National Library of Energy BETA

Sample records for discharge includes charges

  1. Electrochemical cell with high discharge/charge rate capability

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Redey, Laszlo

    1988-01-01

    A fully charged positive electrode composition for an electrochemical cell includes FeS.sub.2 and NiS.sub.2 in about equal molar amounts along with about 2-20 mole percent of the reaction product Li.sub.2 S. Through selection of appropriate electrolyte compositions, high power output or low operating temperatures can be obtained. The cell includes a substantially constant electrode impedance through most of its charge and discharge range. Exceptionally high discharge rates and overcharge protection are obtainable through use of the inventive electrode composition.

  2. Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Discharging |

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Argonne National Laboratory Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Discharging Technology available for licensing: Coating increases electrical conductivity of cathode materials Coating does not hinder battery performance Provides two coating processes that yield surface-treated, electro-active materials for a variety of applications, such as in a rechargeable lithium battery in both processes, and primary and secondary lithium battery applications in another process.

  3. Is the negative glow plasma of a direct current glow discharge negatively charged?

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogdanov, E. A.; Saifutdinov, A. I.; Demidov, V. I.; Kudryavtsev, A. A.

    2015-02-15

    A classic problem in gas discharge physics is discussed: what is the sign of charge density in the negative glow region of a glow discharge? It is shown that traditional interpretations in text-books on gas discharge physics that states a negative charge of the negative glow plasma are based on analogies with a simple one-dimensional model of discharge. Because the real glow discharges with a positive column are always two-dimensional, the transversal (radial) term in divergence with the electric field can provide a non-monotonic axial profile of charge density in the plasma, while maintaining a positive sign. The numerical calculation of glow discharge is presented, showing a positive space charge in the negative glow under conditions, where a one-dimensional model of the discharge would predict a negative space charge.

  4. Method and apparatus for smart battery charging including a plurality of controllers each monitoring input variables

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hammerstrom, Donald J.

    2013-10-15

    A method for managing the charging and discharging of batteries wherein at least one battery is connected to a battery charger, the battery charger is connected to a power supply. A plurality of controllers in communication with one and another are provided, each of the controllers monitoring a subset of input variables. A set of charging constraints may then generated for each controller as a function of the subset of input variables. A set of objectives for each controller may also be generated. A preferred charge rate for each controller is generated as a function of either the set of objectives, the charging constraints, or both, using an algorithm that accounts for each of the preferred charge rates for each of the controllers and/or that does not violate any of the charging constraints. A current flow between the battery and the battery charger is then provided at the actual charge rate.

  5. Charging/discharging behavior and mechanism of silicon quantum dots embedded in amorphous silicon carbide films

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Wen, Xixing; Zeng, Xiangbin Zheng, Wenjun; Liao, Wugang; Feng, Feng

    2015-01-14

    The charging/discharging behavior of Si quantum dots (QDs) embedded in amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC{sub x}) was investigated based on the Al/insulating layer/Si QDs embedded in a-SiC{sub x}/SiO{sub 2}/p-Si (metal-insulator-quantum dots-oxide-silicon) multilayer structure by capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements. Transmission electron microscopy and Raman scattering spectroscopy measurements reveal the microstructure and distribution of Si QDs. The occurrence and shift of conductance peaks indicate the carrier transfer and the charging/discharging behavior of Si QDs. The multilayer structure shows a large memory window of 5.2 eV at ±8 V sweeping voltage. Analysis of the C-V and G-V results allows a quantification of the Coulomb charging energy and the trapped charge density associated with the charging/discharging behavior. It is found that the memory window is related to the size effect, and Si QDs with large size or low Coulomb charging energy can trap two or more electrons by changing the charging voltage. Meanwhile, the estimated lower potential barrier height between Si QD and a-SiC{sub x}, and the lower Coulomb charging energy of Si QDs could enhance the charging and discharging effect of Si QDs and lead to an enlarged memory window. Further studies of the charging/discharging mechanism of Si QDs embedded in a-SiC{sub x} can promote the application of Si QDs in low-power consumption semiconductor memory devices.

  6. A generalized multi-dimensional mathematical model for charging and discharging processes in a supercapacitor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Allu, Srikanth; Velamur Asokan, Badri; Shelton, William A; Philip, Bobby; Pannala, Sreekanth

    2014-01-01

    A generalized three dimensional computational model based on unied formulation of electrode- electrolyte-electrode system of a electric double layer supercapacitor has been developed. The model accounts for charge transport across the solid-liquid system. This formulation based on volume averaging process is a widely used concept for the multiphase ow equations ([28] [36]) and is analogous to porous media theory typically employed for electrochemical systems [22] [39] [12]. This formulation is extended to the electrochemical equations for a supercapacitor in a consistent fashion, which allows for a single-domain approach with no need for explicit interfacial boundary conditions as previously employed ([38]). In this model it is easy to introduce the spatio-temporal variations, anisotropies of physical properties and it is also conducive for introducing any upscaled parameters from lower length{scale simulations and experiments. Due to the irregular geometric congurations including porous electrode, the charge transport and subsequent performance characteristics of the super-capacitor can be easily captured in higher dimensions. A generalized model of this nature also provides insight into the applicability of 1D models ([38]) and where multidimensional eects need to be considered. In addition, simple sensitivity analysis on key input parameters is performed in order to ascertain the dependence of the charge and discharge processes on these parameters. Finally, we demonstarted how this new formulation can be applied to non-planar supercapacitors

  7. Effect of energetic electrons on dust charging in hot cathode filament discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur 782 402, Kamrup, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382 428 (India)

    2011-03-15

    The effect of energetic electrons on dust charging for different types of dust is studied in hydrogen plasma. The hydrogen plasma is produced by hot cathode filament discharge method in a dusty plasma device. A full line cusped magnetic field cage is used to confine the plasma elements. To study the plasma parameters for various discharge conditions, a cylindrical Langmuir probe having 0.15 mm diameter and 10.0 mm length is used. An electronically controlled dust dropper is used to drop the dust particles into the plasma. For different discharge conditions, the dust current is measured using a Faraday cup connected to an electrometer. The effect of secondary emission as well as discharge voltage on charging of dust grains in hydrogen plasma is studied with different dust.

  8. Charging of dust grains in a nonequilibrium plasma of a stratified glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sukhinin, G. I.; Fedoseev, A. V.

    2007-12-15

    A theoretical model is presented that describes the charging of dust grains in the positive plasma column of a stratified glow dc discharge in argon. A one-dimensional self-consistent model is used to obtain axial profiles of the electric field, as well as the electron energy distribution function along the axis of the discharge tube. Radial profiles of the electric field are determined in the ambipolar diffusion approximation. It is assumed that, in the radial direction, the electron distribution function depends only on the total electron energy. Two-dimensional distributions of the discharge plasma parameters are calculated and used to determine the potential and charge of a test dust grain at a certain point within the discharge and the electrostatic forces acting on it. It is shown that the grain charge distribution depends strongly on the nonequilibrium electron distribution function and on the nonuniform distribution of the electric field in a stratified glow discharge. A discussion is presented on the suspension of dust grains, the separation of grains by size in the discharge striations, and a possible mechanism for the onset of vortex dust motion at the edge of a dust cloud.

  9. Charge state distribution and emission characteristics in a table top reflex discharge - Effect of ion confinement and electrons accelerated across the sheath

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Kumar, Deepak; Englesbe, Alexander; Parman, Matthew; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael

    2015-11-05

    Tabletop reflex discharges in a Penning geometry have many applications including ion sources and eXtreme Ultra-Violet (XUV) sources. The presence of primary electrons accelerated across the cathode sheaths is responsible for the distribution of ion charge states and of the unusually high XUV brightness of these plasmas. Absolutely calibrated space resolved XUV spectra from a table top reflex discharge operating with Al cathodes and Ne gas are presented. The spectra are analyzed with a new and complete model for ion charge distribution in similar reflex discharges. The plasma in the discharge was found to have a density of ~1018m–3 withmore » a significant fraction >0.01 of fast primary electrons. As a result, the implications of the new model on the ion states achievable in a tabletop reflex plasma discharge are also discussed.« less

  10. Charge state distribution and emission characteristics in a table top reflex discharge - Effect of ion confinement and electrons accelerated across the sheath

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kumar, Deepak; Englesbe, Alexander; Parman, Matthew; Stutman, Dan; Finkenthal, Michael

    2015-11-05

    Tabletop reflex discharges in a Penning geometry have many applications including ion sources and eXtreme Ultra-Violet (XUV) sources. The presence of primary electrons accelerated across the cathode sheaths is responsible for the distribution of ion charge states and of the unusually high XUV brightness of these plasmas. Absolutely calibrated space resolved XUV spectra from a table top reflex discharge operating with Al cathodes and Ne gas are presented. The spectra are analyzed with a new and complete model for ion charge distribution in similar reflex discharges. The plasma in the discharge was found to have a density of ~1018m–3 with a significant fraction >0.01 of fast primary electrons. As a result, the implications of the new model on the ion states achievable in a tabletop reflex plasma discharge are also discussed.

  11. Charging and de-charging of dust particles in bulk region of a radio frequency discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Mishra, S. K. [Institute for Plasma Research, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Misra, Shikha; Sodha, M. S. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2013-03-15

    An analysis to investigate the effect of the dust particle size and density on the floating potential of the dust particles of uniform radius and other plasma parameters in the bulk region plasma of a RF-discharge in collisionless/collisional regime has been presented herein. For this purpose, the average charge theory based on charge balance on dust and number balance of plasma constituents has been utilized; a derivation for the accretion rate of electrons corresponding to a drifting Maxwellian energy distribution in the presence of an oscillatory RF field has been given and the resulting expression has been used to determine the floating potential of the dust grains. Further, the de-charging of the dust grains after switching off the RF field has also been discussed.

  12. Gutzwiller charge phase diagram of cuprates, including electron–phonon coupling effects

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Seibold, G.; Lorenzana, J.; Bansil, A.

    2015-02-01

    Besides significant electronic correlations, high-temperature superconductors also show a strong coupling of electrons to a number of lattice modes. Combined with the experimental detection of electronic inhomogeneities and ordering phenomena in many high-Tc compounds, these features raise the question as to what extent phonons are involved in the associated instabilities. Here we address this problem based on the Hubbard model including a coupling to phonons in order to capture several salient features of the phase diagram of hole-doped cuprates. Charge degrees of freedom, which are suppressed by the large Hubbard U near half-filling, are found to become active at amore » fairly low doping level. We find that possible charge order is mainly driven by Fermi surface nesting, with competition between a near-(π, π) order at low doping and antinodal nesting at higher doping, very similar to the momentum structure of magnetic fluctuations. The resulting nesting vectors are generally consistent with photoemission and tunneling observations, evidence for charge density wave order in YBa₂Cu₃O7-δ including Kohn anomalies, and suggestions of competition between one- and two-q-vector nesting.« less

  13. Gutzwiller charge phase diagram of cuprates, including electron–phonon coupling effects

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Markiewicz, R. S.; Seibold, G.; Lorenzana, J.; Bansil, A.

    2015-02-01

    Besides significant electronic correlations, high-temperature superconductors also show a strong coupling of electrons to a number of lattice modes. Combined with the experimental detection of electronic inhomogeneities and ordering phenomena in many high-Tc compounds, these features raise the question as to what extent phonons are involved in the associated instabilities. Here we address this problem based on the Hubbard model including a coupling to phonons in order to capture several salient features of the phase diagram of hole-doped cuprates. Charge degrees of freedom, which are suppressed by the large Hubbard U near half-filling, are found to become active at a fairly low doping level. We find that possible charge order is mainly driven by Fermi surface nesting, with competition between a near-(π, π) order at low doping and antinodal nesting at higher doping, very similar to the momentum structure of magnetic fluctuations. The resulting nesting vectors are generally consistent with photoemission and tunneling observations, evidence for charge density wave order in YBa₂Cu₃O7-δ including Kohn anomalies, and suggestions of competition between one- and two-q-vector nesting.

  14. Reinvestigation of the charge density distribution in arc discharge fusion system

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sheng, Lin Horng; Yee, Lee Kim; Nan, Phua Yeong; Thung, Yong Yun; Khok, Yong Thian; Rahman, Faidz Abd

    2015-04-24

    A continual arc discharge system has been setup and the light intensity of arc discharge has been profiled. The mathematical model of local energy density distribution in arc discharge fusion has been simulated which is in good qualitative agreement with light intensity profile of arc discharge in the experiments. Eventually, the local energy density distribution of arc discharge system is able to be precisely manipulated to act as heat source in the fabrication of fused fiber devices.

  15. Tuning charge-discharge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung-Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao-Qing

    2014-12-18

    For LiMO2 (M=Co, Ni, Mn) cathode materials, lattice parameters, a(b), contract during charge. Here we report such changes in opposite directions for lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3). A ‘unit cell breathing’ mechanism is proposed based on crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxides during charge-discharge. Metal–metal bonding is used to explain such ‘abnormal’ behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of the metal-metal bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking metal-oxygen bond as controlling factor in ‘normal’ materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of molybdenum ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in the early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results may open a new strategy for designing layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Tuning chargedischarge induced unit cell breathing in layer-structured cathode materials for lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhou, Yong-Ning; Ma, Jun; Hu, Enyuan; Yu, Xiqian; Gu, Lin; Nam, Kyung -Wan; Chen, Liquan; Wang, Zhaoxiang; Yang, Xiao -Qing

    2014-11-18

    Through a systematic study of lithium molybdenum trioxide (Li2MoO3), a new unit cell breathing mechanism is introduced based on both crystal and electronic structural changes of transition metal oxide cathode materials during chargedischarge: For widely used LiMO2 (M = Co, Ni, Mn), lattice parameters, a and b, contracts during charge. However, for Li2MoO3, such changes are in opposite directions. Metalmetal bonding is used to explain such abnormal behaviour and a generalized hypothesis is developed. The expansion of MM bond becomes the controlling factor for a(b) evolution during charge, in contrast to the shrinking MO as controlling factor in normal materials. The cation mixing caused by migration of Mo ions at higher oxidation state provides the benefits of reducing the c expansion range in early stage of charging and suppressing the structure collapse at high voltage charge. These results open a new strategy for designing and engineering layered cathode materials for high energy density lithium-ion batteries.

  17. Homogenous charge compression ignition engine having a cylinder including a high compression space

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Agama, Jorge R.; Fiveland, Scott B.; Maloney, Ronald P.; Faletti, James J.; Clarke, John M.

    2003-12-30

    The present invention relates generally to the field of homogeneous charge compression engines. In these engines, fuel is injected upstream or directly into the cylinder when the power piston is relatively close to its bottom dead center position. The fuel mixes with air in the cylinder as the power piston advances to create a relatively lean homogeneous mixture that preferably ignites when the power piston is relatively close to the top dead center position. However, if the ignition event occurs either earlier or later than desired, lowered performance, engine misfire, or even engine damage, can result. Thus, the present invention divides the homogeneous charge between a controlled volume higher compression space and a lower compression space to better control the start of ignition.

  18. Effect of the radio frequency discharge on the dust charging process in a weakly collisional and fully ionized plasma

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Motie, Iman; Bokaeeyan, Mahyar

    2015-02-15

    A close analysis of dust charging process in the presence of radio frequency (RF) discharge on low pressure and fully ionized plasma for both weak and strong discharge's electric field is considered. When the electromagnetic waves pass throughout fully ionized plasma, the collision frequency of the plasma is derived. Moreover, the disturbed distribution function of plasma particles in the presence of the RF discharge is obtained. In this article, by using the Krook model, we separate the distribution function in two parts, the Maxwellian part and the perturbed part. The perturbed part of distribution can make an extra current, so-called the accretion rate of electron (or ion) current, towards a dust particle as a function of the average electron-ion collision frequency. It is proven that when the potential of dust grains increases, the accretion rate of electron current experiences an exponential reduction. Furthermore, the accretion rate of electron current for a strong electric field is relatively smaller than that for a weak electric field. The reasons are elaborated.

  19. Studies on hydrogen plasma and dust charging in low-pressure filament discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kakati, B. Kalita, D.; Kausik, S. S.; Saikia, B. K.; Bandyopadhyay, M.

    2014-08-15

    The effect of working gas pressure and dust charging on electron energy probability function has been studied for hydrogen plasma in a multi-dipole dusty plasma device. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to evaluate the plasma parameters and electron energy probability function (EEPF) for different working pressures. For lower energy range (below 10?eV), the EEPF follows a bi-Maxwellian shape at very low pressure (6 10{sup ?5}?mbar), while elevating the working pressure up to ?2 10{sup ?3} mbar, the shape of the EEPF transforms into a single Maxwellian. Some dip structures are observed at high energy range (??>?10?eV) in the EEPF of hydrogen plasma at all the working conditions. In presence of dust particles, it is observed that the shape of the EEPF changes due to the redistribution of the high and low-energy electron populations. Finally, the effect of working pressure on charge accumulation on dust particles is studied with the help of a Faraday cup and electrometer. From the observations, a strong influence of working pressure on plasma parameters, EEPF and dust charging is observed.

  20. Compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Roesler, Alexander W.; Vernon, George E.; Hoke, Darren A.; De Marquis, Virginia K.; Harris, Steven M.

    2007-06-26

    A compact monolithic capacitive discharge unit (CDU) is disclosed in which a thyristor switch and a flyback charging circuit are both sandwiched about a ceramic energy storage capacitor. The result is a compact rugged assembly which provides a low-inductance current discharge path. The flyback charging circuit preferably includes a low-temperature co-fired ceramic transformer. The CDU can further include one or more ceramic substrates for enclosing the thyristor switch and for holding various passive components used in the flyback charging circuit. A load such as a detonator can also be attached directly to the CDU.

  1. Investigating the reversibility of structural modifications of LixNiyMnzCo1-y-zO₂ cathode materials during initial charge/discharge, at multiple length scales

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Hwang, Sooyeon; Bak, Seong -Min; Kim, Seung Min; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Chang, Wonyoung

    2015-08-11

    In this work, we investigate the structural modifications occurring at the bulk, subsurface, and surface scales of LixNiyMnzCo1-y-zO₂ (NMC; y, z = 0.8, 0.1 and 0.4, 0.3, respectively) cathode materials during the initial charge/discharge. Various analytical tools, such as X-ray diffraction, selected-area electron diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and high-resolution electron microscopy, are used to examine the structural properties of the NMC cathode materials at the three different scales. Cut-off voltages of 4.3 and 4.8 V are applied during the electrochemical tests as the normal and extreme conditions, respectively. The high-Ni-content NMC cathode materials exhibit unusual behaviors, which is deviate frommore » the general redox reactions during the charge or discharge. The transition metal (TM) ions in the high-Ni-content NMC cathode materials, which are mostly Ni ions, are reduced at 4.8 V, even though TMs are usually oxidized to maintain charge neutrality upon the removal of Li. It was found that any changes in the crystallographic and electronic structures are mostly reversible down to the sub-surface scale, despite the unexpected reduction of Ni ions. However, after the discharge, traces of the phase transitions remain at the edges of the NMC cathode materials at the scale of a few nanometers (i.e., surface scale). This study demonstrates that the structural modifications in NMC cathode materials are induced by charge as well as discharge at multiple length scales. These changes are nearly reversible after the first cycle, except at the edges of the samples, which should be avoided because these highly localized changes can initiate battery degradation.« less

  2. DEVICE FOR CHARGING OR DISCHARGING

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Untemeyer, S.; Hutter, E.

    1959-01-13

    A loading and unloading device is presented for loading objects into and unloading them from an apparatus in which fluid under pressure is employed, such as a heterogeneous rcactor wherein the fuel elements are in the form of slugs. This device is comprised essentially of a cylindrical member disposed coaxially with and as an accessible extension of an internal tube member of the apparatus in which the objects, or fuel elements, are normally disposed in use. The outermost end of the cylindrical extension is closed by a removable seal plug. The lower end of the cylindrical extension is separated from the intennal tube by a disk valve which is operated externally. A source of pressure fluid and a drain line are provided in communication with the interior of the cylindrical extension. To load an object into the internal tube, the disk valve is closed, the seal plug is renmoved, an object is placed in the cylindrical extension, and the seal plug is replaced. The disk valve is then opened and ihe pressure of the fluid within the cylindrical extension is increased until it is greater than the pressure within the internal tube and forces the object out of the cylindrical extension into the internal tube. To remove an object from the tube the disk valve is opened and the intenior of thc cylindnical extension is connected to the drain line whereby the operating pressure within the intennal tube forces the object out of the internal tube and up into the cylindrical extension. The disk valve is then closed and the seal plug is removed to permit removal of the object.

  3. Investigating the reversibility of structural modifications of LixNiyMnzCo1-y-zO₂ cathode materials during initial charge/discharge, at multiple length scales

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Hwang, Sooyeon; Bak, Seong -Min; Kim, Seung Min; Chung, Kyung Yoon; Chang, Wonyoung

    2015-08-11

    In this work, we investigate the structural modifications occurring at the bulk, subsurface, and surface scales of LixNiyMnzCo1-y-zO₂ (NMC; y, z = 0.8, 0.1 and 0.4, 0.3, respectively) cathode materials during the initial charge/discharge. Various analytical tools, such as X-ray diffraction, selected-area electron diffraction, electron energy-loss spectroscopy, and high-resolution electron microscopy, are used to examine the structural properties of the NMC cathode materials at the three different scales. Cut-off voltages of 4.3 and 4.8 V are applied during the electrochemical tests as the normal and extreme conditions, respectively. The high-Ni-content NMC cathode materials exhibit unusual behaviors, which is deviate from the general redox reactions during the charge or discharge. The transition metal (TM) ions in the high-Ni-content NMC cathode materials, which are mostly Ni ions, are reduced at 4.8 V, even though TMs are usually oxidized to maintain charge neutrality upon the removal of Li. It was found that any changes in the crystallographic and electronic structures are mostly reversible down to the sub-surface scale, despite the unexpected reduction of Ni ions. However, after the discharge, traces of the phase transitions remain at the edges of the NMC cathode materials at the scale of a few nanometers (i.e., surface scale). This study demonstrates that the structural modifications in NMC cathode materials are induced by charge as well as discharge at multiple length scales. These changes are nearly reversible after the first cycle, except at the edges of the samples, which should be avoided because these highly localized changes can initiate battery degradation.

  4. Observation of Electron-Beam-Induced Phase Evolution Mimicking the Effect of the ChargeDischarge Cycle in Li-Rich Layered Cathode Materials Used for Li Ion Batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Lu, Ping; Yan, Pengfei; Romero, Eric; Spoerke, Erik David; Zhang, Ji-Guang; Wang, Chong-Min

    2015-01-27

    Capacity loss, and voltage decrease upon electrochemical charge-discharge cycling observed in lithium-rich layered cathode oxides (Li[LixMnyTM1-x-y]O2, TM = Ni, Co or Fe) have recently been attributed to the formation of a surface reconstructed layer (SRL) that evolves from a thin (<2 nm), defect spinel layer upon the first charge, to a relatively thick (~5nm), spinel or rock-salt layer upon continuous charge-discharge cycling. Here we report observations of a SRL and structural evolution of the SRL on the Li[Li0.2Ni0.2Mn0.6]O2 (LNMO) particles, which are identical to those reported due to the charge-discharge cycle but are a result of electron-beam irradiation during scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging. Sensitivity of the lithium-rich layered oxides to high-energy electrons leads to the formation of thin, defect spinel layer on surfaces of the particles when exposed to a 200kV electron beam for as little as 30 seconds under normal high-resolution STEM imaging conditions. Further electron irradiation produces a thicker layer of the spinel phase, ultimately producing a rock-salt layer at a higher electron exposure. Atomic-scale chemical mapping by electron dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in STEM indicates the electron-beam-induced SRL formation on LNMO is accomplished by migration of the transition metal ions to the Li sites without breaking down the lattice. The observation through this study provides an insight for understanding the mechanism of forming the SRL and also possibly a mean to study structural evolution in the Li-rich layered oxides without involving the electrochemistry.

  5. System and method for cooling a combustion gas charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Massey, Mary Cecelia; Boberg, Thomas Earl

    2010-05-25

    The present invention relates to a system and method for cooling a combustion gas charge prior. The combustion gas charge may include compressed intake air, exhaust gas, or a mixture thereof. An evaporator is provided that may then receive a relatively high temperature combustion gas charge and discharge at a relatively lower temperature. The evaporator may be configured to operate with refrigeration cycle components and/or to receive a fluid below atmospheric pressure as the phase-change cooling medium.

  6. Sandia National Laboratories: Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Laboratory

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Electrostatic Discharge (ESD) Laboratory We have field and laboratory capabilities to measure electrostatic environment generation, storage, and charge transfer effects. Non-contact electrostatic field surveillance techniques are available to monitor charge generation of conductors or dielectrics, and induction or physical contact charging of wiring or pin voltage for electrical system components. The Sandia severe personnel electrostatic discharge simulator, with a maximum charge voltage of 25

  7. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, A.

    1996-11-26

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator includes an evacuated chamber having a gun for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam or ion beam. The beam is discharged through a beam exit in the chamber into a higher pressure region. A plasma interface is disposed at the beam exit and includes a plasma channel for bounding a plasma maintainable between a cathode and an anode disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel is coaxially aligned with the beam exit for propagating the beam from the chamber, through the plasma, and into the higher pressure region. The plasma is effective for pumping down the beam exit for preventing pressure increase in the chamber and provides magnetic focusing of the beam discharged into the higher pressure region 24. 7 figs.

  8. TURTLE with MAD input (Trace Unlimited Rays Through Lumped Elements) -- A computer program for simulating charged particle beam transport systems and DECAY TURTLE including decay calculations

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Carey, D.C.

    1999-12-09

    TURTLE is a computer program useful for determining many characteristics of a particle beam once an initial design has been achieved, Charged particle beams are usually designed by adjusting various beam line parameters to obtain desired values of certain elements of a transfer or beam matrix. Such beam line parameters may describe certain magnetic fields and their gradients, lengths and shapes of magnets, spacings between magnetic elements, or the initial beam accepted into the system. For such purposes one typically employs a matrix multiplication and fitting program such as TRANSPORT. TURTLE is designed to be used after TRANSPORT. For convenience of the user, the input formats of the two programs have been made compatible. The use of TURTLE should be restricted to beams with small phase space. The lumped element approximation, described below, precludes the inclusion of the effect of conventional local geometric aberrations (due to large phase space) or fourth and higher order. A reading of the discussion below will indicate clearly the exact uses and limitations of the approach taken in TURTLE.

  9. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Miller, J.L.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-08-23

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window. 2 figs.

  10. Longitudinal discharge laser electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; Miller, John L.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The improved longitudinal discharge laser electrode with IR baffle includes an electrode made up of washers spaced along the laser axis in order to form inter-washer spaces for hollow cathode discharge to take place and for IR radiation to be trapped. Additional IR baffles can be placed between the electrode ann the window.

  11. Electrochemical cell assembled in discharged state

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Yao, Neng-Ping; Walsh, William J.

    1976-01-01

    A secondary, electrochemical cell is assembled in a completely discharged state within a sealed containment. As assembled, the cell includes a positive electrode separated from a negative electrode by a molten salt electrolyte. The positive electrode is contained within a porous structure, permitting passage of molten electrolyte, and includes one or more layers of a metallic mesh, e.g. iron, impregnated with an intimate mixture of lithium sulfide and the electrolyte. The negative electrode is a porous plaque of aluminum metal. Prior to using the cell, an electrical charge forms lithium-aluminum alloy within the negative electrode and metal sulfide within the positive electrode.

  12. Innovative Cathode Coating Enables Faster Battery Charging, Dischargin...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Faster Battery Charging, Discharging Technology available for licensing: Coating increases electrical conductivity of cathode materials Coating does not hinder battery ...

  13. Charging Graphene for Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Liu, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Since 2004, graphene, including single atomic layer graphite sheet, and chemically derived graphene sheets, has captured the imagination of researchers for energy storage because of the extremely high surface area (2630 m2/g) compared to traditional activated carbon (typically below 1500 m2/g), excellent electrical conductivity, high mechanical strength, and potential for low cost manufacturing. These properties are very desirable for achieving high activity, high capacity and energy density, and fast charge and discharge. Chemically derived graphene sheets are prepared by oxidation and reduction of graphite1 and are more suitable for energy storage because they can be made in large quantities. They still contain multiply stacked graphene sheets, structural defects such as vacancies, and oxygen containing functional groups. In the literature they are also called reduced graphene oxide, or functionalized graphene sheets, but in this article they are all referred to as graphene for easy of discussion. Two important applications, batteries and electrochemical capacitors, have been widely investigated. In a battery material, the redox reaction occurs at a constant potential (voltage) and the energy is stored in the bulk. Therefore, the energy density is high (more than 100 Wh/kg), but it is difficult to rapidly charge or discharge (low power, less than 1 kW/kg)2. In an electrochemical capacitor (also called supercapacitors or ultracapacitor in the literature), the energy is stored as absorbed ionic species at the interface between the high surface area carbon and the electrolyte, and the potential is a continuous function of the state-of-charge. The charge and discharge can happen rapidly (high power, up to 10 kW/kg) but the energy density is low, less than 10 Wh/kg2. A device that can have both high energy and high power would be ideal.

  14. Role of secondary emission on discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Yap, S. L.; Wong, C. S.

    2014-04-15

    The discharge dynamics in an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is studied in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes. The DBD discharge has been generated by a 50?Hz ac high voltage power source. The high-speed intensified charge coupled device camera is used to capture the images of filaments occurring in the discharge gap. It is observed that frequent synchronous breakdown of micro discharges occurs across the discharge gap in the case of negative current pulse. The experimental results reveal that secondary emissions from the dielectric surface play a key role in the synchronous breakdown of plasma filaments.

  15. Distributor means for charging particulate material into receptacles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Greaves, Melvin J.

    1977-06-14

    Disclosed are receptacles, such as shaft furnaces illustrated by a blast furnace and an upright oil shale retort, embodying rotatable charge distributor means for distributing particulate charge material in the furnace, which charge distributor means can provide a high uniformity of distribution of various sizes of particles and also can provide and maintain a stock line of desired contour and heighth in the receptacle. The distributor means includes a hopper having rigidly fixed to it a plurality of downwardly extending chutes with lower discharge portions that discharge in concentric circular zones at the stock line. The distributor means includes a segmented portion at the juncture of the hopper and the chutes that divides the charge material discharged into the hopper in proportion to the area of the circular zone at the stock line that is fed by the chute. The distributor means embodies means for providing mass flow of the particulate charge material through the chutes to the stock line and for avoiding segregation between larger and smaller particles of charge material deposited at the stock line.

  16. PACKAGE INCLUDES:

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    PACKAGE INCLUDES: Airfare from Seattle, 4 & 5 Star Hotels, Transfers, Select Meals, Guided Tours and Excursions DAY 01: BANGKOK - ARRIVAL DAY 02: BANGKOK - SIGHTSEEING DAY 03: BANGKOK - FLOATING MARKET DAY 04: BANGKOK - AT LEISURE DAY 05: BANGKOK - CHIANG MAI BY AIR DAY 06: CHIANG MAI - SIGHTSEEING DAY 07: CHIANG MAI - ELEPHANT CAMP DAY 08: CHIANG MAI - PHUKET BY AIR DAY 09: PHUKET - PHI PHI ISLAND BY FERRY DAY 10: PHUKET - AT LEISURE DAY 11: PHUKET - CORAL ISLAND BY SPEEDBOAT DAY 12: PHUKET

  17. Method and apparatus for charged particle propagation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Hershcovitch, Ady

    1996-11-26

    A method and apparatus are provided for propagating charged particles from a vacuum to a higher pressure region. A generator 14,14b includes an evacuated chamber 16a,b having a gun 18,18b for discharging a beam of charged particles such as an electron beam 12 or ion beam 12b. The beam 12,12b is discharged through a beam exit 22 in the chamber 16a,b into a higher pressure region 24. A plasma interface 34 is disposed at the beam exit 22 and includes a plasma channel 38 for bounding a plasma 40 maintainable between a cathode 42 and an anode 44 disposed at opposite ends thereof. The plasma channel 38 is coaxially aligned with the beam exit 22 for propagating the beam 12,12b from the chamber 16a,b, through the plasma 40, and into the higher pressure region 24. The plasma 40 is effective for pumping down the beam exit 22 for preventing pressure increase in the chamber 16a,b, and provides magnetic focusing of the beam 12,12b discharged into the higher pressure region 24.

  18. Differential pressure pin discharge apparatus

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Oakley, D.J.

    1984-05-30

    Disclosed is a discharge assembly for allowing elongate pins to be discharged from an area of relatively low pressure to an area of relatively greater pressure. The discharge assembly includes a duck valve having a lip piece made of flexible material. The flexible lip piece responds to a fluctuating pressure created downstream by an aspirator. The aspirator reduces the downstream pressure sensed by the duck valve when the discharge assembly is in the open position. This allows elongate pins to be moved through the duck valve with no backflow because the aspirator pressure is less than the pressure in the low pressure area from which the pins originate. Closure of the assembly causes the aspirator static pressure to force the flexible duck valve lip piece into a tightly sealed position also preventing backflow. The discharge assembly can be easily controlled using a single control valve which blocks the flow of aspirator gas and closes the pins passageway extending through the assembly.

  19. Stratified charge internal combustion engine

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Skopil, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes an internal combustion engine. It comprises: a main cylinder, a main piston within the main cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the main cylinder; a smaller idle cylinder, and idle piston within the idle cylinder, and means for delivering a combustible charge into the idle cylinder; an ignition passageway leading from the idle cylinder to the main cylinder; and an ignition device within the ignition passageway operable to ignite a compressed charge discharged by the idle cylinder into the ignition passageway. The passageway being positioned to discharge the ignited compressed charge from the idle cylinder into the main cylinder to ignite the compressed charge within the main cylinder.

  20. Optimal charging profiles for mechanically constrained lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Suthar, B; Ramadesigan, V; De, S; Braatz, RD; Subramanian, VR

    2014-01-01

    The cost and safety related issues of lithium-ion batteries require intelligent charging profiles that can efficiently utilize the battery. This paper illustrates the application of dynamic optimization in obtaining the optimal current profile for charging a lithium-ion battery using a single-particle model while incorporating intercalation-induced stress generation. In this paper, we focus on the problem of maximizing the charge stored in a given time while restricting the development of stresses inside the particle. Conventional charging profiles for lithium-ion batteries (e.g., constant current followed by constant voltage) were not derived by considering capacity fade mechanisms. These charging profiles are not only inefficient in terms of lifetime usage of the batteries but are also slower since they do not exploit the changing dynamics of the system. Dynamic optimization based approaches have been used to derive optimal charging and discharging profiles with different objective functions. The progress made in understanding the capacity fade mechanisms has paved the way for inclusion of that knowledge in deriving optimal controls. While past efforts included thermal constraints, this paper for the first time presents strategies for optimally charging batteries by guaranteeing minimal mechanical damage to the electrode particles during intercalation. In addition, an executable form of the code has been developed and provided. This code can be used to identify optimal charging profiles for any material and design parameters.

  1. Discharge cell for ozone generator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Nakatsuka, Suguru

    2000-01-01

    A discharge cell for use in an ozone generator is provided which can suppress a time-related reduction in ozone concentration without adding a catalytic gas such as nitrogen gas to oxygen gas as a raw material gas. The discharge cell includes a pair of electrodes disposed in an opposed spaced relation with a discharge space therebetween, and a dielectric layer of a three-layer structure consisting of three ceramic dielectric layers successively stacked on at least one of the electrodes, wherein a first dielectric layer of the dielectric layer contacting the one electrode contains no titanium dioxide, wherein a second dielectric layer of the dielectric layer exposed to the discharge space contains titanium dioxide in a metal element ratio of not lower than 10 wt %.

  2. Continuous pile discharging machine

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Phillips P.

    1976-05-11

    A device for discharging cartridges from tubes under fluid pressure includes a cylindrical housing adapted to be seated in a leak-tight manner on the end of one of the tubes, a chute depending from the cylindrical housing near the end seated on the end of the tube, a rotatable piston having a wrench on the forward end thereof disposed in the cylindrical housing and adapted to manipulate a plug in the end of the tube, and a telescopic hydraulic ram adapted to move the piston toward the plug. In addition the wrench contains a magnet which prevents inadvertent uncoupling of the wrench and the plug.

  3. Extension of a Virtual Refrigerant Charge Sensor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Kim, Woohyun; Braun, J.

    2015-07-01

    The primary goal of the work described in this paper was to evaluate and extend a virtual refrigerant charge sensor (VRC) for determining refrigerant charge for equipment having variable-speed compressors and fans. To evaluate the accuracy of the VRC, data were first collected from previous laboratory tests for different systems and over a wide range of operating conditions. In addition, new laboratory tests were performed to consider conditions not available within the existing data set. The systems for the new laboratory tests were two residential ductless split heat pump systems that employ a variable-speed compressor and R-410a as the refrigerant. Based on the evaluations, the original virtual charge sensor (termed model I) was found to work well in estimating the refrigerant charge for systems with a variable-speed compressor under many operating conditions. However, for extreme test conditions such as low outdoor temperatures and low compressor speed, the VRC needed to be improved. To overcome the limitations, the model associated with the VRC sensor was modified to include a term involving the inlet quality to the evaporator estimated from the condenser outlet condition (termed model II). Both model I and II showed good performance in terms of predicting charge levels for systems with a constant speed compressor, but model II gave better performance for systems with a variable-speed compressor. However, when the superheat of the compressor was zero, neither model I nor II could accurately predict charge level. Therefore, a third approach (Model III) was developed that includes the discharge superheat of the compressor. This model improved performance for a laboratory-tested system that included a number of points with no superheat entering the compressor.

  4. Amplitude scaling of solar array discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Bogorad, A.; Bowman, C.; Rayadurg, L. . Astro-Space Div.); Sterner, T.; Loman, J.; Armenti, J. . Astro Space Div.)

    1990-12-01

    Sections of solar panel of four different sizes were charged in a 20-keV monoenergetic electron beam. The measured amplitudes of discharge transients coupled into power lines scaled linearly with the length of the rows of parallel-connected solar cells in the solar cell circuits.

  5. Electrodynamic force of dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shang, J. S.; Roveda, F.; Huang, P. G.

    2011-06-01

    The periodic electrostatic force of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) in nitrogen for flow control is investigated by a system of physics-based, two-dimensional model equations. The plasma generation process of DBD is mainly the avalanche growth of electrons through the secondary emission from cathode. Therefore, the charged particle motion of a succession of random micro discharges can be approximated by the drift-diffusion model. The force of DBD generated by charge separation and accumulation over the dielectrics is obtained by solving the model equations with the rigorous media interface boundary condition of Maxwell equations in the time domain. The discharge structure and force components by different electrical permittivity and amplitudes of externally applied electrical potential are delineated and quantified.

  6. Influence of discharge gap on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc ion source

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen, L.; Zhang, G. L.; Jin, D. Z.; Dai, J. Y.; Yang, L.

    2012-02-15

    The influence of the discharge gap between cathode and anode on the discharge stability in a short vacuum arc (SVA) ion source is presented in this paper. Planar cathode and cylindrical hollow anode made of titanium are investigated. There is a great need in present accelerator injection research for SVA source to produce the small deviation of the ion current beam. Current research shows that increasing the short discharge gap can reduce the level of ion current deviation and ion charge deviation from 29% and 31% to 15% and 17%, respectively. A microplasma plume generation mechanism in SVA and scanning electron microscopic results can be used to explain this interesting phenomenon.

  7. Nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Khodachenko, G. V.; Mozgrin, D. V.; Fetisov, I. K.; Stepanova, T. V.

    2012-01-15

    Experiments with quasi-steady high-current discharges in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields in various gases (Ar, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, and SF{sub 6}) and gas mixtures (Ar/SF{sub 6} and Ar/O{sub 2}) at pressures from 10{sup -3} to 5 Torr in discharge systems with different configurations of electric and magnetic fields revealed a specific type of stable low-voltage discharge that does not transform into an arc. This type of discharge came to be known as a high-current diffuse discharge and, later, a nonsputtering impulse magnetron discharge. This paper presents results from experimental studies of the plasma parameters (the electron temperature, the plasma density, and the temperature of ions and atoms of the plasma-forming gas) of a high-current low-pressure diffuse discharge in crossed E Multiplication-Sign B fields.

  8. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workplace Charging Policy Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy Review the policy guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their ...

  9. workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Advanced Micro Devices...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    its commuter benefits to include workplace plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging, making AMD the first company in Austin, Texas to install multiple PEV charging stations. ...

  10. Vehicle Technologies Office: AVTA - Electric Vehicle Charging...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    and manufacturers to test different types and several different models of EVSE in the laboratory, including AC Level 1, AC Level 2, DC fast charging, and wireless charging. ...

  11. Wire chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, Victor; Mulera, Terrence A.

    1984-01-01

    A wire chamber radiation detector (11) has spaced apart parallel electrodes (16) and grids (17, 18, 19) defining an ignition region (21) in which charged particles (12) or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges (93) and defining an adjacent memory region (22) in which sustained glow discharges (94) are initiated by the primary discharges (93). Conductors (29, 32) of the grids (18, 19) at each side of the memory section (22) extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles (12) were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors (29) of one grid (18) while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors (36) of the other grid (19) through glow discharges (94). One of the grids (19) bounding the memory region (22) is defined by an array of conductive elements (32) each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor (36) through a separate resistance (37). The wire chamber (11) avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or near simultaneous charged particles (12) have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

  12. CHARGE IMBALANCE

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Clarke, John

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the theory of charge imbalance, and to discuss its relevance to a number of experimental situations. We introduce the concepts of quasiparticle charge and charge imbalance, and discuss the generation and detection of charge imbalance by tunneling. We describe the relaxation of the injected charge imbalance by inelastic scattering processes, and show how the Boltzmann equation can be solved to obtain the steady state quasiparticle distribution and the charge relaxation rate. Details are given of experiments to measure charge imbalance and the charge relaxation rate when inelastic scattering is the predominant relaxation mechanism. Experiments on and theories of other charge relaxation mechanisms are discussed, namely relaxation via elastic scattering in the presence of energy gap anisotropy, or in the presence of a pair breaking mechanism such as magnetic impurities or an applied supercurrent or magnetic field. We describe three other situations in which charge imbalance occurs, namely the resistance of the NS interface, phase slip centers, and the flow of a supercurrent in the presence of a temperature gradient.

  13. ION SOURCE WITH SPACE CHARGE NEUTRALIZATION

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Flowers, J.W.; Luce, J.S.; Stirling, W.L.

    1963-01-22

    This patent relates to a space charge neutralized ion source in which a refluxing gas-fed arc discharge is provided between a cathode and a gas-fed anode to provide ions. An electron gun directs a controlled, monoenergetic electron beam through the discharge. A space charge neutralization is effected in the ion source and accelerating gap by oscillating low energy electrons, and a space charge neutralization of the source exit beam is effected by the monoenergetic electron beam beyond the source exit end. The neutralized beam may be accelerated to any desired energy at densities well above the limitation imposed by Langmuir-Child' s law. (AEC)

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print Friday, 26 July 2013 14:18 The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how

  15. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Would you be willing to pay a fee for charging? Workplace Charging Challenge How many charging stations does my worksite need? 3 Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging ...

  16. Co-axial discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J. S.; Smith, L. P.

    1960-11-22

    An apparatus is described for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantuge that ions that return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. These discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering the plasma area because of the arc barrier set up by the cylindrical outer arc. (auth)

  17. HOLLOW CARBON ARC DISCHARGE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.

    1960-10-11

    A device is described for producing an energetic, direct current, hollow, carbon-arc discharge in an evacuated container and within a strong magnetic field. Such discharges are particularly useful not only in dissociation and ionization of high energy molecular ion beams, but also in acting as a shield or barrier against the instreaming of lowenergy neutral particles into a plasma formed within the hollow discharge when it is used as a dissociating mechanism for forming the plasma. There is maintained a predetermined ratio of gas particles to carbon particles released from the arc electrodes during operation of the discharge. The carbon particles absorb some of the gas particles and are pumped along and by the discharge out of the device, with the result that smaller diffusion pumps are required than would otherwise be necessary to dispose of the excess gas.

  18. CO-AXIAL DISCHARGES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luce, J.S.; Smith, L.P.

    1960-11-22

    A method and apparatus are given for producing coaxial arc discharges in an evacuated enclosure and within a strong, confining magnetic field. The arcs are maintained at a high potential difference. Electrons will diffuse to the more positive arc from the negative arc, and positive ions will diffuse from the more positive arc to the negative arc. Coaxial arc discharges have the advantage that ions which return to strike the positive arc discharge will lose no energy since they do not strike a solid wall or electrode. Those discharges are useful in confining an ionized plasma between the discharges, and have the advantage of preventing impurities from the walls of the enclosure from entering ihe plasma area because of the arc barrier set up bv the cylindrical outer arc.

  19. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, S.A.; Glish, G.L.

    1989-07-18

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above. 3 figs.

  20. Atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLuckey, Scott A. (Oak Ridge, TN); Glish, Gary L. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1989-01-01

    An atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source that can be used in combination with an analytical instrument which operates at high vacuum, such as a mass spectrometer. The atmospheric sampling glow discharge ionization source comprises a chamber with at least one pair of electrodes disposed therein, an inlet for a gaseous sample to be analyzed and an outlet communicating with an analyzer which operates at subatmospheric pressure. The ionization chamber is maintained at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, and a voltage difference is applied across the electrodes to induce a glow discharge between the electrodes, so that molecules passing through the inlet are ionized by the glow discharge and directed into the analyzer. The ionization source accepts the sample under atmospheric pressure conditions and processes it directly into the high vacuum instrument, bridging the pressure gap and drawing off unwanted atmospheric gases. The invention also includes a method for analyzing a gaseous sample using the glow discharge ionization source described above.

  1. The transition mechanism from a symmetric single period discharge to a period-doubling discharge in atmospheric helium dielectric-barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Dingzong; Wang, Yanhui; Wang, Dezhen [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)] [School of Physics and Optoelectronic Technology, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2013-06-15

    Period-doubling and chaos phenomenon have been frequently observed in atmospheric-pressure dielectric-barrier discharges. However, how a normal single period discharge bifurcates into period-doubling state is still unclear. In this paper, by changing the driving frequency, we study numerically the transition mechanisms from a normal single period discharge to a period-doubling state using a one-dimensional self-consistent fluid model. The results show that before a discharge bifurcates into a period-doubling state, it first deviates from its normal operation and transforms into an asymmetric single period discharge mode. Then the weaker discharge in this asymmetric discharge will be enhanced gradually with increasing of the frequency until it makes the subsequent discharge weaken and results in the discharge entering a period-doubling state. In the whole transition process, the spatial distribution of the charged particle density and the electric field plays a definitive role. The conclusions are further confirmed by changing the gap width and the amplitude of the applied voltage.

  2. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement Review the agreement proposed by one municipality to register PEV ...

  3. Glow discharge detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2002-01-01

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured.

  4. Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics...

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    atmospheric plasma jet Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Effects of discharge voltage waveform on the discharge characteristics in a helium atmospheric plasma jet We ...

  5. Capillary discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, III, Howard Albert

    2003-11-25

    Debris generation from an EUV electric discharge plasma source device can be significantly reduced or essentially eliminated by encasing the electrodes with dielectric or electrically insulating material so that the electrodes are shielded from the plasma, and additionally by providing a path for the radiation to exit wherein the electrodes are not exposed to the area where the radiation is collected. The device includes: (a) a body, which is made of an electrically insulating material, that defines a capillary bore that has a proximal end and a distal end and that defines at least one radiation exit; (b) a first electrode that defines a first channel that has a first inlet end that is connected to a source of gas and a first outlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore, wherein the first electrode is positioned at the distal end of the capillary bore; (c) a second electrode that defines a second channel that has a second inlet end that is in communication with the capillary bore and an outlet end, wherein the second electrode is positioned at the proximal end of the capillary bore; and (d) a source of electric potential that is connected across the first and second electrodes, wherein radiation generated within the capillary bore is emitted through the at least one radiation exit and wherein the first electrode and second electrode are shielded from the emitted radiation.

  6. Sensitive glow discharge ion source for aerosol and gas analysis

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Reilly, Peter T. A. (Knoxville, TN)

    2007-08-14

    A high sensitivity glow discharge ion source system for analyzing particles includes an aerodynamic lens having a plurality of constrictions for receiving an aerosol including at least one analyte particle in a carrier gas and focusing the analyte particles into a collimated particle beam. A separator separates the carrier gas from the analyte particle beam, wherein the analyte particle beam or vapors derived from the analyte particle beam are selectively transmitted out of from the separator. A glow discharge ionization source includes a discharge chamber having an entrance orifice for receiving the analyte particle beam or analyte vapors, and a target electrode and discharge electrode therein. An electric field applied between the target electrode and discharge electrode generates an analyte ion stream from the analyte vapors, which is directed out of the discharge chamber through an exit orifice, such as to a mass spectrometer. High analyte sensitivity is obtained by pumping the discharge chamber exclusively through the exit orifice and the entrance orifice.

  7. Measuring momentum for charged particle tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Morris, Christopher; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Schultz, Larry Joe; Borozdin, Konstantin N.; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Sossong, Michael James; Blanpied, Gary

    2010-11-23

    Methods, apparatus and systems for detecting charged particles and obtaining tomography of a volume by measuring charged particles including measuring the momentum of a charged particle passing through a charged particle detector. Sets of position sensitive detectors measure scattering of the charged particle. The position sensitive detectors having sufficient mass to cause the charged particle passing through the position sensitive detectors to scatter in the position sensitive detectors. A controller can be adapted and arranged to receive scattering measurements of the charged particle from the charged particle detector, determine at least one trajectory of the charged particle from the measured scattering; and determine at least one momentum measurement of the charged particle from the at least one trajectory. The charged particle can be a cosmic ray-produced charged particle, such as a cosmic ray-produced muon. The position sensitive detectors can be drift cells, such as gas-filled drift tubes.

  8. High dynamic range charge measurements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    De Geronimo, Gianluigi

    2012-09-04

    A charge amplifier for use in radiation sensing includes an amplifier, at least one switch, and at least one capacitor. The switch selectively couples the input of the switch to one of at least two voltages. The capacitor is electrically coupled in series between the input of the amplifier and the input of the switch. The capacitor is electrically coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. A method of measuring charge in radiation sensing includes selectively diverting charge from an input of an amplifier to an input of at least one capacitor by selectively coupling an output of the at least one capacitor to one of at least two voltages. The input of the at least one capacitor is operatively coupled to the input of the amplifier without a switch coupled therebetween. The method also includes calculating a total charge based on a sum of the amplified charge and the diverted charge.

  9. Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tuffner, Francis K.; Kintner-Meyer, Michael C. W.; Hammerstrom, Donald J.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2012-05-22

    Battery charging control methods, electric vehicle charging methods, battery charging apparatuses and rechargeable battery systems. According to one aspect, a battery charging control method includes accessing information regarding a presence of at least one of a surplus and a deficiency of electrical energy upon an electrical power distribution system at a plurality of different moments in time, and using the information, controlling an adjustment of an amount of the electrical energy provided from the electrical power distribution system to a rechargeable battery to charge the rechargeable battery.

  10. Technology available for license: Charging of liquid energy storage...

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    (e.g., charged by radiolysis only and discharged as a battery) It is expected that implementing this technology at ultimate efficiency will allow up to 7% of the radiation ...

  11. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  12. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  13. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  14. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  15. Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Mapping Particle Charges in Battery Electrodes Print The deceivingly simple appearance of batteries masks their chemical complexity. A typical lithium-ion battery in a cell phone consists of trillions of particles. When a lithium-ion battery is charged or discharged lithium ions move from one electrode to another, filling and unfilling individual, variably-sized battery particles. The rates of these processes determine how much power a battery can deliver. Despite the technological innovations

  16. Stable glow discharge detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Koo, Jackson C.; Yu, Conrad M.

    2004-05-18

    A highly sensitive electronic ion cell for the measurement of trace elements in He carrier gas which involves glow discharge. A constant wave (CW) stable glow discharge detector which is controlled through a biased resistor, can detect the change of electron density caused by impurities in the He carrier gas by many orders of magnitude larger than that caused by direct ionization or electron capture. The stable glow discharge detector utilizes a floating pseudo-electrode to form a probe in or near the plasma and a solid rod electrode. By using this probe, the large variation of electron density due to trace amounts of impurities can be directly measured. The solid rod electrode provides greater stability and thus easier alignment.

  17. Non-linear macro evolution of a dc driven micro atmospheric glow discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, S. F.; Zhong, X. X.

    2015-10-15

    We studied the macro evolution of the micro atmospheric glow discharge generated between a micro argon jet into ambient air and static water. The micro discharge behaves similarly to a complex ecosystem. Non-linear behaviors are found for the micro discharge when the water acts as a cathode, different from the discharge when water behaves as an anode. Groups of snapshots of the micro discharge formed at different discharge currents are captured by an intensified charge-coupled device with controlled exposure time, and each group consisted of 256 images taken in succession. Edge detection methods are used to identify the water surface and then the total brightness is defined by adding up the signal counts over the area of the micro discharge. Motions of the water surface at different discharge currents show that the water surface lowers increasingly rapidly when the water acts as a cathode. In contrast, the water surface lowers at a constant speed when the water behaves as an anode. The light curves are similar to logistic growth curves, suggesting that a self-inhibition process occurs in the micro discharge. Meanwhile, the total brightness increases linearly during the same time when the water acts as an anode. Discharge-water interactions cause the micro discharge to evolve. The charged particle bomb process is probably responsible for the different behaviors of the micro discharges when the water acts as cathode and anode.

  18. Discharge temperature higher than 30 deg C

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Shari Kelley

    2015-06-16

    This submission includes three files from two sources. One file is derived from USGS data and includes a series of manipulations to evaluate only shallow wells with high estimated geothermal gradients. Two other files are springs and wells with discharge temperatures above 30°C from the NMBGMR Aquifer Mapping database

  19. Discharge temperature higher than 30 deg C

    DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

    Shari Kelley

    2015-06-16

    This submission includes three files from two sources. One file is derived from USGS data and includes a series of manipulations to evaluate only shallow wells with high estimated geothermal gradients. Two other files are springs and wells with discharge temperatures above 30C from the NMBGMR Aquifer Mapping database

  20. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dunn, C.; Bremmer, R.J.; Meng, S.Y.

    1989-10-17

    This patent describes an improvement in a method for circulating fluid coolant through a reactor core of a pool-type nuclear reactor having a sealed containment vessel containing a reactor core submersed in a body of liquid coolant. The method for circulating coolant including utilization of a rotary pump including an impeller for producing a highly circumferential flow of cooling fluid and a method for collecting and discharging coolant fluid, the improvement to the method of collecting and discharging coolant fluid including the steps of: producing a substantially uniform circumferential flow of the fluid by directing the flow through a plurality of diffuser vanes and into an annular collector located radially outboard from the impeller. The annular collector having an entirely closed outer periphery; and turning the flow of cooling fluid into a substantially axially direction while maintaining a substantially constant average flow velocity by directing the coolant flow from the annular collector into a plurality of individual passageways located in an axial position relative to the annular collector.

  1. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, B.E.; Ault, E.R.

    1994-06-07

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam. 1 fig.

  2. Longitudinal discharge laser baffles

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Warner, Bruce E.; Ault, Earl R.

    1994-01-01

    The IR baffles placed between the window and the electrode of a longitudinal discharge laser improve laser performance by intercepting off-axis IR radiation from the laser and in doing so reduce window heating and subsequent optical distortion of the laser beam.

  3. Strong focus space charge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Booth, Rex

    1981-01-01

    Strong focus space charge lens wherein a combination of current-carrying coils and charged electrodes form crossed magnetic and electric fields to focus charged particle beams.

  4. Managing Increased Charging Demand

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Managing Increased Charging Demand Carrie Giles ICF International, Supporting the Workplace Charging Challenge Workplace Charging Challenge Do you already own an EV? Are you...

  5. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Steelman, Ryan; Clark, Billy; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  6. Secondary Electron Emission from Dust and Its Effect on Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Saikia, B. K.; Kakati, B.; Kausik, S. S. [Centre of Plasma Physics, Institute for Plasma Research, Nazirakhat, Sonapur-782402, Assam (India); Bandyopadhyay, M. [ITER-India, Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar-382 428 (India)

    2011-11-29

    Hydrogen plasma is produced in a plasma chamber by striking discharge between incandescent tungsten filaments and the permanent magnetic cage [1], which is grounded. The magnetic cage has a full line cusped magnetic field geometry used to confine the plasma elements. A cylindrical Langmuir probe is used to study the plasma parameters in various discharge conditions. The charge accumulated on the dust particles is calculated using the capacitance model and the dust current is measured by the combination of a Faraday cup and an electrometer at different discharge conditions. It is found Secondary electron emission from dust having low emission yield effects the charging of dust particles in presence of high energetic electrons.

  7. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: SAS Institute | Department...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Eco-Commuter parking includes 100 designated PEV spaces with access to 48 charging stations. SAS provides free charging for all employees and visitors. At the beginning of 2014, ...

  8. Determination of Dusty Particle Charge Taking into Account Ion Drag

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ramazanov, T. S.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Jumabekov, A. N.; Amangaliyeva, R. Zh.; Orazbayev, S. A.; Petrov, O. F.; Antipov, S. N.

    2008-09-07

    This work is devoted to the experimental estimation of charge of dust particle that levitates in the stratum of dc glow discharge. Particle charge is determined on the basis of the balance between ion drag force, gravitational and electric forces. Electric force is obtained from the axial distribution of the light intensity of strata.

  9. Low-pressure hydrogen discharge maintenance in a large-size plasma source with localized high radio-frequency power deposition

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Todorov, D.; Shivarova, A. Paunska, Ts.; Tarnev, Kh.

    2015-03-15

    The development of the two-dimensional fluid-plasma model of a low-pressure hydrogen discharge, presented in the study, is regarding description of the plasma maintenance in a discharge vessel with the configuration of the SPIDER source. The SPIDER source, planned for the neutral-beam-injection plasma-heating system of ITER, is with localized high RF power deposition to its eight drivers (cylindrical-coil inductive discharges) and a large-area second chamber, common for all the drivers. The continuity equations for the charged particles (electrons and the three types of positive ions) and for the neutral species (atoms and molecules), their momentum equations, the energy balance equations for electrons, atoms and molecules and the Poisson equations are involved in the discharge description. In addition to the local processes in the plasma volume, the surface processes of particle reflection and conversion on the walls as well as for a heat exchange with the walls are included in the model. The analysis of the results stresses on the role of the fluxes (particle and energy fluxes) in the formation of the discharge structure. The conclusion is that the discharge behavior is completely obeyed to non-locality. The latter is displayed by: (i) maximum values of plasma parameters (charged particle densities and temperatures of the neutral species) outside the region of the RF power deposition, (ii) shifted maxima of the electron density and temperature, of the plasma potential and of the electron production, (iii) an electron flux, with a vortex structure, strongly exceeding the total ion flux which gives evidence of a discharge regime of non-ambipolarity and (iv) a spatial distribution of the densities of the neutral species resulting from their fluxes.

  10. Powerful glow discharge excilamp

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Tarasenko, Victor F.; Panchenko, Aleksey N.; Skakun, Victor S.; Sosnin, Edward A.; Wang, Francis T.; Myers, Booth R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A powerful glow discharge lamp comprising two coaxial tubes, the outer tube being optically transparent, with a cathode and anode placed at opposite ends of the tubes, the space between the tubes being filled with working gas. The electrodes are made as cylindrical tumblers placed in line to one other in such a way that one end of the cathode is inserted into the inner tube, one end of the anode coaxially covers the end of the outer tube, the inner tube penetrating and extending through the anode. The increased electrodes' surface area increases glow discharge electron current and, correspondingly, average radiation power of discharge plasma. The inner tube contains at least one cooling liquid tube placed along the axis of the inner tube along the entire lamp length to provide cathode cooling. The anode has a circumferential heat extracting radiator which removes heat from the anode. The invention is related to lighting engineering and can be applied for realization of photostimulated processes under the action of powerful radiation in required spectral range.

  11. Microsoft Word - Groundwater Discharge Permit

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    State Renews Groundwater Discharge Permit for WIPP CARLSBAD, N.M., September 11, 2008 - The New Mexico Environment Department (NMED) has renewed the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) groundwater discharge permit until 2013. The permit regulates the discharge of water from WIPP facilities and operations to lined ponds, which protect groundwater resources. The permit allows WIPP to discharge domestic wastewater, non-hazardous wastewater and storm water into 13

  12. Investigation on collisions of filament pairs in dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dong, Lifang; Zhang, Chao; Li, Ben; Zhang, Xinpu; He, Yafeng; Li, Xuechen; Hebei Key Laboratory of Optic-electronic Information Materials, Baoding 071002

    2013-12-15

    Collisions of filament pairs in a hexagonal superlattice pattern in dielectric barrier discharge are investigated on different timescales. In the evolution of the pattern, the space scale of each hexagon cell decreases with the increasing voltage. The duration of one collision is seven half voltage cycles at least. Two stable orientations of a pair are approximately perpendicular to each other and the orientational changes occurring during the entire colliding process should be a multiple of 30. The time interval between two consecutive collisions decreases with the increasing voltage. The distance between the paired spots decreases nonmonotonically. Based on the discharge order of the pattern, it is inferred that the collision should be the interaction between a discharging filament and the surface charges deposited by another discharged filament, and the nonmonotonic decrease of distance D is explained.

  13. Differentially-charged and sequentially-switched square-wave pulse forming network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    North, G.G.; Vogilin, G.E.

    1980-04-01

    Disclosed is a pulse forming network for delivering a high-energy square-wave pulse to a load, including a series of inductive-capacitive sections wherein the capacitors are differentially charged higher further from the load. Each charged capacitor is isolated from adjacent sections and the load by means of a normally open switch at the output of each section. The switch between the load and the closest section to the load is closed to begin discharge of the capacitor in that section into the load. During discharge of each capacitor, the voltage thereacross falls to a predetermined potential with respect to the potential across the capacitor in the next adjacent section further from the load. When this potential is reached, it is used to close the switch in the adjacent section further from the load and thereby apply the charge in that section to the load through the adjacent section toward the load. Each successive section further from the load is sequentially switched in this manner to continuously and evenly supply energy to the load over the period of the pulse, with the differentially charged capacitors providing higher potentials away from the load to compensate for the voltage drop across the resistance of each inductor. This arrangement is low in cost and yet provides a high-energy pulse in an acceptable square-wave form. 5 figs.

  14. Differentially-charged and sequentially-switched square-wave pulse forming network

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    North, George G. [Stockton, CA; Vogilin, George E. [Livermore, CA

    1980-04-01

    A pulse forming network for delivering a high-energy square-wave pulse to a load, including a series of inductive-capacitive sections wherein the capacitors are differentially charged higher further from the load. Each charged capacitor is isolated from adjacent sections and the load by means of a normally open switch at the output of each section. The switch between the load and the closest section to the load is closed to begin discharge of the capacitor in that section into the load. During discharge of each capacitor, the voltage thereacross falls to a predetermined potential with respect to the potential across the capacitor in the next adjacent section further from the load. When this potential is reached, it is used to close the switch in the adjacent section further from the load and thereby apply the charge in that section to the load through the adjacent section toward the load. Each successive section further from the load is sequentially switched in this manner to continuously and evenly supply energy to the load over the period of the pulse, with the differentially charged capacitors providing higher potentials away from the load to compensate for the voltage drop across the resistance of each inductor. This arrangement is low in cost and yet provides a high-energy pulse in an acceptable square-wave form.

  15. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: City of Hillsboro | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    The City installed the first public EV charging station in town in 2009. With 35 EV charging stations now available, including a Level 3 DC "fast charger" that will charge an EV in ...

  16. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Laser activated diffuse discharge switch Title: Laser activated diffuse discharge switch The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing ...

  17. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  18. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  19. Capacitor discharge process for welding braided cable

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilson, Rick D.

    1995-01-01

    A capacitor discharge process for welding a braided cable formed from a plurality of individual cable strands to a solid metallic electrically conductive member comprises the steps of: (a) preparing the electrically conductive member for welding by bevelling one of its end portions while leaving an ignition projection extending outwardly from the apex of the bevel; (b) clamping the electrically conductive member in a cathode fixture; (c) connecting the electrically conductive member clamped in the cathode fixture to a capacitor bank capable of being charged to a preselected voltage value; (d) preparing the braided cable for welding by wrapping one of its end portions with a metallic sheet to form a retaining ring operable to maintain the individual strands of the braided cable in fixed position within the retaining ring; (e) clamping the braided cable and the retaining ring as a unit in an anode fixture so that the wrapped end portion of the braided cable faces the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member; and (f) moving the cathode fixture towards the anode fixture until the ignition projection of the electrically conductive member contacts the end portion of the braided cable thereby allowing the capacitor bank to discharge through the electrically conductive member and through the braided cable and causing the electrically conductive member to be welded to the braided cable via capacitor discharge action.

  20. Capillary - Discharge Based Hand-Held Detector For Chemical Vapor Monitoring

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Duan, Yixiang

    2005-05-31

    A handheld/portable detector for chemical vapor monitoring includes a housing and a discharge chamber that is established therein. The plasma discharge has a relatively small volume, e.g., in the micro-liter range. A first electrode and a second electrode are disposed within the discharge chamber and a discharge gap is established therebetween. A sample gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a sample gas to the discharge chamber. Also, a plasma gas tube is in fluid communication with the discharge chamber and provides a plasma gas thereto. Accordingly, the plasma gas can be used to maintain microplasma discharge between the electrodes and the sample gas can be introduced into the microplasma discharge. A spectrometer optically connected to the handheld/portable detector is used to measure the radiation emitted by the sample gas when subjected to the microplasma discharge.

  1. Wire-chamber radiation detector with discharge control

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Perez-Mendez, V.; Mulera, T.A.

    1982-03-29

    A wire chamber; radiation detector has spaced apart parallel electrodes and grids defining an ignition region in which charged particles or other ionizing radiations initiate brief localized avalanche discharges and defining an adjacent memory region in which sustained glow discharges are initiated by the primary discharges. Conductors of the grids at each side of the memory section extend in orthogonal directions enabling readout of the X-Y coordinates of locations at which charged particles were detected by sequentially transmitting pulses to the conductors of one grid while detecting transmissions of the pulses to the orthogonal conductors of the other grid through glow discharges. One of the grids bounding the memory region is defined by an array of conductive elements each of which is connected to the associated readout conductor through a separate resistance. The wire chamber avoids ambiguities and imprecisions in the readout of coordinates when large numbers of simultaneous or; near simultaneous charged particles have been detected. Down time between detection periods and the generation of radio frequency noise are also reduced.

  2. Two-dimensional simulation of spatiotemporal generation of dielectric barrier columnar discharges in atmospheric helium

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, Zhiming; Hao, Yanpeng; Yang, Lin; Han, Yongxia; Li, Licheng

    2015-12-15

    A two-dimensional (2D) fluid model is presented to investigate the spatiotemporal generation and dynamic mechanics of dielectric barrier columnar discharges in atmospheric helium. The model was examined with discharge currents measured in experiments and images taken by an intensified charge couple device camera. Based on the model, a columnar discharge was simulated for several cycles after being ignited. The discharge could be regarded as an initial unstable stage for the first three and a half cycles, then a steady state for the following cycles. In the initial stage, the discharge evolves from a uniform pattern into a columnar one. The calculated equipotential lines, 2D radial electric field, and electron density distributions at the edge of uniform discharges show the radial electric field accounts for the shrinking discharge area and the formation of discharge columns in the end. The columnar glow discharges and the Townsend discharges beyond the columns could coexist in the initial stage, and a Townsend discharge might develop into a new glow column in the next half-cycle. The radial electric field surrounding a glow discharge column has an inhibiting effect on the ionization in the peripheral area.

  3. Oregon Industrial Stormwater Discharge Monitoring Report (DEQ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    discharge. Form Type ApplicationNotice Form Topic Industrial Stormwater Discharge Monitoring Report Organization Oregon Department of Environmental Quality Published...

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge: Promote Charging at Work

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Employees with access to workplace charging are six times more likely to drive a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) than the average worker. Promoting PEV charging at workplaces is one great way that...

  5. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Workplace Charging Policy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Review the policy guidelines used by one Workplace Charging Challenge partner to keep their program running safe and successfully.

  6. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Territo Electric, Inc....

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    gasoline fleet. Territo expanded its fleet to include nine Volts, and installed sixteen charging stations for employees. Meet Challenge Partners More Information Territo Electric's

  7. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lapatovich, Walter P.; Keeffe, William M.; Liebermann, Richard W.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO.sub.2, with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube.

  8. High intensity discharge device containing oxytrihalides

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lapatovich, W.P.; Keeffe, W.M.; Liebermann, R.W.; Maya, J.

    1987-06-09

    A fill composition for a high intensity discharge device including mercury, niobium oxytrihalide, and a molecular stabilization agent is provided. The molar ratio of niobium oxytrihalide to the molecular stabilization agent in the fill is in the range of from about 5:1 to about 7.5:1. Niobium oxytrihalide is present in the fill in sufficient amount to produce, by dissociation in the discharge, atomic niobium, niobium oxide, NbO, and niobium dioxide, NbO[sub 2], with the molar ratio of niobium-containing vapor species to mercury in the fill being in the range of from about 0.01:1 to about 0.50:1; and mercury pressure of about 1 to about 50 atmospheres at lamp operating temperature. There is also provided a high intensity discharge device comprising a sealed light-transmissive arc tube; the arc tube including the above-described fill; and an energizing means for producing an electric discharge within the arc tube. 7 figs.

  9. Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    liquids were discharged to Pueblo and Los Alamos Canyons. August 1, 2013 Contamination from the Acid Canyon outfall has been clean up to below residential levels...

  10. Workplace Charging Equipment Costs

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Charging stations are available from a variety of manufacturers in a range of models for all charging applications. For a single port charging station, Level 1 hardware costs range from $300-$1,500...

  11. Quick spacecraft charging primer

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Larsen, Brian Arthur

    2014-03-12

    This is a presentation in PDF format which is a quick spacecraft charging primer, meant to be used for program training. It goes into detail about charging physics, RBSP examples, and how to identify charging.

  12. Discharge lamp with reflective jacket

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    MacLennan, Donald A.; Turner, Brian P.; Kipling, Kent

    2001-01-01

    A discharge lamp includes an envelope, a fill which emits light when excited disposed in the envelope, a source of excitation power coupled to the fill to excite the fill and cause the fill to emit light, and a reflector disposed around the envelope and defining an opening, the reflector being configured to reflect some of the light emitted by the fill back into the fill while allowing some light to exit through the opening. The reflector may be made from a material having a similar thermal index of expansion as compared to the envelope and which is closely spaced to the envelope. The envelope material may be quartz and the reflector material may be either silica or alumina. The reflector may be formed as a jacket having a rigid structure which does not adhere to the envelope. The lamp may further include an optical clement spaced from the envelope and configured to reflect an unwanted component of light which exited the envelope back into the envelope through the opening in the reflector. Light which can be beneficially recaptured includes selected wavelength regions, a selected polarization, and selected angular components.

  13. Electric Vehicle Workplace Charging

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for annual capital fleet purchases 10 of 17 locations currently have charging stations Agreement with employees to provide workplace charging Ultimate goal is ...

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2013-09-01

    Fact sheet about the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge which is to increase the number of American employers offering workplace charging by tenfold in the next five years.

  15. Utilities and Workplace Charging

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    for workplace charging Aid in forecasting similar workplace charging needs with ... of plug-in vehicle technology, costs, and benefits? 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 1 2 ...

  16. Dynamic Wireless Charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    2015-03-13

    ORNL successfully demonstrated in-motion wireless charging in the laboratory using a small GEM vehicle and a series of six charging coils.

  17. Electric Vehicle Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    or Twitter Attend local EV events Share your story Currently have 13 ChargePoint charging stations scattered throughout Vermont 2015 - 12 Freedom Stations & 10...

  18. Workplace Charging Challenge

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, committing to install charging for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at their worksites. By taking on this Challenge, they are helping...

  19. Three-electrode low pressure discharge apparatus and method for uniform ionization of gaseous media

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLellan, Edward J.

    1983-01-01

    Uniform, transverse electrical discharges are produced in gaseous media without the necessity of switching the main discharge voltage with an external device which carries the entire discharge current. A three-electrode low pressure discharge tube is charged across its anode (1) and cathode (2) to below breakdown voltage using a dc voltage source (3). An array of resistors (4) or capacitors can be made to discharge to the wire screen anode by means of a low energy high voltage pulse circuit (5) producing sufficient preionization in the region between the anode and cathode to initiate and control the main discharge. The invention has been demonstrated to be useful as a CO.sub.2 laser oscillator and pulse-smoother. It can be reliably operated in the sealed-off mode.

  20. Electrokinetic concentration of charged molecules

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Singh, Anup K.; Neyer, David W.; Schoeniger, Joseph S.; Garguilo, Michael G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for separating and concentrating charged species from uncharged or neutral species regardless of size differential. The method uses reversible electric field induced retention of charged species, that can include molecules and molecular aggregates such as dimers, polymers, multimers, colloids, micelles, and liposomes, in volumes and on surfaces of porous materials. The retained charged species are subsequently quantitatively removed from the porous material by a pressure driven flow that passes through the retention volume and is independent of direction thus, a multi-directional flow field is not required. Uncharged species pass through the system unimpeded thus effecting a complete separation of charged and uncharged species and making possible concentration factors greater than 1000-fold.

  1. Study of volume and surface effects in pure hydrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Taccogna, F.; Schneider, R.; Fantz, U.; Longo, S.; Capitelli, M.

    2007-08-10

    The work concerns the simulation of negative ion formation and acceleration in a radio-frequency discharge for neutral beam injection system for ITER, with particular emphasis on the IPP negative ion source. To generate intense beams of negative ions and to optimize the negative ion source, understanding of transport properties of negative ions H- is indispensable. To study this effect, we have developed a 1D(z)-3V Particle-in-Cell electrostatic model of the production and extraction regions. The motion of charged particles (e, H+, H{sub 2}{sup +} and H-) in their self-consistent electric field and of neutral particles (H(n=1,2,3) and H2(X{sup 1}{sigma}{sub g}{sup +}, {nu}=0,...,14)) is simulated. Surface and volumetric processes involving plasma and neutral systems have been included by using different Monte Carlo Collision methods. Comparisons between numerical and experimental results have been done in order to validate the code.

  2. How usage is charged

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    usage is charged How usage is charged MPP Charging (Computational Systems) When a job runs on a NERSC MPP system, such as Hopper, charges accrue against one of the user's repository allocations. The unit of accounting for these charges is the "MPP Hour". A parallel job is charged for exclusive use of each multi-core node allocated to the job. The MPP charge for such a job is calculated as the product of: the job's elapsed wall-clock time in hours the number of nodes allocated to the

  3. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, Mark W.; George, William A.; Maya, Jakob

    1987-01-01

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25.degree. C.

  4. Low pressure arc discharge lamp apparatus with magnetic field generating means

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Grossman, M.W.; George, W.A.; Maya, J.

    1987-10-06

    A low-pressure arc discharge apparatus having a magnetic field generating means for increasing the output of a discharge lamp is disclosed. The magnetic field generating means, which in one embodiment includes a plurality of permanent magnets, is disposed along the lamp for applying a constant transverse magnetic field over at least a portion of the positive discharge column produced in the arc discharge lamp operating at an ambient temperature greater than about 25 C. 3 figs.

  5. Space charge effects for multipactor in coaxial lines

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sorolla, E.

    2015-03-15

    Multipactor is a hazardous vacuum discharge produced by secondary electron emission within microwave devices of particle accelerators and telecommunication satellites. This work analyzes the dynamics of the multipactor discharge within a coaxial line for the mono-energetic electron emission model taking into account the space charge effects. The steady-state is predicted by the proposed model and an analytical expression for the maximum number of electrons released by the discharge presented. This could help to link simulations to experiments and define a multipactor onset criterion.

  6. Capacitor charging FET switcher with controller to adjust pulse width

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mihalka, Alex M.

    1986-01-01

    A switching power supply includes an FET full bridge, a controller to drive the FETs, a programmable controller to dynamically control final output current by adjusting pulse width, and a variety of protective systems, including an overcurrent latch for current control. Power MOSFETS are switched at a variable frequency from 20-50 kHz to charge a capacitor load from 0 to 6 kV. A ferrite transformer steps up the DC input. The transformer primary is a full bridge configuration with the FET switches and the secondary is fed into a high voltage full wave rectifier whose output is connected directly to the energy storage capacitor. The peak current is held constant by varying the pulse width using predetermined timing resistors and counting pulses. The pulse width is increased as the capacitor charges to maintain peak current. A digital ripple counter counts pulses, and after the desired number is reached, an up-counter is clocked. The up-counter output is decoded to choose among different resistors used to discharge a timing capacitor, thereby determining the pulse width. A current latch shuts down the supply on overcurrent due to either excessive pulse width causing transformer saturation or a major bridge fault, i.e., FET or transformer failure, or failure of the drive circuitry.

  7. Electron Charged Graphite-based Hydrogen Storage Material

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Dr. Chinbay Q. Fan R&D Manager Office of Technology and Innovations Phone: 847 768 0812

    2012-03-14

    The electron-charge effects have been demonstrated to enhance hydrogen storage capacity using materials which have inherent hydrogen storage capacities. A charge control agent (CCA) or a charge transfer agent (CTA) was applied to the hydrogen storage material to reduce internal discharge between particles in a Sievert volumetric test device. GTI has tested the device under (1) electrostatic charge mode; (2) ultra-capacitor mode; and (3) metal-hydride mode. GTI has also analyzed the charge distribution on storage materials. The charge control agent and charge transfer agent are needed to prevent internal charge leaks so that the hydrogen atoms can stay on the storage material. GTI has analyzed the hydrogen fueling tank structure, which contains an air or liquid heat exchange framework. The cooling structure is needed for hydrogen fueling/releasing. We found that the cooling structure could be used as electron-charged electrodes, which will exhibit a very uniform charge distribution (because the cooling system needs to remove heat uniformly). Therefore, the electron-charge concept does not have any burden of cost and weight for the hydrogen storage tank system. The energy consumption for the electron-charge enhancement method is quite low or omitted for electrostatic mode and ultra-capacitor mode in comparison of other hydrogen storage methods; however, it could be high for the battery mode.

  8. HIGH ENERGY GASEOUS DISCHARGE DEVICES

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Josephson, V.

    1960-02-16

    The high-energy electrical discharge device described comprises an envelope, a pair of main discharge electrodes supported in opposition in the envelope, and a metallic shell symmetrically disposed around and spaced from the discharge path between the electrodes. The metallic shell comprises a first element of spaced helical turns of metallic material and a second element of spaced helical turns of methllic material insulatedly supported in superposition outside the first element and with the turns overlapping the gap between the turns of the first element.

  9. Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    This drop-down provides the most current six months and six years of data for the table below. For complete history do one of the following: Click on a cell value in the table for the history of an individual data series. Click on the "Download All History" link for all data series shown in the table. Close Window

    Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls Historical Liquid Discharges and Outfalls During the 1940s and 1950s, untreated radioactive liquids were discharged to Pueblo and

  10. DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ohlinger, L.A.

    1958-09-23

    A device is described fur unloading bodies of fissionable material from a neutronic reactor. It is comprised essentially of a wheeled flat car having a receptacle therein containing a liquid coolant fur receiving and cooling the fuel elements as they are discharged from the reactor, and a reciprocating plunger fur supporting the fuel element during discharge thereof prior to its being dropped into the coolant. The flat car is adapted to travel along the face of the reactor adjacent the discharge ends of the coolant tubes.

  11. Workplace Charging Challenge: Install and Manage PEV Charging | Department

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    of Energy Install and Manage PEV Charging Workplace Charging Challenge: Install and Manage PEV Charging pev_workplace_charging_hosts_150x194.jpg To determine if workplace charging is right for your organization, use the employer resources to learn more about PEVs and charging stations. The PEV Handbook for Workplace Charging Hosts is particularly helpful for employers deciding if and how to install charging stations to ensure a successful workplace charging program. PEVs and Charging

  12. Charged pion production in $\

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energy from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.

  13. Charged pion production in $$\

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Eberly, B.; et al.

    2015-11-23

    Charged pion production via charged-current νμ interactions on plastic scintillator (CH) is studied using the MINERvA detector exposed to the NuMI wideband neutrino beam at Fermilab. Events with hadronic invariant mass W < 1.4 GeV and W < 1.8 GeV are selected in separate analyses: the lower W cut isolates single pion production, which is expected to occur primarily through the Δ(1232) resonance, while results from the higher cut include the effects of higher resonances. Cross sections as functions of pion angle and kinetic energy are compared to predictions from theoretical calculations and generator-based models for neutrinos ranging in energymore » from 1.5–10 GeV. The data are best described by calculations which include significant contributions from pion intranuclear rescattering. As a result, these measurements constrain the primary interaction rate and the role of final state interactions in pion production, both of which need to be well understood by neutrino oscillation experiments.« less

  14. EPA issues draft general permits for industrial stormwater discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    EPA on Nov. 16, 1990, issued stormwater discharge regulations associated with industrial activity'' under the authority of CWA's National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES). Those regulations established NPDES permit application requirements for industrial and certain municipal separate stormwater discharge systems. Three permit application options were made available for industrial stormwater discharges -- filing an individual application, becoming a participant in a group application or filing a notice of intent to be covered under a general permit and its requirements. The Agency of Nov. 19 proposed a draft general permit for group applications. Industrial dischargers choosing the group option previously were required to file in two parts. Part 1 was due by Sept. 30, 1991, and Part 2 was due by Oct. 1, 1992. The proposed permit would apply to industrial facilities, including certain Indian lands, in selected areas of EPA Regions I, II, III, IV, VI, VIII, IX and X. The permit would cover industrial stormwater discharges to US waters, and would include discharges transmitted through large, medium-sized and other municipal separate storm sewer systems.

  15. Non-intrusive refrigerant charge indicator

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Mei, Viung C.; Chen, Fang C.; Kweller, Esher

    2005-03-22

    A non-intrusive refrigerant charge level indicator includes a structure for measuring at least one temperature at an outside surface of a two-phase refrigerant line section. The measured temperature can be used to determine the refrigerant charge status of an HVAC system, and can be converted to a pressure of the refrigerant in the line section and compared to a recommended pressure range to determine whether the system is under-charged, properly charged or over-charged. A non-intrusive method for assessing the refrigerant charge level in a system containing a refrigerant fluid includes the step of measuring a temperature at least one outside surface of a two-phase region of a refrigerant containing refrigerant line, wherein the temperature measured can be converted to a refrigerant pressure within the line section.

  16. Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilde, Edward W.; Benemann, John R.; Weissman, Joseph C.; Tillett, David M.

    1991-01-01

    A method and system for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulogy and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinnoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinnoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge.

  17. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  18. Reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, 1984 to 2020

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Heeb, C.M.; Libby, R.A.; Holter, G.M.

    1985-04-01

    The original spent fuel utility data base (SFDB) has been adjusted to produce agreement with the EIA nuclear energy generation forecast. The procedure developed allows the detail of the utility data base to remain intact, while the overall nuclear generation is changed to match any uniform nuclear generation forecast. This procedure adjusts the weight of the reactor discharges as reported on the SFDB and makes a minimal (less than 10%) change in the original discharge exposures in order to preserve discharges of an integral number of fuel assemblies. The procedure used in developing the reactor-specific spent fuel discharge projections, as well as the resulting data bases themselves, are described in detail in this report. Discussions of the procedure cover the following topics: a description of the data base; data base adjustment procedures; addition of generic power reactors; and accuracy of the data base adjustments. Reactor-specific discharge and storage requirements are presented. Annual and cumulative discharge projections are provided. Annual and cumulative requirements for additional storage are shown for the maximum at-reactor (AR) storage assumption, and for the maximum AR with transshipment assumption. These compare directly to the storage requirements from the utility-supplied data, as reported in the Spent Fuel Storage Requirements Report. The results presented in this report include: the disaggregated spent fuel discharge projections; and disaggregated projections of requirements for additional spent fuel storage capacity prior to 1998. Descriptions of the methodology and the results are included in this report. Details supporting the discussions in the main body of the report, including descriptions of the capacity and fuel discharge projections, are included. 3 refs., 6 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Spent nuclear fuel discharges from U.S. reactors 1994

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    1996-02-01

    Spent Nuclear Fuel Discharges from US Reactors 1994 provides current statistical data on fuel assemblies irradiated at commercial nuclear reactors operating in the US. This year`s report provides data on the current inventories and storage capacities at these reactors. Detailed statistics on the data are presented in four chapters that highlight 1994 spent fuel discharges, storage capacities and inventories, canister and nonfuel component data, and assembly characteristics. Five appendices, a glossary, and bibliography are also included. 10 figs., 34 tabs.

  20. Charge regulation circuit

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ball, Don G.

    1992-01-01

    A charge regulation circuit provides regulation of an unregulated voltage supply in the range of 0.01%. The charge regulation circuit is utilized in a preferred embodiment in providing regulated voltage for controlling the operation of a laser.

  1. Workplace Charging Presentation

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Educate employers about plug-in electric vehicles and workplace charging using this sample presentation. The presentation covers the basics of PEVs and workplace charging as well as the benefit of...

  2. Workplace Charging Challenge Overview Factsheet | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workplace Charging Challenge Overview Factsheet Workplace Charging Challenge Overview Factsheet Pioneering U.S. employers are accepting the EV Everywhere Workplace Charging Challenge, committing to install charging for plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) at their worksites. By taking on this Challenge, they are helping build our nation's PEV charging infrastructure and offering a valuable employee benefit. A full transition to electric-drive vehicles (including all-electric vehicles, plug-in hybrid

  3. Workplace Charging Challenge: Install and Manage PEV Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charging - Evaluate whether your workplace is right for solar assisted charging stations. ... Charging Equipment and Installation Costs - Review typical price ranges and factors ...

  4. Workplace Charging Challenge: Higher Education PEV Charging Webinar...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenge: Higher Education PEV Charging Webinar Workplace Charging Challenge: Higher Education PEV Charging Webinar Review the slides from our webinar which highlighted workplace ...

  5. Charge exchange system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anderson, Oscar A.

    1978-01-01

    An improved charge exchange system for substantially reducing pumping requirements of excess gas in a controlled thermonuclear reactor high energy neutral beam injector. The charge exchange system utilizes a jet-type blanket which acts simultaneously as the charge exchange medium and as a shield for reflecting excess gas.

  6. Surface radicals in silane/hydrogen discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horvath, Peter; Gallagher, Alan

    2009-01-01

    Using threshold ionization mass spectrometry, radical densities have been measured at the substrate surface of a radio frequency discharge in silane plus hydrogen vapor. The conditions are 100-300 Pa pressure and a ratio (R) of hydrogen flow/silane flow typical of discharges used to produce large area amorphous (R=20) and microcrystalline (R=40) silicon. For comparison, we include measurements in pure-silane vapor. The neutral radicals observed in the mixed gases are H, SiH{sub 3}, Si{sub 2}H{sub 2}, and Si{sub 2}H{sub 5}, with decreasing flux in that order. (Si{sub 2}H{sub 4} is also seen in pure silane and SiH{sub 2} for R=20.) The H flux is sufficient for major film etching and restructuring, particularly for R=40. The ion-bombardment species were also measured, establishing that Si{sub y}H{sub n}{sup +} (y=1-3) ion flux is much larger than the H{sub n}{sup +} (n=1-3) flux. The ion flux provides 15{+-}4% of the total Si flux to the film for R=20 and 37{+-}10% for R=40. This is larger than in pure-silane discharges, and it may be very important to film properties due to the impact energy.

  7. Charging characteritiscs of ultrananocrystalline diamond in RF MEMS capacitive switches.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Sumant, A. V.; Goldsmith, C.; Auciello, O.; Carlisle, J.; Zheng, H.; Hwang, J. C. M.; Palego, C.; Wang, W.; Carpick, R.; Adiga, V.; Datta, A.; Gudeman, C.; O'Brien, S.; Sampath, S.

    2010-05-01

    Modifications to a standard capacitive MEMS switch process have been made to allow the incorporation of ultra-nano-crystalline diamond as the switch dielectric. The impact on electromechanical performance is minimal. However, these devices exhibit uniquely different charging characteristics, with charging and discharging time constants 5-6 orders of magnitude quicker than conventional materials. This operation opens the possibility of devices which have no adverse effects of dielectric charging and can be operated near-continuously in the actuated state without significant degradation in reliability.

  8. Low noise charge sensitive preamplifier DC stabilized without a physical resistor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertuccio, Giuseppe; Rehak, Pavel; Xi, Deming

    1994-09-13

    The invention is a novel charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP) which has no resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor. No resetting circuit is required to discharge the feedback capacitor. The DC stabilization of the preamplifier is obtained by means of a second feedback loop between the preamplifier output and the common base transistor of the input cascode. The input transistor of the preamplifier is a Junction Field Transistor (JFET) with the gate-source junction forward biased. The detector leakage current flows into this junction. This invention is concerned with a new circuit configuration for a charge sensitive preamplifier and a novel use of the input Field Effect Transistor of the CSP itself. In particular this invention, in addition to eliminating the feedback resistor, eliminates the need for external devices between the detector and the preamplifier, and it eliminates the need for external circuitry to sense the output voltage and reset the CSP. Furthermore, the noise level of the novel CSP is very low, comparable with the performance achieved with other solutions. Experimental tests prove that this configuration for the charge sensitive preamplifier permits an excellent noise performance at temperatures including room temperature. An equivalent noise charge of less than 20 electrons r.m.s. has been measured at room temperature by using a commercial JFET as input device of the preamplifier.

  9. Low noise charge sensitive preamplifier DC stabilized without a physical resistor

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bertuccio, G.; Rehak, P.; Xi, D.

    1994-09-13

    The invention is a novel charge sensitive preamplifier (CSP) which has no resistor in parallel with the feedback capacitor. No resetting circuit is required to discharge the feedback capacitor. The DC stabilization of the preamplifier is obtained by means of a second feedback loop between the preamplifier output and the common base transistor of the input cascode. The input transistor of the preamplifier is a Junction Field Transistor (JFET) with the gate-source junction forward biased. The detector leakage current flows into this junction. This invention is concerned with a new circuit configuration for a charge sensitive preamplifier and a novel use of the input Field Effect Transistor of the CSP itself. In particular this invention, in addition to eliminating the feedback resistor, eliminates the need for external devices between the detector and the preamplifier, and it eliminates the need for external circuitry to sense the output voltage and reset the CSP. Furthermore, the noise level of the novel CSP is very low, comparable with the performance achieved with other solutions. Experimental tests prove that this configuration for the charge sensitive preamplifier permits an excellent noise performance at temperatures including room temperature. An equivalent noise charge of less than 20 electrons r.m.s. has been measured at room temperature by using a commercial JFET as input device of the preamplifier. 6 figs.

  10. Explosive bulk charge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Miller, Jacob Lee

    2015-04-21

    An explosive bulk charge, including: a first contact surface configured to be selectively disposed substantially adjacent to a structure or material; a second end surface configured to selectively receive a detonator; and a curvilinear side surface joining the first contact surface and the second end surface. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface form a bi-truncated hemispherical structure. The first contact surface, the second end surface, and the curvilinear side surface are formed from an explosive material. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface each have a substantially circular shape. Optionally, the first contact surface and the second end surface consist of planar structures that are aligned substantially parallel or slightly tilted with respect to one another. The curvilinear side surface has one of a smooth curved geometry, an elliptical geometry, and a parabolic geometry.

  11. Workplace Charging Challenge: Signage Guidance

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Signage for plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations is an important consideration at workplaces that offer access to charging. Appropriate charging station signage can:

  12. Workplace Charging Program and Initiatives

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    NYPA's Workplace Charging Pilot Program Employee charging stations installed at the Authority's White Plains office NYPA joined the US DOE's Workplace Charging Challenge ...

  13. Workplace Charging Challenge 2014 Agenda

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Track A (Plaza Ballroom I): Promoting your workplace charging program A robust workplace charging program doesn't conclude once the charging stations are in the ground. Many ...

  14. Thermite charge - Energy Innovation Portal

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    & Trademark Office Marketing Summary: Linear Thermite Charge Abstract: The present invention provides for cutting operations using linear thermite charges; the charges cut one...

  15. Alternator control for battery charging

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Brunstetter, Craig A.; Jaye, John R.; Tallarek, Glen E.; Adams, Joseph B.

    2015-07-14

    In accordance with an aspect of the present disclosure, an electrical system for an automotive vehicle has an electrical generating machine and a battery. A set point voltage, which sets an output voltage of the electrical generating machine, is set by an electronic control unit (ECU). The ECU selects one of a plurality of control modes for controlling the alternator based on an operating state of the vehicle as determined from vehicle operating parameters. The ECU selects a range for the set point voltage based on the selected control mode and then sets the set point voltage within the range based on feedback parameters for that control mode. In an aspect, the control modes include a trickle charge mode and battery charge current is the feedback parameter and the ECU controls the set point voltage within the range to maintain a predetermined battery charge current.

  16. Capacitively coupled radio-frequency hydrogen discharges: The role of kinetics

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Marques, L.; Jolly, J.; Alves, L. L.

    2007-09-15

    This paper presents a systematic characterization of capacitively coupled radio-frequency hydrogen discharges, produced within a parallel plate cylindrical setup at different rf applied voltages (V{sub rf}=50-600 V), frequencies (f=13.56-40.68 MHz), and pressures (p=0.2-1 torr). A two-dimensional, time-dependent fluid model for charged particle transport is self-consistently solved coupled to a homogeneous kinetic model for hydrogen, including vibrationally excited molecular species and electronically excited atomic species. Numerical simulations are compared with experimental measurements of various plasma parameters. A good quantitative agreement is found between simulations and experiment for the coupled electrical power and the plasma potential. The model underestimates the values of the electron density, the self-bias potential, and the H(n=1) atom density with respect to measurements, but agrees with experiment when predicting that all these parameters increase with either V{sub rf}, f, or p. The dissociation degree is about 10{sup -3} for the work conditions considered. Simulations adopt a wall recombination probability for H atoms that was experimentally measured, thus accounting for surface modification with discharge operating conditions. Results show the key role played by the atomic wall recombination mechanism in plasma description.

  17. Effects of Electric Vehicle Fast Charging on Battery Life and Vehicle Performance

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Matthew Shirk; Jeffrey Wishart

    2015-04-01

    As part of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Advanced Vehicle Testing Activity, four new 2012 Nissan Leaf battery electric vehicles were instrumented with data loggers and operated over a fixed on-road test cycle. Each vehicle was operated over the test route, and charged twice daily. Two vehicles were charged exclusively by AC level 2 EVSE, while two were exclusively DC fast charged with a 50 kW charger. The vehicles were performance tested on a closed test track when new, and after accumulation of 50,000 miles. The traction battery packs were removed and laboratory tested when the vehicles were new, and at 10,000-mile intervals. Battery tests include constant-current discharge capacity, electric vehicle pulse power characterization test, and low peak power tests. The on-road testing was carried out through 70,000 miles, at which point the final battery tests were performed. The data collected over 70,000 miles of driving, charging, and rest are analyzed, including the resulting thermal conditions and power and cycle demands placed upon the battery. Battery performance metrics including capacity, internal resistance, and power capability obtained from laboratory testing throughout the test program are analyzed. Results are compared within and between the two groups of vehicles. Specifically, the impacts on battery performance, as measured by laboratory testing, are explored as they relate to battery usage and variations in conditions encountered, with a primary focus on effects due to the differences between AC level 2 and DC fast charging. The contrast between battery performance degradation and the effect on vehicle performance is also explored.

  18. Constricted glow discharge plasma source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Anders, Andre; Anders, Simone; Dickinson, Michael; Rubin, Michael; Newman, Nathan

    2000-01-01

    A constricted glow discharge chamber and method are disclosed. The polarity and geometry of the constricted glow discharge plasma source is set so that the contamination and energy of the ions discharged from the source are minimized. The several sources can be mounted in parallel and in series to provide a sustained ultra low source of ions in a plasma with contamination below practical detection limits. The source is suitable for applying films of nitrides such as gallium nitride and oxides such as tungsten oxide and for enriching other substances in material surfaces such as oxygen and water vapor, which are difficult process as plasma in any known devices and methods. The source can also be used to assist the deposition of films such as metal films by providing low-energy ions such as argon ions.

  19. 20,000 and Counting: Alternative Fueling and Charging Stations...

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    In addition, Clean Cities partners with a number of charging networks, including Blink and ChargePoint, to have their stations provide a daily feed to the Station Locator. This ...

  20. Ion charge state fluctuations in vacuum arcs

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Anders, Andre; Fukuda, Kentaro; Yushkov, Georgy Yu

    2004-12-14

    Ion charge state distributions of cathodic vacuum arcs have been investigated using a modified time-of-flight method. Experiments have been done in double gate and burst gate mode, allowing us to study both systematic and stochastic changes of ion charge state distributions with a time resolution down to 100 ns. In the double gate method, two ion charge spectra are recorded with a well-defined time between measurements. The elements Mg, Bi, and Cu were selected for tests, representing metals of very different properties. For all elements it was found that large stochastic changes occur even at the limit of resolution. This is in agreement with fast changing arc properties observed elsewhere. Correlation of results for short times between measurements was found but it is argued that this is due to velocity mixing rather than due to cathode processes. The burst mode of time-of-flight measurements revealed the systematic time evolution of ion charge states within a single arc discharge, as opposed to previous measurements that relied on data averaged over many pulses. The technique shows the decay of the mean ion charge state as well as the level of material-dependent fluctuations.

  1. Ultraviolet radiation induced discharge laser

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gilson, Verle A.; Schriever, Richard L.; Shearer, James W.

    1978-01-01

    An ultraviolet radiation source associated with a suitable cathode-anode electrode structure, disposed in a gas-filled cavity of a high pressure pulsed laser, such as a transverse electric atmosphere (TEA) laser, to achieve free electron production in the gas by photoelectric interaction between ultraviolet radiation and the cathode prior to the gas-exciting cathode-to-anode electrical discharge, thereby providing volume ionization of the gas. The ultraviolet radiation is produced by a light source or by a spark discharge.

  2. Workplace Charging: Safety and Management Policy For Level 1 Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Receptacles | Department of Energy Charging: Safety and Management Policy For Level 1 Charging Receptacles Workplace Charging: Safety and Management Policy For Level 1 Charging Receptacles Organizations offering plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging at Level 1 charging receptacles, or wall outlets, can ensure a safe and successful workplace charging experience by considering the following safety and management policies below. More helpful tips on workplace charging administration,

  3. ELECTRON DISCHARGE DEVICE

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Graham, M.H.

    1962-09-18

    A barrier-grid storage tube and an improved means for writing and reading of information in such a tube are described. A triax cable is provided in the reading and writing circuit and includes a coiled portion. The inner conductor of the cable is connected to the back plate of the barrier grid target assembly of the storage tube, the middle conductor of the cable is connected to a shielding member encompassing the target assembly and this member supports the barrier grid of the assembly, and the outer conductor of the cable is connected to an external shreld surrounding the target assembly. A source of writing sr- gnals is connected between the rnner conductor and middle conductor of said cable. Both the middle and outer conductors are connected to ground at the source end, and a small trimmer condenser is connected between the external shield and the source end of the inner conductor of the cable to compensate for the direct back plate-to-ground capacity due to the imperfect shielding of the barrier grid. The coiled portion of the cable provides for an output signal to a secondary corl coupled thereto. The grounded outer conductor serves as a means for preventing an output signal being applied to the coiled portion of the cable on application of writing signals to the inner and middle conductors of the cable. (AEC)

  4. Pressure charged airlift pump

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Campbell, Gene K.

    1983-01-01

    A pumping system is described for pumping fluids, such as water with entrained mud and small rocks, out of underground cavities such as drilled wells, which can effectively remove fluids down to a level very close to the bottom of the cavity and which can operate solely by compressed air pumped down through the cavity. The system utilizes a subassembly having a pair of parallel conduit sections (44, 46) adapted to be connected onto the bottom of a drill string utilized for drilling the cavity, the drill string also having a pair of coaxially extending conduits. The subassembly includes an upper portion which has means for connection onto the drill string and terminates the first conduit of the drill string in a plenum (55). A compressed air-driven pump (62) is suspended from the upper portion. The pump sucks fluids from the bottom of the cavity and discharges them into the second conduit. Compressed air pumped down through the first conduit (46) to the plenum powers the compressed air-driven pump and aerates the fluid in the second conduit to lift it to the earth's surface.

  5. Proximity charge sensing for semiconductor detectors

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Luke, Paul N; Tindall, Craig S; Amman, Mark

    2013-10-08

    A non-contact charge sensor includes a semiconductor detector having a first surface and an opposing second surface. The detector includes a high resistivity electrode layer on the first surface and a low resistivity electrode on the high resistivity electrode layer. A portion of the low resistivity first surface electrode is deleted to expose the high resistivity electrode layer in a portion of the area. A low resistivity electrode layer is disposed on the second surface of the semiconductor detector. A voltage applied between the first surface low resistivity electrode and the second surface low resistivity electrode causes a free charge to drift toward the first or second surface according to a polarity of the free charge and the voltage. A charge sensitive preamplifier coupled to a non-contact electrode disposed at a distance from the exposed high resistivity electrode layer outputs a signal in response to movement of free charge within the detector.

  6. Focused shock spark discharge drill using multiple electrodes

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Moeny, William M.; Small, James G.

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge focused drill provided with one pulse forming line or a number of pulse forming lines. The pulse forming line is connected to an array of electrodes which would form a spark array. One of the electrodes of each of the array is connected to the high voltage side of the pulse forming line and the other electrodes are at ground potential. When discharged in a liquid, these electrodes produce intense focused shock waves that can pulverize or fracture rock. By delaying the firing of each group of electrodes, the drill can be steered within the earth. Power can be fed to the pulse forming line either downhole or from the surface area. A high voltage source, such as a Marx generator, is suitable for pulse charging the lines.

  7. Charging dynamics of a floating gate transistor with site-controlled quantum dots

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Maier, P. Hartmann, F.; Emmerling, M.; Schneider, C.; Hfling, S.; Kamp, M.; Worschech, L.

    2014-08-04

    A quantum dot memory based on a GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wire with site-controlled InAs quantum dots was realized by means of molecular beam epitaxy and etching techniques. By sampling of different gate voltage sweeps for the determination of charging and discharging thresholds, it was found that discharging takes place at short time scales of ?s, whereas several seconds of waiting times within a distinct negative gate voltage range were needed to charge the quantum dots. Such quantum dot structures have thus the potential to implement logic functions comprising charge and time dependent ingredients such as counting of signals or learning rules.

  8. Self-consistent electrodynamics of large-area high-frequency capacitive plasma discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chen Zhigang; Rauf, Shahid; Collins, Ken

    2010-10-15

    Capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) generated using high frequency (3-30 MHz) and very high frequency (30-300 MHz) radio-frequency (rf) sources are used for many plasma processing applications including thin film etching and deposition. When chamber dimensions become commensurate with the effective rf wavelength in the plasma, electromagnetic wave effects impose a significant influence on plasma behavior. Because the effective rf wavelength in plasma depends upon both rf and plasma process conditions (e.g., rf power and gas pressure), a self-consistent model including both the rf power delivery system and the plasma discharge is highly desirable to capture a more complete physical picture of the plasma behavior. A three-dimensional model for self-consistently studying both electrodynamic and plasma dynamic behavior of large-area (Gen 10, >8 m{sup 2}) CCP is described in this paper. This model includes Maxwell's equations and transport equations for charged and neutral species, which are coupled and solved in the time domain. The complete rf plasma discharge chamber including the rf power delivery subsystem, rf feed, electrodes, and the plasma domain is modeled as an integrated system. Based on this full-wave solution model, important limitations for processing uniformity imposed by electromagnetic wave propagation effects in a large-area CCP (3.05x2.85 m{sup 2} electrode size) are studied. The behavior of H{sub 2} plasmas in such a reactor is examined from 13.56 to 200 MHz. It is shown that various rectangular harmonics of electromagnetic fields can be excited in a large-area rectangular reactor as the rf or power is increased. The rectangular harmonics can create not only center-high plasma distribution but also high plasma density at the corners and along the edges of the reactor.

  9. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: National Renewable Energy...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    A 1,800-car parking garage at NREL's South Table Mountain Campus includes 36 charging stations. In addition to fulfilling its primary function, the garage enables NREL researchers ...

  10. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: DTE Energy | Department...

    Energy Savers [EERE]

    energy and energy-technology company providing solutions to meet the needs of 21st century customers including the installation of plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging stations. ...

  11. Workplace Charging Challenge Partner: Pacific Gas & Electric...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    PG&E has installed 511 charging stations at its facilities, with 287 Level 1 and 224 Level 2 stations. Future plans include approximately 200 stations installed per year over the ...

  12. Neutral gas temperature maps of the pin-to-plate argon micro discharge into the ambient air

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Xu, S. F.; Zhong, X. X.; Majeed, Asif

    2015-03-15

    This study is designed to explore the two dimensional temperature maps of the atmospheric argon discharge consisting of pin-to-plane electrodes supplied by a high voltage DC source. After checking the stability of the micro discharge, the two dimensional image plane focused by a quartz lens was scanned by the fiber probe driven by a 3D Mobile Platform. The rotational and vibrational temperatures are calculated using nitrogen emissions collected by the high resolution spectrometer and high sensitive intensified charge coupled device. The rotational temperature varies from 1558.15 K to 2621.14 K and vibrational temperature varies from 3010.38 K to 3774.69 K, indicating a great temperature gradient due to small discharge size. The temperature maps show a lateral expansion and a sharp truncation in the radial direction. A double layers discharge is identified, where an arc discharge coats the glow discharge.

  13. Evolution of Some Particle Detectors Based On the Discharge in Gases

    DOE R&D Accomplishments [OSTI]

    Charpak, G.

    1969-11-19

    Summary of the properties of some of the detectors that are commonly used in counter experiments to localize charged particles, and which are based on discharge in gases under the influence of electric fields and some basic facts of gaseous amplification in homogeneous and inhomogeneous fields.

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    ... Interactive map available at electricvehicles.energy.gov. lynda.com's PEV charging stations are part of the company's larger commuting program designed to alleviate the impact from ...

  15. Automakers and Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Challenge Initiative Arguably the most important infrastructure strategy to accelerate adoption of PEVs. Why are we doing Workplace Charging? * PEV Market Growth - Critical now...

  16. System Benefits Charge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    New Hampshire's 1996 electric-industry restructuring legislation authorized the creation of a system benefits charge (SBC) to support energy efficiency programs and energy assistance programs for...

  17. Instability of plasma plume of micro-hollow cathode discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Levko, D.; Bliokh, Y. P.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-11-15

    The micro-hollow cathode gas discharge driven by thermionic emission is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions simulation. The electron current is extracted from the plasma plume penetrating into the keeper–anode space through a small keeper orifice from the cathode-keeper space. The results of simulations and a simplified analytical model showed that the plasma density and extracted current can exhibit deep modulation in the range of frequencies of tens of MHz. This modulation appears when the space-charge limited current between the plume boundary and the anode exceeds the plasma thermal electron current through the orifice.

  18. Workplace Charging Challenge: Promote Charging at Work | Department of

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Energy Promote Charging at Work Workplace Charging Challenge: Promote Charging at Work Workplace Charging Challenge: Promote Charging at Work Employees with access to workplace charging are six times more likely to drive a plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) than the average worker. Promoting PEV charging at workplaces is one great way that states, cities and other organizations can encourage PEV adoption in their communities. Use the material below to engage and educate employers about the

  19. Solid state cloaking for electrical charge carrier mobility control

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zebarjadi, Mona; Liao, Bolin; Esfarjani, Keivan; Chen, Gang

    2015-07-07

    An electrical mobility-controlled material includes a solid state host material having a controllable Fermi energy level and electrical charge carriers with a charge carrier mobility. At least one Fermi level energy at which a peak in charge carrier mobility is to occur is prespecified for the host material. A plurality of particles are distributed in the host material, with at least one particle disposed with an effective mass and a radius that minimize scattering of the electrical charge carriers for the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy of peak charge carrier mobility. The minimized scattering of electrical charge carriers produces the peak charge carrier mobility only at the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy, set by the particle effective mass and radius, the charge carrier mobility being less than the peak charge carrier mobility at Fermi level energies other than the at least one prespecified Fermi level energy.

  20. Interaction between pulsed discharge and radio frequency discharge burst at atmospheric pressure

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Zhang, Jie; Guo, Ying; Shi, Yuncheng; Zhang, Jing; Shi, J. J.

    2015-08-15

    The atmospheric pressure glow discharges (APGD) with dual excitations in terms of pulsed voltage and pulse-modulation radio frequency (rf) power are studied experimentally between two parallel plates electrodes. Pulse-modulation applied in rf APGD temporally separates the discharge into repetitive discharge bursts, between which the high voltage pulses are introduced to ignite sub-microsecond pulsed discharge. The discharge characteristics and spatio-temporal evolution are investigated by means of current voltage characteristics and time resolved imaging, which suggests that the introduced pulsed discharge assists the ignition of rf discharge burst and reduces the maintain voltage of rf discharge burst. Furtherly, the time instant of pulsed discharge between rf discharge bursts is manipulated to study the ignition dynamics of rf discharge burst.

  1. BERNAS ION SOURCE DISCHARGE SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    RUDSKOY,I.; KULEVOY, T.V.; PETRENKO, S.V.; KUIBEDA, R.P.; SELEZNEV, D.N.; PERSHIN, V.I.; HERSHCOVITCH, A.; JOHNSON, B.M.; GUSHENETS, V.I.; OKS, E.M.; POOLE, H.J.

    2007-08-26

    The joint research and development program is continued to develop steady-state ion source of decaborane beam for ion implantation industry. Bemas ion source is the wide used ion source for ion implantation industry. The new simulation code was developed for the Bemas ion source discharge simulation. We present first results of the simulation for several materials interested in semiconductors. As well the comparison of results obtained with experimental data obtained at the ITEP ion source test-bench is presented.

  2. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, Gordon E.

    1998-01-01

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging.

  3. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, D.K.; Haverty, T.W.; Nordin, C.W.; Tyree, W.H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite. 1 fig.

  4. Electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Balmer, David K.; Haverty, Thomas W.; Nordin, Carl W.; Tyree, William H.

    1996-08-20

    An electronically shielded solid state charged particle detector system having enhanced radio frequency interference immunity includes a detector housing with a detector entrance opening for receiving the charged particles. A charged particle detector having an active surface is disposed within the housing. The active surface faces toward the detector entrance opening for providing electrical signals representative of the received charged particles when the received charged particles are applied to the active surface. A conductive layer is disposed upon the active surface. In a preferred embodiment, a nonconductive layer is disposed between the conductive layer and the active surface. The conductive layer is electrically coupled to the detector housing to provide a substantially continuous conductive electrical shield surrounding the active surface. The inner surface of the detector housing is supplemented with a radio frequency absorbing material such as ferrite.

  5. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, Steven; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Bien, Fritz

    1988-01-01

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas.

  6. Spark discharge trace element detection system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Adler-Golden, S.; Bernstein, L.S.; Bien, F.

    1988-08-23

    A spark discharge trace element detection system is provided which includes a spark chamber including a pair of electrodes for receiving a sample of gas to be analyzed at no greater than atmospheric pressure. A voltage is provided across the electrodes for generating a spark in the sample. The intensity of the emitted radiation in at least one primary selected narrow band of the radiation is detected. Each primary band corresponds to an element to be detected in the gas. The intensity of the emission in each detected primary band is integrated during the afterglow time interval of the spark emission and a signal representative of the integrated intensity of the emission in each selected primary bond is utilized to determine the concentration of the corresponding element in the gas. 12 figs.

  7. Charge Prediction of Lipid Fragments in Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Schrom, Brian T.; Kangas, Lars J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Metz, Thomas O.; Miller, John H.

    2011-12-18

    An artificial neural network is developed for predicting which fragment is charged and which fragment is neutral for lipid fragment pairs produced from a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry simulation process. This charge predictor is integrated into software developed at PNNL for in silico spectra generation and identification of metabolites known as Met ISIS. To test the effect of including charge prediction in Met ISIS, 46 lipids are used which show a reduction in false positive identifications when the charge predictor is utilized.

  8. Technology available for license: Charging of liquid energy storage media

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    through radiolysis (ANL-IN-14-036) | Argonne National Laboratory Technology available for license: Charging of liquid energy storage media through radiolysis (ANL-IN-14-036) January 23, 2015 Tweet EmailPrint This technology utilizes radiolysis to charge liquid energy storage media including nanoelectrofuels. Charged liquid can be used in flow batteries for transportation and stationary energy-storage applications. Radiolysis charging can be conducted on aqueous and non-aqueous battery

  9. Implications of current constraints on parton charge symmetry

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    J. T. Londergan; A. W. Thomas

    2005-11-01

    For the first time, charge symmetry breaking terms in parton distribution functions have been included in a global fit to high energy data. We review the results obtained for both valence and sea quark charge symmetry violation and compare these results with the most stringent experimental upper limits on charge symmetry violation for parton distribution functions, as well as with theoretical estimates of charge symmetry violation. The limits allowed in the global fit would tolerate a rather large violation of charge symmetry. We discuss the implications of this for various observables, including extraction of the Weinberg angle in neutrino DIS and the Gottfried and Adler sum rules.

  10. Electrical and chemical properties of XeCl*(308 nm) exciplex lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Baadj, S.; Harrache, Z. Belasri, A.

    2013-12-15

    The aim of this work is to highlight, through numerical modeling, the chemical and the electrical characteristics of xenon chloride mixture in XeCl* (308 nm) excimer lamp created by a dielectric barrier discharge. A temporal model, based on the Xe/Cl{sub 2} mixture chemistry, the circuit and the Boltzmann equations, is constructed. The effects of operating voltage, Cl{sub 2} percentage in the Xe/Cl{sub 2} gas mixture, dielectric capacitance, as well as gas pressure on the 308-nm photon generation, under typical experimental operating conditions, have been investigated and discussed. The importance of charged and excited species, including the major electronic and ionic processes, is also demonstrated. The present calculations show clearly that the model predicts the optimal operating conditions and describes the electrical and chemical properties of the XeCl* exciplex lamp.

  11. State waste discharge permit application for cooling water and condensate discharges

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Haggard, R.D.

    1996-08-12

    The following presents the Categorical State Waste Discharge Permit (SWDP) Application for the Cooling Water and Condensate Discharges on the Hanford Site. This application is intended to cover existing cooling water and condensate discharges as well as similar future discharges meeting the criteria set forth in this document.

  12. Relativistic structure, stability, and gravitational collapse of charged neutron stars

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Ghezzi, Cristian R.

    2005-11-15

    Charged stars have the potential of becoming charged black holes or even naked singularities. We present a set of numerical solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkov equations that represents spherical charged compact stars in hydrostatic equilibrium. The stellar models obtained are evolved forward in time integrating the Einstein-Maxwell field equations. We assume an equation of state of a neutron gas at zero temperature. The charge distribution is taken as being proportional to the rest mass density distribution. The set of solutions present an unstable branch, even with charge-to-mass ratios arbitrarily close to the extremum case. We perform a direct check of the stability of the solutions under strong perturbations and for different values of the charge-to-mass ratio. The stars that are in the stable branch oscillate and do not collapse, while models in the unstable branch collapse directly to form black holes. Stars with a charge greater than or equal to the extreme value explode. When a charged star is suddenly discharged, it does not necessarily collapse to form a black hole. A nonlinear effect that gives rise to the formation of a shell of matter (in supermassive stars), is negligible in the present simulations. The results are in agreement with the third law of black hole thermodynamics and with the cosmic censorship conjecture.

  13. Thirteen Major Companies Join Energy Department's Workplace Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Charging Pledge as Partners, including: 3M, Chrysler Group, Duke Energy, Eli Lilly and Company, Ford, GE, GM, Google, Nissan, San Diego Gas & Electric, Siemens, Tesla, and Verizon. ...

  14. Workplace Charging Challenge: Install and Manage PEV Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    ...vworkplacecharginghosts150x194.jpg To determine if workplace charging is right for your organization, use the employer resources to learn more about PEVs and charging stations. ...

  15. Evaluating Electric Vehicle Charging Impacts and Customer Charging...

    Office of Environmental Management (EM)

    Under OE's Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program, six utilities evaluated operations and customer charging behaviors for in-home and public electric vehicle charging stations. ...

  16. Multifunctional bulk plasma source based on discharge with electron injection

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Klimov, A. S.; Medovnik, A. V.; Tyunkov, A. V.; Savkin, K. P.; Shandrikov, M. V.; Vizir, A. V.

    2013-01-15

    A bulk plasma source, based on a high-current dc glow discharge with electron injection, is described. Electron injection and some special design features of the plasma arc emitter provide a plasma source with very long periods between maintenance down-times and a long overall lifetime. The source uses a sectioned sputter-electrode array with six individual sputter targets, each of which can be independently biased. This discharge assembly configuration provides multifunctional operation, including plasma generation from different gases (argon, nitrogen, oxygen, acetylene) and deposition of composite metal nitride and oxide coatings.

  17. Automakers and Workplace Charging

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Maryland 8 Connecticut 2 Kentucky 12 Georgia 2 New York 51 Ohio 44 Michigan 299 Indiana 8 Illinois 4 Kansas 2 Arizona 2 Texas 3 California 32 473 GM WORKPLACE CHARGING STATIONS ...

  18. Trends in Workplace Charging

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    *Based on Energy Charges Only using an average annual electricity consumption for a U.S. residential utility customer of 11,496 kWh (EIA http:www.eia.gov). (WASHINGTON, ...

  19. Trends in Workplace Charging

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Donofrio Ford Motor Company Trends in Workplace Charging Est EV NA NA approx 21 70-100 Miles: What Types of Chargers are Being Used? Considerations for Campus Installations *...

  20. Societal Benefits Charge

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    During 2011 and 2012 several minor changes were made to the originally enacted SBC law. In 2011 a section was added prohibiting gas utilities from imposing an SBC charge (or several other types o...

  1. Laser activated diffuse discharge switch

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1988-01-01

    The invention is a gas mixture for a diffuse discharge switch which is capable of changing from a conducting state to an insulating state in the presence of electrons upon the introduction of laser light. The mixture is composed of a buffer gas such as nitrogen or argon and an electron attaching gas such as C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SH, C.sub.6 H.sub.5 SCH.sub.3, CH.sub.3 CHO and CF.sub.3 CHO wherein the electron attachment is brought on by indirect excitation of molecules to long-lived states by exposure to laser light.

  2. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-04-14

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition are disclosed. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 14 figs.

  3. Cold cathode vacuum discharge tube

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Boettcher, G.E.

    1998-03-10

    A cold cathode vacuum discharge tube, and method for making same, are disclosed with an interior surface of the trigger probe coated with carbon deposited by carbon vapor deposition (CVD) or diamond-like carbon (DLC) deposition. Preferably a solid graphite insert is employed in the probe-cathode structure in place of an aluminum bushing employed in the prior art. The CVD or DLC probe face is laser scribed to allow resistance trimming to match available trigger voltage signals and to reduce electrical aging. 15 figs.

  4. Multiple discharge cylindrical pump collector

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Dunn, Charlton; Bremner, Robert J.; Meng, Sen Y.

    1989-01-01

    A space-saving discharge collector 40 for the rotary pump 28 of a pool-type nuclear reactor 10. An annular collector 50 is located radially outboard for an impeller 44. The annular collector 50 as a closed outer periphery 52 for collecting the fluid from the impeller 44 and producing a uniform circumferential flow of the fluid. Turning means comprising a plurality of individual passageways 54 are located in an axial position relative to the annular collector 50 for receiving the fluid from the annular collector 50 and turning it into a substantially axial direction.

  5. Electrically charged targets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Goodman, Ronald K.; Hunt, Angus L.

    1984-01-01

    Electrically chargeable laser targets and method for forming such charged targets in order to improve their guidance along a predetermined desired trajectory. This is accomplished by the incorporation of a small amount of an additive to the target material which will increase the electrical conductivity thereof, and thereby enhance the charge placed upon the target material for guidance thereof by electrostatic or magnetic steering mechanisms, without adversely affecting the target when illuminated by laser energy.

  6. Effect of packing material on methane activation in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Hoon Lee, Dae; Seok Kang, Woo; Song, Young-Hoon

    2013-12-15

    The conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sphere), ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sphere), and ?-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1620 mesh). Investigations on the surface properties and shape of the three packing materials clearly indicate that methane activation is considerably affected by the material used. Capacitances inside the discharge gap are estimated from chargevoltage plots, and a comparison of the generated and transferred charges for different packing conditions show that the difference in surface properties between ?- and ?-phase Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} affects the discharge characteristics. Moreover, all packing conditions show different charge characteristics that are related to the electron density. Finally, the packing material's shape affects the local electron temperature, which is strongly related to methane conversion. The combined results indicate that both microscale and macroscale variations in a packing material affect the discharge characteristics, and a packing material should be considered carefully for effective methane activation.

  7. Role of negatively charged ions in plasma on the growth and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube tip

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Tewari, Aarti; Walia, Ritu; Sharma, Suresh C.

    2012-01-15

    The role of negatively charged ions in plasma on growth (without catalyst) and field emission properties of spherical carbon nanotube (CNT) tip has been theoretically investigated. A theoretical model of charge neutrality, including the kinetics of electrons, negatively and positively charged ions, neutral atoms, and the energy balance of various species has been developed. Numerical calculations of the spherical CNT tip radius for different relative density of negatively charged ions {epsilon}{sub r}(=n{sub SF{sub 6{sup -}}}/n{sub C{sup +}}, where n{sub SF{sub 6{sup -}}} and n{sub C}{sup +} are the equilibrium densities of sulphur hexafluoride and carbon ions, respectively) have been carried out for the typical glow discharge plasma parameters. It is found that the spherical CNT tip radius decreases with {epsilon}{sub r} and hence the field emission of electrons from the spherical CNT tip increases. Some of our theoretical results are in accordance with the existing experimental observations.

  8. Quantitative characterization of arc discharge as vacuum interface

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Huang, S.; Zhu, K.; Lu, Y. R.; Wang, S. Z.; Hershcovitch, A.; Yang, L.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2014-12-19

    An arc discharge with channel diameters of 3 mm and 6 mm and lengths between 30mm and 60mm was experimentally investigated for its potential to function as plasma window, i.e., interface vacuum regions of different pressures. In this study, electron temperature of the plasma channel measured spectroscopically varied in the range of 7000K to 15000K, increasing with discharge current while decreasing with gas flow rate. The plasma window had a slightly positive I-V characteristics over the whole range of investigated current 30A–70 A. Measurements of pressure separation capability, which were determined by input current, gas flow rate, discharge channel diameter, and length, were well explained by viscosity effect and “thermal-block” effect. The experimental results of global parameters including temperature, gas flow rate, and voltage had a good agreement with the simulation results calculated by an axis-symmetry Fluent-based magneto-hydrodynamic model.

  9. MHK technology developments include current

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    technology developments include current energy conversion (CEC) devices, for example, hydrokinetic turbines that extract power from water currents (riverine, tidal, and ocean) and wave energy conversion (WEC) devices that extract power from wave motion. Sandia's MHK research leverages decades of experience in engineering, design, and analysis of wind power technologies, and its vast research complex, including high- performance computing (HPC), advanced materials and coatings, nondestructive

  10. Nissan EV Workplace Charging Program

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Nissan EV Workplace Charging Program Workplace Charging Value Creation Value Proposition Nissan Support For Employer For Employee For Employee * Unique employee benefit * ...

  11. Demand Charges | Open Energy Information

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Demand Charges Jump to: navigation, search Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleDemandCharges&oldid488967" Feedback Contact needs updating Image needs...

  12. Atmospheric discharges from nuclear facilities during decommissioning: German experiences

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Braun, H.; Goertz, R.; Weil, L.

    1997-08-01

    In Germany, a substantial amount of experience is available with planning, licensing and realization of decommissioning projects. In total, a number of 18 nuclear power plants including prototype facilities as well as 6 research reactors and 3 fuel cycle facilities have been shut down finally and are at different stages of decommissioning. Only recently the final {open_quotes}green field{close_quotes} stage of the Niederaichbach Nuclear Power Plant total dismantlement project has been achieved. From the regulatory point of view, a survey of the decommissioning experience in Germany is presented highlighting the aspects of production and retention of airborne radioactivity. Nuclear air cleaning technology, discharge limits prescribed in licences and actual discharges are presented. As compared to operation, the composition of the discharged radioactivity is different as well as the off-gas discharge rate. In practically all cases, there is no significant amount of short-lived radionuclides. The discussion further includes lessons learned, for example inadvertent discharges of radionuclides expected not to be in the plants inventory. It is demonstrated that, as for operation of nuclear power plants, the limits prescribed in the Ordinance on Radiological Protection can be met using existing air cleaning technology, Optimization of protection results in public exposures substantially below the limits. In the frame of the regulatory investigation programme a study has been conducted to assess the airborne radioactivity created during certain decommissioning activities like decontamination, segmentation and handling of contaminated or activated parts. The essential results of this study are presented, which are supposed to support planning for decommissioning, for LWRs, Co-60 and Cs-137 are expected to be the dominant radionuclides in airborne discharges. 18 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Extreme-UV electrical discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Fornaciari, Neal R.; Nygren, Richard E.; Ulrickson, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    An extreme ultraviolet and soft x-ray radiation electric capillary discharge source that includes a boron nitride housing defining a capillary bore that is positioned between two electrodes one of which is connected to a source of electric potential can generate a high EUV and soft x-ray radiation flux from the capillary bore outlet with minimal debris. The electrode that is positioned adjacent the capillary bore outlet is typically grounded. Pyrolytic boron nitride, highly oriented pyrolytic boron nitride, and cubic boron nitride are particularly suited. The boron nitride capillary bore can be configured as an insert that is encased in an exterior housing that is constructed of a thermally conductive material. Positioning the ground electrode sufficiently close to the capillary bore outlet also reduces bore erosion.

  14. Detection method for dissociation of multiple-charged ions

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Smith, Richard D.; Udseth, Harold R.; Rockwood, Alan L.

    1991-01-01

    Dissociations of multiple-charged ions are detected and analyzed by charge-separation tandem mass spectrometry. Analyte molecules are ionized to form multiple-charged parent ions. A particular charge parent ion state is selected in a first-stage mass spectrometer and its mass-to-charge ratio (M/Z) is detected to determine its mass and charge. The selected parent ions are then dissociated, each into a plurality of fragments including a set of daughter ions each having a mass of at least one molecular weight and a charge of at least one. Sets of daughter ions resulting from the dissociation of one parent ion (sibling ions) vary in number but typically include two to four ions, one or more multiply-charged. A second stage mass spectrometer detects mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) of the daughter ions and a temporal or temporo-spatial relationship among them. This relationship is used to correlate the daughter ions to determine which (m/z) ratios belong to a set of sibling ions. Values of mass and charge of each of the sibling ions are determined simultaneously from their respective (m/z) ratios such that the sibling ion charges are integers and sum to the parent ion charge.

  15. Method of fabricating n-type and p-type microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material including band gap widening elements

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Guha, Subhendu; Ovshinsky, Stanford R.

    1990-02-02

    A method of fabricating doped microcrystalline semiconductor alloy material which includes a band gap widening element through a glow discharge deposition process by subjecting a precursor mixture which includes a diluent gas to an a.c. glow discharge in the absence of a magnetic field of sufficient strength to induce electron cyclotron resonance.

  16. Pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary combustion engine and fuel injector therefor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Loyd, R. W.

    1980-02-12

    For a pilot fuel ignited stratified charge rotary, internal combustion engine, the fuel injection system and a fuel injector therefor comprises a fuel injector having plural discharge ports with at least one of the discharge ports located to emit a ''pilot'' fuel charge (relatively rich fuel-air mixture) into a passage in the engine housing, which passage communicates with the engine combustion chambers. An ignition element is located in the passage to ignite the ''pilot'' fuel (a relatively rich fuel-air mixture) flowing through the passage. At least one other discharge port of the fuel injector is in substantially direct communication with the combustion chambers of the engine to emit a main fuel charge into the latter. The ignited ''pilot'' fuelair mixture, when ignited, flashes into the combustion chambers to ignite the main, relatively lean, fuel-air mixture which is in the combustion chambers.

  17. Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014

    Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

    Locations with Charging Workplace Charging Challenge 6 Installing & Planned Charging Stations Almost Doubled in the Last 2 Years Workplace Charging Challenge 7 Partner plans ...

  18. Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Progress...

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014 - Employers Take Charge Vehicle Technologies Office: Workplace Charging Challenge Progress Update 2014 - Employers Take Charge In ...

  19. EV Everywhere: Workplace Charging | Department of Energy

    Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

    Vehicle Charging EV Everywhere: Workplace Charging EV Everywhere: Workplace Charging Most plug-in electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles primarily at home, but ...

  20. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lal, Amit; Li, Hui; Blanchard, James P.; Henderson, Douglass L.

    2002-01-01

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  1. Robust statistical reconstruction for charged particle tomography

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Schultz, Larry Joe; Klimenko, Alexei Vasilievich; Fraser, Andrew Mcleod; Morris, Christopher; Orum, John Christopher; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Sossong, Michael James; Hengartner, Nicolas W

    2013-10-08

    Systems and methods for charged particle detection including statistical reconstruction of object volume scattering density profiles from charged particle tomographic data to determine the probability distribution of charged particle scattering using a statistical multiple scattering model and determine a substantially maximum likelihood estimate of object volume scattering density using expectation maximization (ML/EM) algorithm to reconstruct the object volume scattering density. The presence of and/or type of object occupying the volume of interest can be identified from the reconstructed volume scattering density profile. The charged particle tomographic data can be cosmic ray muon tomographic data from a muon tracker for scanning packages, containers, vehicles or cargo. The method can be implemented using a computer program which is executable on a computer.

  2. High temperature charge amplifier for geothermal applications

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Henfling, Joseph A.

    2015-12-08

    An amplifier circuit in a multi-chip module includes a charge to voltage converter circuit, a voltage amplifier a low pass filter and a voltage to current converter. The charge to voltage converter receives a signal representing an electrical charge and generates a voltage signal proportional to the input signal. The voltage amplifier receives the voltage signal from the charge to voltage converter, then amplifies the voltage signal by the gain factor to output an amplified voltage signal. The lowpass filter passes low frequency components of the amplified voltage signal and attenuates frequency components greater than a cutoff frequency. The voltage to current converter receives the output signal of the lowpass filter and converts the output signal to a current output signal; wherein an amplifier circuit output is selectable between the output signal of the lowpass filter and the current output signal.

  3. DISCHARGE VALVE FOR GRANULAR MATERIAL

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Stoughton, L.D.; Robinson, S.T.

    1962-05-15

    A gravity-red dispenser or valve is designed for discharging the fueled spherical elements used in a pebble bed reactor. The dispenser consists of an axially movable tube terminating under a hood having side walls with openings. When the tube is moved so that its top edge is above the tops of the side openings the elements will not flow. As the tube is moved downwardly, the elements flow into the hood through the side openings and over the top edge into the tube at an increasing rate as the tube is lowered further. The tube is spaced at all times from the hood and side walls a distance greater than the diameter of the largest element to prevent damaging of the elements when the dispenser is closed to flow. (AEC)

  4. Particle modelling of magnetically confined oxygen plasma in low pressure radio frequency discharge

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Benyoucef, Djilali; Yousfi, Mohammed

    2015-01-15

    The main objective of this paper is the modelling and simulation of a radio frequency (RF) discharge in oxygen at low pressure and at room temperature, including the effect of crossed electric and magnetic fields for generation and confinement of oxygen plasma. The particle model takes into account one axial dimension along the electric field axis and three velocity components during the Monte Carlo treatment of the collisions between charged particles and background gas. The simulation by this developed code allows us not only to determine the electrodynamics characteristics of the RF discharge, but also to obtain kinetics and energetic description of reactive oxygen plasma at low pressure. These information are very important for the control of the deep reactive-ion etching technology of the silicon to manufacture capacitors with high density and for the deposition thick insulating films or thick metal to manufacture micro-coils. The simulation conditions are as follows: RF peak voltage of 200 V, frequency of 13.56 MHz, crossed magnetic field varying from 0 to 50 Gauss, and oxygen pressure of 13.8 Pa. In the presence of magnetic field, the results show an increase of the plasma density, a decrease of the electron mean energy, and also a reduction of the ratio between electron density and positive ion density. Finally in order to validate, the results are successfully compared with measurements already carried out in the literature. The conditions of comparison are from 100 to 300 V of the peak voltage at 13.56 MHz under a pressure of 13.8 Pa and a gap distance of 2.5 cm.

  5. Use of microalgae to remove pollutants from power plant discharges

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Wilde, E.W.; Benemann, J.R.; Weissman, J.C.; Tillett, D.M.

    1991-04-30

    A method and system are described for removing pollutants dissolved in the aqueous discharge of a plant, such as a power plant, from a body of water having known hydraulic and physicochemical characteristics, the method comprising (a) modifying the hydraulic system of the body of water including use of physical barriers to define a zone in a portion of the body of water which zone includes the discharge point and where the water has a range of physicochemical characteristics; (b) selecting a large and preferably filamentous, planktonically growing strain of algae adapted to absorb the particular pollutants and genetically dominating algae at the physicochemical characteristics of the zone; (c) establishing a colony of the selected algal strain in the zone; (d) harvesting a portion of the colony; and (e) reinoculating the zone near the discharge point with a fraction of the harvested portion. The fraction used for reinoculation can be adjusted to balance the rate of pollutant removal to the rate of pollutant discharge. 4 figures.

  6. CDPHE Industrial Individual Wastewater Discharge Permit Application...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    ApplicationLegal Abstract Application provided by the Colorado Department of Public Health and Environment (CDPHE) for use by all individual industrial process water dischargers...

  7. Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Gutsol, Alexander F.; Fridman, Alexander; Blank, Kenneth; Korobtsev, Sergey; Shiryaevsky, Valery; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2012-05-08

    The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

  8. California Waste Discharge Requirements Website | Open Energy...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Requirements Website Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: California Waste Discharge Requirements Website Abstract This website contains...

  9. Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Webpage...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    System (MPDES) Webpage Jump to: navigation, search OpenEI Reference LibraryAdd to library Web Site: Montana Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (MPDES) Webpage Abstract Provides...

  10. Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP)

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    SDPPP Individual Permit: Site Discharge Pollution Prevention Plan (SDPPP) The 2014 SDPPP update fully incorporates all changes made during the year and reflects changes projected...

  11. Texas Railroad Commission - Pollution Discharge Regulations ...

    Open Energy Info (EERE)

    Not Provided DOI Not Provided Check for DOI availability: http:crossref.org Online Internet link for Texas Railroad Commission - Pollution Discharge Regulations Citation...

  12. Dynamics of ion beam charge neutralization by ferroelectric plasma sources

    DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.

    2016-04-27

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams, as has been demonstrated on the Neutralized Drift Compression Experiment NDCX-I and NDCX-II. This article presents experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a plasma produced in a FEPS discharge. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable with sufficiently dense FEPS plasma. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15V before neutralization to 0.3 V,more » implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Measurements of the time-evolution of beam radius show that near-complete charge neutralization is established similar to –5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub-mu s surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS show the existence of electron emission into vacuum, which lasts for tens of mu s after the high voltage pulse is applied. Lastly, it is argued that the beam is neutralized by the plasma produced by this process and not by a surface discharge plasma that is produced at the instant the high-voltage pulse is applied.« less

  13. Emissions-critical charge cooling using an organic rankine cycle

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ernst, Timothy C.; Nelson, Christopher R.

    2014-07-15

    The disclosure provides a system including a Rankine power cycle cooling subsystem providing emissions-critical charge cooling of an input charge flow. The system includes a boiler fluidly coupled to the input charge flow, an energy conversion device fluidly coupled to the boiler, a condenser fluidly coupled to the energy conversion device, a pump fluidly coupled to the condenser and the boiler, an adjuster that adjusts at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle subsystem to change a temperature of the input charge exiting the boiler, and a sensor adapted to sense a temperature characteristic of the vaporized input charge. The system includes a controller that can determine a target temperature of the input charge sufficient to meet or exceed predetermined target emissions and cause the adjuster to adjust at least one parameter of the Rankine power cycle to achieve the predetermined target emissions.

  14. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, E.R.; Alger, T.W.

    1995-03-07

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube. 5 figs.

  15. Metal vapor laser including hot electrodes and integral wick

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ault, Earl R.; Alger, Terry W.

    1995-01-01

    A metal vapor laser, specifically one utilizing copper vapor, is disclosed herein. This laser utilizes a plasma tube assembly including a thermally insulated plasma tube containing a specific metal, e.g., copper, and a buffer gas therein. The laser also utilizes means including hot electrodes located at opposite ends of the plasma tube for electrically exciting the metal vapor and heating its interior to a sufficiently high temperature to cause the metal contained therein to vaporize and for subjecting the vapor to an electrical discharge excitation in order to lase. The laser also utilizes external wicking arrangements, that is, wicking arrangements located outside the plasma tube.

  16. ION PRODUCING MECHANISM (CHARGE CUPS)

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Brobeck, W.W.

    1959-04-21

    The problems of confining a charge material in a calutron and uniformly distributing heat to the charge is described. The charge is held in a cup of thermally conductive material removably disposed within the charge chamber of the ion source block. A central thermally conducting stem is incorporated within the cup for conducting heat to the central portion of the charge contained within the cup.

  17. Plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Cho, Young I.; Fridman, Alexander; Gutsol, Alexander F.; Yang, Yong

    2014-07-22

    The present invention is directed to a novel method for cleaning a filter surface using a plasma discharge self-cleaning filtration system. The method involves utilizing plasma discharges to induce short electric pulses of nanoseconds duration at high voltages. These electrical pulses generate strong Shockwaves that disintegrate and dislodge particulate matter located on the surface of the filter.

  18. Three-electrode low pressure discharge apparatus and method for uniform ionization of gaseous media. [CO/sub 2/ laser oscillator and pulse smoother

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    McLellan, E.J.

    1980-10-17

    Uniform, transverse electrical discharges are produced in gaseous media without the necessity of switching the main discharge voltage with an external device which carries the entire discharge current. A three-electrode low pressure discharge tube is charged across its anode and cathode to below breakdown voltage using a dc voltage source. An array of resistors or capacitors can be made to discharge to the wire screen anode by means of a low energy high voltage pulse circuit producing sufficient preionization in the region between the anode and cathode to initiate and control the main discharge. The invention has been demonstrated to be useful as a CO/sub 2/ laser oscillator and pulse-smoother. It can be reliably operated in the sealed-off mode.

  19. Methane activation using noble gases in a dielectric barrier discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Jo, Sungkwon; Hoon Lee, Dae; Seok Kang, Woo; Song, Young-Hoon

    2013-08-15

    The conversion of methane is measured in a planar-type dielectric barrier discharge reactor using three different noble gasesHe, Ne, and Aras additives. The empirical results obtained clearly indicate that methane activation is considerably affected by thy type of noble gas used. Through 0-D calculations, the discharge parameters inside the reactor, i.e., electron temperature and electron density, are estimated using experiment results. A comparison of the discharge characteristics and experimental results shows that the electron temperature is an important factor in achieving high methane activation and the mixture with Ar gas shows the highest methane conversion. These results are constructed using the mechanisms of energy and charge transfer from excited and ionized noble gas atoms to methane molecules, considering the number density of active atoms of noble gases. Finally, electron temperatures obtained for gas mixtures having different reactant compositions and concentrations are analyzed to estimate methane activation.

  20. High-speed micro-electro-discharge machining.

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Chandrasekar, Srinivasan Dr. (.School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Moylan, Shawn P. (School of Industrial Engineering, West Lafayette, IN); Benavides, Gilbert Lawrence

    2005-09-01

    When two electrodes are in close proximity in a dielectric liquid, application of a voltage pulse can produce a spark discharge between them, resulting in a small amount of material removal from both electrodes. Pulsed application of the voltage at discharge energies in the range of micro-Joules results in the continuous material removal process known as micro-electro-discharge machining (micro-EDM). Spark erosion by micro-EDM provides significant opportunities for producing small features and micro-components such as nozzle holes, slots, shafts and gears in virtually any conductive material. If the speed and precision of micro-EDM processes can be significantly enhanced, then they have the potential to be used for a wide variety of micro-machining applications including fabrication of microelectromechanical system (MEMS) components. Toward this end, a better understanding of the impacts the various machining parameters have on material removal has been established through a single discharge study of micro-EDM and a parametric study of small hole making by micro-EDM. The main avenues for improving the speed and efficiency of the micro-EDM process are in the areas of more controlled pulse generation in the power supply and more controlled positioning of the tool electrode during the machining process. Further investigation of the micro-EDM process in three dimensions leads to important design rules, specifically the smallest feature size attainable by the process.

  1. Fluid jet electric discharge source

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Bender, Howard A.

    2006-04-25

    A fluid jet or filament source and a pair of coaxial high voltage electrodes, in combination, comprise an electrical discharge system to produce radiation and, in particular, EUV radiation. The fluid jet source is composed of at least two serially connected reservoirs, a first reservoir into which a fluid, that can be either a liquid or a gas, can be fed at some pressure higher than atmospheric and a second reservoir maintained at a lower pressure than the first. The fluid is allowed to expand through an aperture into a high vacuum region between a pair of coaxial electrodes. This second expansion produces a narrow well-directed fluid jet whose size is dependent on the size and configuration of the apertures and the pressure used in the reservoir. At some time during the flow of the fluid filament, a high voltage pulse is applied to the electrodes to excite the fluid to form a plasma which provides the desired radiation; the wavelength of the radiation being determined by the composition of the fluid.

  2. Low energy charged particles interacting with amorphous solid water layers

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Horowitz, Yonatan; Asscher, Micha

    2012-04-07

    The interaction of charged particles with condensed water films has been studied extensively in recent years due to its importance in biological systems, ecology as well as interstellar processes. We have studied low energy electrons (3-25 eV) and positive argon ions (55 eV) charging effects on amorphous solid water (ASW) and ice films, 120-1080 ML thick, deposited on ruthenium single crystal under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Charging the ASW films by both electrons and positive argon ions has been measured using a Kelvin probe for contact potential difference (CPD) detection and found to obey plate capacitor physics. The incoming electrons kinetic energy has defined the maximum measurable CPD values by retarding further impinging electrons. L-defects (shallow traps) are suggested to be populated by the penetrating electrons and stabilize them. Low energy electron transmission measurements (currents of 0.4-1.5 {mu}A) have shown that the maximal and stable CPD values were obtained only after a relatively slow change has been completed within the ASW structure. Once the film has been stabilized, the spontaneous discharge was measured over a period of several hours at 103 {+-} 2 K. Finally, UV laser photo-emission study of the charged films has suggested that the negative charges tend to reside primarily at the ASW-vacuum interface, in good agreement with the known behavior of charged water clusters.

  3. Gated charged-particle trap

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Benner, W. Henry

    1999-01-01

    The design and operation of a new type of charged-particle trap provides simultaneous measurements of mass, charge, and velocity of large electrospray ions. The trap consists of a detector tube mounted between two sets of center-bored trapping plates. Voltages applied to the trapping plates define symmetrically-opposing potential valleys which guide axially-injected ions to cycle back and forth through the charge-detection tube. A low noise charge-sensitive amplifier, connected to the tube, reproduces the image charge of individual ions as they pass through the detector tube. Ion mass is calculated from measurement of ion charge and velocity following each passage through the detector.

  4. Low frequency azimuthal stability of the ionization region of the Hall thruster discharge. I. Local analysis

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Escobar, D.; Ahedo, E.

    2014-04-15

    Results based on a local linear stability analysis of the Hall thruster discharge are presented. A one-dimensional azimuthal framework is used including three species: neutrals, singly charged ions, and electrons. A simplified linear model is developed with the aim of deriving analytical expressions to characterize the stability of the ionization region. The results from the local analysis presented here indicate the existence of an instability that gives rise to an azimuthal oscillation in the +E??B direction with a long wavelength. According to the model, the instability seems to appear only in regions where the ionization and the electric field make it possible to have positive gradients of plasma density and ion velocity at the same time. A more complex model is also solved numerically to validate the analytical results. Additionally, parametric variations are carried out with respect to the main parameters of the model to identify the trends of the instability. As the temperature increases and the neutral-to-plasma density ratio decreases, the growth rate of the instability decreases down to a limit where azimuthal perturbations are no longer unstable.

  5. Workplace Charging Challenge: Sample Municipal Workplace Charging Agreement

    Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

    Review the agreement proposed by one municipality to register PEV drivers and inform staff of charging policy.

  6. Safety assessment of discharge chute isolation barrier preparation and installation

    SciTech Connect (OSTI)

    Meichle, R.H.

    1994-09-29

    The safety assessment is made for the activities for the preparation and installation of the discharge chute isolation barriers. The safety assessment includes a hazard assessment and comparison of potential accidents/events to those addressed by the current safety basis documentation. No significant hazards were identified. An evaluation against the USQ evaluation questions were made and the determination made that the activities do not represent a USQ. Hazard categorization techniques were used to provide a basis for readiness review classification.

  7. Application of channeling in bent crystals to charged particle beams

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    (Conference) | SciTech Connect Application of channeling in bent crystals to charged particle beams Citation Details In-Document Search Title: Application of channeling in bent crystals to charged particle beams The process of channeling of charged particle beams in bent crystals is described, including the effects of angular acceptance, spatial acceptance, normal dechanneling, bending dechanneling, and surface acceptance. Some bending applications that have been tried and future

  8. Distributed charging of electrical assets

    DOE Patents [OSTI]

    Ghosh, Soumyadip; Phan, Dung; Sharma, Mayank; Wu, Chai Wah; Xiong, Jinjun

    2016-02-16

    The present disclosure relates generally to the field of distributed charging of electrical assets. In various examples, distributed charging of electrical assets may be implemented in the form of systems, methods and/or algorithms.

  9. Charging Your Time - Hanford Site

    Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

    Health & Safety Exposition Charging Your Time About Us Hanford Cultural Resources Charging Your Time Committee Members Contact Us Electronic Registration Form Exhibitor and Vendor Information EXPO 2016 Sponsors EXPO Award Criteria How to Get to TRAC Special Events What is EXPO Why Should I Participate in EXPO Charging Your Time Email Email Page | Print Print Page | Text Increase Font Size Decrease Font Size How Do I Charge My Time Spent at EXPO? Each Hanford Prime Contractor may have

  10. Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch (Patent) | DOEPatents

    Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

    Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch Title: Ternary gas mixture for diffuse discharge switch A new diffuse discharge gas switch wherein a mixture of gases is used to ...