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Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


1

Effects of air flow directions on composting process temperature profile  

SciTech Connect

In this study, chicken manure mixed with carnation wastes was composted by using three different air flow directions: R1-sucking (downward), R2-blowing (upward) and R3-mixed. The aim was to find out the most appropriate air flow direction type for composting to provide more homogenous temperature distribution in the reactors. The efficiency of each aeration method was evaluated by monitoring the evolution of parameters such as temperature, moisture content, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2} ratio in the material and dry material losses. Aeration of the reactors was managed by radial fans. The results showed that R3 resulted in a more homogenous temperature distribution and high dry material loss throughout the composting process. The most heterogeneous temperature distribution and the lowest dry material loss were obtained in R2.

Kulcu, Recep [Akdeniz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Machinery, Antalya (Turkey); Yaldiz, Osman [Akdeniz University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Farm Machinery, Antalya (Turkey)], E-mail: yaldiz@akdeniz.edu.tr

2008-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

2

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol source. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Air Breathing Direct Methanol Fuel Cell An air breathing direct methanol fuel cell is provided with a membrane electrode assembly, a conductive anode assembly that is permeable to air and directly open to atmospheric air, and a conductive cathode assembly that is permeable to methanol and directly contacting a liquid methanol

3

Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization During Economizer Cycles  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Handling Unit Supply Air Temperature Optimization during Economizer Cycles Gang Wang, Zhan Wang, Ke Xu and Mingsheng Liu University of Nebraska – Lincoln Omaha, Nebraska, USA ABSTRACT Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial...

Xu, K.; Liu, M.; Wang, G.; Wang, Z.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

average air temperature | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

average air temperature average air temperature Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; Source U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Date Released March 31st, 2009 (5 years ago) Date Updated April 01st, 2009 (5 years ago) Keywords average air temperature

5

Crowdsourcing urban air temperatures from smartphone battery?temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Accurate air temperature observations in urban areas are important for meteorology and energy demand planning. They are indispensable to study the urban heat island effect and the adverse effects of high temperatures on ...

Overeem, A.

6

Air separation with temperature and pressure swing  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A chemical absorbent air separation process is set forth which uses a temperature swing absorption-desorption cycle in combination with a pressure swing wherein the pressure is elevated in the desorption stage of the process.

Cassano, Anthony A. (Allentown, PA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Analysis of a Dedicated Outdoor Air System and Low Temperature Supply Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This paper presents the principles and the characteristics of a dedicated outdoor air system (DOAS) and low temperature supply air system. DOAS is offered based on the demands of indoor air quality and the low temperature supply air system...

Guang, L.; Li, R.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

8

High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging 2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual...

9

High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Project objective: provide a directional drilling system that can be used at environmental temperatures of up to 300°C; and at depths of 10; 000 meters.

10

Optimal supply air temperature with respect to energy use in a variable air volume system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a variable air volume (VAV) system with 100% outdoor air, the cooling need in the building is satisfied with a certain air flow at a certain supply air temperature. To minimize the system energy use, an optimal supply air temperature can be set dependent on the load, specific fan power (SFP), chiller coefficient of performance, outdoor temperature and the outdoor relative humidity. The theory for an optimal supply air temperature is presented and the heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) energy use is calculated depending on supply air temperature control strategy, average U-value of the building envelope and two outdoor climates. The analyses show that controlling the supply air temperature optimally results in a significantly lower HVAC energy use than with a constant supply air temperature. The optimal average U-value of the building envelope is in practise mostly zero.

Fredrik Engdahl; Dennis Johansson

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

11

Metal-air low temperature ionic liquid cell  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present application relates to an electrochemical metal-air cell in which a low temperature ionic liquid is used.

Friesen, Cody A; Buttry, Daniel A

2014-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

12

Using ductwork to improve supply plenum temperature distribution in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

loss of control of the supply air temperature from theloss of control of the supply air temperature entering theloss of control of the supply air temperature from the

Pasut, Wilmer

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

13

Air handling unit supply air temperature optimal control during economizer cycles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Most air handling units (AHUs) in commercial buildings have an air economizer cycle for free cooling under certain outside air conditions. During the economizer cycle, the outside air and return air dampers are modulated to seek supply air temperature at its setpoint. The supply air temperature is typically set at 55 F (13 °C) to control humidity in the space. However, dehumidification is not necessary when the outside air is dry. Meanwhile, the space may have less cooling load due to envelope heat loss and/or occupant schedule changes. These facts provide an opportunity to use higher supply air temperature to reduce or eliminate mechanical cooling and terminal box reheat. On the contrary, a higher supply air temperature requires increased air flow as well as fan power. Therefore, an optimization question is formed, through which an optimal supply air temperature is identified to minimize total energy consumption. In this paper a steady-state energy consumption model is established for AHU systems under the economizer, and then an analytical optimization method is used to seek an optimal supply air temperature setpoint to minimize the energy cost. This paper presents AHU system energy modeling, supply air temperature optimization, simulated energy savings, and control sequence development.

Gang Wang; Li Song

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Influence of air conditioning management on heat island in Paris air street temperatures Brice 2012 Available online 13 March 2012 Keywords: Air conditioning Heat island mitigation Urban heat island killer'', is exacerbated in urban areas owing to the heat island effect. Air conditioning (A/C) is a key

Ribes, Aurélien

15

Geothermal Direct-Use — Meeting Clean Air Standards  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Geothermal direct-use applications—such as greenhouses, district and space heating, and aquaculture—can easily meet local and federal clean air standards, which help protect our environment.

16

Effect of air density variations on greenhouse temperature model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Basically, a greenhouse temperature model is determined based on the balances of mass and energy. In most of the available models, the air density is considered constant. This fact limits the model because of the natural existing relationship between ... Keywords: Air density, Greenhouse, Humidity, Nonlinear systems, Temperature

Javier Leal Iga; Jorge Leal Iga; Carlos Leal Iga; Ramiro Ayala Flores

2008-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

17

Fault tolerant control of outdoor air and AHU supply air temperature in VAV air conditioning systems using PCA method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper presents a fault tolerant control method to control the outdoor air ventilation and AHU supply air temperature, which concerned indoor air quality and humidity, respectively to satisfy ASHRAE Standard in VAV systems. The principal component analysis method, joint angle method, and compensatory reconstruction are used to detect, isolate, and reconstruct the fault, respectively for fault tolerant control. They are tested and evaluated in a simulation environment under the condition of temperature and flow sensors with fix bias faults.

Xinqiao Jin; Zhimin Du

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Daily Air Temperature and Electricity Load in Spain  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Weather has a significant impact on different sectors of the economy. One of the most sensitive is the electricity market, because power demand is linked to several weather variables, mainly the air temperature. This work analyzes the ...

Enric Valor; Vicente Meneu; Vicente Caselles

2001-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

19

Supply Air Temperature Control Using a VFD Pump  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Supply Air Temperature Control Using a VFD Pump Bin Zheng and Mingsheng Liu Ph.D., P.E. Energy Systems Laboratory University of Nebraska-Lincoln Abstract Traditionally, chilled water pump speed is modulated to maintain the water loop... speed to maintain the supply air temperature set point can: 1. save pump electricity energy; 2. improve control valve control performance; 3. reduce control valve initial cost; 4. save maintenance cost. References [1] Zheng B., Liu M. (2004...

Zheng, B.; Liu, M.

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Solar Eclipse Effect on Shelter Air Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Decreases in shelter temperature during eclipse events were quantified on the basis of observations, numerical model simulations, and complements conceptual evaluations. Observations for the annular eclipse on 10 May 1994 over the United States ...

M. Segal; R. W. Turner; J. Prusa; R. J. Bitzer; S. V. Finley

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Room Temperature Control During Season Switchover with Single Duct Variable Air Volume System Without Reheat  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of VAV boxes to maintain room temperature at their setpoints. The thermostat action is switched from direct acting (DA) to reverse acting (RA) when the season changes from fall to winter and vice versa from winter to spring, based on the out side air...

Liu, C.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H.

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Eos, Vol. 93, No. 15, 10 April 2012 Land surface air temperature is one of the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as "the temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar developed by the late seventeenth century, and D. G. Fahrenheit invented the mercury thermometer in 1714, the liquid-in-glass thermometer (such as the mercury thermometer) was widely used. In particular, maximum

23

Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning Approaches to Selecting Design Temperatures for Air-Conditioning Speaker(s): Eric Peterson Date: July 7, 2005 - 12:00pm Location: 90-3122 Seminar Host/Point of Contact: Philip Haves Edward A. Arens The presentation will describe and compare the methods of determining cooling design conditions used by ASHRAE and the Australian Institute of Refrigeration, Air-Conditioning and Heating. A case study based on weather data for Brisbane will be used to illustrate the issues that arise. One issue is the usefulness of the 3-hourly temperature observations archived in International Weather Office records compared to the hourly observations required by the ASHRAE method. Another issue is the use of daily maxima, which have been archived for over 100 years at many Australian locations. Daily data can easily be used to find trends

24

Category:Geothermal Low Temperature Direct Use Facilities | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Temperature Direct Use Facilities Low Temperature Direct Use Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Low Temperature Direct Use Geothermal Facilities. Add a Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Pages in category "Geothermal Low Temperature Direct Use Facilities" The following 200 pages are in this category, out of 449 total. (previous 200) (next 200) 4 4 UR Guest Ranch Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility A Ace Development Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Agua Calientes Trailer Park Space Heating Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Alive Polarity's Murrietta Hot Spring Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Americulture Aquaculture Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Aq Dryers Agricultural Drying Low Temperature Geothermal Facility Aqua Caliente County Park Pool & Spa Low Temperature Geothermal Facility

25

Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly Reflective Greenhouses in SE Spain Title Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly Reflective Greenhouses in SE Spain Publication Type Journal Article Year of Publication 2013 Authors Campra, Pablo, and Dev Millstein Journal Environmental Science & Technology Volume 47 Issue 21 Pagination 12284 - 12290 Date Published 11/2013 ISSN 0013-936X Keywords buildings, Heat Island Group Abstract A long-term local cooling trend in surface air temperature has been monitored at the largest concentration of reflective greenhouses in the world, at the Province of Almeria, SE Spain, associated with a dramatic increase in surface albedo in the area. The availability of reliable long-term climatic field data at this site offers a unique opportunity to test the skill of mesoscale meteorological models describing and predicting the impacts of land use change on local climate. Using the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) mesoscale model, we have run a sensitivity experiment to simulate the impact of the observed surface albedo change on monthly and annual surface air temperatures. The model output showed a mean annual cooling of 0.25 °C associated with a 0.09 albedo increase, and a reduction of 22.8 W m-2 of net incoming solar radiation at surface. Mean reduction of summer daily maximum temperatures was 0.49 °C, with the largest single-day decrease equal to 1.3 °C. WRF output was evaluated and compared with observations. A mean annual warm bias (MBE) of 0.42 °C was estimated. High correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.9) were found between modeled and observed values. This study has particular interest in the assessment of the potential for urban temperature cooling by cool roofs deployment projects, as well as in the evaluation of mesoscale climatic models performance.

26

Recent Progress in Retrieving Air Temperature Profiles and Air-Sea Temperature Differences from Infrared and Microwave Scan...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Recent Progress in Retrieving Air Temperature Profiles Recent Progress in Retrieving Air Temperature Profiles and Air-Sea Temperature Differences from Infrared and Microwave Scanning Radiometer Data D. Cimini University of L'Aquila L'Aquila, Italy J. A. Shaw Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering Montana State University Bozeman, Montana E. R. Westwater Cooperative Institute for Research in the Environmental Sciences University of Colorado National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Environmental Technology Laboratory Boulder, Colorado Introduction A system of two scanning radiometers has been developed by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Environmental Technology Laboratory (ETL) and deployed on the NOAA Ron H. Brown (RHB) Research Vessel (RV) during the Nauru99 cruise in the Tropical Western Pacific,

27

High Temperature 300°C Directional Drilling System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

300C Directional Drilling System John Macpherson Baker Hughes Oilfield Operations DE-EE0002782 May 19, 2010 This presentation does not contain any proprietary confidential, or...

28

Low Temperature Direct Use Pool & Spa Geothermal Facilities ...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

facilities found CSV Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleLowTemperatureDirectUsePool%26SpaGeothermalFacilities&oldid305628" Category: List of Low...

29

Air Cooling for High Temperature Power Electronics (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

Current emphasis on developing high-temperature power electronics, including wide-bandgap materials such as silicon carbide and gallium nitride, increases the opportunity for a completely air-cooled inverter at higher powers. This removes the liquid cooling system for the inverter, saving weight and volume on the liquid-to-air heat exchanger, coolant lines, pumps, and coolant, replacing them with just a fan and air supply ducting. We investigate the potential for an air-cooled heat exchanger from a component and systems-level approach to meet specific power and power density targets. A proposed baseline air-cooled heat exchanger design that does not meet those targets was optimized using a parametric computational fluid dynamics analysis, examining the effects of heat exchanger geometry and device location, fixing the device heat dissipation and maximum junction temperature. The CFD results were extrapolated to a full inverter, including casing, capacitor, bus bar, gate driver, and control board component weights and volumes. Surrogate ducting was tested to understand the pressure drop and subsequent system parasitic load. Geometries that met targets with acceptable loads on the system were down-selected for experimentation. Nine baseline configuration modules dissipated the target heat dissipation, but fell below specific power and power density targets. Six optimized configuration modules dissipated the target heat load, exceeding the specific power and power density targets. By maintaining the same 175 degrees C maximum junction temperature, an optimized heat exchanger design and higher device heat fluxes allowed a reduction in the number of modules required, increasing specific power and power density while still maintaining the inverter power.

Waye, S.; Musselman, M.; King, C.

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

30

Alternative strategies for supply air temperature control in office buildings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract A key element for a reduced energy usage in the building sector is to improve the systems for indoor climate control. But, it is important that such measures are fairly simple and easy to implement in order to facilitate a widespread utilization. In this work, four alternative strategies for supply air temperature control in offices were investigated through simulations. Their level of complexity stretches from linear SISO (single-input, single-output) structures with standard inputs to an optimal algorithm with information about the entire set of disturbances acting on the building. The study was conducted with a conventional outdoor-air-temperature based method as benchmark, and two different heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems as well as two types of building structures were taken into account. Compared to the benchmark, all alternative strategies resulted in lower energy usages while thermal comfort and indoor air quality were satisfied, and simple strategies could perform almost equally well as more complex. But, it was also shown that the benefits were highly dependent on the considered HVAC system and somewhat dependent on the considered building structures.

Mattias Gruber; Anders Trüschel; Jan-Olof Dalenbäck

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Energy analysis of a personalized ventilation system in a cold climate: influence of the supplied air temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Figure 2). The supply temperature and its control strategyAir supply Control strategy of temper. a temperature the aircontrol over the temperature of the supplied personalized air, the building manager has to define the air supply temperature (

Schiavon, Stefano; Melikov, Arsen

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

32

High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design (Presentation)  

SciTech Connect

This presentation discusses the status of research at NREL on high temperature air-cooled power electronics thermal design.

Waye, S.

2014-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

33

Optimize the Supply Air Temperature Reset Schedule for a Single-Duct VAV System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimize the Supply Air Temperature Reset Schedule for a Single-Duct VAV System Guanghua Wei Mingsheng Liu, Ph.D., P.E. David E. Claridge, Ph.D., P.E. Senior Research Associate Associate Professor Professor Energy Systems Lab Architectural... will occur once the alrflow reaches the minimum and the heating load increases. To minimize this simultaneous cooling and heating, the supply air temperature is often reset based on either return air temperature or outside air temperature. Liu et al...

Wei, G.; Claridge, D. E.; Liu, M.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

34

Furnace Controls Using High Temperature Preheated Combustion Air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on accuracy in variable leakage of recuperators ESL-IE-81-04-85 Proceedings from the Third Industrial Energy Technology Conference Houston, TX, April 26-29, 1981 balancing orifice, butterfly, etc.) upstream of the burner. This is especially necessary... the recuperator and preheat temperature result in little or no effect on the accuracy of this system. The orifice plates utilized in the air line must be located in a laminar flow position (straight run of pipe) to insure accuracy. Figure 4C shows a simple flow...

Gonzales, J. M.; Rebello, W. J.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Investigations on Vapour Compression Air Conditioner with Direct Contact Desiccant Loop over Condenser and Evaporator  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Perceived air quality increases when relative humidity is decreased till about 30% in the range of comfort temperature. In the present scenario, humidity is considered as a pollutant. Hence, a controlled environment not only at low temperature...

Maiya, M. P.; Ravi, J.; Tiwari, S.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

36

Low temperature Direct Use Geothermal Facilities | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low temperature Direct Use Geothermal Facilities Low temperature Direct Use Geothermal Facilities Dataset Summary Description Contains generating capacity information for low temperature direct use geothermal facilities by state. Source NREL Date Released August 10th, 2010 (4 years ago) Date Updated Unknown Keywords geothermal Data application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet icon Low_Temp_Direct_Use_Geo_Activities_by_State_100106_0.xlsx (xlsx, 88.5 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below Comment Rate this dataset Usefulness of the metadata Average vote Your vote Usefulness of the dataset Average vote Your vote Ease of access Average vote Your vote Overall rating

37

Direct Digital Control in Air Conditioning Systems for Energy Efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the function and the level of the building, but also save energy. At present, air-conditioning design in internal commercial buildings is becoming more complex and enormous. The proportion of air conditioning systems in the whole building is getting larger...

Liu, W.; Ye, A.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Experimental evaluation of cell temperature effects on miniature, air-breathing PEM fuel cells  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental evaluation of cell temperature effects on miniature, air-breathing PEM fuel cells Z June 2011 Available online 14 June 2011 Keywords: Air-breathing PEM fuel cell Temperature effects Air) fuel cells is investi- gated using polarization and impedance spectroscopy. Three active area sizes

Lee, Tonghun

39

Low Temperature Direct Use Aquaculture Geothermal Facilities | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Temperature Direct Use Aquaculture Geothermal Facilities Low Temperature Direct Use Aquaculture Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":800,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":"Geothermal

40

Low Temperature Direct Use Agricultural Drying Geothermal Facilities | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Temperature Direct Use Agricultural Drying Geothermal Facilities Low Temperature Direct Use Agricultural Drying Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":800,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":"Geothermal

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

Low Temperature Direct Use Space Heating Geothermal Facilities | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Temperature Direct Use Space Heating Geothermal Facilities Low Temperature Direct Use Space Heating Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":800,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":"Geothermal

42

Low Temperature Direct Use Snowmelt Geothermal Facilities | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Low Temperature Direct Use Snowmelt Geothermal Facilities Low Temperature Direct Use Snowmelt Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":800,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":"Geothermal

43

E-Print Network 3.0 - air temperature air Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

State University Collection: Mathematics 12 Connectable solar air collectors Solar Energy Centre Denmark Summary: ......

44

E-Print Network 3.0 - air temperature anomalies Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature anomalies are expected to reduce the sea-air temperature difference and the heat loss of the ocean... -latitudes and 12;14 thus ... Source: Institute of Global...

45

Air temperature effect on thermal models for ventilated dry-type transformers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The temperature of the air surrounding the windings of ventilated dry-type transformers is an important factor in the cooling of the windings since they are cooled only by the air. In particular, inner windings are sensitive to the air temperature in vertical cooling ducts. This study presents air temperature effect on the temperatures in foil-type inner winding for the dry-type transformers. A transformer rated at 2000 kVA was selected for the research and temperature distribution was calculated under constant and varying air temperatures inside vertical ducts at three different loads. The 2-D transient heat diffusion equation was solved using the finite element method by coupling it with the vector potential equation due to non-uniformly generated heat caused by eddy currents in the foil winding. The calculated temperatures at constant and varying air temperatures are presented together with experimental values. The numerical and experimental results of this study showed that the air temperature affects the accuracy of temperatures in foil-type inner winding greatly.

Moonhee Lee; Hussein A. Abdullah; Jan C. Jofriet; Dhiru Patel; Murat Fahrioglu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Direct control of air gap flux in permanent magnet machines  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method and apparatus for field weakening in PM machines uses field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72) to produce flux in one or more stators (34, 49, 63, 64), including a flux which counters flux normally produced in air gaps between the stator(s) (34, 49, 63, 64) and the rotor (20, 21, 41, 61) which carries the PM poles. Several modes of operation are introduced depending on the magnitude and polarity of current in the field weakening coils (35, 44, 45, 71, 72). The invention is particularly useful for, but not limited to, the electric vehicle drives and PM generators.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN)

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

CO2 Sequestration by Direct Gas?Solid Carbonation of Air Pollution Control (APC) Residues  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

CO2 Sequestration by Direct Gas?Solid Carbonation of Air Pollution Control (APC) Residues ... Furthermore, because fossil fuels are projected to be a dominant energy resource in the 21st century,1 technologies for sequestering emissions from fossil fuel combustion in a safe and definitive manner are being developed and implemented. ... According to these authors, the solution containing free calcium could then be used in a carbonation process for capturing CO2 directly from air. ...

Renato Baciocchi; Alessandra Polettini; Raffaella Pomi; Valentina Prigiobbe; Viktoria Nikulshina Von Zedwitz; Aldo Steinfeld

2006-07-07T23:59:59.000Z

48

Open-cycle magnetohydrodynamic power plant based upon direct-contact closed-loop high-temperature heat exchanger  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generating system in which ionized combustion gases with slag and seed are discharged from an MHD combustor and pressurized high temperature inlet air is introduced into the combustor for supporting fuel combustion at high temperatures necessary to ionize the combustion gases, and including a heat exchanger in the form of a continuous loop with a circulating heat transfer liquid such as copper oxide. The heat exchanger has an upper horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and the combustion gases to cool the gases and condense the slag which thereupon floats on the heat transfer liquid and can be removed from the channel, and a lower horizontal channel for providing direct contact between the heat transfer liquid and pressurized air for preheating the inlet air. The system further includes a seed separator downstream of the heat exchanger.

Berry, Gregory F. (Naperville, IL); Minkov, Vladimir (Skokie, IL); Petrick, Michael (Joliet, IL)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

49

Electrically Heated High Temperature Incineration of Air Toxics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In-Process Technology has placed a prototype of its patented, electrically heated, packed-bed air toxics oxidizer at a northern California chemical plant. This thermal oxidizer is capable of handling a wide range of chlorinated and non...

Agardy, F. J.; Wilcox, J. B.

50

Energy performance of direct expansion air handling unit in office buildings  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Buildings and their occupants generate a large amount of carbon emissions. In Korea, buildings contribute to about 30% of the total greenhouse gases emissions, and the proportion has been rapidly increasing to the level of the developed counties (i.e., more than 40% of the total emissions. A direct expansion air handling unit, of which a refrigerant is directly delivered to the heating and cooling, has a potential to save cooling and heating energy use, compared to water-based central air conditioning systems. The aim of this study is to compare heating and cooling energy uses of an identical office building but with different air conditioning systems, i.e. direct expansion and water-based air conditioning systems. Dynamic building energy simulations that reflect the actual use of a monitored building and its air handling unit operation have been conducted in this study. Simulation results show good agreement with the actual energy consumption obtained from the field measurements of the building. Our study quantifies the amount of cooling and heating energy uses saved by a direct expansion air handing unit and reveals reasons for this savings, i.e. higher energy efficiency of the unit and reduction in pump and fan energy demands.

Geun Young Yun; Jongdae Choi; Jeong Tai Kim

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

51

Changes in hydrogen utilization with temperature during direct coal liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

A reliable means of monitoring the major pathways of hydrogen utilization, in contrast to only measuring net hydrogen comsumption, would be very useful for process optimization. The goal of this work was to develop an analytical approach for quantitatively distinguishing hydrogen consumed in hydrogenation from that utilized to stabilize thermolysis fragments. The approach outlined yields a rather detailed description of the net utilization of hydrogen during direct liquefaction, partitioning it into contributions from gas generation, heteroatom removal, hydrogenation, and matrix breakdown. Preliminary results indicate that internal hydrogen reorganization, with little consumption, predominates at low temperatures, with hydrogenation being compensated for by the hydrogen liberated in condensations. As the temperature is increased, bond cleavage reactions and aromatization reactions appear to become more important, and the net hydrogen consumption increases. (3 tables 1 figs., 11 refs.)

Finseth, D.H.; Bockrath, B.C.; Cillo, D.L.; Illig, E.G.; Sprecher, R.F., Retcofsky, H.L.; Lett, R.G.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

Direct-Expansion Air-Conditioning System Performance in Low Humidity Applications: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIRECT-EXPANSION AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEM PERFORMANCE IN LOW HUMIDITY APPLICATIONS: A CASE STUDY MUKESH K. KHATTAR, P.E. DENNIS KEEBAUGH, P.E. Senior Systems Engineer Senior Research Engineer Florida Solar Energy Center Shenandoah Solar Center... warehouse. The flat gravel roof is exposed to sun. The 16' ceiling is insulated with two inch spray foam. Entrance to the warehouse is through sealed and insulated doors located on the west partition wall. The air -conditioning sys tem on this leased...

Khattar, M. K.; Keebaugh, D.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Field test of two high-pressure, direct-contact downhole steam generators. Volume I. Air/diesel system  

SciTech Connect

As a part of the Project DEEP STEAM to develop technology to more efficiently utilize steam for the recovery of heavy oil from deep reservoirs, a field test of a downhole steam generator (DSG) was performed. The DSG burned No. 2 diesel fuel in air and was a direct-contact, high pressure device which mixed the steam with the combustion products and injected the resulting mixture directly into the oil reservoir. The objectives of the test program included demonstration of long-term operation of a DSG, development of operational methods, assessment of the effects of the steam/combustion gases on the reservoir and comparison of this air/diesel DSG with an adjacent oxygen/diesel direct contact generator. Downhole operation of the air/diesel DSG was started in June 1981 and was terminated in late February 1982. During this period two units were placed downhole with the first operating for about 20 days. It was removed, the support systems were slightly modified, and the second one was operated for 106 days. During this latter interval the generator operated for 70% of the time with surface air compressor problems the primary source of the down time. Thermal contact, as evidenced by a temperature increase in the production well casing gases, and an oil production increase were measured in one of the four wells in the air/diesel pattern. Reservoir scrubbing of carbon monoxide was observed, but no conclusive data on scrubbing of SO/sub x/ and NO/sub x/ were obtained. Corrosion of the DSG combustor walls and some other parts of the downhole package were noted. Metallurgical studies have been completed and recommendations made for other materials that are expected to better withstand the downhole combustion environment. 39 figures, 8 tables.

Marshall, B.W.

1983-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

54

Optimal Indoor Air Temperature Considering Energy Savings and Thermal Comfort in the Shanghai Area  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as possible in winter. Meanwhile, indoor thermal comfort should be considered. This paper will establish the optimal indoor air temperature for an air-conditioning system aiming at both energy savings and thermal comfort in the Shanghai area, based on the PMV...

Yao, Y.; Lian, Z.; Hou, Z.; Liu, W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

55

Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI observatory in De Bilt (the  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 - June 2005 | March 14, 2011 Page 6 of 56 #12;nal | Parallel air at the KNMI observatory in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 - June 2005 | March 14, 2011 Page 8 of 56 #12Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI observatory in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003

Brandsma, Theo

56

An Investigation into the Impact of using Various Techniques to Estimate Arctic Surface Air Temperature Anomalies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Time series of global and regional mean Surface Air Temperature (SAT) anomalies are a common metric used to estimate recent climate change. Various techniques can be used to create these time series from meteorological station data. The degree of ...

Emma M. A. Dodd; Christopher J. Merchant; Nick A. Rayner; Colin P. Morice

57

Dynamical Adjustment of the Northern Hemisphere Surface Air Temperature Field: Methodology and Application to Observations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The influence of atmospheric circulation changes reflected in spontaneously-occurring sea-level pressure (SLP) anomalies upon surface air temperature (SAT) variability and trends is investigated using partial least squares (PLS) regression, a ...

Brian V. Smoliak; John M. Wallace; Pu Lin; Qiang Fu

58

Research on Solar High-Temperature Absorption Air-Conditioning Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper studies the characteristics and performance of solar higher-temperature absorption air conditioning systems which employed linear concentrating collectors and double-effect absorption chillers. A solar...

Guoqing Yu; Jinhua Tang; Zhijun Zou

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Improving Seasonal Forecast Skill of North American Surface Air Temperature in Fall Using a Postprocessing Method  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A statistical postprocessing approach is applied to seasonal forecasts of surface air temperatures (SAT) over North America in fall, when the original uncalibrated predictions have little skill. The data used are ensemble-mean seasonal forecasts ...

XiaoJing Jia; Hai Lin; Jacques Derome

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Room location (design) in accordance with the sol-air temperature and solar heat gain  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ROOM LOCATION (DESIGN) IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SOL-AIR TEMPERATURE AND SOLAR HEAT GAIN A Thesis GARY LYNN PORTER Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in parital fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1977 Major Subject: Meteorology ROOM LOCATION (DESIGN) IN ACCORDANCE WITH THE SOL-AIR TEMPERATURE AND SOLAR HEAT GAIN A Thesis by GARY LYNN PORTER Approved as to style and content by: hairman of Committee) (Head of Department) ( (Q...

Porter, Gary Lynn

1977-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Study of the Influence of Air Supply Temperature on Air Distribution in the Run-through Large Space Architecture  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Control Systems for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. V-4-5 Study of the Influence of Air Supply Temperature on Air Distribution in the Run-through Large Space Architecture Zhaodong Tian Jie Zhang Mengsheng Zhu.... East 2 hall covers 564 m2 with height of 9.5m. East 3 hall covers Fig. 1 Vertical traffic row ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Control Systems for Energy Efficiency and Comfort, Vol. V-4-5 Tab. 1 dimension and position of openings in model 76 m2...

Tian, Z.; Zhang, J.; Zhu, M.; He, J.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

Air quality modelling as a supplementary assessment method in the framework of the European Air Quality Directive  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

According to the European Air Quality (AQ) Directive, member states must annually report their AQ to the European Commission (EC). This report can be based on modelling data if the concentration levels do not exceed the established lower assessment thresholds (LAT), or on combined data from modelling and monitoring systems (supplementary assessment methods) if concentrations levels are below the upper assessment threshold (UAT). This work presents and applies a methodology that combines air pollutant concentration values from monitored data and from a numerical modelling system to deliver AQ information for Portugal in 2010. This methodology produces improved information, especially for areas where the amount of fixed monitoring stations is sparse or non-existent, allowing obtaining a better and broader overview of the AQ in Portugal to support AQ reporting to the European Commission.

I. Ribeiro; A. Monteiro; A.P. Fernandes; A.C. Monteiro; M. Lopes; C. Borrego; A.I. Miranda

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Spectroscopic temperature measurements of air breakdown plasma using a 110 GHz megawatt gyrotron beam  

SciTech Connect

Temperature measurements are presented of a non-equilibrium air breakdown plasma using optical emission spectroscopy. A plasma is created with a focused 110 GHz 3 {mu}s pulse gyrotron beam in air that produces power fluxes exceeding 1 MW/cm{sup 2}. Rotational and vibrational temperatures are spectroscopically measured over a pressure range of 1-100 Torr as the gyrotron power is varied above threshold. The temperature dependence on microwave field as well as pressure is examined. Rotational temperature measurements of the plasma reveal gas temperatures in the range of 300-500 K and vibrational temperatures in the range of 4200-6200 K. The vibrational and rotational temperatures increase slowly with increasing applied microwave field over the range of microwave fields investigated.

Hummelt, J. S.; Shapiro, M. A.; Temkin, R. J. [Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)

2012-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

64

Electric power generating plant having direct-coupled steam and compressed-air cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

Drost, M.K.

1981-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

65

Electric power generating plant having direct coupled steam and compressed air cycles  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric power generating plant is provided with a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system which is directly coupled to the steam cycle of the generating plant. The CAES system is charged by the steam boiler during off peak hours, and drives a separate generator during peak load hours. The steam boiler load is thereby levelized throughout an operating day.

Drost, Monte K. (Richland, WA)

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Effect of air preheat temperature on the MILD combustion of syngas  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The effect of air preheat temperature on MILD (Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution) combustion of coal-derived syngas was examined in parallel jet forward flow combustor. The results were presented on flow field using numerical simulations and on global flame signatures, OH? radicals distribution and exhaust emissions using experiments. The discrete and high speed air/fuel injections into the combustor is necessary for the establishment of MILD conditions, because they cause strong gas recirculation and form large mixing region between the air and fuel jets. The critical equivalence ratio above which MILD combustion occurred was identified. The MILD regime was established for syngas fuel under air preheating conditions with lean operational limit and suppressed \\{NOx\\} and CO emissions. In the MILD combustion regime, the air preheating resulted in higher \\{NOx\\} but lower CO emissions, while the increase of equivalence ratio led to the increase of \\{NOx\\} and the decrease of CO emissions.

Mingming Huang; Zhedian Zhang; Weiwei Shao; Yan Xiong; Yan Liu; Fulin Lei; Yunhan Xiao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

TY JOUR T1 Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling Mesoscale Climatic Simulation of Surface Air Temperature Cooling by Highly Reflective Greenhouses in SE Spain JF Environmental Science Technology A1 Campra Pablo A1 Dev Millstein KW buildings KW Heat Island Group AB p span A long term local cooling trend in surface air temperature has been monitored at the largest concentration of reflective greenhouses in the world at the Province of Almeria SE Spain associated with a dramatic increase in surface albedo in the area The availability of reliable long term climatic field data at this site offers a unique opportunity to test the skill of mesoscale meteorological models describing and predicting the impacts of land use change on local climate Using the Weather Research and Forecast WRF mesoscale model we have run a

68

Cold Air Distribution in Office Buildings: Technology Assessment for California  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

accurate control of supply air volume and temperature willof a control strategy to reset supply air temperature at thecontrol strategies and more efficient motors and fans; (b) System-powered induction boxes; and (c) Direct supply of low temperature

Bauman, F.S.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Decadal variations of the relationship between the summer North Atlantic Oscillation and middle East Asian air temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

East Asian air temperature Jianqi Sun,1 Huijun Wang,1 and Wei Yuan2 Received 20 November 2007; revised., 1998]. In turn, it affects upper ocean currents, distribution of sea surface temperature, and strength the summer (July­September) North Atlantic Oscillation (SNAO) and simultaneous East Asian air temperature

70

Estimating the impact of temperature and air pollution on cardiopulmonary and diabetic health during the TORONTO 2015 Pan Am/Parapan Am Games  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Exposure data (temperature, humidity and air pollution) were obtained from Environment Canada for years...

Laura Feldman; Jingqin Zhu; Jacqueline Simatovic…

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

CO2 CH4 flux Air temperature Soil temperature and Soil moisture, Barrow, Alaska 2013 ver. 1  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

This dataset consists of field measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux, as well as soil properties made during 2013 in Areas A-D of Intensive Site 1 at the Next-Generation Ecosystem Experiments (NGEE) Arctic site near Barrow, Alaska. Included are i) measurements of CO2 and CH4 flux made from June to September (ii) Calculation of corresponding Gross Primary Productivity (GPP) and CH4 exchange (transparent minus opaque) between atmosphere and the ecosystem (ii) Measurements of Los Gatos Research (LGR) chamber air temperature made from June to September (ii) measurements of surface layer depth, type of surface layer, soil temperature and soil moisture from June to September.

Margaret Torn

72

S. Wasterlain, D. Candusso, D. Hissel, F. Harel, P. Bergman, P. Menard, M. Anwar (fvrier 2010). Study of temperature, air dew point temperature and reactant flow effects on PEMFC  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

). Study of temperature, air dew point temperature and reactant flow effects on PEMFC performances using. Elsevier. Study of temperature, air dew point temperature and reactant flow effects on PEMFC performances A single PEMFC has been operated by varying the assembly temperature, the air dew point temperature

Boyer, Edmond

73

GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

74

GSOD Based Daily Global Mean Surface Temperature and Mean Sea Level Air Pressure (1982-2011)  

SciTech Connect

This data product contains all the gridded data set at 1/4 degree resolution in ASCII format. Both mean temperature and mean sea level air pressure data are available. It also contains the GSOD data (1982-2011) from NOAA site, contains station number, location, temperature and pressures (sea level and station level). The data package also contains information related to the data processing methods

Xuan Shi, Dali Wang

2014-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

75

Elevated Temperature Ion Implantation: A New Direction for Surface Engineering  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A number of commercial alloys were investigated to study the effectiveness of elevated temperature nitrogen ion PSII implantation in creating engineered surfaces having superior properties. These included several...

F. J. Worzala; J. R. Conrad; R. A. Dodd; M. Madapura; K. Sridharan

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

76

A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010. p-08nevius.pdf More Documents & Publications Complex System...

77

Climate: monthly and annual average air temperature at 10 m GIS data at  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

air temperature at 10 m GIS data at air temperature at 10 m GIS data at one-degree resolution of the World from NASA/SSE Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)NASA Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) Release 6.0 Data Set (Nov 2007)22-year Monthly & Annual Average (July 1983 - June 2005)Parameter: Air Temperature at 10 m Above The Surface Of The Earth (deg C)Internet: http://eosweb.larc.nasa.gov/sse/Note 1: SSE Methodology & Accuracy sections onlineNote 2: Lat/Lon values indicate the lower left corner of a 1x1 degree region. Negative values are south and west; positive values are north and east. Boundaries of the -90/-180 region are -90 to -89 (south) and -180 to -179 (west). The last region, 89/180, is bounded by 89 to 90 (north) and 179 to 180 (east). The mid-point of

78

Assessing Biases in Recent in situ SST and Marine Air Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Effect of spatial variability plot the mean square difference between pairs of ships as a function of biases - errors and correlations Analysis of VOS Air Temperature Variations by country Effect of solar measurement methods and sensor heights Analysis of pairs of night-time data (one ship using bucket, one ERI

79

De Bilt, 2011 | Scientific report; WR 2011-01 Parallel air temperature measurements  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

at the KNMI observatory in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 - June 2005 | March 14, 2011 Page 6 of 56 #12 observatory in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 - June 2005 Theo Brandsma #12;#12;Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI observatory in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 - June 2005 Version 1.0 Date March

Haak, Hein

80

Optimization method for obtaining nearest-neighbour DNA entropies and enthalpies directly from melting temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......require the knowledge of total sequence entropies and enthalpies which are not always available. Results: Here we implement and test a new melting temperature optimization method (MTO) where we obtain the NN parameters directly from the temperatures. In this......

Gerald Weber

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Thermal analysis and two-directional air flow thermal management for lithium-ion battery pack  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Thermal management is a routine but crucial strategy to ensure thermal stability and long-term durability of the lithium-ion batteries. An air-flow-integrated thermal management system is designed in the present study to dissipate heat generation and uniformize the distribution of temperature in the lithium-ion batteries. The system contains of two types of air ducts with independent intake channels and fans. One is to cool the batteries through the regular channel, and the other minimizes the heat accumulations in the middle pack of batteries through jet cooling. A three-dimensional anisotropic heat transfer model is developed to describe the thermal behavior of the lithium-ion batteries with the integration of heat generation theory, and validated through both simulations and experiments. Moreover, the simulations and experiments show that the maximum temperature can be decreased to 33.1 °C through the new thermal management system in comparison with 42.3 °C through the traditional ones, and temperature uniformity of the lithium-ion battery packs is enhanced, significantly.

Kuahai Yu; Xi Yang; Yongzhou Cheng; Changhao Li

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Spatial distribution of the air temperature in mountainous areas using satellite thermal infra-red data  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Understanding the spatial distribution of air temperature in mountainous areas is essential in hydrological modelling. In the Moroccan High-Atlas range, the meteorological stations network is sparse. In order to get additional information, we investigated the thermal infrared data supplied by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM + ) sensor onboard the Landsat 7 satellite. The brightness temperature derived from ETM+ images is used as a proxy for air temperature to set up a model that describes its spatial distribution. This model accounts for sun location and topographic characteristics derived from the SRTM digital elevation model. It was evaluated on the Rheraya watershed, a 225-km2 region located within the semi-arid High-Atlas mountain range, using two different sources of data. The first data set consists in in-situ air temperature collected by meteorological stations installed during the experiment at various altitudes from 1400 to 3200 m. The second data set is satellite estimates of snow-covered areas (SCA) derived from MODIS images over the whole catchment at 500 m spatial resolution.

Abdelghani Boudhar; Benoît Duchemin; Lahoucine Hanich; Gilles Boulet; Abdelghani Chehbouni

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

SiC performance of coated fuel particles under high-temperature atmosphere of air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract To better understand whether the SiC layer can withstand the corrosion given by the chemical reaction between SiC and O2, our experiments focused mainly on the effect of oxygen on SiC-coated fuel particles at high temperature. Tests were conducted on non-irradiated coated fuel particles in an atmosphere of air over a range of temperatures between 800 and 1600 °C. This paper summarizes the failure fractions, surface morphology and microstructure of the SiC coating, etc. The morphology of SiC-coated particles surfaces, optical and scanning electron micrographs and the oxygen distribution of polished SiC layers at 800, 1000 and 1200 °C for 200 h under air atmosphere showed that the features of SiC layers did not change in these cases. In contrast with the aforementioned cases, the behavior of SiC layers was deteriorated when the oxidation temperature was beyond 1400 °C. More serious the deterioration, higher the oxidation temperature is. The thickness of SiO2 layer from outside to inside SiC layers reached 6 ?8 ?m, and a large number of SiC-coated particles were broken into fragment at 1600 °C. The experiment results show that the oxidation of the SiC layer proceeds slowly at temperatures around 1400 °C and more rapidly as the temperature approaches 1600 °C.

Chunhe Tang; Bing Liu; Ziqiang Li; Ying Quan; Hongsheng Zhao; Youlin Shao

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators.

Kuo, Lewis J. H. (Monroeville, PA); Singh, Prabhakar (Export, PA); Ruka, Roswell J. (Churchill Boro, PA); Vasilow, Theodore R. (Penn Township, PA); Bratton, Raymond J. (Delmont, PA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

Low cost stable air electrode material for high temperature solid oxide electrolyte electrochemical cells  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A low cost, lanthanide-substituted, dimensionally and thermally stable, gas permeable, electrically conductive, porous ceramic air electrode composition of lanthanide-substituted doped lanthanum manganite is provided which is used as the cathode in high temperature, solid oxide electrolyte fuel cells and generators. The air electrode composition of this invention has a much lower fabrication cost as a result of using a lower cost lanthanide mixture, either a natural mixture or an unfinished lanthanide concentrate obtained from a natural mixture subjected to incomplete purification, as the raw material in place of part or all of the higher cost individual lanthanum. The mixed lanthanide primarily contains a mixture of at least La, Ce, Pr, and Nd, or at least La, Ce, Pr, Nd and Sm in its lanthanide content, but can also include minor amounts of other lanthanides and trace impurities. The use of lanthanides in place of some or all of the lanthanum also increases the dimensional stability of the air electrode. This low cost air electrode can be fabricated as a cathode for use in high temperature, solid oxide fuel cells and generators. 4 figs.

Kuo, L.J.H.; Singh, P.; Ruka, R.J.; Vasilow, T.R.; Bratton, R.J.

1997-11-11T23:59:59.000Z

86

Development of Self-Correcting Algorithms for Complete Failure of Supply Air Temperature Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

? Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has initiated research (Fernandez et al., 2009a) ? Passive and proactive tests ? Rule-based algorithms ? Tested using virtual sensors ? Self-correction approach for the total failure of supply air... temperature sensors 7 ESL-IC-13-10-47 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Montreal, Quebec, October 8-11, 2013 Self-correction of HVAC controls ? proposed approach 8 1. Fault Diagnostic ? Constant sensor...

Monfet, D.; Choiniere, D.; Padilla, M.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Controlling a rabbet load and air/oil seal temperatures in a turbine  

SciTech Connect

During a standard fired shutdown of a turbine, a loaded rabbet joint between the fourth stage wheel and the aft shaft of the machine can become unloaded causing a gap to occur due to a thermal mismatch at the rabbet joint with the bearing blower turned on. An open or unloaded rabbet could cause the parts to move relative to each other and therefore cause the rotor to lose balance. If the bearing blower is turned off during a shutdown, the forward air/oil seal temperature may exceed maximum design practice criterion due to "soak-back." An air/oil seal temperature above the established maximum design limits could cause a bearing fire to occur, with catastrophic consequences to the machine. By controlling the bearing blower according to an optimized blower profile, the rabbet load can be maintained, and the air/oil seal temperature can be maintained below the established limits. A blower profile is determined according to a thermodynamic model of the system.

Schmidt, Mark Christopher (Niskayuna, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

Development of high temperature air combustion technology in pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers  

SciTech Connect

High temperature air combustion (HTAC) is a promising technology for energy saving, flame stability enhancement and NOx emission reduction. In a conventional HTAC system, the combustion air is highly preheated by using the recuperative or regenerative heat exchangers. However, such a preheating process is difficult to implement for pulverized fossil fuel fired boilers. In this paper, an alternative approach is proposed. In the proposed HTAC system, a special burner, named PRP burner is introduced to fulfill the preheating process. The PRP burner has a preheating chamber with one end connected with the primary air and the other end opened to the furnace. Inside the chamber, gas recirculation is effectively established such that hot flue gases in the furnace can be introduced. Combustible mixture instead of combustion air is highly preheated by the PRP burner. A series of experiments have been conducted in an industrial scale test facility, burning low volatile petroleum coke and an anthracite coal. Stable combustion was established for burning pure petroleum coke and anthracite coal, respectively. Inside the preheating chamber, the combustible mixture was rapidly heated up to a high temperature level close to that of the hot secondary air used in the conventional HTAC system. The rapid heating of the combustible mixture in the chamber facilitates pyrolysis, volatile matter release processes for the fuel particles, suppressing ignition delay and enhancing combustion stability. Moreover, compared with the results measured in the same facility but with a conventional low NOx burner, NOx concentration at the furnace exit was at the same level when petroleum coke was burnt and 50% less when anthracite was burnt. Practicability of the HTAC technology using the proposed approach was confirmed for efficiently and cleanly burning fossil fuels. 16 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

Hai Zhang; Guangxi Yue; Junfu Lu; Zhen Jia; Jiangxiong Mao; Toshiro Fujimori; Toshiyuki Suko; Takashi Kiga [Tsinghua University, Beijing (China). Department of Thermal Engineering

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

CHINESE JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICS Vol.49, No.3, 2006, pp: 588598 REGIONAL DIFFERENCE OF SUMMER AIR TEMPERATURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

SURFACE TEMPERATURE SUN Jian-Qi1,2 WANG Hui-Jun1 1 State Key Laboratory of Numerical Modeling, the temporal- spatial distributions of summer air temperature (SAT) are investigated. It is found TEMPERATURE ANOMALIES IN NORTHEAST CHINA AND ITS RELATIONSHIP TO ATMOSPHERIC GENERAL CIRCULATION AND SEA

90

The Influence of Operating Modes, Room Temperature Set Point and Curtain Styles on Energy Consumption of Room Air Conditioner  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A field investigation was carried out in an office building of Changsha city in winter and summer, the influence of different running modes, curtain styles and room temperature set point on energy consumption of room air conditioner (RAC...

Yu, J.; Yang, C.; Guo, R.; Wu, D.; Chen, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

91

High-temperature Thermal Storage System for Solar Tower Power Plants with Open-volumetric Air Receiver Simulation and Energy Balancing of a Discretized Model  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This paper describes the modeling of a high-temperature storage system for an existing solar tower power plant with open volumetric receiver technology, which uses air as heat transfer medium (HTF). The storage system model has been developed in the simulation environment Matlab/Simulink®. The storage type under investigation is a packed bed thermal energy storage system which has the characteristics of a regenerator. Thermal energy can be stored and discharged as required via the HTF air. The air mass flow distribution is controlled by valves, and the mass flow by two blowers. The thermal storage operation strategy has a direct and significant impact on the energetic and economic efficiency of the solar tower power plants.

Valentina Kronhardt; Spiros Alexopoulos; Martin Reißel; Johannes Sattler; Bernhard Hoffschmidt; Matthias Hänel; Till Doerbeck

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

High-temperature hydrogen-air-steam detonation experiments in the BNL small-scale development apparatus  

SciTech Connect

The Small-Scale Development Apparatus (SSDA) was constructed to provide a preliminary set of experimental data to characterize the effect of temperature on the ability of hydrogen-air-steam mixtures to undergo detonations and, equally important, to support design of the larger scale High-Temperature Combustion Facility (HTCF) by providing a test bed for solution of a number of high-temperature design and operational problems. The SSDA, the central element of which is a 10-cm inside diameter, 6.1-m long tubular test vessel designed to permit detonation experiments at temperatures up to 700K, was employed to study self-sustained detonations in gaseous mixtures of hydrogen, air, and steam at temperatures between 300K and 650K at a fixed initial pressure of 0.1 MPa. Hydrogen-air mixtures with hydrogen composition from 9 to 60 percent by volume and steam fractions up to 35 percent by volume were studied for stoichiometric hydrogen-air-steam mixtures. Detonation cell size measurements provide clear evidence that the effect of hydrogen-air gas mixture temperature, in the range 300K-650K, is to decrease cell size and, hence, to increase the sensitivity of the mixture to undergo detonations. The effect of steam content, at any given temperature, is to increase the cell size and, thereby, to decrease the sensitivity of stoichiometric hydrogen-air mixtures. The hydrogen-air detonability limits for the 10-cm inside diameter SSDA test vessel, based upon the onset of single-head spin, decreased from 15 percent hydrogen at 300K down to between 9 and 10 percent hydrogen at 650K. The one-dimensional ZND model does a very good job at predicting the overall trends in the cell size data over the range of hydrogen-air-steam mixture compositions and temperature studied in the experiments.

Ciccarelli, G.; Ginsburg, T.; Boccio, J.; Economos, C.; Finfrock, C.; Gerlach, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Sato, K.; Kinoshita, M. [Nuclear Power Engineering Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

93

Low Temperature Air Distribution with Ice Storage System: A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

weekdays). The second part of the incentive is a "time of day" rate structure that bases the demand charge in June, July, August, and September on the electrical demand registered during the "on peak" time (12:OO noon to 8:00 pm). This allows... will be paid back in approximately two and one-half years at the current utility rate structure. The payback was possible because of the cash incentive offered by T.U. . Electric for the off peak storage system. The low temperature air distribution...

Ash, A.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

IRRADIATION GROWTH IN ZIRCONIUM AT LOW TEMPERATURES BY DIRECT ATHERMAL DEPOSITION OF VACANCIES AT EXTENDED SINKS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

IRRADIATION GROWTH IN ZIRCONIUM AT LOW TEMPERATURES BY DIRECT ATHERMAL DEPOSITION OF VACANCIES that at high temperatures (where vacancies are mobile) growth can be accounted for using a combination of : #12 vacancies and self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) as proposed by Woo and Gosele [5,6]. This theory seems

Motta, Arthur T.

95

Locating Nearby Sources of Air Pollution by Nonparametric Regression of Atmospheric Concentrations on Wind Direction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Locating Nearby Sources of Air Pollution by Nonparametric Regression of Atmospheric Concentrations. #12;1 Locating Nearby Sources of Air Pollution by Nonparametric Regression of Atmospheric. * Corresponding author. Submitted to Atmospheric Environment July, 2001. Abstract The relationship

Washington at Seattle, University of

96

Using ductwork to improve supply plenum temperature distribution in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

overhead air distribution design(1). 1.3 Thermal comfortS. Under Floor Air Distribution (UFAD) Design Guide. s.l. :load design tool for underfloor air distribution systems.

Pasut, Wilmer

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

E-Print Network 3.0 - air temperature inversions Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Laboratory Collection: Environmental Sciences and Ecology ; Engineering 4 Air Pollution Physics and Chemistry EASCEE 6790 Home Work Assignment No. 1, Air Pollution...

98

Measurement of temperature distributions in large pool fires with the use of directional flame thermometers  

SciTech Connect

Temperatures inside the flame zone of large regulatory pool fires measured during tests of radioactive materials packages vary widely with both time and position. Measurements made with several Directional Flame Thermometers, in which a thermocouple is attached to a thin metal sheet that quickly approaches flame temperatures, have been used to construct fire temperature distributions and cumulative probability distributions. As an aid to computer simulations of these large fires, these distributions are presented. The distributions are constructed by sorting fire temperature data into bins 10 C wide. A typical fire temperature distribution curve has a gradual increase starting at about 600 C, with the number of observations increasing to a peak near 1000 C, followed by an abrupt decrease in frequency, with no temperatures observed above 1200 C.

KOSKI,JORMAN A.

2000-05-09T23:59:59.000Z

99

Refractory oxides for high?temperature coal?fired MHD air heaters  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In a coal?burning MHD (Magnetohydrodynamic) power plant the use of a regenerative air heater is one option for producing the required high plasma temperatures. However thermal mechanical and chemical stresses which the MHD environment places on materials are enormous and candidate materials must be carefully tested. We report on the results of such testing for a variety of materials studied in heater test facilities at both FluiDyne Engineering Corporation and at Montana State University. We describe the experimental program and test facilities for MHD heater development the rationale for the choice of materials and their performance (success or failure) under various envirnoments (slagging and nonslagging). Future materials needs are discussed in light of the observed effects.

Richard J. Pollina; Ronald R. Smyth

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

100

Optical gain from the direct gap transition of Ge-on-Si at room temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report direct band gap optical gain of tensile strained n+ epitaxial Ge-on-Si at room temperature, which confirms that band-engineered Ge-on-Si is a promising gain medium for monolithic optical amplifiers and lasers on Si.

Liu, Jifeng

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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101

RNAthermsw: Direct Temperature Simulations for Predicting the Location of RNA Thermometers  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RNAthermsw: Direct Temperature Simulations for Predicting the Location of RNA Thermometers, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva, Israel Abstract The mechanism of RNA thermometers is a subject. The detection of RNA thermometers in various genes of interest is valuable as it could lead to the discovery

Barash, Danny

102

Direct observation of field and temperature induced domain replication in dipolar coupled perpendicular anisotropy films  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Dipolar interactions in a soft/Pd/hard [CoNi/Pd]30/Pd/[Co/Pd]20 multilayer system, where a thick Pd layer between two ferromagnetic units prevents direct exchange coupling, are directly revealed by combining magnetometry and state-of-the-art layer resolving soft x-ray imaging techniques with sub-100-nm spatial resolution. The domains forming in the soft layer during external magnetic field reversal are found to match the domains previously trapped in the hard layer. The low Curie temperature of the soft layer allows varying its intrinsic parameters via temperature and thus studying the competition with dipolar fields due to the domains in the hard layer. Micromagnetic simulations elucidate the role of [CoNi/Pd] magnetization, exchange, and anisotropy in the duplication process. Finally, thermally driven domain replication in remanence during temperature cycling is demonstrated.

T. Hauet; C. M. Günther; B. Pfau; M. E. Schabes; J.-U. Thiele; R. L. Rick; P. Fischer; S. Eisebitt; O. Hellwig

2008-05-19T23:59:59.000Z

103

Wind Effect, Recirculation and Thermal Flow Field of a Direct Air?cooled Condenser for a Large Power Plant  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The thermal effect experiments were carried out of a direct air?cooled system in the low speed wind tunnel. The influence of effect factors on recirculation is also discussion after that the relationship between the thermal flow field structure and recirculation ratio under the cooling tower is analyzed. At last the engineering measures to reduce or avoid recirculation are proposed. For certain conditions the experimental measurement shows close agreement with numerical values.

W. L. Zhao; P. Q. Liu; H. S. Duan; J. Y. Zhu

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Warm Humid Climate: Methodology to Study Air Temperature Distribution: Mobile Phones Base Stations as Viable Alternative for Fixed Points  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WARM-HUMID CLIMATE: METHODOLOGY TO STUDY AIR TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION: MOBILE PHONES BASE STATIONS AS VIABLE ALTERNATIVE FOR FIXED POINTS Angelina Dias Leão Costa (1); Lucila Labaki (2); Virgínia Araújo (3) (1) and (2) School of Civil... of occupation with the results of measurements. In fact, in some dense areas the highest temperatures and the lowest humidity levels were found. The proposed methodology of measurements in fixed points using mobile phone base stations is original, provides...

Araujo, V.; Costa, A.; Labaki, L.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI-terrain in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003 April 2005  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measurements at the KNMI-terrain in De Bilt (the Netherlands) Page 2 #12;Interim report Page 3 Table measurements at the KNMI-terrain in De Bilt (the Netherlands) Page 4 Foreword From May 2003 through April 2005Parallel air temperature measurements at the KNMI-terrain in De Bilt (the Netherlands) May 2003

Stoffelen, Ad

106

Direct numerical simulation of ignition front propagation in a constant volume with temperature inhomogeneities. I. Fundamental analysis and diagnostics  

SciTech Connect

The influence of thermal stratification on autoignition at constant volume and high pressure is studied by direct numerical simulation (DNS) with detailed hydrogen/air chemistry with a view to providing better understanding and modeling of combustion processes in homogeneous charge compression-ignition engines. Numerical diagnostics are developed to analyze the mode of combustion and the dependence of overall ignition progress on initial mixture conditions. The roles of dissipation of heat and mass are divided conceptually into transport within ignition fronts and passive scalar dissipation, which modifies the statistics of the preignition temperature field. Transport within ignition fronts is analyzed by monitoring the propagation speed of ignition fronts using the displacement speed of a scalar that tracks the location of maximum heat release rate. The prevalence of deflagrative versus spontaneous ignition front propagation is found to depend on the local temperature gradient, and may be identified by the ratio of the instantaneous front speed to the laminar deflagration speed. The significance of passive scalar mixing is examined using a mixing timescale based on enthalpy fluctuations. Finally, the predictions of the multizone modeling strategy are compared with the DNS, and the results are explained using the diagnostics developed. (author)

Chen, Jacqueline H.; Hawkes, Evatt R.; Sankaran, Ramanan [Reacting Flow Research Department, Combustion Research Facility, Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 969 MS 9051, Livermore, CA 94551-0969 (United States); Mason, Scott D. [Lockheed Martin Corporation, Sunnyvale, CA 94089 (United States); Im, Hong G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States)

2006-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

107

The use of ducts to improve the control of supply air temperature rise in UFAD systems: CFD and lab study  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Cool supply air flowing through the underfloor plenum is exposed to heat gain from both the concrete slab (conducted from the warm return air on the adjacent floor below the slab) and the raised floor panels (conducted from the warmer room above). The magnitude of this heat gain can be quite high, resulting in undesirable loss of control of the supply air temperature from the plenum into the occupied space. These warmer supply air temperatures can make it more difficult to maintain comfort in the occupied space (without increasing airflow rates), particularly in perimeter zones where cooling loads reach their highest levels. How to predict plenum thermal performance is one of the key design issues facing practicing engineers – evidence from completed projects indicates that excessive temperature rise in the plenum can be a problem. One of the recommended strategies for addressing temperature rise in UFAD systems is the use of ductwork (flexible or rigid) within the underfloor plenum to deliver cool air preferentially to perimeter zones or other critical areas of high cooling demand. Several experiments were carried out in a full-scale underfloor plenum test facility, in order to characterize all the phenomena that take place in an underfloor plenum equipped with a fabric or metal duct. Experimental data were collected for validation of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the plenum. This paper describes the first part of a more comprehensive work, whose aim is to use the validated CFD plenum model to conduct simulations of a broader range of plenum design and operational parameters. This work proves that using ductwork within the underfloor plenum reduce the temperature rise in the plenum.

Wilmer Pasut; Fred Bauman; Michele De Carli

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

108

Recent oppositely directed trends in solar climate forcings and the global mean surface air temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...102 and 108 years. Recently, solar effects on climate on time scales...becoming feasible to detect genuine solar forcing in climate records (Haigh 2003). The thermal capacity of the Earth's oceans is large...decadal-scale (and hence solar cycle) variations in global...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

109

Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

urban analysis of air pollution health effects, remainsderived from community air pollution health studies. Recentused to link them, in air pollution health studies including

McKone, Thomas E.

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

110

High-Temperature Downhole MWD Tools for Directional Drilling | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

MWD Tools for Directional Drilling MWD Tools for Directional Drilling Jump to: navigation, search Geothermal ARRA Funded Projects for High-Temperature Downhole MWD Tools for Directional Drilling Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":200,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":false,"title":"","label":"","lines":[],"polygons":[],"circles":[],"rectangles":[],"locations":[{"text":"

111

The air side performance of extended surface direct expansion cooling coils  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The tubes are actually slightly flattened. The tube is 1/4" nominal steel tubing. Fins ara also steel. Drawing is not to scale and not all fins ara shown. 0? CSS FPM C SCS FPM / Wo ~c S p ~s g Mo ISO + 0 IS I So C I IO IL loo 1 Qo 0 So X.... 01507 0. 01460 0. 01375 0 . 01254 1103. 7 1102. 2 1100. 6 1098. 8 1096. 7 1095. 5 1094. 1 1092. 8 1091. 8 TABLE 1 (CONT. ) ~Ent1sll Water per lb. vapor/lb. QT dr air dr air BTU/hr ~ BTU/hr. BTU/hr. 33. 14 32. 32 31. 43 30. 42 29. 25...

Kinney, Robert Clarke

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

112

Development of High-Temperature Air Braze Filler Metals for Use in Two-Step Joining and Sealing Processes  

SciTech Connect

Reactive air brazing (RAB) creates metallic braze joints between oxide surfaces. RAB can be performed in air and can undergo subsequent operation at temperatures up to 900ºC in oxidizing environments. This makes RAB an attractive joining method for creating seals in solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) which operate at temperatures between 700 and 850ºC and comprise cathode materials which are intolerant of reducing environments. Many planar SOFC designs require a two-step sealing process. Thus the seal formed during the first step must not melt or soften at the firing temperature of the second step, otherwise its integrity could be compromised. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of adding Pd to a Ag-CuO RAB to produce a braze composition with a melting temperature high enough that it might be used in the first step of a two-step sealing process with unmodified Ag-CuO RAB used in the second step, thereby making possible a two step reactive air brazing process. Yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is the substrate of choice in this study in order to simulate the initial sealing step in planar SOFCs which often involves sealing a yttrium-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) electrolyte to a metallic support frame. RAB compositions containing a 15 mol% Pd : 85 mol% Ag alloy with 8 mol% Cu added were found to provide the best combination of wettability, mechanical strength, and melting characteristics for brazing YSZ.

Hardy, John S.; Weil, K. Scott

2006-11-02T23:59:59.000Z

113

Temperature Compensated Air/Fuel Ratio Control on a Recuperated Furnace  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

When recuperation is added to a furnace, air/ fuel ratio control seemingly becomes more complicated. Two methods normally used are mass flow control where the fuel pressure or flow is proportional to the mass flow of air or cross-connected control...

Ferri, J. L.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

114

E-Print Network 3.0 - airs-derived olr temperature Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature (SST), and outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) in the northeastern tropical Pacific Ocean during... temperature Figure 5 shows LMCA analysis applied to the relation...

115

Characteristics of a Direct Current-driven plasma jet operated in open air  

SciTech Connect

A DC-driven plasma jet has been developed to generate a diffuse plasma plume by blowing argon into the ambient air. The plasma plume, showing a cup shape with a diameter of several centimeters at a higher voltage, is a pulsed discharge despite a DC voltage is applied. The pulse frequency is investigated as a function of the voltage under different gap widths and gas flow rates. Results show that plasma bullets propagate from the hollow needle to the plate electrode by spatially resolved measurement. A supposition about non-electroneutral trail of the streamer is proposed to interpret these experimental phenomena.

Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China) [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China); Key Laboratory of Photo-Electronics Information Materials of Hebei Province, Baoding 071002 (China); Di, Cong; Jia, Pengying [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)] [College of Physics Science and Technology, Hebei University, Baoding 071002 (China)

2013-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

116

Initial proof-of-principle for near room temperature Xe and Kr separation from air with MOFs  

SciTech Connect

Materials were developed and tested in support of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Cycle Technology Separations and Waste Forms Campaign. Specifically, materials are being developed for the removal of Xenon and krypton from gaseous products of nuclear fuel reprocessing unit operations. During FY 2012, Three Metal organic framework (MOF) structures were investigated in greater detail for the removal and storage of Xe and Kr from air at room temperature. Our breakthrough measurements on Nickel based MOF could capture and separate parts per million levels of Xe from Air (40 ppm Kr, 78% N2, 21% O2, 0.9% Ar, 0.03% CO2). Similarly, the selectivity can be changed from Xe > Kr to Xe < Kr simply by changing the temperature in another MOF. Also for the first time we estimated the cost of the metal organic frameworks in bulk.

Thallapally, Praveen K.; Strachan, Denis M.

2012-06-06T23:59:59.000Z

117

Temperature inversion breakup with impacts on air quality in urban valleys influenced by topographic shading  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Urban valleys can experience serious air pollution problems as a combined result of their limited ventilation and the high emission of pollutants from the urban areas. Idealized simulations were analysed in order to elucidate the breakup of an ...

Angela M. Rendón; Juan F. Salazar; Carlos A. Palacio; Volkmar Wirth

118

Influence of Shelves on Air Temperature and Velocity in a Supermarket  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

will be great. According to the analysis of measurement results of a supermarket in Harbin, factors such as relative position of supply and return air inlets, height of shelves and objects with heat generating capabilities influence the velocity fields...

Song, C.; Fang, X.; Tan, Y.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

Catalytic oxidation of propylene with air at temperatures near 500° FCatalytic oxidation of propylene with air at temperatures near 500°F?  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

(9 ), propane was relatively difficult to oxidise. Using an arbitrary scale where the ease of oxidation of pentane equals 1 , the following values were reported} ethane, 0 .0 0 1 1; propane, 0 .1 ; butane, 0 .5 ; hexane, 7 .5 * *hs numbers refer.... They reported a 15 percent conversion to acrolein and a U peroent conversion to carbon dioxide. This was the lowest temperature at which the oxidation was reported to have been accomplished, and it appeared that the work of the present thesis in the region...

Dunlop, Donald Dunwody

1953-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Studying the feedback effects of aerosols on ozone and temperatures in Los Angeles with an Eulerian air pollution model  

SciTech Connect

An Eulerian air pollution model (GATOR/MMTD) was used to study the effects of aerosols on surface solar radiation, surface air temperatures, and ozone mixing ratios. Model results were also compared to data from the Southern California Air Quality Study (SCAQS) period of August 27-29, 1987. Gross errors for sulfate, sodium, light absorption, temperature, surface solar radiation, sulfur dioxide gas, formaldehyde gas, and ozone were lowest among parameters compared (1-40%). Gross errors for elemental carbon, organic carbon, total particulate mass, ammonium, ammonia gas, nitric acid gas, and light scattering, were larger (40-61%). Gross errors for particulate nitrate were largest (65-70%). Doubling of the land-based particulate emissions inventory caused gross errors of total particulate mass and elemental carbon to increase by factors of more than two. Also, setting lateral boundary inflow concentrations of particles to zero caused slight (< 1%) erosion of results for most species, large erosion (10%) for sodium and chloride, but slight improvement (< 1%) for a few species. Spinning up the meteorological model 24 hours in advance caused most gross errors to increase. Finally, model predictions for several parameters, with and without the inclusion of aerosols, were compared to data. The presence of aerosols reduced peak daytime surface solar radiation by approximately 6.4% (55 W m-2), increased night-time temperatures by about 0.77 K, decreased daytime temperatures by about 0.08 K, and increased overall temperatures (day plus night during the two day simulation period) by 0.43 K. The relatively small cooling during the day was due to heat trapping by elemental carbon-containing aerosols. The presence of aerosols also caused ozone mixing ratios to decrease by 2%.

Jacobson, M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

3-D agricultural air quality modeling: Impacts of NH3/H2S gas–phase reactions and bi-directional exchange of NH3  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Accurately simulating the transport and fate of reduced nitrogen (NHx = ammonia (NH3) + ammonium (NH4+))- and sulfur-containing compounds emitted from agricultural activities represents a major challenge in agricultural air quality modeling. In this study, the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is further developed and improved by implementing 22 ammonia (NH3)/hydrogen sulfide (H2S) related gas-phase reactions and adjusting a few key parameters (e.g., emission potential) for bi-directional exchange of NH3 fluxes. Several simulations are conducted over the eastern U.S. domain at a 12-km horizontal resolution for January and July 2002 to examine the impacts of those improved treatments on air quality. The 5th generation mesoscale model (MM5) and CMAQ predict an overall satisfactory and consistent performance with previous modeling studies, especially for 2-m temperature, 2-m relative humidity, ozone (O3), and fine particulate matter (PM2.5). High model biases exist for precipitation in July and also dry/wet depositions. The updated model treatments contribute to O3, NHx, and PM2.5 by up to 0.4 ppb, 1.0 ?g m?3, and 1.0 ?g m?3 in January, respectively, and reduce O3 by up to 0.8 ppb and contribute to \\{NHx\\} and PM2.5 by up to 1.2 and 1.1 ?g m?3 in July, respectively. The spatial distributions of O3 in both months and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in January are mainly affected by inline dry deposition velocity calculation. The spatial distributions of SO2 and sulfate (SO42?) in July are affected by both inline dry deposition velocity and NH3/H2S reactions. The variation trends of NH3, NHx, ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), PM2.5 and total nitrogen (TN) are predominated by bi-directional exchange of NH3 fluxes. Uncertainties of NH3 emission potentials and empirical constants used in the bi-directional exchange scheme may significantly affect the concentrations of \\{NHx\\} and PM2.5, indicating that a more accurate and explicit treatment for those parameters should be considered in the future work.

Kai Wang; Yang Zhang

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

122

Asymmetry of winter European surface air temperature extremes and the North Atlantic Oscillation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Inter-annual variations of winter warm and cold extremes in Europe are investigated. It is found that the variations are closely connected to the phase of the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO). The leading EOF of the winter cold (warm) surface air ...

Yina Diao; Shang-Ping Xie; Dehai Luo

123

Metal-air cell comprising an electrolyte with a room temperature ionic liquid and hygroscopic additive  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electrochemical cell comprising an electrolyte comprising water and a hydrophobic ionic liquid comprising positive ions and negative ions. The electrochemical cell also includes an air electrode configured to absorb and reduce oxygen. A hydrophilic or hygroscopic additive modulates the hydrophobicity of the ionic liquid to maintain a concentration of the water in the electrolyte is between 0.001 mol % and 25 mol %.

Friesen, Cody A.; Krishnan, Ramkumar; Tang, Toni; Wolfe, Derek

2014-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

124

Pressure &Pressure & TemperatureTemperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer toprobe to measure atmospheric pressure, and thermometer to measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature.measure air temperature

California at Santa Cruz, University of

125

Effect of flow velocity and temperature on ignition characteristics in laser ignition of natural gas and air mixtures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Laser induced spark ignition offers the potential for greater reliability and consistency in ignition of lean air/fuel mixtures. This increased reliability is essential for the application of gas turbines as primary or secondary reserve energy sources in smart grid systems, enabling the integration of renewable energy sources whose output is prone to fluctuation over time. This work details a study into the effect of flow velocity and temperature on minimum ignition energies in laser-induced spark ignition in an atmospheric combustion test rig, representative of a sub 15 MW industrial gas turbine (Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery Ltd., Lincoln, UK). Determination of minimum ignition energies required for a range of temperatures and flow velocities is essential for establishing an operating window in which laser-induced spark ignition can operate under realistic, engine-like start conditions. Ignition of a natural gas and air mixture at atmospheric pressure was conducted using a laser ignition system utilizing a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser source operating at 532 nm wavelength and 4 ns pulse length. Analysis of the influence of flow velocity and temperature on ignition characteristics is presented in terms of required photon flux density, a useful parameter to consider during the development laser ignition systems.

J. Griffiths; M.J.W. Riley; A. Borman; C. Dowding; A. Kirk; R. Bickerton

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

126

O{sub 2} rotational temperature measurements in an atmospheric air microdischarge by radar resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization  

SciTech Connect

Nonintrusive spatially resolved rotational temperature measurements in an atmospheric air microdischarge are presented. The measurements were based on coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering (Radar) from resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of molecular oxygen. The open air DC microdischarge source operated in a stable 'normal-glow' mode and pin-to-pin electrodes spaced 1.3 mm apart. The second harmonic of a tunable dye laser beam was focused between the two electrodes and scanned between 286 and 288 nm. Coherent microwave Rayleigh scattering was used to collect the two-photon rotational spectra of O{sub 2} at C{sup 3}{Pi}(v = 2) Leftwards-Arrow X{sup 3}{Sigma}(v Prime = 0) transitions. The Boltzmann plots from analyses of the O{sub 2} rotational lines determined local rotational temperatures at various axial locations between the electrodes. The molecular oxygen rotational temperature varied from {approx}1150 K to {approx}1350 K within the discharge area. The measurements had an accuracy of {approx}{+-}50 K.

Sawyer, Jordan; Wu, Yue; Zhang, Zhili [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Biomedical Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville Tennessee 37996 (United States); Adams, Steven F. [Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RQQE), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7919 (United States)] [Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RQQE), Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio 45433-7919 (United States)

2013-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

127

Direct  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

interactions, and the pollutant emission is hence directly proportional to the bulk neutral density. Simultaneously monitoring the total emission at 1040 nm and the...

128

Comparative Assessment of Direct Drive High Temperature Superconducting Generators in Multi-Megawatt Class Wind Turbines  

SciTech Connect

This paper summarizes the work completed under the CRADA between NREL and American Superconductor (AMSC). The CRADA combined NREL and AMSC resources to benchmark high temperature superconducting direct drive (HTSDD) generator technology by integrating the technologies into a conceptual wind turbine design, and comparing the design to geared drive and permanent magnet direct drive (PMDD) wind turbine configurations. Analysis was accomplished by upgrading the NREL Wind Turbine Design Cost and Scaling Model to represent geared and PMDD turbines at machine ratings up to 10 MW and then comparing cost and mass figures of AMSC's HTSDD wind turbine designs to theoretical geared and PMDD turbine designs at 3.1, 6, and 10 MW sizes. Based on the cost and performance data supplied by AMSC, HTSDD technology has good potential to compete successfully as an alternative technology to PMDD and geared technology turbines in the multi megawatt classes. In addition, data suggests the economics of HTSDD turbines improve with increasing size, although several uncertainties remain for all machines in the 6 to 10 MW class.

Maples, B.; Hand, M.; Musial, W.

2010-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

The influence of air temperature inversions on snowmelt and glacier mass-balance simulations, Ammassalik island, SE Greenland  

SciTech Connect

In many applications, a realistic description of air temperature inversions is essential for accurate snow and glacier ice melt, and glacier mass-balance simulations. A physically based snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) was used to simulate eight years (1998/99 to 2005/06) of snow accumulation and snow and glacier ice ablation from numerous small coastal marginal glaciers on the SW-part of Ammassalik Island in SE Greenland. These glaciers are regularly influenced by inversions and sea breezes associated with the adjacent relatively low temperature and frequently ice-choked fjords and ocean. To account for the influence of these inversions on the spatiotemporal variation of air temperature and snow and glacier melt rates, temperature inversion routines were added to MircoMet, the meteorological distribution sub-model used in SnowModel. The inversions were observed and modeled to occur during 84% of the simulation period. Modeled inversions were defined not to occur during days with strong winds and high precipitation rates due to the potential of inversion break-up. Field observations showed inversions to extend from sea level to approximately 300 m a.s.l., and this inversion level was prescribed in the model simulations. Simulations with and without the inversion routines were compared. The inversion model produced air temperature distributions with warmer lower elevation areas and cooler higher elevation areas than without inversion routines due to the use of cold sea-breeze base temperature data from underneath the inversion. This yielded an up to 2 weeks earlier snowmelt in the lower areas and up to 1 to 3 weeks later snowmelt in the higher elevation areas of the simulation domain. Averaged mean annual modeled surface mass-balance for all glaciers (mainly located above the inversion layer) was -720 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} for inversion simulations, and -880 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} without the inversion routines, a difference of 160 mm w.eq. y{sup -1}. The annual glacier loss for the two simulations was 50.7 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} y{sup -1} and 64.4 x 10{sup 6} m{sup 3} y{sup -1} for all glaciers - a difference of {approx}21%. The average equilibrium line altitude (ELA) for all glaciers in the simulation domain was located at 875 m a.s.l. and at 900 m a.s.l. for simulations with or without inversion routines, respectively.

Mernild, Sebastian Haugard [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Liston, Glen [COLORADO STATE UNIV.

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

130

Characterization of Coal Combustion and Steam Temperature with Respect to Staged-Air Angle in a 600 MWe Down-Fired Boiler  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Characterization of Coal Combustion and Steam Temperature with Respect to Staged-Air Angle in a 600 MWe Down-Fired Boiler ... The explanation behind this phenomenon is the combined effects of (i) the drop in the overall gas temperatures and (ii) the enhancement in the mixing of staged air with the ignited coal/air mixture in the primary combustion zone after the angle reduction. ... In order to reduce the oil consumption during the start up and low load operation of the W-shaped flame pulverized coal-fired utility boiler, tiny-oil technol. is introduced to the cyclone burner based on the design concept of staged ignition. ...

Min Kuang; Zhengqi Li; Zhongqian Ling; Zhuofu Chen; Danyan Yuan

2014-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

131

E-Print Network 3.0 - airs volumetric temperature Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

OF MINERAL Summary: .02 cp Formation temperature 230 F Volumetric concentration of shale 0.00 Wellbore radius 14.54 cm... VOLUMETRIC CONCENTRATIONS IN THINLY-BEDDED AND...

132

E-Print Network 3.0 - airs temperature soundings Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

-validation of MIPASENVISAT and GPS-ROCHAMP temperature profiles D. Y. Wang, G. P. Stiller, T. von Clarmann, H... -505-454-3364 Summary This paper presents results from a...

133

Energy Savings in Buildings Using Air Movement and Allowing Floating Temperature in Rooms  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

on and off at the proper times, the intelligent controller calculated temperature limits using a mathematical procedure that determined the percentage of people who would be comfortable in rooms of the building. Simulations showed the annual cost savings...

Spain, S.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Investigation on multi-variable decoupled temperature control system for enamelling machine with heated air circulation  

SciTech Connect

A lots of problems may occur frequently when controlling the temperature of the enamelling machine oven in the real industrial process, such as multi-variable coupled problem. an experimental rig with triple inputs and triple outputs was devised and a simulation modeling was established accordingly in this study,. the temperature control system based on the feedforward compensation algorithm was proposed. Experimental results have shown that the system is of high efficiency, good stability and promising application.

Li, Yang; Qin, Le; Zou, Shipeng; Long, Shijun [School of Information Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China)

2014-04-11T23:59:59.000Z

135

Air service to small communities-directions for the future : final report of the Workshop on Low/Medium Density Air Transportation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Introduction: In the decade between 1962 and 1972, certificated air service was deleted at about 250 points in the United States. In some of these cases, the service was no longer needed because of improved highway access ...

Vittek, Joseph F.

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Measurement of gas species, temperatures, coal burnout, and wall heat fluxes in a 200 MWe lignite-fired boiler with different overfire air damper openings  

SciTech Connect

Measurements were performed on a 200 MWe, wall-fired, lignite utility boiler. For different overfire air (OFA) damper openings, the gas temperature, gas species concentration, coal burnout, release rates of components (C, H, and N), furnace temperature, and heat flux and boiler efficiency were measured. Cold air experiments for a single burner were conducted in the laboratory. The double-swirl flow pulverized-coal burner has two ring recirculation zones starting in the secondary air region in the burner. As the secondary air flow increases, the axial velocity of air flow increases, the maxima of radial velocity, tangential velocity and turbulence intensity all increase, and the swirl intensity of air flow and the size of recirculation zones increase slightly. In the central region of the burner, as the OFA damper opening widens, the gas temperature and CO concentration increase, while the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and coal particles ignite earlier. In the secondary air region of the burner, the O{sub 2} concentration, NOx concentration, coal burnout, and release rates of components (C, H, and N) decrease, and the gas temperature and CO concentration vary slightly. In the sidewall region, the gas temperature, O{sub 2} concentration, and NOx concentration decrease, while the CO concentration increases and the gas temperature varies slightly. The furnace temperature and heat flux in the main burning region decrease appreciably, but increase slightly in the burnout region. The NOx emission decreases from 1203.6 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 0% to 511.7 mg/m{sup 3} (6% O{sub 2}) for a damper opening of 80% and the boiler efficiency decreases from 92.59 to 91.9%. 15 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs.

Jianping Jing; Zhengqi Li; Guangkui Liu; Zhichao Chen; Chunlong Liu [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

137

Experimental investigation of ultraviolet laser induced plasma density and temperature evolution in air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and collisional cascade processes for pressures ranging from 40 Torr to 5 atm. A laser shadowgraphy diagnosticExperimental investigation of ultraviolet laser induced plasma density and temperature evolution July 2008 We present measurements and analysis of laser induced plasma neutral densities

Scharer, John E.

138

Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist Engine Technology for Clean Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in Heavy Duty Application  

SciTech Connect

The first phase of the project consists of four months of applied research, starting from September 1, 2005 and was completed by December 31, 2005. During this time, the project team heavily relied on highly detailed numerical modeling techniques to evaluate the feasibility of the APA technology. Specifically, (i) A GT-Power{sup TM}engine simulation model was constructed to predict engine efficiency at various operating conditions. Efficiency was defined based on the second-law thermodynamic availability. (ii) The engine efficiency map generated by the engine simulation was then fed into a simplified vehicle model, which was constructed in the Matlab/Simulink environment, to predict fuel consumption of a refuse truck on a simple collection cycle. (iii) Design and analysis work supporting the concept of retrofitting an existing Sturman Industries Hydraulic Valve Actuation (HVA) system with the modifications that are required to run the HVA system with Air Power Assist functionality. A Matlab/Simulink model was used to calculate the dynamic response of the HVA system. Computer aided design (CAD) was done in Solidworks for mechanical design and hydraulic layout. At the end of Phase I, 11% fuel economy improvement was predicted. During Phase II, the engine simulation group completed the engine mapping work. The air handling group made substantial progress in identifying suppliers and conducting 3D modelling design. Sturman Industries completed design modification of the HVA system, which was reviewed and accepted by Volvo Powertrain. In Phase II, the possibility of 15% fuel economy improvement was shown with new EGR cooler design by reducing EGR cooler outlet temperature with APA engine technology from Air Handling Group. In addition, Vehicle Simulation with APA technology estimated 4 -21% fuel economy improvement over a wide range of driving cycles. During Phase III, the engine experimental setup was initiated at VPTNA, Hagerstown, MD. Air Handling system and HVA system were delivered to VPTNA and then assembly of APA engine was completed by June 2007. Functional testing of APA engine was performed and AC and AM modes testing were completed by October 2007. After completing testing, data analysis and post processing were performed. Especially, the models were instrumental in identifying some of the key issues with the experimental HVA system. Based upon the available engine test results during AC and AM modes, the projected fuel economy improvement over the NY composite cycle is 14.7%. This is close to but slightly lower than the originally estimated 18% from ADVISOR simulation. The APA project group demonstrated the concept of APA technology by using simulation and experimental testing. However, there are still exists of technical challenges to meet the original expectation of APA technology. The enabling technology of this concept, i.e. a fully flexible valve actuation system that can handle high back pressure from the exhaust manifold is identified as one of the major technical challenges for realizing the APA concept.

Hyungsuk Kang; Chun Tai

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Deemed Savings Estimates for Legacy Air Conditioning and WaterHeating Direct Load Control Programs in PJM Region  

SciTech Connect

During 2005 and 2006, the PJM Interconnection (PJM) Load Analysis Subcommittee (LAS) examined ways to reduce the costs and improve the effectiveness of its existing measurement and verification (M&V) protocols for Direct Load Control (DLC) programs. The current M&V protocol requires that a PURPA-compliant Load Research study be conducted every five years for each Load-Serving Entity (LSE). The current M&V protocol is expensive to implement and administer particularly for mature load control programs, some of which are marginally cost-effective. There was growing evidence that some LSEs were mothballing or dropping their DLC programs in lieu of incurring the expense associated with the M&V. This project had several objectives: (1) examine the potential for developing deemed savings estimates acceptable to PJM for legacy air conditioning and water heating DLC programs, and (2) explore the development of a collaborative, regional, consensus-based approach for conducting monitoring and verification of load reductions for emerging load management technologies for customers that do not have interval metering capability.

Goldman, Charles

2007-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

Effects of fuel octane number and inlet air temperature on knock characteristics of a single cylinder engine  

SciTech Connect

A dual sample rate technique has been developed and applied to measuring in-cylinder pressure and its oscillations due to autoignition. The harmonics of in-cylinder oscillations were found in good agreement with those obtained from the solutions of wave equation in a cylindrical container. The time of knock relative to spark timing was almost independent of the knock intensity, fuel octane number, and inlet air temperature. The knock intensity was almost constant up to the spark advance when about 100% of the cycles were knocking, further spark advance resulted in higher knock intensity. The mass fraction of unburned fuel at the time of knock was about 10% and was independent of the frequency of the cycles knocking. These observations indicated that the phenomenon of knock is a single-site autoignition for intermittent knock and multi-site autoignition for severe knocking.

Haghgooie, M.

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Mechanical characterization of metallic materials for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors in air and in helium environments  

SciTech Connect

In the French R and D program for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs), three metallic alloys were studied: steel Chromesco-3 with 2.25% chromium, alloy 800H, and Hastelloy-X. The Chromesco-3 and alloy 800H creep behavior is the same in air and in HTGR atmosphere (helium). The tensile tests of Hastelloy-X specimens reveal that aging has embrittlement and hardening effects up to 700/sup 0/C, but the creep tests at 800/sup 0/C show opposite effects. This particular behavior could be due to induced precipitation by aging and the depletion of hardening elements from the matrix. Tests show a low influence of cobalt content on mechanical properties of Hastelloy-X.

Sainfort, G.; Cappelaere, M.; Gregoire, J.; Sannier, J.

1984-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct and absolute temperature mapping and heat transfer measurements in diode-end-pumped Yb and heat sink grease respectively). The dynamics of thermal effects is also presented. PACS 42.55.Xi (Diode-pumped in a diode-end-pumped Yb:YAG crystal, using a calibrated infrared camera, with a 60-µm spatial resolution

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

143

A High Temperature Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flowmeter for Heavy Duty Diesel Emission Measurements.  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Poster presented at the 16th Directions in Engine-Efficiency and Emissions Research (DEER) Conference in Detroit, MI, September 27-30, 2010.

144

OLYMPIC AIR QUALITY QUESTIONABLE  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

OLYMPIC AIR QUALITY QUESTIONABLE ... Athletes GOING FOR GOLD worry about Beijing’s air ... Atmospheric chemists say the air quality during the Beijing Games literally rests on which direction the winds blow. ...

RACHEL PETKEWICH

2008-07-28T23:59:59.000Z

145

The Coordinated Control of a Central Air Conditioning System Based on Variable Chilled Water Temperature and Variable Chilled Water Flow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

At present, regulation of water flow by means of pump frequency conversion is one of the major methods for power-saving in central air conditioning systems. In this article, optimization regulation for central air conditioning system on the basis...

Liu, J.; Mai, Y.; Liu, X.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

Nonlocal control of electron temperature in short direct current glow discharge plasma  

SciTech Connect

To demonstrate controlling the electron temperature in nonlocal plasma, experiments have been performed on a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode by applying different voltages to the conducting discharge wall. The experiments have been performed for low-pressure noble gas discharges. The applied voltage can modify trapping the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. This phenomenon results in the energetic electrons heating the slow plasma electrons, which consequently modifies the electron temperature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the discharge has demonstrated the electron temperature modification for the above case.

Demidov, V. I. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Stepanova, O. M. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM RF, Murmansk Branch, Murmansk 183040 (Russian Federation)

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

147

Heat Transfer -2 A pure platinum wire with diameter D = 3 mm and length L = 20 mm is placed outside on a day when air temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Heat Transfer - 2 A pure platinum wire with diameter D = 3 mm and length L = 20 mm is placed outside on a day when air temperature T = 10o C. The heat transfer coefficient at the wire's surface h equation that includes all heat transfer mechanisms involved in this problem. Write this energy balance

Virginia Tech

148

Exposure information in environmental health research: Current opportunities and future directions for particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutants  

SciTech Connect

Understanding and quantifying outdoor and indoor sources of human exposure are essential but often not adequately addressed in health-effects studies for air pollution. Air pollution epidemiology, risk assessment, health tracking and accountability assessments are examples of health-effects studies that require but often lack adequate exposure information. Recent advances in exposure modeling along with better information on time-activity and exposure factors data provide us with unique opportunities to improve the assignment of exposures for both future and ongoing studies linking air pollution to health impacts. In September 2006, scientists from the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) along with scientists from the academic community and state health departments convened a symposium on air pollution exposure and health in order to identify, evaluate, and improve current approaches for linking air pollution exposures to disease. This manuscript presents the key issues, challenges and recommendations identified by the exposure working group, who used cases studies of particulate matter, ozone, and toxic air pollutant exposure to evaluate health-effects for air pollution. One of the over-arching lessons of this workshop is that obtaining better exposure information for these different health-effects studies requires both goal-setting for what is needed and mapping out the transition pathway from current capabilities to meeting these goals. Meeting our long-term goals requires definition of incremental steps that provide useful information for the interim and move us toward our long-term goals. Another over-arching theme among the three different pollutants and the different health study approaches is the need for integration among alternate exposure assessment approaches. For example, different groups may advocate exposure indicators, biomonitoring, mapping methods (GIS), modeling, environmental media monitoring, and/or personal exposure modeling. However, emerging research reveals that the greatest progress comes from integration among two or more of these efforts.

McKone, Thomas E.; Ryan, P. Barry; Ozkaynak, Haluk

2007-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

149

Methyl Chloride from Direct Methane Partial Oxidation: A High-Temperature Shilov-Like Catalytic System  

SciTech Connect

The intention of this study is to demonstrate and evaluate the scientific and economic feasibility of using special solvents to improve the thermal stability of Pt-catalyst in the Shilov system, such that a high reaction temperature could be achieved. The higher conversion rate (near 100%) of methyl chloride from partial oxidation of methane under the high temperature ({approx} 200 C) without significant Pt0 precipitation has been achieved. High concentration of the Cl- ion has been identified as the key for the stabilization of the Pt-catalysts. H/D exchange measurements indicated that the over oxidation will occur at the elevated temperature, developments of the effective product separation processes will be necessary in order to rationalize the industry-visible CH4 to CH3Cl conversion.

Yongchun Tang; John (Qisheng) Ma

2012-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

150

Apparatus for direct measurement of ash fusion and sintering behavior at elevated temperatures and pressures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ash fusion sintering and deposition may impose serious operational difficulties in conventional and advanced coal?combustion systems. Conventional ash fusion techniques (e.g. ASTM methods) determine the qualitative behavior of ash samples at atmospheric pressure. Presently there is no known available technique that can measure the behavior of coal ash at elevated temperatures and pressures. In the literature methods based on electrical resistance or shrinkage of coal ash have been reported at atmospheric pressure (elevated temperatures) conditions. A high?pressure microdilatometer (HPMD) has been developed to investigate ash fusion and sintering behavior at elevated pressures and temperatures by the simultaneous measurement of the temperature of initial contraction and electrical resistivity of samples. This novel technique facilitates the measurement of ash properties over a wide range of temperature pressure and gas atmosphere (oxidizing reducing or inert). The operating principle of the HPMD includes measuring the temperature at which there is a significant ‘‘shift’’ in the electrical resistivity (and/or sample volume) that represents ash sintering and fusion. Sintering occurs through the formation of solid?state particle?to?particle ‘‘necks’’ or the appearance of a molten phase which allows a path for electrical conductance. The ability to perform both resistivity and shrinkage measurements simultaneously or independently at e l e v a t e d p r e s s u r e s makes the HPMD truly unique. The HPMD can also be used to investigate the swelling and softening behavior of pyrolyzing coal at elevated pressures and relatively rapid heating rates. The HPMD can provide insights into the sintering/fusion of coal ash or coal swelling at a range of conditions: (a) the influences of various gas atmospheres can be investigated (b) the effects of pressure can be studied (c) different temperature/heating rate schemes can be used (constant rates isothermal holds below or above the sinteringtemperature etc.) and (d) studies can be performed to investigate the influence of increased heating rate at elevated pressures (which were not performed previously) on coal swelling and plasticity.

M. Rashid Khan

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Direct electrolytic dissolution of silicate minerals for air CO2 mitigation and carbon-negative H2 production  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...air capture would best be located where capital, energy, and delivered reagent costs...carbon-negative electrolysis vs. carbon-positive natural gas reforming (29)], and if 44 t of CO 2 are captured...cost of carbon capture and storage for natural gas combined cycle power plants . Environ...

Greg H. Rau; Susan A. Carroll; William L. Bourcier; Michael J. Singleton; Megan M. Smith; Roger D. Aines

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

152

A plug and play framework for an HVAC air handling unit and temperature sensor auto recognition technique.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??A plug and play framework for an HVAC air handling unit control system is proposed in this study. This is the foundation and the first… (more)

Zhou, Xiaohui

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

8 Figure 5 Server rack Inlet Air Temperature (8 Figure 6 Server-rack Leaving Air Temperature (Rack .

Bell, Geoffrey C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Heat transfer pathways in underfloor air distribution (UFAD) systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

improving control of supply air temperature. This benefitloss of control of the supply air temperature from thecontrols to a constant plenum inlet temperature, thereby producing a supply temperature

Bauman, F.; Jin, H.; Webster, T.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

155

The effect of air charge temperature on performance, ignition delay and exhaust emissions of diesel engines using w/o emulsions as fuel  

SciTech Connect

Most of the work performed on the use of water/oil emulsions in diesel engines showed that increasing the water content in the emulsified fuel was effective in reducing NO/sub x/ and soot emissions. Unfortunately, the increase in water content in the emulsified fuel also increases the ignition delay and may cause diesel knock. One way to reduce the ignition delay is to increase the air charge temperature. In this study, the effect of increasing the air charge temperature on ignition delay, performance and exhaust emissions was investigated. The experiments were conducted on a CLR diesel engine using base-line diesel fuel number2 and stabilized macro-emulsions containing 15 percent, 30 percent and 45 percent water by volume.

Afify, E.M.; Korah, N.S.; Dickey, D.W.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

156

High-temperature low-cycle fatigue and tensile properties of Hastelloy X and alloy 617 in air and HTGR-helium  

SciTech Connect

Results of strain controlled fatigue and tensile tests are presented for two nickel base solution hardened alloys which are reference structural alloys for use in several high temperature gas cooled reactor concepts. These alloys, Hastelloy X Inconel 617, were tested at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 871/sup 0/C in air and impure helium. Materials were tested in the solution annealed as well as in the pre-aged condition where aging consisted of isothermal exposure at one of several temperatures for periods of up to 20,000 h. Comparisons are also given between the strain controlled fatigue lives of these alloys and several other commonly used alloys all tested at 538/sup 0/C.

Strizak, J.P.; Brinkman, C.R.; Rittenhouse, P.L.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

157

Spectral optimization of the color temperature tunable white light-emitting diode (LED) cluster consisting of direct-emission blue and red LEDs and a diphosphor conversion LED  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The correlated color temperature (CCT) tunable white-light LED cluster, which consists of direct-emission blue and red LEDs as well as phosphor-conversion (PC) LEDs packaged by...

Zhong, Ping; He, Guoxing; Zhang, Minhao

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

158

Optimizing the Low Temperature Cooling Energy Supply: Experimental Performance of an Absorption Chiller, a Compression Refrigeration Machine and Direct Cooling - a Comparison  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A strategy to optimize the low temperature cooling energy supply of a newly build office building is discussed against the background of a changing energy system. It is focused on, what production way - Direct Cooling, the Compression Refrigeration...

Uhrhan, S.; Gerber, A.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

159

Optical-Engine Study of a Low-Temperature Combustion Strategy Employing a Dual-Row, Narrow-Included-Angle Nozzle and Early, Direct Injection of Diesel Fuel  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Insight into mechanisms causing observed sharp emissions increase with diesel fuel injection is gained through experiments in an optical engine employing a similar low-temperature combustion strategy of early, direct injection of diesel fuel.

160

Energy performance of underfloor air distribution systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

loss of control of the supply air temperature from the loss of control of the  supply air temperature from the 

Bauman, Fred; Webster, Tom; Linden, Paul; Buhl, Fred

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Primary zone air proportioner  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An air proportioner is provided for a liquid hydrocarbon fueled gas turbine of the type which is convertible to oil gas fuel and to coal gas fuel. The turbine includes a shell for enclosing the turbine, an air duct for venting air in said shell to a gasifier, and a fuel injector for injecting gasified fuel into the turbine. The air proportioner comprises a second air duct for venting air from the air duct for mixing with fuel from the gasifier. The air can be directly injected into the gas combustion basket along with the fuel from the injector or premixed with fuel from the gasifier prior to injection by the fuel injector.

Cleary, Edward N. G. (San Diego, CA)

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

162

Energy Consumption Estimation for Room Air-conditioners Using Room Temperature Simulation with One-Minute Intervals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

time can be known so that its energy consumption can be estimated accurately. In order to verify the simulation accuracy, an actual room equipped with a gas-engine heat pump (GHP) air-conditioning system is studied by both simulation and measurement...

Wang, F.; Yoshida, H.; Matsumoto, K.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Fuzzy control model and simulation of supply air system in a test rig of low-temperature hot-water radiator system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper proposes a typical multi-variable, large time delay and nonlinear system, self-extracting rules fuzzy control (SERFC) method to maintain a stable temperature value in a built environment chamber with supply air system and hot-water system. The parameters of the transfer functions in every control loop were identified by experimental data in a format of time sequences obtained from the experiment of dynamical responding performance. Fuzzy control simulations were implemented based on adjustment of the supply air system and hot-water system by SERFC. The simulation results show that SERFC for environment chamber has satisfied performance. There is no higher overshoot and stable error. The work presented in here can be used to deal with those complex thermal processes with difficulties in modeling of fuzzy control rules and provide a foundation for further application of fuzzy control in HVAC system.

Zhen Lu; Jili Zhang; Yongpan Chen; Tianyi Zhao; Hui Liu

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

The effect of palladium additions on the solidus/liquidus temperatures and wetting properties of Ag-CuO based air brazes  

SciTech Connect

A new ceramic brazing technique referred to as reactive air brazing (RAB) has recently been developed for potential applications in high temperature devices such as gas concentrators, solid oxide fuel cells, gas turbines, and combustion engines. At present, the technique utilizing a silver-copper oxide system is of great interest. The maximum operating temperature of this system is limited by its eutectic temperature of ~945°C, although in practice the operating temperature will need to be lower. An obvious strategy that can be employed to increase the maximum operating temperature of the braze material is to add a higher melting noble alloying element. In this paper, we report the effects of palladium addition on the melting characteristics of the Ag-CuO system and on the wetting properties of the resulting braze with respect to alumina. It was found that the addition of Pd will cause an increase in the melting temperature of the Ag-CuO braze but possibly at a sacrifice of wetting properties depending on composition.

Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

Effects of air annealing on CdS quantum dots thin film grown at room temperature by CBD technique intended for photosensor applications  

SciTech Connect

Graphical abstract: The effect of different intensities (40, 60 100 and 200 W) of light on CdS quantum dots thin film annealed at 350 °C indicating enhancement in (a) photo-current and (b) photosensitivity. Highlights: ? The preparation of CdS nanodot thin film at room temperature by M-CBD technique. ? Study of air annealing on prepared CdS nanodots thin film. ? The optimized annealing temperature for CdS nanodot thin film is 350 °C. ? Modified CdS thin films can be used in photosensor application. -- Abstract: CdS quantum dots thin-films have been deposited onto the glass substrate at room temperature using modified chemical bath deposition technique. The prepared thin films were further annealed in air atmosphere at 150, 250 and 350 °C for 1 h and subsequently characterized by scanning electron microscopy, ultraviolet–visible spectroscopy, electrical resistivity and I–V system. The modifications observed in morphology and opto-electrical properties of the thin films are presented.

Shaikh, Shaheed U.; Desale, Dipalee J.; Siddiqui, Farha Y.; Ghosh, Arindam; Birajadar, Ravikiran B. [Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004, M.S. (India)] [Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004, M.S. (India); Ghule, Anil V. [Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004, M.S. (India)] [Department of Nanotechnology, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004, M.S. (India); Sharma, Ramphal, E-mail: ramphalsharma@yahoo.com [Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004, M.S. (India)] [Thin film and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, Aurangabad 431004, M.S. (India)

2012-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

166

Effects of ambient humidity on the energy use of air conditioning equipment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

economizer control with constant supply air temperature seteconomizer control with constant supply air temperature setcontrol under the constraint of constant supply air temperature

White, Justin George

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

167

High-Temperature Air/Steam-Blown Gasification of Coal in a Pressurized Spout-Fluid Bed  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

7-10 However, in the MEET system a pebble bed slagging entrained-flow gasifier was used that had to be operated at very high temperatures (1350?1550 °C), which required excessive energy input to maintain such a high gasification temperature when compared with fluidized bed gasifiers, such as spout-fluid bed gasifiers which used medium temperatures (800?1100 °C) to convert coal to fuel gas. ... The typical size distribution is shown in Table 2, where is specific surface-equivalent diameter. ...

Rui Xiao; Mingyao Zhang; Baosheng Jin; Yaji Huang; Hongcang Zhou

2006-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

168

Effect of Gas/Steam Turbine Inlet Temperatures on Combined Cycle Having Air Transpiration Cooled Gas Turbine  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Worldwide efforts are being made for further improving the gas/steam combined cycle performance by having better ... . The scope of improvement is possible through turbines having higher turbine inlet temperature...

S. Kumar; O. Singh

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Environmental Tradeoffs in a Desert City: An Investigation of Water Use, Energy Consumption, and Local Air Temperature in Phoenix, AZ  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Tradeoffs in a Desert City: An Investigation of Water Use, Energy Consumption tradeoffs between vegetation cover, microclimate temperature, and water and energy consumption. References, AZ CONCLUSION · Research Observations: · Water Consumption, Energy Use, Vegetation Cover

Hall, Sharon J.

170

ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 31, MAY 2014, 559569 Ensemble Retrieval of Atmospheric Temperature Profiles from AIRS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Satellite-based observations provide great opportunities for improving weather forecasting. Physical in global climate and weather systems. Among all observations, satellite-derived atmospheric temperatureCooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies, University of Wisconsin--Madison, Madison

Li, Jun

171

Velocity and temperature distribution of air in the boundary layer of a vertical plate for free-convective heat transfer  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to plate with average frost thickness as a reference plane Dimension, representing time Kinematic. viscosity of fluid L2/q Dimensionless local temperature, Tco T Tco T y 1/4 Dimensionless. distance, ? (N&r x) ) x gr, x Dimensionless local velocity..., ( Tco f l/2 ~( ?)lr2 )Tc - T ) Stream function dimensionless dimensionless dimensionless L2/ CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Motions that are caused solely by the density gradients created by temperature differences are termed "natural" as distinct...

Jullienne, Jean Maxime Jose

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

172

Two-dimensional model of the air flow and temperature distribution in a cavity-type heat receiver of a solar stirling engine  

SciTech Connect

A theoretical study on the air flow and temperature in the heat receiver, affected by free convection, of a Stirling Engine for a Dish/Stirling Engine Power System is presented. The standard {kappa}-{epsilon} turbulence model for the fluid flow has been used and the boundary conditions employed were obtained using a second level mathematical model of the Stirling Engine working cycle. Physical models for the distribution of the solar insolation from the Concentrator on the bottom and side walls of the cavity-type heat receiver have been taken into account. The numerical results show that most of the heat losses in the receiver are due to re-radiation from the cavity and conduction through the walls of the cavity. It is in the region of the boundary of the input window of the heat receiver where there is a sensible reduction in the temperature in the shell of the heat exchangers and this is due to the free convection of the air. Further, the numerical results show that convective heat losses increase with decreasing tilt angle.

Makhkamov, K.K.; Ingham, D.B.

1999-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Direct Digital Control- A Tool for Energy Management of HVAC Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct digital control (DDC) applied to heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems corrects many of the deficiencies of conventional automatic temperature control systems. By applying new control sequences, DDC optimizes HVAC energy...

Swanson, K.

174

Numerical Analysis of a Cold Air Distribution System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cold air distribution systems may reduce the operating energy consumption of air-conditioned air supply system and improve the outside air volume percentages and indoor air quality. However, indoor temperature patterns and velocity field are easily...

Zhu, L.; Li, R.; Yuan, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Control of Computer Room Air Conditioning using IT Equipment Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

control routine to adjust setpoints for supply air temperaturecontrol routine to adjust setpoints for supply air temperaturesupply air temperature is provided. The fan-speed control

Bell, Geoffrey C.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

176

Health effects of air pollution: some historical notes.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that was his first air pollution health effects committeeand direction of air pollution health effects research inof community air pollution, including health ef- fects, has

Whittenberger, J L

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

177

A direct comparison of the properties of CRM and VRM in the low-temperature oxidation of magnetite  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......presence of groundwater or seawater, and of low-temperature...would be expected, but long storage tests are not routinely carried...coercivity spectra. A short storage test at above-ambient temperatures...composite remanence. Zero-field storage or thermal demagnetization......

A. K. Gapeev; S. K. Gribov; D. J. Dunlop; Ö. Özdemir; V. P. Shcherbakov

1991-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Experimentation of a High Temperature Thermal Energy Storage Prototype Using Phase Change Materials for the Thermal Protection of a Pressurized Air Solar Receiver  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The work addresses the issue of fast variations of temperature of a central solar receiver under cloud covering. A specific attention is paid to the situation of Hybrid Solar Gas Turbine (HSGT) systems using pressurized air as Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF), as it is considered in the Pegase project (France). A Thermal Energy Storage (TES) unit integrated in the receiver is proposed for smoothing the variation of temperature. The technology is based on the utilization of both Phase Change Material (PCM) and metallic fins in order to enhance charge and discharge capability of the storage unit. A test-bench is designed with copper fins and is experienced with paraffin wax and with Li2CO3 successively as PCMs. In the same time, the test unit is modeled and the charging and discharging modes are simulated. The results show that the full charging is achieved in about 4 hours starting from 700 °C when the receiver is maintained at 900 °C, whereas the discharge from 900 °C to 700 °C is achieved in 2.5 hours.

D. Verdier; A. Ferrière; Q. Falcoz; F. Siros; R. Couturier

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

179

Covered Product Category: Room Air Conditioners | Department...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Specifications website. Buying Energy-Efficient Room Air Conditioners When buying room air conditioners directly from commercial sources, choose models that are ENERGY...

180

Air Conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air Conditioning ... CHEMISTS and engineers use air conditioning as a valuable tool in more than two hundred industries. ... Air conditioning is a tool with many facets. ...

MARGARET INGELS

1938-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

The Explorationon the Energy Saving Potential of an Innovative Dual-temperature Air Conditioner and the Mechanism of the Theoretical Mixed Refrigeration Cycl  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

expansion valves and an ejector. Mass and energy conservation equations are established for the air handling process and the theoretical mixed refrigeration cycle is analyzed. The state properties in the thermal processes and system performance... systems, Innovative technologies to reduce building energy consumption. In a room with a conventional air conditioner, the supplied air is not evenly distributed and there may be a draft sensation, which may cause “air-conditioning symptoms...

Zhao,L.; Zhao,X.; Hu,A.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

ARM - Measurement - Atmospheric temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

temperature temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Atmospheric temperature The temperature indicated by a thermometer exposed to the air in a place sheltered from direct solar radiation. Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AERI : Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer SONDE : Balloon-Borne Sounding System CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems ECOR : Eddy Correlation Flux Measurement System

183

Direct exchange interaction of localized spins associated with unpaired sp electrons in Be-doped low-temperature-grown GaAs layers  

SciTech Connect

Beryllium-doped GaAs layers grown at low temperatures by molecular-beam epitaxy contain localized spins associated with unpaired sp electrons of As{sub Ga}{sup +} ions. Interactions of these localized spins are investigated by measuring the magnetization with a superconducting quantum interference device and the peak-to-peak width of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra for samples with different spin concentrations ranging from 3 x 10{sup 18} to 2.0 x 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}. The results show that localized spins in this material antiferromagnetically interact on each other via direct exchange. From the analysis of the temperature dependence and field dependence of the magnetization on the basis of the Curie-Weiss law and the molecular-field approximation, exchange energy of each sample was derived. The dependence of the exchange energy on the concentration of localized spins is reasonably explained by a model of direct exchange, which results from the overlapping of wave functions of unpaired electrons at As{sub Ga}{sup +} ions. The peak-to-peak width of EPR spectra increases with an increase in the spin concentration at low temperatures, whereas it decreases with an increase in the temperature for samples with high spin concentrations. These EPR results also show that significant exchange interactions indeed occur between localized spins in this material. These effects of direct exchange interactions between localized spins can clearly be observed at their average distances of around 4 nm, which implies a considerably large spatial extension of the wave function of an unpaired sp electron around an As{sub Ga}{sup +} ion.

Bae, K. W.; Mohamed, Mohd Ambri; Jung, D. W.; Otsuka, N. [School of Materials Science Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology Asahidai 1-1, Nomishi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

2011-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

184

Air Cooling | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Cooling Cooling Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Air Cooling: Air cooling is commonly defined as rejecting heat from an object by flowing air over the surface of the object, through means of convection. Air cooling requires that the air must be cooler than the object or surface from which it is expected to remove heat. This is due to the second law of thermodynamics, which states that heat will only move spontaneously from a hot reservoir (the heat sink) to a cold reservoir (the air). Other definitions:Wikipedia Reegle Air Cooling Air Cooling Diagram of Air Cooled Condenser designed by GEA Heat Exchangers Ltd. (http://www.gea-btt.com.cn/opencms/opencms/bttc/en/Products/Air_Cooled_Condenser.html) Air cooling is limited on ambient temperatures and typically require a

185

Apparatus and method for direct measurement of coal ash sintering and fusion properties at elevated temperatures and pressures  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A high-pressure microdilatometer is provided for measuring the sintering and fusion properties of various coal ashes under the influence of elevated pressures and temperatures in various atmospheres. Electrical resistivity measurements across a sample of coal ash provide a measurement of the onset of the sintering and fusion of the ash particulates while the contraction of the sample during sintering is measured with a linear variable displacement transducer for detecting the initiation of sintering. These measurements of sintering in coal ash at different pressures provide a mechanism by which deleterious problems due to the sintering and fusion of ash in various combustion systems can be minimized or obviated.

Khan, M. Rashid (Morgantown, WV)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

186

An air line carries air at 800 kPa and 80C. An Air line ~ O O C insulated tank initially contains 20C air at a  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An air line carries air at 800 kPa and 80°C. An Air line ~ O O C insulated tank initially contains 20°C air at a pressure of 90kPa. The valve is opened, and air flows into the tank. Determine the final temperature of the air in the tank and the mass of air that enters the tank if the valve is left

Huang, Haimei

187

Temperature maintained battery system  

SciTech Connect

A chassis contains a battery charger connected to a multi-cell battery. The charger receives direct current from an external direct current power source and has means to automatically selectively charge the battery in accordance with a preselected charging program relating to temperature adjusted state of discharge of the battery. A heater device is positioned within the chassis which includes heater elements and a thermal switch which activates the heater elements to maintain the battery above a certain predetermined temperature in accordance with preselected temperature conditions occurring within the chassis. A cooling device within the chassis includes a cooler regulator, a temperature sensor, and peltier effect cooler elements. The cooler regulator activates and deactivates the peltier cooler elements in accordance with preselected temperature conditions within the chassis sensed by the temperature sensor. Various vehicle function circuitry may also be positioned within the chassis. The contents of the chassis are positioned to form a passage proximate the battery in communication with an inlet and outlet in the chassis to receive air for cooling purposes from an external source.

Newman, W.A.

1980-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

188

A Furnace Temperature Regulator  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Synopsis.—By making the heating coil of an electric furnace one arm of a wheatstone bridge, and combining this with a galvanometer regulator, thus keeping constant the resistance of the coil, we can, regardless of variations in the current supply, and with no attention, maintain constant the temperature of furnaces not too directly influenced by the temperature of the room, or where the surrounding air is kept constant. The power available in this regulator is relatively very great indeed; nothing has to be inserted within the furnace cavity, and the lag is practically nothing; the regulator is often almost at its best under conditions most unfavorable to other regulators. It has held a small furnace constant to 0.1° for hours at temperatures from 500° to 1400°.

Walter P. White and Leason H. Adams.

1919-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Exergy efficiency of a counterflow air/air heat exchanger with vapour condensation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The exergy efficiency of a counterflow hot moist air/...?1 for the temperature and humidity ratio of hot moist air respectively are considered. Constant ambient air conditions of 20°C and 0.01 kg·kg?1 were assume...

J. Jilek; J. H. Young

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

190

High-Temperature Co-electrolysis of Steam and Carbon Dioxide for Direct Production of Syngas; Equilibrium Model and Single-Cell Tests  

SciTech Connect

An experimental study has been completed to assess the performance of single solid-oxide electrolysis cells operating over a temperature range of 800 to 850ºC in the coelectrolysis mode, simultaneously electrolyzing steam and carbon dioxide for the direct production of syngas. The experiments were performed over a range of inlet flow rates of steam, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen and over a range of current densities (-0.1 to 0.25 A/cm2) using single electrolyte-supported button electrolysis cells. Steam and carbon dioxide consumption rates associated with electrolysis were measured directly using inlet and outlet dewpoint instrumentation and a gas chromatograph, respectively. Cell operating potentials and cell current were varied using a programmable power supply. Measured values of open-cell potential and outlet gas composition are compared to predictions obtained from a chemical equilibrium coelectrolysis model. Model predictions of outlet gas composition based on an effective equilibrium temperature are shown to agree well with measurements. Cell area-specific resistance values were similar for steam electrolysis and coelectrolysis.

O'Brien, J. E.; Stoots, C. M.; Herring, J. S.; Hartvigsen, J. J.

2007-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Compressed Air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

BPA Utility Reimbursement Programs for Compressed Air Projects Customer Proposal Template Measurement & Verification Plan for Compressed Air CA 2006-15 A template for utilities to...

192

Thin Air Breathing  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Thin Air Breathing Thin Air Breathing Name: Amy Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Why is it hard to breathe in thin air? What health dangers do mountain climbers face at high altitudes? Replies: Among the obvious dangers of losing ones footing, the oxygen available in the air is considerable less at higher altitudes. If I recall correctly, 21% of the atmosphere at standard temperature and pressure at sea level is composed of oxygen. This is less at higher altitudes. One can lose consciousness and even die in an oxygen deficient environment with changes from oxygen content to lower than 19.5%. This can unfortunate effect can occur within minutes. Dr. Myron The air is not really thin at high altitudes. The problem is that air pressure is lower. As altitude increases, air pressure decreases. In order for your lungs to fill with air, the air pressure in your lungs has to be less than the pressure of the air outside your lungs. Air moves from areas of higher pressure to lower pressure. As your diaphragm (the muscle that separates your chest cavity from your abdominal cavity) moves downward, the size of your chest cavity increases. This decreases the pressure in your chest and air flows in. When the diaphragm is up, it puts pressure on the chest cavity and the pressure in the lungs is greater than outside the lungs. Air flows out. This is an example of Boyle's Law. The movement of the diaphragm is controlled by the brainstem. Anyway-the reason that it is harder for some people to breathe at higher altitudes is that the air pressure differences aren't as great between the inside of the lungs and outside.

193

Temperature and productivity  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

symptoms and performance of office work under combined exposure to temperature, noise and air pollution. PhD Thesis. International Centre for Indoor Environment and Energy,...

194

Energy Savings by Wideband Temperature Control in Telephone Offices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

was recorded with totalizer meters. The data recorded on the data logger was as follows: Channel 0 - Temperature of the air between circuit packs in central controller frame. (air-gap temperature) 1 - Temperature of the air between circuit packs... was recorded with totalizer meters. The data recorded on the data logger was as follows: Channel 0 - Temperature of the air between circuit packs in central controller frame. (air-gap temperature) 1 - Temperature of the air between circuit packs...

Lingousky, J. E.; McKay, J. R.

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

A method to measure Kr/N2 ratios in air bubbles trapped in ice cores and its application in reconstructing past mean ocean temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in krypton inventory in the glacial ocean due to higher gas solubility in colder water causes a decrease reflect past ocean temperature change due to the dependence of gas solubility on temperature. The increase of LGM deep ocean temperature based on foraminiferal d18 O and sediment pore water d18 O and chlorinity

Severinghaus, Jeffrey P.

196

Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

What We Monitor & Why » What We Monitor & Why » Air Quality Air Quality To preserve our existing wilderness-area air quality, LANL implements a conscientious program of air monitoring. April 12, 2012 Real-time data monitoring for particulate matter An air monitoring field team member tests one of LANL's tapered element oscillating microbalance samplers, which collects real-time particulate matter data. Contact Environmental Communication & Public Involvement P.O. Box 1663 MS M996 Los Alamos, NM 87545 (505) 667-0216 Email LANL monitors air quality 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. Why we monitor air LANL monitors many different pathways in order to assess their impact on workers, the public, animals, and plants. We monitor the air around the Laboratory to ensure our operations are not affecting the air of nearby

197

Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Temperature...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design Vehicle Technologies Office Merit Review 2014: High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design...

198

Mitigation of thermoacoustic instability utilizing steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of steady air injection near the flame anchoring zone in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities driven by flame-vortex interaction mechanism. We perform a systematic experimental study which involves using two different configurations of air injection in an atmospheric pressure backward-facing step combustor. The first configuration utilizes a row of micro-diameter holes allowing for air injection in the cross-stream direction just upstream of the step. The second configuration utilizes an array of micro-diameter holes located on the face of the step, allowing for air injection in the streamwise direction. The effects of each of these configurations are analyzed to determine which one is more effective in suppressing thermoacoustic instabilities at different operating conditions. The tests are conducted while varying the equivalence ratio and the inlet temperature. The secondary air temperature is always the same as the inlet temperature. We used pure propane or propane/hydrogen mixtures as fuels. Combustion dynamics are explored through simultaneous pressure and heat release-rate measurements, and high-speed video images. When the equivalence ratio of the reactant mixture is high, it causes the flame to flashback towards the inlet channel. When air is injected in the cross-stream direction, the flame anchors slightly upstream of the step, which suppresses the instability. When air is injected in the streamwise direction near the edge of step, thermoacoustic instability could be eliminated at an optimum secondary air flow rate, which depends on the operating conditions. When effective, the streamwise air injection prevents the shedding of an unsteady vortex, thus eliminating the flame-vortex interaction mechanism and resulting in a compact, stable flame to form near the step. (author)

Murat Altay, H.; Hudgins, Duane E.; Speth, Raymond L.; Annaswamy, Anuradha M.; Ghoniem, Ahmed F. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2010-04-15T23:59:59.000Z

199

Heat balance for two commercial broiler barns with solar preheated ventilation air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In temperate climatic zones, solar air heaters can reduce heating loads, and increase winter ventilation rates thereby improving inside air quality and livestock performance without additional fuel input. A heat balance was carried out to measure bird heat production under field conditions on two commercial broiler barns to evaluate the impact of solar heated ventilation air on bird performance, and identify strategies to reduce winter heating load. Located 40 km east of Montreal, Canada, the experimental broiler barns were identically built with three floors housing 6500 birds per floor in an all-in all-out fashion. Equipped with solar air pre-heaters over their fresh air inlets, the barns were instrumented to monitor inlet, inside and outside air conditions, ventilation rate and heating system operating time. The effects on bird performance were observed from November 2007 to March 2009 by alternating their operation between the barns. The measured sensible and total heat productions of 4.5 W and 8.4 W, respectively, for 1 kg birds corresponded to laboratory measured values. Bird performance was not affected by the solar air pre-heaters which increased the ventilation rate above normal during only 20% of the daytime period. Room air temperature stratification resulted in 20–40 kW of heat losses during the winter, representing 25% of the total natural gas heat load. Because inside air moved directly to the fans, large and rapid increases in ventilation inlet air temperature, produced by the solar air pre-heaters, resulted in further heat losses equivalent to 15% of the solar energy recovered. Sustainable energy management in livestock barns requiring heating should incorporate an air mixing system to eliminate air temperature stratification and improve fan flows.

Sébastien Cordeau; Suzelle Barrington

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Air Cooling Technology for Power Electronic Thermal Control  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

between model and test results * Developed innovative air-cooled heat sink concept - Heat transfer area doubled - Pressure loss decreased by 50% - Colder air directed to...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate Directed Energy Directorate PROGRAM Space Scholars and Directed Energy Scholars The Space Vehicles and Directed Energy Directorates Scholars The Phillips Scholars internship offers an edu- cational and fulfilling summer job experience

Piao, Daqing

202

Energy performance of underfloor air distribution systems part IV: underfloor plenum testing and modeling  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

loss of control of the supply air temperature from thecontrol of the thermal conditions above and below the plenum. Hence, a relatively low plenum supply air temperature

Bauman, Fred; Jin, Hui

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

Thermal management optimization of an air-cooled Li-ion battery module using pin-fin heat sinks for hybrid electric vehicles  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Three dimensional transient thermal analysis of an air-cooled module that contains prismatic Li-ion cells next to a special kind of aluminum pin fin heat sink whose heights of pin fins increase linearly through the width of the channel in air flow direction was studied for thermal management of Lithium-ion battery pack. The effects of pin fins arrangements, discharge rates, inlet air flow velocities, and inlet air temperatures on the battery were investigated. The results showed that despite of heat sinks with uniform pin fin heights that increase the standard deviation of the temperature field, using this kind of pin fin heat sink compare to the heat sink without pin fins not only decreases the bulk temperature inside the battery, but also decreases the standard deviation of the temperature field inside the battery as well. Increasing the inlet air temperature leads to decreasing the standard deviation of the temperature field while increases the maximum temperature of the battery. Furthermore, increasing the inlet air velocity first increases the standard deviation of the temperature field till reaches to the maximum point, and after that decreases. Also, increasing the inlet air velocity leads to decrease in the maximum temperature of the battery.

Shahabeddin K. Mohammadian; Yuwen Zhang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

204

Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

Farkas, Zénó

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

205

Considering Air Density in Wind Power Production  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In the wind power production calculations the air density is usually considered as constant in time. Using the CIPM-2007 equation for the density of moist air as a function of air temperature, air pressure and relative humidity, we show that it is worth taking the variation of the air density into account, because higher accuracy can be obtained in the calculation of the power production for little effort.

Zénó Farkas

2011-03-11T23:59:59.000Z

206

Supply Fan Control for Constant Air Volume Air Handling Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Since terminal boxes do not have a modulation damper in constant volume (CV) air handling unit (AHU) systems, zone reheat coils have to be modulated to maintain the space temperature with constant supply airflow. This conventional control sequence...

Cho, Y.; Wang, G.; Liu, M.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Module bay with directed flow  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A module bay requires less cleanroom airflow. A shaped gas inlet passage can allow cleanroom air into the module bay with flow velocity preferentially directed toward contaminant rich portions of a processing module in the module bay. Preferential gas flow direction can more efficiently purge contaminants from appropriate portions of the module bay, allowing a reduced cleanroom air flow rate for contaminant removal. A shelf extending from an air inlet slit in one wall of a module bay can direct air flowing therethrough toward contaminant-rich portions of the module bay, such as a junction between a lid and base of a processing module.

Torczynski, John R. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-02-27T23:59:59.000Z

208

Improved heat tolerance in air drives the recurrent evolution of air-breathing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...current geographical distribution of the 300 genera...high environmental temperatures in the tropics. We...while extreme air temperatures or sun exposure would still...degrees below ambient temperature by means of transpiration...

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

209

Energy conservation in high-rise buildings: Changes in air conditioning load induced by vertical temperature and humidity profile in Delhi  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temperature and humidity profiles in the upper atmosphere are different from those observed by ground level meteorological stations and used to design HVAC systems for high-rise buildings. There exist correlations among solar energy, atmospheric turbidity and pollutants in urban areas, affecting the temperature and humidity profiles with variation in height. In the present study, a theoretical model is developed considering these parameters, and the HVAC load is calculated. The results are compared with the HVAC load calculated from data obtained from the meteorological station, and the comparison showed that the results differ significantly (20%) for a hypothetical 200 m high office building.

S. Sinha; Sanjay Kumar; N. Kumar

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

210

Air Flow Distribution in the Sales Area of a Supermarket  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

temperature, air velocity and humidity in different zones. The results of a study of a sales area of a supermarket in Harbin are presented in this paper, including air temperature, air velocity and humidity. According to the assessment index of air flow...

Fang, X.; Song, C.; Zhao, J.; Wang, Z.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

211

Liquid phase thermal swing chemical air separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature swing absorption separation of oxygen from air is performed with an oxygen acceptor of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite. 2 figs.

Erickson, D.C.

1988-05-24T23:59:59.000Z

212

Liquid phase thermal swing chemical air separation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A temperature swing absorption separation of oxygen from air is performed with an oxygen acceptor of alkali metal nitrate and nitrite.

Erickson, Donald C. (Annapolis, MD)

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Performance of unglazed solar ventilation air pre-heaters for broiler barns  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar radiation is an interesting heat source for applications requiring a limited amount of energy, such as pre-heating cold fresh air used in venting livestock barns. The objective of this study was to evaluate the energy recovery efficiency of a solar air pre-heater consisting of an unglazed perforated black corrugated siding where the incoming fresh ventilation air picks up heat from its face and back. Installed on the southeast wall of two broiler barns located 40 km east of Montreal, Canada, the performance of solar air pre-heaters was monitored over 2 years. Sensors inside the barns monitored the temperature of the ambient air, that pre-heated by the solar collector and that exhausted by one of the three operating fans. An on-site weather station measured ambient air temperature, wind direction and velocity and radiation energy absorbed on a vertical plane parallel to the unglazed solar air pre-heaters. The measured vertical solar radiation value was used to evaluate the heat recovery efficiency of the unglazed solar air pre-heaters. Using data from the Varennes Environment Canada weather station located 30 km northwest, the solar sensors were found to measure the absorbed solar radiation with a maximum error of 7%, including differences in exterior air moisture. Unglazed, the efficiency of the solar air pre-heaters reached 65% for wind velocities under 2 m/s, but dropped below 25% for wind velocities exceeding 7 m/s. Nevertheless, the unglazed solar air pre-heaters were able to reduce the heating load especially in March of both years. Over a period starting in November and ending in March, the solar air heaters recovered an energy value equivalent to an annual return on investment of 4.7%.

Sébastien Cordeau; Suzelle Barrington

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

214

Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist (APA) Engine Technology for...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in Heavy Duty Application Demonstration of Air-Power-Assist (APA) Engine Technology for Clean Combustion and Direct Energy Recovery in...

215

Air Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Both natural processes and human activities contribute to air pollution, with the combustion of fossil fuels being the largest anthropogenic source of air pollutants. Adverse health effects (above all respiratory and cardiovascular complications), damage to crops, natural vegetation and materials, reduced visibility and changed radiation balance of the atmosphere are the major consequences of high concentrations of air pollutants. Technical fixes can sharply reduce emissions from large stationary sources and lower the rates of automotive emissions, but the rising number of vehicles and longer time spent on the road will call for more radical solutions to traffic-generated photochemical smog now present in all major urban areas.

V. Smil

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

216

Chapter 22: Compressed Air Evaluation Protocol  

SciTech Connect

Compressed-air systems are used widely throughout industry for many operations, including pneumatic tools, packaging and automation equipment, conveyors, and other industrial process operations. Compressed-air systems are defined as a group of subsystems composed of air compressors, air treatment equipment, controls, piping, pneumatic tools, pneumatically powered machinery, and process applications using compressed air. A compressed-air system has three primary functional subsystems: supply, distribution, and demand. Air compressors are the primary energy consumers in a compressed-air system and are the primary focus of this protocol. The two compressed-air energy efficiency measures specifically addressed in this protocol are: high-efficiency/variable speed drive (VSD) compressor replacing modulating compressor; compressed-air leak survey and repairs. This protocol provides direction on how to reliably verify savings from these two measures using a consistent approach for each.

Benton, N.

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Air Chemistry and Pollution Spring 2014  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ATOC 3500 Air Chemistry and Pollution Spring 2014 Meeting: T/Th, 12:30 ­ 1:45 am; Duane G1B25 in the news; for example, the quality of the air we breathe directly affects our health. In addition to mitigate the effects of air pollution. Finally, we examine some recent examples of atmospheric chemical

Toohey, Darin W.

218

Air Quality Standards & ATOC/CHEM 5151  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Lecture 22 Air Quality Standards & Control ATOC/CHEM 5151 #12;2 Primary Pollutants Things to reduce air pollution emissions ­ Latest version ­ 1990 (original, 1963) ­ What is an "air pollutant that are directly emitted Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) Hydrocarbons (VOCs) Carbon Monoxide (CO) #12;3 Secondary Pollutants

Toohey, Darin W.

219

Bos > AIR  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The advent of air travel has produced a building typology completely new to the 20th century. The outdated planning of regions for airports render most existing airports as isolated, autonomous instances in the urban ...

Lee, Kevin Young

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

220

Meteorological Effects on Air/Fuel Ratio  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1. "Temperature Compensat d Air/Fuel Ratio Control on a Recuperated Furnace," by J. L. Ferri. GTE Products Corporation, Towanda, PA, lECTC '83 2. Chemical Engineers Handbook, PerTY and Chilton, 5th ed.., (McGraw Hlln, p. 12-7. 3. "Technology..., E = (100 ... 10) (ill) - 100 = 17.2% excess a . 2 Example 2 A furnace uses recuperators which prehe~t the combustion air to 1200 OF using 30 OF air. WithJlOO OF air, the preheated air temperature will be approxIjrnately 1270 OF, a 70 OF increase...

Ferri, J. L.

1984-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) Air Resources: Prevention and Control of Air Contamination and Air Pollution, Air Quality Classifications and Standards, and Air Quality Area Classifications (New York) < Back Eligibility Agricultural Fuel Distributor Industrial Institutional Investor-Owned Utility Local Government Multi-Family Residential Municipal/Public Utility Nonprofit Rural Electric Cooperative Schools State/Provincial Govt Transportation Tribal Government Utility Program Info State New York Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider NY Department of Environmental Conservation These regulations establish emissions limits and permitting and operational

222

Direct Information on Structure and Energetic Features of Cu+?Xe Species Formed in MFI-Type Zeolite at Room Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Recently, xenon chemistry has shown itself to be significant and interesting from the viewpoint of the “missing xenon” phenomenon(4-6) and also from the challenging tasks connected to both organic Xe compounds(7, 8) and simple inorganic Xe compounds(9-12) that form the basis of new and efficient materials for the industrial extraction of xenon from air. ... Figure 2. Fourier transforms of the EXAFS oscillations at the Cu K-edge of a CuMFI-112 sample under various conditions. ...

Hiroe Torigoe; Toshinori Mori; Kazuhiko Fujie; Takahiro Ohkubo; Atsushi Itadani; Kazuma Gotoh; Hiroyuki Ishida; Hiroki Yamashita; Takashi Yumura; Hisayoshi Kobayashi; Yasushige Kuroda

2010-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

223

Air temperature thresholds for indoor comfort and perceived air quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

building, Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2003 Conference.of the California Healthy Building Study: A Summary, Indoorsurvey, Proceedings of Healthy Buildings 2009, September.

Zhang, Hui; Edward, Arens; Pasut, Wilmer

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Energy performance of air distribution systems part II: room air stratification full scale testing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

control), one that resets supply plenum pressure set point from room temperatureControl strategy (CAV/VAV/open loop) Room setpoint Room supply air temperaturecontrol mode; i.e. , uncontrolled at a given entering airflow and supply temperature.

Webster, Tom; Lukaschek, Wolfgang; Dickeroff, Darryl; Bauman, Fred

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

E-Print Network 3.0 - air mass origin Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Yale University Collection: Chemistry 27 Framework for Coupling Room Air Models to Heat Balance Model Load and Energy Calculations (RP-1222) Summary: temperature. The air heat...

226

External vs. body temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

External vs. body temperature External vs. body temperature Name: jacqui Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: If one's internal body temperature is approximately 98.6, WHY when the external temperature is 98.6 do we feel hot? Since both temperatures are "balanced", shouldn't we feel comfortable? I am assuming here that humidity levels are controlled, and play no factor in the external temperature. Replies: First of all, skin temperature is lower than 98.6F; 98.6F is internal body temperature, so air at 98.6F is hotter than skin. But more important, it is the nervous system, and the cells in your skin that your brain uses to detect temperature that determine whether you "feel" hot or not, not whether the air is hotter than your skin. These are set so that you feel hot when the air is actually colder than your skin. Why? They are probably set to make you feel hot whenever the air is warm enough so that your body has some trouble getting rid of the excess heat it produces through metabolism. This insures that you take some actions to help your body cool off. Like drinking cool water, or reducing exercise

227

Inertial impaction air sampling device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

Dewhurst, K.H.

1987-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

228

Inertial impaction air sampling device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inertial impactor to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air which may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

Dewhurst, Katharine H. (13150 Wenonah SE. Apt. 727, Albuquerque, NM 87123)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

229

Inertial impaction air sampling device  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An inertial impactor is designed which is to be used in an air sampling device for collection of respirable size particles in ambient air. The device may include a graphite furnace as the impaction substrate in a small-size, portable, direct analysis structure that gives immediate results and is totally self-contained allowing for remote and/or personal sampling. The graphite furnace collects suspended particles transported through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles may be analyzed for elements, quantitatively and qualitatively, by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. 3 figs.

Dewhurst, K.H.

1990-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

230

Coal characterisation for \\{NOx\\} prediction in air-staged combustion of pulverised coals  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A series of world-traded coal samples has been tested using the Imperial College high temperature wire mesh apparatus (HTWM) in order to assess the relationship between high temperature (1600°C) char nitrogen content and \\{NOx\\} formation in Hemweg Power Station (in the Netherlands) using deep furnace air staging. A linear relationship between high temperature char nitrogen and \\{NOx\\} formation has been confirmed. These results suggest that high temperature char N content is the main factor limiting \\{NOx\\} emissions with deep air-staged combustion. Char N and (hence apparently deep air-staged NOx) can be predicted with an accuracy of approximately ±20% for most coals from the coal proximate and ultimate analysis—but this might not be sufficient for stations operating close to their emission limits. Measuring high temperature char N directly reduces the likely uncertainty in deep air-staged \\{NOx\\} emissions for coals (and most blends) to approximately ±10%. Its use should be considered on a routine basis for coal selection on plants employing this technology.

C.K. Man; J.R. Gibbins; J.G. Witkamp; J. Zhang

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers Title Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers Publication Type Report LBNL Report Number LBNL-4951E Year of Publication 2011 Authors Coles, Henry C., Tae Won Han, Phillip N. Price, Ashok J. Gadgil, and William F. Tschudi Date Published 03/2011 Abstract There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: "closed" and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percentage of the recirculation air is "make-up" air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both "closed" and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups:

232

Peak Demand Reduction from Pre-Cooling with Zone Temperature Reset in an Office Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

control system does not support global reset of zone temperatures, strategies involving reset of supply air temperature

Xu, Peng

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

Hot Air Stratification of Ceiling Air Supply in a Large Space Building  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity and IAQ Vol.I-5-3 Hot Air Stratification of Ceiling Air Supply in a Large Space Building Hanqing Wang Zhiyong Wang Changrong Liu Ph.D. Professor Doctoral... of flow and temperature fields in atrium with ceiling height of 130 m [J]. ASHRAE Trans, 1995, 101(2): 1144-1157. [9] Wang han-qing, et al. Numerical simulation research on delaminating phenomena of ordinary air-conditional room [J]. Journal...

Wang, H.; Wang, Z.; Liu, C.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

234

Energy Conservation of Air Conditioning Systems in Large Public Buildings  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

with the heating characteristics of the exterior -protected construction, the set value of the temperature of the air-conditioning, the lectotype of the Central air-conditioning system, the regulation and the modification of the transmission and distribution system...

Liu, P.; Li, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Ozone production by nanoporous dielectric barrier glow discharge in atmospheric pressure air  

SciTech Connect

This study is aimed at demonstrating plasma-chemical ozone production based on low temperature atmospheric pressure glow discharge through nanoporous dielectric barriers. The 20 kHz ac driven discharge is formed in air or oxygen gas flowing in the axial direction of the cylindrical plasma reactor containing four parallel aluminum rods covered with nanoporous alumina films. The discharge utilizing nanoporous dielectric barrier is more uniform and more energy efficient in ozone generation than the discharge through smooth-surface dielectric barriers.

Cho, J. H.; Koo, I. G.; Choi, M. Y.; Lee, W. M. [Department of Chemistry and Division of Energy Systems Research, Ajou University, Suwon 443-749 (Korea, Republic of)

2008-03-10T23:59:59.000Z

236

Reducing Ventilation Energy Demand by Using Air-to-Earth Heat Exchangers  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air-to-Earth heat exchangers (earth tubes) utilize the fact that the temperature in the ground is relatively constant during the year. By letting the air travel through an air-to-earth heat exchanger before re...

Hans Havtun; Caroline Törnqvist

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

237

Zero Carryover Liquid-Desiccant Air Conditioner for Solar Applications: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

A novel liquid-desiccant air conditioner that dries and cools building supply air will transform the use of direct-contact liquid-desiccant systems in HVAC applications, improving comfort, air quality, and providing energy-efficient humidity control.

Lowenstein, A.; Slayzak, S.; Kozubal, E.

2006-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

238

Temperature distribution in light-coloured flowers and inflorescences of early spring temperate species measured by Infrared camera  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Temperature is a limiting factor for plant reproduction under harsh conditions. Using an infrared camera, we studied temperature distribution in three early flowering light-coloured species of markedly different morphology. The influence of three environmental factors (temperature of the ambient air, temperature of the ground and irradiance) on the temperature of the flowers and inflorescences was evaluated. White petals and yellow centres of sun tracking Anemone nemorosa (Ranunculaceae) were shown to be on average 1.6 and 3.4 °C warmer than the ambient air, respectively. The surface temperature of the sun lit yellow discs of Bellis perennis (Asteraceae) was on average 7.4 °C warmer than the ambient air. Direct solar light was found to be responsible for large temperature differences between the discs and the marginal ray flowers. Bell-shaped white flowers of Galanthus nivalis (Amaryllidaceae) bent to the ground were on average 2.7 °C cooler than the surrounding air. The temperature relations of the different reproductive organs to the studied environmental factors are discussed. Temperature behaviour of the studied lowland species is compared with the results previously gained for alpine and arctic species by other authors. Ecological importance of our conclusions is considered.

Alžb?ta Rejšková; Jakub Brom; Jan Pokorný; Jozef Kore?ko

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

239

Economizer Control Using Mixed Air Enthalpy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Enthalpy economizer can theoretically save more energy than temperature based economizer. However, the requirement of outdoor air humidity measurement in the traditional enthalpy economizer control made it impossible. A novel control sequence using...

Feng, J.; Liu, M.; Pang, W.

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

MHD oxidant intermediate temperature ceramic heater study. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The use of three types of directly fired ceramic heaters for preheating oxygen enriched air to an intermediate temperature of 1144K was investigated. The three types of ceramic heaters are: (1) a fixed bed, periodic flow ceramic brick regenerative heater (2) a ceramic pebble regenerative heater. The heater design, performance and operating characteristics under conditions in which the particulate matter is not solidified are evaluated. A comparison and overall evaluation of the three types of ceramic heaters and temperature range determination at which the particulate matter in the MHD exhaust gas is estimated to be a dry powder are presented.

Carlson, A.W.; Chait, I.L.; Saari, D.P.; Marksberry, C.L.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Mixed Layer Lateral Eddy Fluxes Mediated by Air-Sea Interaction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The modulation of air–sea heat fluxes by geostrophic eddies due to the stirring of temperature at the sea surface is discussed and quantified. It is argued that the damping of eddy temperature variance by such air–sea ...

Shuckburgh, Emily

242

Tips for Running an Air Conditioner Without Breaking the Bank  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

With summer temperatures rising, air conditioners are working overtime, but it is possible to enjoy to cool comfort without breaking the bank.

243

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Title Air Leakage of Furnaces and Air Handlers Publication Type Journal Article LBNL Report Number LBNL-5553E Year of Publication 2010 Authors Walker, Iain S., Mile Lubliner, Darryl J. Dickerhoff, and William W. Delp Journal 2010 ACEEE Summer Study on Energy Efficiency in Buildings The Climate for efficiency is now Date Published 08/2010 Abstract In recent years, great strides have been made in reducing air leakage in residential and to a lesser extent small commercial forced air duct systems. Several authorities have introduced low leakage limits for thermal distribution systems; for example, the State of California Energy Code for Buildings gives credit for systems that leak less than 6% of the total air flow at 25 Pa.

244

Comparing Wind, Temperature, Pressure, and Humidity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the higher the amount of energy in the air. Temperature is measured using a thermometer with units in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit. See http:www.teachervision.com...

245

Metal-Air Batteries  

SciTech Connect

Metal-air batteries have much higher specific energies than most currently available primary and rechargeable batteries. Recent advances in electrode materials and electrolytes, as well as new designs on metal-air batteries, have attracted intensive effort in recent years, especially in the development of lithium-air batteries. The general principle in metal-air batteries will be reviewed in this chapter. The materials, preparation methods, and performances of metal-air batteries will be discussed. Two main metal-air batteries, Zn-air and Li-air batteries will be discussed in detail. Other type of metal-air batteries will also be described.

Zhang, Jiguang; Bruce, Peter G.; Zhang, Gregory

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

E-Print Network 3.0 - air force geophysics Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

(1,141) GEOCHEMISTRY & GEOPHYSICS (775... of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century Source: Jimenez, Jose-Luis -...

247

INFLUENCE OF DESIGN AND OPERATING CONDITIONS ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supply temperature setpoints, operation of blinds at peak conditions, impact of occupant control, andcontrols the AHU fan. In both UFAD and OH systems, supply air temperature (

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

248

Air Pollution Control  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Petroleum and chemical processes are responsible for many emissions both into the air. Most relevant emissions into the air are nitrous oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides ... compounds (VOC).The major cause of all air pollution

Alireza Bahadori

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

249

Hickam Air Force Base  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Hickam Air Force Base spans 2,850 acres in Honolulu, Hawaii. The military base is home to the 15th Airlift Wing, the Hawaii Air National Guard, and the Pacific Air Forces headquarters.

250

Air Quality and Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air quality refers to the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of air, both in outside space and in enclosed ... other non?industrial working places, and residencies. Air pollution is the abnormal ...

Zoran Marmut

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

A Synthesis of Antarctic Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Monthly surface air temperatures from land surface stations, automatic weather stations, and ship/buoy observations from the high-latitude Southern Hemisphere are synthesized into gridded analyses at a resolution appropriate for applications ...

William L. Chapman; John E. Walsh

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning Efficiency  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE Presented By: WALTER E. JOHNSTON, PE CEM, CEA, CLEP, CDSM, CPE Air Conditioning (HVAC) system is to provide and maintain a comfortable environment within a building for the occupants or for the process being conducted Many HVAC systems were not designed with energy efficiency as one of the design factors 3 Air Air is the major conductor of heat. Lack of heat = air conditioning OR 4 Btu - Amount of heat required to raise one pound of water 1 F = 0.252 KgCal 1 Pound of Water = About 1 Pint of Water ~ 1 Large Glass 1 Kitchen Match Basics of Air Conditioning = 1 Btu 5 = 6 Low Cost Cooling Unit 7 8 Typical Design Conditions 75 degrees F temperature 50% relative humidity 30 - 50 FPM air movement

253

NETL: IEP - Air Quality Research: Regulatory Drivers  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Regulatory Drivers Regulatory Drivers DOE/NETL’s Air Quality Research Program is in direct response to the need to ensure that fossil-fuel-fired power systems continue to meet current and future environmental requirements. Specific environmental regulatory requirements driving this research are briefly summarized below: I. Clean Air Act (Including 1990 Amendments) Title I - Air Pollution Prevention and Control Part A - Air Quality and Emission Limitations Sect. 109 - National Ambient Air Quality Standards In July 1997 EPA promulgated new standards for particulate matter finer than 2.5 micrometers (PM2.5) and revised the ambient ozone standards. Sect. 111 - Standards of Performance for New Stationary Sources Part C - Prevention of Significant Deterioration of Air Quality

254

Room air monitor for radioactive aerosols  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A housing assembly for use with a room air monitor for simultaneous collection and counting of suspended particles includes a casing containing a combination detector-preamplifier system at one end, a filter system at the other end, and an air flow system consisting of an air inlet formed in the casing between the detector-preamplifier system and the filter system and an air passageway extending from the air inlet through the casing and out the end opposite the detector-preamplifier combination. The filter system collects suspended particles transported directly through the housing by means of the air flow system, and these particles are detected and examined for radioactivity by the detector-preamplifier combination. 2 figs.

Balmer, D.K.; Tyree, W.H.

1987-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

255

Thermal comfort and cold air distribution  

SciTech Connect

Cold air distribution systems supply air at temperatures between 38 F and 51 F. Cold air distribution systems are increasingly attractive when used in conjunction with ice storage systems to shave peak load by shifting the demand to off-peak hours. They also require less operating and capital costs because they use smaller fans, ducts, piping, and pumps. However, an important issue in design and application of cold air systems is the effect on occupant comfort. There are several techniques and methodologies that practitioners use for evaluation of conventional air distribution systems. Among these is the Air Diffusion Performance Index (ADPI). It is widely used in the US and is referenced in the 1993 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals. However, this technique is based on empirical correlations obtained from tests conducted with conventional systems and it cannot be guaranteed that they will be equally applicable to cold air systems. This study was undertaken, therefore, to extend the existing techniques (especially the Air Diffusion Performance Index) to applications where cold air distribution systems are utilized. This work presents a critical review of the evolution of the ADPI technique and offers several recommendations for developing a firm foundation for future room air distribution research.

Hassani, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Miller, P.L. [Miller (Paul), Arvada, CO (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Reactive Air Aluminization  

SciTech Connect

Ferritic stainless steels and other alloys are of great interest to SOFC developers for applications such as interconnects, cell frames, and balance of plant components. While these alloys offer significant advantages (e.g., low material and manufacturing cost, high thermal conductivity, and high temperature oxidation resistance), there are challenges which can hinder their utilization in SOFC systems; these challenges include Cr volatility and reactivity with glass seals. To overcome these challenges, protective coatings and surface treatments for the alloys are under development. In particular, aluminization of alloy surfaces offers the potential for mitigating both evaporation of Cr from the alloy surface and reaction of alloy constituents with glass seals. Commercial aluminization processes are available to SOFC developers, but they tend to be costly due to their use of exotic raw materials and/or processing conditions. As an alternative, PNNL has developed Reactive Air Aluminization (RAA), which offers a low-cost, simpler alternative to conventional aluminization methods.

Choi, Jung-Pyung; Chou, Y. S.; Stevenson, Jeffry W.

2011-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

257

Air Pollution Spring 2010  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

and control. 6. Examine regional and global air pollution issues. Prerequisite: CHEM 113 and (MATH 261 or MATHATS 555 Air Pollution Spring 2010 T Th 11:00 ­ 12:15, NESB 101 Instructor: Prof. Sonia Kreidenweis an understanding of types and sources of air pollution. 2. Examine concentrations of air pollutants

258

Making Compressed Air System Decisions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. Today, modern, high quality manufacturing facilities require a more scientific approach. Many manufacturing processes require strict controls over compressed air pressure, temperature and purity levels. Competitive pressures also force manufacturers...-lubricated cylinder designs. Reciprocating compressor designs remained the standard for industry until the mid 1970s. During the late 1960s and early 1970s, material and manufacturing advances led to the development of 219 Ingersoll-Rand Co. Davidson, N...

Porri, R. E.

259

Recent oppositely directed trends in solar climate forcings and the global mean surface air temperature. II. Different reconstructions of the total solar irradiance variation and dependence on response time scale  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...estimated using the observed distribution of the brightness of Sun-like stars in their...to be analogous to the Sun during its Maunder minimum...surveyed observations of Sun-like stars and found a bimodal distribution in the , which characterizes...

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Focus Series: Maine—Residential Direct Install Program  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Better Buildings Neighborhood Program Focus Series: Maine—Residential Direct Install Program: Residential Air Sealing Program Drives Maine Home Energy Savings Through the Roof.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

High Energy Efficiency Air Conditioning  

SciTech Connect

This project determined the performance of a new high efficiency refrigerant, Ikon B, in a residential air conditioner designed to use R-22. The refrigerant R-22, used in residential and small commercial air conditioners, is being phased out of production in developed countries beginning this year because of concerns regarding its ozone depletion potential. Although a replacement refrigerant, R-410A, is available, it operates at much higher pressure than R-22 and requires new equipment. R-22 air conditioners will continue to be in use for many years to come. Air conditioning is a large part of expensive summer peak power use in many parts of the U.S. Previous testing and computer simulations of Ikon B indicated that it would have 20 - 25% higher coefficient of performance (COP, the amount of cooling obtained per energy used) than R-22 in an air-cooled air conditioner. In this project, a typical new R-22 residential air conditioner was obtained, installed in a large environmental chamber, instrumented, and run both with its original charge of R-22 and then with Ikon B. In the environmental chamber, controlled temperature and humidity could be maintained to obtain repeatable and comparable energy use results. Tests with Ikon B included runs with and without a power controller, and an extended run for several months with subsequent analyses to check compatibility of Ikon B with the air conditioner materials and lubricant. Baseline energy use of the air conditioner with its original R-22 charge was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. After changeover to Ikon B and a larger expansion orifice, energy use was measured at 90 deg F and 100 deg F. Ikon B proved to have about 19% higher COP at 90 deg F and about 26% higher COP at 100 deg F versus R-22. Ikon B had about 20% lower cooling capacity at 90 deg F and about 17% lower cooling capacity at 100 deg F versus R-22 in this system. All results over multiple runs were within 1% relative standard deviation (RSD). All of these values agree well with previous results and computer simulations of Ikon B performance versus R-22. The lower cooling capacity of Ikon B is not a concern unless a particular air conditioner is near its maximum cooling capacity in application. Typically, oversized A/C systems are installed by contractors to cover contingencies. In the extended run with Ikon B, which lasted about 4.5 months at 100 deg F ambient temperature and 68% compressor on time, the air conditioner performed well with no significant loss of energy efficiency. Post-run analysis of the refrigerant, compressor lubricant oil, compressor, compressor outlet tubing, and the filter/dryer showed minor effects but nothing that was considered significant. The project was very successful. All objectives were achieved, and the performance of Ikon B indicates that it can easily be retrofitted into R-22 air conditioners to give 15 - 20% energy savings and a 1 - 3 year payback of retrofit costs depending on location and use. Ikon B has the potential to be a successful commercial product.

Edward McCullough; Patrick Dhooge; Jonathan Nimitz

2003-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

262

Direct from CDC Environmental Health  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

environmental health services (i.e., services involving water quality, air quality, waste management, or vector management plans of water supply systems. The team also works on sustainability evalu ation and sanitationDirect from CDC Environmental Health Services Branch Editor's note: NEHA strives to provide up

263

Performance of Supply Airflow Entrainment for Particles in an Underfloor Air Distribution System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

air measurement campaign in Helsinki, Finland 1999?the effect of outdoor air pollution on indoor air. Atmospheric Environment [J].2001;35: 1465?77. [6] C.Y.H. Chao, M.P. Wan. Airflow and air temperature distribution in the occupied region...

Li, C.; Li, N.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

264

Computer simulations and experimental measurements of air distributions in buildings: past, present, and future  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Computer simulations and experimental measurements of air distributions in buildings: past, sustainable, and safe building, it is important to know the distributions of air velocity, air temperature, and liquid droplet contaminants. (hereafter referred as air distribution) in the building. Due to rapid

Chen, Qingyan "Yan"

265

Healthy Air Act (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Maryland Healthy Air Act was developed with the purpose of bringing Maryland into attainment with the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for ozone and fine particulate matter by the...

266

Air and Water Pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air Pollution.... Many pollutants enter our bodies through the air we breathe at 13,000 l/day ... to quantitatively understand the basic environmental physics of pollution. This chapter covers the foll...

David Hafemeister

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

267

Aesculap, Inc. Air Products  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Aesculap, Inc. Air Products Air Products Foundation Alaric Compliance Services, LLC Alvin H. Butz & Herger, Inc. Sodexo Campus Services Sodexo Inc. and Affiliates Stupp Bros., Inc. Sugarbush Products, Inc

Napier, Terrence

268

Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Geothermal Resource Assessment and Future Recommendations  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base in early 2011 near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home Air Force Base. In conclusion, Recommendation for follow-up efforts include the following:

Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Minimize Compressed Air Leaks  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet outlines a strategy for compressed air leak detection and provides a formula for cost savings calculations.

270

New and Underutilized Technology: Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner New and Underutilized Technology: Liquid Desiccant Air Conditioner October 4, 2013 - 4:40pm Addthis The following information outlines key deployment considerations for liquid desiccant air conditioners (LDACs) within the Federal sector. Benefits Liquid desiccant air conditioners deeply dry air using natural gas, solar energy, waste heat, bio-fuel, or other fossil fuels to drive the system. By providing mostly latent cooling, the LDAC controls indoor humidity without overcooling and reheating. This unit is supplemented by an electric chiller or DX air conditioner that sensibly cools the building's recirculation air. The liquid desiccant is a concentrated salt solution that directly absorbs moisture. Application LDACs are applicable in hospital, office, prison, school, and service

271

Directed transport in equilibrium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate how a microscopic system, which can move only in one direction, comes to equilibrium with a heat-bath. To understand this problem, we investigate a symmetry broken dimer constrained to move in a particular direction when in contact with a uniform heat-bath at a constant temperature. The dimer is not driven by any external force. The system gains kinetic energy from the heat-bath and that the system can only use in directed transport. At the hard core collision limit between the particles of the dimer, we show by exact analytic calculations and complementary numerical results that the dimer undergoes steady directed transport by attaining a stationary distribution for a relevant degree of freedom. Our observation, being perfectly consistent with the {\\it second law of thermodynamics}, leads to a generalization of the existing {\\it Brownian ratchet} paradigm and points out some important limitations of {\\it Fokker-Planck} dynamics.

Bhattacharyay, A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

272

Air Products effective way  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PE O A e s a b O T A O ENNST Overview Air Products effective way standard me Departm Shipping has recently y of shipping eans. Air Pro ontainer that es of this pro onduct mark eep accelera eep the cost tilize widely a earch and m m visited Air er needs wer model was cr m approache ms

Demirel, Melik C.

273

Directives Help  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a number of ways in which you may get to the information you need.

274

Direct observation of heat dissipation in individual suspended carbon nanotubes using a two-laser technique  

SciTech Connect

A two-laser technique is used to investigate heat spreading along individual single walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) bundles in vacuum and air environments. A 532 nm laser focused on the center of a suspended SWCNT bundle is used as a local heat source, and a 633 nm laser is used to measure the spatial temperature profile along the SWCNT bundle by monitoring the G band downshifts in the Raman spectra. A constant temperature gradient is observed when the SWCNT bundle is irradiated in vacuum, giving direct evidence of diffusive transport of the phonons probed by the Raman laser. In air, however, we observe an exponentially decaying temperature profile with a decay length of about 7 {mu}m, due to heat dissipation from the SWCNT bundle to the surrounding gas molecules. The thermal conductivity of the suspended carbon nanotube (CNT) is determined from its electrical heating temperature profile as measured in vacuum and the nanotube bundle diameter measured via transmission electron microscopy. Based on the exponential decay curves measured in three different CNTs in air, the heat transfer coefficient between the SWCNTs and the surrounding air molecules is found to range from 1.5 x 10{sup 3} to 7.9 x 10{sup 4} W/m{sup 2} K, which is smaller than the 1 x 10{sup 5} W/m{sup 2} K thermal boundary conductance value calculated using the kinetic theory of gases. This measurement is insensitive to the thermal contact resistance, as no temperature drops occur at the ends of the nanotube. It is also insensitive to errors in the calibration of the G band temperature coefficient. The optical absorption is also obtained from these results and is on the order of 10{sup -5}.

Hsu, I-Kai; Hung, Wei-Hsuan [Department of Materials Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Pettes, Michael T.; Shi Li [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Center for Nano and Molecular Science and Technology, Texas Materials Institute, University of Texas of Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Aykol, Mehmet; Theiss, Jesse; Cronin, Stephen B. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States); Chang, Chia-Chi [Department of Physics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

2011-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

275

Advanced Strategy Guideline: Air Distribution Basics and Duct Design  

SciTech Connect

This report discusses considerations for designing an air distribution system for an energy efficient house that requires less air volume to condition the space. Considering the HVAC system early in the design process will allow adequate space for equipment and ductwork and can result in cost savings. Principles discussed that will maximize occupant comfort include delivery of the proper amount of conditioned air for appropriate temperature mixing and uniformity without drafts, minimization of system noise, the impacts of pressure loss, efficient return air duct design, and supply air outlet placement, as well as duct layout, materials, and sizing.

Burdick, A.

2011-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

276

Determining the Right Air Quality for Your Compressed Air System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet outlines the main factors for determining the right air quality for compressed air systems.

277

Analysis of efficiency of control of operation conditions of air gas cooling devices at compressor stations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Based on calculations of energy consumption by air gas cooling devices, an analysis has been made of the efficiency of the methods of control of temperature conditions of the transported gas. Two types of air ...

A. V. Krupnikov; A. D. Vanyashov; I. A. Yanvarev

2010-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

278

Performance Analysis of Dual-Fan, Dual-Duct Constant Volume Air-Handling Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

,d) or the mixed air temperature (Tm,c). The value of the air leaving cooling coil (Tc,o) is the smaller of either the cold deck set point or the mixed air temperature (Tm,c). The value of the air leaving heating coil (Th,o) is the larger of either the hot deck...,d) or the mixed air temperature (Tm,c). The value of the air leaving cooling coil (Tc,o) is the smaller of either the cold deck set point or the mixed air temperature (Tm,c). The value of the air leaving heating coil (Th,o) is the larger of either the hot deck...

Joo, I. S.; Liu, M.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

279

Air flow effects in the piston ring pack and their implications on oil transport  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

3 different flow regimes of piston blowby air and their influences on oil transport are studied. It is found that air mainly interacts with oil close to the ring gaps and directly below the ring-liner contacts. Geometric ...

Wang, Yuan, S.M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

280

Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of several installation items on the high outdoor ambient temperature performance of air conditioners. These installation… (more)

Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

MHD air heater technology development. Annual technical progress report, January 1, 1980-December 31, 1980  

SciTech Connect

Progress on the technology development of the directly-fired high temperature air heater (HTAH) for MHD power plants is described in detail. The objective of task 1 is to continue development of ceramic materials technology for the directly-fired HTAH. The objectives of task 2 are to demonstrate the technical feasibility of operating a directly-fired HTAH (including both the heater matrix and valves), to continue obtaining information on life and corrosion resistance of HTAH materials, and to obtain design information for full-scale studies and future design work. The objectives of task 3 are to begin the identification of HTAH control requirements and control system needs, and to continue full-scale study efforts incorporating updated materials and design information in order to identify development needs for the HTAH development program. (WHK)

None

1981-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

282

ARM - Measurement - Virtual temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsVirtual temperature govMeasurementsVirtual temperature ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Virtual temperature The virtual temperature Tv = T(1 + rv/{epsilon}), where rv is the mixing ratio, and {epsilon} is the ratio of the gas constants of air and water vapor ( 0.622). Categories Atmospheric State Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments CO2FLX : Carbon Dioxide Flux Measurement Systems MWRP : Microwave Radiometer Profiler RWP : Radar Wind Profiler

283

Research on Fuzzy Regulation Strategies in the Constant Air Volume Air Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Yifeng Wu Honglin Wang Doctoral Candidate Associate Professor Master Master Master Master School of Municipal & Environmental Eng, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin P.R. China, 150090 hitbai@163.com Abstract: The energy consumption... region and the same operating strategy was adopted[1]. Wang Li analyzed the temperature control principles to achieve economical operation in CAV system, and presented improved control strategy to integrate fresh air control with indoor air...

Bai, T.; Zhang, J.; Ning, N.; Tong, K.; Wu, Y.; Wang, H.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Swimming pools as heat sinks for air conditioners: Model design and experimental validation for natural thermal behavior of the pool  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Swimming pools as thermal sinks for air conditioners could save approximately 40% on peak cooling power and 30% of overall cooling energy, compared to standard residential air conditioning. Heat dissipation from pools in semi-arid climates with large diurnal temperature shifts is such that pool heating and space cooling may occur concurrently; in which case heat rejected from cooling equipment could directly displace pool heating energy, while also improving space cooling efficiency. The performance of such a system relies on the natural temperature regulation of swimming pools governed by evaporative and convective heat exchange with the air, radiative heat exchange with the sky, and conductive heat exchange with the ground. This paper describes and validates a model that uses meteorological data to accurately predict the hourly temperature of a swimming pool to within 1.1 °C maximum error over the period of observation. A thorough review of literature guided our choice of the most appropriate set of equations to describe the natural mass and energy exchange between a swimming pool and the environment. Monitoring of a pool in Davis, CA, was used to confirm the resulting simulations. Comparison of predicted and observed pool temperature for all hours over a 56 day experimental period shows an R-squared relatedness of 0.967.

Jonathan Woolley; Curtis Harrington; Mark Modera

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

Empirical modeling of summer lake surface temperatures in ...  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The model approximates the slow integrated response of water temperature to meteorological forcing by applying an exponential smoothing filter to air ...

286

Exploring Total Power Saving from High Temperature of Server Operations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air Temperature Total system power (%) Cooling power (%)Total system power (%) Cooling power (%) JunctionTo simulate the cooling power consumption at different

Lai, Liangzhen; Chang, Chia-Hao; Gupta, Puneet

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

287

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells ■ Hydrogen Energy ■ Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Integrated Concept Purified Biogas 3 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Renewable H 2 to Fuel Cell, Non-Integrated Concept Landfill WWTP digester Biogas membrane Pipeline quality methane CH4 Pipeline Hydrogen Production To Fuel Cell Vehicles Stationary Fuel Cells With H2 purification Stationary Fuel Cells Direct Conversion Directed Biomethane 4 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry, health and the environment Biogas Sources in the US ■ Landfill gas dominates (~4,000 Nm3/h typical)

288

Improving Compressed Air System Performance: A Sourcebook for Industry  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This sourcebook is designed to provide compressed air system users with a reference that outlines opportunities for system performance improvements. It is not intended to be a comprehensive technical text on improving compressed air systems, but rather a document that makes compressed air system users aware of the performance improvement potential, details some of the significant opportunities, and directs users to additional sources of assistance.

289

Direct Liquid Cooling for Electronic Equipment  

SciTech Connect

This report documents a demonstration of an electronic--equipment cooling system in the engineering prototype development stage that can be applied in data centers. The technology provides cooling by bringing a water--based cooling fluid into direct contact with high--heat--generating electronic components. This direct cooling system improves overall data center energy efficiency in three ways: High--heat--generating electronic components are more efficiently cooled directly using water, capturing a large portion of the total electronic equipment heat generated. This captured heat reduces the load on the less--efficient air--based data center room cooling systems. The combination contributes to the overall savings. The power consumption of the electronic equipment internal fans is significantly reduced when equipped with this cooling system. The temperature of the cooling water supplied to the direct cooling system can be much higher than that commonly provided by facility chilled water loops, and therefore can be produced with lower cooling infrastructure energy consumption and possibly compressor-free cooling. Providing opportunities for heat reuse is an additional benefit of this technology. The cooling system can be controlled to produce high return water temperatures while providing adequate component cooling. The demonstration was conducted in a data center located at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California. Thirty--eight servers equipped with the liquid cooling system and instrumented for energy measurements were placed in a single rack. Two unmodified servers of the same configuration, located in an adjacent rack, were used to provide a baseline. The demonstration characterized the fraction of heat removed by the direct cooling technology, quantified the energy savings for a number of cooling infrastructure scenarios, and provided information that could be used to investigate heat reuse opportunities. Thermal measurement data were used with data center energy use modeling software to estimate overall site energy use. These estimates show that an overall data center energy savings of approximately 20 percent can be expected if a center is retrofitted as specified in the models used. Increasing the portion of heat captured by this technology is an area suggested for further development.

Coles, Henry; Greenberg, Steve

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

Measurement-while-drilling (MWD) development for air drilling  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this program is to tool-harden and make commercially available an existing wireless MWD tool to reliably operate in an air, air-mist, or air-foam environment during Appalachian Basin oil and gas directional drilling operations in conjunction with downhole motors and/or (other) bottom-hole assemblies. The application of this technology is required for drilling high angle (holes) and horizontal well drilling in low-pressure, water sensitive, tight gas formations that require air, air-mist, and foam drilling fluids. The basic approach to accomplishing this objective was to modify GEC`s existing electromagnetic (e-m) ``CABLELESS``{trademark} MWD tool to improve its reliability in air drilling by increasing its tolerance to higher vibration and shock levels (hardening). Another important aim of the program is to provide for continuing availability of the resultant tool for use on DOE-sponsored, and other, air-drilling programs.

Rubin, L.A.; Harrison, W.H.

1992-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

291

New Method Gives Precise Control in Air Conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The Niagara "Controlled Humidity Method" is a new system of air conditioning giving complete control of temperature and relative humidity, holding constant conditions or varying them at the will of the user. ... A condition of 15 grains o f moisture per pound of air at 85 dcg. ...

1950-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

292

New Method Gives Precise Control in Air Conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

•The Niagara "Controlled Humidity Method" is a new system of air conditioning giving complete control of temperature and relative humidity, holding constant conditions or varying them at the will of the user. ... A condition of 15 grains of moisture per pound of air at 85 deg. ...

1950-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

293

Environmental Quality: Air (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Environmental Quality regulates air quality in Louisiana. The Department has an established a fee system for funding the monitoring, investigation and other activities required...

294

Air-Quality Regulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n...Federal, state and/or local regulations constructed for the purpose of protecting air quality, e.g., low volatile organic compounds...

Jan W. Gooch

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Air-quality regulations  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

n....Federal, state and/or local regulations constructed for the purpose of protecting air quality, e.g., low volatile organic compounds...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: AIRS retrievals of  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

AIRS retrievals of atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity - AIRS retrievals of atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity - comparisons with radiosondes and ship-based remote sensing during AEROSE Minnett, Peter University of Miami Szczodrak, Malgorzata University of Miami Feltz, Wayne University of Wisconsin Nalli, Nicholas NOAA/NESDIS The World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has determined that significantly improving weather forecasting would require global temperature and moisture soundings with at least the accuracy of the current radiosondes. The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) on board of the NASA EOS Aqua satellite, launched in 2002, is designed to provide high-accuracy atmospheric profiles of temperature and humidity. The validation of the AIRS atmospheric profile retrieval scheme is a continuing

297

Reducing Air-Conditioning System Energy Using a PMV Index  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ICEBO2006, Shenzhen, China Maximize Comfort: Temperature, Humidity and IAQ Vol.I-4-1 Reducing Air-Conditioning System Energy Using a PMV Index Hui Li Qingfan Zhang Associate professor...

Li, H.; Zhang, Q.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Nuclear tanker producing liquid fuels from air and water  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Emerging technologies in CO? air capture, high temperature electrolysis, microchannel catalytic conversion, and Generation IV reactor plant systems have the potential to create a shipboard liquid fuel production system ...

Galle-Bishop, John Michael

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

299

Studies of C2H6/ air and C3H8/ air Plasma assisted combustion kinetics in a nanosecond discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Studies of C2H6/ air and C3H8/ air Plasma assisted combustion kinetics in a nanosecond discharge Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ The paper presents the studies of ethane and propane/air plasma assisted combustion at a pressure of 60 torr and temperature 300K. O atoms in the plasma have been

Ju, Yiguang

300

Trends in wetting behavior for Ag–CuO braze alloys on Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O(3??) at elevated temperatures in air  

SciTech Connect

Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O(3-?? (BSCF) is a potential oxygen separation membrane material for advanced coal based power plants. For this application, BSCF must be joined to a metal. In the current study, Ag-CuO, a reactive air brazing (RAB) alloy was evaluated for brazing BSCF. In-situ contact angle tests were performed on BSCF using Ag-CuO binary mixtures at 950 and 1000°C and the interfacial microstructures were evaluated. Wetting contact angles (?<90°) were obtained at short times at 950°C and the contact angles remained constant at 1000°C for 1, 2 and 8 mol% CuO contents. Microstructural analysis revealed the dissolution of copper oxide into the BSCF matrix to form copper-cobalt-oxygen rich dissolution products along the BSCF grain boundary. The formation of a thick interfacial reaction product layer and ridging at the sessile drop triple point indicate that the reaction kinetics are very rapid and that it will require careful process control to obtain the desired thin but continuous interfacial product layer.

Joshi, Vineet V.; Meier, Alan; Darsell, Jens T.; Weil, K. Scott; Bowden, Mark E.

2013-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Maintaining body temperature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Maintaining body temperature Maintaining body temperature Name: Jeff Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: What keeps the human body at a constant temperature of 98.6? Replies: Maintaining body temperature is very complex. It also takes a lot of energy. About 80% of the energy from the food you eat goes to maintaining body temperature. Basically, the chemical reactions of metabolism of stored food, especially fats, generate heat as a by product. This heat warms the body. The brain reads temperature and controls to some extent the rate of this metabolism. There are also many other mechanisms triggered by the brain to keep the core of your body warm, even if the periphery (skin) is cold. Blood vessels to the fingers and toes constrict, so that the cold air doesn't cool the blood too much, so that cooled blood doesn't cool down the heart and brain when it returns. In severe cases, your body will sacrifice a finger or a toe to keep you from dying of cold core temperature (frostbite: it saves your life!). Also the brain can order a lot of muscles to contract rapidly. This generates a lot of heat quickly, a response called shivering. There's much more to this exciting field of research.

302

Relationship between Warm Air Mass Transport into the Upper Polar Atmosphere and Cold Air Outbreaks in Winter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This study investigates dominant patterns of daily surface air temperature anomalies in winter (November to February) and their relationship with the meridional mass circulation variability using the daily ECMWF Interim reanalysis in 1979–2011. ...

Yueyue Yu; Ming Cai; Rongcai Ren; Huug M. van den Dool

303

Transpiration: Its Effects on Plant Leaf Temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Engineering, Purdue University Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana...which is equivalent to normal indoor lighting. Since the air temperature was held...University A. C. LEOPOLD Department of Horticulture, Purdue University, Lafayette, Indiana...

G. D. Cook; J. R. Dixon; A. C. Leopold

1964-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

304

E-Print Network 3.0 - air intake shaft Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

elevator shaft pressurization for smoke control Summary: a net positive. In physical terms, air is being entrained into the shaft on lower floors and forced out... temperature...

305

E-Print Network 3.0 - air conditioners water Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Water... EECBG Direct Equipment Purchase Air Conditioner Guide ... Source: California Energy Commission Collection: Energy Storage, Conversion and Utilization 2 June 30, 2011...

306

Exploration and Resource Assessment at Mountain Home Air Force Base, Idaho Using an Integrated Team Approach  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Air Force is facing a number of challenges as it moves into the future, one of the biggest being how to provide safe and secure energy to support base operations. A team of scientists and engineers met at Mountain Home Air Force Base near Boise, Idaho, to discuss the possibility of exploring for geothermal resources under the base. The team identified that there was a reasonable potential for geothermal resources based on data from an existing well. In addition, a regional gravity map helped identify several possible locations for drilling a new well. The team identified several possible sources of funding for this well—the most logical being to use U.S. Department of Energy funds to drill the upper half of the well and U.S. Air Force funds to drill the bottom half of the well. The well was designed as a slimhole well in accordance with State of Idaho Department of Water Resources rules and regulations. Drilling operations commenced at the Mountain Home site in July of 2011 and were completed in January of 2012. Temperatures increased gradually, especially below a depth of 2000 ft. Temperatures increased more rapidly below a depth of 5500 ft. The bottom of the well is at 5976 ft, where a temperature of about 140°C was recorded. The well flowed artesian from a depth below 5600 ft, until it was plugged off with drilling mud. Core samples were collected from the well and are being analyzed to help understand permeability at depth. Additional tests using a televiewer system will be run to evaluate orientation and directions at fractures, especially in the production zone. A final report on the well exploitation will be forthcoming later this year. The Air Force will use it to evaluate the geothermal resource potential for future private development options at Mountain Home AFB.

Joseph C. Armstrong; Robert P. Breckenridge; Dennis L. Nielson; John W. Shervais; Thomas R. Wood

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

International MODIS and AIRS processing package: AIRS products and applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

International MODIS and AIRS processing package: AIRS products and applications Elisabeth Weisz presented and discussed in this paper demonstrate that the IMAPP AIRS retrieval product is rigorously parameters from the operational AIRS L2 product and data from other instruments. Keywords: AIRS, IMAPP

Li, Jun

308

Clean air act and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS)  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Clean air act and National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Ozone: Sources/Environmental Effects Particulates (PM): Sources/Environmental Effects #12;National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) The Clean Air Act requires EPA to set National Ambient Air Quality Standards for pollutants considered

Weber, Rodney

309

Geothermal Direct Use | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Direct Use Direct Use Jump to: navigation, search GEOTHERMAL ENERGYGeothermal Home Print PDF [edit] Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Technologies There are many types of Geothermal Technologies that take advantage of the earth's heat: Hydrothermal Systems Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) Sedimentary Geothermal Systems Co-Produced Geothermal Systems Geothermal Direct Use Ground Source Heat Pumps Direct Use Links Related documents and websites EERE's Direct Use Report National Institute of Building Science's Whole Building Design Guide Policy Makers' Guidebook for Geothermal Heating and Cooling Dictionary.png Geothermal Direct Use: Low- to moderate-temperature water from geothermal reservoirs can be used to provide heat directly to buildings, or other applications that require

310

Compressed Air System Optimization  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Several years ago I went to a gas station and noticed that my car's tires were low on air. I saw the gas station had an air compressor, but it cost a quarter to use the compressor. I paid my quarter and used the compressor. I realized...

Aegerter, R.

311

Recirculating electric air filter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An electric air filter cartridge has a cylindrical inner high voltage electrode, a layer of filter material, and an outer ground electrode formed of a plurality of segments moveably connected together. The outer electrode can be easily opened to remove or insert filter material. Air flows through the two electrodes and the filter material and is exhausted from the center of the inner electrode.

Bergman, W.

1985-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

312

Portable oven air circulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A portable air circulating apparatus for use in cooking ovens which is used to create air currents in the oven which transfer heat to cooking foodstuffs to promote more rapid and more uniform cooking or baking, the apparatus including a motor, fan blade and housing of metallic materials selected from a class of heat resistant materials.

Jorgensen, Jorgen A. (Bloomington, MN); Nygren, Donald W. (Minneapolis, MN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Direct costing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oau 5e reduced. Under the same oonOitions, even ~Me on a bread scale entails not mere1y the conduct of the direct oyeraticns cf yrccessing the materials into finished products, but also the performance of auxiliary functions. these may 'ba power y... purposes have been advanced as folkway le Most of a o03RyaxO' 8 products Grc usual13r sold at prices which oovex' full product costs y plus 861ling a%el administrative expenses, plus normal profit. The inventoi~ valuate. on should be consistent...

Browning, Donald Bullock

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

314

Meeting the Air Leakage  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Meeting the Air Leakage Meeting the Air Leakage Requirements of the 2012 IECC The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) recognizes the enormous potential that exists for improving the energy efficiency, safety and comfort of homes. The newest edition of the International Energy Conservation Code ® (IECC) (2012) sets the bar higher for energy efficiency, and new air sealing requirements are one of the key new provisions. This guide is a resource for understanding the new air leakage requirements in the 2012 IECC and suggestions on how these new measures can be met. It also provides information from Building America's Air Sealing Guide, Best Practices and case studies on homes that are currently meeting the provisions. The 2012 IECC and a few International Residential Code (IRC) requirements are referenced throughout the guide.

315

Regional air quality in the Four Corners study region  

SciTech Connect

The body of information presented in this paper is directed to policy makers, regulators, and energy planners concerned with the effect of energy development and alternative regulatory policies on regional air quality in the Four Corners Study Region. This study was one of 5 regional studies conducted for the National Commission on Air Quality (NCAQ). Potential regional air quality impacts were evaluated out to the year 1995 for alternative energy scenarios under current and alternative regulatory policies. Highlights of the results from the regional air quality analysis are discussed in this paper.

Nochumson, D.H.

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

316

Air transducers with high acoustic impedance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High?Z air transducers evolved from several industrial transducers. These predecessors include (a) acoustic emission and angle?beam NDT contact transducers; (b) flowmeter transducers for high?pressure methane hot refinery gases and corrosive flare gases; and (c) transducer arrays for monitoring hot corrosive gases flowing at Mach 0.1 in smokestacks of ?3–13 m. This peculiar ancestry accounts for their unusual high?acoustic?impedance construction. By not employing low?Z air?backed radiating membranes transducer bandwidth response time and sensitivity are sacrificed. The solid robust construction however offers some compensating features: tolerance to wide ranges in pressure and temperature including rapid rates of change (thermal shock depressurization); corrosion resistance; operable with standard lab equipment without bias voltage; mounting options where the transducer forms part of the pressure boundary or where it is outside the pressure boundary. Clamp?on air flow applications at one bar include small wind tunnels and plastic pipes. Acoustically isolated pairs measure secondary flow components (crossflow circulation) in a plane perpendicular to the pipe axis. Flow applications include gases such as air mild steam (pending) or other hot pressurized or corrosive fluids. Air?coupled measurements of transmission characteristics of wood or other low?density solids and air?ranging are readily demonstrated with the low?Z transducers.

Lawrence C. Lynnworth

1998-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Thermodynamic Analysis of a Direct Expansion Solar-Assisted Heat Pump  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Air—to—air heat pumps have been widely used for space heating applications in locations with moderate ambient. temperatures. Since their introduction in early fifties, commercially available heat pumps have un...

S. K. Chaturvedi

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

318

Direct Numerical Simulation of Autoiginition of a Hydrogen Jet in a  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Numerical Simulation of Autoiginition of a Hydrogen Jet in a Direct Numerical Simulation of Autoiginition of a Hydrogen Jet in a Preheated Cross Flow Submitted by mkaczmar on June 4, 2013 - 13:52 Authors: Abdilghanie, A., Frouzakis, C.E., Fischer, P Autoignition of a nitrogen-diluted hydrogen mixture issuing from a round nozzle into a cross-flowing turbulent stream of preheated air flowing in a channel at a friction Reynolds number Re = 180 is inves- tigated via 3-D direct numerical simulations (DNS) at two crossflow stream temperatures (930 and 950 K). Three-dimensional visualizations of the JICF reveal a complicated flow structure characterized by a variety of coherent vortical structures resulting from the boundary layers near the walls and evolving from the jet instabilities. The mean pressure field set up by the flow

319

Measured Impacts of Air Conditioner Condenser Shading  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

reaching the expansion valve. In theory, the efficiency of vapor compression air conditioning can be improved through two primary mechanisms associated with condenser shading: Direct shading. Incident solar radiation can pose approximately a 1,000 w...]: IEYPERAlURL COUPARlSOn A/C SHADING DP. 1 (Some): SOUR RADlAllON COUPARISON I=AYEI[Nl KYP orq=82.1 , mu=87.(22 Z=CONDEHSIR ARU AIR lEYP orq=83.8 , mox=02.858 TIME OF DAY, (hr) 9 12 15 TIME OF DAY, (hr) Figure 3. Sample daily 15-minute data for June 21...

Parker, D. S.; Barkaszi, S. F.; Sonne, J. K.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

320

Radionuclide Concentrations in Surface Air: Direct Relationship to Global Fallout  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Centuries of Climatic Record from Camp Century on the Greenland Ice Sheet Abstract...the entire Greenland ice sheet at Camp Century (6). Certain physical and chemical...stable isotope dating method on the Camp Century core (see 10). The appr-oximiiate...

Michael T. Kleinman; Herbert L. Volchok

1969-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Advances and new directions in direct liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

With advance in single stage processes such as H-Coal, EDS and SRC, and refining and upgrading of coal liquids by Chevron and UOP, the direct liquefaction process has continuously evolved to the present two-stage catalytic configuration, which produces the highest liquid yield and product quality of any process worldwide. The Two Stage Liquefaction (TSL) process has been successfully applied to bituminous and subbituminous coals, overcoming problems associated with earlier processes. But, potential for additional improvement is recognized in several areas: cleaning coal prior to liquefaction; low temperature and pressure preconditioning of feed coal; novel catalysts development to arrest regressive reactions and improve hydrotreatment and cracking reactions; improvement in hydrocarbon value recovery and reduced energy rejection by alternate bottoms processing techniques. In this paper, after discussing briefly the history of liquefaction and development of the TSL process, present potential areas for research and development are presented.

Rao, S.N.; Schindler, H.D.; McGurl, G.V.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Air ejector augmented compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Energy is stored in slack demand periods by charging a plurality of underground reservoirs with air to the same peak storage pressure, during peak demand periods throttling the air from one storage reservoir into a gas turbine system at a constant inlet pressure until the air pressure in the reservoir falls to said constant inlet pressure, thereupon permitting air in a second reservoir to flow into said gas turbine system while drawing air from the first reservoir through a variable geometry air ejector and adjusting said variable geometry air ejector, said air flow being essentially at the constant inlet pressure of the gas turbine system.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

Abatement of Air Pollution: Prohibition of Air Pollution (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

All air pollution not otherwise covered by these regulations is prohibited. Stationary sources which cause air pollution must be operated in accordance with all applicable emissions standards and...

324

NREL: Learning - Geothermal Direct Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Use Direct Use Photo of alligators on a farm. Geothermally heated waters allow alligators to thrive on a farm in Colorado, where temperatures can drop below freezing. Geothermal reservoirs of hot water, which are found a few miles or more beneath the Earth's surface, can be used to provide heat directly. This is called the direct use of geothermal energy. Geothermal direct use has a long history, going back to when people began using hot springs for bathing, cooking food, and loosening feathers and skin from game. Today, hot springs are still used as spas. But there are now more sophisticated ways of using this geothermal resource. In modern direct-use systems, a well is drilled into a geothermal reservoir to provide a steady stream of hot water. The water is brought up through

325

Dehumidification and cooling loads from ventilation air  

SciTech Connect

The importance of controlling humidity in buildings is cause for concern, in part, because of indoor air quality problems associated with excess moisture in air-conditioning systems. But more universally, the need for ventilation air has forced HVAC equipment (originally optimized for high efficiency in removing sensible heat loads) to remove high moisture loads. To assist cooling equipment and meet the challenge of larger ventilation loads, several technologies have succeeded in commercial buildings. Newer technologies such as subcool/reheat and heat pipe reheat show promise. These increase latent capacity of cooling-based systems by reducing their sensible capacity. Also, desiccant wheels have traditionally provided deeper-drying capacity by using thermal energy in place of electrical power to remove the latent load. Regardless of what mix of technologies is best for a particular application, there is a need for a more effective way of thinking about the cooling loads created by ventilation air. It is clear from the literature that all-too-frequently, HVAC systems do not perform well unless the ventilation air loads have been effectively addressed at the original design stage. This article proposes an engineering shorthand, an annual load index for ventilation air. This index will aid in the complex process of improving the ability of HVAC systems to deal efficiently with the amount of fresh air the industry has deemed useful for maintaining comfort in buildings. Examination of typical behavior of weather shows that latent loads usually exceed sensible loads in ventilation air by at least 3:1 and often as much as 8:1. A designer can use the engineering shorthand indexes presented to quickly assess the importance of this fact for a given system design. To size those components after they are selected, the designer can refer to Chapter 24 of the 1997 ASHRAE Handbook--Fundamentals, which includes separate values for peak moisture and peak temperature.

Harriman, L.G. III [Mason-Grant, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Plager, D. [Quantitative Decision Support, Portsmouth, NH (United States); Kosar, D. [Gas Research Inst., Chicago, IL (United States)

1997-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

326

Air Pollution and Health Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The quality of the air we breathe is still a major concern to human health. Notwithstanding the air pollution mitigation efforts that have been pursued since ... be attributed to the effects of urban outdoor air

Ana Isabel Miranda; Joana Valente…

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Air Quality (Nova Scotia, Canada)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Nova Scotia Environment is responsible for monitoring the air quality in the province, as well as administering fines and permits relating to air quality. The Air Quality Regulations state...

328

Global air quality and climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CRITICAL REVIEW Global air quality and climatewz Arlene M.determine regional air quality and can alter climate.to-continental scale air quality. Reducing the O 3 precursor

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Spherical Target Temperature by Extended CFAST Calculation  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this calculation is to evaluate the temperature at the surface of a spherical target made of polyethylene during a room fire. The current calculation is separated into 2 steps: (1) CFAST code calculation--Calculate the air temperature; radiation flux to the target from the fire, surrounding air, and walls; convection flux; and target temperature. (2) Extended model calculation--Calculate the temperature of the target sphere taking into account the density, heat capacity, heat conductivity, and the spherical geometry of the target by solving the coupled finite difference equations. The second step calculation utilizes the air temperature and radiation flux determined by the CFAST code calculation in the first step.

Ma, C W

2009-05-05T23:59:59.000Z

330

Air heating system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-starting, fuel-fired, air heating system including a vapor generator, a turbine, and a condenser connected in a closed circuit such that the vapor output from the vapor generator is conducted to the turbine and then to the condenser where it is condensed for return to the vapor generator. The turbine drives an air blower which passes air over the condenser for cooling the condenser. Also, a condensate pump is driven by the turbine. The disclosure is particularly concerned with the provision of heat exchanger and circuitry for cooling the condensed fluid output from the pump prior to its return to the vapor generator.

Primeau, John J. (19800 Seminole Rd., Euclid, OH 44117)

1983-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

331

Cold side thermal energy storage system for improved operation of air cooled power plants  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air cooled power plants experience significant performance fluctuations as plant cooling capacity reduces due to higher daytime temperature than nighttime temperature. The purpose of this thesis is to simulate the detailed ...

Williams, Daniel David

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

332

Polar firn air reveals large-scale impact of anthropogenic mercury emissions during the 1970s  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...anticipated growth in coal combustion, steel production, gold...i) air mixing by pressure and temperature gradients...Delineation of carbonate dust, aluminous dust, and sea salt deposition...Summit temperature and pressure (8): D T, PS urface...

Xavier Faïn; Christophe P. Ferrari; Aurélien Dommergue; Mary R. Albert; Mark Battle; Jeff Severinghaus; Laurent Arnaud; Jean-Marc Barnola; Warren Cairns; Carlo Barbante; Claude Boutron

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

333

OM300 Direction Drilling Module  

SciTech Connect

OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

MacGugan, Doug

2013-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

334

Maintaining System Air Quality | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Maintaining System Air Quality Maintaining System Air Quality This tip sheet discusses how to maintain air quality in compressed air systems through proper use of equipment....

335

Compressed Air Systems | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Maintenance Strategies for Compressed Air Systems Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss Stabilizing System Pressure Compressed Air Training Compressed Air Systems Tools...

336

Compressed Air Storage Strategies | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Storage Strategies Compressed Air Storage Strategies This tip sheet briefly discusses compressed air storage strategies. COMPRESSED AIR TIP SHEET 9 Compressed Air Storage...

337

An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An idealized assessment of the economics of air capture of carbon dioxide in mitigation policy- ture,'' which refers to the direct removal of carbon dioxide from the ambient air. Air capture has to be changing (e.g., Jones, 2008). By contrast, the capture and storage of carbon dioxide from power plants has

Colorado at Boulder, University of

338

A diffusion approximation approach to stochastic modeling of air conditioning type loads  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

that the air conditioning unit is on and off. In the followino equations, TNIN and TNAX are the lower and upper limit temperatures of the thermostat deadband and To is the outside temperature. Gi 2Gw To Tw Cw Ci $ QeXt To - outside temperature Tw - wall... temperature Ti - inside temperature Gw ? thermal conductance of wall Gi - thermal conductance of air Cw - thermal capacitance of wall Ci ? thermal capacitance of air Qe - rated capacity of cooling unit Xt - zero-one process describing the switching...

Roy, Teresa Henryka

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

Air Quality Rules (North Carolina)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This is a comprehensive air quality rule for North Carolina that includes ambient air quality standards, emission control standards, monitoring and reporting requirements, and permitting procedures...

340

Ambient Air Quality Standards (Iowa)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations set statewide ambient air quality standards for various contaminants. The state code follows the regulations set forth in the National Primary and Secondary Ambient Air Quality...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Geothermal Evaluation of The Hosston Formation Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas Phase II Report  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes the results of a phased program to test the geothermal characteristics of the Hosston Formation at Lackland Air Force Base, San Antonio, Texas. The geothermal resource evaluation was made possible through drilling and preliminary testing of a large diameter well, Lackland AFB No.1, at the south portion of the base. Phase I of the program had 3 major components: (1) compilation and interpretation of surface and subsurface geologic data to site the well; (2) design of the well; and (3) permitting the well. Phase II consisted of well drilling and preliminary development. The goal of the program was to identify water temperature, water quality, and productivity characteristics of the Hosston aquifer, which preliminary studies suggested might be favorable for direct applications on the base. Results reported herein suggest that heat pumps or other engineering alternatives might be needed for such applications. Results of the well drilling give data on water productivity, quality and temperature. Air-lift testing shows that, although the well does not flow to surface, good artesian pressure exists. Water quality appears acceptable, with about 2200 parts per million total dissolved solids. Equilibrated reservoir temperatures appear to be slightly less than 108 F (42 C).

Zeisloft, Jon; Foley, Duncan

1984-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

342

Padding with Compressed Air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We commonly find plants using padding to transport liquids or light solids short distances from tankers into storage tanks. Padding can wreck havoc in compressed air systems with limited storage, undersized cleanup equipment (dryers and filters...

Beals, C.

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

Traffic air quality index  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Vehicle emissions are responsible for a considerable share of urban air pollution concentrations. The traffic air quality index (TAQI) is proposed as a useful tool for evaluating air quality near roadways. The TAQI associates air quality with the equivalent emission from traffic sources and with street structure (roadway structure) as anthropogenic factors. The paper presents a method of determining the TAQI and defines the degrees of harmfulness of emitted pollution. It proposes a classification specifying a potential threat to human health based on the TAQI value and shows an example of calculating the TAQI value for real urban streets. It also considers the role that car traffic plays in creating a local UHI.

Zbigniew Bagie?ski

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

344

Particulate air pollution, ambulatory heart rate variability, and cardiac arrhythmia in retirement community residents with coronary artery disease.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

air pollution in patients with coronary artery disease. Environ Healthair pollution on cardiac arrhythmia: the APACR Study. Environ Healthair pollution and air temperature among myocardial infarction survivors. Environ Health

Bartell, Scott M; Longhurst, John; Tjoa, Thomas; Sioutas, Constantinos; Delfino, Ralph J

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

345

CHAMPS-Multizone?A Combined Heat, Air, Moisture and Pollutant Simulation Environment for Whole-building Performance Analysis  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supply air temperature HVAC filter (only in filter case) OAof HVAC air handler as supply and return “zones” Filters canfilter efficiency for extensive property E Two different types of HVAC

Feng, Wei

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Ventilation Air Preconditioning Systems Mukesh Khattar Michael J. Brandemuehl Manager, Space Conditioning and Refrigeration Associate Professor Customer Systems Group Joint Center for Energy Management Electric Power Research Institute Campus... costs, the small, modular nature of the system allows great flexibility for fitting into retrofit geometries and saves space in new construction. Moreover, a single chiller can serve multiple air-handling units-in stark contrast to packaged...

Khattar, M.; Brandemuehl, M. J.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

Improving Air Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Improving Air-Conditioner Improving Air-Conditioner and Heat Pump Modeling Building America Stakeholders Meeting Jon Winkler March 2, 2012 2 * How do you recommend the most cost-effective A/C? Simple Question 3 Solution Whole-House Simulation Tool A/C Information * SEER 13 * SEER 14 * SEER 15 * SEER 16 * SEER 17 * SEER 18 * SEER 21 Annualized Cooling Cost (Energy + Equipment) 4 Background * Power, capacity and SHR vary with: o Outdoor temperature o Entering wetbulb o Air mass flow rate o Part load ratio Power Sensible Capacity Latent Capacity * How to accurately and easily model A/C performance? 5 Background: Model Development * A/C modeling utilizes two types of input o Rated values (capacity, efficiency, etc.) o Performance curves Capacity 1 / Efficiency 6 Background: Manufacturer's Data

348

ARM - Campaign Instrument - rad-air  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govInstrumentsrad-air govInstrumentsrad-air Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Campaign Instrument : Airborne Radiometers (RAD-AIR) Instrument Categories Radiometric, Airborne Observations Campaigns Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign (ISDAC) [ Download Data ] North Slope Alaska, 2008.04.01 - 2008.04.30 Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2009.01.22 - 2009.06.30 Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2009.01.22 - 2009.06.30 Routine AAF CLOWD Optical Radiative Observations (RACORO) [ Download Data ] Southern Great Plains, 2009.01.22 - 2009.06.30 Primary Measurements Taken The following measurements are those considered scientifically relevant.

349

AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy!  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AIR SEALING Seal air leaks and save energy! W H A T I S A I R L E A K A G E ? Ventilation is fresh at stopping air leakage. It is critical to seal all holes and seams between these sheet goods with durable air that enters a house in a controlled manner to exhaust excess moisture and reduce odors

Oak Ridge National Laboratory

350

inAir: Sharing Indoor Air Quality Measurements and Visualizations  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

evidence has indicated that indoor air pollution within homes and other buildings can be worse than the outdoor air pollution in even the largest and most industrialized cities. For example, the California Air Resources Board estimates that indoor air pollutant levels are 25-62% greater than outside levels [4

Mankoff, Jennifer

351

Air Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

permit regulations are designed to track, record, and control air pollutants belonging to severalAir Quality: Air Pollutants, SLAC Emissions Sources, and Regulatory Reference Department: Chemical on chemical classifications. This reference outlines major categories of air pollutants found at SLAC

Wechsler, Risa H.

352

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED INTO A DWELLING  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF AN AIR-TO-AIR HEAT PUMP COUPLED WITH TEMPERATE AIR-SOURCES INTEGRATED.peuportier@mines-paristech.fr, Tel.: +33 1 40 51 91 51 ABSTRACT An inverter-driven air-to-air heat pump model has been developped capacity air-to-air heat pump coupled with temperate air sources (crawlspace, attic, sunspace, heat

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

353

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

EMISSIONS TO AIR OPERATIONAL PROCEDURE Swansea University Estates Services Singleton Park Swansea to Air Department: Estates and Facilities Site: All Author: Ambreen Jahangir Approved by: Mark Durdin PURPOSE: To minimise emissions and discharges to air from boilers, fume cupboards, air conditioning

Harman, Neal.A.

354

Air Quality | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Retrieved from "http:en.openei.orgwindex.php?titleAirQuality&oldid612070" Category: NEPA Resources...

355

Direct measurements of methoxy removal rate constants for collisions with CH/sub 4/, Ar, N/sub 2/, Xe, and CF/sub 4/ in the temperature range 673--973K  

SciTech Connect

Removal rate constants for CH/sub 3/O by CH/sub 4/, Ar, N/sub 2/, Xe, and CF/sub 4/ were measured over a 400K temperature range using a laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence technique. Rapid methoxy removal rates are observed for the non-reactive collision partners (Ar, N/sub 2/, Xe, and CF/sub 4/) at elevated temperatures showing that the dissociation and isomerization channels for CH/sub 3/O are indeed important. The total removal rate constant (reaction /plus/ dissociation and/or isomerization) for CH/sub 4/ exhibits a linear dependence on temperature and has a removal rate constant, k/sub r/ /equals/ (1.2 +- 0.6) /times/ 10/sup /minus/8/exp((/minus/101070 +- 350)/T)cm/sup 3/molecule/sup /minus/1/s/sup /minus/1/. Assuming that the removal rate constant due to dissociation and/or isomerization are similar for CH/sub 4/ and CF/sub 4/, the reaction rate constant for CH/sub 3/O /plus/ CH/sub 4/ is equal to (1.7 +- 1.0) /times/ 10/sup /minus/10/exp((/minus/7480 +- 1100)/T)cm/sup 3/molecule/sup /minus/1/s/sup /minus/1/. 7 refs., 4 figs.

Wantuck, P.J.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Baugchum, S.L.; Winn, K.R.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

356

Hydrothermal industrialization: direct heat development. Final report  

SciTech Connect

A description of hydrothermal resources suitable for direct applications, their associated temperatures, geographic distribution and developable capacity are given. An overview of the hydrothermal direct-heat development infrastructure is presented. Development activity is highlighted by examining known and planned geothermal direct-use applications. Underlying assumptions and results for three studies conducted to determine direct-use market penetration of geothermal energy are discussed.

Not Available

1982-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

357

Dispersion models and air quality data for population exposure assessment to air pollution  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evaluating the extent of exposure to chemicals in absence of continuous measurements of their concentration in air and direct measures of personal exposure is crucial for epidemiological studies. Dispersion models can be a useful tool for reproducing spatio-temporal distribution of contaminants emitted by a specific source. However, they cannot easily be applied to short-term epidemiological studies because they require precise information on daily emission scenarios for a long time, which are generally not available. The aim of this study was to better assess the exposure in the industrial area of Brindisi, which suffers from various critical epidemiological situations, by integrating air pollution concentration data, emissions and model simulations concerning a specific point source. The results suggest that in the absence of direct exposure data and detailed information on specific pollutants associated to an emission, population exposure may be better assessed by taking into account proxy pollutants and the wind (direction and speed) as a potential health effects modifier.

Cristina Mangia; Marco Cervino; Emilio Antonio Luca Gianicolo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

Poola, Ramesh B. (Woodridge, IL); Sekar, Ramanujam R. (Naperville, IL); Stork, Kevin C. (Chicago, IL)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

359

Compressed air energy storage system  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An internal combustion reciprocating engine is operable as a compressor during slack demand periods utilizing excess power from a power grid to charge air into an air storage reservoir and as an expander during peak demand periods to feed power into the power grid utilizing air obtained from the air storage reservoir together with combustible fuel. Preferably the internal combustion reciprocating engine is operated at high pressure and a low pressure turbine and compressor are also employed for air compression and power generation.

Ahrens, Frederick W. (Naperville, IL); Kartsounes, George T. (Naperville, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Analysis of an open-air swimming pool solar heating system by using an experimentally validated TRNSYS model  

SciTech Connect

In the case of private outdoor swimming pools, seldom larger than 100 m{sup 2}, conventional auxiliary heating systems are being installed less and less. Solar heating is an option to extend the swimming season. The temperature evolution of an open-air swimming pool highly depends on the wind speed directly on the water surface, which at the same time is influenced by the surroundings of the pool. In this paper, the TRNSYS model of a private open-air pool with a 50-m{sup 2} surface was validated by registering the water temperature evolution and the meteorological data at the pool site. Evaporation is the main component of energy loss in swimming pools. Six different sets of constants found in literature were considered to evaluate the evaporative heat transfer coefficient with the purpose of finding the most suitable one for the TRNSYS pool model. In order to do that, the evolution of the pool water temperature predicted by the TRNSYS pool model was compared with the experimentally registered one. The simulation with TRNSYS of the total system, including the swimming pool and the absorber circuit integrated into the existing filter circuit, provided information regarding the increase of the pool temperature for different collector areas during the swimming season. This knowledge, together with the economic costs, support the decision about the absorber field size. (author)

Ruiz, Elisa; Martinez, Pedro J. [Universidad Miguel Hernandez - Edificio Torreblanca, Avda. de la Universidad s/n, 03202 Elche (Spain)

2010-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Air Charter Services  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

42.2 (April 2012) 42.2 (April 2012) 1 Documentation and Approval of Federally Funded International Travel (Fly America Act-Open Skies Agreement) Overview This section provides guidance to DOE Contracting Officers, Contracting Officer Representatives, and Program Officials on documentation and approval of federally funded international travel by Federal contractors and subcontractors in accordance with FAR 52.247-63 PREFERENCE FOR U.S.-FLAG AIR CARRIERS (JUNE 2003), 49 U.S.C. §40118 (Fly America Act) and the Open Skies Agreements as amended. Background Contracts that include FAR clause 52.247-63, PREFERENCE FOR U.S.-FLAG AIR CARRIERS (JUNE 2003) as prescribed in FAR 47.405 require that, if available, the Contractor (and subcontractors), in performing work under the contract, shall use U.S.-flag air carriers for

362

air_water.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

12/2011 12/2011 Air Monitoring Groundwater Monitoring Surface Water Monitoring A continuously operating air monitoring network was in place from 1986 through 2000 for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) to measure levels of gamma radiation, radioactive dust particles, radon gas, and asbestos. With remediation of contaminated materials essentially complete and measurements indistinguishable from background, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) ceased perimeter and offsite air monitoring as of December 31, 2000. Groundwater has been routinely monitored at the site since 1986. Separate groundwater monitoring programs were established for the Chemical Plant and Quarry sites because of geographic separation and differences in the hydrogeologic features that influence

363

Swozzle based burner tube premixer including inlet air conditioner for low emissions combustion  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A burner for use in a combustion system of a heavy-duty industrial gas turbine includes a fuel/air premixer having an air inlet, a fuel inlet, and an annular mixing passage. The fuel/air premixer mixes fuel and air into a uniform mixture for injection into a combustor reaction zone. The burner also includes an inlet flow conditioner disposed at the air inlet of the fuel/air premixer for controlling a radial and circumferential distribution of incoming air. The pattern of perforations in the inlet flow conditioner is designed such that a uniform air flow distribution is produced at the swirler inlet annulus in both the radial and circumference directions. The premixer includes a swozzle assembly having a series of preferably air foil shaped turning vanes that impart swirl to the airflow entering via the inlet flow conditioner. Each air foil contains internal fuel flow passages that introduce natural gas fuel into the air stream via fuel metering holes that pass through the walls of the air foil shaped turning vanes. By injecting fuel in this manner, an aerodynamically clean flow field is maintained throughout the premixer. By injecting fuel via two separate passages, the fuel/air mixture strength distribution can be controlled in the radial direction to obtain optimum radial concentration profiles for control of emissions, lean blow outs, and combustion driven dynamic pressure activity as machine and combustor load are varied.

Tuthill, Richard Sterling (Bolton, CT); Bechtel, II, William Theodore (Scotia, NY); Benoit, Jeffrey Arthur (Scotia, NY); Black, Stephen Hugh (Duanesburg, NY); Bland, Robert James (Clifton Park, NY); DeLeonardo, Guy Wayne (Scotia, NY); Meyer, Stefan Martin (Troy, NY); Taura, Joseph Charles (Clifton Park, NY); Battaglioli, John Luigi (Glenville, NY)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

364

Economic Analysis of a Nuclear Reactor Powered High-Temperature Electrolysis Hydrogen Production Plant  

SciTech Connect

A reference design for a commercial-scale high-temperature electrolysis (HTE) plant for hydrogen production was developed to provide a basis for comparing the HTE concept with other hydrogen production concepts. The reference plant design is driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor coupled to a direct Brayton power cycle. The reference design reactor power is 600 MWt, with a primary system pressure of 7.0 MPa, and reactor inlet and outlet fluid temperatures of 540°C and 900°C, respectively. The electrolysis unit used to produce hydrogen includes 4,009,177 cells with a per-cell active area of 225 cm2. The optimized design for the reference hydrogen production plant operates at a system pressure of 5.0 MPa, and utilizes an air-sweep system to remove the excess oxygen that is evolved on the anode (oxygen) side of the electrolyzer. The inlet air for the air-sweep system is compressed to the system operating pressure of 5.0 MPa in a four-stage compressor with intercooling. The alternating-current, AC, to direct-current, DC, conversion efficiency is 96%. The overall system thermal-to-hydrogen production efficiency (based on the lower heating value of the produced hydrogen) is 47.12% at a hydrogen production rate of 2.356 kg/s. An economic analysis of this plant was performed using the standardized H2A Analysis Methodology developed by the Department of Energy (DOE) Hydrogen Program, and using realistic financial and cost estimating assumptions. The results of the economic analysis demonstrated that the HTE hydrogen production plant driven by a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear power plant can deliver hydrogen at a competitive cost. A cost of $3.23/kg of hydrogen was calculated assuming an internal rate of return of 10%.

E. A. Harvego; M. G. McKellar; M. S. Sohal; J. E. O'Brien; J. S. Herring

2008-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

365

Multiple direction vibration fixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for simulating a rocket launch environment on a test item undergoing centrifuge testing by subjecting the item simultaneously or separately to vibration along an axis of centripetal force and along an axis perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The apparatus includes a shaker motor supported by centrifuge arms and a right angle fixture pivotally connected to one of the shaker motor mounts. When the shaker motor vibrates along the centripetal force axis, the vibrations are imparted to a first side of the right angle fixture. The vibrations are transmitted 90 degrees around the pivot and are directed to a second side of the right angle fixture which imparts vibrations perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The test item is in contact with a third side of the right angle fixture and receives both centripetal-force-axis vibrations and perpendicular axis vibrations simultaneously. A test item can be attached to the third side near the flexible coupling or near the air bag to obtain vibrations along the centripetal force axis or transverse to the centripetal force axis.

Cericola, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Doggett, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Ernest, Terry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Priddy, Tommy G. (Rockville, MD)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

366

Sticking with air  

SciTech Connect

A decision to replace more than 300 aging damper actuators at Independence Plant in Newark, Arkensas forced Entergy to make a choice between pneumatic and electric actuator designs. The dampers route air flow through separate dedicated compartments to ensure proper firing of pulverised coal. The reasons that pneumatics was chosen are discussed in this article. 4 figs.

Coker, S.N. [Entergy (US). Independence Plant

2005-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

The air plasma spraying  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The air plasma spraying is characterized by using of a compressed air as a plasma forming gas. Here is shown the application of benefits of the present technology compared with other spraying process. The creation of the present process was possible due to a reliable plasma torch and certain condition of heating and deposition of powder materials on a work. Plasma torch develops a power up to 50 kW and can work during 14 hours without replacement of a cathode and during 25 hours as for an anode what is acceptable for industrial application. When spraying of coatings a minimum waste of alloying elements is attained with slight increase of oxygen in coating which is comparable with argon plasma spraying in the open. In certain cases the air plasma spraying allows to obtain more perfect coatings and at high performance. The present method finds large application at restoration and strengthening of machine parts, at forming of components etc. The air plasma spraying provides high quality coatings at low cost of components.

Valery S. Klubnikin

1993-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Canned Air in China  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Broadcast Transcript: Not that long ago, coal smoke made the air here in Beijing so caustic that your nasal passages were seared with each breath. Those were the good old days: Car ownership was limited to government officials and the rest...

Hacker, Randi

2013-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

369

Assessing the direction of climate interactions by means of complex networks and information theoretic tools  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An estimate of the net direction of climate interactions in different geographical regions is made by constructing a directed climate network from a regular latitude-longitude grid of nodes, using a directionality index (DI) based on conditional mutual information. Two datasets of surface air temperature anomalies - one monthly-averaged and another daily-averaged - are analyzed and compared. The network links are interpreted in terms of known atmospheric tropical and extratropical variability patterns. Specific and relevant geographical regions are selected, the net direction of propagation of the atmospheric patterns is analyzed and the direction of the inferred links is validated by recovering some well-known climate variability structures. These patterns are found to be acting at various time-scales, such as atmospheric waves in the extra-tropics or longer range events in the tropics. This analysis demonstrates the capability of the DI measure to infer the net direction of climate interactions and may contribute to improve the present understanding of climate phenomena and climate predictability. The work presented here also stands out as an application of advanced tools to the analysis of empirical, real-world data.

J. Ignacio Deza; Cristina Masoller; Marcelo Barreiro

2015-02-04T23:59:59.000Z

370

Simulation of air and mist drilling for geothermal wells  

SciTech Connect

An improved method for calculating downhole temperatures, pressures, fluid densities and velocities during air drilling has been developed. The basic equations of fluid flow for a gas with cuttings and mist are presented along with a numerical method for their solution. Several applications of this calculational method are given, showing the effect of flow rate and standpipe pressures in typical air and mist drilling situations. 8 refs.

Mitchell, R.F.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

371

Development of Optimization Tool for Air Conditioning System Operation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 Outside air temperature and the absolute air humidity are predicted by the Auto-regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) model [1],[2]. The solar radiation on a horizontal surface... of the error margin Energy Consumption (set value A) Energy Consumption (set value B) ESL-IC-08-10-55 Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference for Enhanced Building Operations, Berlin, Germany, October 20-22, 2008 J VAV unit is also operated under...

Sumiyoshi, D.; Akashi, Y.

372

Desulfurization of Texas lignite using steam and air  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Coal Sulfur Removal From Coal By Pyrolysis EXPERIMENTAL METHOD Experimental Apparatus Experimental Procedure Analyses of the Products RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Temperature Effect Upon Desulfurization Pressure Effect Upon Desulfurization... . Treatment Composition Effect Pyrolysis Conditions vs. Addition of' Air V1 V111 ix 10 15 20 24 31 31 35 39 43 45 49 52 53 V11 TABLE OF CONTENTS (Continued) PAGE Pyrolysis Conditions vs. Addition of Steam and Air . . 53 Sulfur Removal...

Stone, Robert Reginald

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

373

High-brightness switchable multiwavelength remote laser in air  

SciTech Connect

We demonstrate a harmonic-seeded switchable multiwavelength laser in air driven by intense midinfrared femtosecond laser pulses, in which population inversion occurs at an ultrafast time scale (i.e., less than {approx}200 fs) owing to direct formation of excited molecular nitrogen ions by strong-field ionization of inner-valence electrons. The bright multiwavelength laser in air opens the perspective for remote detection of multiple pollutants based on nonlinear optical spectroscopy.

Yao Jinping; Cheng Ya; Xu Zhizhan [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zeng Bin; Li Guihua; Chu Wei; Ni Jielei; Zhang Haisu [State Key Laboratory of High Field Laser Physics, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100080 (China); Xu Huailiang [State Key Laboratory on Integrated Optoelectronics, College of Electronic Science and Engineering, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China); Chin, See Leang [Center for Optics, Universite Laval, Quebec City, Quebec G1V 0A6 (Canada)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

374

Improving Boiler Efficiency Modeling Based On Ambient Air Temperature  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Optimum economic operation in a large power plant can cut operating costs substantially. Individual plant equipment should be operated under conditions that are most favorable for maximizing its efficiency. It is widely accepted that boiler load...

Zhou, J.; Deng, S.; Turner, W. D.; Claridge, D. E.; Haberl, J. S.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Emperor penguin body surfaces cool below air temperature  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Figure-1. (a) Emperor penguin colony and thermal imaging (inset). (b) Thermal image of isolated and huddling penguins...Luc Piard and Cyril Nahon who repaired the battery of the thermal imaging camera. Margaret Reilly, Hunterian...

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

376

High-Temperature Air-Cooled Power Electronics Thermal Design  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

GoNo-Go M1 (NREL): Heat transfer feasibility study M1 (ORNL): Device-level evaluation Heat transfer accomplished with reasonable flow and pressure loss? M2: Build and test...

377

Low Temperature Air Bake of Stainless Steel for Very Low  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

time ago -- 1977-1990. #12;ISIS Requirements are for High Vacuum, but built to uhv standards steel e.g. 304, 316L. Manufacturers of UHV components were, and I assume, are still well aware sure all manufacturers are well aware these processes. #12;UHV ­ The Gravity Wave Detector Requirements

378

AirTemperature(C) 21.Jun28.Jun  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

circulation in unconsolidated sediments originating from ice and snow melting above permafrost or impervious in unconsolidated sediments model parameters such as the spatial distribution of the total and effective storage

Brückl, Ewald

379

High-Temperature, Air-Cooled Traction Drive Inverter Packaging  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

2010 DOE Vehicle Technologies and Hydrogen Programs Annual Merit Review and Peer Evaluation Meeting, June 7-11, 2010 -- Washington D.C.

380

Impacts of wind farms on surface air temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...AS Keith DW ( 2007 ) Wind energy and climate...atmospheric impacts of wind energy turbines . EOS Trans AGU 88 : Fall Meeting...Global potential for wind-generated electricity...JF McGowan JG ( 2005 ) Offshore wind farm layout optimization...

Somnath Baidya Roy; Justin J. Traiteur

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Direct bandwidth and polarization control of an XEF unstable resonator laser  

SciTech Connect

Several approaches to directly controlling the bandwidth and polarization of an unstable resonator without the use of an injection source have been tested. The techniques are based on the control of oscillations within (and around) the resonator core through the use of small, subaperture optical elements (e.g., etalons, Brewster-angle plates, Glan-air prisms) mounted at select locations within the system. The experiments were formed on a 4 J, e-beam pumped, XeF (B..-->..X) laser operating at ambient temperature, with output predominantly at 353.2 nm. A spectral linewidth of less than 12 GHz (0.05 A) and nearly perfect linear polarization were simultaneously achieved at high laser efficiency. Oscillation on a single, dominant transverse mode has been demonstrated. The increased cost and complexity of injection controlled systems are avoided through the use of these direct, core control approaches.

Litzenberger, L.N.; Smith, M.J. (Avco Research Lab., Inc., Everett, MA (US))

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

382

Industrial HVAC Air-to-Air Energy Recovery Retrofit Economics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Retrofitting air-to-air energy recovery equipment is relatively simply to design and easy to install. Additionally, HVAC energy recovery is almost risk free when compared to process retrofit. Life cycle cost analysis is the best way to illustrate...

Graham, E. L.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

383

Compressed Air 101: Getting Compressed Air to Work  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

"Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user. Based on a survey (conducted by Oregon State University and the Bonneville Power Administration) of energy audit reports from 125 plants, air compressors account for roughly 10% of total...

Burke, J. J.; Bessey, E. G.

384

Vermont Air Pollution Control Regulations, Ambient Air Quality Standards (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The ambient air quality standards are based on the national ambient air quality standards. The Vermont standards are classified as primary and secondary standards and judged adequate to protect...

385

ARM Site Atmospheric State Best Estimates for AIRS Validation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Site Atmospheric State Best Estimates Site Atmospheric State Best Estimates for AIRS Validation D. C. Tobin, H. E. Revercomb, W. F. Feltz, R. D. Knuteson, and D. D. Turner Space Science and Engineering Center University of Wisconsin-Madison Madison, Wisconsin B. M. Lesht Environmental Research Division Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, Illinois L. Strow University of Maryland College Park, Maryland C. Barnet Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology Baltimore, Maryland E. Fetzer National Aeronautics Space Administration Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, California Introduction The atmospheric infrared sounder (AIRS) is a high spectral resolution infrared sounder on the earth observing plan (EOS) Aqua platform. Temperature and water vapor profile retrievals from AIRS are

386

Reference book on geothermal direct use  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the direct uses of geothermal energy in the United States. Topics discussed include: low-temperature geothermal energy resources; energy reserves; geothermal heat pumps; geothermal energy for residential buildings; and geothermal energy for industrial usage.

Lienau, P.J.; Lund, J.W.; Rafferty, K.; Culver, G.

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

387

An empirical expression to relate aerodynamic and surface temperatures for use within1 single-source energy balance models2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 n.1 An empirical expression to relate aerodynamic and surface temperatures for use within1 single that the14 reference temperature for the estimation of convective fluxes, the aerodynamic temperature, is15 between the aerodynamic22 and the air temperatures and the difference between the surface and the air

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

388

Interaction of air motion with the human body  

SciTech Connect

Proper distribution of conditioned air plays a major role in both human thermal comfort and indoor air quality. The objectives of this study were (1) to experimentally evaluate airflow conditions around the human body and (2) to characterize the interaction of the thermal plume from the body with the overall room air motion. Environmental conditions around a simulated human body were examined by mapping temperature and velocity distributions around a thermal manikin using modern temperature and velocity instrumentation in an environmental chamber. Results are presented for three test cases: baseline velocity and temperature distribution without manikin, airflow blockage of the unheated manikin, and mixed convection due to interaction of chamber airflow with the heated manikin.

Myers, J.B. [Boeing Co., Wichita, KS (United States); Hosni, M.H.; Jones, B.W. [Kansas State Univ., Manhattan, KS (United States)

1998-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

389

ATMOSPHERIC DYNAMICS OF BROWN DWARFS AND DIRECTLY IMAGED GIANT PLANETS  

SciTech Connect

A variety of observations provide evidence for vigorous motion in the atmospheres of brown dwarfs and directly imaged giant planets. Motivated by these observations, we examine the dynamical regime of the circulation in the atmospheres and interiors of these objects. Brown dwarfs rotate rapidly, and for plausible wind speeds, the flow at large scales will be rotationally dominated. We present three-dimensional, global, numerical simulations of convection in the interior, which demonstrate that at large scales, the convection aligns in the direction parallel to the rotation axis. Convection occurs more efficiently at high latitudes than low latitudes, leading to systematic equator-to-pole temperature differences that may reach ?1 K near the top of the convection zone. The interaction of convection with the overlying, stably stratified atmosphere will generate a wealth of atmospheric waves, and we argue that, as in the stratospheres of planets in the solar system, the interaction of these waves with the mean flow will cause a significant atmospheric circulation at regional to global scales. At large scales, this should consist of stratified turbulence (possibly organizing into coherent structures such as vortices and jets) and an accompanying overturning circulation. We present an approximate analytic theory of this circulation, which predicts characteristic horizontal temperature variations of several to ?50 K, horizontal wind speeds of ?10-300 m s{sup –1}, and vertical velocities that advect air over a scale height in ?10{sup 5}-10{sup 6} s. This vertical mixing may help to explain the chemical disequilibrium observed on some brown dwarfs. Moreover, the implied large-scale organization of temperature perturbations and vertical velocities suggests that near the L/T transition, patchy clouds can form near the photosphere, helping to explain recent observations of brown-dwarf variability in the near-IR.

Showman, Adam P. [Department of Planetary Sciences and Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, 1629 University Boulevard, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Kaspi, Yohai, E-mail: showman@lpl.arizona.edu [Center for Planetary Science, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

2013-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

390

Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion Practical Air Pollution Dispersion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Environmental Pollution Air Pollution Dispersion 1 of 5 Practical ­ Air Pollution Dispersion in the lectures how such models can be used to explain observed concentrations of air pollutants in an area and to test `what-if' scenarios for pollution control and reduction. You will use the Gaussian Plume Model

Moncrieff, John B.

391

Cooling energy efficiency and classroom air environment of a school building operated by the heat recovery air conditioning unit  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The recently-built school buildings have adopted novel heat recovery ventilator and air conditioning system. Heat recovery efficiency of the heat recovery facility and energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit were analytically modeled, taking the ventilation networks into account. Following that, school classroom displacement ventilation and its thermal stratification and indoor air quality indicated by the CO2 concentration have been numerically modeled concerning the effects of delivering ventilation flow rate and supplying air temperature. Numerical results indicate that the promotion of mechanical ventilation rate can simultaneously boost the dilution of indoor air pollutants and the non-uniformity of indoor thermal and pollutant distributions. Subsequent energy performance analysis demonstrates that classroom energy demands for ventilation and cooling could be reduced with the promotion of heat recovery efficiency of the ventilation facility, and the energy conservation ratio of the air conditioning unit decreases with the increasing temperatures of supplying air. Fitting correlations of heat recovery ventilation and cooling energy conservation have been presented.

Yang Wang; Fu-Yun Zhao; Jens Kuckelkorn; Di Liu; Li-Qun Liu; Xiao-Chuan Pan

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

392

Air Conditioning | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Conditioning Conditioning Air Conditioning July 1, 2012 - 6:28pm Addthis Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard Air conditioners cost U.S. homeowners more than $11 billion each year, and regular maintenance can keep your air conditioner running efficiently. | Photo courtesy of ©iStockphoto/JaniceRichard How does it work? An air conditioner uses energy -- usually electricity -- to transfer heat from the interior of your home to the relatively warm outside environment. Two-thirds of all homes in the United States have air conditioners. Air conditioners use about 5% of all the electricity produced in the United States, at an annual cost of more than $11 billion to homeowners. As a

393

Louisiana Air Control Law (Louisiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This law states regulations for air quality control and states the powers and duties of the secretary of environmental quality. It provides information about permits and licenses, air quality...

394

Air Pollution Indicator: PM10  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

As one of natural elements, clean air is essential to human beings’ survival. ... , almost all economic and social activities emit air pollutants, especially such sectors as power and ... and international commun...

Hezhong Tian; Yimeng Liu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Air Liquide- Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation about Air Liquide's biogas technologies and integration with fuel cells. Presented by Charlie Anderson, Air Liquide, at the NREL/DOE Biogas and Fuel Cells Workshop held June 11-13, 2012, in Golden, Colorado.

396

Solar Heating and Air Conditioning  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...given of the status of solar fired air conditioning...to an approach to cool storage in solar air conditioning systems...an assessment of cool storage for reducing peak electrical...rolling cylinder thermal energy storage device for compact...

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

397

Compressed Air Audits using AIRMaster  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Air compressors are a significant industrial energy user and therefore a prime target for industrial energy audits. The project goal was to develop a software tool, AIRMaster, and supporting methodology for performing compressed air system audits...

Wheeler, G. M.; McGill, R. D.; Bessey, E. G.; Vischer, K.

398

Fundamentals of Compressed Air Systems  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Find out how a compressed air system works and the benefits of optimal compressed air system performance. This initial class demonstrates how to compute the current cost of your plant's compressed...

399

Roadway tunnel air quality models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Roadway tunnel air quality models ... Analysis of 13 tunnel studies quantifies the decline since 1961 in benzo[a]pyrene emitted into the air per km of travel by U.S. road vehicles. ...

Tai Y. Chang; Sara J. Rudy

1990-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

400

TRENDS: TEMPERATURE  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Historical Isotopic Temperature Record from the Vostok Ice Core Graphics Digital Data J.R. Petit, D. Raynaud, and C. Lorius Laboratoire de Glaciogie et Géophysique de l'Environnement, CNRS, Saint Martin d'Hères Cedex, France J. Jouzel and G. Delaygue Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l'Environnement (LSCE), CEA/CNRS, L'Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex, France N.I. Barkov Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute, Beringa Street 38, 199397 St. Petersburg, Russia V.M. Kotlyakov Institute of Geography, Staromonetny, per 29, Moscow 109017, Russia DOI: 10.3334/CDIAC/cli.006 Period of Record 420,000 years BP-present Methods Because isotopic fractions of the heavier oxygen-18 (18O) and deuterium (D) in snowfall are temperature-dependent and a strong spatial correlation

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Staged direct injection diesel engine  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A diesel engine having staged injection for using lower cetane number fuels than No. 2 diesel fuel. The engine includes a main fuel injector and a pilot fuel injector. Pilot and main fuel may be the same fuel. The pilot injector injects from five to fifteen percent of the total fuel at timings from 20.degree. to 180.degree. BTDC depending upon the quantity of pilot fuel injected, the fuel cetane number and speed and load. The pilot fuel injector is directed toward the centerline of the diesel cylinder and at an angle toward the top of the piston, avoiding the walls of the cylinder. Stratification of the early injected pilot fuel is needed to reduce the fuel-air mixing rate, prevent loss of pilot fuel to quench zones, and keep the fuel-air mixture from becoming too fuel lean to become effective. In one embodiment, the pilot fuel injector includes a single hole for injection of the fuel and is directed at approximately 48.degree. below the head of the cylinder.

Baker, Quentin A. (San Antonio, TX)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Compressed Air System Control Strategies  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet briefly discusses compressed air system control strategies as a means to improving and maintaining system performance.

403

Compressed Air Energy Storage System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

/expanders are crucial for the economical viability of a Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) system such as the

Farzad A. Shirazi; Mohsen Saadat; Bo Yan; Perry Y. Li; Terry W. Simon

404

Analyzing Your Compressed Air System  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet outlines the process to analyze industrial compressed air systems and ensure proper system configuration.

405

Air Leaks in Unexpected Places  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Sealing air leaks will help to decrease heating and cooling costs and make your home more comfortable.

406

AIR QUALITY REPORT SPARKS CONTROVERSY  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AIR QUALITY REPORT SPARKS CONTROVERSY ... The National Commission on Air Quality delivered its eagerly awaited report to Congress today, and reaction from industry and environmental groups is expected to be both swift and sharp. ... Created under the 1977 Clean Air Act, the commission was charged with assessing the effectiveness of the law, and recommending changes where the law falls short of achieving the goal of improving the nation's air quality. ...

1981-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

407

Air-Lift design theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

1. Employing graphical relationships between height of lift of the emulsion, depth of shaft, and specific air ra...

P. R. Khlopenkov

1970-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

408

A dynamic model for air-based photovoltaic thermal systems working under real operating conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract In this paper a dynamic model suitable for simulating real operating conditions of air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) systems is presented. The performance of the model is validated by using the operational data collected from the building integrated photovoltaic (PVT) systems installed in two unique buildings. The modelled air outlet temperature and electrical power match very well with the experimental data. In Solar Decathlon house PVT, the average (RMS) error in air outlet temperatures was 4.2%. The average (RMS) error in electrical power was also 4.2%. In the Sustainable Buildings Research Centre PVT, the average errors (RMS) of PV and air temperatures were 3.8% and 2.2%, respectively. The performance of the PVT system under changing working condition is also analysed in this paper. The analysis includes the effect of ambient air temperature, air inlet temperature, air flow rate and solar irradiation on thermal, electrical, first law and second law efficiencies. Both the thermal and the 1st law efficiencies almost linearly increased with the increase of the ambient temperature. However, the PVT electrical efficiency and the second law efficiency decreased with the increase of the ambient temperature. All efficiencies expect the second law efficiency decreased with increase of the PVT air inlet temperature. The second law efficiency first increased and then reduced. With increasing the air flow rate all the efficiencies increased. The electrical and second law efficiencies become less sensitive when the air flow rate exceeded 300 l/s. Both the thermal and the 1st law efficiencies decreased while the electrical efficiency and the second law efficiency increased with the increase of the solar irradiation. The efficiencies found to be very sensitive for low level of solar irradiations. At about 400 W m?2 irradiation efficiencies became less sensitive.

M. Imroz Sohel; Zhenjun Ma; Paul Cooper; Jamie Adams; Robert Scott

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

The Viscosity of Air  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The viscosity of air has been remeasured with the rotating cylinder apparatus used by Day and Bleakney. All of the constants have been redetermined, and especial attention has been given to the corrections to the simple theory. The value obtained at 22°C is ?=1.8243±0.0045 c.g.s. units. This raises the oil drop value of e to 4.796 e.s.u. It is shown in the appendix that a correction must be applied for the opening between the suspended cylinder and the guard cylinders, and also a correction must be applied for the moment of inertia of the air carried around by the cylinder when determining its moment of inertia. Neglect of these corrections has introduced some additional uncertainty into other work.

W. V. Houston

1937-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged  

SciTech Connect

Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

Friesen, Cody

2014-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

411

FLUIDIC: Metal Air Recharged  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Fluidic, with the help of ARPA-E funding, has developed and deployed the world's first proven high cycle life metal air battery. Metal air technology, often used in smaller scale devices like hearing aids, has the lowest cost per electron of any rechargeable battery storage in existence. Deploying these batteries for grid reliability is competitive with pumped hydro installations while having the advantages of a small footprint. Fluidic's battery technology allows utilities and other end users to store intermittent energy generated from solar and wind, as well as maintain reliable electrical delivery during power outages. The batteries are manufactured in the US and currently deployed to customers in emerging markets for cell tower reliability. As they continue to add customers, they've gained experience and real world data that will soon be leveraged for US grid reliability.

Friesen, Cody

2014-04-02T23:59:59.000Z

412

Air-Source Heat Pumps | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air-Source Heat Pumps Air-Source Heat Pumps Air-Source Heat Pumps June 24, 2012 - 3:35pm Addthis When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/YinYang. When properly installed, an air-source heat pump can deliver one-and-a-half to three times more heat energy to a home than the electrical energy it consumes. | Photo courtesy of iStockPhoto/YinYang. What does this mean for me? If you live in a cooling climate, an air-source heat pump is a good choice. If you live in a heating climate, watch for advanced air-source heat pumps coming on the market that operate well in sub-freezing temperatures. An air-source heat pump can provide efficient heating and cooling for your

413

Air Pollution & Health in Rapidly Developing Countries  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

For example, “Air Pollution and Health – Studies in theAssessment of Air Pollution and Health” is illustrative inReview: Air Pollution & Health in Rapidly Developing

Bucher, Scott

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

California Air Resources Board | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Air Resources Board Jump to: navigation, search Logo: California Air Resources Board Name: California Air Resources Board Place: Sacramento, California Website: http:...

415

113 air quality control station [n  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

envir. (Facility for measurement of air pollution; ? air quality network/system );s estación [f] de medición de la calidad del aire (? red de ev...

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

ORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

supporting an association between am- bient air pollution and cardiovascular health, much re- mains health effects of ambient air pollution in Atlanta being undertaken by this Emory investi- gative teamORIGINAL ARTICLE Ambient Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Emergency Department Visits Kristi Busico

Mulholland, James A.

417

Ventilation System Effectiveness and Tested Indoor Air Quality Impacts  

SciTech Connect

Ventilation system effectiveness testing was conducted at two unoccupied, single-family, detached lab homes at the University of Texas - Tyler. Five ventilation system tests were conducted with various whole-building ventilation systems. Multizone fan pressurization testing characterized building and zone enclosure leakage. PFT testing showed multizone air change rates and interzonal airflow. Cumulative particle counts for six particle sizes, and formaldehyde and other Top 20 VOC concentrations were measured in multiple zones. The testing showed that single-point exhaust ventilation was inferior as a whole-house ventilation strategy. It was inferior because the source of outside air was not direct from outside, the ventilation air was not distributed, and no provision existed for air filtration. Indoor air recirculation by a central air distribution system can help improve the exhaust ventilation system by way of air mixing and filtration. In contrast, the supply and balanced ventilation systems showed that there is a significant benefit to drawing outside air from a known outside location, and filtering and distributing that air. Compared to the Exhaust systems, the CFIS and ERV systems showed better ventilation air distribution and lower concentrations of particulates, formaldehyde and other VOCs. System improvement percentages were estimated based on four System Factor Categories: Balance, Distribution, Outside Air Source, and Recirculation Filtration. Recommended System Factors could be applied to reduce ventilation fan airflow rates relative to ASHRAE Standard 62.2 to save energy and reduce moisture control risk in humid climates. HVAC energy savings were predicted to be 8-10%, or $50-$75/year.

Rudd, A.; Bergey, D.

2014-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

Control Humidity With Single-Duct, Single-Zone, Constant Air Volume System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

for the AHLJ after Adjusted Conditions I I Return Fan: off; Return Damper: closed; Outside Air Damper: closed (signal) I 7- 14-99 9:44 AM AHU Dimensions Total Air Flow (CW Average Velocity (FPM) Temperature ("F) Humidity (% RH) Dew Point (OF... (FPM) Humidity (% RH) 1 83.0 -... r------ L -/ Dew Point (OF) Static Pressure supply 24" x 24" 4450 1180 Outside Air N/ A 2490 N/ A Mix Air 20" x 36" 4530 1091 T~mnrmt~w~ (OF) I 67.6 1 73.0 I 72.1 I 85.7 I . - 62.9 10.75 Return Air...

Chen, H.; Deng, S.; Bruner, H. L.; Claridge, D. E.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

419

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) |  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) Air Pollution Control Regulations: No. 22 - Air Toxics (Rhode Island) < Back Eligibility Commercial Industrial Investor-Owned Utility Municipal/Public Utility Rural Electric Cooperative Utility Program Info State Rhode Island Program Type Siting and Permitting Provider Department of Environmental Management Permits are required to construct, install, or modify any stationary source which has the potential to increase emissions of a listed toxic air contaminant by an amount greater than the minimum quantity for that contaminant. Minimum quantities are specified in Table III of these regulations. Permits will be granted based in part on the impact of the projected emissions of the stationary source on acceptable ambient levels

420

Thru-thickness bending stress distribution at elevated temperatures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

), and the second was the bending process (structural). The five different temperatures collected during the thermal analysis were a uniform temperature of 75oF, a 1100oF uniform temperature as a result of furnace heating, both five and ten minutes of air...

Christian, Lee Conner

2005-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Effect of refrigerant charge, duct leakage, and evaporator air flow on the high temerature performance of air conditioners and heat pumps  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An experimental study was conducted to quantify the effect of several installation items on the high outdoor ambient temperature performance of air conditioners. These installation items were: improper amount of refrigerant charge, reduced...

Rodriguez, Angel Gerardo

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

422

Construction of prototype system for directional solvent extraction desalination  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Directional solvent extraction has been demonstrated as a low temperature, membrane free desalination process. This method dissolves the water into an inexpensive, benign directional solvent, rejects the contaminants, then ...

Fowler, Michael James

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

423

Energy savings from extended air temperature setpoints and reductions in room air mixing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

annual energy use intensity (EUI) changes caused by movingfixed at 21.5ºC. Similarly, the EUI changes from moving theso that the predicted annual EUI values include both effects

Hoyt, Tyler; Lee, Kwang Ho; Zhang, Hui; Arens, Edward; Webster, Tom

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM ENERGY PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

= 13.9°C) 13.9°C Sacramento 15.6°C 17.2°C HVAC Gas EUI HVACElec EUI Total kWH/m2-yr SAT Change, % 13.9°C San Franciscoof the energy use intensity (EUI) for the three cases in two

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

INFLUENCE OF SUPPLY AIR TEMPERATURE ON UNDERFLOOR AIR DISTRIBUTION (UFAD) SYSTEM ENERGY PERFORMANCE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

this study, perimeter fan coil unit (FCU) energy also addsvariable speed series fan coil unit. The FCU shuts off whenunit including an economizer, chilled water cooling coil, and supply fan.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

Definition: Geothermal Direct Use | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Direct Use Geothermal Direct Use Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Geothermal Direct Use Low- to moderate-temperature water from geothermal reservoirs can be used to provide heat directly to buildings, or other applications that require heat. Generally, the water in the geothermal reservoirs withdrawn for direct use is between 68° F to 302° F. In addition to residential, commercial and industrial buildings, homes, pools and spas, greenhouses, fish farms, and even mining operations utilize direct use of geothermal resources for heat[1][2] View on Wikipedia Wikipedia Definition Geothermal heating is the direct use of geothermal energy for heating applications. Humans have taken advantage of geothermal heat this way since the Paleolithic era. Approximately seventy countries made direct

427

Direct conversion of algal biomass to biofuel  

SciTech Connect

A method and system for providing direct conversion of algal biomass. Optionally, the method and system can be used to directly convert dry algal biomass to biodiesels under microwave irradiation by combining the reaction and combining steps. Alternatively, wet algae can be directly processed and converted to fatty acid methyl esters, which have the major components of biodiesels, by reacting with methanol at predetermined pressure and temperature ranges.

Deng, Shuguang; Patil, Prafulla D; Gude, Veera Gnaneswar

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

428

Air Risk Information Support Center  

SciTech Connect

The Air Risk Information Support Center (Air RISC) was initiated in early 1988 by the US Environmental Protection Agency`s (EPA) Office of Health and Environmental Assessment (OHEA) and the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards (OAQPS) as a technology transfer effort that would focus on providing information to state and local environmental agencies and to EPA Regional Offices in the areas of health, risk, and exposure assessment for toxic air pollutants. Technical information is fostered and disseminated by Air RISCs three primary activities: (1) a {open_quotes}hotline{close_quotes}, (2) quick turn-around technical assistance projects, and (3) general technical guidance projects. 1 ref., 2 figs.

Shoaf, C.R.; Guth, D.J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC (United States)

1990-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

429

Generation of concentration density maxima of small dispersive coal dust particles in horizontal iodine air filter at air-dust aerosol blow  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The spatial distributions of the small dispersive coal dust particles with the nano and micro sizes in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal granules in the absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter during its long term operation at the nuclear power plant are researched. It is shown that the concentration density maxima of the small dispersive coal dust particles appear in the granular filtering medium with the cylindrical coal absorbent granules in the horizontal iodine air filter at an action by the air dust aerosol blow. The comparison of the measured aerodynamic resistances of the horizontal and vertical iodine air filters is conducted. The main conclusion is that the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the horizontal iodine air filters is much smaller in comparison with the magnitude of the aerodynamic resistance of the vertical iodine air filters at the same loads of the air dust aerosol volumes. It is explained that the direction of the air dust aerosol blow and the direction of the gravitation force in the horizontal iodine air filter are orthogonal, hence the effective accumulation of the small dispersive coal dust particles takes place at the bottom of absorber in the horizontal iodine air filter. It is found that the air dust aerosol stream flow in the horizontal iodine air filter is not limited by the appearing structures, made of the precipitated small dispersive coal dust particles, in distinction from the vertical iodine air filter, in the process of long term operation of the iodine air filters at the nuclear power plant.

I. M. Neklyudov; O. P. Ledenyov; L. I. Fedorova; P. Ya. Poltinin

2013-06-11T23:59:59.000Z

430

Direct observation of temperature dependent magnetic domain structure of the multiferroic La{sub 0.66}Sr{sub 0.34}MnO{sub 3}/BiFeO{sub 3} bilayer system by x-ray linear dichroism- and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism-photoemission electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

Low-thickness La{sub 0.66}Sr{sub 0.34}MnO{sub 3} (LSMO)/BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) thin film samples deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} were imaged by high resolution x-ray microscopy at different temperatures. The ultra-thin thickness of the top layer allows to image both the ferromagnetic domain structure of LSMO and the multiferroic domain structure of the buried BFO layer, opening a path to a direct observation of coupling at the interface on a microscopic level. By comparing the domain size and structure of the BFO and LSMO, we observed that, in contrast to LSMO single layers, LSMO/BFO multilayers show a strong temperature dependence of the ferromagnetic domain structure of the LSMO. Particularly, at 40?K, a similar domain size for BFO and LSMO is observed. This indicates a persistence of exchange coupling on the microscopic scale at a temperature, where the exchange bias as determined by magnetometer measurements is vanishing.

Mix, C.; Finizio, S.; Jakob, G.; Kläui, M. [Institut für Physik, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Staudingerweg 7, D-55128 Mainz (Germany); Buzzi, M.; Nolting, F. [Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Kronast, F. [Helmholtz-Zentrum-Berlin für Materialien und Energie GmbH, Albert-Einstein Straße 15, D-12489 Berlin (Germany)

2014-05-21T23:59:59.000Z

431

Development of an energy efficient direct contact membrane distillation system.  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

??Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) was investigated for its performance abilities and capability to concentrate aqueous solutions with high solid contents at low temperatures. The… (more)

Bui, Anh

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides at Room Temperature Upon Ultraviolet Phton Irradiation. Direct Measurement of Oxygen Incorporation into Thin Film Oxides...

433

INNOVATIVE INSTRUMENTATION AND ANALYSIS OF THE TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT FOR HIGH TEMPERATURE GASIFICATION  

SciTech Connect

The systematic tests of the gasifier simulator on the ultrasonic vibration application for cleaning method were completed in this reporting period. Within the systematic tests on the ultrasonic vibration application, the ambient temperature and high temperature status condition were tested separately. The sticky dirt on the thermocouple tip was simulated by the cement-covered layer on the thermocouple tip. At the ambient temperature status, four (4) factors were considered as the input factors affecting the response variable of peeling off rate. The input factors include the shape of the cement-covered layer (thickness and length), the ultrasonic vibration output power, and application time. At the high temperature tests, four (4) different environments were considered as the experimental parameters including air flow supply, water and air supply environment, water/air/fine dust particle supply, and air/water/ammonia/fine dust particle supply environment. The factorial design method was used in the experiment design with twelve (12) data sets of readings. Analysis of Variances (ANOVA) was applied to the results from systematic tests. The ANOVA results show that the thickness and length of the cement-covered layer have the significant impact on the peeling off rate of ultrasonic vibration application at the ambient temperature environment. For the high temperature tests, the different environments do not seem to have significant impact on the temperature changes. These results may indicate that the ultrasonic vibration is one of best cleaning methods for the thermocouple tip.

Seong W. Lee

2005-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

434

Urban and Regional Air Quality  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

equipment equipment Urban and Regional Air Quality Research in this area is concerned with regional air quality issues such as: Controlling nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds, to manage tropospheric ozone pollution. Hazardous air pollutants: using science to base standards on rigorously studied risks. Air quality and climate: how does climate influence air quality at a regional or local level? Current modeling practices often do not capture variations in pollutants such as ozone-they represent a limited sample of the diverse meteorology and human behavior that affect air pollution. Improved modeling of regional air quality will help understand variability, reveal patterns of behavior, and pollutant transport issues. Controlled experiments in lab and field can help validate improved models.

435

Clean Air Act | Department of Energy  

Office of Environmental Management (EM)

Clean Air Act Clean Air Act The primary law governing the Department of Energy (DOE) air pollution control activities is the Clean Air Act (CAA). This law defines the role of the...

436

Premixed direct injection disk  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

2013-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

437

Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries:...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges, and Perspective. Electrocatalysts for Nonaqueous Lithium–Air Batteries: Status, Challenges,...

438

Remove Condensate with Minimal Air Loss  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet outlines several condensate removal methods as part of maintaining compressed air system air quality.

439

Safeguarding indoor air quality  

SciTech Connect

California has created and implemented the first state program devoted exclusively to the investigation of nonindustrial indoor air quality. The program is responsible for promoting and conducting research on the determining factors of healthful indoor environments and is structured to obtain information about emission sources, ventilation effects, indoor concentrations, human activity patterns, exposures, health risks, control measures and public policy options. Data are gathered by a variety of methods, including research conducted by staff members, review of the available scientific literature, participation in technical meetings, contractual agreements with outside agencies, cooperative research projects with other groups and consultation with experts. 23 references, 1 figure, 1 table.

Sexton, K.; Wesolowski, J.J.

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

440

Air Corrosivity in U.S. Outdoor-Air-Cooled Data Centers is Similar to That in Conventional Data Centers  

SciTech Connect

There is a concern that environmental-contamination caused corrosion may negatively affect Information Technology (IT) equipment reliability. Nineteen data centers in the United States and two in India were evaluated using Corrosion Classification Coupons (CCC) to assess environmental air quality as it may relate IT equipment reliability. The data centers were of two basic types: closed and outside-air cooled. A closed data center provides cool air to the IT equipment using air conditioning in which only a small percent age of the recirculation air is make-up air continuously supplied from outside to meet human health requirements. An outside-air cooled data center uses outside air directly as the primary source for IT equipment cooling. Corrosion measuring coupons containing copper and silver metal strips were placed in both closed and outside-air cooled data centers. The coupons were placed at each data center (closed and outside-air cooled types) with the location categorized into three groups: (1) Outside - coupons sheltered, located near or at the supply air inlet, but located before any filtering, (2) Supply - starting just after initial air filtering continuing inside the plenums and ducts feeding the data center rooms, and (3) Inside located inside the data center rooms near the IT equipment. Each coupon was exposed for thirty days and then sent to a laboratory for a corrosion rate measurement analysis. The goal of this research was to investigate whether gaseous contamination is a concern for U.S. data center operators as it relates to the reliability of IT equipment. More specifically, should there be an increased concern if outside air for IT equipment cooling is used To begin to answer this question limited exploratory measurements of corrosion rates in operating data centers in various locations were undertaken. This study sought to answer the following questions: (1) What is the precision of the measurements (2) What are the approximate statistical distributions of copper and silver corrosion rates in the sampled data centers(3) To what extent are copper and silver corrosion measurements related (4) What is the relationship of corrosion rate measurements between outside-air cooled data centers compared to closed data centers (5) How do corrosivity measurements relate to IT equipment failure rates The data from our limited sample size suggests that most United States data center operators should not be concerned with environmental gaseous contamination causing high IT equipment failure rates even when using outside-air cooling. The research team recommends additional basic research on how environmental conditions, specifically gaseous contamination, affect electronic equipment reliability.

Coles, Henry C.; Han, Taewon; Price, Phillip N.; Gadgil, Ashok J.; Tschudi, William F.

2011-07-17T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

The Temperature and Relative Humidity Control in Cushing Library  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Cushing Library located on TAMU campus is a special building, which needs precise temperature and relative humidity control, because it stores a number of rare collections and memorial books. There are five air-handling units (AHUs) serving...

Liu, C.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D. E.; Turner, W. D.; Bruner, H., Jr.

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

442

Exploring Maximum Humidity Control and Energy Conservation Opportunities with Single Duct Single Zone Air-Handling Units  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Humidity control for single-duct single-zone (SDSZ) constant volume air handling units is known to be a challenge. The operation of these systems is governed by space temperature only. Under mild weather conditions, discharge air temperature can get...

Zhou, J.; Wei, G.; Turner, W. D.; Deng, S.; Claridge, D.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

The effect of wind speed and direction and surrounding maize on hybrid ventilation in a dairy cow building in Denmark  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract This study evaluated the effect of wind speed and direction and surrounding maize field on the air exchange rate (ACH) and indoor air velocity in a dairy cow building with hybrid ventilation, which combined auto-controlled natural and partial mechanical pit ventilation. The standard k ? ? turbulence model and standard wall function were applied in CFD modeling with extension of capability to account for the aerodynamics effect of surrounding maize plant canopy in the wind domain by using user defined functions (UDF). This extended model was validated by on-site measured velocities and temperatures. A reasonably good agreement was found between simulated and measured results. The wind speed influenced ACH greatly while modeling the maize field had little effect on ACH with low wind speed. With wind speed of 3.86 m s?1 in validation case, modeling the maize field reduced total ACH by 24%, ACH via bottom openings on the sidewall by 89.7% and air speed measured upwind by 71%. The results revealed that the plant canopy had the most significant effect on ACH through the opening on the sidewall. With the variation of wind direction from 0° to 90°, the difference of ACH could be 60%.

L. Rong; D. Liu; E.F. Pedersen; G. Zhang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

444

Experimental Investigation of the Padding Tower for Air Dehumidifier  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

dehumidifying efficien Fig. 3 the variety of outlet parameters with inlet solution flux erature is, the less the vapour pressure of solution is, so that the impetus of mass transfer is larger, and mass augments, the heat and mass transfer gets enhanced. When... in inlet air absolute humidity. The larger the dehumidification quantity is, the more the potential heat released by the vapour dehumidified, so the solution temperature will rise correspondently. Usually the range of temperature rise does not exceed...

Wang, J.; Liu, J.; Li, C.; Zhang, G.; An, S.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

Air pollution study of Laredo Customs Station  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the accuracy of the scaled model with that of the actual station a complete survey of veloc1ty, pressure, temperature and video tape recordings were taken in Laredo. These results were then compared with those simulated in the wind tunnel. Good correlation... Circuitry for Model Ventilation System. . . 3-14 Instrumentation in the Control Room. . 22 24 25 26 27 28 31 32 4-1 Existing Forced Air System. 4-2 Video Taping at Laredo. 4-3 Exhaust Fan Velocity Measurement. 4-4 Wind Velocity Measurement...

Welling, Vidyadhar Yeshwant

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

446

One-pot room-temperature conversion of cyclohexane to adipic acid by ozone and UV light  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...nitric acid oxidation method (3). The first step is air oxidation of cyclohexane under high temperatures (125° to 165...Finlayson-Pitts B. J. Pitts J. N. Jr. , Tropospheric air pollution: Ozone, airborne toxics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons...

Kuo Chu Hwang; Arunachalam Sagadevan

2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

447

Directives Quarterly Updates  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Listings of new Justification Memoranda and new or revised Directives that have been posted to the DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Portal. Updated quarterly.

448

Another face of DIRECT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

authors, see for example, tree-Direct [5]. This paper ..... [4] J.M. Gablonsky, Modifications of the DIRECT Algorithm, Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State. University ...

chiter

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

NREL: Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction - Air Conditioning and Emissions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conditioning and Emissions Conditioning and Emissions Air conditioning and indirect emissions go together in the sense that when a vehicle's air conditioning system is in use, fuel economy declines. When more petroleum fuel is burned, more pollution and greenhouse gases are emitted. An additional, "direct" source of greenhouse gas emissions is the refrigerant used in air conditioning. Called HFC-134a, this pressurized gas tends to seep through tiny openings and escapes into the atmosphere. It can also escape during routine service procedures such as system recharging. NREL's Vehicle Ancillary Loads Reduction team applied its vehicle systems modeling expertise in a study to predict fuel consumption and indirect emissions resulting from the use of vehicle air conditioning. The analysis

450

Building a Common Understanding: Clean Air Act and Upcoming Carbon  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Building a Common Understanding: Clean Air Act and Upcoming Carbon Building a Common Understanding: Clean Air Act and Upcoming Carbon Pollution Guidelines for Existing Power Plants Webinar Building a Common Understanding: Clean Air Act and Upcoming Carbon Pollution Guidelines for Existing Power Plants Webinar August 27, 2013 1:00PM EDT Webinar This U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) presentation for state and tribal officials will provide an overview of Clean Air Act provisions for regulating carbon pollution from existing power plants. The webinar will be held Tuesday, August 27 from 1:00-2:30 p.m. Eastern Time. Please email walker.jean@epa.gov to register. Background On June 25, 2013, President Obama issued a Presidential Memorandum directing the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to work expeditiously to complete carbon pollution standards for the power sector.

451

Abatement of Air Pollution: Hazardous Air Pollutants (Connecticut)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations describe maximum allowable stack concentrations and hazard limiting values for the emission of hazardous air pollutants. The regulations also discuss sampling procedures for...

452

Heat and mass transfer of moist air in vertical channels  

SciTech Connect

Natural convection heat transfer in vertical open channel flows has been widely studied for various geometric configurations since it concerns a number of applications, ranging from the cooling of electronic equipment to the heating of buildings. This study examines energy transport associated with liquid film condensation or evaporation in natural convection flows driven by differences in density due to temperature and concentration gradients. The most common compositional gradient which is encountered in humid air is considered. A steady, laminar, Boussinesq flow of an ideal gas-vapor mixture is studied for the case of a vertical open plane channel. The influence of the species interdiffusion due to enthalpy difference between air and water vapor is considered first in the case of evaporation. It is shown that the species interdiffusion term is negligible even at moderate temperature differences. This study mainly investigates wall condensation of humid air and preliminary results are presented.

Desrayaud, G.; Garnier, V.; Lauriat, G.

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Beamline Temperatures  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Temperatures Temperatures Energy: 3.0000 GeV Current: 493.2242 mA Date: 11-Jan-2014 21:40:00 Beamline Temperatures Energy 3.0000 GeV Current 493.2 mA 11-Jan-2014 21:40:00 LN:MainTankLevel 124.4 in LN:MainTankPress 56.9 psi SPEAR-BL:B120HeFlow 15.4 l/min SPEAR-BL:B131HeFlow 22.2 l/min BL 4 BL02:LCW 0.0 ℃ BL02:M0_LCW 31.5 ℃ BL 4-1 BL04-1:BasePlate -14.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom1 46.0 ℃ BL04-1:Bottom2 47.0 ℃ BL04-1:Lower 32.0 ℃ BL04-1:Moly 46.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:ChinGuard2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalA -167.0 ℃ BL04-1:FirstXtalB -172.0 ℃ BL04-1:Pad1 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:Pad2 31.0 ℃ BL04-1:SecondXtalA -177.0 ℃ BL04-1:SecondXtalB -175.0 ℃ BL 4-2 BL04-2:BasePlate -14.0 ℃ BL04-2:Bottom1 24.0 ℃ BL04-2:Bottom2 25.0 ℃

454

Building America Top Innovations Hall of Fame Profile … Attic Air Sealing Guidelines  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Terminology Terminology Air Barrier Material (ABM) --- A does not allow air to pass throu plywood/OSB, foam board, duc lumber. Backing --- Any material that s be sprayed so as to provide an glass batts. Baffle (B) --- Manufactured chu direct ventilation air flow up an foam board or cardboard. Thermal Blocking --- Any rigid heat sources like chimneys or metal and gypsum board. Fasteners --- Staples, screws o

455

An analysis of the impact of datacenter temperature on energy efficiency  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The optimal air temperature for datacenters is one of ways to improve energy efficiency of datacenter cooling systems. Many datacenter owners have been interested in raising the room temperature as a quick and simple method ...

Lee, Heechang

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

456

Effects of Soil Moisture on the Responses of Soil Temperatures to Climate Change in Cold Regions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

At high latitudes, changes in soil moisture could alter soil temperatures independently of air temperature changes by interacting with the snow thermal rectifier. The authors investigated this mechanism with model experiments in the Community Land ...

Zachary M. Subin; Charles D. Koven; William J. Riley; Margaret S. Torn; David M. Lawrence; Sean C. Swenson

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Advanced Technology for Economical Dehumidification to Improve Indoor Air Quality  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

by reducing the temperature required for occupant comfort. Fungal growth in humidities above 70% can have many detrimental health effects, depending on the particular species encountered [5,1]. In fact, high humidity is often an underlying cause of many air...

Beckwith, W. R.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

AGU Press Conference, December 13, The influence of air-  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

CURRENT STATE FUTURE PROJECTION 1. Meteorological scenario: 2003 European heat wave ATMOSPHERE Method Conference, December 13, 2010 Urban heat island intensity increases during a heat wave. Source: Météo- France a 1-2°C increase in air temperatures due to AC usage during weekdays (Ohashi et al. 2007). · Energy

459

Water-to-Air Heat Pump Performance with Lakewater  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The performance of water-to-air heat pumps using lakewater as the heat source and sink has been investigated. Direct cooling with deep lakewater has also been considered. Although the emphasis of the work was with southern lakes, many results also...

Kavanaugh, S.; Pezent, M. C.

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Synthesis Gas Production from Partial Oxidation of Methane with Air in AC Electric Gas Discharge K 73019 Received October 11, 2002 In this study, synthesis gas production in an AC electric gas discharge of methane and air mixtures at room temperature and ambient pressure was investigated. The objective

Mallinson, Richard

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Experimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Experimental investigation of burning velocities of ultra-wet methane-air-steam mixtures Eric Abstract Global burning velocities of methane-air-steam mixtures are measured on prismatic laminar Bunsen flames and lifted turbulent V-flames for various preheating temperatures, equivalence ratios and steam

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

462

2006-01-1085 Air Path Estimation on Diesel HCCI Engine  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

: fresh air and EGR temperature probes. INTRODUCTION Increasingly stringent pollution standards norms have2006-01-1085 Air Path Estimation on Diesel HCCI Engine J. Chauvin, N. Petit, P. Rouchon ´Ecole des Mines de Paris G. Corde IFP C. Vigild Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen GmbH Copyright c 2006 Society

463

The effect of air blowing on the properties of rubber-modified asphalt binder  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

production and use. Air blowing, accompanied by high shear mixing at elevated temperatures, was used to produce many asphalt-rubber blends in an attempt to discover a binder which resists phase separation. These air-blown, rubber-modified binders were...

Bauer, Shauna Erin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

464

Surface preparation for high purity alumina ceramics enabling direct brazing in hydrogen atmospheres  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The present invention relates to a method for preparing the surface of a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen that enables direct brazing in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active braze alloy. The present invention also relates to a method for directly brazing a high purity alumina ceramic or sapphire specimen to a ceramic or metal member using this method of surface preparation, and to articles produced by this brazing method. The presence of silicon, in the form of a SiO.sub.2 -containing surface layer, can more than double the tensile bond strength in alumina ceramic joints brazed in a hydrogen atmosphere using an active Au-16Ni-0.75 Mo-1.75V filler metal. A thin silicon coating applied by PVD processing can, after air firing, produce a semi-continuous coverage of the alumina surface with a SiO.sub.2 film. Room temperature tensile strength was found to be proportional to the fraction of air fired surface covered by silicon-containing films. Similarly, the ratio of substrate fracture versus interface separation was also related to the amount of surface silicon present prior to brazing. This process can replace the need to perform a "moly-manganese" metallization step.

Cadden, Charles H. (Danville, CA); Yang, Nancy Yuan Chi (Lafayette, CA); Hosking, Floyd M. (Albuquerque, NM)

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

465

Modeling the pneumatic subsystem of a S-cam air brake system  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The air brake system is one of the critical components in ensuring the safe operation of any commercial vehicle. This work is directed towards the development of a fault-free model of the pneumatic subsystem of the air brake system. This model can...

Coimbatore Subramanian, Shankar

2004-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

466

Air Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Liquide - Biogas & Fuel Cells Hydrogen Energy Biogas Upgrading Technology 12 June 2012 Charlie.Anderson@airliquide.com 2 Air Liquide, world leader in gases for industry,...

467

Nebraska Air Quality Regulations (Nebraska)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Environmental Quality, contain provisions pertaining to ambient air quality standards, pollution source operating permits, emissions reporting,...

468

Global air quality and climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP;of chemistry–climate models with RCP emissions thus projectto project air quality responses to future climate change

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

470

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This tip sheet describes how to save process heating energy and costs by reducing air infiltration in industrial furnaces; tips include repairing leaks and increasing insulation.

471

Using Outside Air for Flooded Oil Screw Compressors at an Industrial Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A study has been performed to determine if inlet air temperature provides an increase in compressor efficiency, seen through reduced power for some specified mass flow. A theoretical analysis suggests that power is not a function of volumetric flow...

Hunt, D. G.; Terry, S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Cold Atmospheric Air Plasma Sterilization against Spores and Other Microorganisms of Clinical Interest  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma sources for microbial...Bactericidal effects of non-thermal argon plasma in...bacterial cells by air plasmas at atmospheric pressure. Int...permeabilization using a non-thermal plasma. New J. Phys...

Tobias G. Klämpfl; Georg Isbary; Tetsuji Shimizu; Yang-Fang Li; Julia L. Zimmermann; Wilhelm Stolz; Jürgen Schlegel; Gregor E. Morfill; Hans-Ulrich Schmidt

2012-05-11T23:59:59.000Z

473

E-Print Network 3.0 - air purifying respirator Sample Search...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Irvine Collection: Chemistry 46 A 25-Year Modeling Study on Soil CO2 Efflux from a Conifer and a Hardwood Forest Summary: the validity of a hypothetical air temperature -...

474

Air-Cooled Condensers in Next-Generation Conversion Systems Geothermal...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

makeup. Though they use no water, air-cooling systems have higher capital costs, reduced power output (heat is rejected at a higher temperature), lower power sales due to higher...

475

Characteristics of air-blown gasification in a pebble bed gasifier  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

High temperature air-blown gasification is a new concept to utilize the waste heat from gasifier that is called multi-staged enthalpy extraction ... study, we have constructed a pebble bed gasifier and operated i...

Young Chan Choi; Jae Goo Lee; Jae Ho Kim…

2006-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Modeling the effects of Refrigerant Charging on Air Conditioner Performance Characteristics For Three Expansion Devices  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

pump and air conditioner commonly used in residential applications. The simulated results were compared with laboratory tests at two outdoor temperatures. It was found that the ORNL model estimates were within an average of 3% of the experimental...

Farzad, Mohsen

477

Double Ended Guillotine Break in a Prismatic Block VHTR Lower Plenum Air Ingress Scenario  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The double ended guillotine break leading to density-driven air ingress has been identified as a low probability yet high consequence event for Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). The lower plenum of the VHTR contains the core support structure...

Hartley, Jessica

2012-10-19T23:59:59.000Z

478

Thermal performance evaluation of a solar air heater with and without thermal energy storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This communication presents the experimental study and performance analysis of a solar air heater with and without phase change ... found that the output temperature in case with thermal energy storage (TES) is h...

V. V. Tyagi; A. K. Pandey; S. C. Kaushik…

2012-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Air Distribution and Microenvironment Evaluation of a Desktop Task Conditioning System  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Task conditioning aims to provide each occupant with personalized clean air direct to the breathing zone. The microenvironment of a typical office workplace, consisting of two desktop task conditioning systems (a Horizontal Desk Grill (HDG...

Zheng, G.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

480

Premixed direct injection nozzle  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

Zuo, Baifang (Simpsonville, SC); Johnson, Thomas Edward (Greer, SC); Lacy, Benjamin Paul (Greer, SC); Ziminsky, Willy Steve (Simpsonville, SC)

2011-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direction air temperature" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Swimming pools as heat sinks for air conditioners: California feasibility analysis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Earlier studies used field testing of swimming pool temperatures to validate a mathematical model for predicting the temperature of an unheated pool. Combining those results with manufacturers’ data on the performance of vapor-compression air conditioners as a function of heat rejection temperature, the analyses in the paper suggest that rejecting air conditioning heat to a swimming pool can save approximately 25–30% of single-family residential cooling electricity use and reduce cooling electricity demand during peak conditions by 30–35%, as compared to using the same compressor to reject the heat to ambient air. The savings is expected to vary depending on the severity of the climate, as well as the pool temperature experienced during the summer. The original model was refined so as to accommodate air-conditioner heat rejection to predict pool temperatures based on weather data, pool size, shading of the pool, and air-conditioner heat rejection to the pool. The results of an experimental validation of the augmented pool thermal model are presented here. In addition, the model of a pool-coupled air conditioning system was used to develop a design tool for determining the pool size needed to absorb realistic heat rejection from air conditioners in various California climate zones.

Curtis Harrington; Mark Modera

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Foreign Direct Investment  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investment Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in 1999 in 1999 in 1999 in 1999 June 2001 ii iii Contents Foreign Affiliates' Role in U.S. Energy Industry Operations ..............................................................................1 Foreign Direct Investment: The International Transactions Accounts ..............................................................8 U.S. Companies' Direct Investment Abroad in Energy ......................................................................................14 Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................................19

483

Inhalation intake of ambient air pollution in California's South Coast Air Basin  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

the impacts on air pollution and health of urban areaas a proxy for air pollution health effects (Bennett etFuel combustion, air pollution exposure, and health: The

Marshall, Julian D.; Granvold, Patrick W.; Hoats, Abigail S.; McKone, Thomas E.; Deakin, Elizabeth; Nazaroff, William W.

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

484

Low Temperature Direct Use Greenhouse Geothermal Facilities | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Facilities Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":800,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":"Geothermal

485

Low Temperature Direct Use District Heating Geothermal Facilities | Open  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Heating Geothermal Facilities Heating Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":800,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":"Geothermal

486

Map of Low Temperature Direct Use Geothermal Facilities | Open Energy  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Geothermal Facilities Geothermal Facilities Jump to: navigation, search Loading map... {"format":"googlemaps3","type":"ROADMAP","types":["ROADMAP","SATELLITE","HYBRID","TERRAIN"],"limit":800,"offset":0,"link":"all","sort":[""],"order":[],"headers":"show","mainlabel":"","intro":"","outro":"","searchlabel":"\u2026 further results","default":"","geoservice":"google","zoom":false,"width":"600px","height":"350px","centre":false,"layers":[],"controls":["pan","zoom","type","scale","streetview"],"zoomstyle":"DEFAULT","typestyle":"DEFAULT","autoinfowindows":false,"kml":[],"gkml":[],"fusiontables":[],"resizable":false,"tilt":0,"kmlrezoom":false,"poi":true,"imageoverlays":[],"markercluster":false,"searchmarkers":"","icon":"","visitedicon":"","forceshow":true,"showtitle":true,"hidenamespace":false,"template":"Geothermal

487

Direct Temperature Mapping of Nanoscale Plasmonic Devices Boris Desiatov,  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, the inevitable ohmic loss results in significant joule heating in plasmonic devices. Therefore, understanding distribution with high spatial resolution. This paper studies the heat distribution in silicon plasmonic optical-induced heat gen- eration and heat transport in integrated on-chip plasmonic devices is of major

Levy, Uriel

488

New Directions in Low Temperature Solar Thermal Storage  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Comprehensive overviews of energy storage techhologies for solar applications are already available [1,2,3...

C. J. Swet

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Characterisation of laser ignition in hydrogen–air mixtures in a combustion bomb  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Laser-induced spark ignition of lean hydrogen–air mixtures was experimentally investigated using nanosecond pulses generated by Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1064 nm) at initial pressure of 3 MPa and temperature 323 K in a constant volume combustion chamber. Laser ignition has several advantages over conventional ignition systems especially in internal combustion engines, hence it is necessary to characterise the combustion phenomena from start of plasma formation to end of combustion. In the present experimental investigation, the formation of laser plasma by spontaneous emission technique and subsequently developing flame kernel was measured. Initially, the plasma propagates towards the incoming laser. This backward moving plasma (towards the focusing lens) grows much faster than the forward moving plasma (along the direction of laser). A piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to measure the pressure rise in the combustion chamber. Hydrogen–air mixtures were also ignited using a spark plug under identical experimental conditions and results are compared with the laser ignition ones.

Dhananjay Kumar Srivastava; Martin Weinrotter; Kurt Iskra; Avinash Kumar Agarwal; Ernst Wintner

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

490

Switching Surges and Air Insulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article Switching Surges and Air Insulation B. Jones Some thirteen years ago...reduction was noticed in the strength of air insulation when subjected to slowly rising positive...collected in high voltage laboratories. Insulation against switching surges is now seen...

1973-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A breathing air garment for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap.

Childers, Edward L. (Lakewood, CO); von Hortenau, Erik F. (Golden, CO)

1984-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

492

Protective supplied breathing air garment  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A breathing air garment is disclosed for isolating a wearer from hostile environments containing toxins or irritants includes a suit and a separate head protective enclosure or hood engaging a suit collar in sealing attachment. The hood and suit collar are cylindrically shaped and dimensioned to enable the wearer to withdraw his hands from the suit sleeves to perform manual tasks within the hood interior. Breathing air is supplied from an external air line with an air delivery hose attached to the hood interior. The hose feeds air into an annular halo-like fiber-filled plenum having spaced discharge orifices attached to the hood top wall. A plurality of air exhaust/check valves located at the suit extremities cooperate with the hood air delivery system to provide a cooling flow of circulating air from the hood throughout the suit interior. A suit entry seal provided on the suit rear torso panel permits access into the suit and is sealed with an adhesive sealing flap. 17 figs.

Childers, E.L.; Hortenau, E.F. von.

1984-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

493

EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

92: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for 92: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps EA-1892: Direct Final Rule Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and Residential Central Air Conditioners & Heat Pumps Summary This EA evaluates the environmental impacts of a proposal to adopt energy conservation standards for various consumer products and certain commercial and industrial equipment, including residential furnaces and residential air conditioners and heat pumps, as required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 6291 et seq.). Public Comment Opportunities No public comment opportunities available at this time. Documents Available for Download June 27, 2011 EA-1892: Draft Environmental Assessment

494

Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)  

SciTech Connect

Chinese translation of the Reduce Air Infiltration in Furnaces fact sheet. Provides suggestions on how to improve furnace energy efficiency. Fuel-fired furnaces discharge combustion products through a stack or a chimney. Hot furnace gases are less dense and more buoyant than ambient air, so they rise, creating a differential pressure between the top and the bottom of the furnace. This differential, known as thermal head, is the source of a natural draft or negative pressure in furnaces and boilers. A well-designed furnace (or boiler) is built to avoid air leakage into the furnace or leakage of flue gases from the furnace to the ambient. However, with time, most furnaces develop cracks or openings around doors, joints, and hearth seals. These openings (leaks) usually appear small compared with the overall dimensions of the furnace, so they are often ignored. The negative pressure created by the natural draft (or use of an induced-draft fan) in a furnace draws cold air through the openings (leaks) and into the furnace. The cold air becomes heated to the furnace exhaust gas temperature and then exits through the flue system, wasting valuable fuel. It might also cause excessive oxidation of metals or other materials in the furnaces. The heat loss due to cold air leakage resulting from the natural draft can be estimated if you know four major parameters: (1) The furnace or flue gas temperature; (2) The vertical distance H between the opening (leak) and the point where the exhaust gases leave the furnace and its flue system (if the leak is along a vertical surface, H will be an average value); (3) The area of the leak, in square inches; and (4) The amount of operating time the furnace spends at negative pressure. Secondary parameters that affect the amount of air leakage include these: (1) The furnace firing rate; (2) The flue gas velocity through the stack or the stack cross-section area; (3) The burner operating conditions (e.g., excess air, combustion air temperature, and so on). For furnaces or boilers using an induced-draft (ID) fan, the furnace negative pressure depends on the fan performance and frictional losses between the fan inlet and the point of air leakage. In most cases, it would be necessary to measure or estimate negative pressure at the opening. The amount of air leakage, the heat lost in flue gases, and their effects on increased furnace or boiler fuel consumption can be calculated by using the equations and graphs given in Industrial Furnaces (see W. Trinks et al., below). Note that the actual heat input required to compensate for the heat loss in flue gases due to air leakage would be greater than the heat contained in the air leakage because of the effect of available heat in the furnace. For a high-temperature furnace that is not maintained properly, the fuel consumption increase due to air leakage can be as high as 10% of the fuel input.

Not Available

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

495

Free Energy Fluctuations for Directed Polymers in Random Media in 1?+?1 Dimension  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider two models for directed polymers in space-time independent random media (the O'Connell-Yor semidiscrete directed polymer and the continuum directed random polymer) at positive temperature and prove their KPZ ...

Borodin, Alexei

496

Dynamic modeling of an integrated air-to-air heat pump using Modelica  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Heat pump systems have gained significant market shares in Europe recently. The control strategy is an asset for the efficient operation of these thermodynamic systems; especially with compact integrated components. The predictive control, which allows fast system stabilization, is based on the description of the system physical behavior. Thus, dynamic modeling is needed for the development of such control. The model has to represent the system response to usual external perturbations met during current operation such as the variation of air temperature and air mass flow rate. The aim of this paper is to present a dynamic model of a thermodynamic system developed in the Dymola environment, which is an object-oriented modeling environment. The heat-pump components are created separately as individual objects, and then connected to form the system. The model of each component is described and the responses to different perturbations are detailed. Simulation results are compared to test results in order to validate the model.

S. Mortada; A. Zoughaib; D. Clodic; C. Arzano-Daurelle

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

497

High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters Home Standards DOE Workshops Nuclear Air Cleaning Conference Proceedings Qualified Filter List News Items Related Sites HEPA Related Lessons Learned Contact Us HSS Logo High Efficiency Particulate Air Filters The HEPA Filter web site provides a forum for informing and reporting department-wide activities related to filtration and ventilation issues with special reference to the High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) Filters' use, inspection, and testing. This site contains essentials of DOE HEPA filter test program, procedures, requirements and quality assurance aspects applicable to HEPA filters used in DOE facilities. This site contains information about the DOE-accepted Filter Test Facility and its management, operation and quality assuranceprogram.

498

NETL: IEP - Air Quality Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Air Quality Research Home > Technologies > Coal & Power Systems > Innovations for Existing Plants > Air Quality Research Innovations for Existing Plants Air Quality Research Ambient Monitoring Emissions Characterization Predictive Modeling & Evaluation Health Effects Regulatory Drivers Air Quality Research Reference Shelf The NETL Air Quality Research program is designed to resolve the scientific uncertainties associated with the atmospheric formation, distribution, and chemical transformation of pollutant emissions from today's coal-fired power plants, and to obtain a realistic assessment of the human health impacts of these emissions. Results of this research will help the DOE Office of Fossil Energy address policy questions regarding coal plant emissions and provide guidance for future emissions control R&D programs at

499

air conditioner | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

air conditioner air conditioner Dataset Summary Description View 2010 energy efficiency data from AeroSys Inc, Coaire, Cold Point, First Operations, LG Electronics, Nordyne, and Quietside manufacturers. Data includes cooling capacity, cooling performance, heating capacity, and heating performance. Spreadsheet was created by combining the tables in pdf files that are included in the zip file. Source Energy Applicance Data - United States Federal Trade Commission, www.ftc.gov Date Released Unknown Date Updated Unknown Keywords air conditioner central air conditioner efficiency efficient energy heat pump Data application/vnd.ms-excel icon 2010_CentralAC_All.xls (xls, 82.4 KiB) application/zip icon 2010CentralAirConditioner.zip (zip, 398.2 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review

500

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

1 1 Ken Gray P.E. HQ AFCESA /CENR Air Force Renewable Energy Programs April, 2011 FUPWG "Make Energy a Consideration in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics  Air Force Energy Use  Air Force Facility Energy Center  Current RE Generation  Project Development System  Programmed RE Generation FY11-13  Goal Achievement 2 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Air Force 2010 Energy Use The Air Force spent approximately $8.2 billion for energy in 2010; an increase of 22% from 2009 Energy Cost and Consumption Trends Energy Cost Breakdown Aviation 79% Facilities 17% 3 Aviation 84% Facilities 12% Vehicles & Equipment