2002-12-03

    Fall 2002 Intensive Operation Periods: Single Column Model and Unmanned Aerospace Vehicle--In an Intensive Operation Period (IOP) on November 3-23, 2002, researchers at the SGP CART site are collecting a detailed data set for use in improving the Single Column Model (SCM), a scaled-down climate model. The SCM represents one vertical column of air above Earth's surface and requires less computation time than a full-scale global climate model. Researchers first use the SCM to efficiently improve submodels of clouds, solar radiation transfer, and atmosphere-surface interactions, then implement the results in large-scale global models. With measured values for a starting point, the SCM predicts atmospheric variables during prescribed time periods. A computer calculates values for such quantities as the amount of solar radiation reaching the surface and predicts how clouds will evolve and interact with incoming light from the sun. Researchers compare the SCM's predictions with actual measurements made during the IOP, then adjust the submodels to make predictions more reliable. A second IOP conducted concurrently with the SCM IOP involves high-altitude, long-duration aircraft flights. The original plan was to use an unmanned aerospace vehicle (UAV), but the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) aircraft Proteus will be substituted because all UAVs have been deployed elsewhere. The UAV is a small, instrument-equipped, remote-control plane that is operated from the ground by a computer. The Proteus is a manned aircraft, originally designed to carry telecommunications relay equipment, that can be reconfigured for uses such as reconnaissance and surveillance, commercial imaging, launching of small space satellites, and atmospheric research. The plane is designed for two on-board pilots in a pressurized cabin, flying to altitudes up to 65,000 feet for as long as 18 hours. The Proteus has a variable wingspan of 77-92 feet and is 56 feet long. The plane can carry up to 7,260 pounds of equipment, making it a versatile research tool. The Proteus is making measurements at the very top of the cirrus cloud layer to characterize structures of these clouds. These new measurements will provide more accurate, more abundant data for use in improving the representation of clouds in the SCM. 2002-2003 Winter Weather Forecast--Top climate forecasters at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA's) Climate Prediction Center say that an El Nino condition in the tropical Pacific Ocean will influence our winter weather this year. Although this El Nino is not as strong as the event of the 1997-1998 winter season, the United States will nevertheless experience some atypical weather. Strong impacts could be felt in several areas. Nationally, forecasters are predicting warmer-than-average temperatures over the northern tier of states and wetter-than-average conditions in the southern tier of states during the 2002-2003 winter season. Kansas residents should expect warmer and wetter conditions, while Oklahoma will be wetter than average.

  3. Perspective: Water cluster mediated atmospheric chemistry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vaida, Veronica

    2011-07-14

    The importance of water in atmospheric and environmental chemistry initiated recent studies with results documenting catalysis, suppression and anti-catalysis of thermal and photochemical reactions due to hydrogen bonding of reagents with water. Water, even one water molecule in binary complexes, has been shown by quantum chemistry to stabilize the transition state and lower its energy. However, new results underscore the need to evaluate the relative competing rates between reaction and dissipation to elucidate the role of water in chemistry. Water clusters have been used successfully as models for reactions in gas-phase, in aqueous condensed phases and at aqueous surfaces. Opportunities for experimental and theoretical chemical physics to make fundamental new discoveries abound. Work in this field is timely given the importance of water in atmospheric and environmental chemistry.

  4. Atmosphere to Electrons Initiative Takes Shape

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Since DOE launched its Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) Initiative last July, the A2e executive committee has been developing a comprehensive approach for working with multiple stakeholders (industry, national laboratories, international experts, and universities) over the next 5- to 7 years. In February, they held an external merit review to lay the groundwork for an A2e multi-year strategic research plan.

  5. Pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed combustor apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mansour, Momtaz N. (Columbia, MD)

    1993-10-26

    A pulsed atmospheric fluidized bed reactor system is disclosed and claimed along with a process for utilization of same for the combustion of, e.g. high sulfur content coal. The system affords a economical, ecologically acceptable alternative to oil and gas fired combustors. The apparatus may also be employed for endothermic reaction, combustion of waste products, e.g., organic and medical waste, drying materials, heating air, calcining and the like.

  6. Atmosphere Component in Community Earth System Model

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atiq Warraich About Us Atiq Warraich - Technical Lead/Project Manager Atiq Warraich

    Atmosphere Component in Community Earth System Model - Sandia Energy Energy Search Icon Sandia Home Locations Contact Us Employee Locator Energy & Climate Secure & Sustainable Energy Future Stationary Power Energy Conversion Efficiency Solar Energy Wind Energy Water Power Supercritical CO2 Geothermal Natural Gas Safety, Security & Resilience of the Energy Infrastructure Energy Storage Nuclear Power

  7. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Convective and Orographically Induced

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Convective and Orographically Induced Precipitation Study The U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility is providing the ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) to support a long-term precipitation study in the Black Forest region of Germany. Requested by researchers from the University of Hohenheim, the AMF will be deployed as one of four heav- ily instrumented supersites established for the Convective and Orographically Induced Precipita- tion Study

  8. Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars; Babayan, Steve E.; Hicks, Robert F.

    2001-01-01

    Large area atmospheric-pressure plasma jet. A plasma discharge that can be operated at atmospheric pressure and near room temperature using 13.56 MHz rf power is described. Unlike plasma torches, the discharge produces a gas-phase effluent no hotter than 250.degree. C. at an applied power of about 300 W, and shows distinct non-thermal characteristics. In the simplest design, two planar, parallel electrodes are employed to generate a plasma in the volume therebetween. A "jet" of long-lived metastable and reactive species that are capable of rapidly cleaning or etching metals and other materials is generated which extends up to 8 in. beyond the open end of the electrodes. Films and coatings may also be removed by these species. Arcing is prevented in the apparatus by using gas mixtures containing He, which limits ionization, by using high flow velocities, and by properly spacing the rf-powered electrode. Because of the atmospheric pressure operation, there is a negligible density of ions surviving for a sufficiently long distance beyond the active plasma discharge to bombard a workpiece, unlike the situation for low-pressure plasma sources and conventional plasma processing methods.

  9. Atmospheric and combustion chemistry of dimethyl ether

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Nielsen, O.J.; Egsgaard, H.; Larsen, E.; Sehested, J.; Wallington, T.J.

    1997-12-31

    It has been demonstrated that dimethyl ether (DME) is an ideal diesel fuel alternative. DME, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 3}, combines good fuel properties with low exhaust emissions and low combustion noise. Large scale production of this fuel can take place using a single step catalytic process converting CH{sub 4} to DME. The fate of DME in the atmosphere has previously been studied. The atmospheric degradation is initiated by the reaction with hydroxyl radicals, which is also a common feature of combustion processes. Spectrokinetic investigations and product analysis were used to demonstrate that the intermediate oxy radical, CH{sub 3}OCH{sub 2}O, exhibits a novel reaction pathway of hydrogen atom ejection. The application of tandem mass spectrometry to chemi-ions based on supersonic molecular beam sampling has recently been demonstrated. The highly reactive ionic intermediates are sampled directly from the flame and identified by collision activation mass spectrometry and ion-molecule reactions. The mass spectrum reflects the distribution of the intermediates in the flame. The atmospheric degradation of DME as well as the unique fuel properties of a oxygen containing compound will be discussed.

  10. Towards High Performance Discrete-Event Simulations of Smart Electric Grids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Perumalla, Kalyan S; Nutaro, James J; Yoginath, Srikanth B

    2011-01-01

    Future electric grid technology is envisioned on the notion of a smart grid in which responsive end-user devices play an integral part of the transmission and distribution control systems. Detailed simulation is often the primary choice in analyzing small network designs, and the only choice in analyzing large-scale electric network designs. Here, we identify and articulate the high-performance computing needs underlying high-resolution discrete event simulation of smart electric grid operation large network scenarios such as the entire Eastern Interconnect. We focus on the simulator's most computationally intensive operation, namely, the dynamic numerical solution for the electric grid state, for both time-integration as well as event-detection. We explore solution approaches using general-purpose dense and sparse solvers, and propose a scalable solver specialized for the sparse structures of actual electric networks. Based on experiments with an implementation in the THYME simulator, we identify performance issues and possible solution approaches for smart grid experimentation in the large.

  11. DFNWorks. A discrete fracture network framework for modeling subsurface flow and transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Gable, Carl W.; Painter, Scott L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-08-10

    DFNWorks is a parallalized computational suite to generate three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFN) and simulate flow and transport. Developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past five years, it has been used to study flow and transport in fractured media at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. The networks are created and meshed using dfnGen, which combines fram (the feature rejection algorithm for meshing) methodology to stochastically generate three-dimensional DFNs on the basis of site specific data with the LaGriT meshing toolbox to create a high-quality computational mesh representation, specifically a conforming Delaunay triangulation suitable for high performance computingmore » finite volume solvers, of the DFN in an intrinsically parallel fashion. Flow through the network is simulated in dfnFlow, which utilizes the massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport finite volume code pflotran. A Lagrangian approach to simulating transport through the DFN is adopted within dfnTrans, which is an extension of the walkabout particle tracking method to determine pathlines through the DFN. Example applications of this suite in the areas of nuclear waste repository science, hydraulic fracturing and CO2 sequestration are also included.« less

  12. Discrete accidental symmetry for a particle in a constant magnetic field on a torus

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Al-Hashimi, M.H. Wiese, U.-J.

    2009-02-15

    A classical particle in a constant magnetic field undergoes cyclotron motion on a circular orbit. At the quantum level, the fact that all classical orbits are closed gives rise to degeneracies in the spectrum. It is well-known that the spectrum of a charged particle in a constant magnetic field consists of infinitely degenerate Landau levels. Just as for the 1/r and r{sup 2} potentials, one thus expects some hidden accidental symmetry, in this case with infinite-dimensional representations. Indeed, the position of the center of the cyclotron circle plays the role of a Runge-Lenz vector. After identifying the corresponding accidental symmetry algebra, we re-analyze the system in a finite periodic volume. Interestingly, similar to the quantum mechanical breaking of CP invariance due to the {theta}-vacuum angle in non-Abelian gauge theories, quantum effects due to two self-adjoint extension parameters {theta}{sub x} and {theta}{sub y} explicitly break the continuous translation invariance of the classical theory. This reduces the symmetry to a discrete magnetic translation group and leads to finite degeneracy. Similar to a particle moving on a cone, a particle in a constant magnetic field shows a very peculiar realization of accidental symmetry in quantum mechanics.

  13. Discrete Dipole Approximation for Low-Energy Photoelectron Emission from NaCl Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Berg, Matthew J.; Wilson, Kevin R.; Sorensen, Chris; Chakrabarti, Amit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2011-09-22

    This work presents a model for the photoemission of electrons from sodium chloride nanoparticles 50-500 nm in size, illuminated by vacuum ultraviolet light with energy ranging from 9.4-10.9 eV. The discrete dipole approximation is used to calculate the electromagnetic field inside the particles, from which the two-dimensional angular distribution of emitted electrons is simulated. The emission is found to favor the particle?s geometrically illuminated side, and this asymmetry is compared to previous measurements performed at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. By modeling the nanoparticles as spheres, the Berkeley group is able to semi-quantitatively account for the observed asymmetry. Here however, the particles are modeled as cubes, which is closer to their actual shape, and the interaction of an emitted electron with the particle surface is also considered. The end result shows that the emission asymmetry for these low-energy electrons is more sensitive to the particle-surface interaction than to the specific particle shape, i.e., a sphere or cube.

  14. dfnWorks: A discrete fracture network framework for modeling subsurface flow and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Gable, Carl W.; Painter, Scott L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-11-01

    DFNWORKS is a parallelized computational suite to generate three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFN) and simulate flow and transport. Developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past five years, it has been used to study flow and transport in fractured media at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. The networks are created and meshed using DFNGEN, which combines FRAM (the feature rejection algorithm for meshing) methodology to stochastically generate three-dimensional DFNs with the LaGriT meshing toolbox to create a high-quality computational mesh representation. The representation produces a conforming Delaunay triangulation suitable for high performance computing finite volume solvers in an intrinsically parallel fashion. Flow through the network is simulated in dfnFlow, which utilizes the massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport#12; finite volume code PFLOTRAN. A Lagrangian approach to simulating transport through the DFN is adopted within DFNTRANS to determine pathlines and solute transport through the DFN. Example applications of this suite in the areas of nuclear waste repository science, hydraulic fracturing and CO2 sequestration are also included.

  15. Solitons and vortices in two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrödinger systems with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.

    2015-04-07

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual “extended” unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, with the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.

  16. Study on small-strain behaviours of methane hydrate sandy sediments using discrete element method

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yu Yanxin; Cheng Yipik; Xu Xiaomin; Soga, Kenichi

    2013-06-18

    Methane hydrate bearing soil has attracted increasing interest as a potential energy resource where methane gas can be extracted from dissociating hydrate-bearing sediments. Seismic testing techniques have been applied extensively and in various ways, to detect the presence of hydrates, due to the fact that hydrates increase the stiffness of hydrate-bearing sediments. With the recognition of the limitations of laboratory and field tests, wave propagation modelling using Discrete Element Method (DEM) was conducted in this study in order to provide some particle-scale insights on the hydrate-bearing sandy sediment models with pore-filling and cementation hydrate distributions. The relationship between shear wave velocity and hydrate saturation was established by both DEM simulations and analytical solutions. Obvious differences were observed in the dependence of wave velocity on hydrate saturation for these two cases. From the shear wave velocity measurement and particle-scale analysis, it was found that the small-strain mechanical properties of hydrate-bearing sandy sediments are governed by both the hydrate distribution patterns and hydrate saturation.

  17. Sensor Configuration Selection for Discrete-Event Systems under Unreliable Observations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen-Chiao Lin; Tae-Sic Yoo; Humberto E. Garcia

    2010-08-01

    Algorithms for counting the occurrences of special events in the framework of partially-observed discrete event dynamical systems (DEDS) were developed in previous work. Their performances typically become better as the sensors providing the observations become more costly or increase in number. This paper addresses the problem of finding a sensor configuration that achieves an optimal balance between cost and the performance of the special event counting algorithm, while satisfying given observability requirements and constraints. Since this problem is generally computational hard in the framework considered, a sensor optimization algorithm is developed using two greedy heuristics, one myopic and the other based on projected performances of candidate sensors. The two heuristics are sequentially executed in order to find best sensor configurations. The developed algorithm is then applied to a sensor optimization problem for a multiunit- operation system. Results show that improved sensor configurations can be found that may significantly reduce the sensor configuration cost but still yield acceptable performance for counting the occurrences of special events.

  18. dfnWorks: A discrete fracture network framework for modeling subsurface flow and transport

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Gable, Carl W.; Painter, Scott L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-11-01

    DFNWORKS is a parallelized computational suite to generate three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFN) and simulate flow and transport. Developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past five years, it has been used to study flow and transport in fractured media at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. The networks are created and meshed using DFNGEN, which combines FRAM (the feature rejection algorithm for meshing) methodology to stochastically generate three-dimensional DFNs with the LaGriT meshing toolbox to create a high-quality computational mesh representation. The representation produces a conforming Delaunay triangulation suitable for high performance computing finite volume solvers in anmore » intrinsically parallel fashion. Flow through the network is simulated in dfnFlow, which utilizes the massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport#12; finite volume code PFLOTRAN. A Lagrangian approach to simulating transport through the DFN is adopted within DFNTRANS to determine pathlines and solute transport through the DFN. Example applications of this suite in the areas of nuclear waste repository science, hydraulic fracturing and CO2 sequestration are also included.« less

  19. DFNWorks. A discrete fracture network framework for modeling subsurface flow and transport

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hyman, Jeffrey D.; Karra, Satish; Makedonska, Nataliia; Gable, Carl W.; Painter, Scott L.; Viswanathan, Hari S.

    2015-08-10

    DFNWorks is a parallalized computational suite to generate three-dimensional discrete fracture networks (DFN) and simulate flow and transport. Developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory over the past five years, it has been used to study flow and transport in fractured media at scales ranging from millimeters to kilometers. The networks are created and meshed using dfnGen, which combines fram (the feature rejection algorithm for meshing) methodology to stochastically generate three-dimensional DFNs on the basis of site specific data with the LaGriT meshing toolbox to create a high-quality computational mesh representation, specifically a conforming Delaunay triangulation suitable for high performance computing finite volume solvers, of the DFN in an intrinsically parallel fashion. Flow through the network is simulated in dfnFlow, which utilizes the massively parallel subsurface flow and reactive transport finite volume code pflotran. A Lagrangian approach to simulating transport through the DFN is adopted within dfnTrans, which is an extension of the walkabout particle tracking method to determine pathlines through the DFN. Example applications of this suite in the areas of nuclear waste repository science, hydraulic fracturing and CO2 sequestration are also included.

  20. Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Terrence R. Fehner and F.G. Gosling. Atmospheric ...

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 - ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Global Climate Change; Aerosols, Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties, Derived Quantities and Models, Radiometric, Satellite Observations, ...

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 - ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Global Climate Change; Aerosols; Atmospheric Profiling; Cloud Properties; Derived Quantities and Models; Radiometric; Satellite Observations; ...

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Subject: 54 - ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES Global Climate Change; Aerosols, Atmospheric Profiling, Cloud Properties, Derived Quantities and Models, Radiometric, Satellite Observations, ...

  4. Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Program Document: Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report The Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) included two measurement campaigns conducted at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains site in Oklahoma during 2012 and 2013. LABLE was designed as a multi-phase,

  5. Atmosphere to Electrons: Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Atmosphere to Electrons: Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow Atmosphere to Electrons: Enabling the Wind Plant of Tomorrow a2e-fact-sheet-cover-thumbnail.jpg The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmosphere to Electrons (A2e) research initiative is focused on improving the performance and reliability of wind plants by establishing an unprecedented understanding of how the Earth's atmosphere interacts with the wind plants and developing innovative technologies to maximize energy

  6. DOE - NNSA/NFO -- Photo Library Atmospheric Testing

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric NNSA/NFO Language Options U.S. DOE/NNSA - Nevada Field Office Photo Library - Atmospheric Testing A total of 100 atmospheric tests were conducted at the Nevada Test Site. These tests were conducted to provide information on weapons effects, effects of the height of burst on overpressure, and information on nuclear phenomena to improve the design of nuclear weapons. Atmospheric testing ceased for good in 1963, after which nuclear testing moved underground. Instructions: Click the

  7. SOAR Data: Data from Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Country of Publication: United States Availability: Special Interface Available Language: ... interrelations; NOAA's Scientific Computer System (SCS); ARM; Atmospheric Radiation ...

  8. Overview of the United States Department of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement) Program (Conference) | SciTech Connect Conference: Overview of the United States Department of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Overview of the United States Department of Energy's ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Program The Department of Energy (DOE) is initiating a major atmospheric research effort, the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM). The program is a key component of DOE's

  9. National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center | National Nuclear Security

    National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

    Administration National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center NARAC Logo NNSA's Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability's (ARAC) role in an emergency begins when hazardous material is released into the atmosphere by a radiological dispersal device, improvised nuclear weapon, or nuclear radiological accident. ARAC is hosted in a facility called the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC), operated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The NARAC's centralized, worldwide

  10. Processing materials inside an atmospheric-pressure radiofrequency nonthermal plasma discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Selwyn, Gary S.; Henins, Ivars; Park, Jaeyoung; Herrmann, Hans W.

    2006-04-11

    Apparatus for the processing of materials involving placing a material either placed between an radio-frequency electrode and a ground electrode, or which is itself one of the electrodes. This is done in atmospheric pressure conditions. The apparatus effectively etches or cleans substrates, such as silicon wafers, or provides cleaning of spools and drums, and uses a gas containing an inert gas and a chemically reactive gas.

  11. Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport:

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport: Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport: Sensitivity to Modelled Particle Characteristics Model-simulated transport of atmospheric trace components can be combined with observed concentrations to obtain estimates of

  12. Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    We further elucidated how aerosols change convective intensity, diabatic heating, and regional circulation under different environmental conditions and concluded that wind shear ...

  13. FPC conditioning cart at BNL

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, W.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Altinbas, F.Z.; Belomestnykh, S.; Burrill, A.; Cole, M.; Deonarine, J.; Jamilkowski, J.; Kayran, D.; Laloudakis, N.; Masi Jr, L.; McIntyre, G.; Pate, D.; Philips, D.; Seda, T.; Steszyn, A.; Tallerico, T.; Todd, R.; Weiss, D.; White, G.; Zaltsman, A.

    2011-03-28

    The 703 MHz superconducting gun for the BNL Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) prototype has two fundamental power couplers (FPCs), and each of them will deliver up to 500 kW of CW RF power. In order to prepare the couplers for high power RF service and process multipacting, the FPCs should be conditioned prior to installation into the gun cryomodule. A conditioning cart based test stand, which includes a vacuum pumping system, controllable bake-out system, diagnostics, interlocks and data log system has been designed, constructed and commissioned by collaboration of BNL and AES. This paper presents FPC conditioning cart systems and the conditioning process.

  14. Sub-discretized surface model with application to contact mechanics in multi-body simulation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Johnson, S; Williams, J

    2008-02-28

    The mechanics of contact between rough and imperfectly spherical adhesive powder grains are often complicated by a variety of factors, including several which vary over sub-grain length scales. These include several traction factors that vary spatially over the surface of the individual grains, including high energy electron and acceptor sites (electrostatic), hydrophobic and hydrophilic sites (electrostatic and capillary), surface energy (general adhesion), geometry (van der Waals and mechanical), and elasto-plastic deformation (mechanical). For mechanical deformation and reaction, coupled motions, such as twisting with bending and sliding, as well as surface roughness add an asymmetry to the contact force which invalidates assumptions for popular models of contact, such as the Hertzian and its derivatives, for the non-adhesive case, and the JKR and DMT models for adhesive contacts. Though several contact laws have been offered to ameliorate these drawbacks, they are often constrained to particular loading paths (most often normal loading) and are relatively complicated for computational implementation. This paper offers a simple and general computational method for augmenting contact law predictions in multi-body simulations through characterization of the contact surfaces using a hierarchically-defined surface sub-discretization. For the case of adhesive contact between powder grains in low stress regimes, this technique can allow a variety of existing contact laws to be resolved across scales, allowing for moments and torques about the contact area as well as normal and tangential tractions to be resolved. This is especially useful for multi-body simulation applications where the modeler desires statistical distributions and calibration for parameters in contact laws commonly used for resolving near-surface contact mechanics. The approach is verified against analytical results for the case of rough, elastic spheres.

  15. Explicit spatial scattering for load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel discrete-event simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Thulasidasan, Sunil; Kasiviswanathan, Shiva; Eidenbenz, Stephan; Romero, Philip

    2010-01-01

    We re-examine the problem of load balancing in conservatively synchronized parallel, discrete-event simulations executed on high-performance computing clusters, focusing on simulations where computational and messaging load tend to be spatially clustered. Such domains are frequently characterized by the presence of geographic 'hot-spots' - regions that generate significantly more simulation events than others. Examples of such domains include simulation of urban regions, transportation networks and networks where interaction between entities is often constrained by physical proximity. Noting that in conservatively synchronized parallel simulations, the speed of execution of the simulation is determined by the slowest (i.e most heavily loaded) simulation process, we study different partitioning strategies in achieving equitable processor-load distribution in domains with spatially clustered load. In particular, we study the effectiveness of partitioning via spatial scattering to achieve optimal load balance. In this partitioning technique, nearby entities are explicitly assigned to different processors, thereby scattering the load across the cluster. This is motivated by two observations, namely, (i) since load is spatially clustered, spatial scattering should, intuitively, spread the load across the compute cluster, and (ii) in parallel simulations, equitable distribution of CPU load is a greater determinant of execution speed than message passing overhead. Through large-scale simulation experiments - both of abstracted and real simulation models - we observe that scatter partitioning, even with its greatly increased messaging overhead, significantly outperforms more conventional spatial partitioning techniques that seek to reduce messaging overhead. Further, even if hot-spots change over the course of the simulation, if the underlying feature of spatial clustering is retained, load continues to be balanced with spatial scattering leading us to the observation that spatial scattering can often obviate the need for dynamic load balancing.

  16. Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Free-Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas G. A. Wurden, Z. Wang, C. Ticos Los Alamos National Laboratory L Al NM 87545 USA Los Alamos, NM 87545 USA C. J. v. Wurden Los Alamos High School L Al NM 87544 Los Alamos, NM 87544 Presented at the PPPL Colloquium Sept. 17, 2008 U N C L A S S I F I E D Operated by the Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the DOE/NNSA LA-UR-08-06284 Outline of this talk *A discussion of ball lightning reports in nature *How can ball plasmas be made in the

  17. Magnetospheric structure and atmospheric Joule heating of habitable planets orbiting M-dwarf stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Cohen, O.; Drake, J. J.; Garraffo, C.; Poppenhaeger, K.; Glocer, A.; Ridley, A. J.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2014-07-20

    We study the magnetospheric structure and the ionospheric Joule Heating of planets orbiting M-dwarf stars in the habitable zone using a set of magnetohydrodynamic models. The stellar wind solution is used to drive a model for the planetary magnetosphere, which is coupled with a model for the planetary ionosphere. Our simulations reveal that the space environment around close-in habitable planets is extreme, and the stellar wind plasma conditions change from sub- to super-Alfvénic along the planetary orbit. As a result, the magnetospheric structure changes dramatically with a bow shock forming in the super-Alfvénic sectors, while no bow shock forms in the sub-Alfvénic sectors. The planets reside most of the time in the sub-Alfvénic sectors with poor atmospheric protection. A significant amount of Joule Heating is provided at the top of the atmosphere as a result of the intense stellar wind. For the steady-state solution, the heating is about 0.1%-3% of the total incoming stellar irradiation, and it is enhanced by 50% for the time-dependent case. The significant Joule Heating obtained here should be considered in models for the atmospheres of habitable planets in terms of the thickness of the atmosphere, the top-side temperature and density, the boundary conditions for the atmospheric pressure, and particle radiation and transport. Here we assume constant ionospheric Pedersen conductance similar to that of the Earth. The conductance could be greater due to the intense EUV radiation leading to smaller heating rates. We plan to quantify the ionospheric conductance in future study.

  18. Automated quadrilateral surface discretization method and apparatus usable to generate mesh in a finite element analysis system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Blacker, Teddy D.

    1994-01-01

    An automatic quadrilateral surface discretization method and apparatus is provided for automatically discretizing a geometric region without decomposing the region. The automated quadrilateral surface discretization method and apparatus automatically generates a mesh of all quadrilateral elements which is particularly useful in finite element analysis. The generated mesh of all quadrilateral elements is boundary sensitive, orientation insensitive and has few irregular nodes on the boundary. A permanent boundary of the geometric region is input and rows are iteratively layered toward the interior of the geometric region. Also, an exterior permanent boundary and an interior permanent boundary for a geometric region may be input and the rows are iteratively layered inward from the exterior boundary in a first counter clockwise direction while the rows are iteratively layered from the interior permanent boundary toward the exterior of the region in a second clockwise direction. As a result, a high quality mesh for an arbitrary geometry may be generated with a technique that is robust and fast for complex geometric regions and extreme mesh gradations.

  19. Numerical study on microwave-sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Yang, Y.; Hua, W. Guo, S. Y.

    2014-04-15

    A numerical study on microwave sustained argon discharge under atmospheric pressure is reported in this paper. The purpose of this study is to investigate both the process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited gas discharge under atmospheric pressure, thereby aiding improvements in the design of the discharge system, setting the appropriate working time, and controlling the operating conditions. A 3D model is presented, which includes the physical processes of electromagnetic wave propagation, electron transport, heavy species transport, gas flow, and heat transfer. The results can be obtained by means of the fluid approximation. The maxima of the electron density and gas temperature are 4.96 × 10{sup 18} m{sup −3} and 2514.8 K, respectively, and the gas pressure remains almost unchanged for typical operating conditions with a gas flow rate of 20 l/min, microwave power of 1000 W, and initial temperature of 473 K. In addition, the conditions (microwave power, gas flow rate, and initial temperature) of discharge are varied to obtain deeper information about the electron density and gas temperature. The results of our numerical study are valid and clearly describe both the physical process and effects of the conditions of microwave-excited argon discharge.

  20. EFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 39 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Apr 2013) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  1. EFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 26 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Apr 2013) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  2. EFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 29 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2 AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Apr 2013) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  3. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 31 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  4. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 19 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  5. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 22 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2014) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  6. LFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 9/26/14) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 22 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2014) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  7. SFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 29 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  8. SFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    2, 6/14/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 16 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  9. SFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 19 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  10. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 33 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  11. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    5, 3/6/15) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 29 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2014) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  12. CPFFS Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    4, 9/26/14) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 29 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2014) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  13. AES Exhibit A General Conditions

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1, 4/9/13) Exhibit A General Conditions Page 1 of 31 EXHIBIT "A" GENERAL CONDITIONS TABLE OF CONTENTS GC Title Page GC-1 DEFINITIONS (Aug 2012) .......................................................................................................... 3 GC-2A AUTHORIZED REPRESENTATIVES, COMMUNICATIONS AND NOTICES (Jan 2010) ........................................................................................................................................... 3 GC-3 INDEPENDENT

  14. Cable twisting due to atmospheric icing

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McComber, P.; Druez, J.; Savadjiev, K.

    1995-12-31

    Samples of ice accretions collected on cables of overhead transmission lines have shown evidence of twisting of the cable during atmospheric icing. Previous work has attributed cable twisting to the torque created by the weight of an eccentric ice shape and by wind forces. However, testing of stranded cables and conductors has shown that such cables also twist when there is a change in tension in the cable span. This phenomenon is related to the interaction of the different strand layers under tension. When a cable is subjected to atmospheric icing, cable tension increases and this type of twisting should also be considered. In order to determine how the two types of twisting would compare on transmission lines, a numerical simulation was made using characteristics of a typical 35-mm stranded conductor. The twist angle was computed as a function of cable span, sag to span ratio and increasing ice loads. The simulation shows that for transmission lines, twisting due to varying tension will be significant. Since cable tension is influenced by wind speed and ambient temperature as well as ice load, this phenomenon, unless prevented, results in ice accretion more circular in shape and hence eventually in larger ice loads.

  15. Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer (AERI) Handbook

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Gero, Jonathan; Hackel, Denny; Garcia, Raymond

    2005-01-01

    The atmospheric emitted radiance interferometer (AERI) is a ground-based instrument that measures the downwelling infrared radiance from the Earth’s atmosphere. The observations have broad spectral content and sufficient spectral resolution to discriminate among gaseous emitters (e.g., carbon dioxide and water vapor) and suspended matter (e.g., aerosols, water droplets, and ice crystals). These upward-looking surface observations can be used to obtain vertical profiles of tropospheric temperature and water vapor, as well as measurements of trace gases (e.g., ozone, carbon monoxide, and methane) and downwelling infrared spectral signatures of clouds and aerosols.The AERI is a passive remote sounding instrument, employing a Fourier transform spectrometer operating in the spectral range 3.3–19.2 μm (520–3020 cm-1) at an unapodized resolution of 0.5 cm-1 (max optical path difference of 1 cm). The extended-range AERI (ER-AERI) deployed in dry climates, like in Alaska, have a spectral range of 3.3–25.0 μm (400–3020 cm-1) that allow measurements in the far-infrared region. Typically, the AERI averages views of the sky over a 16-second interval and operates continuously.

  16. Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersal 3.2

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (OSTI)

    2001-06-26

    ERAD (Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersal) is a 3D numerical transport and diffusion model, used to model the consequences associated with the buoyant (or nonbuoyant) dispersal of radioactive material It incorporates an integral plume rise model to simulate the buoyant rise of heated gases following an explosive detonation. treating buoyancy effects from time zero onward, eliminating the need for the stabilized doud assumption, and enabling the penetration of inversions. Modeling of the atmospheric boundary layer usesmore » contemporary parameterization based on scaling theories derived from observational, laboratory and numerical studies. A Monte Carlo stochastic process simulates particle dispersion. Results were validated for both dose and deposition against measurements taken during Operation Roller Coaster (a joint US-UK test performed at NTS). Meteorology is defined using a single vertical sounding containing wind speed and direction and temperature as a function of height. Post processing applies 50-year CEDE DCFs (either ICRP 26 or 60) to determine the contribution of the relevant dose pathways (inhalation, submersion, and ground shine) as well as the total dose received. Dose and deposition contours are overlaid on a fully integrated worldwide GIS and tabulates hearth effects (fatalities and casualties) to resident population. The software runs on a laptop and takes less than 2 minutes to process. The Municipal version of ERAD does not include the ability to model the mitigation effects of aqueous foam.« less

  17. Cold atmospheric plasma in cancer therapy

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keidar, Michael; Shashurin, Alex; Volotskova, Olga; Ann Stepp, Mary; Srinivasan, Priya; Sandler, Anthony; Trink, Barry

    2013-05-15

    Recent progress in atmospheric plasmas has led to the creation of cold plasmas with ion temperature close to room temperature. This paper outlines recent progress in understanding of cold plasma physics as well as application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) in cancer therapy. Varieties of novel plasma diagnostic techniques were developed recently in a quest to understand physics of CAP. It was established that the streamer head charge is about 10{sup 8} electrons, the electrical field in the head vicinity is about 10{sup 7} V/m, and the electron density of the streamer column is about 10{sup 19} m{sup ?3}. Both in-vitro and in-vivo studies of CAP action on cancer were performed. It was shown that the cold plasma application selectively eradicates cancer cells in-vitro without damaging normal cells and significantly reduces tumor size in-vivo. Studies indicate that the mechanism of action of cold plasma on cancer cells is related to generation of reactive oxygen species with possible induction of the apoptosis pathway. It is also shown that the cancer cells are more susceptible to the effects of CAP because a greater percentage of cells are in the S phase of the cell cycle.

  18. Effects from influent boundary conditions on tracer migration and spatial variability features in intermediate-scale experiments

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fuentes, H.R.; Polzer, W.L.; Springer, E.P.

    1987-04-01

    In previous unsaturated transport studies at Los Alamos dispersion coefficients were estimated to be higher close to the tracer source than at greater distances from the source. Injection of tracers through discrete influent outlets could have accounted for those higher dispersions. Also, a lack of conservation of mass of the tracers was observed and suspected to be due to spatial variability in transport. In the present study experiments were performed under uniform influent (ponded) conditions in which breakthrough of tracers was monitored at four locations at each of four depths. All other conditions were similar to those of the unsaturated transport experiments. A comparison of results from these two sets of experiments indicates differences in the parameter estimates. Estimates were made for the dispersion coefficient and the retardation factor by the one-dimensional steady flow computer code, CFITIM. Estimates were also made for mass and for velocity and the dispersion coefficient by the method of moments. The dispersion coefficient decreased with depth under discrete influent application and increased with depth under ponded influent application. Retardation was predicted better under the discrete influent application than under ponded influent application. Differences in breakthroughs and in estimated parameters among locations at the same depth were observed under ponded influent application. Those differences indicate that there is a lack of conservation of mass as well as significant spatial variability across the experimental domain. 14 refs., 9 figs., 8 tabs.

  19. Energy Exchange Terms and Conditions

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    We will be requesting that participants acknowledge that they have read these terms and conditions at the time of registration (also included in the online registration form) and at the time of printing their badges on-site.

  20. Conditioning biomass for microbial growth

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bodie, Elizabeth A; England, George

    2015-03-31

    The present invention relates to methods for improving the yield of microbial processes that use lignocellulose biomass as a nutrient source. The methods comprise conditioning a composition comprising lignocellulose biomass with an enzyme composition that comprises a phenol oxidizing enzyme. The conditioned composition can support a higher rate of growth of microorganisms in a process. In one embodiment, a laccase composition is used to condition lignocellulose biomass derived from non-woody plants, such as corn and sugar cane. The invention also encompasses methods for culturing microorganisms that are sensitive to inhibitory compounds in lignocellulose biomass. The invention further provides methods of making a product by culturing the production microorganisms in conditioned lignocellulose biomass.

  1. Emulation to simulate low resolution atmospheric data

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hebbur Venkata Subba Rao, Vishwas [ORNL; Archibald, Richard K [ORNL; Evans, Katherine J [ORNL

    2012-08-01

    Climate simulations require significant compute power, they are complex and therefore it is time consuming to simulate them. We have developed an emulator to simulate unknown climate datasets. The emulator uses stochastic collocation and multi-dimensional in- terpolation to simulate the datasets. We have used the emulator to determine various physical quantities such as temperature, short and long wave cloud forcing, zonal winds etc. The emulation gives results which are very close to those obtained by simulations. The emulator was tested on 2 degree atmospheric datasets. The work evaluates the pros and cons of evaluating the mean first and inter- polating and vice versa. To determine the physical quantities, we have assumed them to be a function of time, longitude, latitude and a random parameter. We have looked at parameters that govern high stable clouds, low stable clouds, timescale for convection etc. The emulator is especially useful as it requires negligible compute times when compared to the simulation itself.

  2. Aeras: A next generation global atmosphere model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Spotz, William F.; Smith, Thomas M.; Demeshko, Irina P.; Fike, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a new global atmosphere model named Aeras that is performance portable and supports the quantification of uncertainties. These next-generation capabilities are enabled by building Aeras on top of Albany, a code base that supports the rapid development of scientific application codes while leveraging Sandia's foundational mathematics and computer science packages in Trilinos and Dakota. Embedded uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an original design capability of Albany, and performance portability is a recent upgrade. Other required features, such as shell-type elements, spectral elements, efficient explicit and semi-implicit time-stepping, transient sensitivity analysis, and concurrent ensembles, were not components of Albany as the project began, and have been (or are being) added by the Aeras team. We present early UQ and performance portability results for the shallow water equations.

  3. Atmospheric transmittance model for photosynthetically active radiation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Paulescu, Marius; Stefu, Nicoleta; Gravila, Paul; Paulescu, Eugenia; Boata, Remus; Pacurar, Angel; Mares, Oana; Pop, Nicolina; Calinoiu, Delia

    2013-11-13

    A parametric model of the atmospheric transmittance in the PAR band is presented. The model can be straightforwardly applied for calculating the beam, diffuse and global components of the PAR solar irradiance. The required inputs are: air pressure, ozone, water vapor and nitrogen dioxide column content, Ångström's turbidity coefficient and single scattering albedo. Comparison with other models and ground measured data shows a reasonable level of accuracy for this model, making it suitable for practical applications. From the computational point of view the calculus is condensed into simple algebra which is a noticeable advantage. For users interested in speed-intensive computation of the effective PAR solar irradiance, a PC program based on the parametric equations along with a user guide are available online at http://solar.physics.uvt.ro/srms.

  4. Aeras: A next generation global atmosphere model

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Spotz, William F.; Smith, Thomas M.; Demeshko, Irina P.; Fike, Jeffrey A.

    2015-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories is developing a new global atmosphere model named Aeras that is performance portable and supports the quantification of uncertainties. These next-generation capabilities are enabled by building Aeras on top of Albany, a code base that supports the rapid development of scientific application codes while leveraging Sandia's foundational mathematics and computer science packages in Trilinos and Dakota. Embedded uncertainty quantification (UQ) is an original design capability of Albany, and performance portability is a recent upgrade. Other required features, such as shell-type elements, spectral elements, efficient explicit and semi-implicit time-stepping, transient sensitivity analysis, and concurrent ensembles, were not componentsmore » of Albany as the project began, and have been (or are being) added by the Aeras team. We present early UQ and performance portability results for the shallow water equations.« less

  5. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed the statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.

  6. Atmospheric Dispersion Effects in Weak Lensing Measurements

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Plazas, Andrés Alejandro; Bernstein, Gary

    2012-10-01

    The wavelength dependence of atmospheric refraction causes elongation of finite-bandwidth images along the elevation vector, which produces spurious signals in weak gravitational lensing shear measurements unless this atmospheric dispersion is calibrated and removed to high precision. Because astrometric solutions and PSF characteristics are typically calibrated from stellar images, differences between the reference stars' spectra and the galaxies' spectra will leave residual errors in both the astrometric positions (dr) and in the second moment (width) of the wavelength-averaged PSF (dv) for galaxies.We estimate the level of dv that will induce spurious weak lensing signals in PSF-corrected galaxy shapes that exceed themore » statistical errors of the DES and the LSST cosmic-shear experiments. We also estimate the dr signals that will produce unacceptable spurious distortions after stacking of exposures taken at different airmasses and hour angles. We also calculate the errors in the griz bands, and find that dispersion systematics, uncorrected, are up to 6 and 2 times larger in g and r bands,respectively, than the requirements for the DES error budget, but can be safely ignored in i and z bands. For the LSST requirements, the factors are about 30, 10, and 3 in g, r, and i bands,respectively. We find that a simple correction linear in galaxy color is accurate enough to reduce dispersion shear systematics to insignificant levels in the r band for DES and i band for LSST,but still as much as 5 times than the requirements for LSST r-band observations. More complex corrections will likely be able to reduce the systematic cosmic-shear errors below statistical errors for LSST r band. But g-band effects remain large enough that it seems likely that induced systematics will dominate the statistical errors of both surveys, and cosmic-shear measurements should rely on the redder bands.« less

  7. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilson, T. W.; Ladino, L. A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Breckels, M. N.; Brooks, I. M.; Browse, J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Huffman, J. A.; Judd, C.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; McFiggans, Gordon; Miller, L. A.; Najera, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Rae, S.; Schiller, C. L.; Si, M.; Vergara Temprado, J.; Whale, Thomas; Wong, J P S; Wurl, O.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Abbatt, JPD; Aller, Josephine Y.; Bertram, Allan K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Murray, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-09

    The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice nucleating particles1,2. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice3–11. Here we show that material in the sea surface microlayer, which is enriched in surface active organic material representative of that found in sub-micron sea- spray aerosol12–21, nucleates ice under conditions that occur in mixed-phase clouds and high-altitude ice clouds. The ice active material is likely biogenic and is less than ~0.2 ?m in size. We also show that organic material (exudate) released by a common marine diatom nucleates ice when separated from cells and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates are a candidate for the observed ice nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. By combining our measurements with global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, we show that ice nucleating particles of marine origin are dominant in remote marine environments, such as the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic.

  8. Atmospheric escape by magnetically driven wind from gaseous planets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tanaka, Yuki A.; Suzuki, Takeru K.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2014-09-01

    We calculate the mass loss driven by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves from hot Jupiters by using MHD simulations in one-dimensional flux tubes. If a gaseous planet has a magnetic field, MHD waves are excited by turbulence at the surface, dissipate in the upper atmosphere, and drive gas outflows. Our calculation shows that mass-loss rates are comparable to the observed mass-loss rates of hot Jupiters; therefore, it is suggested that gas flow driven by MHD waves can play an important role in the mass loss from gaseous planets. The mass-loss rate varies dramatically with the radius and mass of a planet: a gaseous planet with a small mass but an inflated radius produces a very large mass-loss rate. We also derive an analytical expression for the dependence of mass-loss rate on planet radius and mass that is in good agreement with the numerical calculation. The mass-loss rate also depends on the amplitude of the velocity dispersion at the surface of a planet. Thus, we expect to infer the condition of the surface and the internal structure of a gaseous planet from future observations of mass-loss rate from various exoplanets.

  9. DOE Science Showcase: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement | OSTI, US Dept of

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information Showcase: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement A scanning cloud radar was one of the instruments taking measurements during GoAmazon 2014/2015. Image credit: ARM Program Atmospheric radiation measurements are fundamental data used to better understand the radiation budget of the earth, why climate is changing, and how climate change will affect our future. DOE's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was established as a

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Future Directions of the ARM Science Program (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan. Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science

  11. Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Oxygen detected in atmosphere of Saturn's moon Dione Scientists and an international research team have announced discovery of molecular oxygen ions in the upper-most atmosphere of Dione. March 3, 2012 Los Alamos National Laboratory sits on top of a once-remote mesa in northern New Mexico with the Jemez mountains as a backdrop to research and innovation covering multi-disciplines from bioscience, sustainable energy sources, to plasma physics

  12. Shortwave Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Shortwave Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Shortwave Radiative Closure Studies for Clear Skies During the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement 2003 Aerosol Intensive Observation Period The Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program

  13. Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) Field Campaign Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds, and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) Field Campaign Report Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional

  14. Clear Skies S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc.

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Cambridge, MA 02139 The objective of this research effort is to develop radiative transfer models that are consistent with Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program spectral radiance measurements for clear and cloudy atmospheres. Our approach is to develop the model physics and related databases with a line-by-line model in the context of available spectral radiance measurements. The line-by- line mode! then functions as an

  15. Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    data in polar surface energy flux estimates. Annual progress report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates. Annual progress report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sea ice-atmospheric interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates. Annual progress report This is the third annual report on: Sea Ice-Atmosphere Interaction -

  16. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ASSIST): channel 1 data (Dataset) | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): channel 1 data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): channel 1 data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): channel 1 data Authors: Albert Mendoza ; Connor Flynn Publication Date: 2012-12-07 OSTI Identifier: 1095589 DOE Contract Number:

  17. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ASSIST): channel 2 data (Dataset) | Data Explorer channel 2 data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): channel 2 data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): channel 2 data Authors: Albert Mendoza ; Connor Flynn Publication Date: 2012-12-07 OSTI Identifier: 1095590 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)

  18. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ASSIST): engineering data (Dataset) | Data Explorer engineering data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): engineering data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): engineering data Authors: Albert Mendoza ; Connor Flynn Publication Date: 2012-12-07 OSTI Identifier: 1095591 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement

  19. ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (ASSIST): summary data (Dataset) | Data Explorer summary data Title: ARM: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): summary data Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST): summary data Authors: Albert Mendoza ; Connor Flynn Publication Date: 2012-12-07 OSTI Identifier: 1095592 DOE Contract Number: DE-AC05-00OR22725 Resource Type: Dataset Data Type: Numeric Data Research Org: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Archive,

  20. Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST)

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Handbook (Dataset) | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Handbook Title: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST) Handbook The Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology (ASSIST), like the AERI, measures infrared spectral zenith radiance at high spectral resolution. Authors: Flynn,Connor ; Mendoza,Albert Publication Date: 2016-03-01 OSTI Identifier:

  1. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Program (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Technical Report: Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program (ARM) maintains a fleet of monitoring stations to aid in the improved scientific

  2. Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Data Analysis Methods

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 Posters Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer Data Analysis Methods R. O. Knuteson, W. L. Smith, S. A. Ackerman, H. E. Revercomb, H. Woolf, and H. Howell Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin Introduction Data from the Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Inter- ferometer (AERI) have been analyzed for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's Fourier Transform Data Analysis Tools science team project under the

  3. SRNL EMERGENCY RESPONSE CAPABILITY FOR ATMOSPHERIC CONTAMINANT RELEASES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Koffman, L; Chuck Hunter, C; Robert Buckley, R; Robert Addis, R

    2006-07-12

    Emergency response to an atmospheric release of chemical or radiological contamination is enhanced when plume predictions, field measurements, and real-time weather information are integrated into a geospatial framework. The Weather Information and Display (WIND) System at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) utilizes such an integrated framework. The rapid availability of predictions from a suite of atmospheric transport models within this geospatial framework has proven to be of great value to decision makers during an emergency involving an atmospheric contaminant release.

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Niamey, Niger...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Meteosat operational geostationary satellite in order to provide the first well-sampled, direct estimates of the divergence of solar and thermal radiation across the atmosphere. ...

  5. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    ... radiation (237) climate models (206) radar reflectivity (194) aerosols (188) climatic change (168) research programs (157) vertical velocity (155) atmospheric chemistry (146) ...

  6. Search for: "atmospheric radiation measurement" | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    models (141) remote sensing (141) water vapor (132) earth atmosphere (130) ... of instrument power supplies and the final amplifier to the vendor to complete repairs. ...

  7. Method of Enhancing the Signal at the Atmosphere Produced by...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Enhancing the Signal at the Atmosphere Produced by an Electron Beam Injected from an Earth Orbiting Spacecraft One of the most important problems in space research, whose...

  8. ARM - Field Campaign - Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Related Campaigns 2013 Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment 2013.05.28, Turner, SGP ... Lead Scientist : David Turner For data sets, see below. Abstract Boundary layer turbulence ...

  9. ARM - Field Campaign - 2013 Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment 2012.09.17, Turner, SGP Comments? We would ... Lead Scientist : David Turner For data sets, see below. Abstract Instruments were deployed ...

  10. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Point Reyes, California for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes, California ...

  11. Duplex Rules June 2010 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Duplex Rules June 2010 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility North Slope of AlaskaAdjacent Arctic Ocean (ACRFNSAAAO) Duplex Rules Who can stay in the ...

  12. Atmospheric Dispersion Parameter (x/Q) for Calculation of Co...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Nuclear facilities that are potentially affected by the situation described above should review their atmospheric dispersion assumptions and NSRD- 2015-TD01. Attachment E of...

  13. Posters Scanning Raman Lidar Measurements of Atmospheric Water...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Program (ARM) is to develop a better understanding of the atmospheric radiative balance in order to improve the parameterization of radiative processes in general...

  14. An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Journal Article: An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5: Ensemble 3DCVA and Its Application ...

  15. Good Is Not Enough: Improving Measurements of Atmospheric Particles

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    scatter sunlight, with other particle properties. These properties include particle size, chemical composition, and ability to soak up atmospheric water. By linking these...

  16. Atmospheric Chemistry and Greenhouse Gases (Book) | SciTech Connect

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Chapter 4 of the IPCC Third Assessment Report Climate Change ... Questions 2774.6 Overall Impact of Global Atmospheric ... Language: English Subject: 54 ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCES; ...

  17. Posters Objective Analysis Schemes to Monitor Atmospheric Radiation...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Objective Analysis Schemes to Monitor Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Data in Near Real-Time M. Splitt University of Oklahoma Norman, Oklahoma Recent work in this area by Charles ...

  18. Atmosphere-Land-Surface Interaction over the Southern Great Plains...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Plains: Diagnosis of Mechanisms from SGP ARM Data Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmosphere-Land-Surface Interaction over the Southern Great Plains: Diagnosis of ...

  19. Estimating atmospheric parameters and reducing noise for multispectral imaging

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for estimating atmospheric radiance and transmittance. An atmospheric estimation system is divided into a first phase and a second phase. The first phase inputs an observed multispectral image and an initial estimate of the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band and calculates the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band, which can be used to generate a "corrected" multispectral image that is an estimate of the surface multispectral image. The second phase inputs the observed multispectral image and the surface multispectral image that was generated by the first phase and removes noise from the surface multispectral image by smoothing out change in average deviations of temperatures.

  20. Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Diesel and Gasoline Engine Emissions: Characterization of Atmosphere Composition and Health Responses to Inhaled Emissions 2005 Diesel Engine Emissions Reduction (DEER) Conference ...

  1. Estimating Bacteria Emissions from Inversion of Atmospheric Transport...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the uncertainties in the transport of atmospheric aerosol particles should be treated explicitly and systematically in both forward and inverse modelling studies. less Authors: ...

  2. ARM - Field Campaign - Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Campaign Links ERASMUS Backgrounder News & Press Images Comments? We would love to hear from...

  3. Broadband Outdoor Radiometer Calibration Process for the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    the basic physics related to radiative feedback processes in the atmosphere, ... Have feedback or suggestions for a way to improve these results? Save Share this ...

  4. Experimental study of elliptical jet from sub to supercritical conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Muthukumaran, C. K.; Vaidyanathan, Aravind

    2014-04-15

    The jet mixing at supercritical conditions involves fluid dynamics as well as thermodynamic phenomena. All the jet mixing studies at critical conditions to the present date have focused only on axisymmetric jets. When the liquid jet is injected into supercritical environment, the thermodynamic transition could be well understood by considering one of the important fluid properties such as surface tension since it decides the existence of distinct boundary between the liquid and gaseous phase. It is well known that an elliptical liquid jet undergoes axis-switching phenomena under atmospheric conditions due to the presence of surface tension. The experimental investigations were carried out with low speed elliptical jet under supercritical condition. Investigation of the binary component system with fluoroketone jet and N{sub 2} gas as environment shows that the surface tension force dominates for a large downstream distance, indicating delayed thermodynamic transition. The increase in pressure to critical state at supercritical temperature is found to expedite the thermodynamic transition. The ligament like structures has been observed rather than droplets for supercritical pressures. However, for the single component system with fluoroketone jet and fluoroketone environment shows that the jet disintegrates into droplets as it is subjected to the chamber conditions even for the subcritical pressures and no axis switching phenomenon is observed. For a single component system, as the pressure is increased to critical state, the liquid jet exhibits gas-gas like mixing behavior and that too without exhibiting axis-switching behavior.

  5. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    I: Simplified Space Conditioning in Low Load Homes Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part I: Simplified Space Conditioning in Low Load Homes ...

  6. Air Conditioning | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Heat & Cool » Home Cooling Systems » Air Conditioning Air Conditioning Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Two-thirds of all homes in the

  7. Spacetime averaged null energy condition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Urban, Douglas; Olum, Ken D.

    2010-06-15

    The averaged null energy condition has known violations for quantum fields in curved space, even when one considers only achronal geodesics. Many such examples involve rapid variation in the stress-energy tensor in the vicinity of the geodesic under consideration, giving rise to the possibility that averaging in additional dimensions would yield a principle universally obeyed by quantum fields. However, after discussing various procedures for additional averaging, including integrating over all dimensions of the manifold, we give here a class of examples that violate any such averaged condition.

  8. Extreme Conditions Modeling Workshop Report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Coe, R. G.; Neary, V. S.; Lawson, M. J.; Yu, Y.; Weber, J.

    2014-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) hosted the Wave Energy Converter (WEC) Extreme Conditions Modeling (ECM) Workshop in Albuquerque, NM on May 13th-14th, 2014. The objective of the workshop was to review the current state of knowledge on how to model WECs in extreme conditions (e.g. hurricanes and other large storms) and to suggest how U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and national laboratory resources could be used to improve ECM methods for the benefit of the wave energy industry.

  9. Photochemistry in terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. III. Photochemistry and thermochemistry in thick atmospheres on super Earths and mini Neptunes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu, Renyu; Seager, Sara

    2014-03-20

    Some super Earths and mini Neptunes will likely have thick atmospheres that are not H{sub 2}-dominated. We have developed a photochemistry-thermochemistry kinetic-transport model for exploring the compositions of thick atmospheres on super Earths and mini Neptunes, applicable for both H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres and non-H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres. Using this model to study thick atmospheres for wide ranges of temperatures and elemental abundances, we classify them into hydrogen-rich atmospheres, water-rich atmospheres, oxygen-rich atmospheres, and hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres. We find that carbon has to be in the form of CO{sub 2} rather than CH{sub 4} or CO in a H{sub 2}-depleted water-dominated thick atmosphere and that the preferred loss of light elements from an oxygen-poor carbon-rich atmosphere leads to the formation of unsaturated hydrocarbons (C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4}). We apply our self-consistent atmosphere models to compute spectra and diagnostic features for known transiting low-mass exoplanets GJ 1214 b, HD 97658 b, and 55 Cnc e. For GJ 1214 b, we find that (1) C{sub 2}H{sub 2} features at 1.0 and 1.5 ?m in transmission and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} and C{sub 2}H{sub 4} features at 9-14 ?m in thermal emission are diagnostic for hydrocarbon-rich atmospheres; (2) a detection of water-vapor features and a confirmation of the nonexistence of methane features would provide sufficient evidence for a water-dominated atmosphere. In general, our simulations show that chemical stability has to be taken into account when interpreting the spectrum of a super Earth/mini Neptune. Water-dominated atmospheres only exist for carbon to oxygen ratios much lower than the solar ratio, suggesting that this kind of atmospheres could be rare.

  10. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A.; Doyle, E.F.; DiBella, F.A.

    1994-03-08

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculates through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried. The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter and recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard. 17 figures.

  11. Steam atmosphere drying exhaust steam recompression system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Becker, Frederick E.; Smolensky, Leo A.; Doyle, Edward F.; DiBella, Francis A.

    1994-01-01

    This invention relates to a heated steam atmosphere drying system comprising dryer in combination with an exhaust recompression system which is extremely energy efficient and eliminates dangers known to air dryers. The system uses superheated steam as the drying medium, which recirculated through the system where its heat of evaporation and heat of compression is recovered, thereby providing a constant source of heat to the drying chamber. The dryer has inlets whereby feedstock and superheated steam are fed therein. High heat transfer and drying rates are achieved by intimate contact of the superheated steam with the particles being dried The dryer comprises a vessel which enables the feedstock and steam to enter recirculate together. When the feedstock becomes dry it will exit the dryer with the steam and become separated from the steam through the use of a curvilinear louver separator (CLS). The CLS enables removal of fine and ultrafine particles from the dryer. Water vapor separated from the particles in the CLS as superheated steam, may then be recovered and recirculated as steam through the use of a compressor to either directly or indirectly heat the dryer, and a heat exchanger or a heater to directly provide heat to the dryer. This system not only provides a very efficient heat transfer system but results in a minimum carry-over of ultrafine particles thereby eliminating any explosive hazard.

  12. Antineutrino Oscillations in the Atmospheric Sector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Himmel, Alexander I.; /Caltech

    2011-05-01

    This thesis presents measurements of the oscillations of muon antineutrinos in the atmospheric sector, where world knowledge of antineutrino oscillations lags well behind the knowledge of neutrinos, as well as a search for {nu}{sub {mu}} {yields} {bar {nu}}{sub {mu}} transitions. Differences between neutrino and antineutrino oscillations could be a sign of physics beyond the Standard Model, including non-standard matter interactions or the violation of CPT symmetry. These measurements leverage the sign-selecting capabilities of the magnetized steel-scintillator MINOS detectors to analyze antineutrinos from the NuMI beam, both when it is in neutrino-mode and when it is in antineutrino-mode. Antineutrino oscillations are observed at |{Delta}{bar m}{sub atm}{sup 2}| = (3.36{sub -0.40}{sup +0.46}(stat) {+-} 0.06(syst)) x 10{sup -3} eV{sup 2} and sin{sup 2}(2{bar {theta}}{sub 23}) = 0.860{sub -0.12}{sup +0.11}(stat) {+-} 0.01(syst). The oscillation parameters measured for antineutrinos and those measured by MINOS for neutrinos differ by a large enough margin that the chance of obtaining two values as discrepant as those observed is only 2%, assuming the two measurements arise from the same underlying mechanism, with the same parameter values. No evidence is seen for neutrino-to-antineutrino transitions.

  13. Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility March 2013 Style Guide Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility March 2013 Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research March 2013 ii Contents 1.0 Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1 2.0 Acronyms and Abbreviations

  14. Using Discrete Event Simulation for Programming Model Exploration at Extreme-Scale: Macroscale Components for the Structural Simulation Toolkit (SST).

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wilke, Jeremiah J; Kenny, Joseph P.

    2015-02-01

    Discrete event simulation provides a powerful mechanism for designing and testing new extreme- scale programming models for high-performance computing. Rather than debug, run, and wait for results on an actual system, design can first iterate through a simulator. This is particularly useful when test beds cannot be used, i.e. to explore hardware or scales that do not yet exist or are inaccessible. Here we detail the macroscale components of the structural simulation toolkit (SST). Instead of depending on trace replay or state machines, the simulator is architected to execute real code on real software stacks. Our particular user-space threading framework allows massive scales to be simulated even on small clusters. The link between the discrete event core and the threading framework allows interesting performance metrics like call graphs to be collected from a simulated run. Performance analysis via simulation can thus become an important phase in extreme-scale programming model and runtime system design via the SST macroscale components.

  15. Nonlinear diffusion acceleration for the multigroup transport equation discretized with S{sub N} and continuous FEM with rattlesnake

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Nonlinear diffusion acceleration (NDA) can improve the performance of a neutron transport solver significantly especially for the multigroup eigenvalue problems. The high-order transport equation and the transport-corrected low-order diffusion equation form a nonlinear system in NDA, which can be solved via a Picard iteration. The consistency of the correction of the low-order equation is important to ensure the stabilization and effectiveness of the iteration. It also makes the low-order equation preserve the scalar flux of the high-order equation. In this paper, the consistent correction for a particular discretization scheme, self-adjoint angular flux (SAAF) formulation with discrete ordinates method (S{sub N}) and continuous finite element method (CFEM) is proposed for the multigroup neutron transport equation. Equations with the anisotropic scatterings and a void treatment are included. The Picard iteration with this scheme has been implemented and tested with RattleS{sub N}ake, a MOOSE-based application at INL. Convergence results are presented. (authors)

  16. A suspended-particle rosette multi-sampler for discrete biogeochemical sampling in low-particle-density waters

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Breier, J. A.; Rauch, C. G.; McCartney, K.; Toner, B. M.; Fakra, S. C.; White, S. N.; German, C. R.

    2010-06-22

    To enable detailed investigations of early stage hydrothermal plume formation and abiotic and biotic plume processes we developed a new oceanographic tool. The Suspended Particulate Rosette sampling system has been designed to collect geochemical and microbial samples from the rising portion of deep-sea hydrothermal plumes. It can be deployed on a remotely operated vehicle for sampling rising plumes, on a wire-deployed water rosette for spatially discrete sampling of non-buoyant hydrothermal plumes, or on a fixed mooring in a hydrothermal vent field for time series sampling. It has performed successfully during both its first mooring deployment at the East Pacific Rise and its first remotely-operated vehicle deployments along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. It is currently capable of rapidly filtering 24 discrete large-water-volume samples (30-100 L per sample) for suspended particles during a single deployment (e.g. >90 L per sample at 4-7 L per minute through 1 {mu}m pore diameter polycarbonate filters). The Suspended Particulate Rosette sampler has been designed with a long-term goal of seafloor observatory deployments, where it can be used to collect samples in response to tectonic or other events. It is compatible with in situ optical sensors, such as laser Raman or visible reflectance spectroscopy systems, enabling in situ particle analysis immediately after sample collection and before the particles alter or degrade.

  17. THREE DISCRETE GROUPS WITH HOMOGENEOUS CHEMISTRY ALONG THE RED GIANT BRANCH IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 2808

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carretta, E.

    2014-11-10

    We present the homogeneous reanalysis of Mg and Al abundances from high resolution UVES/FLAMES spectra for 31 red giants in the globular cluster NGC 2808. We found a well defined Mg-Al anticorrelation reaching a regime of subsolar Mg abundance ratios, with a spread of about 1.4 dex in [Al/Fe]. The main result from the improved statistics of our sample is that the distribution of stars is not continuous along the anticorrelation because they are neatly clustered into three distinct clumps, each with different chemical compositions. One group (P) shows a primordial composition of field stars of similar metallicity, and the other two (I and E) have increasing abundances of Al and decreasing abundances of Mg. The fraction of stars we found in the three components (P: 68%, I: 19%, E: 13%) is in excellent agreement with the ratios computed for the three distinct main sequences in NGC 2808: for the first time there is a clear correspondence between discrete photometric sequences of dwarfs and distinct groups of giants with homogeneous chemistry. The composition of the I group cannot be reproduced by mixing of matter with extreme processing in hot H-burning and gas with pristine, unprocessed composition, as also found in the recent analysis of three discrete groups in NGC 6752. This finding suggests that different classes of polluters were probably at work in NGC 2808 as well.

  18. Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for ... mproving the performance of central space conditioning systems in multifamily buildings. ...

  19. Space Conditioning Standing Technical Commitee Presentation ...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Space Conditioning Standing Technical Commitee Presentation Space Conditioning Standing Technical Commitee Presentation This presentation outlines the goals of the Space ...

  20. Space Conditioning Standing Technical Committee Strategic Plan...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Committee Strategic Plan Space Conditioning Standing Technical Committee Strategic Plan ... identified by the Building America Space Conditioning Standing Technical Committee. ...

  1. he Impact of Primary Marine Aerosol on Atmospheric Chemistry, Radiation and Climate: A CCSM Model Development Study

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Keene, William C.; Long, Michael S.

    2013-05-20

    This project examined the potential large-scale influence of marine aerosol cycling on atmospheric chemistry, physics and radiative transfer. Measurements indicate that the size-dependent generation of marine aerosols by wind waves at the ocean surface and the subsequent production and cycling of halogen-radicals are important but poorly constrained processes that influence climate regionally and globally. A reliable capacity to examine the role of marine aerosol in the global-scale atmospheric system requires that the important size-resolved chemical processes be treated explicitly. But the treatment of multiphase chemistry across the breadth of chemical scenarios encountered throughout the atmosphere is sensitive to the initial conditions and the precision of the solution method. This study examined this sensitivity, constrained it using high-resolution laboratory and field measurements, and deployed it in a coupled chemical-microphysical 3-D atmosphere model. First, laboratory measurements of fresh, unreacted marine aerosol were used to formulate a sea-state based marine aerosol source parameterization that captured the initial organic, inorganic, and physical conditions of the aerosol population. Second, a multiphase chemical mechanism, solved using the Max Planck Institute for Chemistryâ??s MECCA (Module Efficiently Calculating the Chemistry of the Atmosphere) system, was benchmarked across a broad set of observed chemical and physical conditions in the marine atmosphere. Using these results, the mechanism was systematically reduced to maximize computational speed. Finally, the mechanism was coupled to the 3-mode modal aerosol version of the NCAR Community Atmosphere Model (CAM v3.6.33). Decadal-scale simulations with CAM v.3.6.33, were run both with and without reactive-halogen chemistry and with and without explicit treatment of particulate organic carbon in the marine aerosol source function. Simulated results were interpreted (1) to evaluate influences of marine aerosol production on the microphysical properties of aerosol populations and clouds over the ocean and the corresponding direct and indirect effects on radiative transfer; (2) atmospheric burdens of reactive halogen species and their impacts on O3, NOx, OH, DMS, and particulate non-sea-salt SO42-; and (3) the global production and influences of marine-derived particulate organic carbon. The model reproduced major characteristics of the marine aerosol system and demonstrated the potential sensitivity of global, decadal-scale climate metrics to multiphase marine-derived components of Earthâ??s troposphere. Due to the combined computational burden of the coupled system, the currently available computational resources were the limiting factor preventing the adequate statistical analysis of the overall impact that multiphase chemistry might have on climate-scale radiative transfer and climate.

  2. Molecule-based approach for computing chemical-reaction rates in upper atmosphere hypersonic flows.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gallis, Michail A.; Bond, Ryan Bomar; Torczynski, John Robert

    2009-08-01

    This report summarizes the work completed during FY2009 for the LDRD project 09-1332 'Molecule-Based Approach for Computing Chemical-Reaction Rates in Upper-Atmosphere Hypersonic Flows'. The goal of this project was to apply a recently proposed approach for the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method to calculate chemical-reaction rates for high-temperature atmospheric species. The new DSMC model reproduces measured equilibrium reaction rates without using any macroscopic reaction-rate information. Since it uses only molecular properties, the new model is inherently able to predict reaction rates for arbitrary nonequilibrium conditions. DSMC non-equilibrium reaction rates are compared to Park's phenomenological non-equilibrium reaction-rate model, the predominant model for hypersonic-flow-field calculations. For near-equilibrium conditions, Park's model is in good agreement with the DSMC-calculated reaction rates. For far-from-equilibrium conditions, corresponding to a typical shock layer, the difference between the two models can exceed 10 orders of magnitude. The DSMC predictions are also found to be in very good agreement with measured and calculated non-equilibrium reaction rates. Extensions of the model to reactions typically found in combustion flows and ionizing reactions are also found to be in very good agreement with available measurements, offering strong evidence that this is a viable and reliable technique to predict chemical reaction rates.

  3. Using Atmosphere-Forest Measurements To Examine The Potential For Reduced Downwind Dose

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Viner, B.

    2015-10-13

    A 2-D dispersion model was developed to address how airborne plumes interact with the forest at Savannah River Site. Parameters describing turbulence and mixing of the atmosphere within and just above the forest were estimated using measurements of water vapor or carbon dioxide concentration made at the Aiken AmeriFlux tower for a range of stability and seasonal conditions. Stability periods when the greatest amount of mixing of an airborne plume into the forest were found for 1) very unstable environments, when atmospheric turbulence is usually at a maximum, and 2) very stable environments, when the plume concentration at the forest top is at a maximum and small amounts of turbulent mixing can move a substantial portion of the plume into the forest. Plume interactions with the forest during stable periods are of particular importance because these conditions are usually considered the worst-case scenario for downwind effects from a plume. The pattern of plume mixing into the forest was similar during the year except during summer when the amount of plume mixed into the forest was nearly negligible for all but stable periods. If the model results indicating increased deposition into the forest during stable conditions can be confirmed, it would allow for a reduction in the limitations that restrict facility operations while maintaining conservative estimates for downwind effects. Continuing work is planned to confirm these results as well as estimate specific deposition velocity values for use in toolbox models used in regulatory roles.

  4. Surface water and atmospheric underway carbon data obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment Indian Ocean survey cruises (R/V Knorr, December 1998--January 1996)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kozyr, A.; Allison, L.

    1997-11-01

    This data documentation presents the results of the surface water and atmospheric underway measurements of mole fraction of carbon dioxide (xCO{sub 2}), sea surface salinity, and sea surface temperature, obtained during the World Ocean Circulation Experiment (WOCE) Indian Ocean survey cruises (December 1994--January 1996). Discrete and underway carbon measurements were made by members of the CO{sub 2} survey team. The survey team is a part of the Joint Global Ocean Flux Study supported by the US Department of Energy to make carbon-related measurements on the WOCE global survey cruises. Approximately 200,000 surface seawater and 50,000 marine air xCO{sub 2} measurements were recorded.

  5. Atmospheric process evaluation of mobile source emissions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1995-07-01

    During the past two decades there has been a considerable effort in the US to develop and introduce an alternative to the use of gasoline and conventional diesel fuel for transportation. The primary motives for this effort have been twofold: energy security and improvement in air quality, most notably ozone, or smog. The anticipated improvement in air quality is associated with a decrease in the atmospheric reactivity, and sometimes a decrease in the mass emission rate, of the organic gas and NO{sub x} emissions from alternative fuels when compared to conventional transportation fuels. Quantification of these air quality impacts is a prerequisite to decisions on adopting alternative fuels. The purpose of this report is to present a critical review of the procedures and data base used to assess the impact on ambient air quality of mobile source emissions from alternative and conventional transportation fuels and to make recommendations as to how this process can be improved. Alternative transportation fuels are defined as methanol, ethanol, CNG, LPG, and reformulated gasoline. Most of the discussion centers on light-duty AFVs operating on these fuels. Other advanced transportation technologies and fuels such as hydrogen, electric vehicles, and fuel cells, will not be discussed. However, the issues raised herein can also be applied to these technologies and other classes of vehicles, such as heavy-duty diesels (HDDs). An evaluation of the overall impact of AFVs on society requires consideration of a number of complex issues. It involves the development of new vehicle technology associated with engines, fuel systems, and emission control technology; the implementation of the necessary fuel infrastructure; and an appropriate understanding of the economic, health, safety, and environmental impacts associated with the use of these fuels. This report addresses the steps necessary to properly evaluate the impact of AFVs on ozone air quality.

  6. Pulsed microwave discharge in a capillary filled with atmospheric-pressure gas

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gritsinin, S. I.; Gushchin, P. A.; Davydov, A. M.; Ivanov, E. V.; Kossyi, I. A.

    2013-08-15

    A pulsed microwave coaxial capillary plasma source generating a thin plasma filament along the capillary axis in an atmospheric-pressure argon flow is described. The dynamics of filament formation is studied, and the parameters of the gas and plasma in the contraction region are determined. A physical model of discharge formation and propagation is proposed. The model is based on the assumption that, under the conditions in which the electric fields is substantially below the threshold value, the discharge operates in a specific form known as a self-sustained-non-self-sustained (SNS) microwave discharge.

  7. Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program: Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program -- Final Report. Part 1: The lower atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tooman, T.P.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents work done between FY91 and FY95 for the lower atmospheric portion of the joint Department of Defense (DoD) and Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Remote Sensing and Assessment Program (ARSAP) within the Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program (SERDP). The work focused on (1) developing new measurement capabilities and (2) measuring atmospheric heating in a well-defined layer and then relating it to cloud properties an water vapor content. Seven new instruments were develop3ed for use with Unmanned Aerospace Vehicles (UAVs) as the host platform for flux, radiance, cloud, and water vapor measurements. Four major field campaigns were undertaken to use these new as well as existing instruments to make critically needed atmospheric measurements. Scientific results include the profiling of clear sky fluxes from near surface to 14 km and the strong indication of cloudy atmosphere absorption of solar radiation considerably greater than predicted by extant models.

  8. A GRID OF THREE-DIMENSIONAL STELLAR ATMOSPHERE MODELS OF SOLAR METALLICITY. I. GENERAL PROPERTIES, GRANULATION, AND ATMOSPHERIC EXPANSION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trampedach, Regner; Asplund, Martin; Collet, Remo; Nordlund, Ake

    2013-05-20

    Present grids of stellar atmosphere models are the workhorses in interpreting stellar observations and determining their fundamental parameters. These models rely on greatly simplified models of convection, however, lending less predictive power to such models of late-type stars. We present a grid of improved and more reliable stellar atmosphere models of late-type stars, based on deep, three-dimensional (3D), convective, stellar atmosphere simulations. This grid is to be used in general for interpreting observations and improving stellar and asteroseismic modeling. We solve the Navier Stokes equations in 3D and concurrent with the radiative transfer equation, for a range of atmospheric parameters, covering most of stellar evolution with convection at the surface. We emphasize the use of the best available atomic physics for quantitative predictions and comparisons with observations. We present granulation size, convective expansion of the acoustic cavity, and asymptotic adiabat as functions of atmospheric parameters.

  9. Technetium Sorption By Cementitious Materials Under Reducing Conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kaplan, Daniel I.; Estes, Shanna L.; Arai, Yuji; Powell, Brian A.

    2013-07-18

    The objective of this study was to measure Tc sorption to cementitious materials under reducing conditions to simulate Saltstone Disposal Facility conditions. Earlier studies were conducted and the experimental conditions were found not to simulate those of the facility. Through a five month subcontract with Clemson University, sorption of {sup 99}Tc to four cementitious materials was examined within an anaerobic glovebag targeting a 0.1% H{sub 2}(g)/ 99.9% N{sub 2}(g) atmosphere. Early experiments based on Tc sorption and Eh indicated that 0.1% H{sub 2}(g) (a reductant) was necessary to preclude experimental impacts from O{sub 2}(g) diffusion into the glovebag. Preliminary data to date (up to 56 days) indicates that sorption of {sup 99}Tc to cementitious materials increased with increasing slag content for simulated saltstone samples. This is consistent with the conceptual model that redox active sulfide groups within the reducing slag facilitate reduction of Tc(VII) to Tc(IV). These experiments differ from previous experiments where a 2% H{sub 2}(g) atmosphere was maintained (Kaplan et al., 2011 (SRNL-STI-2010-00668)). The impact of the 2% H{sub 2}(g) reducing atmosphere on this data was examined and determined to cause the reduction of Tc in experimental samples without slag. In the present ongoing study, after 56 days, Tc sorption by the 50-year old cement samples (no slag) was undetectable, whereas Tc sorption in the cementitious materials containing slag continues to increase with contact time (measured after 1, 4, 8, 19 and 56 days). Sorption was not consistent with spike concentrations and steady state has not been demonstrated after 56 days. The average conditional K{sub d} value for the Vault 2 cementitious material was 873 mL/g (17% slag), for the TR547 Saltstone (45% slag) the conditional K{sub d} was 168 mL/g, and for TR545 (90% slag) the conditional K{sub d} was 1,619 mL/g. It is anticipated that additional samples will be collected until steady state conditions are established to permit measuring more representative K{sub d} and solubility values under these experimental conditions. The purpose of this revision is to correct K{sub d} values reported in the original document. This document reports results for the first 56 days of a 319 day experiment. After the experiment had finished and all the data were compiled for QA/QC analysis, a mistake in the K{sub d} calculations was found. The K{sub d} values reported in revision 0 of this report were essentially one order of magnitude higher than the actual values. In this revision, the text references to K{sub d} values have been updated along with the data in Figure 2 and Appendix B. Between the time the original document was issued, Janurary 2012, and this document was issued, a final report (Estes et al. 2012; SRNL-STI-2012-00596, Rev. 0) describing all the corrected data for the 319 day experiment was issued. This document does not contain any data that is not already reported in the final report (SRNL-STI-2012-00596, Rev. 0).

  10. Magnetohydrostatic equilibrium. II. Three-dimensional multiple open magnetic flux tubes in the stratified solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gent, F. A.; Erdélyi, R.; Fedun, V.

    2014-07-01

    A system of multiple open magnetic flux tubes spanning the solar photosphere and lower corona is modeled analytically, within a realistic stratified atmosphere subject to solar gravity. This extends results for a single magnetic flux tube in magnetohydrostatic equilibrium, described in Gent et al. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes are combined to form magnetic structures, which are consistent with high-resolution observations. The observational evidence supports the existence of strands of open flux tubes and loops persisting in a relatively steady state. Self-similar magnetic flux tubes, for which an analytic solution to the plasma density and pressure distribution is possible, are combined. We calculate the appropriate balancing forces, applying to the equations of momentum and energy conservation to preserve equilibrium. Multiplex flux tube configurations are observed to remain relatively stable for up to a day or more, and it is our aim to apply our model as the background condition for numerical studies of energy transport mechanisms from the solar surface to the corona. We apply magnetic field strength, plasma density, pressure, and temperature distributions consistent with observational and theoretical estimates for the lower solar atmosphere. Although each flux tube is identical in construction apart from the location of the radial axis, combinations can be applied to generate a non-axisymmetric magnetic field with multiple non-uniform flux tubes. This is a considerable step forward in modeling the realistic magnetized three-dimensional equilibria of the solar atmosphere.

  11. Coal Fly Ash as a Source of Iron in Atmospheric Dust

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, Haihan; Laskin, Alexander; Baltrusaitis, Jonas; Gorski, Christopher A.; Scherer, Michelle; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2012-01-18

    Anthropogenic coal fly ash aerosols may represent a significant source of bioavailable iron in the open ocean. Few measurements have been made to compare the solubility of atmospheric iron from anthropogenic aerosols and other sources. We report an investigation of the iron dissolution of three fly ash samples in acidic aqueous solutions and compare the solubilities with that of Arizona test dust, a reference material of mineral dust. The effects of pH, cloud processing, and solar irradiation on Fe solubility were explored. Similar to previously reported results on mineral dust, iron in aluminosilicate phases provide predominant dissolved iron compared with iron in oxides. Iron solubility of fly ash is higher than Arizona test dust, especially at the higher pH conditions investigated. Simulated atmospheric processing elevates iron solubility due to significant changes in the morphology aluminosilicate glass, a dominantly material in fly ash particle. Iron continuously releases into the aqueous solution as fly ash particles break up into smaller fragments. The assessment of dissolved atmospheric iron deposition fluxes, and their effect on the biogeochemistry at ocean surface should be constrained by taking into account the source, environment pH, Fe speciation, and solar radiation.

  12. Discrete beta dose kernel matrices for nuclides applied in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) calculated with MCNP5

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reiner, Dora; Blaickner, Matthias; Rattay, Frank

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Radiopharmaceuticals administered in targeted radionuclide therapy (TRT) rely to a great extent not only on beta-emitting nuclides but also on emitters of monoenergetic electrons. Recent advances like combined PET/CT devices, the consequential coregistration of both data, the concept of using beta couples for diagnosis and therapy, respectively, as well as the development of voxel models offer a great potential for developing TRT dose calculation systems similar to those available for external beam treatment planning. The deterministic algorithms in question for this task are based on the convolution of three-dimensional matrices, one representing the activity distribution and the other the dose point kernel. This study aims to report on three-dimensional kernel matrices for various nuclides used in TRT. Methods: The Monte Carlo code MCNP5 was used to calculate discrete dose kernels of beta particles including the contributions from their respective secondary radiation in soft tissue for the following nuclides: {sup 32}P, {sup 33}P, {sup 67}Cu, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, {sup 103}Rh{sup m}, {sup 131}I, {sup 177}Lu, {sup 186}Re, and {sup 188}Re. For each nuclide a kernel cube of 10x10x10 mm{sup 3} was calculated, the dimensions of a voxel being 1 mm{sup 3}. Additional kernels with voxel sizes of 3x3x3 mm{sup 3} were simulated. Results: Comparison with the S-value data regarding {sup 32}P, {sup 89}Sr, {sup 90}Y, and {sup 131}I of the MIRD committee which were calculated with the EGS4 code showed a very good agreement, the secondary particle transport of {sup 90}Y being the only exception. Documented analytical kernels on the other side show deviations very close and very far to the source. Conclusions: The good accordance with the only discrete dose kernels published up to date justifies the method chosen. Together with the additional six nuclides, this report provides a considerable database for three-dimensional kernel matrices with regard to beta radionuclides applied in TRT. In contrast to analytical dose point kernels, the discrete kernels elude the problem of overestimation near the source and take energy depositions into account, which occur beyond the range of the continuous-slowing-down approximation (csda range). Recalculation of the 1x1x1 mm{sup 3} kernels to other dose kernels with varying voxel dimensions, cubic or noncubic, is shown to be easily manageable and thereby provides a resolution-independent system of dose calculation.

  13. LED Performance Under Tough Conditions

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    GATEWAY ROUNDUP www.ies.org December 2015 LD+A 53 Three DOE Gateway applications show how LED luminaires respond to rigorous outdoor environments By JAmes BroDrick A lthough LED lighting has already made impressive inroads in outdoor applica- tions, there's still a lot we don't know about how the technology will fare when faced with especially challenging conditions. Three recent U.S. Department of Energy Gateway stud- ies (http://energy.gov/eere/ssl/gateway-demon- strations) add to our

  14. JGR-Atmospheres Papers from the RADAGAST Research Team

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    JGR-Atmospheres Papers from the RADAGAST Research Team Bharmal, N.A., A. Slingo, G.J. Robinson, and J.J. Settle, 2009: Simulation of surface and top of atmosphere thermal fluxes and radiances from the RADAGAST experiment. Journal of Geophysical Research-Atmospheres, 114, doi:10.1029/2008JD010504, in press. Kollias, P., M.A. Miller, K.L. Johnson, M.P. Jensen, and D.T. Troyan, 2009: Cloud, thermodynamic, and precipitation observations in West Africa during 2006. Journal of Geophysical Research-

  15. Airborne Instrumentation Needs for Climate and Atmospheric Research

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    McFarquhar, Greg; Schmid, Beat; Korolev, Alexei; Ogren, John A.; Russell, P. B.; Tomlinson, Jason M.; Turner, David D.; Wiscombe, Warren J.

    2011-10-06

    Observational data are of fundamental importance for advances in climate and atmospheric research. Advances in atmospheric science are being made not only through the use of ground-based and space-based observations, but also through the use of in-situ and remote sensing observations acquired on instrumented aircraft. In order for us to enhance our knowledge of atmospheric processes, it is imperative that efforts be made to improve our understanding of the operating characteristics of current instrumentation and of the caveats and uncertainties in data acquired by current probes, as well as to develop improved observing methodologies for acquisition of airborne data.

  16. Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963.

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I | Department of Energy Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Fehner and Gosling, Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I Terrence R. Fehner and F.G. Gosling. Atmospheric Nuclear Weapons Testing, 1951-1963. Battlefield of the Cold War: The Nevada Test Site, Volume I (pdf). DOE/MA-0003. Washington,

  17. Study of the atmospheric chemistry of radon progeny in laboratory and real indoor atmospheres. Final project report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hopke, P.K.

    1996-09-01

    This report completes Clarkson University`s study of the chemical and physical behavior of the {sup 218}Po atom immediately following its formation by the alpha decay of radon. Because small changes in size for activity in the sub-10 nm size range result in large changes in the delivered dose per unit exposure, this behavior must be understood if the exposure to radon progeny and it dose to the cells in the respiratory tract are to be fully assessed. In order to pursue this general goal, two areas of radon progeny behavior are being pursued; laboratory studies under controlled conditions to better understand the fundamental physical and chemical processes that affect the progeny`s atmospheric behavior and studies in actual indoor environments to develop a better assessment of the exposure of the occupants of that space to the size and concentration of the indoor radioactive aerosol. Thus, two sets of specific goals have been established for this project. The specific tasks of the controlled laboratory studies are (1) Determine the formation rates of {circ}OH radicals formed by the radiolysis of air following radon decay; (2) Examine the formation of particles by the radiolytic oxidation of substances like SO{sub 2}, ethylene, and H{sub 2}S to lower vapor pressure compounds and determine the role of gas phase additives such as H{sub 2}O and NH{sub 3} in determining the particle size; (3) Measure the rate of ion-induced nucleation using a thermal diffusion cloud chamber, and (4) Measure the neutralization rate of {sup 218}PoO{sub x}{sup +} in O{sub 2} at low radon concentrations.

  18. Instabilities of an anisotropically expanding non-Abelian plasma: 1D+3V discretized hard-loop simulations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rebhan, Anton; Attems, Maximilian; Strickland, Michael

    2008-08-15

    Non-Abelian plasma instabilities play a crucial role in the nonequilibrium dynamics of a weakly coupled quark-gluon plasma, and they importantly modify the standard perturbative bottom-up thermalization scenario in heavy-ion collisions. Using the auxiliary-field formulation of the hard-loop effective theory, we study numerically the real-time evolution of instabilities in an anisotropic collisionless Yang-Mills plasma undergoing longitudinal free-streaming expansion. In this first real-time lattice simulation we consider the most unstable modes, long-wavelength coherent color fields that are constant in transverse directions and which therefore are effectively 1+1 dimensional in space-time, except for the auxiliary fields which also depend on discretized momentum rapidity and transverse velocity components. We reproduce the semianalytical results obtained previously for the Abelian regime, and we determine the nonlinear effects which occur when the instabilities have grown such that non-Abelian interactions become important.

  19. Discrete Element Model for Simulations of Early-Life Thermal Fracturing Behaviors in Ceramic Nuclear Fuel Pellets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hai Huang; Ben Spencer; Jason Hales

    2014-10-01

    A discrete element Model (DEM) representation of coupled solid mechanics/fracturing and heat conduction processes has been developed and applied to explicitly simulate the random initiations and subsequent propagations of interacting thermal cracks in a ceramic nuclear fuel pellet during initial rise to power and during power cycles. The DEM model clearly predicts realistic early-life crack patterns including both radial cracks and circumferential cracks. Simulation results clearly demonstrate the formation of radial cracks during the initial power rise, and formation of circumferential cracks as the power is ramped down. In these simulations, additional early-life power cycles do not lead to the formation of new thermal cracks. They do, however clearly indicate changes in the apertures of thermal cracks during later power cycles due to thermal expansion and shrinkage. The number of radial cracks increases with increasing power, which is consistent with the experimental observations.

  20. Discrete monotron oscillator having one-half wavelength coaxial resonator with one-quarter wavelength gap spacing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlsten, B.E.; Haynes, W.B.

    1998-02-03

    A discrete monotron oscillator for use in a high power microwave device is formed with a microwave oscillator having a half-wavelength resonant coaxial microwave cavity operating in fundamental TEM mode for microwave oscillation with an inner conductor defining a drift tube for propagating an electron beam and an outer conductor coaxial with the inner conductor. The inner conductor defines a modulating gap and an extraction gap downstream of the modulating gap. The modulating gap and the extraction gap connect the coaxial microwave cavity with the drift tube so that energy for the microwave oscillation is extracted from the electron beam at the extraction gap and modulates the electron beam at the modulating gap. For high power operation, an annular electron beam is used. 8 figs.

  1. Discrete monotron oscillator having one-half wavelength coaxial resonator with one-quarter wavelength gap spacing

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Carlsten, Bruce E.; Haynes, William B.

    1998-01-01

    A discrete monotron oscillator for use in a high power microwave device is formed with a microwave oscillator having a half-wavelength resonant coaxial microwave cavity operating in fundamental TEM mode for microwave oscillation with an inner conductor defining a drift tube for propagating an electron beam and an outer conductor coaxial with the inner conductor. The inner conductor defines a modulating gap and an extraction gap downstream of the modulating gap. The modulating gap and the extraction gap connect the coaxial microwave cavity with the drift tube so that energy for the microwave oscillation is extracted from the electron beam at the extraction gap and modulates the electron beam at the modulating gap. For high power operation, an annular electron beam is used.

  2. Permeability and kinetic coefficients for mesoscale BCF surface step dynamics: Discrete two-dimensional deposition-diffusion equation analysis

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Zhao, Renjie; Evans, James W.; Oliveira, Tiago J.

    2016-04-08

    Here, a discrete version of deposition-diffusion equations appropriate for description of step flow on a vicinal surface is analyzed for a two-dimensional grid of adsorption sites representing the stepped surface and explicitly incorporating kinks along the step edges. Model energetics and kinetics appropriately account for binding of adatoms at steps and kinks, distinct terrace and edge diffusion rates, and possible additional barriers for attachment to steps. Analysis of adatom attachment fluxes as well as limiting values of adatom densities at step edges for nonuniform deposition scenarios allows determination of both permeability and kinetic coefficients. Behavior of these quantities is assessedmore » as a function of key system parameters including kink density, step attachment barriers, and the step edge diffusion rate.« less

  3. ANALYTICAL SOLUTION FOR WAVES IN PLANETS WITH ATMOSPHERIC SUPERROTATION. I. ACOUSTIC AND INERTIA-GRAVITY WAVES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peralta, J.; López-Valverde, M. A.; Imamura, T.; Read, P. L.; Luz, D.; Piccialli, A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper is the first of a two-part study devoted to developing tools for a systematic classification of the wide variety of atmospheric waves expected on slowly rotating planets with atmospheric superrotation. Starting with the primitive equations for a cyclostrophic regime, we have deduced the analytical solution for the possible waves, simultaneously including the effect of the metric terms for the centrifugal force and the meridional shear of the background wind. In those cases when the conditions for the method of the multiple scales in height are met, these wave solutions are also valid when vertical shear of the background wind is present. A total of six types of waves have been found and their properties were characterized in terms of the corresponding dispersion relations and wave structures. In this first part, only waves that are direct solutions of the generic dispersion relation are studied—acoustic and inertia-gravity waves. Concerning inertia-gravity waves, we found that in the cases of short horizontal wavelengths, null background wind, or propagation in the equatorial region, only pure gravity waves are possible, while for the limit of large horizontal wavelengths and/or null static stability, the waves are inertial. The correspondence between classical atmospheric approximations and wave filtering has been examined too, and we carried out a classification of the mesoscale waves found in the clouds of Venus at different vertical levels of its atmosphere. Finally, the classification of waves in exoplanets is discussed and we provide a list of possible candidates with cyclostrophic regimes.

  4. Reactivity of liquid and semisolid secondary organic carbon with chloride and nitrate in atmospheric aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; O'Brien, Rachel E.; Kelly, Stephen T.; Shilling, John E.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Gilles, Mary K.; Laskin, Alexander

    2015-05-14

    Constituents of secondary organic carbon (SOC) in atmospheric aerosols are often mixed with inorganic components and compose a significant mass fraction of fine particulate matter in the atmosphere. Interactions between SOC and other condensed-phase species are not well understood. Here, we investigate the reactions of liquid-like and semi-solid SOC from ozonolysis of limonene (LSOC) and ?-pinene (PSOC) with NaCl using a set of complementary micro-spectroscopic analyses. These reactions result in chloride depletion in the condensed phase, release of gaseous HCl, and formation of organic salts. The reactions attributed to acid displacement by SOC acidic components are driven by the high volatility of HCl. Similar reactions can take place in SOC/NaNO? particles. The results show that an increase in SOC mass fraction in the internally mixed SOC/NaCl particles leads to higher chloride depletion. Glass transition temperatures and viscosity of PSOC were estimated for atmospherically relevant conditions. Data show that the reaction extent depends on SOC composition, particle phase state and viscosity, mixing state, temperature, relative humidity (RH), and reaction time. LSOC shows slightly higher potential to deplete chloride than PSOC. Higher particle viscosity at low temperatures and RH can hinder these acid displacement reactions. Formation of organic salts from these overlooked reactions can alter particle physiochemical properties and may affect their reactivity and ability to act as cloud condensation and ice nuclei. The release and potential recycling of HCl and HNO? from reacted aerosol particles may have important implications for atmospheric chemistry.

  5. Particle tracking approach for transport in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks: Particle tracking in 3-D DFNs

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L.; Bui, Quan M.; Gable, Carl W.; Karra, Satish

    2015-09-16

    The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates massmore » balance-related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces, and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. As a result, we demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.« less

  6. Particle tracking approach for transport in three-dimensional discrete fracture networks: Particle tracking in 3-D DFNs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Makedonska, Nataliia; Painter, Scott L.; Bui, Quan M.; Gable, Carl W.; Karra, Satish

    2015-09-16

    The discrete fracture network (DFN) model is a method to mimic discrete pathways for fluid flow through a fractured low-permeable rock mass, and may be combined with particle tracking simulations to address solute transport. However, experience has shown that it is challenging to obtain accurate transport results in three-dimensional DFNs because of the high computational burden and difficulty in constructing a high-quality unstructured computational mesh on simulated fractures. We present a new particle tracking capability, which is adapted to control volume (Voronoi polygons) flow solutions on unstructured grids (Delaunay triangulations) on three-dimensional DFNs. The locally mass-conserving finite-volume approach eliminates mass balance-related problems during particle tracking. The scalar fluxes calculated for each control volume face by the flow solver are used to reconstruct a Darcy velocity at each control volume centroid. The groundwater velocities can then be continuously interpolated to any point in the domain of interest. The control volumes at fracture intersections are split into four pieces, and the velocity is reconstructed independently on each piece, which results in multiple groundwater velocities at the intersection, one for each fracture on each side of the intersection line. This technique enables detailed particle transport representation through a complex DFN structure. Verified for small DFNs, the new simulation capability enables numerical experiments on advective transport in large DFNs to be performed. As a result, we demonstrate this particle transport approach on a DFN model using parameters similar to those of crystalline rock at a proposed geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel in Forsmark, Sweden.

  7. Relativistic electron scattering by magnetosonic waves: Effects of discrete wave emission and high wave amplitudes

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Artemyev, A. V.; Mourenas, D.; Krasnoselskikh, V. V.

    2015-06-15

    In this paper, we study relativistic electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We compare results of test particle simulations and the quasi-linear theory for different spectra of waves to investigate how a fine structure of the wave emission can influence electron resonant scattering. We show that for a realistically wide distribution of wave normal angles θ (i.e., when the dispersion δθ≥0.5{sup °}), relativistic electron scattering is similar for a wide wave spectrum and for a spectrum consisting in well-separated ion cyclotron harmonics. Comparisons of test particle simulations with quasi-linear theory show that for δθ>0.5{sup °}, the quasi-linear approximation describes resonant scattering correctly for a large enough plasma frequency. For a very narrow θ distribution (when δθ∼0.05{sup °}), however, the effect of a fine structure in the wave spectrum becomes important. In this case, quasi-linear theory clearly fails in describing accurately electron scattering by fast magnetosonic waves. We also study the effect of high wave amplitudes on relativistic electron scattering. For typical conditions in the earth's radiation belts, the quasi-linear approximation cannot accurately describe electron scattering for waves with averaged amplitudes >300 pT. We discuss various applications of the obtained results for modeling electron dynamics in the radiation belts and in the Earth's magnetotail.

  8. Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas | Princeton Plasma...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    7, 2008, 4:15pm to 5:30pm Colloquia MBG Auditorium Free Floating Atmospheric Pressure Ball Plasmas Dr. Glen Wurden Los Alamos National Laboratory Presentation: PDF icon Free...

  9. A Decade of Atmospheric Research in the Tropical Western Pacific...

    Office of Science (SC) Website

    Long-term ARM datasets critical for cloud and solar energy studies. Print Text Size: A A A ... Facility has collected atmospheric data for more than a decade in the equatorial ...

  10. Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006-2014 Final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radon-222 (222Rn) is a valuable tracer for measuring atmospheric mixing because it is emitted from the land surface and has a short enough half-life (3.8 days) to allow ...

  11. Radon Measurements of Atmospheric Mixing (RAMIX) 2006-2014 Final...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    The radioisotope radon-222 (222Rn) is a valuable tracer for measuring atmospheric mixing because it is emitted from the land surface and has a short enough half-life (3.8 days) to ...

  12. ARM - Field Campaign - Cross-Scale Land-Atmosphere Experiment

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    would love to hear from you Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : Cross-Scale Land-Atmosphere Experiment 2016.09.01 - 2019.05.31 Lead Scientist :...

  13. Atmospheric carbon dioxide and the global carbon cycle

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Trabalka, J R

    1985-12-01

    This state-of-the-art volume presents discussions on the global cycle of carbon, the dynamic balance among global atmospheric CO2 sources and sinks. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the individual papers. (ACR)

  14. North America's net terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    a synthesis of net land-atmosphere CO2 exchange for North America (Canada, United States, and Mexico) over the period 1990-2009. Only CO2 is considered, not methane or...

  15. Computer support to run models of the atmosphere. Final report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fung, I.

    1996-08-30

    This research is focused on a better quantification of the variations in CO{sub 2} exchanges between the atmosphere and biosphere and the factors responsible for these exchangers. The principal approach is to infer the variations in the exchanges from variations in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} distribution. The principal tool involves using a global three-dimensional tracer transport model to advect and convect CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere. The tracer model the authors used was developed at the Goddard institute for Space Studies (GISS) and is derived from the GISS atmospheric general circulation model. A special run of the GCM is made to save high-frequency winds and mixing statistics for the tracer model.

  16. TiO{sub 2} Film Deposition by Atmospheric Thermal Plasma CVD Using Laminar and Turbulence Plasma Jets

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ando, Yasutaka; Tobe, Shogo [Ashikaga Institute of Technology, 268-1 Omae, Ashikaga, Tochigi 326-8558 (Japan); Tahara, Hirokazu [Osaka Institute of Technology, 5-16-1 Omiya, Asahi-Ku, Osaka 535-8585 (Japan)

    2008-02-21

    In this study, to provide continuous plasma atmosphere on the substrate surface in the case of atmospheric thermal plasma CVD, TiO{sub 2} film deposition by thermal plasma CVD using laminar plasma jet was carried out. For comparison, the film deposition using turbulence plasma jet was conducted as well. Consequently, transition of the plasma jet from laminar to turbulent occurred on the condition of over 3.5 1/min in Ar working gas flow rate and the plasma jet became turbulent on the condition of over 10 1/min. In the case of the turbulent plasma jet use, anatase rich titanium oxide film could be obtained though plasma jet could not contact with the surface of the substrate continuously even on the condition that feedstock material was injected into the plasma jet. On the other hand,, in the case of laminar gas flow rate, the plasma jet could contact with the substrate continuously without melt down of the substrate during film deposition. Besides, titanium oxide film could be obtained even in the case of the laminar plasma jet use. From these results, this technique was thought to have high potential for atmospheric thermal plasma CVD.

  17. Carbonyl sulfide: potential agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Graedel, T.E.; Kammlott, G.W.; Franey, J.P.

    1981-05-08

    Laboratory exposure experiments demonstrate that carbonyl sulfide in wet air corrodes copper at 22/sup 0/C at a rate that is approximately linear with total exposure (the product of exposure time and carbonyl sulfide concentration). The corrosion rate is similar to that of hydrogen sulfide, a widely recognized corrodant. The much greater average atmospheric abundance of carbonyl sulfide compared with that of hydrogen sulfide or sulfur dioxide suggests that carbonyl sulfide may be a major agent of atmospheric sulfur corrosion.

  18. Final Technical Report for Chief Scientist for Atmospheric Radiation

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurement (ARM) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP) (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Final Technical Report for Chief Scientist for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Final Technical Report for Chief Scientist for Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Aerial Vehicle Program (AVP) The major responsibilities of the PI were identified as 1) the formulation of campaign plans, 2) the representation of AVP in various

  19. Formation of atmospheric halos and applicability of geometric optics for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    calculating single-scattering properties of hexagonal ice crystals: Impacts of aspect ratio and ice crystal size (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Formation of atmospheric halos and applicability of geometric optics for calculating single-scattering properties of hexagonal ice crystals: Impacts of aspect ratio and ice crystal size Citation Details In-Document Search This content will become publicly available on July 23, 2017 Title: Formation of atmospheric halos and applicability of

  20. Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Program Document: Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Lower Atmospheric Boundary Layer Experiment (LABLE) Final Campaign Report × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided as a public service. Visit OSTI to utilize additional

  1. Technical Sessions B. E. Manner National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    B. E. Manner National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Wave Propagation Laboratory 130ulder, CO 80303 The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) pirog ram goals are ambitious, and its schedule is demanding. Many of the instruments, proposed for operations at the first Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site as early alS 1992 represent emerging technology and exist only as :special research prototypes. Therefore, an important preparatory step for ARM was an intensive field project in

  2. PNNL: Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change Search for Staff

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Atmospheric Science & Global Change Search for Staff Search for an ASGC staff member (Last, First) Search Search for staff member by Group View Alphabetical List of all ASGC Staff (may take a moment to load) Atmospheric Sciences & Global Change ASGC Home Our Research Facilities Measurement Capabilities Modeling Expertise Staff & Organization Search Publications Job Opportunities Seminar Series Frontiers in Global Change Science at PNNL Home Journal Cover Gallery Search Site Search

  3. Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Program 915 MHz Wind Profilers (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program 915 MHz Wind Profilers Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Signal Post-processing and Reflectivity Calibration of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program 915 MHz Wind Profilers Authors: Tridon F. ; Luke E. ; Battaglia, A. ; Kollias, P. ; Williams, C. R. Publication Date: 2013-06-01 OSTI

  4. Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) (Dataset) | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Title: Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Data were collected to improve understanding of the Arctic troposphere, and to provide researchers with a focused case-study period for future

  5. A Framework for Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conjunction Tracking (IMPACT) (Conference) | SciTech Connect Framework for Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking (IMPACT) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Framework for Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking (IMPACT) Authors: Linares, Richard [1] ; Klimenko, Alexei V. [1] ; Brennan, Sean M. [1] ; Godinez Vazquez, Humberto C. [1] ; Higdon, David M. [1] ; Koller, Josef [1] ; Lawrence, Earl C. [1] ; Palmer,

  6. A Framework for Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Conjunction Tracking (IMPACT) (Conference) | SciTech Connect Framework for Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking (IMPACT) Citation Details In-Document Search Title: A Framework for Integrated Modeling of Perturbations in Atmospheres for Conjunction Tracking (IMPACT) × You are accessing a document from the Department of Energy's (DOE) SciTech Connect. This site is a product of DOE's Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI) and is provided

  7. DOE/ER-0441 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Plan - February 1990

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    1 Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Plan ARM Program Plan Forward In 1978 the Department of Energy initiated the Carbon Dioxide Research Program to address climate change from the increasing concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Over the years the Program has studied the many facets of the issue, from the carbon cycle, the climate diagnostics, the vegetative effects, to the societal impacts. The Program is presently the Department's principal entry in the U.S. Global Change

  8. New Atmospheric Profiling Instrument Added to SGP CART Suite

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    3 New Atmospheric Profiling Instrument Added to SGP CART Suite A new atmospheric profiling instrument at the SGP CART site is giving researchers an additional useful data stream. The new instrument is a microwave radiometer profiler (MWRP) developed by Radiometrics Corporation. One ARM Program focus is improving the quality of simulations by global climate models, particularly models that deal with interactions between sunlight (solar radiation) and clouds. To support this improvement, ARM needs

  9. Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows Atmospheric Pressure Deposition for Electrochromic Windows Emerging Technologies Project for the 2013 Building Technologies Office's Program Peer Review PDF icon emrgtech22_tenent_040413.pdf More Documents & Publications NREL senior scientist, Robert Tenent, Ph.D., with equipment for low cost processing (deposition) of window coatings materials. Dynamic Windows Low-Cost Solutions for Dynamic Window Material CX-003799:

  10. PRECISION DETERMINATION OF ATMOSPHERIC EXTINCTION AT OPTICAL AND

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    NEAR-INFRARED WAVELENGTHS (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect PRECISION DETERMINATION OF ATMOSPHERIC EXTINCTION AT OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED WAVELENGTHS Citation Details In-Document Search Title: PRECISION DETERMINATION OF ATMOSPHERIC EXTINCTION AT OPTICAL AND NEAR-INFRARED WAVELENGTHS The science goals for future ground-based all-sky surveys, such as the Dark Energy Survey, PanSTARRS, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, require calibration of broadband photometry that is stable in time

  11. Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Forcing through Deep Convection (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Potential Aerosol Indirect Effects on Atmospheric Circulation and Radiative Forcing through Deep Convection Aerosol indirect effects, i.e., the interactions of aerosols with clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) or ice nuclei (IN), constitute the largest

  12. Relation between Atmospheric Ozone and Geomagnetic Disturbances (Journal

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Article) | SciTech Connect Relation between Atmospheric Ozone and Geomagnetic Disturbances Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Relation between Atmospheric Ozone and Geomagnetic Disturbances Results are given for a study of the behavior of the mean meridional distribution of total ozone over 15 European stations (38 to 78 deg N) during severe magnetic storms. The storms studied were 14 severe geomagnetic disturbance; in 1957, 1958, and 1959, and the ozone distributions were studied

  13. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Report 2007 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2007 This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the program, and presents key accomplishments in 2007. Notable achievements include: * Successful review of the ACRF as a user facility by the DOE Biological and

  14. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    2006 (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006 Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility Annual Report 2006 This annual report describes the purpose and structure of the ARM Climate Research Facility and ARM Science programs and presents key accomplishments in 2006. Noteworthy scientific and infrastructure accomplishments in 2006 include: * Collaborating with

  15. ARM - Field Campaign - ASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Infrared Spectral Technology govCampaignsASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign : ASSIST: Atmospheric Sounder Spectrometer for Infrared Spectral Technology 2008.07.08 - 2008.07.18 Lead Scientist : Michael Howard For data sets, see below. Abstract Goals of assist were to intercompare radiance spectra and profile retrievals

  16. Retrieving 4-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structure from surface

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    observations and profiles over a single station (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect Retrieving 4-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structure from surface observations and profiles over a single station Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Retrieving 4-dimensional atmospheric boundary layer structure from surface observations and profiles over a single station Most routine measurements from climate study facilities, such as the Department of Energy's ARM SGP site, come from

  17. Sea ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral satellite

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    data in polar surface energy flux estimates. Semiannual Progress Report (Technical Report) | SciTech Connect ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates. Semiannual Progress Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Sea ice - atmosphere interaction: Application of multispectral satellite data in polar surface energy flux estimates. Semiannual Progress Report In the past six months, work has continued on energy flux

  18. An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5: Ensemble 3DCVA and Its Application (Journal Article) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Journal Article: An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5: Ensemble 3DCVA and Its Application Citation Details In-Document Search Title: An ensemble constrained variational analysis of atmospheric forcing data and its application to evaluate clouds in CAM5: Ensemble

  19. Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Radiation Measurement Doppler Lidar during XPIA: Field Campaign Report (Program Document) | SciTech Connect SciTech Connect Search Results Program Document: Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Doppler Lidar during XPIA: Field Campaign Report Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Analysis of the Uncertainty in Wind Measurements from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Doppler Lidar during XPIA: Field Campaign Report In March and

  20. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes, California

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project () | Data Explorer Point Reyes, California for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Point Reyes, California for the Marine Stratus, Radiation, Aerosol, and Drizzle (MASRAD) Project Point Reyes National Seashore, on the California coast north of San Francisco, was the location of the first deployment of the DOE's Atmospheric

  1. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs,

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX) () | Data Explorer Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX) Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from Steamboat Springs, Colorado, for the Storm Peak Laboratory Cloud Property Validation Experiment (STORMVEX) In October 2010, the initial deployment of the second ARM Mobile

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    () | Data Explorer the ARM Aerial Facility Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the ARM Aerial Facility The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. ARM data is collected both through

  3. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Eastern North

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Atlantic Site (ENA), Graciosa Island, Azores () | Data Explorer Data Explorer Search Results Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Eastern North Atlantic Site (ENA), Graciosa Island, Azores Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Eastern North Atlantic Site (ENA), Graciosa Island, Azores From May 2009 through December 2010, the ARM Mobile Facility obtained data from a location near the airport on Graciosa Island to support the Clouds, Aerosol, and

  4. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (NSA) Site () | Data Explorer North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the North Slope Alaska (NSA) Site The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To achieve

  5. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern Great Plains

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (SGP) Site () | Data Explorer Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Southern Great Plains (SGP) Site The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of these models. To

  6. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical Western

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Pacific (TWP) Site. () | Data Explorer Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site. Title: Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Data from the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) Site. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program is the largest global change research program supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. The primary goal of the ARM Program is to improve the treatment of cloud and radiation physics in global climate models in order to improve the climate simulation capabilities of

  7. Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan (Program Document) | SciTech Connect Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Evaluation of Routine Atmospheric Sounding Measurements using Unmanned Systems (ERASMUS) Science Plan The use of unmanned aerial systems (UAS) is becoming increasingly popular for a variety of applications. One way in which these systems can provide revolutionary scientific

  8. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Facilities Newsletter - September 1999

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Holdridge, D. J., ed

    1999-09-27

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program September 1999 Facilities Newsletter discusses the several Intensive Observation Periods (IOPs) that the ARM SGP CART site will host in the near future. Two projects of note are the International Pyrgeometer Intercomparison and the Fall Single Column Model (SCM)/Nocturnal Boundary Layer (NBL) IOP. Both projects will bring many US and international scientists to the SGP CART site to participate in atmospheric research.

  9. An Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia S. M. Sakerin, F. V. Dorofeev, D. M. Kabanov, V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, V. V. Polkin, V. P. Shmargunov, S. A. Terpugova, S. A. Turchinovich, and V. N. Uzhegov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction The instrumentation complex is described, which has been prepared for radiative experiments in the region of Tomsk (West Siberia). The complex consists of three groups of devices to

  10. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by field-collected atmospheric particles below 273 K

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander; Roedel, Tobias R.; Gilles, Marry K.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2012-09-25

    Atmospheric ice formation induced by particles with complex chemical and physical properties through heterogeneous nucleation is not well understood. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by ambient particles collected from urban environments in Los Angeles and Mexico City are presented. Using a vapour controlled cooling system equipped with an optical microscopy, the range of onset conditions for ice nucleation and water uptake by the collected particles was determined as a function of temperature (200{273 K) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) up to water saturation. Three distinctly different types of authentic atmospheric particles were investigated including soot particles associated with organics/inorganics, inorganic particles of marine origin coated with organic material, and Pb/Zn containing inorganic particles apportioned to anthropogenic emissions relevant to waste incineration. Single particle characterization was provided by micro-spectroscopic analyses using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption ne structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Above 230 K, signicant differences in water uptake and immersion freezing effciencies of the different particle types were observed. Below 230 K, the particles exhibited high deposition ice nucleation effciencies and formed ice at RHice values well below homogeneous ice nucleation limits. The data show that the chemical composition of these eld{collected particles plays an important role in determining water uptake and immersion freezing. Heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coeffcients, cumulative ice nuclei (IN) spectrum, and IN activated fraction for deposition ice nucleation are derived. The presented ice nucleation data demonstrate that anthropogenic and marine particles comprising of various chemical and physical properties exhibit distinctly different ice nucleation effciencies and can serve as effcient IN at atmospheric conditions typical for cirrus and mixed phase clouds. This indicates a potential link between human activities and cloud formation, and thus climate.

  11. INFERENCE OF INHOMOGENEOUS CLOUDS IN AN EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; De Wit, Julien; Lewis, Nikole; Zsom, Andras; Seager, Sara; Fortney, Jonathan; Knutson, Heather; Desert, Jean-Michel; Heng, Kevin; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Gillon, Michael; Barclay, Thomas; Cowan, Nicolas B.

    2013-10-20

    We present new visible and infrared observations of the hot Jupiter Kepler-7b to determine its atmospheric properties. Our analysis allows us to (1) refine Kepler-7b's relatively large geometric albedo of Ag = 0.35 ± 0.02, (2) place upper limits on Kepler-7b thermal emission that remains undetected in both Spitzer bandpasses and (3) report a westward shift in the Kepler optical phase curve. We argue that Kepler-7b's visible flux cannot be due to thermal emission or Rayleigh scattering from H{sub 2} molecules. We therefore conclude that high altitude, optically reflective clouds located west from the substellar point are present in its atmosphere. We find that a silicate-based cloud composition is a possible candidate. Kepler-7b exhibits several properties that may make it particularly amenable to cloud formation in its upper atmosphere. These include a hot deep atmosphere that avoids a cloud cold trap, very low surface gravity to suppress cloud sedimentation, and a planetary equilibrium temperature in a range that allows for silicate clouds to potentially form in the visible atmosphere probed by Kepler. Our analysis does not only present evidence of optically thick clouds on Kepler-7b but also yields the first map of clouds in an exoplanet atmosphere.

  12. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II - Compact ... to Determining Climate Regions by County DOE ZERH Webinar: Ducts in Conditioned Space

  13. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    II - Design Options for Locating Ducts within Conditioned Space Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II - Design Options for Locating Ducts ...

  14. Unvented, Conditioned Attics - Building America Top Innovation...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Attics - Building America Top Innovation Unvented, Conditioned Attics - Building America Top Innovation This photo shows an attic that is conditioned (insulated) and showing ...

  15. President Obama Announces $400 Million Conditional Commitment...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    400 Million Conditional Commitment Offer to Support Solar Panel Manufacturing President Obama Announces 400 Million Conditional Commitment Offer to Support Solar Panel ...

  16. Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency Heating Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency This presentation covers common pitfalls that lead to wasted energy in ...

  17. Hot conditioning equipment conceptual design report

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bradshaw, F.W., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-08-06

    This report documents the conceptual design of the Hot Conditioning System Equipment. The Hot conditioning System will consist of two separate designs: the Hot Conditioning System Equipment; and the Hot Conditioning System Annex. The Hot Conditioning System Equipment Design includes the equipment such as ovens, vacuum pumps, inert gas delivery systems, etc.necessary to condition spent nuclear fuel currently in storage in the K Basins of the Hanford Site. The Hot Conditioning System Annex consists of the facility of house the Hot Conditioning System. The Hot Conditioning System will be housed in an annex to the Canister Storage Building. The Hot Conditioning System will consist of pits in the floor which contain ovens in which the spent nuclear will be conditioned prior to interim storage.

  18. Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate ... Title: Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and ...

  19. Laboratory Studies of Processing of Carbonaceous Aerosols by Atmospheric Oxidants/Hygroscopicity and CCN Activity of Secondary & Processed Primary Organic Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ziemann, P.J.; Arey, J.; Atkinson, R.; Kreidenweis, S.M.; Petters, M.D.

    2012-06-13

    The atmosphere is composed of a complex mixture of gases and suspended microscopic aerosol particles. The ability of these particles to take up water (hygroscopicity) and to act as nuclei for cloud droplet formation significantly impacts aerosol light scattering and absorption, and cloud formation, thereby influencing air quality, visibility, and climate in important ways. A substantial, yet poorly characterized component of the atmospheric aerosol is organic matter. Its major sources are direct emissions from combustion processes, which are referred to as primary organic aerosol (POA), or in situ processes in which volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are oxidized in the atmosphere to low volatility reaction products that subsequent condense to form particles that are referred to as secondary organic aerosol (SOA). POA and VOCs are emitted to the atmosphere from both anthropogenic and natural (biogenic) sources. The overall goal of this experimental research project was to conduct laboratory studies under simulated atmospheric conditions to investigate the effects of the chemical composition of organic aerosol particles on their hygroscopicity and cloud condensation nucleation (CCN) activity, in order to develop quantitative relationships that could be used to more accurately incorporate aerosol-cloud interactions into regional and global atmospheric models. More specifically, the project aimed to determine the products, mechanisms, and rates of chemical reactions involved in the processing of organic aerosol particles by atmospheric oxidants and to investigate the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles (as represented by molecule sizes and the specific functional groups that are present) and the hygroscopicity and CCN activity of oxidized POA and SOA formed from the oxidation of the major classes of anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs that are emitted to the atmosphere, as well as model hydrocarbons. The general approach for this project was to carry out reactions of representative anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs and organic particles with ozone (O3), and hydroxyl (OH), nitrate (NO3), and chlorine (Cl) radicals, which are the major atmospheric oxidants, under simulated atmospheric conditions in large-volume environmental chambers. A combination of on-line and off-line analytical techniques were used to monitor the chemical and physical properties of the particles including their hygroscopicity and CCN activity. The results of the studies were used to (1) improve scientific understanding of the relationships between the chemical composition of organic particles and their hygroscopicity and CCN activity, (2) develop an improved molecular level theoretical framework for describing these relationships, and (3) establish a large database that is being used to develop parameterizations relating organic aerosol chemical properties and SOA sources to particle hygroscopicity and CCN activity for use in regional and global atmospheric air quality and climate models.

  20. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S.

    2011-10-01

    This presentation details the Gearbox Reliability Collaborative Condition Monitoring program at NREL.

  1. Three-body scattering theory without knowledge of exact asymptotic boundary conditions

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shakeshaft, Robin

    2009-07-15

    We formulate the theory of three-body scattering without explicit reference to exact asymptotic boundary conditions on the wave function. The transition rate and amplitude are expressed as volume integrals of the resolvent, which are insensitive to the region of asymptotically large distances. The physical branch of the resolvent is selected through the arrow of time, which is required to point forward in each subchannel. This is accomplished by first expressing the resolvent as an integral over time and then making a conformal transformation of each half of the time plane onto a unit disk. The physical branch corresponds to a path of integration in the upper half of the disk. We have tested the method, using a real discrete basis, by calculating the total cross section for singlet S-wave electron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen; our results are in reasonable agreement overall with the landmark results of Bartlet and Stelbovics [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 233201 (2004)].

  2. Investigation on coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lunbo Duan; Changsui Zhao; Wu Zhou; Chengrui Qu; Xiaoping Chen [Institute for Thermal Power Engineering of Southeast University, Nanjing (China)

    2009-07-15

    Considerable studies have been reported on the coal pyrolysis process and the formation of SO{sub 2} and NOx processors such as H{sub 2}S, COS, SO{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3} in inert atmospheres. Similar studies in CO{sub 2} atmosphere also need to be accomplished for better understanding of the combustion characteristics and the SO{sub 2}/NOx formation mechanism of oxy-fuel combustion, which is one of the most important technologies for CO{sub 2} capture. In this study, thermogravimetry coupled with Fourier Transform Infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was employed to measure the volatile yield and gas evolution features during coal pyrolysis process in CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Results show that replacing N{sub 2} with CO{sub 2} does not influence the starting temperature of volatile release but seems to enhance the volatile releasing rate even at 480{sup o}C. At about 760{sup o}C, CO{sub 2} prevents the calcite from decomposing. In CO{sub 2} atmosphere, the volatile yield increases as the temperature increases and decreases as the heating rate increases. COS is monitored during coal pyrolysis in CO{sub 2} atmosphere while there are only H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} formed in N{sub 2} atmosphere. The COS is most likely formed by the reaction between CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S. No NH{sub 3} was monitored in this study. In CO{sub 2} atmosphere, the gasification of char elevates the conversion of char-N to HCN. The HCN yield increases as the temperature increases and decreases as the heating rate increases. 20 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Meteorological conditions during the winter validation study at Rocky Flats, Colorado: An overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hodgin, C.R.

    1991-11-06

    The objective for the Winter Validation Study was to gather field data for validation of the Terrain-Responsive Atmospheric Code (TRAC) under winter time meteorological conditions. Twelve tracer tests were conducted during a two-week period in February 1991. Each test lasted 12 hours, with releases of SF{sub 6} tracer from the Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado. The tests included ground-based and airborne sampling to 16 km from the release point. This presentation summarizes meteorological conditions during the testing period. Forty six viewgraphs are included.

  4. Precision laser surveying instrument using atmospheric turbulence compensation by determining the absolute displacement between two laser beam components

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Veligdan, James T.

    1993-01-01

    Atmospheric effects on sighting measurements are compensated for by adjusting any sighting measurements using a correction factor that does not depend on atmospheric state conditions such as temperature, pressure, density or turbulence. The correction factor is accurately determined using a precisely measured physical separation between two color components of a light beam (or beams) that has been generated using either a two-color laser or two lasers that project different colored beams. The physical separation is precisely measured by fixing the position of a short beam pulse and measuring the physical separation between the two fixed-in-position components of the beam. This precisely measured physical separation is then used in a relationship that includes the indexes of refraction for each of the two colors of the laser beam in the atmosphere through which the beam is projected, thereby to determine the absolute displacement of one wavelength component of the laser beam from a straight line of sight for that projected component of the beam. This absolute displacement is useful to correct optical measurements, such as those developed in surveying measurements that are made in a test area that includes the same dispersion effects of the atmosphere on the optical measurements. The means and method of the invention are suitable for use with either single-ended systems or a double-ended systems.

  5. Synergistic Effects of Turbine Wakes and Atmospheric Stability on Power Production at an Onshore Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Marjanovic, N

    2012-01-25

    This report examines the complex interactions between atmospheric stability and turbine-induced wakes on downwind turbine wind speed and power production at a West Coast North American multi-MW wind farm. Wakes are generated when the upwind flow field is distorted by the mechanical movement of the wind turbine blades. This has two consequences for downwind turbines: (1) the downwind turbine encounters wind flows with reduced velocity and (2) the downwind turbine encounters increased turbulence across multiple length scales via mechanical turbulence production by the upwind turbine. This increase in turbulence on top of ambient levels may increase aerodynamic fatigue loads on the blades and reduce the lifetime of turbine component parts. Furthermore, ambient atmospheric conditions, including atmospheric stability, i.e., thermal stratification in the lower boundary layer, play an important role in wake dissipation. Higher levels of ambient turbulence (i.e., a convective or unstable boundary layer) lead to higher turbulent mixing in the wake and a faster recovery in the velocity flow field downwind of a turbine. Lower levels of ambient turbulence, as in a stable boundary layer, will lead to more persistent wakes. The wake of a wind turbine can be divided into two regions: the near wake and far wake, as illustrated in Figure 1. The near wake is formed when the turbine structure alters the shape of the flow field and usually persists one rotor diameter (D) downstream. The difference between the air inside and outside of the near wake results in a shear layer. This shear layer thickens as it moves downstream and forms turbulent eddies of multiple length scales. As the wake travels downstream, it expands depending on the level of ambient turbulence and meanders (i.e., travels in non-uniform path). Schepers estimates that the wake is fully expanded at a distance of 2.25 D and the far wake region begins at 2-5 D downstream. The actual distance traveled before the wake recovers to its inflow velocity is dependent on the amount ambient turbulence, the amount of wind shear, and topographical and structural effects. The maximum velocity deficit is estimated to occur at 1-2 D but can be longer under low levels of ambient turbulence. Our understanding of turbine wakes comes from wind tunnel experiments, field experiments, numerical simulations, and from studies utilizing both experimental and modeling methods. It is well documented that downwind turbines in multi-Megawatt wind farms often produce less power than upwind turbine rows. These wake-induced power losses have been estimated from 5% to up to 40% depending on the turbine operating settings (e.g., thrust coefficient), number of turbine rows, turbine size (e.g., rotor diameter and hub-height), wind farm terrain, and atmospheric flow conditions (e.g., ambient wind speed, turbulence, and atmospheric stability). Early work by Elliott and Cadogan suggested that power data for different turbulent conditions be segregated to distinguish the effects of turbulence on wind farm power production. This may be especially important for downwind turbines within wind farms, as chaotic and turbulent wake flows increase stress on downstream turbines. Impacts of stability on turbine wakes and power production have been examined for a flat terrain, moderate size (43 turbines) wind farm in Minnesota and for an offshore, 80 turbine wind farm off the coast of Denmark. Conzemius found it difficult to distinguish wakes (i.e., downwind velocity deficits) when the atmosphere was convective as large amounts of scatter were present in the turbine nacelle wind speed data. This suggested that high levels of turbulence broke-up the wake via large buoyancy effects, which are generally on the order of 1 km in size. On the other hand, they found pronounced wake effects when the atmosphere was very stable and turbulence was either suppressed or the length scale was reduced as turbulence in this case was mechanically produced (i.e., friction forces). This led to larger reductions at downwind turbines and maximum velocity (power) deficits reached up to 50% (70%) during strongly stable conditions. At an offshore Danish wind farm, Hansen et al. found a strong negative correlation between power deficit and ambient turbulence intensity (i.e., atmospheric stability). Under convective conditions, when turbulence levels were relatively high, smallest power deficits were observed. Power deficits approaching 35 to 40% were found inside the wind farm during stable conditions.

  6. The global climate for December 1990-February 1991: Strong temperature and precipitation contrasts over North America and Eurasia; mixed ENSO conditions in the tropics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chelliah, M. )

    1993-07-01

    During most of the December 1990-February 1991 season sharp transcontinental temperature anomaly contrasts were evident in North America, Eurasia, and Australia. Large-scale atmospheric precipitations are more difficult to characterize. In the equatorial tropics there was some evidence of conditions similar to ENSO near the date line, but an almost complete failure of other ENSO components to appear in the east Pacific and in the tropical atmospheric circulation. 12 refs., 21 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Simulation of atmospheric temperature effects on cosmic ray muon flux

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tognini, Stefano Castro; Gomes, Ricardo Avelino

    2015-05-15

    The collision between a cosmic ray and an atmosphere nucleus produces a set of secondary particles, which will decay or interact with other atmosphere elements. This set of events produced a primary particle is known as an extensive air shower (EAS) and is composed by a muonic, a hadronic and an electromagnetic component. The muonic flux, produced mainly by pions and kaons decays, has a dependency with the atmosphere’s effective temperature: an increase in the effective temperature results in a lower density profile, which decreases the probability of pions and kaons to interact with the atmosphere and, consequently, resulting in a major number of meson decays. Such correlation between the muon flux and the atmosphere’s effective temperature was measured by a set of experiments, such as AMANDA, Borexino, MACRO and MINOS. This phenomena can be investigated by simulating the final muon flux produced by two different parameterizations of the isothermal atmospheric model in CORSIKA, where each parameterization is described by a depth function which can be related to the muon flux in the same way that the muon flux is related to the temperature. This research checks the agreement among different high energy hadronic interactions models and the physical expected behavior of the atmosphere temperature effect by analyzing a set of variables, such as the height of the primary interaction and the difference in the muon flux.

  8. Atmospheric sensing for the H.E.S.S. array

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aye, K.-M.; Brown, A.M.; Chadwick, P.M.; Hadjichristidis, C.; Latham, I.J.; Le Gallou, R.; McComb, T.J.L.; Nolan, S.J.; Noutsos, A.; Orford, K.J.; Osborne, J.L.; Rayner, S.M.

    2005-02-21

    Several atmospheric monitoring instruments have been installed at the H.E.S.S. gamma-ray observatory in Namibia. Firstly, Heitronics KT19 infrared radiometers, aligned paraxially with the H.E.S.S. telescopes, measure the infrared radiation of the water molecules. These allow us to detect clouds crossing the telescopes' field of view and to estimate the humidity present in the atmosphere. For a general estimate of the atmosphere's transmittance, i.e. the detection of any light-attenuating aerosols, a ceilometer, which is a LIDAR with built-in atmospheric data reduction code, is being used. It will be complemented soon by an instrument which will measure the transmissivity of the atmosphere at different wavelengths up to 500m above the ground. The overall status of the weather is monitored by a fully automated weatherstation. This paper describes the setup, the data analysis and how this will be used in order to improve the knowledge of the telescopes' effective collection area.

  9. Solitons and vortices in two-dimensional discrete nonlinear Schrödinger systems with spatially modulated nonlinearity

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kevrekidis, P. G.; Malomed, Boris A.; Saxena, Avadh; Bishop, A. R.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.

    2015-04-07

    We consider a two-dimensional (2D) generalization of a recently proposed model [Phys. Rev. E 88, 032905 (2013)], which gives rise to bright discrete solitons supported by the defocusing nonlinearity whose local strength grows from the center to the periphery. We explore the 2D model starting from the anticontinuum (AC) limit of vanishing coupling. In this limit, we can construct a wide variety of solutions including not only single-site excitations, but also dipole and quadrupole ones. Additionally, two separate families of solutions are explored: the usual “extended” unstaggered bright solitons, in which all sites are excited in the AC limit, withmore » the same sign across the lattice (they represent the most robust states supported by the lattice, their 1D counterparts being those considered as 1D bright solitons in the above-mentioned work), and the vortex cross, which is specific to the 2D setting. For all the existing states, we explore their stability (also analytically, when possible). As a result, typical scenarios of instability development are exhibited through direct simulations.« less

  10. Simulated evolution of fractures and fracture networks subject to thermal cooling: A coupled discrete element and heat conduction model

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Hai; Plummer, Mitchell; Podgorney, Robert

    2013-02-01

    Advancement of EGS requires improved prediction of fracture development and growth during reservoir stimulation and long-term operation. This, in turn, requires better understanding of the dynamics of the strongly coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (THM) processes within fractured rocks. We have developed a physically based rock deformation and fracture propagation simulator by using a quasi-static discrete element model (DEM) to model mechanical rock deformation and fracture propagation induced by thermal stress and fluid pressure changes. We also developed a network model to simulate fluid flow and heat transport in both fractures and porous rock. In this paper, we describe results of simulations in which the DEM model and network flow & heat transport model are coupled together to provide realistic simulation of the changes of apertures and permeability of fractures and fracture networks induced by thermal cooling and fluid pressure changes within fractures. Various processes, such as Stokes flow in low velocity pores, convection-dominated heat transport in fractures, heat exchange between fluid-filled fractures and solid rock, heat conduction through low-permeability matrices and associated mechanical deformations are all incorporated into the coupled model. The effects of confining stresses, developing thermal stress and injection pressure on the permeability evolution of fracture and fracture networks are systematically investigated. Results are summarized in terms of implications for the development and evolution of fracture distribution during hydrofracturing and thermal stimulation for EGS.

  11. A compact, discrete CsI(Tl) scintillator/Si photodiode gamma camera for breast cancer imaging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gruber, Gregory J.

    2000-12-01

    Recent clinical evaluations of scintimammography (radionuclide breast imaging) are promising and suggest that this modality may prove a valuable complement to X-ray mammography and traditional breast cancer detection and diagnosis techniques. Scintimammography, however, typically has difficulty revealing tumors that are less than 1 cm in diameter, are located in the medial part of the breast, or are located in the axillary nodes. These shortcomings may in part be due to the use of large, conventional Anger cameras not optimized for breast imaging. In this thesis I present compact single photon camera technology designed specifically for scintimammography which strives to alleviate some of these limitations by allowing better and closer access to sites of possible breast tumors. Specific applications are outlined. The design is modular, thus a camera of the desired size and geometry can be constructed from an array (or arrays) of individual modules and a parallel hole lead collimator for directional information. Each module consists of: (1) an array of 64 discrete, optically-isolated CsI(Tl) scintillator crystals 3 x 3 x 5 mm{sup 3} in size, (2) an array of 64 low-noise Si PIN photodiodes matched 1-to-1 to the scintillator crystals, (3) an application-specific integrated circuit (ASIC) that amplifies the 64 photodiode signals and selects the signal with the largest amplitude, and (4) connectors and hardware for interfacing the module with a motherboard, thereby allowing straightforward computer control of all individual modules within a camera.

  12. Free energy of RNA-counterion interactions in a tight-binding model computed by a discrete space mapping

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Henke, Paul S.; Mak, Chi H.

    2014-08-14

    The thermodynamic stability of a folded RNA is intricately tied to the counterions and the free energy of this interaction must be accounted for in any realistic RNA simulations. Extending a tight-binding model published previously, in this paper we investigate the fundamental structure of charges arising from the interaction between small functional RNA molecules and divalent ions such as Mg{sup 2+} that are especially conducive to stabilizing folded conformations. The characteristic nature of these charges is utilized to construct a discretely connected energy landscape that is then traversed via a novel application of a deterministic graph search technique. This search method can be incorporated into larger simulations of small RNA molecules and provides a fast and accurate way to calculate the free energy arising from the interactions between an RNA and divalent counterions. The utility of this algorithm is demonstrated within a fully atomistic Monte Carlo simulation of the P4-P6 domain of the Tetrahymena group I intron, in which it is shown that the counterion-mediated free energy conclusively directs folding into a compact structure.

  13. Coexistence of unlimited bipartite and genuine multipartite entanglement: Promiscuous quantum correlations arising from discrete to continuous-variable systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Adesso, Gerardo; Ericsson, Marie; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-08-15

    Quantum mechanics imposes 'monogamy' constraints on the sharing of entanglement. We show that, despite these limitations, entanglement can be fully 'promiscuous', i.e., simultaneously present in unlimited two-body and many-body forms in states living in an infinite-dimensional Hilbert space. Monogamy just bounds the divergence rate of the various entanglement contributions. This is demonstrated in simple families of N-mode (N{>=}4) Gaussian states of light fields or atomic ensembles, which therefore enable infinitely more freedom in the distribution of information, as opposed to systems of individual qubits. Such a finding is of importance for the quantification, understanding, and potential exploitation of shared quantum correlations in continuous variable systems. We discuss how promiscuity gradually arises when considering simple families of discrete variable states, with increasing Hilbert space dimension towards the continuous variable limit. Such models are somehow analogous to Gaussian states with asymptotically diverging, but finite, squeezing. In this respect, we find that non-Gaussian states (which in general are more entangled than Gaussian states) exhibit also the interesting feature that their entanglement is more shareable: in the non-Gaussian multipartite arena, unlimited promiscuity can be already achieved among three entangled parties, while this is impossible for Gaussian, even infinitely squeezed states.

  14. Atmospheric pressure plasma analysis by modulated molecular beam mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Aranda Gonzalvo, Y.; Whitmore, T.D.; Rees, J.A.; Seymour, D.L.; Stoffels, E.

    2006-05-15

    Fractional number density measurements for a rf plasma 'needle' operating at atmospheric pressure have been obtained using a molecular beam mass spectrometer (MBMS) system designed for diagnostics of atmospheric plasmas. The MBMS system comprises three differentially pumped stages and a mass/energy analyzer and includes an automated beam-to-background measurement facility in the form of a software-controlled chopper mechanism. The automation of the beam modulation allows the neutral components in the plasma to be rapidly and accurately measured using the mass spectrometer by threshold ionization techniques. Data are reported for plasma generated by a needle plasma source operated using a helium/air mixture. In particular, data for the conversion of atmospheric oxygen and nitrogen into nitric oxide are discussed with reference to its significance for medical applications such as disinfecting wounds and dental cavities and for microsurgery.

  15. Atmospheric-pressure guided streamers for liposomal membrane disruption

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Svarnas, P.; Aleiferis, Sp.; Matrali, S. H.; Gazeli, K.; Clement, F.; Antimisiaris, S. G.

    2012-12-24

    The potential to use liposomes (LIPs) as a cellular model in order to study interactions of cold atmospheric-pressure plasma with cells is herein investigated. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma is formed by a dielectric-barrier discharge reactor. Large multilamellar vesicle liposomes, consisted of phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol, are prepared by the thin film hydration technique, to encapsulate a small hydrophilic dye, i.e., calcein. The plasma-induced release of calcein from liposomes is then used as a measure of liposome membrane integrity and, consequently, interaction between the cold atmospheric plasma and lipid bilayers. Physical mechanisms leading to membrane disruption are suggested, based on the plasma characterization including gas temperature calculation.

  16. ARESE (ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment) Science Plan [Atmospheric Radiation Program

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Valero, F.P.J.; Schwartz, S.E.; Cess, R.D.; Ramanathan, V.; Collins, W.D.; Minnis, P.; Ackerman, T.P.; Vitko, J.; Tooman, T.P.

    1995-09-27

    Several recent studies have indicated that cloudy atmospheres may absorb significantly more solar radiation than currently predicted by models. The magnitude of this excess atmospheric absorption, is about 50% more than currently predicted and would have major impact on our understanding of atmospheric heating. Incorporation of this excess heating into existing general circulation models also appears to ameliorate some significant shortcomings of these models, most notably a tendency to overpredict the amount of radiant energy going into the oceans and to underpredict the tropopause temperature. However, some earlier studies do not show this excess absorption and an underlying physical mechanism that would give rise to such absorption has yet to be defined. Given the importance of this issue, the Department of Energy's (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program is sponsoring the ARM Enhanced Shortwave Experiment (ARESE) to study the absorption of solar radiation by clear and cloudy atmospheres. The experimental results will be compared with model calculations. Measurements will be conducted using three aircraft platforms (ARM-UAV Egrett, NASA ER-2, and an instrumented Twin Otter), as well as satellites and the ARM central and extended facilities in North Central Oklahoma. The project will occur over a four week period beginning in late September, 1995. Spectral broadband, partial bandpass, and narrow bandpass (10nm) solar radiative fluxes will be measured at different altitudes and at the surface with the objective to determine directly the magnitude and spectral characteristics of the absorption of shortwave radiation by the atmosphere (clear and cloudy). Narrow spectral channels selected to coincide with absorption by liquid water and ice will help in identifying the process of absorption of radiation. Additionally, information such as water vapor profiles, aerosol optical depths, cloud structure and ozone profiles, needed to use as input in radiative transfer calculations, will be acquired using the aircraft and surface facilities available to ARESE. This document outlines the scientific approach and measurement requirements of the project.

  17. ChEAS Data: The Chequamegon Ecosystem Atmosphere Study

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Davis, Kenneth J. [Penn State

    The Chequamegon Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (ChEAS) is a multi-organizational research effort studying biosphere/atmosphere interactions within a northern mixed forest in Northern Wisconsin. A primary goal is to understand the processes controlling forest-atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide and the response of these processes to climate change. Another primary goal is to bridge the gap between canopy-scale flux measurements and the global CO2 flask sampling network. The ChEAS flux towers participate in AmeriFlux, and the region is an EOS-validation site. The WLEF tower is a NOAA-CMDL CO2 sampling site. ChEAS sites are primarily located within or near the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest in northern Wisconsin, with one site in the Ottawa National Forest in the upper peninsula of Michigan. Current studies observe forest/atmosphere exchange of carbon dioxide at canopy and regional scales, forest floor respiration, photosynthesis and transpiration at the leaf level and use models to scale to canopy and regional levels. EOS-validation studies quantitatively assess the land cover of the area using remote sensing and conduct extensive ground truthing of new remote sensing data (i.e. ASTER and MODIS). Atmospheric remote sensing work is aimed at understanding atmospheric boundary layer dynamics, the role of entrainment in regulating the carbon dioxide mixing ratio profiles through the lower troposphere, and feedback between boundary layer dynamics and vegetation (especially via the hydrologic cycle). Airborne studies have included include balloon, kite and aircraft observations of the CO2 profile in the troposphere.

  18. Impact of atmospheric refraction: how deeply can we probe exo-earth's atmospheres during primary eclipse observations?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bétrémieux, Yan; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2014-08-10

    Most models used to predict or fit exoplanet transmission spectra do not include all the effects of atmospheric refraction. Namely, the angular size of the star with respect to the planet can limit the lowest altitude, or highest density and pressure, probed during primary eclipses as no rays passing below this critical altitude can reach the observer. We discuss this geometrical effect of refraction for all exoplanets and tabulate the critical altitude, density, and pressure for an exoplanet identical to Earth with a 1 bar N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} atmosphere as a function of both the incident stellar flux (Venus, Earth, and Mars-like) at the top of the atmosphere and the spectral type (O5-M9) of the host star. We show that such a habitable exo-Earth can be probed to a surface pressure of 1 bar only around the coolest stars. We present 0.4-5.0 ?m model transmission spectra of Earth's atmosphere viewed as a transiting exoplanet, and show how atmospheric refraction modifies the transmission spectrum depending on the spectral type of the host star. We demonstrate that refraction is another phenomenon that can potentially explain flat transmission spectra over some spectral regions.

  19. High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

    2003-12-31

    This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

  20. 2010 Atmospheric System Research (ASR) Science Team Meeting Summary

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dupont, DL

    2011-05-04

    This document contains the summaries of papers presented in poster format at the March 2010 Atmospheric System Research Science Team Meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland. More than 260 posters were presented during the Science Team Meeting. Posters were sorted into the following subject areas: aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions, aerosol properties, atmospheric state and surface, cloud properties, field campaigns, infrastructure and outreach, instruments, modeling, and radiation. To put these posters in context, the status of ASR at the time of the meeting is provided here.

  1. CLOUD BASE SIGNATURE IN TRANSMISSION SPECTRA OF EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Vahidinia, Sanaz; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N.; Marley, Mark; Fortney, Jonathan

    2014-07-01

    We present an analytical model for the transmission spectrum of a transiting exoplanet, showing that a cloud base can produce an observable inflection point in the spectrum. The wavelength and magnitude of the inflection can be used to break the degeneracy between the atmospheric pressure and the abundance of the main cloud material, however, the abundance still depends on cloud particle size. An observed inflection also provides a specific point on the atmospheric P-T profile, giving us a ''thermometer'' to directly validate or rule out postulated cloud species. We apply the model to the transit spectrum of HD 189733b.

  2. Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division Program Report, 1988--1989

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1990-06-01

    In 1990, the Atmospheric and Geophysical Sciences Division begins its 17th year as a division. As the Division has grown over the years, its modeling capabilities have expanded to include a broad range of time and space scales ranging from hours to decades and from local to global. Our modeling is now reaching out from its atmospheric focus to treat linkages with the oceans and the land. In this report, we describe the Division's goal and organizational structure. We also provide tables and appendices describing the Division's budget, personnel, models, and publications. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The Atmosphere as a Laboratory: Aerosols, Air Quality, and Climate |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Princeton Plasma Physics Lab 25, 2014, 9:30am to 11:00am Science On Saturday MBG Auditorium The Atmosphere as a Laboratory: Aerosols, Air Quality, and Climate Peter DeCarlo, Assistant Professor of Environmental Engineering and Chemistry Drexel University Abstract: PDF icon PeterDeCarlo.pdf Can't make it to the lab? Watch it LIVE here! The Atmosphere as a Laboratory: Aerosols, Air Quality and Climate Contact Information Coordinator(s): Deedee Ortiz dortiz@pppl.gov Host(s): Ronald Hatcher

  4. THE MOST METAL-POOR STARS. I. DISCOVERY, DATA, AND ATMOSPHERIC PARAMETERS

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Norris, John E.; Bessell, M. S.; Yong, David; Asplund, M.; Murphy, Simon J.; Christlieb, N.; Barklem, P. S.; Beers, Timothy C.; Frebel, Anna; Ryan, S. G. E-mail: bessell@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: martin@mso.anu.edu.au E-mail: paul.barklem@physics.uu.se E-mail: afrebel@mit.edu

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of 34 stars in the Hamburg/ESO Survey for metal-poor stars and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey that have [Fe/H] {approx}< -3.0. Their median and minimum abundances are [Fe/H] = -3.1 and -4.1, respectively, while 10 stars have [Fe/H] < -3.5. High-resolution, high signal-to-noise spectroscopic data-equivalent widths and radial velocities-are presented for these stars, together with an additional four objects previously reported or currently being investigated elsewhere. We have determined the atmospheric parameters, effective temperature (T {sub eff}), and surface gravity (log g), which are critical in the determination of the chemical abundances and the evolutionary status of these stars. Three techniques were used to derive these parameters. Spectrophotometric fits to model atmosphere fluxes were used to derive T {sub eff}, log g, and an estimate of E(B - V); H{alpha}, H{beta}, and H{gamma} profile fitting to model atmosphere results provided the second determination of T {sub eff} and log g; and finally, we used an empirical T {sub eff}-calibrated H{delta} index, for the third, independent T {sub eff} determination. The three values of T {sub eff} are in good agreement, although the profile fitting may yield systematically cooler T {sub eff} values, by {approx}100 K. This collective data set will be analyzed in future papers in the present series to utilize the most metal-poor stars as probes of conditions in the early universe.

  5. Wind Turbine Drivetrain Condition Monitoring - An Overview

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, S; Veers, P.

    2011-10-01

    This paper provides an overview of wind turbine drivetrain condition monitoring based on presentations from a condition monitoring workshop organized by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in 2009 and on additional references.

  6. Space Conditioning Standing Technical Committee Strategic Plan

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    This strategic plan document outlines the gaps, barriers, and opportunities identified by the Building America Space Conditioning Standing Technical Committee.

  7. Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Control strategies to improve hydronic space heating performance Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings - Control ...

  8. Measurements of the Infrared SpectraLines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Measurements of the Infrared Spectral Lines of Water Vapor at Atmospheric Temperatures P. Varanasi and Q. Zou Institute for Terrestrial and Planetary Atmospheres State University of New York at Stony Brook Stony Brook, New York Introduction Water vapor is undoubtedly the most dominant greenhouse gas in the terrestrial atmosphere. In the two facets of Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program research, atmospheric remote sensing (air-borne as well as Cloud and Radiation Testbed [CART]

  9. Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Strategies for Multifamily Buildings | Department of Energy Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings Building America Webinar: Retrofitting Central Space Conditioning Strategies for Multifamily Buildings The webinar on July 16, 2014, focused on improving the performance of central space conditioning systems in multifamily buildings. Presenters discussed hydronic heating strategies and the evaluation of thermostatically controlled radiator valves (TRVs).

  10. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. II. H{sub 2}S AND SO{sub 2} PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN ANOXIC ATMOSPHERES

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William

    2013-05-20

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere, which would condense to form aerosols if saturated. For terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars or M stars, Earth-like sulfur emission rates result in optically thick haze composed of elemental sulfur in reducing H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres for a wide range of particle diameters (0.1-1 {mu}m), which is assumed as a free parameter in our simulations. In oxidized atmospheres composed of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, optically thick haze, composed of elemental sulfur aerosols (S{sub 8}) or sulfuric acid aerosols (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), will form if the surface sulfur emission is two orders of magnitude more than the volcanic sulfur emission of Earth. Although direct detection of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} by their spectral features is unlikely, their emission might be inferred by observing aerosol-related features in reflected light with future generation space telescopes.

  11. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere. Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-07-19

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. The Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linearmore » or a circular polarized incident laser beam). We discovered that the conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. Likewise, the expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. As a result, the theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions.« less

  12. Detection of preferential particle orientation in the atmosphere. Development of an alternative polarization lidar system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Geier, Manfred; Arienti, Marco

    2014-07-19

    Increasing interest in polarimetric characterization of atmospheric aerosols has led to the development of complete sample-measuring (Mueller) polarimeters that are capable of measuring the entire backscattering phase matrix of a probed volume. The Mueller polarimeters consist of several moving parts, which limit measurement rates and complicate data analysis. In this paper, we present the concept of a less complex polarization lidar setup for detection of preferential orientation of atmospheric particulates. On the basis of theoretical considerations of data inversion stability and propagation of measurement uncertainties, an optimum optical configuration is established for two modes of operation (with either a linear or a circular polarized incident laser beam). We discovered that the conceptualized setup falls in the category of incomplete sample-measuring polarimeters and uses four detection channels for simultaneous measurement of the backscattered light. Likewise, the expected performance characteristics are discussed through an example of a typical aerosol with a small fraction of particles oriented in a preferred direction. As a result, the theoretical analysis suggests that achievable accuracies in backscatter cross-sections and depolarization ratios are similar to those with conventional two-channel configurations, while in addition preferential orientation can be detected with the proposed four-channel system for a wide range of conditions.

  13. Atmospheric corrosion monitoring at the US Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge K-25 Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Rao, M.

    1995-12-31

    Depleted uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) at the US Department of Energy`s K-25 Site at Oak Ridge, TN has been stored in large steel cylinders which have undergone significant atmospheric corrosion damage over the last 35 years. A detailed experimental program to characterize and monitor the corrosion damage was initiated in 1992. Large amounts of corrosion scale and deep pits are found to cover cylinder surfaces. Ultrasonic wall thickness measurements have shown uniform corrosion losses up to 20 mils (0.5 mm) and pits up to 100 mils (2.5 mm) deep. Electrical resistance corrosion probes, time-of-wetness sensors and thermocouples have been attached to cylinder bodies. Atmospheric conditions are monitored using rain gauges, relative humidity sensors and thermocouples. Long-term (16 years) data are being obtained from mild steel corrosion coupons on test racks as well as attached directly to cylinder surfaces. Corrosion rates have been found to intimately related to the times-of-wetness, both tending to be higher on cylinder tops due to apparent sheltering effects. Data from the various tests are compared, discrepancies are discussed and a pattern of cylinder corrosion as a function of cylinder position and location is described.

  14. Characterization of an atmospheric double arc argon-nitrogen plasma source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tu, X.; Cheron, B. G.; Yan, J. H.; Yu, L.; Cen, K. F.

    2008-05-15

    In the framework of studies devoted to hazardous waste destruction, an original dc double anode plasma torch has been designed and tested, which produces an elongated, weak fluctuation and reproducible plasma jet at atmospheric pressure. The arc instabilities and dynamic behavior of the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma jet are investigated through the oscillations of electrical signals by combined means of fast Fourier transform and Wigner distribution. In our experiment, the restrike mode is identified as the typical fluctuation behavior in an argon-nitrogen plasma jet. The Fourier spectra and Wigner distributions exhibit two characteristic frequencies of 150 Hz and 4.1 kHz, which reveals that the nature of fluctuations in the double arc argon-nitrogen plasma can be ascribed to the undulation of the power supply and both arc roots motion on the anode channels. In addition, the microscopic properties of the plasma jet inside and outside the arc chamber are investigated by means of optical emission spectroscopy, which yields excitation, electronic, rotational, and vibrational temperatures, as well as the electron number density. The results allow us to examine the validity criteria of a local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) state in the plasma arc. The measured electron densities are in good agreement with those calculated from the LTE model, which indicates that the atmospheric double arc argon-nitrogen plasma in the core region is close to the LTE state under our experimental conditions.

  15. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G.; Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K.

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock & Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  16. Materials performance in the atmospheric fluidized-bed cogeneration air heater experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Natesan, K.; Podolski, W.; Wang, D.Y.; Teats, F.G. ); Gerritsen, W.; Stewart, A.; Robinson, K. )

    1991-02-01

    The Atmospheric Fluidized-Bed Cogeneration Air Heater Experiment (ACAHE) sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) was initiated to assess the performance of various heat-exchanger materials to be used in fluidized-bed combustion air heater systems. Westinghouse Electric Corporation, through subcontracts with Babcock Wilcox, Foster Wheeler, and ABB Combustion Engineering Systems, prepared specifications and hardware for the ACAHE tests. Argonne National Laboratory contracted with Rockwell International to conduct tests in the DOE atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion facility. This report presents an overview of the project, a description of the facility and the test hardware, the test operating conditions, a summary of the operation, and the results of analyzing specimens from several uncooled and cooled probes exposed in the facility. Extensive microstructural analyses of the base alloys, claddings, coatings, and weldments were performed on specimens exposed in several probes for different lengths of time. Alloy penetration data were determined for several of the materials as a function of specimen orientation and the exposure location in the combustor. Finally, the data were compared with earlier laboratory test data, and the long-term performance of candidate materials for air-heater applications was assessed.

  17. Calibrating Pyrgeometers Outdoors Independent from the Reference Value of the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Hickey, J. R.; Grobner, J.; Andreas, A.; Stoffel, T.

    2006-08-01

    In this article, we describe a method for the calibration of thermopile pyrgeometers in the absence of a reference for measurement of atmospheric longwave irradiance. This is referred to as the incoming longwave irradiance in this article. The method is based on an indoor calibration using a low-temperature blackbody source to obtain the calibration coefficients that determine the pyrgeometer's radiation characteristics. From these coefficients the outgoing irradiance of the pyrgeometer can be calculated. The pyrgeometer is then installed outdoors on an aluminum plate that is connected to a circulating temperature bath. By adjusting the temperature bath to the approximate value of the effective sky temperature, the pyrgeometer's body temperature is lowered changing the pyrgeometer's thermopile output. If the incoming longwave irradiance is stable, the slope of the outgoing irradiance versus the pyrgeometer's thermopile output is the outdoor net irradiance responsivity (RSnet), independent of the absolute value of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. The indoor calibration coefficients and the outdoor RSnet are then used in the pyrgeometer equation to calculate the incoming longwave irradiance. To evaluate this method, the calculated irradiance using the derived coefficients was compared to the irradiance measured using a pyrgeometer with direct traceability to the World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). This is maintained at the Physikalisch-Meteorologisches Observatorium Davos, World Radiation Center, Switzerland. Based on results from four pyrgeometers calibrations, this method suggests measurement agreement with the WISG to within +/- 3 W/m2 for all sky conditions.

  18. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Poster)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Stoffel, T.

    2012-03-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG.

  19. Introducing an Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer for Improving the Atmospheric Longwave Irradiance Measurement (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Reda, I.; Hansen, L.; Zeng, J.

    2012-08-01

    Advancing climate change research requires accurate and traceable measurement of the atmospheric longwave irradiance. Current measurement capabilities are limited to an estimated uncertainty of larger than +/- 4 W/m2 using the interim World Infrared Standard Group (WISG). WISG is traceable to the Systeme international d'unites (SI) through blackbody calibrations. An Absolute Cavity Pyrgeometer (ACP) is being developed to measure absolute outdoor longwave irradiance with traceability to SI using the temperature scale (ITS-90) and the sky as the reference source, instead of a blackbody. The ACP was designed by NREL and optically characterized by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). Under clear-sky and stable conditions, the responsivity of the ACP is determined by lowering the temperature of the cavity and calculating the rate of change of the thermopile output voltage versus the changing net irradiance. The absolute atmospheric longwave irradiance is then calculated with an uncertainty of +/- 3.96 W/m2 with traceability to SI. The measured irradiance by the ACP was compared with the irradiance measured by two pyrgeometers calibrated by the World Radiation Center with traceability to the WISG. A total of 408 readings was collected over three different clear nights. The calculated irradiance measured by the ACP was 1.5 W/m2 lower than that measured by the two pyrgeometers that are traceable to WISG. Further development and characterization of the ACP might contribute to the effort of improving the uncertainty and traceability of WISG to SI.

  20. Program Abstracts: Formation and Growth of Atmospheric Aerosols

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Peter H. McMurry; Markku Kulmala

    2006-09-07

    DOE provided $11,000 to sponsor the Workshop on New Particle Formation in the Atmosphere, which was held at The Riverwood Inn and Conference Center near Minneapolis, MN from September 7 to 9, 2006. Recent work has shown that new particle formation is an important atmospheric process that must be better understood due to its impact on cloud cover and the Earth's radiation balance. The conference was an informal gathering of atmospheric and basic scientists with expertise pertinent to this topic. The workshop included discussions of: • atmospheric modeling; • computational chemistry pertinent to clustering; • ions and ion induced nucleation; • basic laboratory and theoretical studies of nucleation; • studies on neutral molecular clusters; • interactions of organic compounds and sulfuric acid; • composition of freshly nucleated particles. Fifty six scientists attended the conference. They included 27 senior scientists, 9 younger independent scientists (assistant professor or young associate professor level), 7 postdocs, 13 graduate students, 10 women, 35 North Americans (34 from the U.S.), 1 Asian, and 20 Europeans. This was an excellent informal workshop on an important topic. An effort was made to include individuals from communities that do not regularly interact. A number of participants have provided informal feedback indicating that the workshop led to research ideas and possible future collaborations.

  1. LARGE ABUNDANCES OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN TITAN'S UPPER ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lopez-Puertas, M.; Funke, B.; Garcia-Comas, M.; Dinelli, B. M.; Adriani, A.; D'Aversa, E.; Moriconi, M. L.; Boersma, C.; Allamandola, L. J.

    2013-06-20

    In this paper, we analyze the strong unidentified emission near 3.28 {mu}m in Titan's upper daytime atmosphere recently discovered by Dinelli et al. We have studied it by using the NASA Ames PAH IR Spectroscopic Database. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), after absorbing UV solar radiation, are able to emit strongly near 3.3 {mu}m. By using current models for the redistribution of the absorbed UV energy, we have explained the observed spectral feature and have derived the vertical distribution of PAH abundances in Titan's upper atmosphere. PAHs have been found to be present in large concentrations, about (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} particles cm{sup -3}. The identified PAHs have 9-96 carbons, with a concentration-weighted average of 34 carbons. The mean mass is {approx}430 u; the mean area is about 0.53 nm{sup 2}; they are formed by 10-11 rings on average, and about one-third of them contain nitrogen atoms. Recently, benzene together with light aromatic species as well as small concentrations of heavy positive and negative ions have been detected in Titan's upper atmosphere. We suggest that the large concentrations of PAHs found here are the neutral counterpart of those positive and negative ions, which hence supports the theory that the origin of Titan main haze layer is located in the upper atmosphere.

  2. Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Annual Report 2008

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    LR Roeder

    2008-12-01

    The Importance of Clouds and Radiation for Climate Change: The Earth’s surface temperature is determined by the balance between incoming solar radiation and thermal (or infrared) radiation emitted by the Earth back to space. Changes in atmospheric composition, including greenhouse gases, clouds, and aerosols, can alter this balance and produce significant climate change. Global climate models (GCMs) are the primary tool for quantifying future climate change; however, there remain significant uncertainties in the GCM treatment of clouds, aerosol, and their effects on the Earth’s energy balance. In 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science created the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program to address scientific uncertainties related to global climate change, with a specific focus on the crucial role of clouds and their influence on the transfer of radiation in the atmosphere. To reduce these scientific uncertainties, the ARM Program uses a unique twopronged approach: • The ARM Climate Research Facility, a scientific user facility for obtaining long-term measurements of radiative fluxes, cloud and aerosol properties, and related atmospheric characteristics in diverse climate regimes; and • The ARM Science Program, focused on the analysis of ACRF and other data to address climate science issues associated with clouds, aerosols, and radiation, and to improve GCMs. This report provides an overview of each of these components and a sample of achievements for each in fiscal year (FY) 2008.

  3. Science Plan for the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program (ARM)

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    The purpose of this Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Science Plan is to articulate the scientific issues driving the ARM Program, and to relate them to DOE`s programmatic objectives for ARM, based on the experience and scientific progress gained over the past five years. ARM programmatic objectives are to: (1) Relate observed radiative fluxes and radiances in the atmosphere, spectrally resolved and as a function of position and time, to the temperature and composition of the atmosphere, specifically including water vapor and clouds, and to surface properties, and sample sufficient variety of situations so as to span a wide range of climatologically relevant possibilities; (2) develop and test parameterizations that can be used to accurately predict the radiative properties and to model the radiative interactions involving water vapor and clouds within the atmosphere, with the objective of incorporating these parameterizations into general circulation models. The primary observational methods remote sending and other observations at the surface, particularly remote sensing of clouds, water vapor and aerosols.

  4. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, G.; D'Silva, A.P.; Fassel, V.A.

    1985-04-05

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency, electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  5. Atmospheric pressure helium afterglow discharge detector for gas chromatography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Rice, Gary; D'Silva, Arthur P.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for providing a simple, low-frequency electrodeless discharge system for atmospheric pressure afterglow generation. A single quartz tube through which a gas mixture is passed is extended beyond a concentric electrode positioned thereabout. A grounding rod is placed directly above the tube outlet to permit optical viewing of the discharge between the electrodes.

  6. Excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics in the solar atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Fomichev, V. V.; Fainshtein, S. M.; Chernov, G. P.

    2013-05-15

    An alternative mechanism for the excitation of electron Langmuir frequency harmonics as a result of the development of explosive instability in a weakly relativistic beam-plasma system in the solar atmosphere is proposed. The efficiency of the new mechanism as compared to the previously discussed ones is analyzed.

  7. Connectivity to National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC)

    Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

    2003-08-11

    To establish requirements for connectivity with the National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for all DOE and NNSA sites and facilities with potential for hazardous materials releases at levels that require emergency response. The requirements of this Notice have been incorporated into DOE O 151.1C, Comprehensive Emergency Management System, dated 11-2-05. No cancellations.

  8. Discrete Fracture Reservoir Simulation

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    to FRACGENNFFLOW Releases with the subject "Add to Release Distribution List". The animation on this page displays sample output values for pressure from 22 time steps. A series...

  9. Differential absorption lidar measurements of atmospheric temperature profiles - Theory and experiment

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Theopold, F.A.; Boesenberg, J. )

    1993-04-01

    The method of measuring atmospheric temperature profiles with differential absorption lidar (DIAL), based on the temperature dependence of oxygen absorption lines in the near-IR, is investigated in detail. Particularly, the influence of Doppler broadening on the Rayleigh-backscattered signal is evaluated, and a correction method for this effect is presented which requires an accurate estimate of the molecular and particle backscatter contributions; this is noted not to be achievable by the usual lidar inversion techniques. Under realistic conditions, resulting errors may be as high as 10 K. First range-resolved measurements using this technique are presented, using a slightly modified DIAL system originally constructed for water vapor measurements. While much better resolution can certainly be achieved by technical improvements, the errors introduced by the uncertainty of the backscatter contributions will remain and determine the accuracy that can be obtained with this method. 35 refs.

  10. A comprehensive study of different gases in inductively coupled plasma torch operating at one atmosphere

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Punjabi, Sangeeta B.; Joshi, N. K.; Mangalvedekar, H. A.; Lande, B. K.; Das, A. K.; Kothari, D. C.

    2012-01-15

    A numerical study is done to understand the possible operating regimes of RF-ICP torch (3 MHz, 50 kW) using different gases for plasma formation at atmospheric pressure. A two dimensional numerical simulation of RF-ICP torch using argon, nitrogen, oxygen, and air as plasma gas has been investigated using computational fluid dynamic (CFD) software fluent{sup (c)}. The operating parameters varied here are central gas flow, sheath gas flow, RF-power dissipated in plasma, and plasma gas. The temperature contours, flow field, axial, and radial velocity profiles were investigated under different operating conditions. The plasma resistance, inductance of the torch, and the heat distribution for various plasma gases have also been investigated. The plasma impedance of ICP torch varies with different operating parameters and plays an important role for RF oscillator design and power coupling. These studies will be useful to decide the design criteria for ICP torches required for different material processing applications.

  11. Lidar sensing of the atmosphere with gigawatt laser pulses of femtosecond duration

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bukin, O A; Golik, S S; Il'in, A A; Kulchin, Yu N; Lisitsa, V V; Shmirko, K A; Babii, M Yu; Kolesnikov, A V; Kabanov, A M; Matvienko, G G; Oshlakov, V K

    2014-06-30

    We present the results of sensing of the atmosphere in the condition of a transition 'continent – ocean' zone by means of gigawatt femtosecond pulses of the fundamental and second harmonics of a Ti : sapphire laser. In the regime of multi-frequency sensing (supercontinuum from the fundamental harmonic) the emission lines of the first positive system of the nitrogen molecule B{sup 3}Π{sub g} – A{sup 3}Σ{sub u}{sup +} have been recorded, while the sensing using of the second harmonic have revealed the possibility of detecting the lines of Raman scattering of nitrogen (λ = 441 nm). The intensity ratio of the line of Raman scattering of nitrogen and the line of elastic scattering at the wavelength of λ = 400 nm amounts to 5.6 × 10{sup -4}. (extreme light fields and their applications)

  12. Atmospheric carbonyl sulfide sources from anthropogenic activity: Implications for carbon cycle constraints

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Campbell, Elliott; Whelan, Mary; Seibt, U.; Smith, Steven J.; Berry, Joe; Hilton, Timothy W.

    2015-04-28

    Carbonyl sulfide (COS) has recently emerged as an atmospheric tracer of gross primary production. All modeling studies of COS air-monitoring data rely on a climatological anthropogenic inventory that does not reflect present conditions or support interpretation of ice core and firn trends. Here we develop a global anthropogenic inventory for the years 1850 to 2013 based on new emission measurements and material-specific data. By applying methods from a recent regional inventory to global data, we find that the anthropogenic source is similar in magnitude to the plant sink, confounding carbon cycle applications. However, a material-specific approach results in a current anthropogenic source that is only one-third of plant uptake and is concentrated in Asia, supporting carbon cycle applications of global air-monitoring data. Furthermore, the source alone cannot explain the century-scale mixing ratio growth, which suggests that ice and firn data may provide the first global history of gross primary production.

  13. Optimization of the Direct Discrete Method Using the Solution of the Adjoint Equation and its Application in the Multi-Group Neutron Diffusion Equation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ayyoubzadeh, Seyed Mohsen; Vosoughi, Naser

    2011-09-14

    Obtaining the set of algebraic equations that directly correspond to a physical phenomenon has been viable in the recent direct discrete method (DDM). Although this method may find its roots in physical and geometrical considerations, there are still some degrees of freedom that one may suspect optimize-able. Here we have used the information embedded in the corresponding adjoint equation to form a local functional, which in turn by its minimization, yield suitable dual mesh positioning.

  14. Applications of high-resolution spatial discretization scheme and Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov method in two-phase flow problems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zou, Ling; Zhao, Haihua; Zhang, Hongbin

    2015-09-01

    The majority of the existing reactor system analysis codes were developed using low-order numerical schemes in both space and time. In many nuclear thermal–hydraulics applications, it is desirable to use higher-order numerical schemes to reduce numerical errors. High-resolution spatial discretization schemes provide high order spatial accuracy in smooth regions and capture sharp spatial discontinuity without nonphysical spatial oscillations. In this work, we adapted an existing high-resolution spatial discretization scheme on staggered grids in two-phase flow applications. Fully implicit time integration schemes were also implemented to reduce numerical errors from operator-splitting types of time integration schemes. The resulting nonlinear system has been successfully solved using the Jacobian-free Newton–Krylov (JFNK) method. The high-resolution spatial discretization and high-order fully implicit time integration numerical schemes were tested and numerically verified for several two-phase test problems, including a two-phase advection problem, a two-phase advection with phase appearance/disappearance problem, and the water faucet problem. Numerical results clearly demonstrated the advantages of using such high-resolution spatial and high-order temporal numerical schemes to significantly reduce numerical diffusion and therefore improve accuracy. Our study also demonstrated that the JFNK method is stable and robust in solving two-phase flow problems, even when phase appearance/disappearance exists.

  15. Atmospheric dispersion and deposition of iodine-131 released from the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.; Stage, S.A.

    1994-06-01

    Approximately 2.6x10{sup 4} TBq (700,000 curies) of iodine-131 were released to the air from reactor fuel processing plants on the Hanford Site in southcentral Washington State from December 1944 through December 1949. The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project developed a suite of codes to estimate the doses that might have resulted from these releases. The Regional Atmospheric Transport Code for Hanford Emission Tracking (RATCHET) computer code is part of this suite. The RATCHET code implements a Lagrangian-trajectory, Gaussian-puff dispersion model that uses hourly meteorological and release rate data to estimate daily time-integrated air concentrations and surface contamination for use in dose estimates. In this model, iodine is treated as a mixture of three species (nominally, inorganic gases, organic gases, and particles). Model deposition parameters are functions of the mixture and meteorological conditions. A resistance model is used to calculate dry deposition velocities. Equilibrium between concentrations in the precipitation and the air near the ground is assumed in calculating wet deposition of gases, and irreversible washout of the particles is assumed. RATCHET explicitly treats the uncertainties in model parameters and meteorological conditions. Uncertainties in iodine-131 release rates and partitioning among the nominal species are treated by varying model input. The results of 100 model runs for December 1944 through December 1949 indicate that monthly average air concentrations and deposition have uncertainties ranging from a factor of two near the center of the time-integrated plume to more than an order of magnitude near the edge. These results indicate that -10% of the iodine-131 released to the atmosphere decayed during transit in the study area, -56% was deposited within the study area, and the remaining 34% was transported out of the study area while still in the air.

  16. Conditions and Requirements | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Postdoctoral Research Awards » Award Information » Conditions and Requirements Conditions and Requirements Conditions and requirements for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Postdoctoral Research Awards are spelled out below: Length of the Appointment The Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Postdoctoral Research Awards are for two years. The initial appointment period for the EERE Postdoctoral Research Awards is one year. Appointments may be extended for a second year

  17. Microsoft Word - S08254_CellConditions

    Office of Legacy Management (LM)

    Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Cell Internal Water Balance and Cell Conditions February 2012 LMS/SHP/S08254 This page intentionally left blank LMS/SHP/S08254 Shiprock, New Mexico, Disposal Cell Internal Water Balance and Cell Conditions February 2012 This page intentionally left blank U.S. Department of Energy Shiprock Disposal Cell Internal Water Balance and Cell Conditions February 2012 Doc. No.S08254 Page i Contents Abbreviations

  18. Air-Conditioning Basics | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air-Conditioning Basics Air-Conditioning Basics August 16, 2013 - 1:59pm Addthis Air conditioning is one of the most common ways to cool homes and buildings. How Air Conditioners Work Air conditioners employ the same operating principles and basic components as refrigerators. Refrigerators use energy (usually electricity) to transfer heat from the cool interior of the refrigerator to the relatively warm surroundings; likewise, an air conditioner uses energy to transfer heat from the interior

  19. Vermont Conditionally Exempt Generator Handbook: A Hazardous...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Conditionally Exempt Generator Handbook: A Hazardous Waste Management Guide for Smaller Vermont Business Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library...

  20. Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies for Affordable Housing Building America Webinar: High Performance Space Conditioning Systems, Part II - Air Distribution Retrofit Strategies ...