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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
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We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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1

Contrasting the direct radiative effect and direct radiative forcing of aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols, which is the instantaneous radiative impact of all atmospheric particles on the Earth's energy balance, is sometimes confused with the direct radiative forcing (DRF), which ...

Heald, Colette L.

2

Direct radiative forcing due to aerosols in Asia during Soon-Ung Parka,, Jaein I. Jeongb  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct radiative forcing due to aerosols in Asia during March 2002 Soon-Ung Parka,, Jaein I. Jeongb Model (CRM) of Community Climate Model 3 and the output of the fifth generation of meso-scale model (MM5 in the global climate system by changing atmospheric radiation balance (Tegen and Fung, 1994; Andreae, 1996; Li

Park, Rokjin

3

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

4

Multidecadal solar radiation trends in the United States and Germany and direct tropospheric aerosol forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multidecadal solar radiation trends in the United States and Germany and direct tropospheric, the positive trend is almost equal. We attained these results by scrutinizing clear-sky global solar radiation ratio of solar radiation were used for constraining the observed trends. Increased absorption

5

Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

Schwarz, J. P.

6

Multi-Decadal Solar Radiation Trends in the United States and Germany and Direct Tropospheric Aerosol Forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Multi-Decadal Solar Radiation Trends in the United States and Germany and Direct Tropospheric.S. the strengthening is almost equal. We attained these results by scrutinizing clear sky global solar radiation of solar radiation were used for constraining the observed trends. Increased absorption and declined light

7

Total aerosol effect: forcing or radiative flux perturbation?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Uncertainties in aerosol forcings, especially those associated with clouds, contribute to a large extent to uncertainties in the total anthropogenic forcing. The interaction of aerosols with clouds and radiation introduces feedbacks which can affect the rate of rain formation. Traditionally these feedbacks were not included in estimates of total aerosol forcing. Here we argue that they should be included because these feedbacks act quickly compared with the time scale of global warming. We show that for different forcing agents (aerosols and greenhouse gases) the radiative forcings as traditionally defined agree rather well with estimates from a method, here referred to as radiative flux perturbations (RFP), that takes these fast feedbacks and interactions into account. Thus we propose replacing the direct and indirect aerosol forcing in the IPCC forcing chart with RFP estimates. This implies that it is better to evaluate the total anthropogenic aerosol effect as a whole.

Lohmann, Ulrike; Storelvmo, Trude; Jones, Andy; Rotstayn, Leon; Menon, Surabi; Quaas, Johannes; Ekman, Annica; Koch, Dorothy; Ruedy, Reto

2009-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

8

Direct measurement of thermophoretic forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study the thermophoretic motion of a micron sized single colloidal particle in front of a flat wall by evanescent light scattering. To quantify thermophoretic effects we analyse the nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) of the particle in a constant temperature gradient perpendicular to the confining walls. We propose to determine thermophoretic forces from a 'generalized potential' associated with the probability distribution of the particle position in the NESS. Experimentally we demonstrate, how this spatial probability distribution is measured and how thermophoretic forces can be extracted with 10 fN resolution. By varying temperature gradient and ambient temperature, the temperature dependence of Soret coefficient $S_T(T)$ is determined for $r = 2.5 \\mu m$ polystyrene and $r = 1.35 \\mu m$ melamine particles. The functional form of $S_T(T)$ is in good agreement with findings for smaller colloids. In addition, we measure and discuss hydrodynamic effects in the confined geometry. The theoretical and experimental technique proposed here extends thermophoresis measurements to so far inaccessible particle sizes and particle solvent combinations.

Laurent Helden; Ralf Eichhorn; Clemens Bechinger

2014-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

9

Sensitivity Study of the Effects of Mineral Dust Particle Nonsphericity and Thin Cirrus Clouds on MODIS Dust Optical Depth Retrievals and Direct Radiative Forcing Calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A special challenge posed by mineral dust aerosols is associated with their predominantly nonspherical particle shapes. In the present study, the scattering and radiative properties for nonspherical mineral dust aerosols at violet-to-blue (0.412, 0...

Feng, Qian

2011-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

10

Direct detector for terahertz radiation  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Shaner, Eric A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

11

Technical Note: Estimating Aerosol Effects on Cloud Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Estimating anthropogenic aerosol effects on the planetary energy balance through the aerosol influence on clouds using the difference in cloud radiative forcing from simulations with and without anthropogenic emissions produces estimates that are positively biased. A more representative method is suggested using the difference in cloud radiative forcing calculated with aerosol radiative effects neglected. The method also yields an aerosol radiative forcing decomposition that includes a term quantifying the impact of changes in surface albedo. The method requires only two additional diagnostic calculations: the whole-sky and clear-sky top-of-atmosphere radiative flux with aerosol radiative effects neglected.

Ghan, Steven J.

2013-10-09T23:59:59.000Z

12

Radiative forcing from aircraft NOx emissions: Mechanisms and seasonal dependence  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

dependence. The long-term globally integrated annual mean net forcing calculated here is approximately zero, related to the annual cycle in photochemistry; the O3 radiative forcing calculations also have a seasonal, although earlier work suggests a small net positive forcing. The model design (e.g., upper tropospheric

13

Radiative forcing in the ACCMIP historical and future climate simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP) examined the short-lived drivers of climate change in current climate models. Here we evaluate the 10 ACCMIP models that included aerosols, 8 of which also participated in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5). The models reproduce present-day total aerosol optical depth (AOD) relatively well, though many are biased low. Contributions from individual aerosol components are quite different, however, and most models underestimate east Asian AOD. The models capture most 1980-2000 AOD trends well, but underpredict increases over the Yellow/Eastern Sea. They strongly underestimate absorbing AOD in many regions. We examine both the direct radiative forcing (RF) and the forcing including rapid adjustments (effective radiative forcing; ERF, including direct and indirect effects). The models’ all-sky 1850 to 2000 global mean annual average total aerosol RF is (mean; range) ?0.26Wm?2; ?0.06 to ?0.49Wm?2. Screening based on model skill in capturing observed AOD yields a best estimate of ?0.42Wm?2; ?0.33 to ?0.50Wm?2, including adjustment for missing aerosol components in some models. Many ACCMIP and CMIP5 models appear to produce substantially smaller aerosol RF than this best estimate. Climate feedbacks contribute substantially (35 to ?58 %) to modeled historical aerosol RF. The 1850 to 2000 aerosol ERF is ?1.17Wm?2; ?0.71 to ?1.44Wm?2. Thus adjustments, including clouds, typically cause greater forcing than direct RF. Despite this, the multi-model spread relative to the mean is typically the same for ERF as it is for RF, or even smaller, over areas with substantial forcing. The largest 1850 to 2000 negative aerosol RF and ERF values are over and near Europe, south and east Asia and North America. ERF, however, is positive over the Sahara, the Karakoram, high Southern latitudes and especially the Arctic. Global aerosol RF peaks in most models around 1980, declining thereafter with only weak sensitivity to the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP). One model, however, projects approximately stable RF levels, while two show increasingly negative RF due to nitrate (not included in most models). Aerosol ERF, in contrast, becomes more negative during 1980 to 2000. During this period, increased Asian emissions appear to have a larger impact on aerosol ERF than European and North American decreases due to their being upwind of the large, relatively pristine Pacific Ocean. There is no clear relationship between historical aerosol ERF and climate sensitivity in the CMIP5 subset of ACCMIP models. In the ACCMIP/CMIP5 models, historical aerosol ERF of about ?0.8 to ?1.5Wm?2 is most consistent with observed historical warming. Aerosol ERF masks a large portion of greenhouse forcing during the late 20th and early 21st century at the global scale. Regionally, aerosol ERF is so large that net forcing is negative over most industrialized and biomass burning regions through 1980, but remains strongly negative only over east and southeast Asia by 2000. Net forcing is strongly positive by 1980 over most deserts, the Arctic, Australia, and most tropical oceans. Both the magnitude of and area covered by positive forcing expand steadily thereafter.

Shindell, Drew; Lamarque, J.-F.; Schulz, M.; Flanner, M. G.; Jiao, C.; Chin, Mian; Young, P. J.; Lee, Y. H.; Rotstayn, Leon; Mahowald, N. M.; Milly, G.; Faluvegi, G.; Balkanski, Y.; Collins, W. J.; Conley, Andrew; Dalsoren, S.; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Horowitz, L.; Liu, Xiaohong; Myhre, G.; Nagashima, T.; Naik, Vaishali; Rumbold, S.; Skeie, R. B.; Sudo, K.; Szopa, S.; Takemura, T.; Voulgarakis, A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Lo, Fiona

2013-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

14

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol radiative forcing Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

No. DE- Summary: : WHY MEASUREMENTS ALONE CANNOT QUANTIFY AEROSOL RADIATIVE FORCING OF CLIMATE CHANGE Stephen E. Schwartz... of radiative forcing of climate change by aerosols,...

15

Force Behaviour in Radiation-Dominated Friedmann Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider radiation-dominated Friedmann universe and evaluate its force four-vector and momentum. We analyse and compare the results with the already evaluated for the matter-dominated Friedmann model. It turns out that the results are physically acceptable.

M. Sharif

2004-01-19T23:59:59.000Z

16

Indirect radiative forcing by ion-mediated nucleation of aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A clear understanding of particle formation mechanisms is critical for assessing aerosol indirect radiative forcing and associated climate feedback processes. Recent studies reveal the importance of ion-mediated nucleation (IMN) in generating new particles and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in the atmosphere. Here we implement for the first time a physically based treatment of IMN into the Community Atmosphere Model version 5. Our simulations show that, compared to globally averaged results based on binary homogeneous nucleation (BHN), the presence of ionization (i.e., IMN) halves H2SO4 column burden, but increases the column integrated nucleation rate by around one order of magnitude, total particle number burden by a factor of ~ 3, CCN burden by ~ 10% (at 0.2% supersaturation) to 65% (at 1.0% supersaturation), and cloud droplet number burden by ~ 18%. Compared to BHN, IMN increases cloud liquid water path by 7.5%, decreases precipitation by 1.1%, and increases total cloud cover by 1.9%. This leads to an increase of total shortwave cloud radiative forcing by 3.67 W/m2 (more negative) and longwave cloud forcing by 1.78 W/m2 (more positive), resulting in a -1.9 W/m2 net change in cloud radiative forcing associated with IMN. The significant impacts of ionization on global aerosol formation, CCN abundance, and cloud radiative forcing may provide an important physical mechanism linking the global energy balance to various processes affecting atmospheric ionization, which should be properly represented in climate models.

Yu, Fangqun; Luo, Gan; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Xiaoyan; Ghan, Steven J.

2012-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

17

THE EFFECT OF CIRCUMSOLAR RADIATION ON THE ACCURACY OF PYRHELIOMETER MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

r Presented at the Solar Radiation workshop of Solar Rising,MEASUREMENTS OF THE DIRECT SOLAR RADIATION D. Grether, D.Diffuse, and Total Solar Radiation," Solar Energy, vol. 4,

Grether, D.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Adjustable virtual pore-size filter for automated sample preparation using acoustic radiation force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present a rapid and robust size-based separation method for high throughput microfluidic devices using acoustic radiation force. We developed a finite element modeling tool to predict the two-dimensional acoustic radiation force field perpendicular to the flow direction in microfluidic devices. Here we compare the results from this model with experimental parametric studies including variations of the PZT driving frequencies and voltages as well as various particle sizes and compressidensities. These experimental parametric studies also provide insight into the development of an adjustable 'virtual' pore-size filter as well as optimal operating conditions for various microparticle sizes. We demonstrated the separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and MS2 bacteriophage using acoustic focusing. The acoustic radiation force did not affect the MS2 viruses, and their concentration profile remained unchanged. With optimized design of our microfluidic flow system we were able to achieve yields of > 90% for the MS2 with > 80% of the S. cerevisiae being removed in this continuous-flow sample preparation device.

Jung, B; Fisher, K; Ness, K; Rose, K; Mariella, R

2008-05-22T23:59:59.000Z

19

Implications of Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 Methane Emissions to Stabilize Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Increases in the abundance of methane (CH4) in the Earth’s atmosphere are responsible for significant radiative forcing of climate change (Forster et al., 2007; Wuebbles and Hayhoe, 2002). Since 1750, a 2.5 fold increase in atmospheric CH4 contributed 0.5 W/m2 to direct radiative forcing and an additional 0.2 W/m2 indirectly through changes in atmospheric chemistry. Next to water and carbon dioxide (CO2), methane is the most abundant greenhouse gas in the troposphere. Additionally, CH4 is significantly more effective as a greenhouse gas on a per molecule basis than is CO2, and increasing atmospheric CH4 has been second only to CO2 in radiative forcing (Forster et al., 2007). The chemical reactivity of CH4 is important to both tropospheric and stratospheric chemistry. Along with carbon monoxide, methane helps control the amount of the hydroxyl radical (OH) in the troposphere where oxidation of CH4 by OH leads to the formation of formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, and ozone.

Emanuel, William R.; Janetos, Anthony C.

2013-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

20

Geosynchronous orbit determination using space surveillance network observations and improved radiative force modeling  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Correct modeling of the space environment, including radiative forces, is an important aspect of space situational awareness for geostationary (GEO) spacecraft. Solar radiation pressure has traditionally been modeled using ...

Lyon, Richard Harry, 1981-

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

SURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE VARIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SURFACE CLOUD RADIATIVE FORCING, CLOUD FRACTION AND CLOUD ALBEDO: THEIR RELATIONSHIP AND MULTISCALE/Atmospheric Sciences Division Brookhaven National Laboratory P.O. Box, Upton, NY www.bnl.gov ABSTRACT Cloud-induced climate change. Cloud-radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo are three key quantities

22

Separation of Yeast Cells from MS2 Viruses Using Acoustic Radiation Force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report a rapid and robust separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and MS2 bacteriophage using acoustic focusing in a microfluidic device. A piezoelectric transducer (PZT) generates acoustic standing waves in the microchannel. These standing waves induce acoustic radiation force fields that direct microparticles towards the nodes (i.e., pressure minima) or the anti-nodes (i.e., pressure maxima) of the standing waves depending on the relative compressidensity between the particle and the suspending liquid.[1] For particles larger than 2 {micro}m, the transverse velocities generated by these force fields enable continuous, high throughput separation. Extensive work in the last decade [2-4] has demonstrated acoustic focusing for manipulating microparticles or biological samples in microfluidic devices. This prior work has primarily focused on experimental realization of acoustic focusing without modeling or with limited one-dimensional modeling estimates. We recently developed a finite element modeling tool to predict the two-dimensional acoustic radiation force field perpendicular to the flow direction in microfluidic devices.[1] Here we compare results from this model with experimental parametric studies including variations of the PZT driving frequencies and voltages as well as various particle sizes and compressidensities. These experimental parametric studies also provide insight into the development of an adjustable 'virtual' pore-size filter as well as optimal operating conditions for various microparticle sizes. Figure 1 shows a typical experimental acoustic focusing result for microparticles (diameter = 2.0 {micro}m) in a 500 {micro}m wide by 200 {micro}m deep microchannel. In this case, the PZT driving frequency and voltage are, respectively, 1.459 MHz and 6.6 V. The microparticles tightly focus (full width half maximum (FWHM) {approx}30 {micro}m) less than 30 s after the initiation of the acoustic field. We simulated the same geometry and operating conditions for comparison. The surface plot in Figure 2 illustrates the two-dimensional pressure field orthogonal to the flow direction (x-direction) from the simulation. The superimposed vector plot shows the acoustic radiation force in this plane. The dark regions and the light regions respectively represent the nodes and anti-nodes of the acoustic pressure field. The corresponding force field predicts acoustic focusing at the center of the microchannel, which is confirmed by the experimental results shown in Figure 1. We demonstrated the separation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (typical cell size of 4-6 {micro}m depending on the cell growth stage, measured using a Coulter counter) and MS2 bacteriophage (typical diameter {approx}30 nm [5]) using acoustic focusing (Figure 3). A mixture of S. cerevisiae and MS2 labeled with Ribogreen was prepared and injected into one inlet of the microchip (i.e., half of the microchannel was filled with the sample). We varied driving voltages from 1.96 to 4.76 V, while fixing the driving frequency at 1.459 MHz and flow rate at 20 {micro}l/min. The acoustic radiation force did not affect the MS2 viruses, and their concentration profile remained unchanged. Increased driving voltages enhanced the acoustic focusing of the yeast cells thereby achieving good separation. We are able to achieve yields of > 80% and sample purities of > 90% in this continuous-flow sample preparation device.

Jung, B; Fisher, K; Ness, K; Rose, K A; Mariella, Jr., R P

2008-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

23

The Transient Circulation Response to Radiative Forcings and Sea Surface Warming  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Tropospheric circulation shifts have strong potential to impact surface climate. But the magnitude of these shifts in a changing climate, and the attending regional hydrological changes, are difficult to project. Part of this difficulty arises from our lack of understanding of the physical mechanisms behind the circulation shifts themselves. In order to better delineate circulation shifts and their respective causes, we decompose the circulation response into (1) the "direct" response to radiative forcings themselves, and (2) the "indirect" response to changing sea surface temperatures. Using ensembles of 90-day climate model simulations with immediate switch-on forcings, including perturbed greenhouse gas concentrations, stratospheric ozone concentrations, and sea surface temperatures, we document the direct and indirect transient responses of the zonal mean general circulation, and investigate the roles of previously proposed mechanisms in shifting the midlatitude jet. We find that both the direct and indirect wind responses often begin in the lower stratosphere. Changes in midlatitude eddies are ubiquitous and synchronous with the midlatitude zonal wind response. Shifts in the critical latitude of wave absorption on either flank of the jet are not indicted as primary factors for the poleward shifting jet, although we see some evidence for increasing equatorward wave reflection over the southern hemisphere in response to sea surface warming. Mechanisms for the northern hemisphere jet shift are less clear.

Staten, Paul; Reichler, Thomas; Lu, Jian

2014-12-15T23:59:59.000Z

24

Indirect detection of radiation sources through direct detection of radiolysis products  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A system for indirectly detecting a radiation source by directly detecting radiolytic products. The radiation source emits radiation and the radiation produces the radiolytic products. A fluid is positioned to receive the radiation from the radiation source. When the fluid is irradiated, radiolytic products are produced. By directly detecting the radiolytic products, the radiation source is detected.

Farmer, Joseph C. (Tracy, CA); Fischer, Larry E. (Los Gatos, CA); Felter, Thomas E. (Livermore, CA)

2010-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

25

Non-Kyoto Radiative Forcing in Long-Run Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Climate Change Scenarios  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Climate policies designed to achieve climate change objectives must consider radiative forcing from the Kyoto greenhouse gas, as well as other forcing constituents, such as aerosols and tropospheric ozone. Net positive forcing leads to global average temperature increases. Modeling of non-Kyoto forcing is a relatively new component of climate management scenarios. Five of the nineteen models in the EMF-27 Study model both Kyoto and non-Kyoto forcing. This paper describes and assesses current non-Kyoto radiative forcing modeling within these integrated assessment models. The study finds negative forcing from aerosols masking significant positive forcing in reference non-climate policy projections. There are however large differences across models in projected non-Kyoto emissions and forcing, with differences stemming from differences in relationships between Kyoto and non-Kyoto emissions and fundamental differences in modeling structure and assumptions. Air pollution and non-Kyoto forcing decline in the climate policy scenarios. However, non-Kyoto forcing appears to be influencing mitigation results, including allowable carbon dioxide emissions, and further evaluation is merited. Overall, there is substantial uncertainty related to non-Kyoto forcing that must be considered.

Rose, Steven K.; Richels, Richard G.; Smith, Steven J.; Riahi, Keywan; Stefler, Jessica; Van Vuuren, Detlef

2014-04-27T23:59:59.000Z

26

Direct space-charge effects on the ILC damping rings: Task Force Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Venturini, First-Order Space-Charge Tuneshift in a Linearly59511 February 2006 Direct Space Charge E?ects on the ILCof the Task Force on space charge. (A slightly reduced

Venturini, Marco; Oide, Katsunobu

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Temporal Variability of Aerosol Properties during TCAP: Impact on Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Ground-based remote sensing and in situ observations of aerosol microphysical and optical properties have been collected during summertime (June-August, 2012) as part of the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP; http://campaign.arm.gov/tcap/), which was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program (http://www.arm.gov/). The overall goal of the TCAP field campaign is to study the evolution of optical and microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosol transported from North America to the Atlantic and their impact on the radiation energy budget. During TCAP, the ground-based ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) was deployed on Cape Cod, an arm-shaped peninsula situated on the easternmost portion of Massachusetts (along the east coast of the United States) and that is generally downwind of large metropolitan areas. The AMF site was equipped with numerous instruments for sampling aerosol, cloud and radiative properties, including a Multi-Filter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (MFRSR), a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS), an Aerodynamic Particle Sizer (APS), and a three-wavelength nephelometer. In this study we present an analysis of diurnal and day-to-day variability of the column and near-surface aerosol properties obtained from remote sensing (MFRSR data) and ground-based in situ measurements (SMPS, APS, and nephelometer data). In particular, we show that the observed diurnal variability of the MFRSR aerosol optical depth is strong and comparable with that obtained previously from the AERONET climatology in Mexico City, which has a larger aerosol loading. Moreover, we illustrate how the variability of aerosol properties impacts the direct aerosol radiative forcing at different time scales.

Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Fast, Jerome D.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

28

Modelled Black Carbon Radiative Forcing and Atmospheric Lifetime in AeroCom Phase II Constrained by Aircraft Observations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon (BC) aerosols absorb solar radiation, and are generally held to exacerbate global warming through exerting a positive radiative forcing1. However, the total contribution of BC to the ongoing changes in global climate is presently under debate2-8. Both anthropogenic BC emissions and the resulting spatial and temporal distribution of BC concentration are highly uncertain2,9. In particular, long range transport and processes affecting BC atmospheric lifetime are poorly understood, leading to large estimated uncertainty in BC concentration at high altitudes and far from emission sources10. These uncertainties limit our ability to quantify both the historical, present and future anthropogenic climate impact of BC. Here we compare vertical profiles of BC concentration from four recent aircraft measurement campaigns with 13 state of the art aerosol models, and show that recent assessments may have overestimated present day BC radiative forcing. Further, an atmospheric lifetime of BC of less than 5 days is shown to be essential for reproducing observations in transport dominated remote regions. Adjusting model results to measurements in remote regions, and at high altitudes, leads to a 25% reduction in the multi-model median direct BC forcing from fossil fuel and biofuel burning over the industrial era.

Samset, B. H.; Myhre, G.; Herber, Andreas; Kondo, Yutaka; Li, Shao-Meng; Moteki, N.; Koike, Makoto; Oshima, N.; Schwarz, Joshua P.; Balkanski, Y.; Bauer, S.; Bellouin, N.; Berntsen, T.; Bian, Huisheng; Chin, M.; Diehl, Thomas; Easter, Richard C.; Ghan, Steven J.; Iversen, T.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Lin, Guang; Liu, Xiaohong; Penner, Joyce E.; Schulz, M.; Seland, O.; Skeie, R. B.; Stier, P.; Takemura, T.; Tsigaridis, Kostas; Zhang, Kai

2014-11-27T23:59:59.000Z

29

Acoustic radiation force on a double-layer microsphere by a Gaussian focused beam  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A new model for calculating the radiation force on double-layer microsphere is proposed based on the ray acoustics approach. The axial acoustic radiation force resulting from a focused Gaussian beam incident on spherical shells immersed in water is examined theoretically in relation to its thickness and the contents of its double-layer. The attenuation both in the water and inside the sphere is considered in this method, which cannot be ignored while the high frequency ultrasonic is used. Results of numerical calculations are presented for fat and low density polyethylene materials, with the hollow region filled with animal oil, water, or air. These results show how the acoustic impedance and the sound velocity of both layers, together with the thickness of the shell, affect the acoustic radiation force.

Wu, Rongrong; Cheng, Kaixuan; Liu, Jiehui; Mao, Yiwei; Gong, Xiufen [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Liu, Xiaozhou, E-mail: xzliu@nju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Modern Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Institute of Acoustics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China)

2014-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

30

Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

none,

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

31

Aerosol radiative forcing and the accuracy of satellite aerosol optical depth retrieval  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) of the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) is typically between 0.06 and 0.15, while the RMSE between t = 0.1 and t = 0.8. The Department of Energy research satellite instrument, the Multispectral aerosol radiative forcing are known, the predictions of future global warming may remain unacceptably high

32

RCP4.5: A Pathway for Stabilization of Radiative Forcing by 2100  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 is a scenario that stabilizes radiative forcing at 4.5 W m{sup -2} in the year 2100 without ever exceeding that value. Simulated with the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), RCP4.5 includes long-term, global emissions of greenhouse gases, short-lived species, and land-use-land-cover in a global economic framework. RCP4.5 was updated from earlier GCAM scenarios to incorporate historical emissions and land cover information common to the RCP process and follows a cost-minimizing pathway to reach the target radiative forcing. The imperative to limit emissions in order to reach this target drives changes in the energy system, including shifts to electricity, to lower emissions energy technologies and to the deployment of carbon capture and geologic storage technology. In addition, the RCP4.5 emissions price also applies to land use emissions; as a result, forest lands expand from their present day extent. The simulated future emissions and land use were downscaled from the regional simulation to a grid to facilitate transfer to climate models. While there are many alternative pathways to achieve a radiative forcing level of 4.5 W m{sup -2}, the application of the RCP4.5 provides a common platform for climate models to explore the climate system response to stabilizing the anthropogenic components of radiative forcing.

Thomson, Allison M.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Smith, Steven J.; Kyle, G. Page; Volke, April C.; Patel, Pralit L.; Delgado Arias, Sabrina; Bond-Lamberty, Benjamin; Wise, Marshall A.; Clarke, Leon E.; Edmonds, James A.

2011-07-29T23:59:59.000Z

33

JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

JP2.3 CLOUD RADIATIVE HEATING RATE FORCING FROM PROFILES OF RETRIEVED ARCTIC CLOUD MICROPHYSICS surface. In 1997-1998, a large multi-agency effort made the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA with the ice pack in the Beaufort and Chukchi Seas for one year. Surface-based remote sensors generated

Shupe, Matthew

34

Modeling dust as component minerals in the Community Atmosphere Model: development of framework and impact on radiative forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The mineralogy of desert dust is important due to its effect on radiation, clouds and biogeochemical cycling of trace nutrients. This study presents the simulation of dust radiative forcing as a function of both mineral composition and size at the global scale using mineral soil maps for estimating emissions. Externally mixed mineral aerosols in the bulk aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 4 (CAM4) and internally mixed mineral aerosols in the modal aerosol module in the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 (CAM5) embedded in the Community Earth System Model version 1.0.5 (CESM) are speciated into common mineral components in place of total dust. The simulations with mineralogy are compared to available observations of mineral atmospheric distribution and deposition along with observations of clear-sky radiative forcing efficiency. Based on these simulations, we estimate the all-sky direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere as +0.05Wm?2 for both CAM4 and CAM5 simulations with mineralogy and compare this both with simulations of dust in release versions of CAM4 and CAM5 (+0.08 and +0.17Wm?2) and of dust with optimized optical properties, wet scavenging and particle size distribution in CAM4 and CAM5, ?0.05 and ?0.17Wm?2, respectively. The ability to correctly include the mineralogy of dust in climate models is hindered by its spatial and temporal variability as well as insufficient global in-situ observations, incomplete and uncertain source mineralogies and the uncertainties associated with data retrieved from remote sensing methods.

Scanza, Rachel; Mahowald, N.; Ghan, Steven J.; Zender, C. S.; Kok, J. F.; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Y.; Albani, Samuel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

35

Direct aperture optimization for online adaptive radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper is the first investigation of using direct aperture optimization (DAO) for online adaptive radiation therapy (ART). A geometrical model representing the anatomy of a typical prostate case was created. To simulate interfractional deformations, four different anatomical deformations were created by systematically deforming the original anatomy by various amounts (0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 cm). We describe a series of techniques where the original treatment plan was adapted in order to correct for the deterioration of dose distribution quality caused by the anatomical deformations. We found that the average time needed to adapt the original plan to arrive at a clinically acceptable plan is roughly half of the time needed for a complete plan regeneration, for all four anatomical deformations. Furthermore, through modification of the DAO algorithm the optimization search space was reduced and the plan adaptation was significantly accelerated. For the first anatomical deformation (0.25 cm), the plan adaptation was six times more efficient than the complete plan regeneration. For the 0.50 and 0.75 cm deformations, the optimization efficiency was increased by a factor of roughly 3 compared to the complete plan regeneration. However, for the anatomical deformation of 1.00 cm, the reduction of the optimization search space during plan adaptation did not result in any efficiency improvement over the original (nonmodified) plan adaptation. The anatomical deformation of 1.00 cm demonstrates the limit of this approach. We propose an innovative approach to online ART in which the plan adaptation and radiation delivery are merged together and performed concurrently--adaptive radiation delivery (ARD). A fundamental advantage of ARD is the fact that radiation delivery can start almost immediately after image acquisition and evaluation. Most of the original plan adaptation is done during the radiation delivery, so the time spent adapting the original plan does not increase the overall time the patient has to spend on the treatment couch. As a consequence, the effective time allotted for plan adaptation is drastically reduced. For the 0.25, 0.5, and 0.75 cm anatomical deformations, the treatment time was increased by only 2, 4, and 6 s, respectively, as compared to no plan adaptation. For the anatomical deformation of 1.0 cm the time increase was substantially larger. The anatomical deformation of 1.0 cm represents an extreme case, which is rarely observed for the prostate, and again demonstrates the limit of this approach. ARD shows great potential for an online adaptive method with minimal extension of treatment time.

Mestrovic, Ante; Milette, Marie-Pierre; Nichol, Alan; Clark, Brenda G.; Otto, Karl [Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada and Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada) and Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna, British Columbia (Canada); Department of Radiation Oncology, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Medical Physics, Ottawa Hospital Regional Cancer Centre, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Medical Physics, BC Cancer Agency-Vancouver Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada)

2007-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

36

Global Distribution and Climate Forcing of Marine Organic Aerosol - Part 2: Effects on Cloud Properties and Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A series of simulations with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a 7-mode Modal Aerosol Model were conducted to assess the changes in cloud microphysical properties and radiative forcing resulting from marine organic aerosols. Model simulations show that the anthropogenic aerosol indirect forcing (AIF) predicted by CAM5 is decreased in absolute magnitude by up to 0.09 Wm{sup -2} (7 %) when marine organic aerosols are included. Changes in the AIF from marine organic aerosols are associated with small global increases in low-level incloud droplet number concentration and liquid water path of 1.3 cm{sup -3} (1.5 %) and 0.22 gm{sup -2} (0.5 %), respectively. Areas especially sensitive to changes in cloud properties due to marine organic aerosol include the Southern Ocean, North Pacific Ocean, and North Atlantic Ocean, all of which are characterized by high marine organic emission rates. As climate models are particularly sensitive to the background aerosol concentration, this small but non-negligible change in the AIF due to marine organic aerosols provides a notable link for ocean-ecosystem marine low-level cloud interactions and may be a candidate for consideration in future earth system models.

Gantt, Brett; Xu, Jun; Meskhidze, N.; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios; Ghan, Steven J.; Liu, Xiaohong; Easter, Richard C.; Zaveri, Rahul A.

2012-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

37

Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

Hull, J.R.; Schertz, W.W.

1985-06-27T23:59:59.000Z

38

Passive-solar directional-radiating cooling system  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiative cooling system for use with an ice-making system having a radiating surface aimed at the sky for radiating energy at one or more wavelength bands for which the atmosphere is transparent and a cover thermally isolated from the radiating surface and transparent at least to the selected wavelength or wavelengths, the thermal isolation reducing the formation of condensation on the radiating surface and/or cover and permitting the radiation to continue when the radiating surface is below the dewpoint of the atmosphere, and a housing supporting the radiating surface, cover and heat transfer means to an ice storage reservoir.

Hull, John R. (Hinsdale, IL); Schertz, William W. (Batavia, IL)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

39

Three-wire magnetic trap for direct forced evaporative cooling Shengwang Du1,* and Eun Oh2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Three-wire magnetic trap for direct forced evaporative cooling Shengwang Du1,* and Eun Oh2 1 Kong, China 2 U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Remote Sensing Division, Washington, D.C. 20375, USA potential for direct forced evaporative cooling of neutral atoms without using induced spin

Du, Shengwang

40

Scenarios of Future Socio-Economics, Energy, Land Use, and Radiative Forcing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This chapter explores uncertainty in future scenarios of energy, land use, emissions and radiative forcing that span the range in the literature for radiative forcing, but also consider uncertainty in two other dimensions, challenges to mitigation and challenges to adaptation. We develop a set of six scenarios that we explore in detail including the underlying the context in which they are set, assumptions that drive the scenarios, the Global Change Assessment Model (GCAM), used to produce quantified implications for those assumptions, and results for the global energy and land-use systems as well as emissions, concentrations and radiative forcing. We also describe the history of scenario development and the present state of development of this branch of climate change research. We discuss the implications of alternative social, economic, demographic, and technology development possibilities, as well as potential stabilization regimes for the supply of and demand for energy, the choice of energy technologies, and prices of energy and agricultural commodities. Land use and land cover will also be discussed with the emphasis on the interaction between the demand for bioenergy and crops, crop yields, crop prices, and policy settings to limit greenhouse gas emissions.

Eom, Jiyong; Moss, Richard H.; Edmonds, James A.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Dooley, James J.; Kim, Son H.; Kopp, Roberrt; Kyle, G. Page; Luckow, Patrick W.; Patel, Pralit L.; Thomson, Allison M.; Wise, Marshall A.; Zhou, Yuyu

2013-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, July--September 1993: Volume 13, No. 3  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the third quarter of 1993.

Struckmeyer, R.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

42

Direct determination of the local Hamaker constant of inorganic surfaces based on scanning force microscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The energetics involved in the bonding fluctuations between nanometer-sized silicon dioxide (SiO{sub 2}) probes and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and molybdenum disulfide (MoS{sub 2}) could be quantified directly and locally on the submicron scale via a time-temperature superposition analysis of the lateral forces between scanning force microscopy silicon dioxide probes and inorganic sample surfaces. The so-called “intrinsic friction analysis” (IFA) provided direct access to the Hamaker constants for HOPG and MoS{sub 2}, as well as the control sample, calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}). The use of scanning probe enables nanoscopic analysis of bonding fluctuations, thereby overcoming challenges associated with larger scale inhomogeneity and surface roughness common to conventional techniques used to determine surface free energies and dielectric properties. A complementary numerical analysis based on optical and electron energy loss spectroscopy and the Lifshitz quantum electrodynamic theory of van der Waals interactions is provided and confirms quantitatively the IFA results.

Krajina, Brad A.; Kocherlakota, Lakshmi S.; Overney, René M., E-mail: roverney@u.washington.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195-1750 (United States)

2014-10-28T23:59:59.000Z

43

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS: ESTIMATES BASED ON IN-SITU CHEMICAL AND OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELING, for United States Government purposes. #12;AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC

44

Relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo, and new surface-based approach for determining cloud albedo  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This paper focuses on three interconnected topics: (1) quantitative relationship between surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo; (2) surface-based approach for measuring cloud albedo; (3) multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations of surface shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. An analytical expression is first derived to quantify the relationship between cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction, and cloud albedo. The analytical expression is then used to deduce a new approach for inferring cloud albedo from concurrent surface-based measurements of downwelling surface shortwave radiation and cloud fraction. High-resolution decade-long data on cloud albedos are obtained by use of this surface-based approach over the US Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiaton Measurement (ARM) Program at the Great Southern Plains (SGP) site. The surface-based cloud albedos are further compared against those derived from the coincident GOES satellite measurements. The three long-term (1997-2009) sets of hourly data on shortwave cloud radiative forcing, cloud fraction and cloud albedo collected over the SGP site are analyzed to explore the multiscale (diurnal, annual and inter-annual) variations and covariations. The analytical formulation is useful for diagnosing deficiencies of cloud-radiation parameterizations in climate models.

Liu, Y.; Wu, W.; Jensen, M. P.; Toto, T.

2011-07-21T23:59:59.000Z

45

State-Space Realization of the Wave-Radiation Force within FAST: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Several methods have been proposed in the literature to find a state-space model for the wave-radiation forces. In this paper, four methods were compared, two in the frequency domain and two in the time domain. The frequency-response function and the impulse response of the resulting state-space models were compared against the ones derived by the numerical code WAMIT. The implementation of the state-space module within the FAST offshore wind turbine computer-aided engineering (CAE) tool was verified, comparing the results against the previously implemented numerical convolution method. The results agreed between the two methods, with a significant reduction in required computational time when using the state-space module.

Duarte, T.; Sarmento, A.; Alves, M.; Jonkman, J.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

46

Regional Modeling of Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing over East Asia using WRF-Chem  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Weather Research and Forecasting model with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) is used to investigate the seasonal and annual variations of mineral dust over East Asia during 2007-2011, with a focus on the dust mass balance and radiative forcing. A variety of measurements from in-stu and satellite observations have been used to evaluate simulation results. Generally, WRF-Chem reproduces not only the column variability but also the vertical profile and size distribution of mineral dust over and near the dust source regions of East Asia. We investigate the dust lifecycle and the factors that control the seasonal and spatial variations of dust mass balance and radiative forcing over the seven sub-regions of East Asia, i.e. source regions, the Tibetan Plateau, Northern China, Southern China, the ocean outflow region, and Korea-Japan regions. Results show that, over the source regions, transport and dry deposition are the two dominant sinks. Transport contributes to ~30% of the dust sink over the source regions. Dust results in a surface cooling of up to -14 and -10 W m-2, atmospheric warming of up to 20 and 15 W m-2, and TOA cooling of -5 and -8 W m-2 over the two major dust source regions of East Asia, respectively. Over the Tibetan Plateau, transport is the dominant source with a peak in summer. Over identified outflow regions, maximum dust mass loading in spring is contributed by the transport. Dry and wet depositions are the comparably dominant sinks, but wet deposition is larger than dry deposition over the Korea-Japan region, particularly in spring (70% versus 30%). The WRF-Chem simulations can generally capture the measured features of dust aerosols and its radaitve properties and dust mass balance over East Asia, which provides confidence for use in further investigation of dust impact on climate over East Asia.

Chen, Siyu; Zhao, Chun; Qian, Yun; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Huang, J.; Huang, Zhongwei; Bi, Jianrong; Zhang, Wu; Shi, Jinsen; Yang, Lei; Li, Deshuai; Li, Jinxin

2014-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

47

Apparatuses and method for converting electromagnetic radiation to direct current  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An energy conversion device may include a first antenna and a second antenna configured to generate an AC current responsive to incident radiation, at least one stripline, and a rectifier coupled with the at least one stripline along a length of the at least one stripline. An energy conversion device may also include an array of nanoantennas configured to generate an AC current in response to receiving incident radiation. Each nanoantenna of the array includes a pair of resonant elements, and a shared rectifier operably coupled to the pair of resonant elements, the shared rectifier configured to convert the AC current to a DC current. The energy conversion device may further include a bus structure operably coupled with the array of nanoantennas and configured to receive the DC current from the array of nanoantennas and transmit the DC current away from the array of nanoantennas.

Kotter, Dale K; Novack, Steven D

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

48

Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active regions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to connect the energy re- lease process with the acceleration of electrons in solar flares, using a CA modelParticle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex, FRANCE Abstract The acceleration and radiation of solar energetic particles

Anastasiadis, Anastasios

49

Significant aerosol direct radiative effects during a pollution episode in northern China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Significant aerosol direct radiative effects during a pollution episode in northern China J. Liu,1 during a heavy pollution episode that occurred in October 2004 over northern China are explored , resulting in solar heating of the atmosphere on the order of 300 WmÀ2 . Solar radiation reflected

Li, Zhanqing

50

Multi-Dimensional Broadband IR Radiative Forcing of Marine Stratocumulus in a Large Eddy Simulation Model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In order to address the interactive and evolutionary nature of the cloud-radiation interaction, we have coupled to a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model the sophisticated multi-dimensional radiative transfer (MDRT) scheme of Evans (Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method; 1998). Because of computational expense, we are at this time only able to run 2D experiments. Preliminary runs consider only the broadband longwave component, in large part because IR cloud top cooling is the significant forcing mechanism for marine stratocumulus. Little difference is noted in the evolution of unbroken stratocumulus between three-hour runs using MDRT and independent pixel approximation (IPA) for 2D domains of 50 km in the horizontal and 1.5 km in the vertical. Local heating rates differ slightly near undulating regions of cloud top, and a slight bias in mean heating rate from 1 to 3 h is present, yet the differences are never strong enough to result in a pronounced evolutionary bias in typical boundary layer metrics (e.g. inversion height, vertical velocity variance, TKE). Longer integration times may eventually produce a physical response to the bias in radiative cooling rates. A low-CCN case, designed to produce significant drizzle and induce cloud breakup does show subtle differences between MDRT and IPA. Over the course of the 6 hour simulations, entrainment is slightly less in the MDRT case, and the transition to the surface-based trade cumulus regime is delayed. Mean cooling rates appear systematically weaker in the MDRT case, indicative of a less energetic PBL and reflected in profiles of vertical velocity variance and TKE.

Mechem, David B.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Kogan, Y. L.; Davis, Anthony B; Cahalan, Robert F.; Takara, Ezra E.; Ellingson, Robert G.

2002-06-03T23:59:59.000Z

51

The relative contributions of radiative forcing and internal climate variability to the late 20th Century winter drying  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of anthropogenic climate change and internal climate variability in causing the Mediterranean region's late 20th Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment Report. The observed drying was influenced by the robustThe relative contributions of radiative forcing and internal climate variability to the late 20th

52

Uncertainty in Modeling Dust Mass Balance and Radiative Forcing from Size Parameterization  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study examines the uncertainties in simulating mass balance and radiative forcing of mineral dust due to biases in the aerosol size parameterization. Simulations are conducted quasi-globally (180oW-180oE and 60oS-70oN) using the WRF24 Chem model with three different approaches to represent aerosol size distribution (8-bin, 4-bin, and 3-mode). The biases in the 3-mode or 4-bin approaches against a relatively more accurate 8-bin approach in simulating dust mass balance and radiative forcing are identified. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach simulates similar but coarser size distributions of dust particles in the atmosphere, while the 3-mode pproach retains more fine dust particles but fewer coarse dust particles due to its prescribed og of each mode. Although the 3-mode approach yields up to 10 days longer dust mass lifetime over the remote oceanic regions than the 8-bin approach, the three size approaches produce similar dust mass lifetime (3.2 days to 3.5 days) on quasi-global average, reflecting that the global dust mass lifetime is mainly determined by the dust mass lifetime near the dust source regions. With the same global dust emission (~6000 Tg yr-1), the 8-bin approach produces a dust mass loading of 39 Tg, while the 4-bin and 3-mode approaches produce 3% (40.2 Tg) and 25% (49.1 Tg) higher dust mass loading, respectively. The difference in dust mass loading between the 8-bin approach and the 4-bin or 3-mode approaches has large spatial variations, with generally smaller relative difference (<10%) near the surface over the dust source regions. The three size approaches also result in significantly different dry and wet deposition fluxes and number concentrations of dust. The difference in dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) (a factor of 3) among the three size approaches is much larger than their difference (25%) in dust mass loading. Compared to the 8-bin approach, the 4-bin approach yields stronger dust absorptivity, while the 3-mode approach yields weaker dust absorptivity. Overall, on quasi-global average, the three size parameterizations result in a significant difference of a factor of 2~3 in dust surface cooling (-1.02~-2.87 W m-2) and atmospheric warming (0.39~0.96 W m-2) and in a tremendous difference of a factor of ~10 in dust TOA cooling (-0.24~-2.20 W m-2). An uncertainty of a factor of 2 is quantified in dust emission estimation due to the different size parameterizations. This study also highlights the uncertainties in modeling dust mass and number loading, deposition fluxes, and radiative forcing resulting from different size parameterizations, and motivates further investigation of the impact of size parameterizations on modeling dust impacts on air quality, climate, and ecosystem.

Zhao, Chun; Chen, Siyu; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Qian, Yun; Kok, Jasper; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Huang, J.

2013-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

53

Direct observation of electron emission from the grain boundaries of chemical vapour deposition diamond films by tunneling atomic force microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.1063/1.3475506 Direct observation of electron emission site on boron-doped polycrystalline diamond thin films using or energy harvesting devices. Electron emission studies usually use doped polycrystalline diamond films observation of the emission sites over a large area of polycrystalline diamond using tunneling atomic force

Bristol, University of

54

Direct and semi-direct radiative effects of anthropogenic aerosols in the Western United States: Seasonal  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a regional climate model (RCM) in conjunction with the aerosol fields from a GEOS-Chem chemical- transport emissions and the seasonal low-level winds. The RCM-simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative effects vary, respectively, following the seasonal AOD. In Arizona-New Mexico (AZNM), the effect of anthropogenic sulfates

Liou, K. N.

55

Direct Detector for Terahertz Radiation - Energy Innovation Portal  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape,PhysicsDileepDirac ChargeDirect

56

Analysis of global radiation budgets and cloud forcing using three-dimensional cloud nephanalysis data base. Master's thesis  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A one-dimensional radiative transfer model was used to compute the global radiative budget at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) and the surface for January and July. 1979. The model was also used to determine the global cloud radiative forcing for all clouds and for high and low cloud layers. In the computations. the authors used the monthly cloud data derived from the Air Force Three-Dimensional Cloud Nephanalysis (3DNEPH). These data were used in conjunction with conventional temperature and humidity profiles analyzed during the 1979 First GARP (Global Atmospheric Research Program) Global Experiment (FGGE) year. Global surface albedos were computed from available data and were included in the radiative transfer analysis. Comparisons of the model-produced outgoing solar and infrared fluxes with those derived from Nimbus 7 Earth Radiation Budget (ERS) data were made to validate the radiative model and cloud cover. For reflected solar and emitted infrared (IR) flux, differences within 20 w/sq m meters were shown.

Mitchell, B.

1990-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Directed Self-Assembly at the 10 nm Scale by Using Capillary Force-Induced Nanocohesion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We demonstrated a new nanoassembly strategy based on capillary force-induced cohesion of high-aspect ratio nanostructures made by electron-beam lithography. Using this strategy, ordered complex pattern were fabricated from ...

Duan, Huigao

58

O{sub 3} and stratospheric H{sub 2}O radiative forcing resulting from a supersonic jet transport emission scenario  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The tropospheric radiative forcing has been calculated for ozone and water vapor perturbations caused by a realistic High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) aircraft emission scenario. Atmospheric profiles of water vapor and ozone were obtained using the LLNL 2-D chemical-radiative-transport model (CRT) of the global troposphere and stratosphere. IR radiative forcing calculations were made with the LLNL correlated k-distribution radiative transfer model. UV-Visible-Near IR radiative forcing calculations were made with the LLNL two stream solar radiation model. For the case of water vapor the IR and Near IR radiative forcing was determined at five different latitudes and then averaged using an appropriate latitudinal average to obtain the global average value. Global average values of radiative forcing were approximately 1.2--2.6 10{sup {minus}3} W/m{sup 2}, depending on the background atmospheric water vapor profile. This result is consistent with prior published values for a similar aircraft scenario and supports the conclusion that the water vapor climate forcing effect is very small. The radiative forcing in the IR and UV-Visible spectral ranges, due to the ozone perturbation, was calculated for the globally averaged atmosphere. Global average values of the radiative forcing were 0.034 W/m{sup 2} for the UV-Visible spectral range and 0.006 W/m{sup 2} for the IR spectral range (0.04 W/m{sup 2} total). This result is also consistent with the range of published values obtained for a similar HSCT scenario. As was the case for water vapor, the ozone forcing is too small to be of major consequence.

Grossman, A.S.; Kinnison, D.E.; Penner, J.E.; Grant, K.E.; Tamaresis, J.; Connell, P.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States). Atmospheric Science Research Div.

1996-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

WRF-Chem Simulations of Aerosols and Anthropogenic Aerosol Radiative Forcing in East Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study aims to provide a first comprehensive evaluation of WRF-Chem for modeling aerosols and anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing (RF) over East Asia. Several numerical experiments were conducted from November 2007 to December 2008. Comparison between model results and observations shows that the model can generally reproduce the observed spatial distributions of aerosol concentration, aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo (SSA) from measurements at different sites, including the relatively higher aerosol concentration and AOD over East China and the relatively lower AOD over Southeast Asia, Korean, and Japan. The model also depicts the seasonal variation and transport of pollutions over East Asia. Particulate matter of 10 um or less in the aerodynamic diameter (PM10), black carbon (BC), sulfate (SO42-), nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations are higher in spring than other seasons in Japan due to the pollutant transport from polluted area of East Asia. AOD is high over Southwest and Central China in winter, spring and autumn and over North China in summer while is low over South China in summer due to monsoon precipitation. SSA is lowest in winter and highest in summer. The model also captures the dust events at the Zhangye site in the semi-arid region of China. Anthropogenic aerosol RF is estimated to range from -5 to -20 W m-2 over land and -20 to -40 W m-2 over ocean at the top of atmosphere (TOA), 5 to 30 W m-2 in the atmosphere (ATM) and -15 to -40 W m-2 at the bottom (BOT). The warming effect of anthropogenic aerosol in ATM results from BC aerosol while the negative aerosol RF at TOA is caused by scattering aerosols such as SO4 2-, NO3 - and NH4+. Positive BC RF at TOA compensates 40~50% of the TOA cooling associated with anthropogenic aerosol.

Gao, Yi; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhang, Meigen; Leung, Lai-Yung R.

2014-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

60

Dynamic Effects on the Tropical Cloud Radiative Forcing and Radiation Budget JIAN YUAN, DENNIS L. HARTMANN, AND ROBERT WOOD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the tropics, using the methodology suggested by Bony et al. Cloud and radiation budget quantities source of uncertainty in pre- dicting future climate (Cess et al. 2001b; Stephens 2005; Solomon et al

Wood, Robert

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Correlation between present-day model simulation of Arctic cloud radiative forcing and sea ice consistent with positive winter convective cloud feedback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A positive feedback on winter sea-ice loss, based on warming due to radiative forcing caused by the onset of convective clouds in response to sea-ice loss, has recently been proposed. This feedback has thus far been ...

Emanuel, Kerry Andrew

62

Modelling of long-range transport of Southeast Asia biomass-burning aerosols to Taiwan and their radiative forcings over East Asia  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and air pollutants during the springtime in Southeast Asia. At Lulin mountain background station (elevation 2862 m) in Taiwan, the concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3) and particulate matter particles with diameter less than 10 ?m (PM10), were measured around 150-250 ppb, 40-60 ppb, and 10-30?g/m3, respectively at spring time (February-April) during 2006 and 2009, which are about 2~3 times higher than those in other seasons. Observations and simulation results indicate that the higher concentrations during the spring time are clearly related to biomass burning plumes transported from the Indochina Peninsula of Southeast Asia. The spatial distribution of high aerosols optical depth (AOD) were identified by the satellite measurement and Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) ground observation, and could be reasonably captured by the WRF-Chem model during the study period of 15-18 March, 2008. AOD reached as high as 0.8-1.0 in Indochina ranging from 10 to 22°N and 95 to 107°E. Organic carbon (OC) is a major contributor of AOD over Indochina according to simulation results. The contributor of AOD from black carbon (BC) is minor when compared with OC over the Indochina. However, the direct absorption radiative forcing of BC in the atmosphere could reach 35-50 W m-2, which is about 8-10 times higher than that of OC. The belt shape of radiation reduction at surface from Indochina to Taiwan could be as high 20-40 W m-2 during the study period. The implication of the radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and their impact on the regional climate in East Asia is our major concern.

Lin, Chuan-Yao; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Xiaohong; Lin, Neng-Huei; Chen, Wei-Nei

2014-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

63

An experimental apparatus for study of direct {\\beta}-radiation conversion for energy harvesting  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This paper introduces the development and testing of an experimental apparatus for characterization of a direct charging nuclear battery. The battery consists of a parallel-plates capacitor which is charged in a vacuum by the current of {\\beta}-radiation particles (electrons) emitted from a radioisotope. A 63Ni radioisotope with an activity of 15mCi that produces a 20pA current was selected as the radiation source. The apparatus is unique in its design, having ultra-low leakage current and a few options for charge measurements. Preliminary results of a few tests are presented to demonstrate the capabilities of the apparatus.

Haim, Y; deBotton, G

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

64

Axial and transverse acoustic radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in Bessel beam standing wave tweezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The axial and transverse radiation forces on a fluid sphere placed arbitrarily in the acoustical field of Bessel beams of standing waves are evaluated. The three-dimensional components of the time-averaged force are expressed in terms of the beam-shape coefficients of the incident field and the scattering coefficients of the fluid sphere using a partial-wave expansion (PWE) method. Examples are chosen for which the standing wave field is composed of either a zero-order (non-vortex) Bessel beam, or a first-order Bessel vortex beam. It is shown here, that both transverse and axial forces can push or pull the fluid sphere to an equilibrium position depending on the chosen size parameter ka (where k is the wave-number and a the sphere’s radius). The corresponding results are of particular importance in biophysical applications for the design of lab-on-chip devices operating with Bessel beams standing wave tweezers. Moreover, potential investigations in acoustic levitation and related applications in particle rotation in a vortex beam may benefit from the results of this study. -- Highlights: •The axial and transverse forces on a fluid sphere in acoustical Bessel beams tweezers are evaluated. •The attraction or repulsion to an equilibrium position in the standing wave field is examined. •Potential applications are in particle manipulation using standing waves.

Mitri, F.G., E-mail: mitri@chevron.com

2014-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

65

Comparison of Direct Normal Irradiance Derived from Silicon and Thermopile Global Hemispherical Radiation Detectors: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Concentrating solar applications utilize direct normal irradiance (DNI) radiation, a measurement rarely available. The solar concentrator industry has begun to deploy numerous measurement stations to prospect for suitable system deployment sites. Rotating shadowband radiometers (RSR) using silicon photodiodes as detectors are typically deployed. This paper compares direct beam estimates from RSR to a total hemispherical measuring radiometer (SPN1) multiple fast thermopiles. These detectors simultaneously measure total and diffuse radiation from which DNI can be computed. Both the SPN1 and RSR-derived DNI are compared to DNI measured with thermopile pyrheliometers. Our comparison shows that the SPN1 radiometer DNI estimated uncertainty is somewhat greater than, and on the same order as, the RSR DNI estimates for DNI magnitudes useful to concentrator technologies.

Myers, D. R.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

66

Direct and sequential radiative three-body reaction rates at low temperatures  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the low-temperature reaction rates for radiative capture processes of three particles. We compare direct and sequential capture mechanisms and rates using realistic phenomenological parametrizations of the corresponding photodissociation cross sections.Energy conservation prohibits sequential capture for energies smaller than that of the intermediate two-body structure. A finite width or a finite temperature allows this capture mechanism. We study generic effects of positions and widths of two- and three-body resonances for very low temperatures. We focus on nuclear reactions relevant for astrophysics, and we illustrate with realistic estimates for the $\\alpha$-$\\alpha$-$\\alpha$ and $\\alpha$-$\\alpha$-$n$ radiative capture processes. The direct capture mechanism leads to reaction rates which for temperatures smaller than 0.1 GK can be several orders of magnitude larger than those of the NACRE compilation.

E. Garrido; R. de Diego; D. V. Fedorov; A. S. Jensen

2011-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

67

Study of cloud properties from single-scattering, radiative forcing, and retrieval perspectives  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This dissertation reports on three different yet related topics in light scattering computation, radiative transfer simulation, and remote sensing implementation, regarding the cloud properties and the retrieval of cloud properties from satellite...

Lee, Yong-Keun

2009-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

68

Field comparisons of direct and component measurements of net radiation under clear skies  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Accurate measurements of net radiation are basic to all studies of the surface energy budget. In preparation for an energy budget experiment significant differences were found between direct and component measurement of net radiation, which prompted this investigation of their cause. The instruments involved were an all-black single-dome Fritschen-type net pyrradiometer, two Eppley model 8-48 pyranometers, and an Eppley model PIR pyrgeometer. Each had recently been calibrated. The accuracy of the component instruments was considered first. Comparisons of about one hour on each of three nights between the pyrgeometer and five empirical formulas showed that the average departure over all formulas from the pyrgeometer average was {minus}1%. Other comparisons between the pyrgeometer and an infrared thermometer viewing the surface yielded similar results. Alternate shading and unshading of the pyrgeometer looking upward during daytime resulted in a formula that was used to correct the downward longwave radiation under clear skies. The correction is dependent on wind speed, in contrast to a recent paper showing negligible dependence, but is in accord with earlier findings. Based on manufacturer`s specifications, the pyranometer calibrations were considered to be within 2% of the World Radiation Reference. Thus a series of experiments was carried out using what were believed to be reasonably accurate component measurements of net radiation and measurements from the net pyrradiometer.

Duchon, C.L. [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Wilk, G.E. [National Weather Service, Corpus Christi, TX (United States)

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

On the sensitivity of radiative forcing from biomass burning aerosols and ozone to emission location  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to mitigate global climate change. Citation: Naik, V., D. L. Mauzerall, L. W. Horowitz, M. D. Schwarzkopf, V proposed as a control strategy for mitigating climate change [Jacobson, 2004]. Thorough investigation of the climate forcing response to changes in BB emissions is therefore needed to inform climate change policy

Mauzerall, Denise

70

Hydrothermal research and development assessment. Task Force report: projections for direct-heat applications  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Low and moderate temperature hydrothermal resources suitable for direct-heat applications have been identified in 37 states. The extent to which three resources might be used over the next 20 years were evaluated and the probable impact of Federal programs on hydrothermal resource utilization was assessed. The use types that comprise the bulk of the market were determined. Representative firms and municipalities were interviewed to determine their willingness to use hydrothermal energy, and to determine the investment decision criteria that would influence their actions. (MHR)

Not Available

1982-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Passive Lossless Huygens Metasurfaces for Conversion of Arbitrary Source Field to Directive Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a semi-analytical formulation of the interaction between a given source field and a scalar Huygens metasurface (HMS), a recently introduced promising concept for wavefront manipulation based on a sheet of orthogonal electric and magnetic dipoles. Utilizing the equivalent surface impedance representation of these metasurfaces, we establish that an arbitrary source field can be converted into directive radiation via a passive lossless HMS if two physical conditions are met: local power conservation and local impedance equalization. Expressing the fields via their plane-wave spectrum and harnessing the slowly-varying envelope approximation we obtain semi-analytical formulae for the scattered fields, and prescribe the surface reactance required for the metasurface implementation. The resultant design procedure indicates that the local impedance equalization induces a Fresnel-like reflection, while local power conservation forms a radiating virtual aperture which follows the total excitation field magni...

Epstein, Ariel

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

72

Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Development of African Easterly Waves in Late Summer, 2003-07  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Episodic events of both Saharan dust outbreaks and African easterly waves (AEWs) are observed to move westward over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between the warm, dry, and dusty Saharan air layer on the nearby storms has been the subject of considerable debate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model is used to investigate the radiative effect of dust on the development of AEWs during August and September, the months of maximumtropical cyclone activity, in years 2003–07. The simulations show that dust radiative forcing enhances the convective instability of the environment. As a result, mostAEWsintensify in the presence of a dust layer. The Lorenz energy cycle analysis reveals that the dust radiative forcing enhances the condensational heating, which elevates the zonal and eddy available potential energy. In turn, available potential energy is effectively converted to eddy kinetic energy, in which local convective overturning plays the primary role. The magnitude of the intensification effect depends on the initial environmental conditions, including moisture, baroclinity, and the depth of the boundary layer. The authors conclude that dust radiative forcing, albeit small, serves as a catalyst to promote local convection that facilitates AEW development.

Ma, Po-Lun; Zhang, Kai; Shi, Jainn Jong; Matsui, Toshihisa; Arking, Albert

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

73

Climate response and radiative forcing from mineral aerosols during the last glacial maximum, pre-industrial, current and doubled-carbon  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Climate response and radiative forcing from mineral aerosols during the last glacial maximum, pre-industrial, current and doubled-carbon dioxide climates Natalie M. Mahowald,1,2 Masaru Yoshioka,1,2 William D. Collins July 2006; accepted 9 August 2006; published 27 October 2006. [1] Mineral aerosol impacts on climate

Mahowald, Natalie

74

GPU-based ultra-fast direct aperture optimization for online adaptive radiation therapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Online adaptive radiation therapy (ART) has great promise to significantly reduce normal tissue toxicity and/or improve tumor control through real-time treatment adaptations based on the current patient anatomy. However, the major technical obstacle for clinical realization of online ART, namely the inability to achieve real-time efficiency in treatment re-planning, has yet to be solved. To overcome this challenge, this paper presents our work on the implementation of an intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) direct aperture optimization (DAO) algorithm on graphics processing unit (GPU) based on our previous work on CPU. We formulate the DAO problem as a large-scale convex programming problem, and use an exact method called column generation approach to deal with its extremely large dimensionality on GPU. Five 9-field prostate and five 5-field head-and-neck IMRT clinical cases with 5\\times5 mm2 beamlet size and 2.5\\times2.5\\times2.5 mm3 voxel size were used to evaluate our algorithm on GPU. It takes onl...

Men, Chunhua; Jiang, Steve B

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

75

Meeting the Radiative Forcing Targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways in a World with Agricultural Climate Impacts  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This study assesses how climate impacts on agriculture may change the evolution of the agricultural and energy systems in meeting the end-of-century radiative forcing targets of the Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). We build on the recently completed ISI-MIP exercise that has produced global gridded estimates of future crop yields for major agricultural crops using climate model projections of the RCPs from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5). For this study we use the bias-corrected outputs of the HadGEM2-ES climate model as inputs to the LPJmL crop growth model, and the outputs of LPJmL to modify inputs to the GCAM integrated assessment model. Our results indicate that agricultural climate impacts generally lead to an increase in global cropland, as compared with corresponding emissions scenarios that do not consider climate impacts on agricultural productivity. This is driven mostly by negative impacts on wheat, rice, other grains, and oil crops. Still, including agricultural climate impacts does not significantly increase the costs or change the technological strategies of global, whole-system emissions mitigation. In fact, to meet the most aggressive climate change mitigation target (2.6 W/m2 in 2100), the net mitigation costs are slightly lower when agricultural climate impacts are considered. Key contributing factors to these results are (a) low levels of climate change in the low-forcing scenarios, (b) adaptation to climate impacts, simulated in GCAM through inter-regional shifting in the production of agricultural goods, and (c) positive average climate impacts on bioenergy crop yields.

Kyle, G. Page; Mueller, C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.

2014-02-28T23:59:59.000Z

76

A Sensitivity Study on Modeling Black Carbon in Snow and its Radiative Forcing over the Arctic and Northern China  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Black carbon in snow (BCS) simulated in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) is evaluated against measurements over Northern China and the Arctic, and its sensitivity to atmospheric deposition and two parameters that affect post-depositional enrichment is explored. The BCS concentration is overestimated (underestimated) by a factor of two in Northern China (Arctic) in the default model, but agreement with observations is good over both regions in the simulation with improvements in BC transport and deposition. Sensitivity studies indicate that uncertainty in the melt-water scavenging efficiency (MSE) parameter substantially affects BCS and its radiative forcing (by a factor of 2-7) in the Arctic through post-depositional enrichment. The MSE parameter has a relatively small effect on the magnitude of BCS seasonal cycle but can alter its phase in Northern China. The impact of the snow aging scaling factor (SAF) on BCS, partly through the post-depositional enrichment effect, shows more complex latitudinal and seasonal dependence. Similar to MSE, SAF affects more significantly the magnitude (phase) of BCS season cycle over the Arctic (Northern China). While uncertainty associated with the representation of BC transport and deposition processes in CAM5 is more important than that associated with the two snow model parameters in Northern China, the two uncertainties have comparable effect in the Arctic.

Qian, Yun; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Rudong; Flanner, M. G.; Rasch, Philip J.

2014-06-02T23:59:59.000Z

77

Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 2: Long-term monitoring and modeling  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. This is the second volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. The first volume described the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. This second volume updates and completes the presentation of data to compare performance of fresh coatings with weathered coatings.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

1998-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

Directions  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Directions Where We Are Directions The Bradbury Science Museum is located at 1350 Central Avenue Los Alamos, NM 87544 Los Alamos (elevation 7,355 feet) is perched high atop the...

79

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect radiation response Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

12;Radiative Forcings: Shortwave Forcings... What about gases that affect the greenhouse effect? Radiative forcing for greenhouse gases: Instantly... ;Radiative Forcings In ......

80

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS: ESTIMATES BASED ON IN-SITU CHEMICAL AND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS: ESTIMATES BASED ON IN-SITU CHEMICAL AND OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS AND CHEMICAL TRANSPORT MODELING radiation, changing cloud properties and altering precipitation. The largest uncertainty in the radiative

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

E-Print Network 3.0 - aerosol direct radiative Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Transfer Encyclopedia of Atmospheric Science William D. Collins... system. Naturally occurring aerosols reflect some of the incident solar radiation back to space before... the...

82

Enhancing VHTR Passive Safety and Economy with Thermal Radiation Based Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The decay heat first is transferred to the core barrel by conduction and radiation, and then to the reactor vessel by thermal radiation and convection; finally the decay heat is transferred to natural circulated air or water systems. RVACS can be characterized as a surface based decay heat removal system. The RVACS is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to surface area). When the relative decay heat removal capability decreases, the peak fuel temperature increases, even close to the design limit. Annular core designs with inner graphite reflector can mitigate this effect; therefore can further increase the reactor power. Another way to increase the reactor power is to increase power density. However, the reactor power is also limited by the decay heat removal capability. Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environment side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions between the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power and power density can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper will introduce the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options will be discussed, depending on the cooling pipe locations. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations will be presented.

Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Ling Zou; Xiaodong Sun

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

ADVANCES IN ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES, VOL. 26, NO. 4, 2009, 748762 Climate Responses to Direct Radiative Forcing of Anthropogenic  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is internally mixed with other aerosols. Model results indicate that the simulated climate change over 1951 of Sciences, Beijing 100049 4 Climate Change Research Center (CCRC), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing model is applied in this work to compare climate responses to chang- ing concentrations of long

84

Predicting Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing over Mexico using WRF-chem: It Looks Right, But Its Wrong  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the1 - SeptemberMicroneedles for medical point ofPowerSaver ExemplaryPrecision

85

Direct  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape,PhysicsDileepDirac Charge Dynamcs inDirect

86

An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

array (MPA). The earliest work on an MPA related device for measuring diffuse sky radiation was performed in Finland by M. H2milllien et al. (1985). Further development on the MPA was performed in several countries including the United States where...

Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

87

Seeing the invisible: Direct visualization of therapeutic radiation beams using air scintillation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To assess whether air scintillation produced during standard radiation treatments can be visualized and used to monitor a beam in a nonperturbing manner. Methods: Air scintillation is caused by the excitation of nitrogen gas by ionizing radiation. This weak emission occurs predominantly in the 300–430 nm range. An electron-multiplication charge-coupled device camera, outfitted with an f/0.95 lens, was used to capture air scintillation produced by kilovoltage photon beams and megavoltage electron beams used in radiation therapy. The treatment rooms were prepared to block background light and a short-pass filter was utilized to block light above 440 nm. Results: Air scintillation from an orthovoltage unit (50 kVp, 30 mA) was visualized with a relatively short exposure time (10 s) and showed an inverse falloff (r{sup 2} = 0.89). Electron beams were also imaged. For a fixed exposure time (100 s), air scintillation was proportional to dose rate (r{sup 2} = 0.9998). As energy increased, the divergence of the electron beam decreased and the penumbra improved. By irradiating a transparent phantom, the authors also showed that Cherenkov luminescence did not interfere with the detection of air scintillation. In a final illustration of the capabilities of this new technique, the authors visualized air scintillation produced during a total skin irradiation treatment. Conclusions: Air scintillation can be measured to monitor a radiation beam in an inexpensive and nonperturbing manner. This physical phenomenon could be useful for dosimetry of therapeutic radiation beams or for online detection of gross errors during fractionated treatments.

Fahimian, Benjamin; Türkcan, Silvan; Kapp, Daniel S.; Pratx, Guillem, E-mail: pratx@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Ceballos, Andrew [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

2014-01-15T23:59:59.000Z

88

Protective Force Program Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, Protective Force Program, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Does not cancel other directives.

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

89

Materials and Processes for Direct Sun-to-Fuel Chemical Transformations Solar radiation can be used to drive heterogeneous electrochemical reactions at the  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Materials and Processes for Direct Sun-to-Fuel Chemical Transformations Solar radiation can be used and an efficient means for solar radiation delivery and trapping, poses a major challenge to the commercialization material with superior intrinsic properties, but a synergetic and intimately coupled combination of solar

Li, Mo

90

A Climatology of Midlatitude Continental Clouds from the ARM SGP Central Facility. Part II: Cloud Fraction and Surface Radiative Forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

at the Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility and for single-layered low (0­3 km), middle (3­6 km), and high clouds ( 6 km) using ARM SCF ground-based paired-looking standard precision spectral pyranometers and precision infrared radiometer measurements with uncertainties

Dong, Xiquan

91

Results of a direct search using synchrotron radiation for the low-energy $^{229}$Th nuclear isomeric transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the results of a direct search for the $^{229}$Th ($I^{p} = 3/2^+\\leftarrow 5/2^+$) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing $^{229}$Th-doped LiSrAlF$_6$ crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between $7.3 \\mbox{eV}$ and $8.8 \\mbox{eV}$ with transition lifetime $(1-2)\\mbox{s} \\lesssim \\tau \\lesssim (2000-5600)\\mbox{s}$. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

Jeet, Justin; Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A; Jenssen, H P; Tkalya, Eugene V; Hudson, Eric R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

92

Results of a direct search using synchrotron radiation for the low-energy $^{229}$Th nuclear isomeric transition  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We report the results of a direct search for the $^{229}$Th ($I^{p} = 3/2^+\\leftarrow 5/2^+$) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing $^{229}$Th-doped LiSrAlF$_6$ crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between $7.3 {eV}$ and $8.8 {eV}$ with transition lifetime $(1-2){s} \\lesssim \\tau \\lesssim (2000-5600){s}$. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

Justin Jeet; Christian Schneider; Scott T. Sullivan; Wade G. Rellergert; Saed Mirzadeh; A. Cassanho; H. P. Jenssen; Eugene V. Tkalya; Eric R. Hudson

2015-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

93

Electron acceleration and emission in a field of a plane and converging dipole wave of relativistic amplitudes with the radiation reaction force taken into account  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comparative analysis is performed of the electron emission characteristics as the electrons move in laser fields with ultra-relativistic intensity and different configurations corresponding to a plane or tightly focused wave. For a plane travelling wave, analytical expressions are derived for the emission characteristics, and it is shown that the angular distribution of the radiation intensity changes qualitatively even when the wave intensity is much less than that in the case of the radiation-dominated regime. An important conclusion is drawn that the electrons in a travelling wave tend to synchronised motion under the radiation reaction force. The characteristic features of the motion of electrons are found in a converging dipole wave, associated with the curvature of the phase front and nonuniformity of the field distribution. The values of the maximum achievable longitudinal momenta of electrons accelerated to the centre, as well as their distribution function are determined. The existence of quasi-periodic trajectories near the focal region of the dipole wave is shown, and the characteristics of the emission of both accelerated and oscillating electrons are analysed. (extreme light fields and their applications)

Bashinov, Aleksei V; Gonoskov, Arkady A; Kim, A V; Marklund, Mattias; Mourou, G; Sergeev, Aleksandr M

2013-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

94

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program Science Plan Current Status and Future Directions of the ARM Science Program  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program has matured into one of the key programs in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program. The ARM Program has achieved considerable scientific success in a broad range of activities, including site and instrument development, atmospheric radiative transfer, aerosol science, determination of cloud properties, cloud modeling, and cloud parameterization testing and development. The focus of ARM science has naturally shifted during the last few years to an increasing emphasis on modeling and parameterization studies to take advantage of the long time series of data now available. During the next 5 years, the principal focus of the ARM science program will be to: • Maintain the data record at the fixed ARM sites for at least the next five years. • Improve significantly our understanding of and ability to parameterize the 3-D cloud-radiation problem at scales from the local atmospheric column to the global climate model (GCM) grid square. • Continue developing techniques to retrieve the properties of all clouds, with a special focus on ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. • Develop a focused research effort on the indirect aerosol problem that spans observations, physical models, and climate model parameterizations. • Implement and evaluate an operational methodology to calculate broad-band heating rates in the atmospheric columns at the ARM sites. • Develop and implement methodologies to use ARM data more effectively to test atmospheric models, both at the cloud-resolving model scale and the GCM scale. • Use these methodologies to diagnose cloud parameterization performance and then refine these parameterizations to improve the accuracy of climate model simulations. In addition, the ARM Program is actively developing a new ARM Mobile Facility (AMF) that will be available for short deployments (several months to a year or more) in climatically important regions. The AMF will have much of the same instrumentation as the remote facilities at ARM’s Tropical Western Pacific and the North Slope of Alaska sites. Over time, this new facility will extend ARM science to a much broader range of conditions for model testing.

TP Ackerman; AD Del Genio; RG Ellingson; RA Ferrare; SA Klein; GM McFarquhar; PJ Lamb; CN Long; J Verlinde

2004-10-30T23:59:59.000Z

95

Can Radiative Forcing Be Limited to 2.6 Wm?2 Without Negative Emissions From Bioenergy AND CO2 Capture and Storage?  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Combining bioenergy and carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) technologies (BECCS) has the potential to remove CO2 from the atmosphere while producing useful energy. BECCS has played a central role in scenarios that reduce climate forcing to low levels such as 2.6Wm-2. In this paper we consider whether BECCS is essential to limiting radiative forcing (RF) to 2.6Wm-2 by 2100 using the Global Change Assessment Model, a closely coupled model of biogeophysical and human Earth systems. We show that BECCS can potentially reduce the cost of limiting RF to 2.6Wm-2 by 2100 but that a variety of technology combinations that do not include BECCS can also achieve this goal, under appropriate emissions mitigation policies. We note that with appropriate supporting land-use policies terrestrial sequestration could deliver carbon storage ranging from 200 to 700 PgCO2-equiavalent over the 21st century. We explore substantial delays in participation by some geopolitical regions. We find that the value of BECCS is substantially higher under delay and that delay results in higher transient RF and climate change. However, when major regions postponed mitigation indefinitely, it was impossible to return RF to 2.6Wm-2 by 2100. Neither finite land resources nor finite potential geologic storage capacity represented a meaningful technical limit on the ability of BECCS to contribute to emissions mitigation in the numerical experiments reported in this paper.

Edmonds, James A.; Luckow, Patrick W.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Wise, Marshall A.; Dooley, James J.; Kyle, G. Page; Kim, Son H.; Patel, Pralit L.; Clarke, Leon E.

2013-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base. Volume 1: Pre-coating monitoring and fresh coating results  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenses in the federal sector. One such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP), seeks to evaluate new energy-saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the US government. Through a partnership with a federal site, the utility serving the site, a manufacturer of an energy-related technology, and other organizations associated with these interests, DOE can evaluate a new technology. The results of the program give federal agency decision makers more hands-on information with which to validate a decision to utilize a new technology in their facilities. The partnership of these interests is secured through a cooperative research and development agreement (CRADA), in this case between Lockheed Martin Energy Research Corporation, the manager of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and ThermShield International, Ltd., the manufacturer of the technology. This is the first volume of a two-volume report that describes the effects of radiation control coatings installed on federal buildings at Tyndall Air Force Base (AFB) in Florida by ThermShield International. ORNL`s Buildings Technology Center (BTC) was assigned the responsibility for gathering, analyzing, and reporting on the data to describe the effects of the coatings. This volume describes the monitoring plan and its implementation, the results of pre-coating monitoring, the coating installation, results from fresh coatings compared to pre-coating results, and a plan to decommission the monitoring equipment. By including results from roofs at Tyndall AFB and from an outdoor test facility at the BTC, the data cover the range from poorly insulated to well-insulated roofs and two kinds of radiation control coatings on various roof membranes.

Petrie, T.W.; Childs, P.W.

1997-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

97

Observation of early shell-dopant mix in OMEGA direct-drive implosions and comparisons with radiation-hydrodynamic simulations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Temporally, spatially, and spectrally resolved x-ray image data from direct-drive implosions on OMEGA were interpreted with the aid of radiation-hydrodynamic simulations. Neither clean calculations nor those using a turbulent mix model can explain fully the observed migration of shell-dopant material (titanium) into the core. Shell-dopant migration was observed via time-dependent, spatially integrated spectra, and spatially and spectrally resolved x-ray images of capsule implosions and resultant dopant emissions. The titanium emission was centrally peaked in narrowband x-ray images. In post-processed clean simulations, the peak titanium emission forms in a ring in self-emission images as the capsule implodes. Post-processed simulations with mix reproduce trends in time-dependent, spatially integrated spectra, as well having centrally peaked Ti emission in synthetic multiple monochromatic imager. However, mix simulations still do not transport Ti to the core as is observed in the experiment. This suggests that phenomena in addition to the turbulent mix must be responsible for the transport of Ti. Simple diffusion estimates are unable to explain the early Ti mix into the core. Mechanisms suggested for further study are capsule surface roughness, illumination non-uniformity, and shock entrainment.

Baumgaertel, J. A.; Bradley, P. A.; Hsu, S. C.; Cobble, J. A.; Hakel, P.; Tregillis, I. L.; Krasheninnikova, N. S.; Murphy, T. J.; Schmitt, M. J.; Shah, R. C.; Obrey, K. D.; Batha, S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Johns, H.; Joshi, T.; Mayes, D.; Mancini, R. C.; Nagayama, T. [Physics Department, University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada 89557 (United States)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

98

Climate forcing Climate forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

parameters (solar distance factors) solar luminosity moon orbit volcanoes and other geothermal sources,000 years (large panels) and since 1750 (inset panels). Measurements are shown from ice cores (symbols forcings are shown on the right hand axes of the large panels. {Figure 6.4} !"#$#%&'(!&#)$&*$+#$,-.$/0

MacKinnon, Jennifer

99

Unbalanced electromagnetic forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) . I :, jazdz g (Member) (Member) August 1974 -" ~ 5:. -. 62 ABSTRACT Unbalanced Electromagnetic Forces (August 1974) Craig Martin Hansen, B. S. , Texas A&M University Directed by: Dr. Attilio J. Giaroia Electromagnetic forces from moving... be deduced from the history of the development of an under- standing of electromagnetic forces. This is a relatively short history (starting in the late 1800's) filled with misunderstandings and pre]udices. This history can be divided into two eras: non...

Hansen, Craig Martin

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

100

Direct Insertion of MODIS Radiances in a Global Aerosol Transport Model CLARK WEAVER,* ARLINDO DA SILVA, MIAN CHIN,# PAUL GINOUX,@ OLEG DUBOVIK,&,@@  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

is directly inserted into the Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation Transport model (GOCART), which aerosol radiative forcing in the thermody- namic equation of GCMs, 3) to account for the reduc- tionDirect Insertion of MODIS Radiances in a Global Aerosol Transport Model CLARK WEAVER,* ARLINDO DA

Chin, Mian

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

Measurements of the force fields within an acoustic standing wave using holographic optical tweezers  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Direct measurement of the forces experienced by micro-spheres in an acoustic standing wave device have been obtained using calibrated optical traps generated with holographic optical tweezers. A micro-sphere, which is optically trapped in three dimensions, can be moved through the acoustic device to measure forces acting upon it. When the micro-sphere is subjected to acoustic forces, it's equilibrium position is displaced to a position where the acoustic forces and optical forces are balanced. Once the optical trapping stiffness has been calibrated, observation of this displacement enables a direct measurement of the forces acting upon the micro-sphere. The measured forces are separated into a spatially oscillating component, attributed to the acoustic radiation force, and a constant force, attributed to fluid streaming. As the drive conditions of the acoustic device were varied, oscillating forces (>2.5 pN{sub pp}) and streaming forces (<0.2 pN) were measured. A 5??m silica micro-sphere was used to characterise a 6.8?MHz standing wave, ??=?220??m, to a spatial resolution limited by the uncertainty in the positioning of the micro-sphere (here to within 2?nm) and with a force resolution on the order of 10 fN. The results have application in the design and testing of acoustic manipulation devices.

Bassindale, P. G.; Drinkwater, B. W. [Faculty of Engineering, Queens building, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TR (United Kingdom); Phillips, D. B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Barnes, A. C. [Department of Physics, H.H.Wills Physics Laboratory, University of Bristol, Tyndall Avenue, Bristol BS8 1TL (United Kingdom)

2014-04-21T23:59:59.000Z

102

Estimating direct, diffuse, and global solar radiation for various cities in Iran by two methods and their comparison with the measured data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Two computational methods for calculating hourly, daily, and monthly average values of direct, diffuse, and global solar radiation on horizontal collectors have been presented in this article for location with different latitude, altitude, and atmospheric conditions in Iran. These methods were developed using two different independent sets of measured data from the Iranian Meteorological Organization (IMO) for two cities in Iran (Tehran and Isfahan) during 14 years of measurement for Tehran and 4 years of measurement for Isfahan. Comparison of calculated monthly average global solar radiation, using the two models for Tehran and Isfahan with measured data from the IMO, has indicated a good agreement between them. Then these developed methods were extended to another location (city of Bandar-Abbas), where measured data are not available. But the work of Daneshyar predicts its monthly global radiation. The maximum discrepancy of 7% between the developed models and the work of Daneshyar was observed.

Ashjaee, M.; Roomina, M.R.; Ghafouri-Azar, R. (Univ. of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of))

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Nuclear forces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

These lectures present an introduction into the theory of nuclear forces. We focus mainly on the modern approach, in which the forces between nucleons emerge from low-energy QCD via chiral effective field theory.

Machleidt, R. [Department of Physics, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho 83844 (United States)

2013-06-10T23:59:59.000Z

104

Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in Finland by M. HW1'aien et al. (1985). Further development on the MPA was performed in several countries ineluding the United States where Perez (1986) presented a method for deriving beam radiation from a series of vertically mounted pyranometers...

Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Art Directable Tornadoes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

......................................................................... 25 2. Directional Force ........................................................... 26 3. Vortex Force .................................................................. 26 4. Lattice... ................................................................... 7 7 Tornado in its rope stage before disappearing ........................................... 9 8 Fire vortex and Waterspout ........................................................................ 10 9 Landspout and Gustnado...

Dwivedi, Ravindra

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

106

Self-force via energy-momentum and angular momentum balance equations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The radiation reaction for a point-like charge coupled to a massive scalar field is considered. The retarded Green's function associated with the Klein-Gordon wave equation has support not only on the future light cone of the emission point (direct part), but extends inside the light cone as well (tail part). Dirac's scheme of decomposition of the retarded electromagnetic field into the "mean of the advanced and retarded field" and the "radiation" field is adapted to theories where Green's function consists of the direct and the tail parts. The Harish-Chandra equation of motion of radiating scalar charge under the influence of an external force is obtained. This equation includes effect of particle's own field. The self force produces a time-changing inertial mass.

Yurij Yaremko

2012-07-20T23:59:59.000Z

107

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Shielding and Radiological Protection J. Kenneth Shultis Richard E. Faw Department@triad.rr.com Radiation Fields and Sources ................................................ . Radiation Field Variables........................................................... .. Direction and Solid Angle Conventions ......................................... .. Radiation Fluence

Shultis, J. Kenneth

108

Sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Sponsored by Air Force Research Laboratory Space Vehicles Directorate Directed Energy Directorate PROGRAM Space Scholars and Directed Energy Scholars The Space Vehicles and Directed Energy Directorates Scholars The Phillips Scholars internship offers an edu- cational and fulfilling summer job experience

Piao, Daqing

109

Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force (PF), establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Cancels: DOE M 473.2-1A DOE M 473.2-2

2005-08-26T23:59:59.000Z

110

Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The manual establishes requirements for management and operation of the DOE Protective Force, establishes requirements for firearms operations and defines the firearms courses of fire. Chg 1 dated 3/7/06. DOE M 470.4-3A cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1, Protective Force, dated 3-7-06, Attachment 2, Contractor Requirement Document (CRD) only (except for Section C). Chg 1, dated 3-7-06, cancels DOE M 470.4-3

2006-03-07T23:59:59.000Z

111

Direct Plan Comparison of RapidArc and CyberKnife for Spine Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We compared the treatment planning performance of RapidArc (RA) vs. CyberKnife (CK) for spinal stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). Ten patients with spinal lesions who had been treated with CK were re-planned with RA, which consisted of two complete arcs. Computed tomography (CT) and volumetric dose data of CK, generated using the Multiplan (Accuray) treatment planning system (TPS) and the Ray-Trace algorithm, were imported to Varian Eclipse TPS in Dicom format, and the data were compared with the RA plan using analytical anisotropic algorithm (AAA) dose calculation. The optimized dose priorities for both CK and RA plans were similar for all patients. The highest priority was to provide enough dose coverage to the planned target volume (PTV) while limiting the maximum dose to the spinal cord. Plan quality was evaluated with respect to PTV coverage, conformity index (CI), high-dose spillage, intermediate-dose spillage (R50% and D2cm), and maximum dose to the spinal cord, which are criteria recommended ...

Choi, Young Eun; Song, Si Yeol; Choi, Eun Kyung; Ahn, Seung Do; Cho, Byungchul

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

OOTW Force Design Tools  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report documents refined requirements for tools to aid the process of force design in Operations Other Than War (OOTWs). It recommends actions for the creation of one tool and work on other tools relating to mission planning. It also identifies the governmental agencies and commands with interests in each tool, from whom should come the user advisory groups overseeing the respective tool development activities. The understanding of OOTWs and their analytical support requirements has matured to the point where action can be taken in three areas: force design, collaborative analysis, and impact analysis. While the nature of the action and the length of time before complete results can be expected depends on the area, in each case the action should begin immediately. Force design for OOTWs is not a technically difficult process. Like force design for combat operations, it is a process of matching the capabilities of forces against the specified and implied tasks of the operation, considering the constraints of logistics, transport and force availabilities. However, there is a critical difference that restricts the usefulness of combat force design tools for OOTWs: the combat tools are built to infer non-combat capability requirements from combat capability requirements and cannot reverse the direction of the inference, as is required for OOTWs. Recently, OOTWs have played a larger role in force assessment, system effectiveness and tradeoff analysis, and concept and doctrine development and analysis. In the first Quadrennial Defense Review (QDR), each of the Services created its own OOTW force design tool. Unfortunately, the tools address different parts of the problem and do not coordinate the use of competing capabilities. These tools satisfied the immediate requirements of the QDR, but do not provide a long-term cost-effective solution.

Bell, R.E.; Hartley, D.S.III; Packard, S.L.

1999-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

SCM Forcing Data Derived from NWP Analyses  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Forcing data, suitable for use with single column models (SCMs) and cloud resolving models (CRMs), have been derived from NWP analyses for the ARM (Atmospheric Radiation Measurement) Tropical Western Pacific (TWP) sites of Manus Island and Nauru.

Jakob, Christian

114

ARM - PI Product - Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc Documentation RUC : XDCResearchWarmingMethaneProductsCSSEF ARMBE ARMInhibition

115

Contractor Protective Force - DOE Directives, Delegations, and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New SubstationCleanCommunity2Workshops01 SF-30 Attachment2012 |

116

Radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

Fultz, Brent T. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

Fultz, B.T.

1980-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

118

Second-order diffraction forces on an array of vertical cylinders in bichromatic bidirectional waves  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A complete second-order solution is presented for the hydrodynamic forces due to the action of bichromatic, bidirectional waves on an array of bottom-mounted, surface-piercing cylinders of arbitrary cross section in water of uniform finite depth. Based on the constant structural cross section, the first-order problem is solved utilizing a two-dimensional Green function approach, while an assisting radiation potential approach is used to obtain the hydrodynamic loads due to the second-order potential. Results are presented which illustrate the influence of wave directionality on the second-order sum and difference frequency hydrodynamic forces on a two-cylinder array. It is found that wave directionality may have a significant influence on the second-order hydrodynamic forces on these arrays and that the assumption of unidirectional waves does not always lead to conservative estimates of the second-order loading.

Vazquez, J.H. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Williams, A.N. [Univ. of Houston, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1995-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

119

DOE Radiation Records Contacts List  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

DOE radiation records contact list for individuals to obtain records of occupational exposure directly from a DOE site.

120

Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

Michael J Iacono

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


121

Casimir force driven ratchets  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We explore the non-linear dynamics of two parallel periodically patterned metal surfaces that are coupled by the zero-point fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between them. The resulting Casimir force generates for asymmetric patterns with a time-periodically driven surface-to-surface distance a ratchet effect, allowing for directed lateral motion of the surfaces in sizeable parameter ranges. It is crucial to take into account inertia effects and hence chaotic dynamics which are described by Langevin dynamics. Multiple velocity reversals occur as a function of driving, mean surface distance, and effective damping. These transport properties are shown to be stable against weak ambient noise.

Thorsten Emig

2007-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

122

Climate Forcings and Climate Sensitivities Diagnosed from Coupled Climate Model Integrations  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A simple technique is proposed for calculating global mean climate forcing from transient integrations of coupled Atmosphere Ocean General Circulation Models (AOGCMs). This 'climate forcing' differs from the conventionally defined radiative forcing as it includes semi-direct effects that account for certain short timescale responses in the troposphere. Firstly, we calculate a climate feedback term from reported values of 2 x CO{sub 2} radiative forcing and surface temperature time series from 70-year simulations by twenty AOGCMs. In these simulations carbon dioxide is increased by 1%/year. The derived climate feedback agrees well with values that we diagnose from equilibrium climate change experiments of slab-ocean versions of the same models. These climate feedback terms are associated with the fast, quasi-linear response of lapse rate, clouds, water vapor and albedo to global surface temperature changes. The importance of the feedbacks is gauged by their impact on the radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. We find partial compensation between longwave and shortwave feedback terms that lessens the inter-model differences in the equilibrium climate sensitivity. There is also some indication that the AOGCMs overestimate the strength of the positive longwave feedback. These feedback terms are then used to infer the shortwave and longwave time series of climate forcing in 20th and 21st Century simulations in the AOGCMs. We validate the technique using conventionally calculated forcing time series from four AOGCMs. In these AOGCMs the shortwave and longwave climate forcings we diagnose agree with the conventional forcing time series within {approx}10%. The shortwave forcing time series exhibit order of magnitude variations between the AOGCMs, differences likely related to how both natural forcings and/or anthropogenic aerosol effects are included. There are also factor of two differences in the longwave climate forcing time series, which may indicate problems with the modeling of well-mixed-greenhouse-gas changes. The simple diagnoses we present provide an important and useful first step for understanding differences in AOGCM integrations, indicating that some of the differences in model projections can be attributed to different prescribed climate forcing, even for so-called standard climate change scenarios.

Forster, P M A F; Taylor, K E

2006-07-25T23:59:59.000Z

123

CARES: Carbonaceous Aerosol and Radiative Effects Study Science Plan  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Carbonaceous aerosol components, which include black carbon (BC), urban primary organic aerosols (POA), biomass burning aerosols, and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) from both urban and biogenic precursors, have been previously shown to play a major role in the direct and indirect radiative forcing of climate. The primary objective of the CARES 2010 intensive field study is to investigate the evolution of carbonaceous aerosols of different types and their effects on optical and cloud formation properties.

Zaveri, RA; Shaw, WJ; Cziczo, DJ

2010-05-27T23:59:59.000Z

124

Directional gamma detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

LeVert, Francis E. (Downers Grove, Knoxville, TN); Cox, Samson A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Calibration of lateral force measurements in atomic force microscopy with a piezoresistive force sensor  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present here a method to calibrate the lateral force in the atomic force microscope. This method makes use of an accurately calibrated force sensor composed of a tipless piezoresistive cantilever and corresponding signal amplifying and processing electronics. Two ways of force loading with different loading points were compared by scanning the top and side edges of the piezoresistive cantilever. Conversion factors between the lateral force and photodiode signal using three types of atomic force microscope cantilevers with rectangular geometries (normal spring constants from 0.092 to 1.24 N/m and lateral stiffness from 10.34 to 101.06 N/m) were measured in experiments using the proposed method. When used properly, this method calibrates the conversion factors that are accurate to {+-}12.4% or better. This standard has less error than the commonly used method based on the cantilever's beam mechanics. Methods such of this allow accurate and direct conversion between lateral forces and photodiode signals without any knowledge of the cantilevers and the laser measuring system.

Xie Hui; Vitard, Julien; Haliyo, Sinan; Regnier, Stephane [Institut des Systemes Intelligents et Robotique (ISIR), Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris 6/CNRS, 18 Route du Panorama-BP 61, 92265 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France); Boukallel, Mehdi [Laboratoire de Robotique et Mesorobotique (LRM), CEA, 18 Route du Panorama-BP 61, 92265 Fontenay-Aux-Roses (France)

2008-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

126

Magnetic nanowire based high resolution magnetic force microscope probes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-resolution magnetic force microscope probes using preformed magnetic nanowires. Nickel and cobalt nanowires produced by electrodeposition were directly assembled onto the tip of a commercial atomic force microscope cantilever

Qin, Lu-Chang

127

Rotating bubble membrane radiator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A heat radiator useful for expelling waste heat from a power generating system aboard a space vehicle is disclosed. Liquid to be cooled is passed to the interior of a rotating bubble membrane radiator, where it is sprayed into the interior of the bubble. Liquid impacting upon the interior surface of the bubble is cooled and the heat radiated from the outer surface of the membrane. Cooled liquid is collected by the action of centrifical force about the equator of the rotating membrane and returned to the power system. Details regarding a complete space power system employing the radiator are given.

Webb, Brent J. (West Richland, WA); Coomes, Edmund P. (West Richland, WA)

1988-12-06T23:59:59.000Z

128

A Dynamic Defense Force for Japan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Japan Self-Defense Forces (SDF). Along with the new NDPG,set a direction for the SDF in the post-9/11 inter- nationalsituation also requires the SDF take on these “dynamic”

TAKAHASHI, Sugio

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Multi-dimensional Longwave Forcing of Boundary Layer Cloud Systems  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The importance of multi-dimensional (MD) longwave radiative effects on cloud dynamics is evaluated in a large eddy simulation (LES) framework employing multi-dimensional radiative transfer (Spherical Harmonics Discrete Ordinate Method —SHDOM). Simulations are performed for a case of unbroken, marine boundary layer stratocumulus and a broken field of trade cumulus. “Snapshot” calculations of MD and IPA (independent pixel approximation —1D) radiative transfer applied to LES cloud fields show that the total radiative forcing changes only slightly, although the MD effects significantly modify the spatial structure of the radiative forcing. Simulations of each cloud type employing MD and IPA radiative transfer, however, differ little. For the solid cloud case, relative to using IPA, the MD simulation exhibits a slight reduction in entrainment rate and boundary layer TKE relative to the IPA simulation. This reduction is consistent with both the slight decrease in net radiative forcing and a negative correlation between local vertical velocity and radiative forcing, which implies a damping of boundary layer eddies. Snapshot calculations of the broken cloud case suggest a slight increase in radiative cooling, though few systematic differences are noted in the interactive simulations. We attribute this result to the fact that radiative cooling is a relatively minor contribution to the total energetics. For the cloud systems in this study, the use of IPA longwave radiative transfer is sufficiently accurate to capture the dynamical behavior of BL clouds. Further investigations are required in order to generalize this conclusion for other cloud types and longer time integrations. 1

Mechem, David B.; Kogan, Y. L.; Ovtchinnikov, Mikhail; Davis, Anthony B; Evans, K. F.; Ellingson, Robert G.

2008-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

130

PCB Radiation Mechanisms: Using Component-Level Measurements to  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 PCB Radiation Mechanisms: Using Component-Level Measurements to PCB Radiation Mechanisms: Using Component-Level Measurements to Determine System-Level Radiated EmissionsDetermine System-Level Radiated Radiation Directly from PCB StructuresRadiation Directly from PCB Structures Signal or component voltage

Stuart, Steven J.

131

Force localization in contracting cell layers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Epithelial cell layers on soft elastic substrates or pillar arrays are commonly used as model systems for investigating the role of force in tissue growth, maintenance and repair. Here we show analytically that the experimentally observed localization of traction forces to the periphery of the cell layers does not necessarily imply increased local cell activity, but follows naturally from the elastic problem of a finite-sized contractile layer coupled to an elastic foundation. For homogeneous contractility, the force localization is determined by one dimensionless parameter interpolating between linear and exponential force profiles for the extreme cases of very soft and very stiff substrates, respectively. If contractility is sufficiently increased at the periphery, outward directed displacements can occur at intermediate positions, although the edge itself still retracts. We also show that anisotropic extracellular stiffness leads to force localization in the stiffer direction, as observed experimentally.

Carina M. Edwards; Ulrich S. Schwarz

2012-01-13T23:59:59.000Z

132

Directives Tools  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Useful links and resources for Directives Writers, Directives Point of Contact (DPCs), Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and Draft Directive Reviewers.

133

In vivo recording of aerodynamic force with an aerodynamic force platform  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Flapping wings enable flying animals and biomimetic robots to generate elevated aerodynamic forces. Measurements that demonstrate this capability are based on tethered experiments with robots and animals, and indirect force calculations based on measured kinematics or airflow during free flight. Remarkably, there exists no method to measure these forces directly during free flight. Such in vivo recordings in freely behaving animals are essential to better understand the precise aerodynamic function of their flapping wings, in particular during the downstroke versus upstroke. Here we demonstrate a new aerodynamic force platform (AFP) for nonintrusive aerodynamic force measurement in freely flying animals and robots. The platform encloses the animal or object that generates fluid force with a physical control surface, which mechanically integrates the net aerodynamic force that is transferred to the earth. Using a straightforward analytical solution of the Navier-Stokes equation, we verified that the method is ...

Lentink, David; Ingersoll, Rivers

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

On the Correlation between Forcing and Climate Sensitivity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The possible correlation between climate sensitivity and radiative forcing is studied using versions of the NCAR Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) model with different climate sensitivities. No such correlation was found ...

Sokolov, Andrei

135

RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

Relative Accuracy of 1-Minute and Daily Total Solar Radiation Data for 12 Global and 4 Direct Beam Solar Radiometers: Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This report evaluates the relative performance of 12 global and four direct beam solar radiometers deployed at a single site over a 12-month period. Test radiometer irradiances were compared with a reference irradiance consisting of either an absolute cavity radiometer (during calibrations) or a low uncertainty thermopile pyrheliometer (during the evaluation period) for pyrheliometers; and for pyranometers a reference global irradiance computed from the reference pyrheliometer and diffuse irradiance from a shaded pyranometer.

Myers, D. R.; Wilcox, S. M.

2009-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN ROBOTICS, TECHNOLOGIES FOR MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS IN DIRECTED STOCKPILE WORK RADIATION AND ENGINEERING CAMPAIGNS - 2005-06 FINAL ANNUAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The research performed by the University of Florida (UF) is directed to the development of technologies that can be utilized at a micro-scale in varied environments. Work is focused on micro-scale energy systems, visualization, and mechanical devices. This work will impact the NNSA need related to micro-assembly operations. The URPR activities are executed in a University environment, yet many applications of the resulting technologies may be classified or highly restrictive in nature. The NNSA robotics technologists apply an NNSA needs focus to the URPR research, and actively work to transition relevant research into the deployment projects in which they are involved. This provides a “Research to Development to Application” structure within which innovative research has maximum opportunity for impact without requiring URPR researchers to be involved in specific NNSA projects. URPR researchers need to be aware of the NNSA applications in order to ensure the research being conducted has relevance, the URPR shall rely upon the NNSA sites for direction.

James S. Tulenko; Dean Schoenfeld; David Hintenlang; Carl Crane; Shannon Ridgeway; Jose Santiago; Charles Scheer

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

138

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

139

Directed Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Directed Energy The Directed Energy Program provides laser systems design, engineering and production for specific applications and missions, experimentally validated...

140

Method for microbeam radiation therapy  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Direct 2-Arm Comparison Shows Benefit of High-Dose-Rate Brachytherapy Boost vs External Beam Radiation Therapy Alone for Prostate Cancer  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Purpose: To evaluate the outcomes of patients treated for intermediate- and high-risk prostate cancer with a single schedule of either external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) and high-dose-rate brachytherapy (HDRB) boost or EBRT alone. Methods and Materials: From 2001-2006, 344 patients received EBRT with HDRB boost for definitive treatment of intermediate- or high-risk prostate cancer. The prescribed EBRT dose was 46 Gy in 23 fractions, with a HDR boost of 19.5 Gy in 3 fractions. This cohort was compared to a contemporaneously treated cohort who received EBRT to 74 Gy in 37 fractions, using a matched pair analysis. Three-dimensional conformal EBRT was used. Matching was performed using a propensity score matching technique. High-risk patients constituted 41% of the matched cohorts. Five-year clinical and biochemical outcomes were analyzed. Results: Initial significant differences in prognostic indicators between the unmatched treatment cohorts were rendered negligible after matching, providing a total of 688 patients. Median biochemical follow-up was 60.5 months. The 5-year freedom from biochemical failure was 79.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 74.3%-85.0%) and 70.9% (95% CI, 65.4%-76.0%) for the HDRB and EBRT groups, respectively, equating to a hazard ratio of 0.59 (95% CI, 0.43-0.81, P=.0011). Interaction analyses showed no alteration in HDR efficacy when planned androgen deprivation therapy was administered (P=.95), but a strong trend toward reduced efficacy was shown compared to EBRT in high-risk cases (P=.06). Rates of grade 3 urethral stricture were 0.3% (95% CI, 0%-0.9%) and 11.8% (95% CI, 8.1%-16.5%) for EBRT and HDRB, respectively (P<.0001). No differences in clinical outcomes were observed. Conclusions: This comparison of 2 individual contemporaneously treated HDRB and EBRT approaches showed improved freedom from biochemical progression with the HDR approach. The benefit was more pronounced in intermediate- risk patients but needs to be weighed against an increased risk of urethral toxicity.

Khor, Richard [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Duchesne, Gillian [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia) [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Monash University, Melbourne (Australia); Tai, Keen-Hun; Foroudi, Farshad; Chander, Sarat; Van Dyk, Sylvia; Garth, Margaret [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia); Williams, Scott, E-mail: Scott.Williams@petermac.org [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)] [Division of Radiation Oncology and Cancer Imaging, Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre, and University of Melbourne, Melbourne (Australia)

2013-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Cloud Formation and Acceleration in a Radiative Environment  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In a radiatively heated and cooled medium, the thermal instability is a plausible mechanism for forming clouds, while the radiation force provides a natural acceleration, especially when ions recombine and opacity increases. Here we extend Field's theory to self-consistently account for a radiation force resulting from bound-free and bound-bound transitions in the optically thin limit. We present physical arguments for clouds to be significantly accelerated by a radiation force due to lines during a nonlinear phase of the instability. To qualitatively illustrate our main points, we perform both one and two-dimensional (1-D/2-D) hydrodynamical simulations that allow us to study the nonlinear outcome of the evolution of thermally unstable gas subjected to this radiation force. Our 1-D simulations demonstrate that the thermal instability can produce long-lived clouds that reach a thermal equilibrium between radiative processes and thermal conduction, while the radiation force can indeed accelerate the clouds to ...

Proga, Daniel

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

Forces of a single-beam gradient laser trap on a dielectric sphere in the ray optics regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-beam gradient radiation pressure laser traps, also called "optical tweezers," on micron-sized dielectric spheres. Optical trapping of small particles by the forces of laser radiation pressure has been used for about 20 is in the geometric optics regime and can thus use simple ray optics in the derivation of the radiation pressure force

Sniadecki, Nathan J.

144

NUCLEAR PROXIMITY FORCES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

One might summarize of nuclear potential energy has beendegree of freedom) for the nuclear interaction between anyUniversity of California. Nuclear Proximity Forces 'I< at

Randrup, J.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

145

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

146

Greenhouse gas policy influences climate via direct effects of land-use change  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Proposed climate mitigation measures do not account for direct biophysical climate impacts of land-use change (LUC), nor do the stabilization targets modeled for the 5th Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs). To examine the significance of such effects on global and regional patterns of climate change, a baseline and alternative scenario of future anthropogenic activity are simulated within the Integrated Earth System Model, which couples the Global Change Assessment Model, Global Land-use Model, and Community Earth System Model. The alternative scenario has high biofuel utilization and approximately 50% less global forest cover compared to the baseline, standard RCP4.5 scenario. Both scenarios stabilize radiative forcing from atmospheric constituents at 4.5 W/m2 by 2100. Thus, differences between their climate predictions quantify the biophysical effects of LUC. Offline radiative transfer and land model simulations are also utilized to identify forcing and feedback mechanisms driving the coupled response. Boreal deforestation is found to strongly influence climate due to increased albedo coupled with a regional-scale water vapor feedback. Globally, the alternative scenario yields a 21st century warming trend that is 0.5 °C cooler than baseline, driven by a 1 W/m2 mean decrease in radiative forcing that is distributed unevenly around the globe. Some regions are cooler in the alternative scenario than in 2005. These results demonstrate that neither climate change nor actual radiative forcing are uniquely related to atmospheric forcing targets such as those found in the RCP’s, but rather depend on particulars of the socioeconomic pathways followed to meet each target.

Jones, Andrew D.; Collins, William D.; Edmonds, James A.; Torn, Margaret S.; Janetos, Anthony C.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Thomson, Allison M.; Chini, Louise M.; Mao, Jiafu; Shi, Xiaoying; Thornton, Peter; Hurtt, George; Wise, Marshall A.

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

147

Protective Force Program Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 473.2, PROTECTIVE FORCE PROGRAM, which establishes the requirements and responsibilities for management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Change 1 revised pages in Chapters IV and VI on 12/20/2001.

2001-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

148

Alpha-recoil tracks in natural dark mica: Dating geological samples by optical and scanning force microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-differential-interference-contrast microscopy; Scanning force microscopy; Natural radiation damage 1. Introduction Alpha-recoil tracks (ARTsAlpha-recoil tracks in natural dark mica: Dating geological samples by optical and scanning force

149

Hydrodynamic force characteristics in the splash zone  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A comprehensive experimental study concerned with the hydrodynamic force characteristics of both rigid and compliant surface piercing cylinders, with a major focus on the local nature of these characteristics as realized in the splash zone and in the fully submerged zone immediately below this region, has been in progress at the University of Melbourne for the last three years. This paper concentrates on a portion of this study associated with uni-directional regular wave inputs with wave steepness (H/{lambda}) in the range 0.0005--0.1580 and Keulegan-Carpenter (KC) numbers in the range 2--15 which encompasses inertia force dominant (KC<5) to drag force significant conditions (5forces (using a multi-segmented force transducer) and the underlying kinematics (using Acoustic Doppler Velocimetry) at different elevations throughout the crest to trough region were measured during the tests. The measured wave forces at different elevations have been interpreted using the Morison equation to determine experimental values of force coefficients C{sub D} and C{sub M}. The results in hand suggest that both C{sub D} and C{sub M} values in the splash zone are higher and exhibit a mild frequency dependence in comparison with their corresponding counterparts for the fully submerged segments. For weakly nonlinear waves (H/{lambda}<0.1) only wave fluctuation is found to be important and any mild nonlinearities do not significantly affect the test model force response and consequently the force coefficient values. However, for relatively nonlinear waves (0.1force response, producing ringing effects in conducive conditions.

Daliri, M.R.; Haritos, N. [Univ. of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria (Australia). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

1996-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

150

RADIATION MONITORING  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Monitoring for Radiation Protection of Workers" in ICRPNo. 9, in "Advances in Radiation Protection and Dosimetry inDosimetry f o r Stray Radiation Monitoring on the CERN S i t

Thomas, R.H.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

151

Protective Force Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To prescribe Department of Energy policy, responsibilities, and requirements for the management and operation of the Protective Force Program. Chg 1 dated 2-13-95. Cancels DOE O 5632.7 and DOE O 5632.8.

1995-02-13T23:59:59.000Z

152

ATLAS Metadata Task Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATLAS Metadata Task Force D. Costanzo, J. Cranshaw, S.provided and approved by the ATLAS TDAQ and DCS Connectinformation, go to http://atlas-connect-forum.web.cern.ch/

Costanzo, D.; ATLAS Collaboration

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Federal Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal protective forces (FPFs). Cancels DOE M 470.4-3, Chg 1. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2009-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

154

Constraint and Restoring Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Long-lived sensor network applications must be able to self-repair and adapt to changing demands. We introduce a new approach for doing so: Constraint and Restoring Force. CRF is a physics-inspired framework for computing ...

Beal, Jacob

2007-08-24T23:59:59.000Z

155

Weak nuclear forces cause the strong nuclear force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We determine the strength of the weak nuclear force which holds the lattices of the elementary particles together. We also determine the strength of the strong nuclear force which emanates from the sides of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is the sum of the unsaturated weak forces at the surface of the nuclear lattices. The strong force is then about ten to the power of 6 times stronger than the weak force between two lattice points.

E. L. Koschmieder

2007-12-11T23:59:59.000Z

156

Electron Diamagnetic Effect on Axial Force in an Expanding Plasma: Experiments and Theory  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The axial force imparted from a magnetically expanding current-free plasma is directly measured for three different experimental configurations and compared with a two-dimensional fluid theory. The force component solely resulting from the expanding field is directly measured and identified as an axial force produced by the azimuthal current due to an electron diamagnetic drift and the radial component of the magnetic field. The experimentally measured forces are well described by the theory.

Takahashi, Kazunori [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Alexander, Peter; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2011-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

157

Actionneurs linaires directs et indirects H. Ben Ahmed, B. Multon, M. Ruellan  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

à entraînement direct (la force motrice est directement produite par les champs magnétiques) et ceux force moyenne motrice, la surface active (surface d'interface entre la partie fixe et la partie mobile

Boyer, Edmond

158

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL IN CASE OF EMERGENCY, CALL: Radiation Safety Officer (479) 263 iii FOREWORD RADIATION SAFETY is the responsibility of all faculty, staff and students who are directly or indirectly involved in the use of radionuclides or radiation-producing machines. The Radiation

Li, Jiali

159

Dust Aerosol Impact on North Africa Climate: A GCM Investigation of Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions Using A-Train Satellite Data  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The climatic effects of dust aerosols in North Africa have been investigated using the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) developed at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA). The model includes an efficient and physically based radiation parameterization scheme developed specifically for application to clouds and aerosols. Parameterization of the effective ice particle size in association with the aerosol indirect effect based on cloud and aerosol data retrieved from A-Train satellite observations have been employed in the climate model simulations. Offline simulations reveal that the direct solar, IR, and net forcings by dust aerosols generally increase with increasing aerosol optical depth (AOD). When the dust semi-direct effect is included with the presence of ice clouds, positive IR radiative forcing is enhanced, since ice clouds trap substantial IR radiation, while the positive solar forcing with dust aerosols alone has been changed to negative values due to the strong reflection of solar radiation by clouds, indicating that cloud forcing could exceed aerosol forcing. With the aerosol indirect effect, the net cloud forcing is generally reduced for ice water path (IWP) larger than 20 g m-2. The magnitude of the reduction increases with IWP. AGCM simulations show that the reduced ice crystal mean effective size due to the aerosol first indirect effect result in less OLR and net solar flux at the top of the atmosphere over the cloudy area of the North Africa region because ice clouds with smaller size trap more IR radiation and reflect more solar radiation. The precipitation in the same area, however, increases due to the aerosol indirect effect on ice clouds, corresponding to the enhanced convection as indicated by reduced OLR. The increased precipitation seems to be associated with enhanced ice water contents in this region. The 200 mb radiative heating rate shows more cooling with the aerosol indirect effect since greater cooling is produced at the cloud top with smaller ice crystal size. The 500 mb omega indicates strong upward motion, which, together with the increased cooling effect, results in the increased ice water contents. Adding the aerosol direct effect into the model simulation reduces the precipitation in the normal rainfall band over North Africa, where precipitation is shifted to the south and the northeast produced by the absorption of sunlight and the subsequent heating of the air column by dust particles. As a result, rainfall is drawn further inland to the northeast. This study represents the first attempt to quantify the climate impact of aerosol indirect effect using a GCM in connection with A-train satellite data. The parameterization for the aerosol first indirect effect developed in this study can be readily incorporated for application to any other GCMs.

Gu, Y.; Liou, K. N.; Jiang, Jonathan; Su, Hui; Liu, Xiaohong

2012-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

160

Danger radiations  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

None

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Work Force Discipline  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order provides guidance and procedures and states responsibilities for maintaining work force discipline in DOE. Chg 1, dated 3-11-85; Chg 2, dated 1-6-86; Chg 3, dated 3-21-89; Chg 4, dated 8-2-90; Chg 5, dated 3-9-92; Chg 6, dated 8-21-92, cancels Chg 5.

1983-03-23T23:59:59.000Z

162

Protective Force Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Establishes policy, requirements, responsibilities, and authorities, for the management and operation of the Department of Energy (DOE) Protective Force (PF) Program. Extended until 7-7-06 by DOE N 251.64, dated 7-7-05 Cancels: DOE 5632.7A

2000-06-30T23:59:59.000Z

163

Contractor Protective Force  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual establishes requirements for the management and operation of the U.S. Department of Energy contractor protective forces. Cancels: DOE M 470.4-3 Chg 1, CRD (Attachment 2) only, except for Section C. Canceled by DOE O 473.3.

2008-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

164

Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site?  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape,PhysicsDileepDirac Charge Dynamcs

165

Direct Aerosol Forcing: Sensitivity to Uncertainty in Measurements of  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed Newcatalyst phasesData FilesShape,PhysicsDileepDirac Charge DynamcsAerosol

166

Federal Protective Force - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation ProposedUsing ZirconiaPolicyFeasibility of SF(STEO)  EIA expectsARCHIVED DOE M 470.4-8,

167

Task Force on Digital Directions in the Humanities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

partner with researchers in creating and sustaining scholarship through its development of KU ScholarWorks, Journals@KU, Luna Insight image collections, and digital publishing services. The Libraries are committed to serving KU to advance humanistic.... Libraries Isidro Rivera, Spanish and Portuguese Jon Giullian, Libraries Jonathan Perkins, EGARC Mark Reaney, Theatre Marsha Haufler, History of Art Maryemma Graham, English Nancy Baym, Communication Studies Rick McMullen, Research and Graduate...

Hanson, F. Allan; Ludwig, Deborah

2010-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

168

Directives System  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Department of Energy (DOE) Directives System is the means by which DOE policies, requirements, and responsibilities are developed and communicated throughout the Department. Directives are used to inform, direct, and guide employees in the performance of their jobs, and to enable employees to work effectively within the Department and with agencies, contractors, and the public. Cancels: DOE O 251.1, DOE M 251.1-1

1998-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

169

Directional drilling sub  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A directional drilling ''sub'' provides a shifting end portion which allows the sub to be rotated from a first in-line axially straight orientation with the drill string to a second angled or ''bent'' position which second position is normally associated with conventional bent ''subs'' which are permanently structured in the bent position. The device shifts from the first (In-line) position to the second (Bent) position upon the application of torsional force thereto which torsional force can be applied, for example, by the actuation of a ''turbodrill'' (Normally attached thereto in operation). The device can be manufactured or machined to provide varying angles to the sub in its bent position to satisfy differing directional drilling situations. The axially aligned first position allows easy entry of the drill string, sub , and turbodrill into the well hole, while the second bend position is used to commence directional drilling. The sub will return gradually to its original axially aligned position when the device is withdrawn from the wellhole, as such position is the path of minimum resistance for the withdrawing drill string and torsion is not present to hold the sub in the bent position.

Benoit, L.F.

1980-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

170

Future Directions for Magnetic Sensors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Engineering Laboratory Magnetic tunnel junction (MTJ) sensors are rapidly becoming the technology of choiceFuture Directions for Magnetic Sensors: HYBRIDMATERIALS Our goal is to develop the scientific expertise needed to allow modeling and simulation to become the driving force in improving magnetic sensors

171

Force Modulator System  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Many metal parts manufacturers use large metal presses to shape sheet metal into finished products like car body parts, jet wing and fuselage surfaces, etc. These metal presses take sheet metal and - with enormous force - reshape the metal into a fully formed part in a manner of seconds. Although highly efficient, the forces involved in forming metal parts also damage the press itself, limit the metals used in part production, slow press operations and, when not properly controlled, cause the manufacture of large volumes of defective metal parts. To date, the metal-forming industry has not been able to develop a metal-holding technology that allows full control of press forces during the part forming process. This is of particular importance in the automotive lightweighting efforts under way in the US automotive manufacturing marketplace. Metalforming Controls Technology Inc. (MC2) has developed a patented press control system called the Force Modulator that has the ability to control these press forces, allowing a breakthrough in stamping process control. The technology includes a series of hydraulic cylinders that provide controlled tonnage at all points in the forming process. At the same time, the unique cylinder design allows for the generation of very high levels of clamping forces (very high tonnages) in very small spaces; a requirement for forming medium and large panels out of HSS and AHSS. Successful production application of these systems testing at multiple stamping operations - including Ford and Chrysler - has validated the capabilities and economic benefits of the system. Although this technology has been adopted in a number of stamping operations, one of the primary barriers to faster adoption and application of this technology in HSS projects is system cost. The cost issue has surfaced because the systems currently in use are built for each individual die as a custom application, thus driving higher tooling costs. This project proposed to better marry the die-specific Force Modulator technology with stamping presses in the form of a press cushion. This system would be designed to operate the binder ring for multiple parts, thus cutting the per-die cost of the technology. This study reports the results of technology field application. This project produced the following conclusions: (1) The Force Modulator system is capable of operating at very high tempos in the stamping environment; (2) The company can generate substantial, controlled holding tonnage (binder ring pressure) necessary to hold high strength steel parts for proper formation during draw operations; (3) A single system can be designed to operate with a family of parts, thus significantly reducing the per-die cost of a FM system; (4) High strength steel parts made with these systems appear to show significant quality improvements; (5) The amounts of steel required to make these parts is typically less than the amounts required with traditional blank-holding technologies; and (6) This technology will aid in the use of higher strength steels in auto and truck production, thus reducing weight and improving fuel efficiency.

Redmond Clark

2009-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

172

Radiator debris removing apparatus and work machine using same  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiator assembly includes a finned radiator core and a debris removing apparatus having a compressed air inlet and at least one compressed air outlet configured to direct compressed air through the radiator core. A work machine such as a wheel loader includes a radiator and a debris removing apparatus coupled with on-board compressed air and having at least one pressurized gas outlet configured to direct a gas toward the face of the radiator.

Martin, Kevin L. (Washburn, IL); Elliott, Dwight E. (Chillicothe, IL)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

173

RADIATION RESEARCH 155, 402408 (2001) 0033-7587/01 $5.00  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of low- dose risks extrapolated from intermediate doses, where direct effects dominate. 2001 by Radiation produced by ionizing radiation occurs when the radiation acts on DNA, either by directly ionizing the DNA402 RADIATION RESEARCH 155, 402­408 (2001) 0033-7587/01 $5.00 2001 by Radiation Research Society

Brenner, David Jonathan

174

E-Print Network 3.0 - affect radiation sensitivity Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

F A T M O S P H E R I C S C I E N C E S Summary: What about gases that affect the greenhouse effect? Radiative forcing for greenhouse gases: Instantly... shortwave forcings next...

175

Attribution of climate forcing to economic sectors Nadine Ungera,b,1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

impact, as expressed by radiative forcing in watts per meter squared, of individual chemical species profiles differ greatly, this approach fosters the development of smart climate policy and is useful

176

Will black carbon mitigation dampen aerosol indirect forcing?1 W.-T. Chen1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

.J. Adams3 , A. Nenes4 , and J.H. Seinfeld5,* 2 1 Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, USA3 2 Department carbonaceous sources (fossil fuel, domestic biofuel, and20 biomass burning) (termed HC). Radiative forcing

Nenes, Athanasios

177

Effects Of Training Examples On Student Understanding Of Force And Motion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that an object experiencing a non-zero net force must have a non-zero velocity parallel to that net force the relationship between the directions of net force, velocity, and acceleration. Six training conditions were and the belief that a non-zero acceleration im- plies a non-zero velocity. Recently, Rosenblatt and Heck- ler [8

Heckler, Andrew F.

178

Directives Help  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a number of ways in which you may get to the information you need.

179

E-Print Network 3.0 - anthropogenic radiation sources Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

: Ts F Equation 1 The largest radiative forcing is due to the anthropogenic greenhouse effect... impact" of an anthropogenic perturbation. This is defined as the difference...

180

E-Print Network 3.0 - assessing radiation feedbacks Sample Search...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

content from the whole quarter Summary: . Overview 2. Solar radiation and the Greenhouse effect 3. Forcings and feedbacks 4. Who's responsible 5... . Overview 2. Solar...

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

Norms of Presentational Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

://www.americanforensics.org/uploaded-files/tc_41_3_w05.pdf. Open Access version: http://kuscholarworks.ku.edu/dspace/. 15 hope to illustrate the close connection between emotional appeal and premise adequacy. After arguing that the Declaration of Independence and Constitution secure...Innocenti Manolescu, Beth. "Norms of Presentational Force." Argumentation and Advocacy 41 (2005): 139-51. Official publisher’s version: http://www.americanforensics.org/uploaded-files/tc_41_3_w05.pdf. 1 Citation: Innocenti Manolescu, Beth...

Innocenti, Beth

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

182

Atomic Force Microscope  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

183

Work Force Restructuring Activities  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Google Bookmark EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Delicious Rank EERE:YearRound-Up from theDepartment of Dept.|Sindhu Jagadamma Women @ Energy:TerriWeiWaterForce

184

Computing nonlinear force free coronal magnetic fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Knowledge of the structure of the coronal magnetic field is important for our understanding of many solar activity phenomena, e.g. flares and CMEs. However, the direct measurement of coronal magnetic fields is not possible with present methods, and therefore the coronal field has to be extrapolated from photospheric measurements. Due to the low plasma beta the coronal magnetic field can usually be assumed to be approximately force free, with electric currents flowing along the magnetic field lines. There are both observational and theoretical reasons which suggest that at least prior to an eruption the coronal magnetic field is in a nonlinear force free state. Unfortunately the computation of nonlinear force free fields is way more difficult than potential or linear force free fields and analytic solutions are not generally available. We discuss several methods which have been proposed to compute nonlinear force free fields and focus particularly on an optimization method which has been suggested recently. We compare the numerical performance of a newly developed numerical code based on the optimization method with the performance of another code based on an MHD relaxation method if both codes are applied to the reconstruction of a semi-analytic nonlinear force-free solution. The optimization method has also been tested for cases where we add random noise to the perfect boundary conditions of the analytic solution, in this way mimicking the more realistic case where the boundary conditions are given by vector magnetogram data. We find that the convergence properties of the optimization method are affected by adding noise to the boundary data and we discuss possibilities to overcome this difficulty.

T. Wiegelmann; T. Neukirch

2008-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

185

Electric Field How does a charge, q1, exert a force on  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric Field How does a charge, q1, exert a force on another charge, q2, when the charges don't touch? The charge, q1, sets up an electric field in its surrounding space This electric field has both magnitude and direction which determine the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q2 #12;Electric

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

186

AEROSOL INFLUENCES ON CLIMATE RADIATIVE FORCING AND BEYOND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

;ATTRIBUTION OF INCREASE IN ATMOSPHERIC CO2 Comparison of cumulative CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion 240 60 120 70 75 (60, 120) (60, 120) Fossil CO2 from land use emissions ­ not fossil fuel combustion://www.ecd.bnl.gov/steve/pubs.html #12;OUTLINE Attribution of excess atmospheric CO2 to fossil fuel emissions and land use changes Time

Schwartz, Stephen E.

187

acoustic radiation force: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems Peder of Denmark 31 January 2008 12;ii 12;Abstract Within the field of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip systems 9 Identification of the acoustic component in the...

188

acoustic radiation forces: Topics by E-print Network  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

systems Peder of Denmark 31 January 2008 12;ii 12;Abstract Within the field of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip systems 9 Identification of the acoustic component in the...

189

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Cloud Radiative Forcing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) by Microtops AtmosphericApplication andAn AssessmentARMArctic FacilityRetrievals using AIRS dataat

190

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Cloud Radiative Forcing  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) by Microtops AtmosphericApplication andAn AssessmentARMArctic FacilityRetrievals using AIRS dataatat

191

ARM - Publications: Science Team Meeting Documents: Radiative forcing and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD) by Microtops AtmosphericApplication andAn AssessmentARMArcticCloudvariabilityandProfiles in

192

SciTech Connect: Radiative Forcing of Climate Change  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administrationcontroller systemsBi (2) Sr (2) Ca (2)Frameworkextended bottom plate.

193

Observed Aerosol Radiative Forcings: Comparison for Natural and Anthropogenic Sources  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmosphericNuclear Security Administration the ContributionsArmsSpeedingSpeedingUnder Well-ControlledObservation

194

Laser interferometry force-feedback sensor for an interfacial force microscope  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A scanning force microscope is provided with a force-feedback sensor to increase sensitivity and stability in determining interfacial forces between a probe and a sample. The sensor utilizes an interferometry technique that uses a collimated light beam directed onto a deflecting member, comprising a common plate suspended above capacitor electrodes situated on a substrate forming an interference cavity with a probe on the side of the common plate opposite the side suspended above capacitor electrodes. The probe interacts with the surface of the sample and the intensity of the reflected beam is measured and used to determine the change in displacement of the probe to the sample and to control the probe distance relative to the surface of the sample.

Houston, Jack E.; Smith, William L.

2004-04-13T23:59:59.000Z

195

Synchrotron Radiation Wake in Free Space  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this paper, we derive the transverse radiation force of a bunch of ultrarelativistic charged particles coherently radiating in free space assuming that the bending radius is much larger than the beam dimensions. In contrast to a similar recent study, where the authors decompose the total transverse force and find only a part that is responsible for the distortion of the beam orbit, we derive a full expression for the force and leave the issues of the beam dynamics for a separate consideration. Another approach to the calculation of the transverse force has been previously developed. In many cases considered in this paper, the calculations are extremely cumbersome; they were systematically performed with the use of symbolic engine of the computer program MATHEMATICA.

Stupakov, G.V.; /SLAC

2011-08-31T23:59:59.000Z

196

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

197

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

198

Superconducting Tunnel Junctions as Direct Detectors for Submillimeter Astronomy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Superconducting Tunnel Junctions as Direct Detectors for Submillimeter Astronomy A Dissertation 2008 by John Daniel Teufel. All rights reserved. #12;Abstract Superconducting Tunnel Junctions on the of performance of superconducting tunnel junctions (STJ) as direct detectors for submillimeter radiation. Over

199

August 2004 Radiation Safety Manual Section 5 -Training  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

August 2004 Radiation Safety Manual Section 5 - Training UW Environmental Health and Safety Page 5-1 Section 5 Radiation Safety Training Contents A. Individuals Directly Using Radioactive Materials..........................................5-1 1. Regulations for Training.................................................................. 5

Wilcock, William

200

Radiation induces turbulence in particle-laden fluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

When a transparent fluid laden with solid particles is subject to radiative heating, non-uniformities in particle distribution result in local fluid temperature fluctuations. Under the influence of gravity, buoyancy induces vortical fluid motion which can lead to strong preferential concentration, enhancing the local heating and more non-uniformities in particle distribution. By employing direct numerical simulations this study shows that the described feedback loop can create and sustain turbulence. The velocity and length scale of the resulting turbulence is not known a priori, and is set by balance between viscous forces and buoyancy effects. When the particle response time is comparable to a viscous time scale, introduced in our analysis, the system exhibits intense fluctuations of turbulent kinetic energy and strong preferential concentration of particles.

Zamansky, Rémi [Centre for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-3035 (United States); Coletti, Filippo [Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, California 94305-3035 (United States); Massot, Marc [Centre for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-3035 (United States); Ecole Centrale Paris, Laboratoire EM2C - UPR CNRS 288 et Fédération de Mathématiques - FR CNRS 3487, Grande Voie des Vignes, 92295 Chatenay-Malabry Cedex (France); Mani, Ali [Centre for Turbulence Research, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305-3035 (United States); Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, California 94305-3035 (United States)

2014-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Continental-scale net radiation and evapotranspiration estimated using MODIS satellite observations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

mean direct and diffuse radiation data from the GEWEX/SRBa new generation of radiation budget data that use up to 11Project Surface Radiation Budget (GAPP/SRB) data (http://

Jin, Yufang; Randerson, James T.; Goulden, Michael L.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

202

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers Air Force Renewable Energy Programs and is given at the Spring 2011 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting.

203

Continuous Forcing Data, Darwin, Australia  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

Long term, large scale continuous forcing data set for three complete wet seasons (2004-2005, 2005-2006 and 2006-2007) in Darwin, Australia.

Jakob, Christian

204

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY TRAINING MANUAL Radiation Safety Office 130 DeSoto Street G-7 Parran with sources of ionizing radiation are required to be instructed in the basic principles of radiation protection and the potential risks of ionizing radiation. Radiation Safety Office personnel provide

Sibille, Etienne

205

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation of radiation and its effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and humanAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about

Pennycook, Steve

206

Coke cake behavior under compressive forces  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

1997-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

207

Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

208

Cloud Scavenging Effects on Aerosol Radiative and Cloud-nucleating Properties - Final Technical Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The optical properties of aerosol particles are the controlling factors in determining direct aerosol radiative forcing. These optical properties depend on the chemical composition and size distribution of the aerosol particles, which can change due to various processes during the particles’ lifetime in the atmosphere. Over the course of this project we have studied how cloud processing of atmospheric aerosol changes the aerosol optical properties. A counterflow virtual impactor was used to separate cloud drops from interstitial aerosol and parallel aerosol systems were used to measure the optical properties of the interstitial and cloud-scavenged aerosol. Specifically, aerosol light scattering, back-scattering and absorption were measured and used to derive radiatively significant parameters such as aerosol single scattering albedo and backscatter fraction for cloud-scavenged and interstitial aerosol. This data allows us to demonstrate that the radiative properties of cloud-processed aerosol can be quite different than pre-cloud aerosol. These differences can be used to improve the parameterization of aerosol forcing in climate models.

Ogren, John A.; Sheridan, Patrick S.; Andrews, Elisabeth

2009-03-05T23:59:59.000Z

209

Final Technical Report for "Radiative Heating Associated with Tropical Convective Cloud Systems: Its Importance at Meso and Global Scales"  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Heating associated with tropical cloud systems drive the global circulation. The overall research objectives of this project were to i) further quantify and understand the importance of heating in tropical convective cloud systems with innovative observational techniques, and ii) use global models to determine the large-scale circulation response to variability in tropical heating profiles, including anvil and cirrus cloud radiative forcing. The innovative observational techniques used a diversity of radar systems to create a climatology of vertical velocities associated with the full tropical convective cloud spectrum along with a dissection of the of the total heating profile of tropical cloud systems into separate components (i.e., the latent, radiative, and eddy sensible heating). These properties were used to validate storm-scale and global climate models (GCMs) and were further used to force two different types of GCMs (one with and one without interactive physics). While radiative heating was shown to account for about 20% of the total heating and did not have a strong direct response on the global circulation, the indirect response was important via its impact on convection, esp. in how radiative heating impacts the tilt of heating associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), a phenomenon that accounts for most tropical intraseasonal variability. This work shows strong promise in determining the sensitivity of climate models and climate processes to heating variations associated with cloud systems.

Schumacher, Courtney

2012-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

210

Air Force Enhanced Use Lease  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e Headquarters U.S. Air Force 1 Air Force Enhanced Use Lease Mr. Brian Brown 16 Oct. 12 I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e 2...

211

Air Force Renewable Energy Programs  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

in All We Do" I n t e g r i t y - S e r v i c e - E x c e l l e n c e THINK GREEN, BUILD GREEN, Topics Air Force Energy Use Air Force Facility Energy Center Current RE...

212

Integrating fiber optic radiation dosimeter  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The purpose of this research effort was to determine the feasibility of forming a radiation sensor coupled to an optical fiber capable of measuring gamma photon, x-ray, and beta particle dose rates and integrated dose, and to construct a prototype dosimeter read-out system utilizing the fiber optic sensor. The key component of the prototype dosimeter system is a newly developed radiation sensitive storage phosphor. When this phosphor is excited by energetic radiation, a proportionate population of electron-hole pairs are created which become trapped at specific impurities within the phosphor. Trapped electrons can subsequently be stimulated optically with near-infrared at approximately 1 micrometer wavelength; the electrons can recombine with holes at luminescent centers to produce a luminescence which is directly proportional to the trapped electron population, and thus to the radiation exposure. By attaching the phosphor to the end of an optical fiber, it is possible to transmit both the IR optical stimulation and the characteristic phosphor luminescence through the fiber to and from the read-out instrument, which can be located far (e.g., kilometers) from the radiation field. This document reports on the specific design of the prototype system and its operating characteristics, including its sensitivity to various radiation dose rates and energies, its dynamic range, signal-to-noise ratio at various radiation intensities, and other system characteristics. Additionally, the radiation hardness of the phosphor and fiber are evaluated. 17 refs., 29 figs., 5 tabs.

Soltani, P.K.; Wrigley, C.Y.; Storti, G.M.; Creager, R.E.

1989-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

213

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

214

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

Hunt, Arlon J. (Oakland, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

215

University Research Program in Robotics - "Technologies for Micro-Electrical-Mechanical Systems in directed Stockpile Work (DSW) Radiation and Campaigns", Final Technical Annual Report, Project Period 9/1/06 - 8/31/07  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The University Research Program in Robotics (URPR) is an integrated group of universities performing fundamental research that addresses broad-based robotics and automation needs of the NNSA Directed Stockpile Work (DSW) and Campaigns. The URPR mission is to provide improved capabilities in robotics science and engineering to meet the future needs of all weapon systems and other associated NNSA/DOE activities.

James S. Tulenko; Carl D. Crane

2007-12-13T23:59:59.000Z

216

Radiation Beyond Four Space-Time Dimensions  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a list of formulas describing classical radiation of the rank s tensor field from an accelerated point-like source in flat space-time of arbitrary even dimension d. This allows straightforward evaluating the total intensity and radiated momentum for any $s$ and $d$ algorithmically, by hands or with the help of a computer (e.g. with an attached MAPLE program). Practical application of formulas is limited, because, for s>1, the energy-momentum tensor for the point-like source is not conserved. This usually means that one cannot neglect contributions to radiation from tensions of the forces that cause acceleration of the source.

A. Mironov; A. Morozov

2007-03-09T23:59:59.000Z

217

Time encoded radiation imaging  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

218

Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

Stoffel, T

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Quantized friction force: Lindbladian model satisfying Ehrenfest theorems  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We construct a quantum counterpart of classical friction, a dissipative force acting against the direction of motion with the magnitude proportional to particle's velocity. In particular, a Lindblad master equation is derived satisfying the appropriate dynamical relations for observables (i.e., the Ehrenfest theorems). These findings significantly advance a long search for a universal valid Lindbladian model of quantum friction.

Denys I. Bondar; Renan Cabrera; Andre Campos; Herschel A. Rabitz

2014-12-05T23:59:59.000Z

220

Histomechanics of arteries due to altered mechanical forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. Conversely, segments of artery that re-endothelialized re- tarrrcd tlreir abilitv to dnrease lhei?lian&ctcr to decreased flow. fvlalek aml Izuu&o [17] &le&n&&r&s&, &ai, ed the su&loth&&lial cell's ability to be, directly iuflueuccd by n&cchan- ical forces...

Bartsch, Heather Renee

2003-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Radiative acceleration and transient, radiation-induced electric fields  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The radiative acceleration of particles and the electrostatic potential fields that arise in low density plasmas hit by radiation produced by a transient, compact source are investigated. We calculate the dynamical evolution and asymptotic energy of the charged particles accelerated by the photons and the radiation-induced electric double layer in the full relativistic, Klein-Nishina regime. For fluxes in excess of $10^{27}$ ${\\rm erg} {\\rm cm}^{-2} {\\rm s}^{-1}$, the radiative force on a diluted plasma ($n\\la 10^{11}$ cm$^{-3}$) is so strong that electrons are accelerated rapidly to relativistic speeds while ions lag behind owing to their larger inertia. The ions are later effectively accelerated by the strong radiation-induced double layer electric field up to Lorentz factors $\\approx 100$, attainable in the case of negligible Compton drag. The asymptotic energies achieved by both ions and electrons are larger by a factor 2--4 with respect to what one could naively expect assuming that the electron-ion assembly is a rigidly coupled system. The regime we investigate may be relevant within the framework of giant flares from soft gamma-repeaters.

L. Zampieri; R. Turolla; L. Foschini; A. Treves

2003-04-14T23:59:59.000Z

222

Standoff alpha radiation detection via excited state absorption of air  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A standoff alpha radiation detection technique based on the physical mechanism of excited state absorption of air molecules was explored and is presented in this paper. Instead of directly detecting the radiation via measuring the intensity of radiation induced air fluorescence, the radiation is detected via the excited state absorption of alpha radiation excited/ionized air molecules. Both theoretical analyses and experimental verifications were conducted. The experimental results confirmed that the radiation could be detected via excited state absorption of radiation excited/ionized air molecules at a 10 m standoff distance, which was consistent with the theoretical analyses.

Yao, Jimmy; Yin, Stuart Shizhuo [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Brenizer, Jack [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)] [Department of Mechanical and Nuclear Engineering, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States); Hui, Rongqing [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)] [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, The University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas 66045 (United States)

2013-06-24T23:59:59.000Z

223

NEW SOURCES OF RADIATION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Project Report No. 75/07.IBL 79M0733 Fig. 20. Radiation emission pattern by electronsWinick, Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Fig. 21.

Schimmerling, W.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

224

Radiation-induced angiosarcoma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1a Figure 1b Figure 1. Radiation-induced angiosarcoma in afollowing completion of radiation therapy. Figure 2a Figurecell histiocytosis after radiation for breast carcinoma: can

Anzalone, C Lane; Cohen, Philip R; Diwan, Abdul H; Prieto, Victor G

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

225

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

226

Lateral forces on nanoparticles near a surface under circularly-polarized plane-wave illumination  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Optical forces allow manipulation of small particles and control of nanophotonic structures with light beams. Here, we describe a counter-intuitive lateral optical force acting on particles placed above a substrate, under uniform plane wave illumination without any field gradients. We show that under circularly-polarized illumination, nanoparticles experience a lateral force as a result of dipolar, spin-sensitive scattering, with a magnitude comparable to other optical forces. To this end, we rigorously calculate the force experienced by a circularly polarized dipole radiating above a surface. Unlike for linearly-polarized dipoles, force components parallel to the surface can exist, caused by the recoil of unidirectional guided modes excited at the surface and/or by dipole-dipole interactions with the induced image dipole. These results were presented and discussed in conferences [1] and [2].

Rodríguez-Fortuño, Francisco J; Engheta, Nader; Zayats, Anatoly V

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

227

Prediction of vehicle impact forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas ARM University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE May 1990 Major Subject...: Civil Engineering PREDICTION OF VEHICLE IMPACT FORCES A Thesis by DARRELL LAINE KADERKA Approved as to style and content by: C. Eugene Buth (Chair of Committee) W. ynn Beason (Member) I? D n E. B ay (Member) es T. P. Yao (Departmen Head) May...

Kaderka, Darrell Laine

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

228

Surface Power Radiative Cooling Tests  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Terrestrial nuclear power plants typically maintain their temperature through convective cooling, such as water and forced air. However, the space environment is a vacuum environment, typically 10-8 Torr pressure, therefore in proposed missions to the lunar surface, power plants would have to rely on radiative cooling to remove waste heat. Also, the Martian surface has a very tenuous atmosphere (e.g. {approx}5 Torr CO2), therefore, the main heat transfer method on the Martian surface is also radiative. Because of the lack of atmosphere on the Moon and the tenuous atmosphere on Mars, surface power systems on both the Lunar and Martian surface must rely heavily on radiative heat transfer. Because of the large temperature swings on both the lunar and the Martian surfaces, trying to radiate heat is inefficient. In order to increase power system efficiency, an effort is underway to test various combinations of materials with high emissivities to demonstrate their ability to survive these degrading atmospheres to maintain a constant radiator temperature improving surface power plant efficiency. An important part of this effort is the development of a unique capability that would allow the determination of a materials emissivity at high temperatures. A description of the test capability as well as initial data is presented.

Vaughn, Jason; Schneider, Todd [Environmental Effects Branch, EM50, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, AL 35812 (United States)

2006-01-20T23:59:59.000Z

229

Radiation-induced lung injury  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The use of radiation therapy is limited by the occurrence of the potentially fatal clinical syndromes of radiation pneumonitis and fibrosis. Radiation pneumonitis usually becomes clinically apparent from 2 to 6 months after completion of radiation therapy. It is characterized by fever, cough, dyspnea, and alveolar infiltrates on chest roentgenogram and may be difficult to differentiate from infection or recurrent malignancy. The pathogenesis is uncertain, but appears to involve both direct lung tissue toxicity and an inflammatory response. The syndrome may resolve spontaneously or may progress to respiratory failure. Corticosteroids may be effective therapy if started early in the course of the disease. The time course for the development of radiation fibrosis is later than that for radiation pneumonitis. It is usually present by 1 year following irradiation, but may not become clinically apparent until 2 years after radiation therapy. It is characterized by the insidious onset of dyspnea on exertion. It most often is mild, but can progress to chronic respiratory failure. There is no known successful treatment for this condition. 51 references.

Rosiello, R.A.; Merrill, W.W. (Yale Univ. Medical Center, New Haven, CT (USA))

1990-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Is Gravity an Entropic Force?  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde's example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde's argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.

Shan Gao

2011-07-16T23:59:59.000Z

231

Radiative Heating of the ISCCP Upper Level Cloud Regimes and its Impact on the Large-scale Tropical Circulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Radiative heating profiles of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud regimes (or weather states) were estimated by matching ISCCP observations with radiative properties derived from cloud radar and lidar measurements from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites at Manus, Papua New Guinea, and Darwin, Australia. Focus was placed on the ISCCP cloud regimes containing the majority of upper level clouds in the tropics, i.e., mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), deep cumulonimbus with cirrus, mixed shallow and deep convection, and thin cirrus. At upper levels, these regimes have average maximum cloud occurrences ranging from 30% to 55% near 12 km with variations depending on the location and cloud regime. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating contributions from the longwave and shortwave components. Upper level minima occur near 15 km, with the MCS regime showing the strongest cooling of 0.2 K/day and the thin cirrus showing no cooling. The gradient of upper level heating ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 K/(day?km), with the most convectively active regimes (i.e., MCSs and deep cumulonimbus with cirrus) having the largest gradient. When the above heating profiles were applied to the 25-year ISCCP data set, the tropics-wide average profile has a radiative heating maximum of 0.45Kday-1 near 250 hPa. Column-integrated radiative heating of upper level cloud accounts for about 20% of the latent heating estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The ISCCP radiative heating of tropical upper level cloud only slightly modifies the response of an idealized primitive equation model forced with the tropics-wide TRMM PR latent heating, which suggests that the impact of upper level cloud is more important to large-scale tropical circulation variations because of convective feedbacks rather than direct forcing by the cloud radiative heating profiles. However, the height of the radiative heating maxima and gradient of the heating profiles are important to determine the sign and patterns of the horizontal circulation anomaly driven by radiative heating at upper levels.

Li, Wei; Schumacher, Courtney; McFarlane, Sally A.

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

232

Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2 Naoko effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires9 during July-October are investigated region the overall TOA radiative effect from the23 biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due

Wood, Robert

233

Force measuring valve assemblies, systems including such valve assemblies and related methods  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include stroking a valve member and measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke. Methods of evaluating a fluid condition may include measuring a force acting on a valve member in the presence of fluid flow over a period of time and evaluating at least one of the frequency of changes in the measured force over the period of time and the magnitude of the changes in the measured force over the period of time to identify the presence of an anomaly in a fluid flow and, optionally, its estimated location. Methods of evaluating a valve condition may include directing a fluid flow through a valve while stroking a valve member, measuring a force acting on the valve member during the stroke, and comparing the measured force to a reference force. Valve assemblies and related systems are also disclosed.

DeWall, Kevin George (Pocatello, ID); Garcia, Humberto Enrique (Idaho Falls, ID); McKellar, Michael George (Idaho Falls, ID)

2012-04-17T23:59:59.000Z

234

PHYSICAL REVIEW E 84, 031108 (2011) Noise associated with nonconservative forces in optical traps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

nonconservative fluctuations to direct thermal fluctuations scales inversely with the square root of trap power) It is known that for a particle held in an optical trap the interaction of thermal fluctuations by a force Fg proportional to the optical intensity gradient. The force exerted on the particle

La Porta, Arthur

235

Numerical Investigation of Flow Fields and Forces for 2-D Squeeze Film Dampers  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

that the journal amplitude and frequency affect flow and consequently force in the SFD. The force is directly proportional to frequency and motion amplitude. Owing to the presence of cavitation in the practical SFD, the two phase flow model is also presented...

Neadkratoke, Terdsak

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

236

Comparison of Experimental and Theoretical Forces on a Model Dredge Cutterhead  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

in the laboratory. The effects of the depth of cut, direction of swing, and cutter rpm on the forces acting on the cutter head are evaluated. The forces on the cutterhead are determined through the use of a set of six load cells rated at 13.3 kN (3000 lb). The load...

Permenter, Rusty

2011-02-22T23:59:59.000Z

237

Transitional regimes of natural convection in a differentially heated cubical cavity under the effects of wall and molecular gas radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The transition to unsteadiness and the dynamics of weakly turbulent natural convection, coupled to wall or gas radiation in a differentially heated cubical cavity with adiabatic lateral walls, are studied numerically. The working fluid is air with small contents of water vapor and carbon dioxide whose infrared spectral radiative properties are modelled by the absorption distribution function model. A pseudo spectral Chebyshev collocation method is used to solve the flow field equations and is coupled to a direct ray tracing method for radiation transport. Flow structures are identified by means of either the proper orthogonal decomposition or the dynamic mode decomposition methods. We first retrieve the classical mechanism of transition to unsteadiness without radiation, characterized by counter-rotating streamwise-oriented vortices generated at the exit of the vertical boundary layers. Wall radiation through a transparent medium leads to a homogenization of lateral wall temperatures and the resulting transition mechanism is similar to that obtained with perfectly conducting lateral walls. The transition is due to an unstable stratification upstream the vertical boundary layers and is characterized by periodically oscillating transverse rolls of axis perpendicular to the main flow. When molecular gas radiation is accounted for, no periodic solution is found and the transition to unsteadiness displays complex structures with chimneys-like rolls whose axes are again parallel to the main flow. The origin of this instability is probably due to centrifugal forces, as suggested previously for the case without radiation. Above the transition to unsteadiness, at Ra = 3 × 10{sup 8}, it is shown that both wall and gas radiation significantly intensify turbulent fluctuations, decrease the thermal stratification in the core of the cavity, and increase the global circulation.

Soucasse, L.; Rivière, Ph.; Soufiani, A., E-mail: anouar.soufiani@ecp.fr [CNRS, UPR 288, Laboratoire EM2C, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry (France); École Centrale Paris, 92290 Châtenay-Malabry (France)] [France; Xin, S. [CNRS/INSA-Lyon, UMR 5008, CETHIL, 69621 Villeurbanne (France)] [CNRS/INSA-Lyon, UMR 5008, CETHIL, 69621 Villeurbanne (France); Le Quéré, P. [CNRS, UPR 3251, LIMSI, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)] [CNRS, UPR 3251, LIMSI, 91403 Orsay Cedex (France)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

238

Directives Help - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Directives Help by Website Administrator All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a...

239

Identification of dynamic force coefficients of a labyrinth and gas damper seal using impact load excitations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

, and the seal displacement and acceleration time responses in two orthogonal directions are measured. A frequency domain parameter identification procedure allows the determination of the seals' dynamic force coefficients over a frequency range. Tests are made...

Ransom, David Lawrence

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

240

ILD 9: Name: ____________________ Tutorial section _______ Making a model: Thinking about electric force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ILD 9: Name: ____________________ Tutorial section _______ Making a model: Thinking about electric force © University of Maryland Physics Education Research Group, Spring 2003 Directions: This sheet: Personal Experiences: What experiences have you had that you attribute to static electricity? Considering

Maryland at College Park, University of

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Method of lightening radiation darkened optical elements  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A method of lightening a radiation-darkened optical element in wich visible optical energy or electromagnetic radiation having a wavelength in the range of from about 2000 to about 20,000 angstroms is directed into the radiation-darkened optical element; the method may be used to lighten radiation-darkened optical element in-situ during the use of the optical element to transmit data by electronically separating the optical energy from the optical output by frequency filtering, data cooling, or interlacing the optic energy between data intervals.

Reich, Frederich R. (Richland, WA); Schwankoff, Albert R. (W. Richland, WA)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

U.S. Air Force Fact Sheet Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps Mission Develop Quality Leaders for the Air Force. Personnel and Resources Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (ROTC) includes four,796 new Second Lieutenants who entered active duty in the United States Air Force. Organization Air Force

Su, Xiao

243

Magnus force in discrete and continuous two-dimensional superfluids  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Motion of vortices in two-dimensional superfluids in the classical limit is studied by solving the Gross-Pitaevskii equation numerically on a uniform lattice. We find that, in the presence of a superflow directed along one of the main lattice periods, vortices move with the superflow on fine lattices but perpendicular to it on coarse ones. We interpret this result as a transition from the full Magnus force in a Galilean-invariant limit to vanishing effective Magnus force in a discrete system, in agreement with the existing experiments on vortex motion in Josephson junction arrays.

Gecse, Z.; Khlebnikov, S. [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 (United States)

2005-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

244

Spin contribution to the ponderomotive force in a plasma  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The concept of a ponderomotive force due to the intrinsic spin of electrons is developed. An expression containing both the classical as well as the spin-induced ponderomotive force is derived. The results are used to demonstrate that an electromagnetic pulse can induce a spin-polarized plasma. Furthermore, it is shown that for certain parameters, the nonlinear back-reaction on the electromagnetic pulse from the spin magnetization current can be larger than that from the classical free current. Suitable parameter values for a direct test of this effect are presented.

G. Brodin; A. P. Misra; M. Marklund

2010-07-30T23:59:59.000Z

245

On the forces acting on a small particle in an acoustical field in a viscous fluid  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We calculate the acoustic radiation force from an ultrasound wave on a compressible, spherical particle suspended in a viscous fluid. Using Prandtl--Schlichting boundary-layer theory, we include the kinematic viscosity of the solvent and derive an analytical expression for the resulting radiation force, which is valid for any particle radius and boundary-layer thickness provided that both of these length scales are much smaller than the wavelength of the ultrasound wave (mm in water at MHz frequencies). The acoustophoretic response of suspended microparticles is predicted and analyzed using parameter values typically employed in microchannel acoustophoresis.

Settnes, Mikkel

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Nuclear force in Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform the quenched lattice QCD analysis on the nuclear force (baryon-baryon interactions). We employ $20^3\\times 24$ lattice at $\\beta=5.7$ ($a\\simeq 0.19$ fm) with the standard gauge action and the Wilson quark action with the hopping parameters $\\kappa=0.1600, 0.1625, 0.1650$, and generate about 200 gauge configurations. We measure the temporal correlators of the two-baryon system which consists of heavy-light-light quarks. We extract the inter-baryon force as a function of the relative distance $r$. We also evaluate the contribution to the nuclear force from each ``Feynman diagram'' such as the quark-exchange diagram individually, and single out the roles of Pauli-blocking effects or quark exchanges in the inter-baryon interactions.

T. T. Takahashi; T. Doi; H. Suganuma

2006-01-05T23:59:59.000Z

247

Alpha Radiation  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth (AOD)ProductssondeadjustsondeadjustAbout theOFFICE OF RESEARCHThermal SolarAllocatioBasics of Radiation Gamma

248

Casimir Friction Force for Moving Harmonic Oscillators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Casimir friction is analyzed for a pair of dielectric particles in relative motion. We first adopt a microscopic model for harmonically oscillating particles at finite temperature T moving non-relativistically with constant velocity. We use a statistical-mechanical description where time-dependent correlations are involved. This description is physical and direct, and, in spite of its simplicity, is able to elucidate the essentials of the problem. This treatment elaborates upon, and extends, an earlier theory of ours back in 1992. The energy change Delta E turns out to be finite in general, corresponding to a finite friction force. In the limit of zero temperature the formalism yields, however, Delta E ->0, this being due to our assumption about constant velocity, meaning slowly varying coupling. For couplings varying more rapidly, there will also be a finite friction force at T=0. As second part of our work, we consider the friction problem using time-dependent perturbation theory. The dissipation, basically a second order effect, is obtainable with the use of first order theory, the reason being the absence of cross terms due to uncorrelated phases of eigenstates. The third part of the present paper is to demonstrate explicitly the equivalence of our results with those recently obtained by Barton (2010); this being not a trivial task since the formal results are seemingly quite different from each other.

Johan S. Høye; Iver Brevik

2011-11-21T23:59:59.000Z

249

Interaction forces between oilwater particle interfaces--Non-DLVO forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

silica sphere and a butyl or octyl acetate droplet was measured in an aqueous environment using atomic of the water solubility of the organic liquid, in that the same force­distance characteristics were obtained in industrial applications. They include formulation, stability, and rheological properties of emulsions

Chan, Derek Y C

250

Galaxies that Shine: radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of disk galaxies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation feedback is typically implemented using subgrid recipes in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies. Very little work has so far been performed using radiation-hydrodynamics (RHD), and there is no consensus on the importance of radiation feedback in galaxy evolution. We present RHD simulations of isolated galaxy disks of different masses with a resolution of 18 pc. Besides accounting for supernova feedback, our simulations are the first galaxy-scale simulations to include RHD treatments of photo-ionisation heating and radiation pressure, from both direct optical/UV radiation and multi-scattered, re-processed infrared (IR) radiation. Photo-heating smooths and thickens the disks and suppresses star formation about as much as the inclusion of ("thermal dump") supernova feedback does. These effects decrease with galaxy mass and are mainly due to the prevention of the formation of dense clouds, as opposed to their destruction. Radiation pressure, whether from direct or IR radiation, has little effect, but ...

Rosdahl, Joakim; Teyssier, Romain; Agertz, Oscar

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

251

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device is disclosed for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed. 3 figs.

Sanders, S.T.; Niemann, R.C.

1999-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

252

Automatic HTS force measurement instrument  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device for measuring the levitation force of a high temperature superconductor sample with respect to a reference magnet includes a receptacle for holding several high temperature superconductor samples each cooled to superconducting temperature. A rotatable carousel successively locates a selected one of the high temperature superconductor samples in registry with the reference magnet. Mechanism varies the distance between one of the high temperature superconductor samples and the reference magnet, and a sensor measures levitation force of the sample as a function of the distance between the reference magnet and the sample. A method is also disclosed.

Sanders, Scott T. (Valparaiso, IN); Niemann, Ralph C. (Downers Grove, IL)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

253

Casimir force on a piston  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider a massless scalar field obeying Dirichlet boundary conditions on the walls of a two-dimensional L x b rectangular box, divided by a movable partition (piston) into two compartments of dimensions a x b and (L-a) x b. We compute the Casimir force on the piston in the limit L -> infinity. Regardless of the value of a/b, the piston is attracted to the nearest end of the box. Asymptotic expressions for the Casimir force on the piston are derived for a > b.

R. M. Cavalcanti

2004-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

254

Radiation Pressure in Massive Star Formation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Stars with masses of >~ 20 solar masses have short Kelvin times that enable them to reach the main sequence while still accreting from their natal clouds. The resulting nuclear burning produces a huge luminosity and a correspondingly large radiation pressure force on dust grains in the accreting gas. This effect may limit the upper mass of stars that can form by accretion. Indeed, simulations and analytic calculations to date have been unable to resolve the mystery of how stars of 50 solar masses and up form. We present two new ideas to solve the radiation pressure problem. First, we use three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamic adaptive mesh refinement simulations to study the collapse of massive cores. We find that in three dimensions a configuration in which radiation holds up an infalling envelope is Rayleigh-Taylor unstable, leading radiation driven bubbles to collapse and accretion to continue. We also present Monte Carlo radiative transfer calculations showing that the cavities created by protostellar winds provides a valve that allow radiation to escape the accreting envelope, further reducing the ability of radiation pressure to inhibit accretion.

Mark R. Krumholz; Richard I. Klein; Christopher F. McKee

2005-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

255

AFRRI (Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute). Annual research report, 1 October 1984-30 September 1985  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst.(AFRRI) is the primary DOD facility for scientific research in the field of radiobiology and related matters. It conducts applied and basic research that is essential for the operational and medical support of the DOD. The work is carried out by five scientific departments: Behavioral sciences - Effects on ionizing radiation, chemicals, and drugs on performance. Biochemistry - Elucidation of mechanisms of injury, repair, and protection from the effects of ionizing radiation alone or in combination with other agents; development of improved methods to detect and quantify the severity of radiation injury. Experimental Hematology - Investigation of radiation injury of bone marrow; development of therapy for damage from intermediate radiation doses; determination and treatment of injuries caused by combined effects of radiation, blast, and burns. Physiology - Research on cellular, tissue, and whole-animal models to determine physiological and biophysical changes resulting from radiation either alone or in combination with drugs and other chemicals. and Radiation Sciences - Operation, maintenance, and quality control of all AFRRI radiation sources, radiation dosimetry and estimation of tissue doses at various depths in different kinds if tissues; development and use of nuclear medicine and magnetic spectroscopic techniques for determining radiation damage in animals and model systems.

Not Available

1985-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

256

LABORATORY II FORCE AND CONSERVATION OF ENERGY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

LABORATORY II FORCE AND CONSERVATION OF ENERGY Lab II - 1 After studying forces and material bodies the relationship between forces and energy conservation. Energy and forces, together, support an extremely be able to: · State the principle of conservation of energy; state the relationship between the work done

Minnesota, University of

257

October 9, 2014- SEAB Task Force Meeting  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

SECRETARY OF ENERGY ADVISORY BOARDTask Force Meeting on Technology Development for Environmental Management (EM)

258

Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities: Ensuring Resources to Meet Projected Utilities Need to Do More to Prepare for Their Future Work Force Needs.............................................................................20 #12;ii Work Force Planning for Public Power Utilities #12;1 Work Force Planning for Public Power

259

Solvent-induced forces in protein folding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The solvent-induced forces between various groups on the protein are examined. It is found that the intramolecular hydrophilic forces are likely to be the strongest forces mediated through the solvent. It is argued that these are probably the most important solvent-induced driving forces in the process of protein folding.

Ben-Naim, A. (Hebrew Univ., Jerusalem (Israel))

1990-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

260

Determining the role of hydration forces in protein folding  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

One of the primary issues in protein folding is determining what forces drive folding and eventually stabilize the native state. A delicate balance exists between electrostatic forces such as hydrogen bonding and salt bridges, and the hydrophobic effect, which are present for both intramolecular protein interactions and intermolecular contributions with the surrounding aqueous environment. This article describes a combined experimental, theoretical, and computational effort to show how the complexity of aqueous hydration can influence the structure, folding and aggregation, and stability of model protein systems. The unification of the theoretical and experimental work is the development or discovery of effective amino acid interactions that implicitly include the effects of aqueous solvent. The authors show that consideration of the full range of complexity of aqueous hydration forces such as many-body effects, long-ranged character of aqueous solvation, and the assumptions made about the degree of protein hydrophobicity can directly impact the observed structure, folding, and stability of model protein systems.

Sorenson, J.M. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Hura, G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)] [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Life Sciences Div.; Soper, A.K. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom). ISIS Facility] [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Didcot (United Kingdom). ISIS Facility; Pertsemlidis, A. [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry] [Univ. of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry; Head-Gordon, T. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)

1999-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

LABORATORY I FORCES AND EQUILIBRIUM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of equilibrium is the result of a balance among all of the different forces interacting with the object (sections 1-10), chapter 4 (sections 1, 2, 5- 7), the paragraph at equation 6-13, chapter 10 (sections 5 problems before your lecturer addresses this material. So, it is very important that you read the text

Minnesota, University of

262

Complex Forces Affect China's Biodiversity  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

global efforts have been put into biodiversity conservation, but biodiversity loss continues rapidly in biodiversity conservation to the global level and help protect biodiversity in other developing countries Wiley & Sons, Ltd. #12;208 ConservationBiology COMPLEXITY OF INTERACTING FORCES AFFECTING BIODIVERSITY

263

Departmental Directives Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The Order is the primary directive for administering the Department's directives Program. Cancels: DOE O 251.1A

2006-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

264

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

265

Scattering of particles by radiation fields: a comparative analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The features of the scattering of massive neutral particles propagating in the field of a gravitational plane wave are compared with those characterizing their interaction with an electromagnetic radiation field. The motion is geodesic in the former case, whereas in the case of an electromagnetic pulse it is accelerated by the radiation field filling the associated spacetime region. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term entering the equations of motion proportional to the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame. The corresponding classical scattering cross sections are evaluated too.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Maria Haney; Robert T. Jantzen

2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

266

Axial force imparted by a current-free magnetically expanding plasma  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The axial force imparted from a magnetically expanding, current-free, radiofrequency plasma is directly measured. For an argon gas flow rate of 25 sccm and an effective rf input power of {approx}800W, a maximum force of {approx}6mN is obtained; {approx}3mN of which is transmitted via the expanding magnetic field. The measured forces are reasonably compared with a simple fluid model associated with the measured electron pressure. The model suggests that the total force is the sum of an electron pressure inside the source and a Lorentz force due to the electron diamagnetic drift current and the applied radial magnetic field. It is shown that the Lorentz force is greatest near the magnetic nozzle surface where the radial pressure gradient is largest.

Takahashi, Kazunori [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Lafleur, Trevor; Charles, Christine; Alexander, Peter; Boswell, Rod W. [Space Plasma, Power and Propulsion Laboratory, Research School of Physics and Engineering, The Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

267

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE UNIVERSITYOF MARYLAND RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL UNIVERSITY OF MARYLAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2. Radiation Safety Committee (RSC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.4. Radiation Safety Office (RSO

Rubloff, Gary W.

268

First interim report of the Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Federal Fleet Conversion Task Force was created by Executive Order 12844, signed by President Clinton on April 21, 1993. In the Order, the President directed that purchases of alternative fueled vehicles by the Federal Government be substantially increased beyond the levels required by current law. The President charged the Task Force with developing recommendations for carrying out the Executive Order, with special emphasis on setting a course that will lead to the widespread use of alternative fueled vehicles by Federal, State, and local government fleets, by private fleets and, ultimately, by individuals. The chief recommendation of the Task Force is the establishment of a Presidential Clean Cities Initiative. To support creation of the Presidential Initiative, the Task Force identified 38 cities and regions, prioritized into three tiers, for concentrating the Initiative`s efforts in Fiscal Years 1994 through 1996. This concentration of effort is key to the effectiveness of the Initiative. The 38 cities and regions would receive priority funding for Federal vehicle purchases and for infrastructure development. In addition, the Task Force has made specific recommendations for overcoming numerous regulatory, economic, and technical barriers that have slowed the introduction of alternative fueled vehicles into general use.

Not Available

1993-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

Report of the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory convened the ILC Citizens' Task Force to provide guidance and advice to the laboratory to ensure that community concerns and ideas are included in all public aspects of planning and design for a proposed future accelerator, the International Linear Collider. In this report, the members of the Task Force describe the process they used to gather and analyze information on all aspects of the proposed accelerator and its potential location at Fermilab in northern Illinois. They present the conclusions and recommendations they reached as a result of the learning process and their subsequent discussions and deliberations. While the Task Force was charged to provide guidance on the ILC, it became clear during the process that the high cost of the proposed accelerator made a near-term start for the project at Fermilab unlikely. Nevertheless, based on a year of extensive learning and dialogue, the Task Force developed a series of recommendations for Fermilab to consider as the laboratory develops all successor projects to the Tevatron. The Task Force recognizes that bringing a next-generation particle physics project to Fermilab will require both a large international effort and the support of the local community. While the Task Force developed its recommendations in response to the parameters of a future ILC, the principles they set forth apply directly to any large project that may be conceived at Fermilab, or at other laboratories, in the future. With this report, the Task Force fulfills its task of guiding Fermilab from the perspective of the local community on how to move forward with a large-scale project while building positive relationships with surrounding communities. The report summarizes the benefits, concerns and potential impacts of bringing a large-scale scientific project to northern Illinois.

None

2008-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

270

Static Friction Phenomena The following static friction phenomena have a direct dependency on velocity.  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Coulomb Friction Viscous Friction Stribeck Friction Static Friction Phenomena The following static friction phenomena have a direct dependency on velocity. Static Friction Model: Friction force opposes the direction of motion when the sliding velocity is zero. Coulomb Friction Model: Friction force

Simpkins, Alex

271

Scattering by an electromagnetic radiation field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Motion of test particles in the gravitational field associated with an electromagnetic plane wave is investigated. The interaction with the radiation field is modeled by a force term {\\it \\`a la} Poynting-Robertson entering the equations of motion given by the 4-momentum density of radiation observed in the particle's rest frame with a multiplicative constant factor expressing the strength of the interaction itself. Explicit analytical solutions are obtained. Scattering of fields by the electromagnetic wave, i.e., scalar (spin 0), massless spin $\\frac12$ and electromagnetic (spin 1) fields, is studied too.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico

2014-08-21T23:59:59.000Z

272

The two dimensional Cerenkov radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We derive the power spectrum of photons generated by charged particle moving in parallel direction to the graphene-like structure with index of refraction n. While the graphene sheet is conductive, some graphene-like structures, for instance graphene with implanted ions, or, also 2D-glasses, are dielectric media, and it means that it enables the experimental realization of the Cerenkov radiation. We calculate it from the viewpoint of the Schwinger theory of sources.

Miroslav Pardy

2012-09-25T23:59:59.000Z

273

Climatic features of the Mediterranean Sea detected by the analysis of the longwave radiative bulk formulae  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

an open ocean with the same amount of net longwave radiation. Furthermore, the twofold climatic regime's climate system is the net radiation budget at the ocean surface. Due to the scarcity of direct radiationClimatic features of the Mediterranean Sea detected by the analysis of the longwave radiative bulk

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

274

SciTech Connect: Direct Modeling of Scintillator Thickness for...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

and a direct way of doing this is using Monte Carlo-based radiation transport codes. Such simulations can be expensive in terms of computational time, and the codes are...

275

Radiation of a neutral polarizable particle moving uniformly through a thermal radiation field  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the properties of thermal electromagnetic radiation produced by a neutral polarizable nanoparticle moving with an arbitrary relativistic velocity in a heated vacuum background with a fixed temperature. We show that the particle in its own rest frame acquires the radiation temperature of vacuum, multiplied by a velocity-dependent factor, and then emits thermal photons predominantly in the forward direction. The intensity of radiation proves to be much higher than for the particle at rest. For metal particles with high energy, the ratio of emitted and absorbed radiation power is proportional to the Lorentz-factor squared.

G. V. Dedkov; A. A. Kyasov

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

276

E-Print Network 3.0 - airworthiness directives fokker Sample...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

scattering media Summary: direction and it becomes difficult to solve the radiative transport equation, we replace it with either... the Fokker-Planck or the Leakeas-Larsen...

277

Friction forces in cosmological models  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the dynamics of test particles undergoing friction forces in a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) spacetime. The interaction with the background fluid is modeled by introducing a Poynting-Robertson-like friction force in the equations of motion, leading to measurable (at least in principle) deviations of the particle trajectories from geodesic motion. The effect on the peculiar velocities of the particles is investigated for various equations of state of the background fluid and different standard cosmological models. The friction force is found to have major effects on particle motion in closed FRW universes, where it turns the time-asymptotic value (approaching the recollapse) of the peculiar particle velocity from ultra-relativistic (close to light speed) to a co-moving one, i.e., zero peculiar speed. On the other hand, for open or flat universes the effect of the friction is not so significant, because the time-asymptotic peculiar particle speed is largely non-relativistic also in the geodesic case.

Donato Bini; Andrea Geralico; Daniele Gregoris; Sauro Succi

2014-08-23T23:59:59.000Z

278

On the vertical structure of adiabatic wave forcing for the ocean circulation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

: wave-current coupling, radiation stresses, MARS3D, WAVEWATCH III Three-dimensional oceanic flows canOn the vertical structure of adiabatic wave forcing for the ocean circulation Part I: Theory submitted to Ocean Modelling October 5, 2010 hal-00523388,version2-5Oct2010 #12;can be developed. Keywords

279

Forcings and feedbacks in the GeoMIP ensemble for a reduction in solar  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to better understand the impact of solar radiation management on the energy budget. In spite of their veryForcings and feedbacks in the GeoMIP ensemble for a reduction in solar irradiance and increase, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, China, 7 Met Office Hadley Centre, Exeter, UK, 8 Atmospheric Sciences

Robock, Alan

280

The role of forcing and internal dynamics in explaining the ``Medieval Climate Anomaly''  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and relatively high solar output may have contributed to large-scale warmth (e.g. Crowley 2000). The solar, we use model simulations constrained by data assimilation estab- lishing the spatial pattern Data assimilation Á Atmospheric and ocean dynamics Á Radiative forcing 1 Introduction Proxy temperature

Goelzer, Heiko

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Standardization of Chemical Protective Equipment for Protective Forces and Special Agents  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Notice provides requirements for the standardization and procurement of chemical protective equipment for use by Department of Energy (DOE) protective forces and Special Agents of the Transportation Safeguards Division (TSD). DOE N 251.40, dated 5/3/01, extends this directive until 12/31/01. Does not cancel other directives.

2000-03-29T23:59:59.000Z

282

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

283

Solar Radiation Modeling and Measurements for Renewable Energy Applications: Data and Model Quality; Preprint  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Measurement and modeling of broadband and spectral terrestrial solar radiation is important for the evaluation and deployment of solar renewable energy systems. We discuss recent developments in the calibration of broadband solar radiometric instrumentation and improving broadband solar radiation measurement accuracy. An improved diffuse sky reference and radiometer calibration and characterization software and for outdoor pyranometer calibrations is outlined. Several broadband solar radiation model approaches, including some developed at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, for estimating direct beam, total hemispherical and diffuse sky radiation are briefly reviewed. The latter include the Bird clear sky model for global, direct beam, and diffuse terrestrial solar radiation; the Direct Insolation Simulation Code (DISC) for estimating direct beam radiation from global measurements; and the METSTAT (Meteorological and Statistical) and Climatological Solar Radiation (CSR) models that estimate solar radiation from meteorological data. We conclude that currently the best model uncertainties are representative of the uncertainty in measured data.

Myers, D. R.

2003-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

284

Silicon-based optical leaky wave antenna with narrow beam radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

achievable in the electric far-field radiation magnitude inelectric far-field along the direction ? max of maximum radiationelectric field along the aperture. 4.3 Far-field radiation

Song, Qi; Campione, Salvatore; Boyraz, Ozdal; Capolino, Filippo

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

285

THE USE OF THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GRAPHITE AS A RADIATION...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

THE USE OF THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GRAPHITE AS A RADIATION DAMAGE AND FLUX MONITOR. IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS TO THE GENERAL THEORY OF RADIATION DAMAGE Re-direct...

286

Radiation Damage in Nuclear Fuel for Advanced Burner Reactors: Modeling and Experimental Validation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The consortium has completed its existence and we are here highlighting work and accomplishments. As outlined in the proposal, the objective of the work was to advance the theoretical understanding of advanced nuclear fuel materials (oxides) toward a comprehensive modeling strategy that incorporates the different relevant scales involved in radiation damage in oxide fuels. Approaching this we set out to investigate and develop a set of directions: 1) Fission fragment and ion trajectory studies through advanced molecular dynamics methods that allow for statistical multi-scale simulations. This work also includes an investigation of appropriate interatomic force fields useful for the energetic multi-scale phenomena of high energy collisions; 2) Studies of defect and gas bubble formation through electronic structure and Monte Carlo simulations; and 3) an experimental component for the characterization of materials such that comparisons can be obtained between theory and experiment.

Jensen, Niels Gronbech; Asta, Mark; Ozolins, Nigel Browning'Vidvuds; de Walle, Axel van; Wolverton, Christopher

2011-12-29T23:59:59.000Z

287

Determination of the Dark Matter profile from the EGRET excess of diffuse Galactic gamma radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The excess above 1 GeV in the energy spectrum of the diffuse Galactic gamma radiation, measured with the EGRET experiment, can be interpreted as the annihilation of Dark Matter (DM) particles. The DM is distributed in a halo around the Milky Way. Considering the directionality of the gamma ray flux it is possible to determine the halo profile. The DM within the halo has a smooth and a clumpy component.These components can have different profiles as suggested by N-body simulations and the data is indeed compatible with a NFW profile for the diffuse component and a cored profile for the clumpy component.These DM clumps can be partly destroyed by tidal forces from interactions with stars and the gravitational potential of the Galactic disc.This effect mainly decreases the annihilation signal from the Galactic centre (GC). In this paper constraints on the different profiles and the survival probability of the clumps are discussed.

Markus Weber

2007-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

288

Handheld force-controlled ultrasound probe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An hand-held force controlled ultrasound probe has been developed. The controller maintains a prescribed contact force between the probe and a patient's body. The device will enhance the diagnostic capability of free-hand ...

Gilbertson, Matthew Wright

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

Planck's Radiation Law in the Quantized Universe  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Physical research looks for clues to quantum properties of the gravitational field. On the basis of the common Schr\\"odinger theory, a simple model of the quantization of a Friedmann universe comprising dust and radiation is investigated. With regard to energy quantization, the result suggests a universal limitation of the energy spacing between neighbouring quantum states by the Planck energy. Applied to black-body radiation, a modified Planck radiation law follows. If this could be verified in the laboratory, it would provide a direct hint at quantum properties of the space-time manifold.

Rainer Collier

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

290

Nuclear Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

Radiological Threat Task Force Established | National Nuclear Security Administration Facebook Twitter Youtube Flickr RSS People Mission Managing the Stockpile Preventing...

291

Directives Quarterly Updates  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

Listings of new Justification Memoranda and new or revised Directives that have been posted to the DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Portal. Updated quarterly.

292

Another face of DIRECT  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

authors, see for example, tree-Direct [5]. This paper ..... [4] J.M. Gablonsky, Modifications of the DIRECT Algorithm, Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State. University ...

chiter

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Three-body forces and the trinucleons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Three-body forces are discussed in the context of classical, atomic, solid-state and nuclear physics. The basic theoretical ingredients used in the construction of such forces are reviewed. Experimental evidence for three-nucleon forces and an overview of the three-nucleon bound states are presented. 53 refs., 9 figs.

Friar, J.L.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

294

Fluid forces on circular cylinders  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

on the bearings by a least squares linear fit and it vas found that this relation vas expressed bye Fr 0. 00951kZIR I + where /IXI is the absolute sum of the normal loads on the wheel bearings in dynes and Fz is the frictional resistance in dynes. A total... contains the effects of the Von-german vortices which form and release alternately on opposite Fr )L/2 /Vz ~frock fmgo dcp dcg cw mca vvoter surface ~ ass -vertical center of gravity ds os so+ ei 8Fvv FORCE SYSTEM FIGURE IO HFDF MEASURING...

Dean, Robert G

1956-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

295

Quarkonium Binding and Entropic Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A Q-Qbar bound state represents a balance between repulsive kinetic and attractive potential energy. In a hot quark-gluon plasma, the interaction potential experiences medium effects. Color screening modifies the attractive binding force between the quarks, while the increase of entropy with Q-Qbar separation gives rise to a growing repulsion. We study the role of these phenomena for in-medium Q-Qbar binding and dissociation. It is found that the relevant potential for Q-Qbar binding is the free energy F; with increasing Q-Qbar separation, further binding through the internal energy U is compensated by repulsive entropic effects.

Satz, Helmut

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Thermomagnetic Force in Polyatomic Gases  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

decreases as H/P is increased above about 500 Oe/Torr. Another difference in the two effects is that the SB effect is a universal function of H/P for the entire range of values covered. This does not appear to be true in the force effect. For NO... magnetic field also causes a de- crease in the shear viscosity of oxygen. These effects in Oz were later observed in NO and were extensively studied. It was observed that the trans- port coefficients decrease in a magnetic field 8, that the effect...

Larchez, M. E.; Adair, Thomas W.

1971-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

297

Directional measurements for sources of fission neutrons  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Although penetrating neutron and gamma-ray emissions arguably provide the most effective signals for locating sources of nuclear radiation, their relatively low fluxes make searching for radioactive materials a tedious process. Even assuming lightly shielded sources and detectors with large areas and high efficiencies, estimated counting times can exceed several minutes for source separations greater than ten meters. Because determining the source position requires measurements at several locations, each with its own background, the search procedure can be lengthy and difficult to automate. Although directional measurements can be helpful, conventional collimation reduces count rates and increases the detector size and weight prohibitively, especially for neutron instruments. We describe an alternative approach for locating radiation sources that is based on the concept of a polarized radiation field. In this model, the presence of a source adds a directional component to the randomly oriented background radiation. The net direction of the local field indicates the source angle, and the magnitude provides an estimate of the distance to the source. The search detector is therefore seen as a device that responds to this polarized radiation field. Our proposed instrument simply substitutes segmented detectors for conventional single-element ones, so it requires little or no collimating material or additional weight. Attenuation across the detector creates differences in the count rates for opposite segments, whose ratios can be used to calculate the orthogonal components of the polarization vector. Although this approach is applicable to different types of radiation and detectors, in this report we demonstrate its use for sources of fission neutrons by using a prototype fast-neutron detector, which also provides background-corrected energy spectra for the incident neutrons.

Byrd, R.C.; Auchampaugh, G.F.; Feldman, W.C.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

298

Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

299

Plasma parameters and electromagnetic forces induced by the magneto hydro dynamic interaction in a hypersonic argon flow experiment  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

This work proposes an experimental analysis on the magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) interaction induced by a magnetic test body immersed into a hypersonic argon flow. The characteristic plasma parameters are measured. They are related to the voltages arising in the Hall direction and to the variation of the fluid dynamic properties induced by the interaction. The tests have been performed in a hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach 6 and Mach 15. The plasma parameters are measured in the stagnation region in front of the nozzle of the wind tunnel and in the free stream region at the nozzle exit. The test body has a conical shape with the cone axis in the gas flow direction and the cone vertex against the flow. It is placed at the nozzle exit and is equipped with three permanent magnets. In the configuration adopted, the Faraday current flows in a closed loop completely immersed into the plasma of the shock layer. The electric field and the pressure variation due to MHD interaction have been measured on the test body walls. Microwave adsorption measurements have been used for the determination of the electron number density and the electron collision frequency. Continuum recombination radiation and line radiation emissions have been detected. The electron temperature has been determined by means of the spectroscopic data by using different methods. The electron number density has been also determined by means of the Stark broadening of H{sub {alpha}} and the H{sub {beta}} lines. Optical imaging has been utilized to visualize the pattern of the electric current distribution in the shock layer around the test body. The experiments show a considerable effect of the electromagnetic forces produced by the MHD interaction acting on the plasma flow around the test body. A comparison of the experimental data with simulation results shows a good agreement.

Cristofolini, Andrea; Neretti, Gabriele; Borghi, Carlo A. [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Bologna, Viale Risorgimento 2, 40136 Bologna (Italy)

2012-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

300

Radiation source  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Relativistic Winds from Compact Gamma-ray Sources: I. Radiative Acceleration in the Klein-Nishina Regime  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the radiative acceleration to relativistic bulk velocities of a cold, optically thin plasma which is exposed to an external source of gamma-rays. The flow is driven by radiative momentum input to the gas, the accelerating force being due to Compton scattering in the relativistic Klein-Nishina limit. The bulk Lorentz factor of the plasma, Gamma, derived as a function of distance from the radiating source, is compared with the corresponding result in the Thomson limit. Depending on the geometry and spectrum of the radiation field, we find that particles are accelerated to the asymptotic Lorentz factor at infinity much more rapidly in the relativistic regime; and the radiation drag is reduced as blueshifted, aberrated photons experience a decreased relativistic cross section and scatter preferentially in the forward direction. The random energy imparted to the plasma by gamma-rays can be converted into bulk motion if the hot particles execute many Larmor orbits before cooling. This `Compton afterburn' may be a supplementary source of momentum if energetic leptons are injected by pair creation, but can be neglected in the case of pure Klein-Nishina scattering. Compton drag by side-scattered radiation is shown to be more important in limiting the bulk Lorentz factor than the finite inertia of the accelerating medium. The processes discussed here may be relevant to a variety of astrophysical situations where luminous compact sources of hard X- and gamma-ray photons are observed, including active galactic nuclei, galactic black hole candidates, and gamma-ray bursts.

Piero Madau; Christopher Thompson

1999-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

302

Asymptotic normalization coefficients, spectroscopic factors, and direct radiative capture rates  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the norms of the overlap function and the radial bound-state wave function are, correspondingly, the spectroscopic factor SlB jB and unity, the single-particle spec- troscopic factor SlB jB (sp) in Eq. ~5! will equal the spectroscopic factor SlB jB... of the radial overlap function is given by Eq. ~3!, and the asymptotic normalization of the radial bound-state wave function is defined as wnBlB jB~r ! ? r.RN blB jB W 2hB ,lB11/2~2kBr ! r . ~6! By the proper choice of SlB jB (sp) , one can make Eq...

Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

303

COLUMBIA RADIATION LABORATORY RESEARCH INVESTIGATION DIRECTED TOWARD EXTENDING  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr MayAtmospheric Optical Depth7-1D: Vegetation Proposed New Substation Sites Proposed Route BTRIC CNMSMethanoliVP-^"^^? COLUMBIA

304

Micromechanism linear actuator with capillary force sealing  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A class of micromachine linear actuators whose function is based on gas driven pistons in which capillary forces are used to seal the gas behind the piston. The capillary forces also increase the amount of force transmitted from the gas pressure to the piston. In a major subclass of such devices, the gas bubble is produced by thermal vaporization of a working fluid. Because of their dependence on capillary forces for sealing, such devices are only practical on the sub-mm size scale, but in that regime they produce very large force times distance (total work) values.

Sniegowski, Jeffry J. (Albuquerque, NM)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

305

Casimir force for absorbing media in an open quantum system framework: Scalar model  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In this article we compute the Casimir force between two finite-width mirrors at finite temperature, working in a simplified model in 1+1 dimensions. The mirrors, considered as dissipative media, are modeled by a continuous set of harmonic oscillators which in turn are coupled to an external environment at thermal equilibrium. The calculation of the Casimir force is performed in the framework of the theory of open quantum systems. It is shown that the Casimir interaction has two different contributions: the usual radiation pressure from the vacuum, which is obtained for ideal mirrors without dissipation or losses, and a Langevin force associated with the noise induced by the interaction between dielectric atoms in the slabs and the thermal bath. Both contributions to the Casimir force are needed in order to reproduce the analogous Lifshitz formula in 1+1 dimensions. We also discuss the relationship between the electromagnetic properties of the mirrors and the spectral density of the environment.

Lombardo, Fernando C.; Rubio Lopez, Adrian E. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Mazzitelli, Francisco D. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA and IFIBA CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Centro Atomico Bariloche Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina)

2011-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

306

Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Air Force Research Laboratory Placement: Air Force Research Laboratory, Materials and Manufacturing Directorate, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton OH Discipline(s): Materials science/engineering, chemical. Description: We are looking for a qualified candidate to join our team at the Air Force Research Laboratory

Alpay, S. Pamir

307

Equilibrium statistics of an inelastically bouncing ball, subject to gravity and a random force Theodore W. Burkhardt1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the equilibrium of a randomly acceler- ated particle moving on the finite line between two inelasti- cally February 2006; published 18 April 2006 We consider a particle moving on the half line x 0 and subject to a constant force in the -x direction plus a -correlated random force. At x=0 the particle is reflected

308

A generalized approximation for the thermophoretic force on a free-molecular particle.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A general, approximate expression is described that can be used to predict the thermophoretic force on a free-molecular, motionless, spherical particle suspended in a quiescent gas with a temperature gradient. The thermophoretic force is equal to the product of an order-unity coefficient, the gas-phase translational heat flux, the particle cross-sectional area, and the inverse of the mean molecular speed. Numerical simulations are used to test the accuracy of this expression for monatomic gases, polyatomic gases, and mixtures thereof. Both continuum and noncontinuum conditions are examined; in particular, the effects of low pressure, wall proximity, and high heat flux are investigated. The direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) method is used to calculate the local molecular velocity distribution, and the force-Green's-function method is used to calculate the thermophoretic force. The approximate expression is found to predict the calculated thermophoretic force to within 10% for all cases examined.

Gallis, Michail A.; Rader, Daniel John; Torczynski, John Robert

2003-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

309

Directives Quarterly Updates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives

310

Dark Forces At The Tevatron  

DOE Public Access Gateway for Energy & Science Beta (PAGES Beta)

A simple explanation of the W + dijet excess recently reported by the CDF collaboration involves the introduction of a new gauge boson with sizable couplings to quarks, but with no or highly suppressed couplings to leptons. Anomaly-free theories which include such a leptophobic gauge boson must also include additional particle content, which may include a stable and otherwise viable candidate for dark matter. Based on the couplings and mass of the Z` required to generate the CDF excess, we predict such a dark matter candidate to possess an elastic scattering cross section with nucleons on the order of ? ~ 10-40 cm2, providing a natural explanation for the signals reported by the CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA collaborations. In this light, CDF may be observing the gauge boson responsible for the force which mediates the interactions between the dark and visible matter of our universe.

Buckley, Matt [Fermilab; Fileviez Perez, Pavel [Wisconsin U., Madison; Hooper, Dan [Fermilab; Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Neil, Ethan [Fermilab

2011-08-19T23:59:59.000Z

311

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol Naoko Sakaeda,1 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning

Wood, Robert

312

Smith-Purcell radiation on a surface wave  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the radiation from an electron in flight over a surface wave of an arbitrary profile excited in a plane interface. For an electron bunch the conditions are specified under which the overall radiation essentially exceeds the incoherent part. It is shown that the radiation from the bunch with asymmetric density distribution of electrons in the longitudinal direction is partially coherent for waves with wavelengths much shorter than the characteristic longitudinal size of the bunch.

A. A. Saharian

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

313

Smith-Purcell radiation on a surface wave  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the radiation from an electron in flight over a surface wave of an arbitrary profile excited in a plane interface. For an electron bunch the conditions are specified under which the overall radiation essentially exceeds the incoherent part. It is shown that the radiation from the bunch with asymmetric density distribution of electrons in the longitudinal direction is partially coherent for waves with wavelengths much shorter than the characteristic longitudinal size of the bunch.

Saharian, A A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

314

Tunable and collimated terahertz radiation generation by femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A mechanism is proposed for the generation of tunable terahertz (THz) radiation under the application of two femtosecond laser pulses and an external magnetic field, where quick tunnel ionization is achieved that leads to higher plasma density evolution and large residual current for the efficient THz radiation generation. With the optimization of magnetic field, phase difference, and amplitudes of lasers' fields, a THz source can be obtained with tunable frequency and power along with a control on the direction of radiation emission.

Malik, Hitendra K.; Malik, Anil K.

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

315

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

316

Microscreen radiation shield for thermoelectric generator  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention provides a microscreen radiation shield which reduces radiative heat losses in thermoelectric generators such as sodium heat engines without reducing the efficiency of operation of such devices. The radiation shield is adapted to be interposed between a reaction zone and a means for condensing an alkali metal vapor in a thermoelectric generator for converting heat energy directly to electrical energy. The radiation shield acts to reflect infrared radiation emanating from the reaction zone back toward the reaction zone while permitting the passage of the alkali metal vapor to the condensing means. The radiation shield includes a woven wire mesh screen or a metal foil having a plurality of orifices formed therein. The orifices in the foil and the spacing between the wires in the mesh is such that radiant heat is reflected back toward the reaction zone in the interior of the generator, while the much smaller diameter alkali metal atoms such as sodium pass directly through the orifices or along the metal surfaces of the shield and through the orifices with little or no impedance.

Hunt, Thomas K. (Ann Arbor, MI); Novak, Robert F. (Farmington Hills, MI); McBride, James R. (Ypsilanti, MI)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

317

Di usion Approximation of Radiative Transfer Equations in a Channel  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

direction. 1 #12; 1 Introduction Radiative transport equations were #12;rst used to describe the propagationDi#11;usion Approximation of Radiative Transfer Equations in a Channel Guillaume Bal Department by a di#11;usion equation. However, the thickness of the crust is of the order of the transport mean free

Bal, Guillaume

318

Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer 99 (2006) 341348  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

structure on non-LTE, non-diffusive radiation transport and X-ray production is discussed. r 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Keywords: Z-pinch plasma; K-shell X-ray production and spectroscopy; Opacity tungsten wires [2]. Strong j  B forces implode the wire array, which generates nearly 2 MJ of X-rays in o

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

of steam buildings. Radiator Labs developed a mechanism that allows heating systems to control heat transfer at each radiator. The Radiator Labs design utilizes an...

320

The universal radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

THE UNIVERSAL RADIATIVE TRANSPORT EQUATION Rudolph W.The Universal Radiative Transport Equation Rudolph W.The various radiative transport equations used in general

Preisendorfer, Rudolph W

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Tachyons and Gravitational Cherenkov Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

AND GRAVITATIONAL CHERENKOV RADIATION CHARLES SCHWARTZwould emit gravitational radiation. It is very small.gravitational waves; Cherenkov radiation. In a recent work,

Schwartz, Charles

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

322

Radiation Safety Program Annual Review  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

........................................................................10 AREA RADIATION SURVEYS AND CONTAMINATION CONTROL...........................................11.....................................................................................................13 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT meetings of the Radiation Safety Committee where new users and uses of radioactive materials, radiation

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

323

Casimir force between integrable and chaotic pistons  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We have computed numerically the Casimir force between two identical pistons inside a very long cylinder, considering different shapes for the pistons. The pistons can be considered as quantum billiards, whose spectrum determines the vacuum force. The smooth part of the spectrum fixes the force at short distances, and depends only on geometric quantities like the area or perimeter of the piston. However, correcting terms to the force, coming from the oscillating part of the spectrum which is related to the classical dynamics of the billiard, are qualitatively different for classically integrable or chaotic systems. We have performed a detailed numerical analysis of the corresponding Casimir force for pistons with regular and chaotic classical dynamics. For a family of stadium billiards, we have found that the correcting part of the Casimir force presents a sudden change in the transition from regular to chaotic geometries.

Ezequiel Alvarez; Francisco Diego Mazzitelli; Alejandro G. Monastra; Diego A. Wisniacki

2010-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

324

The force exerted by a fireball  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The force exerted by a fireball was deduced both from the change of the equilibrium position of a pendulum and from the change in the pendulum oscillation period. That measured force was found to be several times larger than the force exerted by the ions accelerated across the double layer that is assumed to surround the fireball. The force enhancement that is expected by ion-neutral collisions in the fireball is evaluated to be too small to explain the measured enhanced force. Gas pressure increase, due to gas heating through electron-neutral collisions, as recently suggested [Stenzel et al., J. Appl. Phys. 109, 113305 (2011)], is examined as the source for the force enhancement.

Makrinich, G.; Fruchtman, A. [H.I.T. - Holon Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb St., Holon 58102 (Israel)] [H.I.T. - Holon Institute of Technology, 52 Golomb St., Holon 58102 (Israel)

2014-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

325

Direct/Indirect Costs  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

326

Direct Loan Program (Connecticut)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Connecticut Development Authority’s Direct Loan Program provides direct senior and subordinated loans and mezzanine investments to companies creating or maintaining jobs. Up to $20,000 per job...

327

Magnus force effect in optical manipulation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The effect of the Magnus force in optical micromanipulation has been observed. An ad hoc experiment has been designed based on a one-dimensional optical trap that carries angular momentum. The observed particle dynamics reveals the occurrence of this hydrodynamic force, which is neglected in the common approach. Its measured value is larger than the one predicted by the existing theoretical models for micrometric particles and low Reynolds number, showing that the Magnus force can contribute to unconventional optohydrodynamic trapping and manipulation.

Cipparrone, Gabriella; Pagliusi, Pasquale [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro di Eccellenza CEMIF.CAL, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Istituto per i Processi Chimici e Fisici, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy); Hernandez, Raul Josue; Provenzano, Clementina [Dipartimento di Fisica and Centro di Eccellenza CEMIF.CAL, University of Calabria, Ponte P. Bucci, Cubo 33B, I-87036 Rende (Italy)

2011-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Directives System Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1A, Directives System, dated 1-30-98.

1998-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

329

Direct process for explosives  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A direct process of making ethylenediamine dinitrate through the reaction of ethylenediamine and ammonium nitrate is described.

Akst, I.B.; Stinecipher, M.M.

1982-10-12T23:59:59.000Z

330

WI Radiation Protection  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

331

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

332

Radiative Plasmas At The Edge And Their Basic Properties  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Plasma radiation plays the determining role in temperature balance, equilibrium and stability of plasmas at the edge of fusion devices. The differences in properties of radiative plasmas and pure hydrogen ones are significant. The sound branch is split into two branches, i.e. fast and slow sounds. They may be destabilize by radiation and stabilized by internal relative motion of species. The basic properties of radiative plasmas are discussed in the current presentation. Radiation of multi-electron impurity ions is significant, even if the impurity concentration is small. It depends strongly on the Impurity Distribution Over Ionization States (IDOIS). One can find many interesting effects taking into account the finite relaxation time of IDOIS and thermal forces. In particular, the anomalous sound damping due to the internal friction, decompression shocks, slow thermal waves, and self-sustained thermal oscillation are discussed in the current presentation. Opacity effects also are discussed in the current presentation.

Morozov, D. Kh. [Institute of Nuclear Fusion, RRC 'Kurchatov Institute' Kurchatov square, 1, MOSCOW, 123182 (Russian Federation)

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

333

Using DSMC to compute the force on a particle in a rarefied gas flow.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An approach is presented to compute the force on a spherical particle in a rarefied flow of a monatomic gas. This approach relies on the development of a Green's function that describes the force on a spherical particle in a delta-function molecular velocity distribution function. The gas-surface interaction model in this development allows incomplete accommodation of energy and tangential momentum. The force from an arbitrary molecular velocity distribution is calculated by computing the moment of the force Green's function in the same way that other macroscopic variables are determined. Since the molecular velocity distribution function is directly determined in the DSMC method, the force Green's function approach can be implemented straightforwardly in DSMC codes. A similar approach yields the heat transfer to a spherical particle in a rarefied gas flow. The force Green's function is demonstrated by application to two problems. First, the drag force on a spherical particle at arbitrary temperature and moving at arbitrary velocity through an equilibrium motionless gas is found analytically and numerically. Second, the thermophoretic force on a motionless particle in a motionless gas with a heat flux is found analytically and numerically. Good agreement is observed in both situations.

Gallis, Michail A.; Rader, Daniel John; Torczynski, John Robert

2002-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

334

Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering Project  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation covers the Ellsworth Air Force Base Advanced Metering project and is given at the Spring 2010 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting in Providence, Rhode Island.

335

Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

Esquivel-Sirvent, R

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

Reduction of the Casimir force using aerogels  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

By using silicon oxide based aerogels we show numerically that the Casimir force can be reduced several orders of magnitude, making its effect negligible in nanodevices. This decrease in the Casimir force is also present even when the aerogels are deposited on metallic substrates. To calculate the Casimir force we model the dielectric function of silicon oxide aerogels using an effective medium dielectric function such as the Clausius-Mossotti approximation. The results show that both the porosity of the aerogel and its thickness can be use as control parameters to reduce the magnitude of the Casimir force.

R. Esquivel-Sirvent

2007-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

337

Fast Computation of Optimal Contact Forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and force optimization for the legs of a quadruped robot [21]. Some experimental ... Applications that involve the solution of many FOPs, such as finding the ...

2007-09-28T23:59:59.000Z

338

Interagency Energy Management Task Force Members  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Interagency Energy Management Task Force is led by the Federal Energy Management Program director. Members include energy and sustainability managers from federal agencies.

339

Document prepared by APIC Bioterrorism Task Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

ATTACHMENT Document prepared by APIC Bioterrorism Task Force Judith F. English, Mae Y. Cundiff of civilian populations not recommended. 3. Infection Control Practices for Patient Management Symptomatic

Oliver, Douglas L.

340

RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

COPYRIGHT 2002 Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 98, No'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

Healy, Kevin Edward

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Radiation Damping with Inhomogeneous  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Damping with Inhomogeneous Broadening: Limitations of the Single Bloch Vector Model of inhomoge- neous broadening on radiation damping of free precession signals have been described using 13: 1 7, 2001 KEY WORDS: radiation damping; FID shape; inhomogeneous broadening The phenomenon

Augustine, Mathew P.

342

astroph/9507030 Gravitational Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

astro­ph/9507030 10 Jul 95 Gravitational Radiation and Very Long Baseline Interferometry Ted Pyne of gravitational radiation on astrometric observations. We derive an equation for the time delay measured by two antennae observing the same source in an Einstein­de Sitter spacetime containing gravitational radiation

Fygenson, Deborah Kuchnir

343

Radiation Processing -an overview  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of radiation · Facilities ­ Gamma ­ electrons ­ X-ray ­ Safety · Sterilisation of medical devices · Food irradiation · Material modification #12;3 Content ­ Part 2 · Environmental applications · Other applications Radiation · Energy in the form of waves or moving subatomic particles Irradiation · Exposure to radiation

344

Nuclear Force from Lattice QCD  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The first lattice QCD result on the nuclear force (the NN potential) is presented in the quenched level. The standard Wilson gauge action and the standard Wilson quark action are employed on the lattice of the size 16^3\\times 24 with the gauge coupling beta=5.7 and the hopping parameter kappa=0.1665. To obtain the NN potential, we adopt a method recently proposed by CP-PACS collaboration to study the pi pi scattering phase shift. It turns out that this method provides the NN potentials which are faithful to those obtained in the analysis of NN scattering data. By identifying the equal-time Bethe-Salpeter wave function with the Schroedinger wave function for the two nucleon system, the NN potential is reconstructed so that the wave function satisfies the time-independent Schroedinger equation. In this report, we restrict ourselves to the J^P=0^+ and I=1 channel, which enables us to pick up unambiguously the ``central'' NN potential V_{central}(r). The resulting potential is seen to posses a clear repulsive core of about 500 MeV at short distance (r < 0.5 fm). Although the attraction in the intermediate and long distance regions is still missing in the present lattice set-up, our method is appeared to be quite promising in reconstructing the NN potential with lattice QCD.

Noriyoshi ISHII; Sinya AOKI; Tetsuo HATSUDA

2006-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

345

Directives Templates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct:Directives Templates by Website Administrator Directives

346

Dynamic Force AFM (Asylum) | EMSL  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct:Directives Templates8.Sifting Slush:NewDust takes

347

Radiation Reaction, Renormalization and Poincaré Symmetry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the self-action problem in classical electrodynamics of a massive point-like charge, as well as of a massless one. A consistent regularization procedure is proposed, which exploits the symmetry properties of the theory. The radiation reaction forces in both 4D and 6D are derived. It is demonstrated that the Poincar\\'e-invariant six-dimensional electrodynamics of the massive charge is renormalizable theory. Unlike the massive case, the rates of radiated energy-momentum tend to infinity whenever the source is accelerated. The external electromagnetic fields, which do not change the velocity of the particle, admit only its presence within the interaction area. The effective equation of motion is the equation for eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the electromagnetic tensor. The interference part of energy-momentum radiated by two massive point charges arbitrarily moving in flat spacetime is evaluated. It is shown that the sum of work done by Lorentz forces of charges acting on one another exhausts the effect of combination of outgoing electromagnetic waves generated by the charges.

Yurij Yaremko

2005-11-25T23:59:59.000Z

348

Gravitational Radiation and Very Long Baseline Interferometry  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Gravitational waves affect the observed direction of light from distant sources. At telescopes, this change in direction appears as periodic variations in the apparent positions of these sources on the sky; that is, as proper motion. A wave of a given phase, traveling in a given direction, produces a characteristic pattern of proper motions over the sky. Comparison of observed proper motions with this pattern serves to test for the presence of gravitational waves. A stochastic background of waves induces apparent proper motions with specific statistical properties, and so, may also be sought. In this paper we consider the effects of a cosmological background of gravitational radiation on astrometric observations. We derive an equation for the time delay measured by two antennae observing the same source in an Einstein-de Sitter spacetime containing gravitational radiation. We also show how to obtain similar expressions for curved Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes.

Ted Pyne; Carl R. Gwinn; Mark Birkinshaw; T. Marshall Eubanks; Demetrios N. Matsakis

1995-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

349

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

350

For the Meyer Fund for Sustainable Development and the University of Oregon Department of Physics and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

and Solar Radiation Monitoring Laboratory Page C.1 6/20/2011 Appendix C: Vocabulary The following cell or module Global Irradiance (GHI) Total solar radiation on a horizontal surface Direct Normal

Oregon, University of

351

Gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The attractive gravitational force between two electrons in superconductors is deduced from the Eddington-Dirac large number relation, together with Beck and Mackey electromagnetic model of vacuum energy in superconductors. This force is estimated to be weaker than the gravitational attraction between two electrons in the vacuum.

Clovis Jacinto de Matos

2007-11-19T23:59:59.000Z

352

U.S.Air Force Advanced Power  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

efficiency,improved power distribution,reduced fuel dependency,reduction of noise,heat,and visual signatureU.S.Air Force Advanced Power Technology Office (APTO) U.S.Air Force Advanced Power Technology/Wind Powered Hydrogen Generation for Fuel Cell Applications · Waste-To-Energy APTO/Small Business Innovation

353

An improved proximity force approximation for electrostatics  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A quite straightforward approximation for the electrostatic interaction between two perfectly conducting surfaces suggests itself when the distance between them is much smaller than the characteristic lengths associated with their shapes. Indeed, in the so called 'proximity force approximation' the electrostatic force is evaluated by first dividing each surface into a set of small flat patches, and then adding up the forces due two opposite pairs, the contributions of which are approximated as due to pairs of parallel planes. This approximation has been widely and successfully applied in different contexts, ranging from nuclear physics to Casimir effect calculations. We present here an improvement on this approximation, based on a derivative expansion for the electrostatic energy contained between the surfaces. The results obtained could be useful for discussing the geometric dependence of the electrostatic force, and also as a convenient benchmark for numerical analyses of the tip-sample electrostatic interaction in atomic force microscopes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The proximity force approximation (PFA) has been widely used in different areas. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The PFA can be improved using a derivative expansion in the shape of the surfaces. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use the improved PFA to compute electrostatic forces between conductors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The results can be used as an analytic benchmark for numerical calculations in AFM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Insight is provided for people who use the PFA to compute nuclear and Casimir forces.

Fosco, Cesar D. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina) [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Instituto Balseiro, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Lombardo, Fernando C. [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) [Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); IFIBA (Argentina)] [Argentina; Mazzitelli, Francisco D., E-mail: fdmazzi@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, R8402AGP Bariloche (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica Juan Jose Giambiagi, FCEyN UBA, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Ciudad Universitaria, Pabellon I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

2012-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

354

Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Water Conservation Task Force (2014 Charge) The Task Force will advise the Chancellor and Campus Provost/Executive Vice Chancellor (CP/EVC) on current and past water use and provide recommendations on implementation of policies for potable water use reductions in support of The Regents Policy on Sustainable

California at Santa Cruz, University of

355

Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

UW­Madison Sustainability Initiative Task Force Final Report October 2010 #12;We are pleased to present the final report of the campus Sustainability Task Force. This report fulfills the charge we gave to sustainability for consideration by UW­Madison's leadership and campus community. There are many reasons why

Sheridan, Jennifer

356

Forces on laboratory model dredge cutterhead  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

FORCES ON LABORATORY MODEL DREDGE CUTTERHEAD A Thesis by DUSTIN RAY YOUNG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree... of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 2009 Major Subject: Ocean Engineering FORCES ON LABORATORY MODEL DREDGE CUTTERHEAD A Thesis by DUSTIN RAY YOUNG Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies...

Young, Dustin Ray

2010-07-14T23:59:59.000Z

357

Muon Collider Task Force Report  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Muon Colliders offer a possible long term path to lepton-lepton collisions at center-of-mass energies {radical}s {ge} 1 TeV. In October 2006 the Muon Collider Task Force (MCTF) proposed a program of advanced accelerator R&D aimed at developing the Muon Collider concept. The proposed R&D program was motivated by progress on Muon Collider design in general, and in particular, by new ideas that have emerged on muon cooling channel design. The scope of the proposed MCTF R&D program includes muon collider design studies, helical cooling channel design and simulation, high temperature superconducting solenoid studies, an experimental program using beams to test cooling channel RF cavities and a 6D cooling demonstration channel. The first year of MCTF activities are summarized in this report together with a brief description of the anticipated FY08 R&D activities. In its first year the MCTF has made progress on (1) Muon Collider ring studies, (2) 6D cooling channel design and simulation studies with an emphasis on the HCC scheme, (3) beam preparations for the first HPRF cavity beam test, (4) preparations for an HCC four-coil test, (5) further development of the MANX experiment ideas and studies of the muon beam possibilities at Fermilab, (6) studies of how to integrate RF into an HCC in preparation for a component development program, and (7) HTS conductor and magnet studies to prepare for an evaluation of the prospects for of an HTS high-field solenoid build for a muon cooling channel.

Ankenbrandt, C.; Alexahin, Y.; Balbekov, V.; Barzi, E.; Bhat, C.; Broemmelsiek, D.; Bross, A.; Burov, A.; Drozhdin, A.; Finley, D.; Geer, S.; /Fermilab /Argonne /Brookhaven /Jefferson Lab /LBL, Berkeley /MUONS Inc., Batavia /UCLA /UC, Riverside /Mississippi U.

2007-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

358

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Related Terms Basic Terms Radiation Radiation is energy in transit in the form of high not carry enough energy to separate molecules or remove electrons from atoms. Ionizing radiation Ionizing radiation is radiation with enough energy so that during an interaction with an atom, it can remove tightly

Vallino, Joseph J.

359

Radiation: Facts, Risks and Realities  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of Radiation 3 Understanding Radiation Risks 6 Naturally Occurring (Background) Radiation 7 Man-Made Radiation, beta particles and gamma rays. Other types, such as x-rays, can occur naturally or be machine-produced. Scientists have also learned that radiation sources are naturally all around us. Radiation can come from

360

Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation Kevin E. Trenberth1 and John T. Fasullo1 from an energy budget standpoint comes from increases in absorbed solar radiation that stem directly. T. Fasullo (2009), Global warming due to increasing absorbed solar radiation, Geophys. Res. Lett

Fasullo, John

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Measurement of tool forces in diamond turning  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A dynamometer has been designed and built to measure forces in diamond turning. The design includes a 3-component, piezoelectric transducer. Initial experiments with this dynamometer system included verification of its predicted dynamic characteristics as well as a detailed study of cutting parameters. Many cutting experiments have been conducted on OFHC Copper and 6061-T6 Aluminum. Tests have involved investigation of velocity effects, and the effects of depth and feedrate on tool forces. Velocity has been determined to have negligible effects between 4 and 21 m/s. Forces generally increase with increasing depth of cut. Increasing feedrate does not necessarily lead to higher forces. Results suggest that a simple model may not be sufficient to describe the forces produced in the diamond turning process.

Drescher, J.; Dow, T.A.

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

362

Radiation due to Josephson oscillations in layered superconductors.  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We derive the power of direct radiation into free space induced by Josephson oscillations in intrinsic Josephson junctions of layered superconductors. We consider the superradiation regime for a crystal cut in the form of a thin slice parallel to the c axis. We find that the radiation correction to the current-voltage characteristic in this regime depends only on crystal shape. We show that at a large number of junctions oscillations are synchronized providing high radiation power and efficiency in the terahertz frequency range. We discuss the crystal parameters and bias current optimal for radiation power and crystal cooling.

Bulaevskii, L. N.; Koshelev, A. E.; Materials Science Division; LANL

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

363

Dissecting Soft Radiation with Factorization  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

An essential part of high-energy hadronic collisions is the soft hadronic activity that underlies the primary hard interaction. It includes soft radiation from the primary hard partons, secondary multiple parton interactions (MPI), and factorization-violating effects. The invariant mass spectrum of the leading jet in $Z$+jet and $H$+jet events is directly sensitive to these effects, and we use a QCD factorization theorem to predict its dependence on the jet radius $R$, jet $p_T$, jet rapidity, and partonic process for both the perturbative and nonperturbative components of primary soft radiation. We prove that the nonperturbative contributions involve only odd powers of $R$, and the linear $R$ term is universal for quark and gluon jets. The hadronization model in PYTHIA8 agrees well with these properties. The perturbative soft initial state radiation (ISR) has a contribution that depends on the jet area in the same way as the underlying event, but this degeneracy is broken by dependence on the jet $p_T$. The size of this soft ISR contribution is proportional to the color state of the initial partons, yielding the same positive contribution for $gg\\to Hg$ and $gq\\to Zq$, but a negative interference contribution for $q\\bar q\\to Z g$. Hence, measuring these dependencies allows one to separate hadronization, soft ISR, and MPI contributions in the data.

Iain W. Stewart; Frank J. Tackmann; Wouter J. Waalewijn

2015-02-10T23:59:59.000Z

364

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

365

Evaluation of Arctic Broadband Surface Radiation Measurements  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The Arctic is a challenging environment for making in-situ radiation measurements. A standard suite of radiation sensors is typically designed to measure the total, direct and diffuse components of incoming and outgoing broadband shortwave (SW) and broadband thermal infrared, or longwave (LW) radiation. Enhancements can include various sensors for measuring irradiance in various narrower bandwidths. Many solar radiation/thermal infrared flux sensors utilize protective glass domes and some are mounted on complex mechanical platforms (solar trackers) that rotate sensors and shading devices that track the sun. High quality measurements require striking a balance between locating sensors in a pristine undisturbed location free of artificial blockage (such as buildings and towers) and providing accessibility to allow operators to clean and maintain the instruments. Three significant sources of erroneous data include solar tracker malfunctions, rime/frost/snow deposition on the instruments and operational problems due to limited operator access in extreme weather conditions. In this study, a comparison is made between the global and component sum (direct [vertical component] + diffuse) shortwave measurements. The difference between these two quantities (that theoretically should be zero) is used to illustrate the magnitude and seasonality of radiation flux measurement problems. The problem of rime/frost/snow deposition is investigated in more detail for one case study utilizing both shortwave and longwave measurements. Solutions to these operational problems are proposed that utilize measurement redundancy, more sophisticated heating and ventilation strategies and a more systematic program of operational support and subsequent data quality protocols.

Matsui, N.; Long, Charles N.; Augustine, J. A.; Halliwell, D.; Uttal, Taneil; Longenecker, D.; Niebergale, J.; Wendell, J.; Albee, R.

2012-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

366

Nonlinear Effects of Coexisting Surface and Atmospheric Forcing of Anthropogenic Absorbing Aerosols: Impact on the South Asian Monsoon Onset  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The direct radiative effect of absorbing aerosols consists of absorption-induced atmospheric heating together with scattering- and absorption-induced surface cooling. It is thus important to understand whether some of the ...

Lee, Shao-Yi

367

Detecting solar chameleons through radiation pressure  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Light scalar fields can drive the accelerated expansion of the universe. Hence, they are obvious dark energy candidates. To make such models compatible with tests of General Relativity in the solar system and "fifth force" searches on Earth, one needs to screen them. One possibility is the so-called "chameleon" mechanism, which renders an effective mass depending on the local matter density. If chameleon particles exist, they can be produced in the sun and detected on earth exploiting the equivalent of a radiation pressure. Since their effective mass scales with the local matter density, chameleons can be reflected by a dense medium if their effective mass becomes greater than their total energy. Thus, under appropriate conditions, a flux of solar chameleons may be sensed by detecting the total instantaneous momentum transferred to a suitable opto-mechanical force/pressure sensor. We calculate the solar chameleon spectrum and the reach in the chameleon parameter space of an experiment using the preliminary re...

Baum, S; Hoffmann, D H H; Karuza, M; Semertzidis, Y K; Upadhye, A; Zioutas, K

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Force-controlled absorption in a fully-nonlinear numerical wave tank  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

An active control methodology for the absorption of water waves in a numerical wave tank is introduced. This methodology is based upon a force-feedback technique which has previously been shown to be very effective in physical wave tanks. Unlike other methods, an a-priori knowledge of the wave conditions in the tank is not required; the absorption controller being designed to automatically respond to a wide range of wave conditions. In comparison to numerical sponge layers, effective wave absorption is achieved on the boundary, thereby minimising the spatial extent of the numerical wave tank. In contrast to the imposition of radiation conditions, the scheme is inherently capable of absorbing irregular waves. Most importantly, simultaneous generation and absorption can be achieved. This is an important advance when considering inclusion of reflective bodies within the numerical wave tank. In designing the absorption controller, an infinite impulse response filter is adopted, thereby eliminating the problem of non-causality in the controller optimisation. Two alternative controllers are considered, both implemented in a fully-nonlinear wave tank based on a multiple-flux boundary element scheme. To simplify the problem under consideration, the present analysis is limited to water waves propagating in a two-dimensional domain. The paper presents an extensive numerical validation which demonstrates the success of the method for a wide range of wave conditions including regular, focused and random waves. The numerical investigation also highlights some of the limitations of the method, particularly in simultaneously generating and absorbing large amplitude or highly-nonlinear waves. The findings of the present numerical study are directly applicable to related fields where optimum absorption is sought; these include physical wavemaking, wave power absorption and a wide range of numerical wave tank schemes.

Spinneken, Johannes, E-mail: j.spinneken@imperial.ac.uk; Christou, Marios; Swan, Chris

2014-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

369

Directives System Manual  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1, which establishes requirements for the development, coordination, and sunset review of DOE directives.

1995-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

370

Departmental Directives Program  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

To establish directives as the primary means to set, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors.

2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

371

Direct Loan Program (Kentucky)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Direct Loan Program, is designed to allow businesses to obtain the long term financing needed to encourage growth. The Kentucky Economic Development Finance Authority (KEDFA) may participate...

372

Drag force of Anisotropic plasma at finite $U(1)$ chemical potential  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We perform the calculation of drag force acting on a massive quark moving through an anisotropic ${\\cal N}=4$ SU(N) Super Yang-Mills plasma in the presence of a $U(1)$ chemical potential. We present the numerical results for any real (prolate solution) or imaginary (oblate solution) value of anisotropy and arbitrary direction of the quark velocity with respect to the direction of anisotropy. We find the effect of chemical potential or charge density will enhance the drag force for the prolate solution, and opposite to the oblate solution. On the other hand, as the anisotropy increases, the drag force is enhanced, and the effect of chemical potential strengthens the enhancement.

Long Cheng; Xian-Hui Ge; Shang-Yu Wu

2015-01-16T23:59:59.000Z

373

Field-regulated force by grafted polyelectrolytes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Generation of mechanical force regulated by external electric field is studied both theoretically and by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The force arises in deformable bodies linked to the free end of a grafted polyelectrolyte chain which is exposed to electric field that favours its adsorption. We consider a few target bodies with different force-deformation relations including (i) linear and (ii) cubic dependences as well as (iii) Hertzian-like force. Such force-deformation relations mimic the behaviour of (i) coiled and (ii) stretched polymer chains, respectively, or (iii) that of a squeezed colloidal particle. The magnitude of the arising force varies over a wide interval although the electric field alters within a relatively narrow range only. The predictions of our theory agree quantitatively well with the results of numerical simulations. Both cases of zero and finite electrical current are investigated and we do not obtain substantial differences in the force generated. The phenomenon studied could possibly be utilised to design, e.g., vice-like devices to fix nano-sized objects.

Christian Seidel; Yury A. Budkov; Nikolay V. Brilliantov

2014-11-08T23:59:59.000Z

374

What Will The Neighbors Think? A Discussion with the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

What Will The Neighbors Think? A Discussion with the Fermilab ILC Citizens' Task Force July 27 community play in working directly with the local community to bring the ILC to Fermilab? 5. Why should we build the ILC at Fermilab? What are the benefits for the local community? Why is Fermilab the best site

Quigg, Chris

375

Cerenkov radiation from moving straight strings  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study Cerenkov radiation from moving straight strings which glisse with respect to each other in such a way that the projected intersection point moves faster than light. To calculate this effect we develop classical perturbation theory for the system of Nambu-Goto strings interacting with dilaton, two-form and gravity. In the first order one encounters divergent self-action terms which are eliminated by classical renormalization of the string tension. Cerenkov radiation arises in the second order. It is generated by an effective source which contains contributions localized on the strings world-sheets and bulk contributions quadratic in the first order fields. In the ultra-relativistic limit radiation exhibits angular peaking on the Cerenkov cone in the forward direction of the fast string in the rest frame of another. The radiation spectrum then extends up to high frequencies proportional to square of the Lorentz-factor of the relative velocity. Gravitational radiation is absent since the 1+2 space-time transverse to the straight string does not allow for gravitons. A rough estimate of the Cerenkov radiation in the cosmological cosmic strings network is presented.

D. V. Gal'tsov; E. Yu. Melkumova; K. Salehi

2006-12-30T23:59:59.000Z

376

Departmental Directives System  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The order establishes the directives system to be used for publishing permanent and temporary directives issued by DOE Headquarters and addressed to Headquarters and/or field elements. Chg 1 dated 3-14-85. Cancels DOE 1321.1A.

1983-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

377

Sensing Current and Forces with SPM  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) are well established techniques to image surfaces and to probe material properties at the atomic and molecular scale. In this review, we show hybrid combinations of AFM and STM that bring together the best of two worlds: the simultaneous detection of atomic scale forces and conduction properties. We illustrate with several examples how the detection of forces during STM and the detection of currents during AFM can give valuable additional information of the nanoscale material properties.

Park, Jeong Y.; Maier, Sabine; Hendriksen, Bas; Salmeron, Miquel

2010-07-02T23:59:59.000Z

378

Direct growth of graphene on Si(111)  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Due to the need of integrated circuit in the current silicon technology, the formation of graphene on Si wafer is highly desirable, but is still a challenge for the scientific community. In this context, we report the direct growth of graphene on Si(111) wafer under appropriate conditions using an electron beam evaporator. The structural quality of the material is investigated in detail by reflection high energy electron diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoemission spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, high resolution scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and scanning tunneling microscopy. Our experimental results confirm that the quality of graphene is strongly dependent on the growth time during carbon atoms deposition.

Thanh Trung, Pham, E-mail: phamtha@fundp.ac.be; Joucken, Frédéric; Colomer, Jean-François; Robert, Sporken [Research Center in Physics of Matter and Radiation (PMR), University of Namur (FUNDP), 61 Rue de Bruxelles, 5000 Namur (Belgium); Campos-Delgado, Jessica; Raskin, Jean-Pierre [Electrical Engineering (ELEN), Institute of Information and Communication Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Université catholique de Louvain UCL, 3 place du Levant, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Hackens, Benoît; Santos, Cristiane N. [Nanoscopic physics (NAPS), Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Université catholique de Louvain UCL, 2 chemin du Cyclotron, Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium)

2014-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

379

Solar radiation intensity calculations  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partia'l fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 1978 Major Subject...: Physics SOLAR RADIATION INTENSITY CALCULATIONS A Thesis by RANDOLPH STEVEN LEVINE Approved as to style and content by: (Chairman of Committee) (Member) (Member) ( member) (Head of Department) December 1978 f219 037 ABSTRACT Solar Radiation...

Levine, Randolph Steven

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Atomic Radiation (Illinois)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


381

Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

382

Testing for the Possible Influence of Unknown Climate Forcings upon Global Temperature Increases from 1950-2000  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Global-scale variations in the climate system over the last half of the twentieth century, including long-term increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures, are consistent with concurrent human-induced emissions of radiatively active gases and aerosols. However, such consistency does not preclude the possible influence of other forcing agents, including internal modes of climate variability or unaccounted for aerosol effects. To test whether other unknown forcing agents may have contributed to multidecadal increases in global-mean near-surface temperatures from 1950 to 2000, data pertaining to observed changes in global-scale sea surface temperatures and observed changes in radiatively active atmospheric constituents are incorporated into numerical global climate models. Results indicate that the radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trends in sea surface temperatures—and global-mean near-surface temperatures—is provided predominantly by known changes in greenhouse gases and aerosols. Further, results indicate that less than 10% of the long-term historical increase in global-mean near-surface temperatures over the last half of the twentieth century could have been the result of internal climate variability. In addition, they indicate that less than 25%of the total radiative forcing needed to produce the observed long-term trend in global-mean near-surface temperatures could have been provided by changes in net radiative forcing from unknown sources (either positive or negative). These results, which are derived from simple energy balance requirements, emphasize the important role humans have played in modifying the global climate over the last half of the twentieth century.

Anderson, Bruce T.; Knight, Jeff R.; Ringer, Mark A.; Yoon, Jin-Ho; Cherchi, Annalisa

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

383

Directives - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSCDiesel pricesDirections

384

Directives - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on theArea

385

Directives Help - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on theAreaHelp by

386

Directives Quarterly Updates - DOE Directives, Delegations, and  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on theAreaHelp

387

Directives Tools - DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul(Summary)morphinanInformation Desert Southwest Region service area. The DesertDirections The Laboratory is on

388

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for understanding

Pennycook, Steve

389

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM

Pennycook, Steve

390

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sources. People are exposedAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 Fig. F.1. The hydrogen atom and its

Pennycook, Steve

391

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation G-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation G-3 Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

392

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

393

RADIATIVE COOLING TEST FACILITY AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 4 MIL ALUMINIZED POLYVINYL FLUORIDE AND WHITE PAINT SURFACES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

as temperature, heater power, wind direction, etc. , thatcondensation) RCA 1026 (wind) c:: "7 = (power to heater) w (wind and windscreen condensation (white paint radiator). VARIOUS TEMPERATURES VS POWER

Kruskopf, Mark S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

394

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

395

Scattering theory approach to electrodynamic Casimir forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We give a comprehensive presentation of methods for calculating the Casimir force to arbitrary accuracy, for any number of objects, arbitrary shapes, susceptibility functions, and separations. The technique is applicable ...

Rahi, Sahand Jamal

396

U.S. Air Force UESCs  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

Presentation—given at the Spring 2009 Federal Utility Partnership Working Group (FUPWG) meeting—covers the U.S. Air Force's approval process, submittal requirements, and guidelines for utility energy service contracts (UESCs).

397

Forced orientation of graphs Babak Farzad  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Forced orientation of graphs Babak Farzad Mohammad Mahdian Ebad S. Mahmoodian Amin Saberi§ Bardia, USA. (saberi@cc.gatech.edu) ¶ Department of Computer Science, UIUC, Urbana, USA. (sadri@cs.uiuc.edu) 1

Toronto, University of

398

Macroscopic approach to the Casimir friction force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The general formula is derived for the vacuum friction force between two parallel perfectly flat planes bounding two material media separated by a vacuum gap and moving relative to each other with a constant velocity $\\mathbf{v}$. The material media are described in the framework of macroscopic electrodynamics whereas the nonzero temperature and dissipation are taken into account by making use of the Kubo formulae from non-equilibrium statistical thermodynamics. The formula obtained provides a rigorous basis for calculation of the vacuum friction force within the quantum field theory methods in the condensed matter physics. The revealed $v$-dependence of the vacuum friction force proves to be the following: for zero temperature ($T=0$) it is proportional to $(v/c)^3$ and for $T>0$ this force is linear in $(v/c)$.

V. V. Nesterenko; A. V. Nesterenko

2014-03-13T23:59:59.000Z

399

Clinch River MRS Task Force Recommendations  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Clinch River HRS Task Force was appointed in July 1985 by the Roane County Executive and the Oak Ridge City Council to evaluate the Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility proposed by the...

400

Optical Force Measurements In Concentrated Colloidal Suspensions   

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This work concerns the construction and testing of an optical tweezers-based force transducer, and its application to a hard-sphere colloidal system. A particle in an optical trap forward-scatters a fraction of the ...

Wilson, Laurence

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Static forces in a superconducting magnet bearing  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Static levitation forces and stiffnesses in a superconducting bearing consisting of concentric ring magnets and a superconducting YBaCuO ring are investigated. In the field-cooled mode a levitation force of 20 N has been achieved. The axial and radial stiffnesses have values of 15 N/mm and 10 N/mm, respectively. An arrangement with two bearings supporting a high speed shaft is now under development. A possible application of superconducting magnetic bearings is flywheels for energy storage.

Stoye, P.; Fuchs, G. [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung, Dresden (Germany)] [Institut fuer Festkoerper- und Werkstofforschung, Dresden (Germany); Gawalek, W.; Goernert, P. [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena (Germany)] [Institut fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie, Jena (Germany); Gladun, A. [Technische Univ., Dresden (Germany)] [Technische Univ., Dresden (Germany)

1995-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Directives Quarterly Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives July

403

Directives Quarterly Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives July

404

Directives Quarterly Update  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: https://www.directives.doe.gov/directives/directives July

405

On radiation reaction and the [x,p ] commutator for an accelerating charge  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We formally state the connection between the relativistic part of the radiation reaction and the Poynting Robertson force term, $-Rv/c^2$, where $R$ is power radiated. Then we address the question, does $[x,p]=i \\hb$ for an accelerating charge ? The full radiation reaction term is used, which includes the relativistic term (von Laue vector.). We show that the full relativistic radiation reaction term must be taken into account if a commutation relation between $x$ and $p$ is to hold for an electron under uniform acceleration, consistent with the expectation values of $x^2$ and $p^2$.

H. Fearn

2013-01-26T23:59:59.000Z

406

Galaxy formation with radiative and chemical feedback  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Here we introduce GAMESH, a novel pipeline which implements self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback in a computational model of galaxy formation. By combining the cosmological chemical-evolution model GAMETE with the radiative transfer code CRASH, GAMESH can post process realistic outputs of a N-body simulation describing the redshift evolution of the forming galaxy. After introducing the GAMESH implementation and its features, we apply the code to a low-resolution N-body simulation of the Milky Way formation and we investigate the combined effects of self-consistent radiative and chemical feedback. Many physical properties, which can be directly compared with observations in the Galaxy and its surrounding satellites, are predicted by the code along the merger-tree assembly. The resulting redshift evolution of the Local Group star formation rates, reionisation and metal enrichment along with the predicted Metallicity Distribution Function of halo stars are critically compared with observations. We dis...

Graziani, L; Schneider, R; Kawata, D; de Bennassuti, M; Maselli, A

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Electric Dipole Radiation from Spinning Dust Grains  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We discuss the rotational excitation of small interstellar grains and the resulting electric dipole radiation from spinning dust. Attention is given to excitation and damping of rotation by: collisions with neutrals; collisions with ions; plasma drag; emission of infrared radiation; emission of microwave radiation; photoelectric emission; and formation of H_2 on the grain surface. We introduce dimensionless functions F and G which allow direct comparison of the contributions of different mechanisms to rotational drag and excitation. Emissivities are estimated for dust in different phases of the interstellar medium, including diffuse HI, warm HI, low-density photoionized gas, and cold molecular gas. Spinning dust grains can explain much, and perhaps all, of the 14-50 GHz background component recently observed in CBR studies. It should be possible to detect rotational emission from small grains by ground-based observations of molecular clouds.

B. T. Draine; A. Lazarian

1998-02-18T23:59:59.000Z

408

Tropical Cloud Properties and Radiative Heating Profiles  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

We have generated a suite of products that includes merged soundings, cloud microphysics, and radiative fluxes and heating profiles. The cloud microphysics is strongly based on the ARM Microbase value added product (Miller et al., 2003). We have made a few changes to the microbase parameterizations to address issues we observed in our initial analysis of the tropical data. The merged sounding product is not directly related to the product developed by ARM but is similar in that it uses the microwave radiometer to scale the radiosonde column water vapor. The radiative fluxes also differ from the ARM BBHRP (Broadband Heating Rate Profile) product in terms of the radiative transfer model and the sampling interval.

Mather, James

409

Direct Amplification of Sound By Light  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The principles of parametric interactions have been widely used in physics, including low noise microwave amplifiers, optical parametric oscillators (OPOs) and optical spring interactions with mechanical resonators. In the case of opto-mechanical interactions a mechanical mode modulates the length of an optical cavity, thereby changing the resonance condition of the optical mode. In recent experiments this interaction has been used to "cool" thermally excited mechanical modes of small acoustic resonators through the associated time dependent radiation pressure forces acting on the resonator. Such techniques are examples of two-mode parametric interactions in which the optical mode linewidth is sufficiently broad that the mechanical frequency occurs within the linewidth of a single mode. Here we present the first observation of three-mode opto-acoustic parametric interactions. In this case energy in an optical cavity mode is scattered into another optical cavity mode by its interaction with an acoustic mode in...

Zhao, C; Fan, Y; Miao, S Grass H; Blair, D G; Hosken, D; Brooks, A; Veitch, P J; Munch, J; Slagmolen, B J J; McClelland, D E

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

410

Direct Discharge Permit (Vermont)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

A direct discharge permit is required if a project involves the discharge of pollutants to state waters. For generation purposes, this involves the withdrawal of surface water for cooling purposes...

411

SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE Radiation doses  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE Radiation doses and cancert-A T. w- - SIR- In February 1990, the Soviet. Nikipelov et al. published in g Priroda (Nature)' the radiation doses for each year, averaged over environmental impact on the Gulf waters is rapidly ex- ported to the Arabian Sea and then to the Indian Ocean

Shlyakhter, Ilya

412

Radiative Flux Analysis  

DOE Data Explorer [Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)]

The Radiative Flux Analysis is a technique for using surface broadband radiation measurements for detecting periods of clear (i.e. cloudless) skies, and using the detected clear-sky data to fit functions which are then used to produce continuous clear-sky estimates. The clear-sky estimates and measurements are then used in various ways to infer cloud macrophysical properties.

Long, Chuck [NOAA

413

Radiation-resistant microorganism  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An isolated and purified bacterium is provided which was isolated from a high-level radioactive waste site of mixed waste. The isolate has the ability to degrade a wide variety of organic contaminants while demonstrating high tolerance to ionizing radiation. The organism is uniquely suited to bioremediation of a variety or organic contaminants while in the presence of ionizing radiation.

Fliermans, Carl B.

2010-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

414

Mechanical Network in Titin Immunoglobulin from Force Distribution Analysis  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Mechanical Network in Titin Immunoglobulin from Force Distribution Analysis Wolfram Stacklies1. , M, Stuttgart, Germany Abstract The role of mechanical force in cellular processes is increasingly revealed force propagates within proteins determines their mechanical behavior yet remains largely unknown. We

Gräter, Frauke

415

New Directions in Direct Dark Matter Searches  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

I present the status of direct dark matter detection with specific attention to the experimental results and their phenomenological interpretation in terms of dark matter interactions. In particular I review a new and more general approach to study signals in this field based on non-relativistic operators which parametrize more efficiently the dark matter-nucleus interactions in terms of a very limited number of relevant degrees of freedom. Then I list the major experimental results, pointing out the main uncertainties that affect the theoretical interpretation of the data. Finally, since the underlying theory that describes both the dark matter and the standard model fields is unknown, I address the uncertainties coming from the nature of the interaction. In particular, the phenomenology of a class of models in which the interaction between dark matter particles and target nuclei is of a long-range type is discussed.

Paolo Panci

2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

416

Nuclear radiation actuated valve  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Direct Forcing Immersed Boundary Methods: Finite Element Versus Finite Volume Approach  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

-facing step, two-dimensional flow past a stationary circular cylinder, three-dimensional flow past a sphere and two and three-dimensional natural convection in an enclosure with/without immersed body. The numerical results obtained with the discussed IFEM...

Frisani, Angelo 1980-

2012-12-07T23:59:59.000Z

418

Direct Visualization of Vesicle-Bilayer Complexes by Atomic Force Microscopy  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

vesicles and bilayers play a central role in cell physiology, enabling secretion, signaling, less is known about the structure and organization of lipids during this process. In addition, the interaction between lipids and proteins is known to be important for fusion. Evidence for this comes from

Kumar, Sanjay

419

Electrostatic-Force-Directed Assembly of Ag Nanocrystals onto Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotubes  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

been shown to be promising for various energy applications including solar cells,19,20 fuel cells,21Versity of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, 3200 North Cramer Street, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53211 Dmitriy A. Dikin and Rodney S the effective contact area between nanocrystals and reactants so as to decrease the metal catalytic activity

420

Forced convection in a porous medium heated by a permeable wall perpendicular to ow direction  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

transport, nuclear waste disposal, chemical reactors engineering, insulation of buildings and pipes. The state of art concerning porous media models has been summarized in the book by Nield and Bejan [2] as well as the book by Kaviany [3]. For the case of boundary layer ¯ow over a ¯at plate embedded

Zhao, Tianshou

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

A Unified Force Controller for a Proportional-Injector Direct-Injection Monopropellant-Powered Actuator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of an air compressor. This configuration incorporates a solenoid valve to meter the flow of hydrogen

422

A Unified Force Controller for a Proportional-Injector Direct-Injection  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

a monopropellant gas generator in place of an air compressor. This configuration incorporates a solenoid valve to meter the flow of hydrogen peroxide through a catalyst pack and into a high- pressure hot-gas reservoir

Barth, Eric J.

423

Radiative and climate impacts of absorbing aerosols  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

V. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeV. Ramanathan (2008), Solar radiation budget and radiativeapproximation for solar radiation in the NCAR Community

Zhu, Aihua

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Experimental demonstration of directive Si3N4 optical leaky wave antenna with semiconductor perturbations at near infrared frequencies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Directive optical leaky wave antennas (OLWAs) with tunable radiation pattern are promising integrated optical modulation and scanning devices. OLWAs fabricated using CMOS-compatible semiconductor planar waveguide technology have the potential of providing high directivity with electrical tunability for modulation and switching capabilities. We experimentally demonstrate directive radiation from a silicon nitride ($Si_3N_4$) waveguide-based OLWA. The OLWA design comprises 50 crystalline Si perturbations buried inside the waveguide, with a period of 1 {\\mu}m, each with a length of 260 nm and a height of 150 nm, leading to a directive radiation pattern at telecom wavelengths. The measured far-field radiation pattern at the wavelength of 1540 nm is very directive, with the maximum intensity at the angle of 84.4{\\deg} relative to the waveguide axis and a half-power beam width around 6.2{\\deg}, which is consistent with our theoretical predictions. The use of semiconductor perturbations facilitates electronic radiat...

Zhao, Qiancheng; Huang, Yuewang; Campione, Salvatore; Capolino, Filippo; Boyraz, Ozdal

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Coherent Radiation in an Undulator  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

solving the particle-radiation system in a self-consistentto clarify the coherent radiation mechanism. References 1.the Proceedings Coherent Radiation in an Undulator Y,H. Chin

Chin, Y.H.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

426

The Properties of Undulator Radiation  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of a Dedicated Synchrotron Radiation Facility," IEEE Trans.1983), "Characteristics of Synchrotron Radiation and of itsHandbook on Synchrotron Radiation, E. -E. Koch.1A. 65-172,

Howells, M.R.

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

Radiation Safety (Revised March 2010)  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated December 2012 Stanford University, Stanford California #12; #12; Radiation Safety Manual (Revised March 2010) Updated Environmental Health and Safety, Stanford University, Stanford California #12; CREDITS This Radiation Safety

Kay, Mark A.

428

Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Comprehensive Energy Program at Patrick Air Force Base Set to Exceed Energy Goals Fact sheet...

429

Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience Hickam Air Force Base Fuel Cell Vehicles: Early Implementation Experience This report sumarizes early...

430

Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series | Department of Energy  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series Climate Change Task Force Webinar Series The four-part Climate Change Impacts and Indian Country webinar series provided tribal leaders an...

431

Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests and Exercises, March 12, 2007 Protective Force Protocols for ESS Supported Performance Tests and Exercises, March 12,...

432

Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy...  

Broader source: Energy.gov (indexed) [DOE]

Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop Government and Industry A Force for Collaboration at the Energy Roadmap Update Workshop...

433

6.641 Electromagnetic Fields, Forces, and Motion, Spring 2003  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Electric and magnetic quasistatic forms of Maxwell's equations applied to dielectric, conduction, and magnetization boundary value problems. Electromagnetic forces, force densities, and stress tensors, including magnetization ...

Zahn, Markus, 1946-

434

Transmission Services WIST Task Force Dynamic Transfer Capability...  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Force Dynamic Transfer Capability Report - Phase I BPA is an active participant in the Wind Integration Study Team (WIST), especially the Task Force looking at DTC study...

435

China's Evolving Defense Economy: A PLA Ground Force Perspective  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

s Evolving Defense Economy: A PLA Ground Force PerspectivePeople’s Liberation Army (PLA) doctrinal developments,modernization of the PLA ground forces have incrementally

COOPER, Cortez A.

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

436

Zipping mechanism for force-generation by growing filament bundles  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We investigate the force generation by polymerizing bundles of filaments, which form because of short-range attractive filament interactions. We show that bundles can generate forces by a zipping mechanism, which is not limited by buckling and operates in the fully buckled state. The critical zipping force, i.e. the maximal force that a bundle can generate, is given by the adhesive energy gained during bundle formation. For opposing forces larger than the critical zipping force, bundles undergo a force-induced unbinding transition. For larger bundles, the critical zipping force depends on the initial configuration of the bundles. Our results are corroborated by Monte Carlo simulations.

Torsten Kuehne; Reinhard Lipowsky; Jan Kierfeld

2011-03-02T23:59:59.000Z

437

Dilution and resonance-enhanced repulsion in nonequilibrium fluctuation forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

In equilibrium, forces induced by fluctuations of the electromagnetic field between electrically polarizable objects (microscopic or macroscopic) in vacuum are generically attractive. The force may, however, become repulsive ...

Bimonte, Giuseppe

438

Federal Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering...  

Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Indexed Site

Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering Clean Coal Technology Federal Task Force Sends Recommendations to President on Fostering Clean Coal Technology August 12,...

439

Forced running exercise attenuates hippocampal neurogenesis impairment and the neurocognitive deficits induced by whole-brain irradiation via the BDNF-mediated pathway  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Highlights: •Forced exercise can ameliorate WBI induced cognitive impairment in our rat model. •Mature BDNF plays an important role in the effects of forced exercise. •Exercise may be a possible treatment of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. -- Abstract: Cranial radiotherapy induces progressive and debilitating cognitive deficits, particularly in long-term cancer survivors, which may in part be caused by the reduction of hippocampal neurogenesis. Previous studies suggested that voluntary exercise can reduce the cognitive impairment caused by radiation therapy. However, there is no study on the effect of forced wheel exercise and little is known about the molecular mechanisms mediating the effect of exercise. In the present study, we investigated whether the forced running exercise after irradiation had the protective effects of the radiation-induced cognitive impairment. Sixty-four Male Sprague–Dawley rats received a single dose of 20 Gy or sham whole-brain irradiation (WBI), behavioral test was evaluated using open field test and Morris water maze at 2 months after irradiation. Half of the rats accepted a 3-week forced running exercise before the behavior detection. Immunofluorescence was used to evaluate the changes in hippocampal neurogenesis and Western blotting was used to assess changes in the levels of mature brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), phosphorylated tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor, protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), calcium-calmodulin dependent kinase (CaMKII), cAMP-calcium response element binding protein (CREB) in the BDNF–pCREB signaling. We found forced running exercise significantly prevented radiation-induced cognitive deficits, ameliorated the impairment of hippocampal neurogenesis and attenuated the down-regulation of these proteins. Moreover, exercise also increased behavioral performance, hippocampal neurogenesis and elevated BDNF–pCREB signaling in non-irradiation group. These results suggest that forced running exercise offers a potentially effective treatment for radiation-induced cognitive deficits.

Ji, Jian-feng; Ji, Sheng-jun; Sun, Rui; Li, Kun; Zhang, Yuan; Zhang, Li-yuan; Tian, Ye, E-mail: dryetian@hotmail.com

2014-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

440

Statistics of reversible transitions in two-state trajectories in force-ramp spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A possible way to extract information about the reversible dissociation of a molecular adhesion bond from force fluctuations observed in force ramp experiments is discussed. For small loading rates the system undergoes a limited number of unbinding and rebinding transitions observable in the so-called force versus extension (FE) curves. The statistics of these transient fluctuations can be utilized to estimate the parameters for the rebinding rate. This is relevant in the experimentally important situation where the direct observation of the reversed FE-curves is hampered, e.g., due to the presence of soft linkers. I generalize the stochastic theory of the kinetics in two-state models to the case of time-dependent kinetic rates and compute the relevant distributions of characteristic forces. While for irreversible systems there is an intrinsic relation between the rupture force distribution and the population of the free-energy well of the bound state, the situation is slightly more complex if reversible systems are considered. For a two-state model, a “stationary” rupture force distribution that is proportional to the population can be defined and allows to consistently discuss quantities averaged over the transient fluctuations. While irreversible systems are best analyzed in the soft spring limit of small pulling device stiffness and large loading rates, here I argue to use the stiffness of the pulling device as a control parameter in addition to the loading rate.

Diezemann, Gregor [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany)] [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55128 Mainz (Germany)

2014-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

442

High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

443

Radiation from low-momentum zoom-whirl orbits  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study zoom-whirl behaviour of equal mass, non-spinning black hole binaries in full general relativity. The magnitude of the linear momentum of the initial data is fixed to that of a quasi-circular orbit, and its direction is varied. We find a global maximum in radiated energy for a configuration which completes roughly one orbit. The radiated energy in this case exceeds the value of a quasi-circular binary with the same momentum by 15%. The direction parameter only requires minor tuning for the localization of the maximum. There is non-trivial dependence of the energy radiated on eccentricity (several local maxima and minima). Correlations with orbital dynamics shortly before merger are discussed. While being strongly gauge dependent, these findings are intuitive from a physical point of view and support basic ideas about the efficiency of gravitational radiation from a binary system.

Roman Gold; Bernd Bruegmann

2010-05-03T23:59:59.000Z

444

Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

Griffith, Michelle L. (Albuquerque, NM); Hofmeister, William H. (Nashville, TN); Knorovsky, Gerald A. (Albuquerque, NM); MacCallum, Danny O. (Edgewood, NM); Schlienger, M. Eric (Albuquerque, NM); Smugeresky, John E. (Pleasanton, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

445

SYNCHROTRON RADIATION SOURCES  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Synchrotron radiation is a very bright, broadband, polarized, pulsed source of light extending from the infrared to the x-ray region. It is an extremely important source of Vacuum Ultraviolet radiation. Brightness is defined as flux per unit area per unit solid angle and is normally a more important quantity than flux alone particularly in throughput limited applications which include those in which monochromators are used. It is well known from classical theory of electricity and magnetism that accelerating charges emit electromagnetic radiation. In the case of synchrotron radiation, relativistic electrons are accelerated in a circular orbit and emit electromagnetic radiation in a broad spectral range. The visible portion of this spectrum was first observed on April 24, 1947 at General Electric's Schenectady facility by Floyd Haber, a machinist working with the synchrotron team, although the first theoretical predictions were by Lienard in the latter part of the 1800's. An excellent early history with references was presented by Blewett and a history covering the development of the utilization of synchrotron radiation was presented by Hartman. Synchrotron radiation covers the entire electromagnetic spectrum from the infrared region through the visible, ultraviolet, and into the x-ray region up to energies of many 10's of kilovolts. If the charged particles are of low mass, such as electrons, and if they are traveling relativistically, the emitted radiation is very intense and highly collimated, with opening angles of the order of 1 milliradian. In electron storage rings there are three possible sources of synchrotron radiation; dipole (bending) magnets; wigglers, which act like a sequence of bending magnets with alternating polarities; and undulators, which are also multi-period alternating magnet systems but in which the beam deflections are small resulting in coherent interference of the emitted light.

HULBERT,S.L.; WILLIAMS,G.P.

1998-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

Radiation Protection | The Ames Laboratory  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

Radiation Protection Radiation Protection Regulations: The Federal Regulation governing the use of radioactive materials at Ames Laboratory is 10 CFR 835. To implement this...

447

Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)  

Broader source: Energy.gov [DOE]

The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

448

GENII. Environmental Radiation Dosimetry Suite  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

GENII was developed to incorporate the internal dosimetry models recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) into the environmental pathway analysis models used at Hanford. GENII is a coupled system of seven programs and the associated data libraries that comprise the Hanford Dosimetry System (Generation II) to estimate potential radiation doses to individuals or populations from both routine and accidental releases of radionuclides to air or water and residual contamination from spills or decontamination operations. The GENII system includes interactive menu-driven programs to assist the user with scenario generation and data input,internal and external dose factor generators, and environmental dosimetry programs. The programs analyze environmental contamination resulting from both far-field and near-field scenarios. A far-field scenario focuses outward from a source, while a near-field scenario focuses in toward a receptor. GENII can calculate annual dose, committed dose, and accumulated dose from acute and chronic releases from ground or elevated sources to air or water and from initial contamination of soil or surfaces and can evaluate exposure pathways including direct exposure via water, soil, air, inhalation pathways, and ingestion pathways. In addition, GENII can perform 10,000 years migration analyses and can be used for retrospective calculations of potential radiation doses resulting from routine emissions and for prospective dose calculations for purposes such as siting facilities, environmental impact statements, and safety analysis reports.

Napier, B.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA, (United States)

1988-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

449

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

450

Miniaturized radiation chirper  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

451

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

452

Spray bottle apparatus with force multiply pistons  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention comprises a spray bottle in which the pressure resulting from the gripping force applied by the user is amplified and this increased pressure used in generating a spray such as an aerosol or fluid stream. In its preferred embodiment, the invention includes a high pressure chamber and a corresponding piston which is operative for driving fluid out of this chamber at high pressure through a spray nozzle and a low pressure chamber and corresponding piston which is acted upon by the hydraulic pressure within the bottle resulting from the gripping force. The low pressure chamber and piston are of larger size than the high pressure chamber and piston. The pistons are rigidly connected so that the force created by the pressure acting on the piston in the low pressure chamber is transmitted to the piston in the high pressure chamber where it is applied over a more limited area thereby generating greater hydraulic pressure for use in forming the spray.

Eschbach, Eugene A. (Richland, WA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

453

Dynamical friction force exerted on spherical bodies  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We present a rigorous calculation of the dynamical friction force exerted on a spherical massive perturber moving through an infinite homogenous system of field stars. By calculating the shape and mass of the polarization cloud induced by the perturber in the background system, which decelerates the motion of the perturber, we recover Chandrasekhar's drag force law with a modified Coulomb logarithm. As concrete examples we calculate the drag force exerted on a Plummer sphere or a sphere with the density distribution of a Hernquist profile. It is shown that the shape of the perturber affects only the exact form of the Coulomb logarithm. The latter converges on small scales, because encounters of the test and field stars with impact parameters less than the size of the massive perturber become inefficient. We confirm this way earlier results based on the impulse approximation of small angle scatterings.

O. Esquivel; B. Fuchs

2007-04-30T23:59:59.000Z

454

Trapping atoms using nanoscale quantum vacuum forces  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum vacuum forces dictate the interaction between individual atoms and dielectric surfaces at nanoscale distances. For example, their large strengths typically overwhelm externally applied forces, which makes it challenging to controllably interface cold atoms with nearby nanophotonic systems. Here, we show that it is possible to tailor the vacuum forces themselves to provide strong trapping potentials. The trapping scheme takes advantage of the attractive ground state potential and adiabatic dressing with an excited state whose potential is engineered to be resonantly enhanced and repulsive. This procedure yields a strong metastable trap, with the fraction of excited state population scaling inversely with the quality factor of the resonance of the dielectric structure. We analyze realistic limitations to the trap lifetime and discuss possible applications that might emerge from the large trap depths and nanoscale confinement.

D. E. Chang; K. Sinha; J. M. Taylor; H. J. Kimble

2013-10-22T23:59:59.000Z

455

Giant vacuum forces via transmission lines  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Quantum electromagnetic fluctuations induce forces between neutral particles, known as the van der Waals (vdW) and Casimir interactions. These fundamental forces, mediated by virtual photons from the vacuum, play an important role in basic physics and chemistry, and in emerging technologies involving, e.g. micro-electromechanical systems or quantum information processing. Here we show that these interactions can be enhanced by many orders of magnitude upon changing the character of the mediating vacuum-modes. By considering two polarizable particles in the vicinity of any standard electric transmission line, along which photons can propagate in one dimension (1d), we find a much stronger and longer-range interaction than in free-space. This enhancement may have profound implications on many-particle and bulk systems, and impact the quantum technologies mentioned above. The predicted giant vacuum force is estimated to be measurable in a coplanar waveguide line.

Ephraim Shahmoon; Igor Mazets; Gershon Kurizki

2014-07-23T23:59:59.000Z

456

Conference Discussion of the Nuclear Force  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

Discussion of the nuclear force, lead by a round table consisting of T. Cohen, E. Epelbaum, R. Machleidt, and F. Gross (chair). After an invited talk by Machleidt, published elsewhere in these proceedings, brief remarks are made by Epelbaum, Cohen, and Gross, followed by discussion from the floor moderated by the chair. The chair asked the round table and the participants to focus on the following issues: (1)What does each approach (chiral effective field theory, large Nc, and relativistic phenomenology) contribute to our knowledge of the nuclear force? Do we need them all? Is any one transcendent? (2) How important for applications (few body, nuclear structure, EMC effect, for example) are precise fits to the NN data below 350 MeV? How precise do these fits have to be? (3) Can we learn anything about nonperturbative QCD from these studies of the nuclear force? The discussion presented here is based on a video recording made at the conference and transcribed afterward.

Franz Gross,Thomas D. Cohen,Evgeny Epelbaum,R. Machleidt

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

457

Measurement and analysis of near ultraviolet solar radiation  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

The photocatalytic detoxification of organic contaminants is currently being investigated by a number of laboratories, universities, and institutions throughout the world. The photocatalytic oxidation process requires that contaminants come in contact with a photocatalyst such as titanium dioxide, under illumination of ultraviolet (UV) radiation in order for the decomposition reaction to take place. Researches from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Sandia National Laboratories are currently investigating the use of solar energy as a means of driving this photocatalytic process. Measurements of direct-normal and global-horizontal ultraviolet (280--385 nm) and full-spectrum (280--4000 nm) solar radiation taken in Golden, Colorado over a one-year period are analyzed, and comparisons are made with data generated from a clear-sky solar radiation model (BRITE) currently in use for predicting the performance of solar detoxification processes. Analysis of the data indicates a ratio of global-horizontal ultraviolet to full-spectrum radiation of 4%--6% that is weakly dependent on air mass. Conversely, data for direct-normal ultraviolet radiation indicate a much large dependence on air mass, with a ratio of approximately 5% at low air mass to 1% at higher at masses. Results show excellent agreement between the measured data and clear-sky predictions for both the ultraviolet and the full-spectrum global-horizontal radiation. For the direct-normal components, however, the tendency is for the clear-sky model to underpredict the measured that. Averaged monthly ultraviolet radiation available for the detoxification process indicates that the global-horizontal component of the radiation exceeds the direct-normal component throughout the year. 9 refs., 7 figs.

Mehos, M.S.; Pacheco, K.A.; Link, H.F.

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Measurement of Dynamical Forces between Deformable Drops Using the Atomic Force Microscope. I. Theory  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

effects of electrical double layer repulsion between oil drops charged by adsorbed surfactant mainly to hydrodynamic lubrication forces. 1. Introduction The atomic force microscope (AFM) has long, such as the interaction between rigid probe particles and oil drops1-4 or between a particle and a bubble.5

Chan, Derek Y C

459

General Multiobjective Force Field Optimization Framework, with Application to Reactive Force Fields for Silicon Carbide  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Fields for Silicon Carbide Andres Jaramillo-Botero,* Saber Naserifar, and William A. Goddard, III: (1) the ReaxFF reactive force field for modeling the adiabatic reactive dynamics of silicon carbide specific force field parameters for tripod metal templates, tripodMO(CO)3, using the root mean square

Goddard III, William A.

460

Estimation of Contact Forces using a Virtual Force Sensor Emanuele Magrini Fabrizio Flacco Alessandro De Luca  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

the exchanged Cartesian forces; 4) control the robot to react according to a desired behavior. Different model Alessandro De Luca Abstract-- Physical human-robot collaboration is character- ized by a suitable exchange of contact forces between human and robot, which can occur in general at any point along the robot structure

De Luca, Alessandro

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Directed Relativistic Blast Wave  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A spherically symmetrical ultra-relativistic blast wave is not an attractor of a generic asymmetric explosion. Spherical symmetry is reached only by the time the blast wave slows down to non-relativistic velocities, when the Sedov-Taylor-von Neumann attractor solution sets in. We show however, that a directed relativistic explosion, with the explosion momentum close to the explosion energy, produces a blast wave with a universal intermediate asymptotic -- a selfsimilar directed ultra-relativistic blast wave. This universality might be of interest for the astrophysics of gamma-ray burst afterglows.

Andrei Gruzinov

2007-04-23T23:59:59.000Z

462

Directives Points of Contact  

Broader source: All U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office Webpages (Extended Search)

AFDC Printable Version Share this resource Send a link to EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page to someone by E-mail Share EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Facebook Tweet about EERE: Alternative Fuels Data Center Home Page on Twitter Bookmark EERE:1 First Use of Energy for All Purposes (Fuel and Nonfuel),Feet) Year Jan Feb Mar Apr May JunDatastreamsmmcrcalgovInstrumentsruc DocumentationP-Series to UserProduct: CrudeOfficeNERSCDiesel pricesDirectionsDirectives

463

Interferometric direction finding with a metamaterial detector  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

We present measurements and analysis demonstrating useful direction finding of sources in the S band (2–4?GHz) using a metamaterial detector. An augmented metamaterial absorber that supports magnitude and phase measurement of the incident electric field, within each unit cell, is described. The metamaterial is implemented in a commercial printed circuit board process with off-board back-end electronics. We also discuss on-board back-end implementation strategies. Direction finding performance is analyzed for the fabricated metamaterial detector using simulated data and the standard algorithm, MUtiple SIgnal Classification. The performance of this complete system is characterized by its angular resolution as a function of radiation density at the detector. Sources with power outputs typical of mobile communication devices can be resolved at kilometer distances with sub-degree resolution and high frame rates.

Venkatesh, Suresh; Schurig, David, E-mail: david.schurig@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Shrekenhamer, David; Padilla, Willie [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States); Xu, Wangren; Sonkusale, Sameer [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

464

Casimir Friction Force and Energy Dissipation for Moving Harmonic Oscillators  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

The Casimir friction problem for a pair of dielectric particles in relative motion is analyzed, utilizing a microscopic model in which we start from statistical mechanics for harmonically oscillating particles at finite temperature moving nonrelativistically with constant velocity. The use of statistical mechanics in this context has in our opinion some definite advantages, in comparison with the more conventional quantum electrodynamic description of media that involves the use of a refractive index. The statistical-mechanical description is physical and direct, and the oscillator model, in spite of its simplicity, is nevertheless able to elucidate the essentials of the Casimir friction. As is known, there are diverging opinions about this kind of friction in the literature. Our treatment elaborates upon, and extends, an earlier theory presented by us back in 1992. There we found a finite friction force at any finite temperature, whereas at zero temperature the model led to a zero force. As an additional development in the present paper we evaluate the energy dissipation making use of an exponential cutoff truncating the relative motion of the oscillators. For the dissipation we also establish a general expression that is not limited to the simple oscillator model.

Johan S. Høye; Iver Brevik

2010-01-14T23:59:59.000Z

465

Dynamics of Turing patterns under spatio-temporal forcing  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We study, both theoretically and experimentally, the dynamical response of Turing patterns to a spatio-temporal forcing in the form of a travelling wave modulation of a control parameter. We show that from strictly spatial resonance, it is possible to induce new, generic dynamical behaviors, including temporally-modulated travelling waves and localized travelling soliton-like solutions. The latter make contact with the soliton solutions of P. Coullet Phys. Rev. Lett. {\\bf 56}, 724 (1986) and provide a general framework which includes them. The stability diagram for the different propagating modes in the Lengyel-Epstein model is determined numerically. Direct observations of the predicted solutions in experiments carried out with light modulations in the photosensitive CDIMA reaction are also reported.

S. Rudiger; D. G. Miguez; A. P. Munuzuri; F. Sagues; J. Casademunt

2003-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

466

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF BI-DIRECTIONAL SPRING UNIT IN ISOLATED FLOOR SYSTEMS  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

) or linear spring based systems (coil springs or rubber units used for restoration force), with viscousEXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF BI-DIRECTIONAL SPRING UNIT IN ISOLATED FLOOR SYSTEMS Shenlei Cui1 , Michel the mechanical behavior of bi-directional spring units used as isolators in a kind of such isolated floor systems

Bruneau, Michel

467

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

RESEARCH SAFETY RADIATION SAFETY ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRAMS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES INTEGRATED WASTE MANAGEMENT LABORATORY SAFETY AUDITS & COMPLIANCE BIOSAFETY and ENVIRONMENTAL HEALTH EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT and MISSION CONTINUITY FIRE PREVENTION and LIFE SAFETY GENERAL SAFETY TRAINING

468

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

469

Amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon radiation detector devices having enhanced signal are disclosed. Specifically provided are transversely oriented electrode layers and layered detector configurations of amorphous silicon, the structure of which allow high electric fields upon application of a bias thereby beneficially resulting in a reduction in noise from contact injection and an increase in signal including avalanche multiplication and gain of the signal produced by incoming high energy radiation. These enhanced radiation sensitive devices can be used as measuring and detection means for visible light, low energy photons and high energy ionizing particles such as electrons, x-rays, alpha particles, beta particles and gamma radiation. Particular utility of the device is disclosed for precision powder crystallography and biological identification. 13 figs.

Street, R.A.; Perez-Mendez, V.; Kaplan, S.N.

1992-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

470

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

471

Adaptive multigroup radiation diffusion  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

This thesis describes the development and implementation of an algorithm for dramatically increasing the accuracy and reliability of multigroup radiation diffusion simulations at low group counts. This is achieved by ...

Williams, Richard B., Sc. D. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

472

Method of enhancing radiation response of radiation detection materials  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

The present invention is a method of increasing radiation response of a radiation detection material for a given radiation signal by first pressurizing the radiation detection material. Pressurization may be accomplished by any means including mechanical and/or hydraulic. In this application, the term "pressure" includes fluid pressure and/or mechanical stress.

Miller, Steven D. (Richland, WA)

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

473

Radiation Safety Manual Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 RADIATION SAFETY MANUAL For Columbia University NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital New York State Psychiatric Institute Barnard College December 2012 #12;Radiation Safety Manual ­ Dec 2012 Page 1 Table of Contents Introduction Chapter I: Radiation Safety Program A. Program

Grishok, Alla

474

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

Dai, Pengcheng

475

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;#12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers

Dai, Pengcheng

476

Direct from CDC's Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct from CDC's Environmental Health Services Branch CAPT Daniel M. Harper, M.P.H. A Diverse Environmental Public Health Workforce to Meet the Diverse Environmental Health Challenges on environmental health and to build part nerships in the profession. In pursuit of these goals, we will feature

477

Direct from CDC's Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct from CDC's Environmental Health Services Branch CAPT John Sarisky, R.S., M.P.H. Developing Environmental Public Health Leadership Editor's note: NEHA strives to provide up to of these goals, we will feature a column from the Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) of the Centers

478

Direct from CDC's Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct from CDC's Environmental Health Services Branch Daneen Farrow Collier, M.S.P.H. Editor's note: NEHA strives to pro vide up-to-date and relevant informa tion on environmental health the Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) of the Centers for Disease Control and Pre vention (CDC) in every

479

Direct from CDC's Environmental  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Direct from CDC's Environmental Health Services Branch Brian Hubbard, M.P.H. Editor the Environmental Health Services Branch (EHSB) of the Centers for Disease Con trol and Prevention (CDC) in every environmental health programs and professionals to antici pate, identify, and respond to adverse envi ronmental

480

Direct fired heat exchanger  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

A gas-to-liquid heat exchanger system which transfers heat from a gas, generally the combustion gas of a direct-fired generator of an absorption machine, to a liquid, generally an absorbent solution. The heat exchanger system is in a counterflow fluid arrangement which creates a more efficient heat transfer.

Reimann, Robert C. (Lafayette, NY); Root, Richard A. (Spokane, WA)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiative forcing" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


481

Extension of DOE Directives  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

This Notice extends the following directives until 2/16/04: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99-7/1/00.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

482

Extension of DOE Directives  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The following directives are extended until 8-12-04. DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, dated 11/1/99. DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99.

2004-02-12T23:59:59.000Z

483

Extension of DOE Directives  

Broader source: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements [Office of Management (MA)]

The following directives are extended until 8-12-05: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Security Systems, dated 11-1-99 and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11-23-99. No cancellations.

2004-08-12T23:59:59.000Z

484

Packet personal radiation monitor  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A personal radiation monitor of the chirper type is provided for detecting ionizing radiation. A battery powered high voltage power supply is used to generate and apply a high voltage bias to a G-M tube radiation sensor. The high voltage is monitored by a low-loss sensing network which generates a feedback signal to control the high voltage power supply such that the high voltage bias is recharged to +500 VDC when the current pulses of the sensor, generated by the detection of ionizing radiation events, discharges the high voltage bias to +450 VDC. During the high voltage recharge period an audio transducer is activated to produce an audible "chirp". The rate of the "chirps" is controlled by the rate at which the high voltage bias is recharged, which is proportional to the radiation field intensity to which the sensor is exposed. The chirp rate sensitivity is set to be approximately 1.5 (chirps/min/MR/hr.). The G-M tube sensor is used in a current sensing mode so that the device does not paralyze in a high radiation field.

Phelps, James E. (Knoxville, TN)

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

485

Radiation analysis devices, radiation analysis methods, and articles of manufacture  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

Radiation analysis devices include circuitry configured to determine respective radiation count data for a plurality of sections of an area of interest and combine the radiation count data of individual of sections to determine whether a selected radioactive material is present in the area of interest. An amount of the radiation count data for an individual section is insufficient to determine whether the selected radioactive material is present in the individual section. An article of manufacture includes media comprising programming configured to cause processing circuitry to perform processing comprising determining one or more correction factors based on a calibration of a radiation analysis device, measuring radiation received by the radiation analysis device using the one or more correction factors, and presenting information relating to an amount of radiation measured by the radiation analysis device having one of a plurality of specified radiation energy levels of a range of interest.

Roybal, Lyle Gene

2010-06-08T23:59:59.000Z

486

NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

NON-DOUBLE-COUPLE EARTHQUAKES: NET FORCES AND UNCERTAINTIES G.R. Foulger, B.R. Julian University-980) to include net forces in the mechanisms. Net forces are theoretically required to describe earthquakes) waves cannot resolve sources such as vertical dipoles. When source mechanisms include net forces, even

Foulger, G. R.

487

Galileon forces in the Solar System  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

We consider the challenging problem of obtaining an analytic understanding of realistic astrophysical dynamics in the presence of a Vainshtein screened fifth force arising from infrared modifications of General Relativity. In particular, we attempt to solve -- within the most general flat spacetime galileon model -- the scalar force law between well separated bodies located well within the Vainshtein radius of the Sun. To this end, we derive the exact static Green's function of the galileon wave equation linearized about the background field generated by the Sun, for the minimal cubic and maximally quartic galileon theories, and then introduce a method to compute the general leading order force law perturbatively away from these limits. We also show that the same nonlinearities which produce the Vainshtein screening effect present obstacles to an analytic calculation of the galileon forces between closely bound systems within the solar system, such as that of the Earth and Moon. Within the test mass approximation, we deduce that a large enough quartic galileon interaction would suppress the effect on planetary perihelion precession below the level detectable by even the next-generation experiments.

Melinda Andrews; Yi-Zen Chu; Mark Trodden

2013-10-14T23:59:59.000Z

488

Strategic forces: Future requirements and options  

SciTech Connect (OSTI)

In the wake of the collapse of the Warsaw Pact and the apparent ending of the Cold War, there have been renewed calls for radical cuts in US strategic forces to levels far below the 10,000 or so warheads allowed each side under the current START proposal. Since it now appears that NATO for the first time will have the capability to defeat a Soviet conventional attack without the necessity of threatening to resort to nuclear weapons, this should pave the way for the rethinking of US strategy and the reduction of US strategic weapons requirements. In this new environment, it seems plausible that, with a modification of the Flexible Response doctrine to forego attempts to disarm the Soviet Union, deterrence could be maintained with 1500 or so survivable strategic weapons. With a new strategy that confined US strategic weapons to the role of deterring the use of nuclear weapons by other countries, a survivable force of about 500 weapons would seem sufficient. With this premise, the implications for the US strategic force structure are examined for two cases: a treaty that allows each side 3000 warheads and one that allows each side 1000 warheads. In Part 1 of this paper, the weapons requirements for deterrence are examined in light of recent changes in the geopolitical environment. In Part 2, it is assumed that the President and Congress have decided that deep cuts in strategic forces are acceptable. 128 refs., 12 figs., 12 tabs. (JF)

Speed, R.D.

1990-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

489

Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Yangtze Patrol: American Naval Forces in China A Selected, Partially-Annotated Bibliography literature of the United States Navy in China. mvh #12;"Like Chimneys in Summer" The thousands of men who served on the China Station before World War II have been all but forgotten, except in the mythology

490

Academic Integrity Task Force Report Executive Summary  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. For a more comprehensive report of the findings as well as faculty suggestions for maintaining integrity1 Academic Integrity Task Force Report Executive Summary 11/22/11 INTRODUCTION CHARGE: To determine whether there is an issue with academic integrity at UF and, if so, to determine how widespread

Roy, Subrata

491

Actin Polymerization: Forcing Flat Faces Forward  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Actin Polymerization: Forcing Flat Faces Forward Arpita Upadhyaya1 and Alexander van Oudenaarden2 Actin polymerization has been shown to be sufficient to propel curved objects, for example beads polymerization forms the basis of numerous forms of cell motility. Actin is thought to polymerize at the leading

van Oudenaarden, Alexander

492

Characterization of acoustically forced swirl flame dynamics  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

of the flame to acoustic excitation is required. This study presents an analysis of phase-locked OH PLIF images of acoustically excited swirl flames, to identify the key controlling physical processes and qualitatively discuss, and whose relative significance depends upon forcing frequency, amplitude of excitation, and flame

Lieuwen, Timothy C.

493

REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPORT OF THE DARK ENERGY TASK FORCE Andreas Albrecht, University of California, Davis Gary. Suntzeff, Texas A&M University Dark energy appears to be the dominant component of the physical Universe a full understanding of the cosmic acceleration. For these reasons, the nature of dark energy ranks among

Hu, Wayne

494

Columbia University Network Integration Task Force  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

Columbia University Network Integration Task Force Final Report II 30 January 1992 #12;1 TOWARDS A COMMON ADMINISTRATIVE AND ACADEMIC NETWORK AT COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Columbia University's Administrative or terminal. 1.2. Executive Summary This report examines Columbia University's current academic

Yang, Junfeng

495

Motion-Induced Radiation from a Dynamically Deforming Mirror  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

A path integral formulation is developed to study the spectrum of radiation from a perfectly reflecting (conducting) surface. It allows us to study arbitrary deformations in space and time. The spectrum is calculated to second order in the height function. For a harmonic traveling wave on the surface, we find many different regimes in which the radiation is restricted to certain directions. It is shown that high frequency photons are emitted in a beam with relatively low angular dispersion whose direction can be controlled by the mechanical deformations of the plate.

Faez Miri; Ramin Golestanian

1998-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

496

ADAPTIVE RADIATION ROSEMARY G. GILLESPIE  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

1 A ADAPTIVE RADIATION ROSEMARY G. GILLESPIE University of California, Berkeley Adaptive radiation- tions and convergence of species groups on different land masses. Since then, adaptive radiation has diversity within a rapidly multiplying lineage." There are radiations that are not adaptive

Gillespie, Rosemary

497

REPORT NO. 8 radiation hazards  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

REPORT NO. 8 REVISED guidance for the control of radiation hazards in uranium mining SEPTEMBER 1967 OF RADIATION HAZARDS IN URANIUM MINING SEPTEMBER 1967 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;FEDERAL...... .... .._ _.... Section I. Introduction. . . Section II. The Radiation Environment AssociatedWith Uranium Mining. Section

498

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

499

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network [OSTI]

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

500

Cellular telephone-based radiation sensor and wide-area detection network  

DOE Patents [OSTI]

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z