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1

Contrasting the direct radiative effect and direct radiative forcing of aerosols  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The direct radiative effect (DRE) of aerosols, which is the instantaneous radiative impact of all atmospheric particles on the Earth's energy balance, is sometimes confused with the direct radiative forcing (DRF), which ...

Heald, Colette L.

2

Direct detector for terahertz radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A direct detector for terahertz radiation comprises a grating-gated field-effect transistor with one or more quantum wells that provide a two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region. The grating gate can be a split-grating gate having at least one finger that can be individually biased. Biasing an individual finger of the split-grating gate to near pinch-off greatly increases the detector's resonant response magnitude over prior QW FET detectors while maintaining frequency selectivity. The split-grating-gated QW FET shows a tunable resonant plasmon response to FIR radiation that makes possible an electrically sweepable spectrometer-on-a-chip with no moving mechanical optical parts. Further, the narrow spectral response and signal-to-noise are adequate for use of the split-grating-gated QW FET in a passive, multispectral terahertz imaging system. The detector can be operated in a photoconductive or a photovoltaic mode. Other embodiments include uniform front and back gates to independently vary the carrier densities in the channel region, a thinned substrate to increase bolometric responsivity, and a resistive shunt to connect the fingers of the grating gate in parallel and provide a uniform gate-channel voltage along the length of the channel to increase the responsivity and improve the spectral resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM); Shaner, Eric A. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

3

NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, July--September 1993: Volume 13, No. 3  

SciTech Connect

This report provides the status and results of the NRC Thermoluminescent Dosimeter (TLD) Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. It presents the radiation levels measured in the vicinity of NRC licensed facilities throughout the country for the third quarter of 1993.

Struckmeyer, R.

1993-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

4

Direct Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Freshwater Heterotrophic Nanoflagellate Paraphysomonas sp.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...PHYSIOLOGY Direct Effects of UV-B Radiation on the Freshwater Heterotrophic...to ambient levels of UV-B radiation can lead to death and/or...microbial ecology, vol. ISME 5. Japan Scientific Societies Press...exposed to solar ultraviolet radiation. Photochem. Photobiol. 69...

Amy L. Macaluso; David L. Mitchell; Robert W. Sanders

2009-05-08T23:59:59.000Z

5

NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network progress report, October--December 1994. Volume 14, No. 4  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1994. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

Struckmeyer, R.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

6

NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Progress report, October--December 1996  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1996. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 74 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program. 3 figs., 4 tabs.

Struckmeyer, R.

1997-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

7

Activity Stream - Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dataset Activity Stream Activity Stream Jay Huggins updated the dataset Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 6 days ago Jay Huggins added the...

8

Two dimensional control of metamaterial parameters for radiation directivity  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

This work examines the feasibility of using metamaterials to direct radiation. The limits of required index of refraction and the required material depth are explored using MATLAB simulations. A wedge of connected S-shape ...

Foltz, Eleanor R. (Eleanor Ruth)

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

9

Directed Evolution of Ionizing Radiation Resistance in Escherichia coli  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...repeated. The dose of radiation administered was adjusted...day at 37C, with the dose increasing as radioresistance...source until the desired dose was achieved. Irradiated...Genomic DNA from the radiation-sensitive E. coli...reads, respectively. Estimation of the level of sequencing...

Dennis R. Harris; Steve V. Pollock; Elizabeth A. Wood; Reece J. Goiffon; Audrey J. Klingele; Eric L. Cabot; Wendy Schackwitz; Joel Martin; Julie Eggington; Timothy J. Durfee; Christina M. Middle; Jason E. Norton; Michael C. Popelars; Hao Li; Sarit A. Klugman; Lindsay L. Hamilton; Lukas B. Bane; Len A. Pennacchio; Thomas J. Albert; Nicole T. Perna; Michael M. Cox; John R. Battista

2009-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

10

Automotive Component Measurements forAutomotive Component Measurements for Determining VehicleDetermining Vehicle--Level RadiatedLevel Radiated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Automotive Component Measurements forAutomotive Component Measurements for Determining VehicleDetermining Vehicle--Level RadiatedLevel Radiated Automotive Component Measurements forAutomotive ComponentEmissionsEmissionsEmissions Todd Hubing Mi h li P f f V hi l El t iMichelin Professor of Vehicular Electronics Clemson University

Stuart, Steven J.

11

Cancer incidence in areas with elevated levels of natural radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It has been reported that on reaching a certain level of cell damage the production of repair enzymes is triggered which decreases the chromosome aberrations. If this happens, prolonged exposure to high levels of natural radiation in areas with elevated levels of background radiation could decrease the frequency of chromosome aberrations. Recent epidemiological studies indicated that there is an increased risk of cancer in healthy individuals with high levels of chromosomal aberrations. Studies performed in Nordic countries as well as Italy, showed that increased levels of chromosome aberrations in lymphocytes can be used to predict cancer risk in humans. One may conclude that a dose of ionising radiation sufficient to produce a certain level of cell damage increases production of antioxidants and repair enzymes that decrease either the frequency of chromosome aberrations or the cancer risk. People in some areas of Ramsar, a city in northern Iran, receive an annual radiation dose from background radiation that is more than five times higher than the 20 mSv. Yr-1 that is permitted for radiation workers. Inhabitants of Ramsar have lived for many generations in these high background areas. If an annual radiation dose of a few hundred mSv is detrimental to health, causing genetic abnormalities or an increased risk of cancer, it should be evident in these people. The absorbed dose rate in some high background radiation areas of Ramsar is approximately 55-200 times higher than that of the average global dose rate. It has been reported that 3â??8% of all cancers are caused by current levels of ionising radiation. If this estimation were true, all the inhabitants of such an area with extraordinary elevated levels of natural radiation would have died of cancer. Our cytogenetic studies show no significant differences between people in the high background area compared to people in normal background areas. As there was no increased level of chromosome aberrations, it may be predicted that the cancer incidence is not higher than in the neighbouring areas with a normal background radiation level. Although there is not yet solid epidemiological information, most local physicians in Ramsar report anecdotally that there is no increase in the incidence rates of cancer or leukemia in their area. There are no data to indicate a significant increase of cancer incidence in other high background radiation areas (HBRAs). Furthermore, several studies show a significant decrease of cancer death rates in areas with high backgrounds. It can be concluded that prolonged exposure to high levels of natural radiation possibly triggers processes such as the production of antioxidants and repair enzymes, which decreases the frequency of chromosome aberrations and the cancer incidence rate.

S.M.J. Mortazavi; M. Ghiassi-Nejad; P.A. Karam; T. Ikushima; A. Niroomand-Rad; J.R. Cameron

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

12

Radiation levels on empty cylinders containing heel material  

SciTech Connect

Empty UF{sub 6} cylinders containing heel material were found to emit radiation levels in excess of 200 mr/hr, the maximum amount stated in ORO-651. The radiation levels were as high as 335 mr/hr for thick wall (48X and 48Y) cylinders and 1050 mr/hr for thin wall (48G and 48H) cylinders. The high readings were found only on the bottom of the cylinders. These radiation levels exceeded the maximum levels established in DOT 49 CFR, Part 173.441 for shipment of cylinders. Holding periods of four weeks for thick-wall cylinders and ten weeks for thin-wall cylinders were established to allow the radiation levels to decay prior to shipment.

Shockley, C.W. [Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Paducah, KY (United States)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

13

Effects of low levels of radiation on humans  

SciTech Connect

The state of knowledge on effects of low-level ionizing radiations on humans is reviewed. Several problems relating to dose thresholds or lack of thresholds for several types of cancer and high LET radiations and the effects of fractionation and dose protection are discussed. (ACR)

Auxier, J.A.

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

14

Operating Experience Level 3, DOE Occupational Radiation Exposures for 2013  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Operating Experience Level 3 (OE-3) document provides an overview summary of radiation doses from occupational exposures at the Department of Energy (DOE), including the National Nuclear Security Administration for the year 2013.

15

Radiative energy shifts of an accelerated two-level system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We consider the influence of acceleration on the radiative energy shifts of atoms in Minkowski space. We study a two-level atom coupled to a scalar quantum field. Using a Heisenberg picture approach, we are able to separate the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction to the Lamb shift of the two-level atom. The resulting energy shifts for the special case of a uniformly accelerated atom are then compared with those of an atom at rest.

Jürgen Audretsch and Rainer Müller

1995-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

16

COLUMBIA RADIATION LABORATORY RESEARCH INVESTIGATION DIRECTED TOWARD EXTENDING  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

iVP-^"^^? iVP-^"^^? COLUMBIA RADIATION LABORATORY RESEARCH INVESTIGATION DIRECTED TOWARD EXTENDING THE USEFUL RANGE OF THE ELECTROMAGNETIC SPECTRUM Special Technical Report Signal Corps Contract DA-36-039 SC-64630 DA Project No. 3-99-10-022 SC Project No. 102B U. S. Army Laboratory Procurement Office Signal Corps Supply Agency Fort Monmouth, New Jersey The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York Box 6, Low Memorial Library New York 27, New York March 1, 1956 DISCLAIMER Portions of this document may be illegible in electronic image products. Images are produced from the best available original document. COLUMBIA RADIATION LABORATORY Collected Papers on the AAASER (Microwave Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation) Special Technical Report

17

NRC TLD Direct Radiation Monitoring Network. Volume 15, No. 4: Quarterly progress report, October--December 1995  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of the NRC Direct Radiation Monitoring Network for the fourth quarter of 1995. It provides the ambient radiation levels measured in the vicinity of 75 sites throughout the United States. In addition, it describes the equipment used, monitoring station selection criteria, characterization of the dosimeter response, calibration procedures, statistical methods, intercomparison, and quality assurance program.

Struckmeyer, R.

1996-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

18

Direct and semi-direct radiative effects of anthropogenic aerosols in the Western United States: Seasonal  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

a regional climate model (RCM) in conjunction with the aerosol fields from a GEOS-Chem chemical- transport emissions and the seasonal low-level winds. The RCM-simulated anthropogenic aerosol radiative effects vary, respectively, following the seasonal AOD. In Arizona-New Mexico (AZNM), the effect of anthropogenic sulfates

Liou, K. N.

19

Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and...  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Dataset Activity Stream Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR (Abstract): Normal direct solar radiation in kWhm2day for 1 year organized into...

20

Insolation data manual and direct normal solar radiation data manual  

SciTech Connect

The Insolation Data Manual presents monthly averaged data which describes the availability of solar radiation at 248 National Weather Service (NWS) stations, principally in the United States. Monthly and annual average daily insolation and temperature values have been computed from a base of 24--25 years of data, generally from 1952--1975, and listed for each location. Insolation values represent monthly average daily totals of global radiation on a horizontal surface and are depicted using the three units of measurement: kJ/m{sup 2} per day, Btu/ft{sup 2} per day and langleys per day. Average daily maximum, minimum and monthly temperatures are provided for most locations in both Celsius and Fahrenheit. Heating and cooling degree-days were computed relative to a base of 18.3 C (65 F). For each station, global {bar K}{sub T} (cloudiness index) values were calculated on a monthly and annual basis. Global {bar K}{sub T} is an index of cloudiness and indicates fractional transmittance of horizontal radiation, from the top of the atmosphere to the earth's surface. The second section of this volume presents long-term monthly and annual averages of direct normal solar radiation for 235 NWS stations, including a discussion of the basic derivation process. This effort is in response to a generally recognized need for reliable direct normal data and the recent availability of 23 years of hourly averages for 235 stations. The relative inaccessibility of these data on microfiche further justifies reproducing at least the long-term averages in a useful format. In addition to a definition of terms and an overview of the ADIPA model, a discussion of model validation results is presented.

none,

1990-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


21

Solar UV-B in tropical forest gaps: Analysis using direct and diffuse radiation  

SciTech Connect

Experiments with natural levels of solar ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) have recently shown inhibition of the growth of some tropical forest tree seedlings. A knowledge of forest radiation environments is needed to help assess UV-B effects in natural situations. Although forest canopies strongly attenuate solar radiation, treefall gaps provide a very different radiation environment. We simultaneously measured both UV-B and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) in forest gaps on Barro Colorado Island, Panama. Outside the forest, UV-B is predominately diffuse even under clear sky conditions. In sunflecks of small forest gaps, most of the UV-B was in the direct beam component. Compared to conditions outside the forest, the UV-B in these sunflecks was low relative to PAR. Shaded portions of the gap, in contrast, had proportionately high levels of UV-B relative to PAR. There are indications in the literature that relatively low UV-B levels may be effective under low PFD. Seasonal trends of PAR and UV-B in different locations in gaps can be inferred from hemispherical canopy photographs.

Flint, S.D.; Caldwell, M.M. [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States)

1995-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

22

Study on impulsive noise radiation from of gasoline direct injector  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine uses its own injectors for high pressure fuel supply to the combustion chamber. High frequency impact sound during the injection process is one of the main contributors to engine combustion noise. This impact noise is generated during opening and closing by an injector rod operated by a solenoid. For design of an injector with reduced noise generation it is necessary to analyze its sound radiation mechanism and propose consequent evaluation method. Spectral and modal characteristics of the injectors were measured through vibration induced by external hammer excitation. The injector modal characteristics were analyzed using a simple beam after analyzing its boundaries by complex transverse and rotational springs. To evaluate impulsive sounds more effectively Prony analysis of sounds was used for verifying influence of injector modal characteristics.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

23

P ORNiiTM-7004 Results of Ground Level Radiation  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

ORNiiTM-7004 ORNiiTM-7004 Results of Ground Level Radiation Measurements in Support of the 1978 Aerial Survey of the Lake Ontario Ordnance W o rks, Lewiston, New York _ ict~~.. By A, grven _, ,_~ ~.~ _,. :::;(' ~. . ' -- .- ,. R. W . Doane F. F. Haywood W . H. Shinpaugh ORNL/TM-7004 Dist. Category UC-41 Contract No. W-7405eng-26 RESULTS OF GROUND LEVEL RADIATION MEASUREMENTS IN SUPPORT OF THE 1978 AERIAL SURVEY OF THE LAKE ONTARIO ORDNANCE WORKS, LEWISTON, NEW YORK B. A. Berven F. F. Haywood R. W. Doane W. H. Shinpaugh Work performed by Health and Safety Research Division Date Published: September 1979 Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 operated by UNION CARBIDE CORPORATION for the DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites -

24

Human Impact on Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation during the Industrial Era  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In this study the direct and diffuse solar radiation changes are estimated, and they contribute to the understanding of the observed global dimming and the more recent global brightening during the industrial era. Using a multistream radiative ...

Maria M. Kvalevåg; Gunnar Myhre

2007-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

25

Skill of Direct Solar Radiation Predicted by the ECMWF Global Atmospheric Model over Australia  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Prediction of direct solar radiation is key in sectors such as solar power and agriculture; for instance, it can enable more efficient production of energy from concentrating solar power plants. An assessment of the quality of the direct solar ...

Alberto Troccoli; Jean-Jacques Morcrette

2014-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

26

Synchrotron Radiation in Directions Close to Magnetic-Field Lines  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is characteristic of the radiation from a particle of mass m bearing a charge e moving with ultrarelativistic velocity ? c in a magnetic field of induction B

K. C. Westfold

1974-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

27

Direct radiative effect of aerosols emitted by transport from road, shipping and  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct radiative effect of aerosols emitted by transport from road, shipping and aviation 1234567.0 License. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Direct radiative effect of aerosols emitted by transport: from road, shipping and aviation Y. Balkanski1, G. Myhre2,3, M. Gauss2,*, G. R�adel4, E. J. Highwood4, and K

Wirosoetisno, Djoko

28

Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 40km) from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Normal direct solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 40km x 40km (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files. The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory.

29

Brazil Direct Normal Solar Radiation Model (10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR |  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR 10km) from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Normal direct solar radiation in kWh/m2/day for 1 year organized into cells with 10km x 10km (Purpose): The BRASIL-SR model and the SPRING software (both developed by INPE - National Institute for Space Research) were used to produce the dataset and SHAPE files (Supplemental Information): The assessment of reliability levels of the BRASIL-SR model were performed through the evaluation of the deviations shown by the estimated values for solar radiation flux vis-à-vis the values measured at the surface (ground truth). This evaluation was done in two phases. The first phase consisted in an inter-comparison between the core radiation transfer models adopted by the SWERA Project to map the solar energy in the various countries participating in the project. The HELIOSAT model took part in this phase like benchmark due to its employment to map solar energy resources in countries from European Union. In the second phase, the solar flux estimates provided by the BRASIL-SR model were compared with measured values acquired at several solarimetric stations spread along the Brazilian territory

30

On the Results of Measurements of the Direct Sun Radiation Flux...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

On the Results of Measurements of the Direct Sun Radiation Flux by Actinometer and of Maximal Polarization of Sky Brightness in the Solar Almucantar A. Kh. Shukurov, K. A....

31

Apparatuses and method for converting electromagnetic radiation to direct current  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An energy conversion device may include a first antenna and a second antenna configured to generate an AC current responsive to incident radiation, at least one stripline, and a rectifier coupled with the at least one stripline along a length of the at least one stripline. An energy conversion device may also include an array of nanoantennas configured to generate an AC current in response to receiving incident radiation. Each nanoantenna of the array includes a pair of resonant elements, and a shared rectifier operably coupled to the pair of resonant elements, the shared rectifier configured to convert the AC current to a DC current. The energy conversion device may further include a bus structure operably coupled with the array of nanoantennas and configured to receive the DC current from the array of nanoantennas and transmit the DC current away from the array of nanoantennas.

Kotter, Dale K; Novack, Steven D

2014-09-30T23:59:59.000Z

32

Particle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active regions  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to connect the energy re- lease process with the acceleration of electrons in solar flares, using a CA modelParticle acceleration and radiation by direct electric fields in flaring complex solar active-Meudon, 92195 Meudon Cedex, FRANCE Abstract The acceleration and radiation of solar energetic particles

Anastasiadis, Anastasios

33

Decomposition of H2SO4 by Direct Solar Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The experimental apparatus is presented in Figure 2 and consists of four parts:? the 1.5 kW solar furnace (Figure 2a), the high-temperature reactor (Figure 2b), the H2SO4 + N2 inlet feeding system and the reaction product collector system. ... A large temperature gradient was observed in the hot zone both across the horizontal section and along the vertical direction. ...

Sergio Brutti; Giovanni De Maria; Giovanni Cerri; Ambra Giovannelli; Bruno Brunetti; Patrizia Cafarelli; Elvio Semprin; Vincenzo Barbarossa; Antonio Ceroli

2007-09-05T23:59:59.000Z

34

Radiative Heating of the ISCCP Upper Level Cloud Regimes and its Impact on the Large-scale Tropical Circulation  

SciTech Connect

Radiative heating profiles of the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) cloud regimes (or weather states) were estimated by matching ISCCP observations with radiative properties derived from cloud radar and lidar measurements from the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) sites at Manus, Papua New Guinea, and Darwin, Australia. Focus was placed on the ISCCP cloud regimes containing the majority of upper level clouds in the tropics, i.e., mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), deep cumulonimbus with cirrus, mixed shallow and deep convection, and thin cirrus. At upper levels, these regimes have average maximum cloud occurrences ranging from 30% to 55% near 12 km with variations depending on the location and cloud regime. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating contributions from the longwave and shortwave components. Upper level minima occur near 15 km, with the MCS regime showing the strongest cooling of 0.2 K/day and the thin cirrus showing no cooling. The gradient of upper level heating ranges from 0.2 to 0.4 K/(day?km), with the most convectively active regimes (i.e., MCSs and deep cumulonimbus with cirrus) having the largest gradient. When the above heating profiles were applied to the 25-year ISCCP data set, the tropics-wide average profile has a radiative heating maximum of 0.45Kday-1 near 250 hPa. Column-integrated radiative heating of upper level cloud accounts for about 20% of the latent heating estimated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR). The ISCCP radiative heating of tropical upper level cloud only slightly modifies the response of an idealized primitive equation model forced with the tropics-wide TRMM PR latent heating, which suggests that the impact of upper level cloud is more important to large-scale tropical circulation variations because of convective feedbacks rather than direct forcing by the cloud radiative heating profiles. However, the height of the radiative heating maxima and gradient of the heating profiles are important to determine the sign and patterns of the horizontal circulation anomaly driven by radiative heating at upper levels.

Li, Wei; Schumacher, Courtney; McFarlane, Sally A.

2013-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

35

Improving the Fermilab Booster Notching Efficiency, Beam Losses and Radiation Levels  

SciTech Connect

A fast vertical 1.08-m long kicker (notcher) located in the Fermilab Booster Long-05 straight section is currently used to remove 3 out of 84 circulating bunches after injection to generate an abort gap. With the maximum magnetic field of 72.5 Gauss, it removes only 87% of the 3-bunch intensity at 400 MeV, with 75% loss on pole tips of the focusing Booster magnets, 11% on the Long-06 collimators, and 1% in the rest of the ring. We propose to improve the notching efficiency and reduce beam loss in the Booster by using three horizontal kickers in the Long-12 section. STRUCT calculations show that using horizontal notchers, one can remove up to 96% of the 3-bunch intensity at 400-700 MeV, directing 95% of it to a new beam dump at the Long-13 section. This fully decouples notching and collimation. The beam dump absorbs most of the impinging proton energy in its jaws. The latter are encapsulated into an appropriate radiation shielding that reduces impact on the machine components, personnel and environment to the tolerable levels. MARS simulations show that corresponding prompt and residual radiation levels can be reduced ten times compared to the current ones.

Rakhno, I.L.; Drozhdin, A.I.; Mokhov, N.V.; Sidorov, V.I.; Tropin, I.S.; /Fermilab

2012-05-14T23:59:59.000Z

36

Toward a Minimal Representation of Aerosols in Climate Models: Comparative Decomposition of Aerosol Direct, Semidirect, and Indirect Radiative Forcing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors have decomposed the anthropogenic aerosol radiative forcing into direct contributions from each aerosol species to the planetary energy balance through absorption and scattering of solar radiation, indirect effects of anthropogenic ...

S. J. Ghan; X. Liu; R. C. Easter; R. Zaveri; P. J. Rasch; J.-H. Yoon; B. Eaton

2012-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

37

Solid low-level radioactive waste radiation stability studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

properties and condition; on the other, on the specific features of thermal and radiation influences on it (Spitsyn et al. 1983). For the average composition of the fission products going to wastes repositories, the mean energy of irradiation may vary from... to the container determines, in part, the life of the container. Cormsion studies of containers by solidified wastes has indicated no problem areas in limited measurements to date; however very long-term effects have not been evaluated. The useful life...

Williams, Arnold Andre?

1989-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

38

Reference Directions for a Sound Level Meter , M.R. Vaabenb  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

0 and 90 Reference Directions for a Sound Level Meter E. Aflaloa , M.R. Vaabenb , P. Pourtaua , D the requirements of the IEC 61672 standard on sound level meters taking into account noise incidence from level meter must be pointed at the source according to standard IEC 60651. The purpose of the paper

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

39

Health effects of low-level radiation in shipyard workers. Final report: [Draft  

SciTech Connect

The Nuclear Shipyard Workers Study (NSWS) was designed to determine whether there is an excess risk of leukemia or other cancers associated with exposure to low levels of gamma radiation. The study compares the mortality experience of shipyard workers who qualified to work in radiation areas to the mortality of similar workers who hold the same types of jobs but who are not authorized to work in radiation areas. The population consists of workers from six government and two private shipyards.

Matanoski, G.M.

1991-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

40

Core-level photoemission of the Si(1 1 1) surface using synchrotron radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan c Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory, The Institute of Solid StateCore-level photoemission of the Si(1 1 1)± 21 p � 21 p -Ag surface using synchrotron radiation, Wako-shi, Saitama 351-0198, Japan b Department of Physics, School of Science, University of Tokyo, 7

Hasegawa, Shuji

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


41

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

AEROSOL DIRECT RADIATIVE EFFECTS OVER THE NORTHWEST ATLANTIC, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN, NORTHWEST PACIFIC, AND NORTH INDIAN OCEANS: ESTIMATES BASED ON IN-SITU CHEMICAL AND OPTICAL MEASUREMENTS, Y.24 , Tang, Y.25 , Weber, R. J.26 , and Wu, Y.27 1 NOAA/PMEL, 7600 Sand Point Way NE, Seattle, WA

42

Using Direct Sub-Level Entity Access to Improve Nuclear Stockpile Simulation Modeling  

SciTech Connect

Direct sub-level entity access is a seldom-used technique in discrete-event simulation modeling that addresses the accessibility of sub-level entity information. The technique has significant advantages over more common, alternative modeling methods--especially where hierarchical entity structures are modeled. As such, direct sub-level entity access is often preferable in modeling nuclear stockpile, life-extension issues, an area to which it has not been previously applied. Current nuclear stockpile, life-extension models were demonstrated to benefit greatly from the advantages of direct sub-level entity access. In specific cases, the application of the technique resulted in models that were up to 10 times faster than functionally equivalent models where alternative techniques were applied. Furthermore, specific implementations of direct sub-level entity access were observed to be more flexible, efficient, functional, and scalable than corresponding implementations using common modeling techniques. Common modeling techniques (''unbatch/batch'' and ''attribute-copying'') proved inefficient and cumbersome in handling many nuclear stockpile modeling complexities, including multiple weapon sites, true defect analysis, and large numbers of weapon and subsystem types. While significant effort was required to enable direct sub-level entity access in the nuclear stockpile simulation models, the enhancements were worth the effort--resulting in more efficient, more capable, and more informative models that effectively addressed the complexities of the nuclear stockpile.

Robert Y. Parker

1999-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

43

A hybrid approach for rapid, accurate, and direct kilovoltage radiation dose calculations in CT voxel space  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To develop and validate a fast and accurate method that uses computed tomography (CT) voxel data to estimate absorbed radiation dose at a point of interest (POI) or series of POIs from a kilovoltage (kV) imaging procedure. Methods: The authors developed an approach that computes absorbed radiation dose at a POI by numerically evaluating the linear Boltzmann transport equation (LBTE) using a combination of deterministic and Monte Carlo (MC) techniques. This hybrid approach accounts for material heterogeneity with a level of accuracy comparable to the general MC algorithms. Also, the dose at a POI is computed within seconds using the Intel Core i7 CPU 920 2.67 GHz quad core architecture, and the calculations are performed using CT voxel data, making it flexible and feasible for clinical applications. To validate the method, the authors constructed and acquired a CT scan of a heterogeneous block phantom consisting of a succession of slab densities: Tissue (1.29 cm), bone (2.42 cm), lung (4.84 cm), bone (1.37 cm), and tissue (4.84 cm). Using the hybrid transport method, the authors computed the absorbed doses at a set of points along the central axis and x direction of the phantom for an isotropic 125 kVp photon spectral point source located along the central axis 92.7 cm above the phantom surface. The accuracy of the results was compared to those computed with MCNP, which was cross-validated with EGSnrc, and served as the benchmark for validation. Results: The error in the depth dose ranged from -1.45% to +1.39% with a mean and standard deviation of -0.12% and 0.66%, respectively. The error in the x profile ranged from -1.3% to +0.9%, with standard deviations of -0.3% and 0.5%, respectively. The number of photons required to achieve these results was 1x10{sup 6}. Conclusions: The voxel-based hybrid method evaluates the LBTE rapidly and accurately to estimate the absorbed x-ray dose at any POI or series of POIs from a kV imaging procedure.

Kouznetsov, Alexei; Tambasco, Mauro [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Department of Physics and Astronomy and Department of Oncology, University of Calgary and Tom Baker Cancer Centre, 1331-29 Street NW Calgary, Alberta T2N 4N2 (Canada)

2011-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

44

Direct experimental lower bound on the radiative lifetime of the muon neutrino  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A sensitive search for ?? and ?¯? decay into photons was performed in a high-intensity beam of neutrinos from ?+ and ?+ decay at rest. An upper limit of 68 possible ?-ray events was established, leading to a lower bound on the radiative lifetime of the muon (anti)neutrino of ?m???15.4 sec/eV (90% C.L.). This result represents more than a factor of 100 improvement over previous direct laboratory searches.

D. A. Krakauer; R. L. Talaga; R. C. Allen; H. H. Chen; R. Hausammann; W. A. Johnson; W. P. Lee; X -Q. Lu; H. J. Mahler; K. C. Wang; H. Yao; T. J. Bowles; R. L. Burman; R. D. Carlini; D. R. F. Cochran; P. J. Doe; J. S. Frank; M. E. Potter; E. Piasetzky; V. D. Sandberg

1991-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

45

Red shift in spectra of galaxies as a consequence of gravitational radiation of the same level as electromagnetic  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

In elaboration of the results presented earlier the red shift is also regarded in this investigation as a widening of electromagnetic radiation spectra, determined by the existence of gravitational radiation of a banded spectrum of the same level as electromagnetic.

S. I. Fisenko; I. S. Fisenko

2010-01-07T23:59:59.000Z

46

Direct power control of grid connected PV systems with three level NPC inverter  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents the control of a three-level Neutral Point Clamped (NPC) voltage source inverter for grid connected photovoltaic (PV) systems. The control method used is the Extended Direct Power Control (EDPC), which is a generic approach for Direct Power Control (DPC) of multilevel inverters based on geometrical considerations. Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithms, that allow maximal power conversion into the grid, have been included. These methods are capable of extracting maximum power from each of the independent PV arrays connected to each DC link voltage level. The first one is a conventional MPPT which outputs DC link voltage references to EDPC. The second one is based on DPC concept. This new MPPT outputs power increment references to EDPC, thus avoiding the use of a DC link voltage regulator. The whole control system has been tested on a three-level NPC voltage source inverter connected to the grid and results confirm the validity of the method. (author)

Alonso-Martinez, Jaime; Eloy-Garcia, Joaquin; Arnaltes, Santiago [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, University Carlos III of Madrid, Avda. Universidad 30, 28911 Leganes, Madrid (Spain)

2010-07-15T23:59:59.000Z

47

Radiative heating of the ISCCP upper level cloud regimes and its impact on the large-scale tropical circulation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiative heating of the ISCCP upper level cloud regimes and its impact on the large-scale tropical 2012; accepted 14 December 2012; published 31 January 2013. [1] Radiative heating profiles. The resulting radiative heating profiles have maxima of approximately 1 K/day near 12 km, with equal heating

48

Differential directional intensities of low energy cosmic ray muons near sea level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DIFFERENTIAL DIRECTIOiNAL INTEiNSITIES OF LOW ENERGY COSMIC RAY MUONS liR SEA LEVEL A Thesis by DAVID RUDOLPH DURDA Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas ASM University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER... OF SCIENCE May 1970 Physics DIFFERENTIAL DIRECTIONAL INTENSITIES OF LOW ENERGY COSMIC RAY MUONS NEAR SEA LEVEL A Thesis by DAVID RUDOLPH DURDA Approved as to style and content by: C airman o Committee Hea o Department Me er Mem er May 1970...

Durda, David Rudolph

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

49

Radiation Probabilities, Auger Effect and Energy Level Widths for Au(79)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The theory of energy level widths developed by Weisskopf and Wigner and by Wentzel is applied to the calculation of the energy level widths of Au(79). Radiation and Auger transition probabilities are determined separately with the aid of numerically integrated nonrelativistic eigenfunctions, the latter being calculated for electrons moving in the Fermi-Thomas field of Tl(81)++. Sources of error are considered, the major one being the nonrelativistic treatment. The band width due to the interaction of electrons in different atoms in the crystal lattice does not add materially to the level width of the OI and lower states. Except for the K state, the Auger contribution to the width exceeds that of the radiation transitions. Where the majority of the significant Auger effects have been calculated (LI,MI,NI) the total calculated width is found to be appreciably in excess of the observed width, but of the same order. The results confirm the view that the contributions of radiation transitions and Auger effects to the level widths of the initial and final states of the atom suffice to explain the magnitude of the widths of the x-ray lines emitted by the heavy elements.

E. G. Ramberg and F. K. Richtmyer

1937-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

50

ELSEVIER Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 35 (1994) 99-101 Low level direct current -cell culture fibroblast model  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

ELSEVIER Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 35 (1994) 99-101 Low level direct current - cell;100 U. Batista et al. / Bioelectrochemistry and Bioenergetics 35 (1994) 99-101 2.2. Direct current

Ljubljana, University of

51

Levelized costs of electricity and direct-use heat from Enhanced Geothermal Systems  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

GEOPHIRES (GEOthermal energy for the Production of Heat and Electricity (“IR”) Economically Simulated) is a software tool that combines reservoir wellbore and power plant models with capital and operating cost correlations and financial levelized cost models to assess the technical and economic performance of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS). It is an upgrade and expansion of the “MIT-EGS” program used in the 2006 “Future of Geothermal Energy” study. GEOPHIRES includes updated cost correlations for well drilling and completion resource exploration and Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and flash power plants. It also has new power plant efficiency correlations based on AspenPlus and MATLAB simulations. The structure of GEOPHIRES enables feasibility studies of using geothermal resources not only for electricity generation but also for direct-use heating and combined heat and power (CHP) applications. Full documentation on GEOPHIRES is provided in the supplementary material. Using GEOPHIRES the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) and the levelized cost of heat (LCOH) have been estimated for 3 cases of resource grade (low- medium- and high-grade resource corresponding to a geothermal gradient of 30 50 and 70?°C/km) in combination with 3 levels of technological maturity (today's mid-term and commercially mature technology corresponding to a productivity of 30 50 and 70?kg/s per production well and thermal drawdown rate of 2% 1.5% and 1%). The results for the LCOE range from 4.6 to 57 ¢/kWhe and for the LCOH from 3.5 to 14 $/MMBTU (1.2 to 4.8 ¢/kWhth). The results for the base-case scenario (medium-grade resource and mid-term technology) are 11 ¢/kWhe and 5 $/MMBTU (1.7 ¢/kWhth) respectively. To account for parameter uncertainty a sensitivity analysis has been included. The results for the LCOE and LCOH have been compared with values found in literature for EGS as well as other energy technologies. The key findings suggest that given today's technology maturity electricity and direct-use heat from EGS are not economically competitive under current market conditions with other energy technologies. However with moderate technological improvements electricity from EGS is predicted to become cost-effective with respect to other renewable and non-renewable energy sources for medium- and high-grade geothermal resources. Direct-use heat from EGS is calculated to become cost-effective even for low-grade resources. This emphasizes that EGS for direct-use heat may not be neglected in future EGS development.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

52

A detailed evaluation of TomoDirect 3DCRT planning for whole-breast radiation therapy  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this work was to develop planning strategies for whole-breast radiotherapy (WBRT) using TomoDirect three-dimensional conformal radiation therapy (TD-3DCRT) and to compare TD-3DCRT with conventional 3DCRT and TD intensity-modulated radiation therapy (TD-IMRT) to evaluate differences in WBRT plan quality. Computed tomography (CT) images of 10 women were used to generate 150 WBRT plans, varying in target structures, field width (FW), pitch, and number of beams. Effects on target and external maximum doses (EMD), organ-at-risk (OAR) doses, and treatment time were assessed for each parameter to establish an optimal planning technique. Using this technique, TD-3DCRT plans were generated and compared with TD-IMRT and standard 3DCRT plans. FW 5.0 cm with pitch = 0.250 cm significantly decreased EMD without increasing lung V20 Gy. Increasing number of beams from 2 to 6 and using an additional breast planning structure decreased EMD though increased lung V20 Gy. Changes in pitch had minimal effect on plan metrics. TD-3DCRT plans were subsequently generated using FW 5.0 cm, pitch = 0.250 cm, and 2 beams, with additional beams or planning structures added to decrease EMD when necessary. TD-3DCRT and TD-IMRT significantly decreased target maximum dose compared to standard 3DCRT. FW 5.0 cm with 2 to 6 beams or novel planning structures or both allow for TD-3DCRT WBRT plans with excellent target coverage and OAR doses. TD-3DCRT plans are comparable to plans generated using TD-IMRT and provide an alternative to conventional 3DCRT for WBRT.

Fields, Emma C.; Rabinovitch, Rachel; Ryan, Nicole E.; Miften, Moyed; Westerly, David C., E-mail: david.westerly@ucdenver.edu

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

53

Radiation and Background Levels in a CLIC Detector due to Beam-Beam Effects Optimisation of Detector Geometries and Technologies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The high charge density---due to small beam sizes---and the high energy of the proposed CLIC concept for a linear electron--positron collider with a centre-of-mass energy of up to 3~TeV lead to the production of a large number of particles through beam-beam interactions at the interaction point during every bunch crossing (BX). A large fraction of these particles safely leaves the detector. A still significant amount of energy will be deposited in the forward region nonetheless, which will produce secondary particles able to cause background in the detector. Furthermore, some particles will be created with large polar angles and directly cause background in the tracking detectors and calorimeters. The main sources of background in the detector, either directly or indirectly, are the incoherent $mathrm{e}^{+}mathrm{e}^{-}$ pairs and the particles from $gammagamma ightarrow$ hadron events. The background and radiation levels in the detector have to be estimated, to study if a detector is feasible, that can han...

Sailer, André; Lohse, Thomas

2013-01-10T23:59:59.000Z

54

Direct  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

interactions, and the pollutant emission is hence directly proportional to the bulk neutral density. Simultaneously monitoring the total emission at 1040 nm and the...

55

Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the last decade to ensure the safe disposal of low-level radioactive waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of comprehensive State and Federal regulations governing the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, and the enactment of Federal laws making States responsible for the disposal of such waste generated within their borders.

Not Available

1994-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

56

Predicting underwater radiated noise levels due to the first offshore wind turbine installation in the United States  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Noise generated by offshore impact pile driving radiates into the air water and sediment. Predicting noise levels around the support structures at sea is required to estimate the effects of the noise on marine life. Based on high demands developing renewable energy source the United States will begin the first pile driving within one to two years. It is necessary to investigate acoustic impact using our previously verified coupled Finite Element (Commercial FE code Abaqus) and Monterey Miami Parabolic Equation (2D MMPE) models [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131(4) 3392 (2012)]. In the present study we developed a new coupled FE-MMPE model for the identification of zone of injury due to offshore impact pile driving. FE analysis produced acoustic pressure outputs on the surface of the pile which are used as a starting field for a long range 2D MMPE propagation model. It calculates transmission loss for N different azimuthal directions as function of distance from the location of piling with the inputs of corresponding bathymetry and sediment properties. We will present predicted zone of injury by connecting N different distances of equivalent level fishes may get permanent injury due to the first offshore wind farm installation in the United States.

James H. Miller

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

57

Predicting underwater radiated noise levels due to the first offshore wind turbine installation in the U.S.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Noise generated by offshore impact pile driving radiates into the air water and sediment. Predicting noise levels around the support structures at sea is required to estimate the effects of the noise on marine life. Based on high demands developing renewable energy source the United States will begin the first pile driving within one to two years. It is necessary to investigate acoustic impact using our previously verified coupled Finite Element (Commercial FE code Abaqus) and Monterey Miami Parabolic Equation (2D MMPE) models (J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131(4) p. 3392 2012). In the present study we developed a new coupled FE-MMPE model for the identification of zone of injury due to offshore impact pile driving. FE analysis produced acoustic pressure outputs on the surface of the pile which are used as a starting field for a long range 2D MMPE propagation model. It calculates transmission loss for N different azimuthal directions as function of distance from the location of piling with the inputs of corresponding bathymetry and sediment properties. We will present predicted zone of injury by connecting N different distances of equivalent level fishes may get permanent injury due to the first offshore wind farm installation in the U.S..

Huikwan Kim; James H. Miller; Gopu R. Potty

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

58

Directions in low-level radioactive waste management: A brief history of commercial low-level radioactive waste disposal  

SciTech Connect

This report presents a history of commercial low-level radioactive waste management in the United States, with emphasis on the history of six commercially operated low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The report includes a brief description of important steps that have been taken during the 1980s to ensure the safe disposal of low-level waste in the 1990s and beyond. These steps include the issuance of Title 10 Code of Federal Regulations Part 61, Licensing Requirements for the Land Disposal of Radioactive Waste, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act of 1980, the Low-Level Radioactive Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1985, and steps taken by states and regional compacts to establish additional disposal sites. 42 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

Not Available

1990-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

59

Radiative Decay Engineering of Direct Bandgap Emission in Silver Ion-Implanted Polarized Silicon Quantum Dots  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Emission from low energy Silver ion implanted crystalline silicon quantum dots can be enhanced due to enhanced radiative recombination induced by polarization of the dots and metal...

Singh, Akhilesh; Gryczynski, Karol; Neogi, Arup; Kim, Moon

60

The similar effects of low-dose ionizing radiation and non-ionizing radiation from background environmental levels of exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The meltdown and release of radioactivity (ionizing radiation) from four damaged nuclear reactors at the Fukushima Nuclear Facility in Japan in March 2011 continues to contaminate air and ocean water even 1 year ...

Cindy Sage

2012-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


61

Source level model for propeller blade rate radiation for the world’s merchant fleet  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A model is developed for the acoustic source strength of blade rate line energy produced by single?screw merchant vessels. These source strengths are based on observed cavitation time histories on merchant vessels and on limitations imposed by considerations of propeller design procedures and ship vibration criteria. Relationships are presented for the expected value of the blade rate source strength for ships of different lengths expressed both as a monopole source strength located at a known depth below a free surface and as a dipole source strength that describes the pressure radiated to the farfield. These relationships are based on a small sample of merchant shipcharacteristics and are exercised for the estimated population of ships at sea. This calculation yields a statistical description of the distribution of source level and frequency of propeller blade rate acoustic energy for the fleet of single?screw merchant vessels.

Leslie M. Gray; David S. Greeley

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

62

The Relative Effects of Direct and Indirect Actions of Ionizing Radiations on Deoxyribonucleic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...determined over a range of concentrations...means that over this range of concentration...independent of the dose rate and of the hardness of the radiations within the ranges used and identical...indirect actions of ionizing radiations on deoxyribonucleic...

1958-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

63

Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in Low Level Waste Disposal  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

Defense-in-Depth, How Department of Energy Implements Radiation Protection in Low Level Waste Disposal Linda Suttora*, U.S. Department of Energy ; Andrew Wallo, U.S. Department of Energy Abstract: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted an integrated protection system for the safety of radioactive waste disposal similar to the concept of a safety case that is used internationally. This approach has evolved and been continuously improved as a result of many years of experience managing low-level waste (LLW) and mixed LLW from on-going operations, decommissioning and environmental restoration activities at 29 sites around the United States. The integrated protection system is implemented using a defense-in-depth approach taking into account the combination of natural and engineered barriers, performance objectives, long-term risk assessments, maintenance of those assessments based on the most recent information to ascertain continued compliance, site-specific waste acceptance criteria based on the risk assessment and a commitment to continuous improvement. There is also a strong component of stakeholder involvement. The integrated protection system approach will be discussed to demonstrate the commitment to safety for US DOE disposal.

64

Directions in low-level radioactive waste management. Low-level radioactive waste disposal: commercial facilities no longer operating  

SciTech Connect

This publication discusses three commercial facilities-no longer operating-that have received and now contain low-level radioactive waste. The facilities are located at West Valley, New York; Maxey Flats, Kentucky; and Sheffield, Illinois. All three of the facilities were selected and developed in the 1960s. The onset of water management problems caused the closure of the sites at West Valley and Maxey Flats in 1975 and 1977, respectively. Closure of the Sheffield site occurred in 1978, after the operator experienced site problems and consequent lengthy delays in its license renewal procedures. The document provides detailed explanation of the history, basis for closure, and current status of each facility. This information is intended, primarily, to assist state officials-executive, legislative, and agency-in planning for, establishing, and managing low-level waste disposal facilities.

Berlin, R.E.; Tuite, P.T.

1982-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

65

Direct photo-etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source  

SciTech Connect

In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-based EUV plasma source (pulse energy 3 mJ at {lambda}=13.5 nm, plasma diameter {approx}300 {mu}m). By 10x demagnified imaging of the plasma a pulse energy density of {approx}75 mJ/cm{sup 2} at a pulse length of 6 ns can be achieved in the image plane of the objective. As demonstrated for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), photoetching of polymer surfaces is possible at this EUV fluence level. This paper presents first results, including a systematic determination of PMMA etching rates under EUV irradiation. Furthermore, the contribution of out-of-band radiation to the surface etching of PMMA was investigated by conducting a diffraction experiment for spectral discrimination from higher wavelength radiation. Imaging of a pinhole positioned behind the plasma accomplished the generation of an EUV spot of 1 {mu}m diameter, which was employed for direct writing of surface structures in PMMA.

Barkusky, Frank; Peth, Christian; Bayer, Armin; Mann, Klaus [Laser-Laboratorium-Goettingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

2007-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

66

Direct photo-etching of poly(methyl methacrylate) using focused extreme ultraviolet radiation from a table-top laser-induced plasma source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet(EUV)radiation a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-based EUVplasma source (pulse energy 3 ? mJ ? at ? ? = 13.5 ? nm plasma diameter ? 300 ? ? m ). By 10 × demagnified imaging of the plasma a pulse energy density of ? 75 ? mJ ? cm 2 at a pulse length of 6 ns can be achieved in the image plane of the objective. As demonstrated for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) photoetching of polymer surfaces is possible at this EUV fluence level. This paper presents first results including a systematic determination of PMMA etching rates under EUVirradiation. Furthermore the contribution of out-of-band radiation to the surface etching of PMMA was investigated by conducting a diffraction experiment for spectral discrimination from higher wavelength radiation. Imaging of a pinhole positioned behind the plasma accomplished the generation of an EUV spot of 1 ? ? m diameter which was employed for direct writing of surface structures in PMMA.

Frank Barkusky; Christian Peth; Armin Bayer; Klaus Mann

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

67

State background-radiation levels: results of measurements taken during 1975-1979  

SciTech Connect

Background radiation levels across the United States have been measured by the Off-Site Pollutant Measurements Group of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These measurements have been conducted as part of the ORNL program of radiological surveillance at inactive uranium mills and sites formerly utilized during Manhattan Engineer District and early Atomic Energy Commission projects. The measurements included determination of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U concentrations in surface soil samples and measurement of external gamma-ray exposure rates at 1 m above the ground surface at the location of soil sampling. This information is being utilized for comparative purposes to determine the extent of contamination present at the survey sites and surrounding off-site areas. The sampling program to date has provided background information at 356 locations in 33 states. External gamma-ray exposure rates were found to range from less than 1 to 34 ..mu..R/h, with an US average of 8.5 ..mu..R/h. The nationwide average concentrations of /sup 226/Ra, /sup 232/Th, and /sup 238/U in surface soil were determined to be 1.1, 0.98, and 1.0 pCi/g, respectively.

Myrick, T.E.; Berven, B.A.; Haywood, F.F.

1981-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

68

An Improved Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

array (MPA). The earliest work on an MPA related device for measuring diffuse sky radiation was performed in Finland by M. H2milllien et al. (1985). Further development on the MPA was performed in several countries including the United States where...

Munger, B.; Haberl, J. S.

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

69

Enhancing VHTR passive safety and economy with thermal radiation based direct reactor auxiliary cooling system  

SciTech Connect

One of the most important requirements for Gen. IV Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR) is passive safety. Currently all the gas cooled version of VHTR designs use Reactor Vessel Auxiliary Cooling System (RVACS) for passive decay heat removal. The RVACS can be characterized as a surface-based decay heat removal system. It is especially suitable for smaller power reactors since small systems have relatively larger surface area to volume ratio. However, RVACS limits the maximum achievable power level for modular VHTRs due to the mismatch between the reactor power (proportional to the core volume) and decay heat removal capability (proportional to the vessel surface area). Besides the safety considerations, VHTRs also need to be economical in order to compete with other reactor concepts and other types of energy sources. The limit of decay heat removal capability set by using RVACS has affected the economy of VHTRs. A potential alternative solution is to use a volume-based passive decay heat removal system, called Direct Reactor Auxiliary Cooling Systems (DRACS), to remove or mitigate the limitation on decay heat removal capability. DRACS composes of natural circulation loops with two sets of heat exchangers, one on the reactor side and another on the environmental side. For the reactor side, cooling pipes will be inserted into holes made in the outer or inner graphite reflector blocks. There will be gaps or annular regions formed between these cooling pipes and their corresponding surrounding graphite surfaces. Graphite has an excellent heat conduction property. By taking advantage of this feature, we can have a volume-based method to remove decay heat. The scalability can be achieved, if needed, by employing more rows of cooling pipes to accommodate higher decay heat rates. Since heat can easily conduct through the graphite regions among the holes made for the cooling pipes, those cooling pipes located further away from the active core region can still be very effective in removing decay heat. By removing the limit on the decay heat removal capability due to the limited available surface area as in a RVACS, the reactor power density and therefore the reactor power can be significantly increased, without losing the passive heat removal feature. This paper introduces the concept of using DRACS to enhance VHTR passive safety and economics. Three design options with different cooling pipe locations are discussed. Analysis results from a lumped volume based model and CFD simulations are presented. (authors)

Zhao, H.; Zhang, H.; Zou, L. [Idaho National Laboratory (United States); Sun, X. [Ohio State Univ. (United States)

2012-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

70

Direct Observation of Hyperfine Quenching of the (2)3p0 Level in Helium-Like Nickel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report a clear demonstration of the effect of hyperfine quenching of a forbidden transition by direct comparison of the lifetimes of the 2 3P0 level in the heliumlike isotopes Ni-61(26+) and Ni-58(26+). We find the quenched lifetime of the 2 3P0...

Dunford, R. W.; Liu, C. J.; Last, J.; Berrahmansour, N.; Vondrasek, R.; Church, David A.; Curtis, L. J.

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

71

Exploiting simultaneous observational constraints on mass and absorption to estimate the global direct radiative forcing of black carbon and brown carbon  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Atmospheric black carbon (BC) is a leading climate warming agent, yet uncertainties on the global direct radiative forcing (DRF) remain large. Here we expand a global model simulation (GEOS-Chem) of BC to include the ...

Schwarz, J. P.

72

Energy levels, radiative rates and lifetimes for transitions in Br-like ions with 38 $\\le$ Z $\\le$ 42  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Energy levels and radiative rates for transitions in five Br-like ions (Sr IV, Y V, Zr VI, Nb VII and Mo VIII) are calculated with the general-purpose relativistic atomic structure package ({\\sc grasp}). Extensive configuration interaction has been included and results are presented among the lowest 31 levels of the 4s$^2$4p$^5$, 4s$^2$4p$^4$4d and 4s4p$^6$ configurations. Lifetimes for these levels have also been determined, although unfortunately no measurements are available with which to compare. However, recently theoretical results have been reported by Singh {\\em et al} [Phys. Scr. {\\bf 88} (2013) 035301] using the same {\\sc grasp} code. But their reported data for radiative rates and lifetimes cannot be reproduced and show discrepancies of up to five orders of magnitude with the present calculations.

Aggarwal, K M

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

73

Results of a direct search using synchrotron radiation for the low-energy $^{229}$Th nuclear isomeric transition  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We report the results of a direct search for the $^{229}$Th ($I^{p} = 3/2^+\\leftarrow 5/2^+$) nuclear isomeric transition, performed by exposing $^{229}$Th-doped LiSrAlF$_6$ crystals to tunable vacuum-ultraviolet synchrotron radiation and observing any resulting fluorescence. We also use existing nuclear physics data to establish a range of possible transition strengths for the isomeric transition. We find no evidence for the thorium nuclear transition between $7.3 \\mbox{eV}$ and $8.8 \\mbox{eV}$ with transition lifetime $(1-2)\\mbox{s} \\lesssim \\tau \\lesssim (2000-5600)\\mbox{s}$. This measurement excludes roughly half of the favored transition search area and can be used to direct future searches.

Jeet, Justin; Sullivan, Scott T; Rellergert, Wade G; Mirzadeh, Saed; Cassanho, A; Jenssen, H P; Tkalya, Eugene V; Hudson, Eric R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

74

Presented at the 2004 Applied Superconductivity Conference at Jacksonville, Florida, USA, Oct 3-8, 2004. Abstract--Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

these radiation doses. We plan to use stainless steel tape, that being a metal, is a robust radiation resistant-8, 2004. Abstract--Extremely high radiation, levels with accumulated doses comparable to those in nuclear). Removing large heat loads, protecting the superconducting coils against quenching, the long term

Gupta, Ramesh

75

Public Understanding of Cleanup Levels DRAFT FAQ Public Involvement...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

A. Future land use directly affects the amount of radiation that a person, animal, or ecosystem (also called "receptors") will receive. Generally, clean up levels may be lower...

76

Vertical structure and turbulent saturation level in fully radiative protoplanetary disc models  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Unlike, for example, the solar butterfly diagram, the field reversals shown in Fig. 2...OUTLOOK We have performed 3D radiative MHD simulations of MRI-turbulent protoplanetary...sufficient to justify the assumption of ideal MHD. The logical next step will be to include......

M. Flaig; W. Kley; R. Kissmann

2010-12-21T23:59:59.000Z

77

Effects of combined radiofrequency radiation exposure on levels of reactive oxygen species in neuronal cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......typical CDMA signal of 837 MHz and a WCDMA signal of 1950 MHz were applied to the RTL...incubator with a humidified atmosphere of 5% CO2. Analysis...exposure to UMTS 1950 MHz radiation and co-exposure...reaction of menadione with plasma thiols: enhancement......

Kyoung Ah Kang; Hyung Chul Lee; Je-Jung Lee; Mi-Na Hong; Myung-Jin Park; Yun-Sil Lee; Hyung-Do Choi; Nam Kim; Young-Gyu Ko; Jae-Seon Lee

2014-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

78

ESTIMATING GROUND-LEVEL SOLAR RADIATION AND EVAPOTRANSPIRATION IN PUERTO RICO  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REMOTE SENSING Eric. W. Harmsen1 , John Mecikalski2 , Vanessa Acaron3 and Jayson Maldonado3 1 Department insolation, other meteorological variables (e.g., net radiation, soil heat flux, air temperature dew point remote sensing product. As a practical example of the use of the methodology, the Hargraeves-Samani ETo

Gilbes, Fernando

79

Direct active and reactive power control of 3-level NPC-fed DFIG considering power ripple minimisation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Despite the advantages of three-level neutral point clamp (NPC) converters compared with standard voltage source inverters (VSIs), most of the direct power control (DPC) strategies for doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) reported in the literature, only utilise VSIs. As regards three-level NPC converter generates higher number of voltage vectors compared with standard VSIs, This paper presents a DPC strategy for DFIG using three-level NPC converters in which three-level NPC voltage vectors are employed to reduce large power ripples of conventional DPC. Therefore, a new optimised switching table is derived. Using this table, DFIG provides not only elaborate active and reactive powers which track their reference values very well, but also large power ripple is compensated. Also, because of ripple reduction, total harmonic distortion of rotor current, stator current, stator voltage and grid line-to-line voltage is reduced in proposed strategy compared with conventional DPC. Simulation results show the effectiveness of proposed method and have a reasonable correspondence with theoretical and mathematical analysis.

Milad Yousefi-Talouki; Parviz Ramezanpour

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

80

UV Radiation Inhibits 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase Levels in Human Skin: Evidence of Transcriptional Suppression  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...one-carbon metabolism that involves a constellation of genes including methylenetetrahydrofolate...48-50, 50-53, 53 years), and energy intake (902, 902-1147, 1147-1399...on the other hand, participate in energy production and are not directly involved...

Benjamin L. Judson; Akira Miyaki; Vikram D. Kekatpure; Baoheng Du; Patricia Gilleaudeau; Mary Sullivan-Whalen; Arash Mohebati; Sudhir Nair; Jay O. Boyle; Richard D. Granstein; Kotha Subbaramaiah; James G. Krueger; and Andrew J. Dannenberg

2010-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


81

Assessment of radon concentration and external gamma radiation level in the environs of Narwapahar uranium mine, India and its radiological significance  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In the environs of uranium mining, milling and processing facilities and in the uranium mineralized terrain, a little higher ambient radon concentration and gamma radiation level may be expected in comparison ...

B. K. Rana; R. M. Tripathi; J. S. Meena…

2011-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

82

Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source  

SciTech Connect

In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation, a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-driven EUV plasma source utilizing a solid Au target. By 10x demagnified imaging of the plasma a maximum pulse energy density of {approx}0.73 J/cm{sup 2} at a wavelength of 13.5 nm can be achieved in the image plane of the objective at a pulse duration of 8.8 ns. In this paper we present EUV photoetching rates measured for polymethyl methacrylate, polycarbonate, and polytetrafluoroethylene at various fluence levels. A linear dependence between etch depth and applied EUV pulse number could be observed without the necessity for any incubation pulses. By evaluating the slope of these data, etch rates were determined, revealing also a linear behavior for low fluences. A threshold energy density could not be observed. The slope of the linear etch regime as well as deviations from the linear trend at higher energy densities are discussed and compared to data known from deep UV laser ablation. Furthermore, the surface roughness of the structured polymers was measured by atomic force microscopy and compared to the nonirradiated polymer surface, indicating a rather smooth etch process (roughness increase of 20%-30%). The different shapes of the etch craters observed for the three polymers at high energy densities can be explained by the measured fluence dependence of the etch rates, having consequences for the proper use of polymer ablation for beam profiling of focused EUV radiation.

Barkusky, Frank; Bayer, Armin; Peth, Christian; Mann, Klaus [Laser-Laboratorium-Goettingen e.V., Hans-Adolf-Krebs-Weg 1, D-37077 Goettingen (Germany)

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

83

The Association between Cancers and Low Level Radiation: an evaluation of the epidemiological evidence at the Hanford Nuclear Weapons Facility  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

indiv. indiv. Gilbertetal. (Hanford & Combined) Gilbertetal.on both radiation and the Hanford facility. The data used toG. Radiation exposures of Hanford workers dying from cancer

Britton, Julie

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

84

Direct photoetching of polymers using radiation of high energy density from a table-top extreme ultraviolet plasma source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to perform material interaction studies with intense extreme ultraviolet(EUV)radiation a Schwarzschild mirror objective coated with Mo/Si multilayers was adapted to a compact laser-driven EUV plasma source utilizing a solid Au target. By 10× demagnified imaging of the plasma a maximum pulse energy density of ? 0.73 ? J / cm 2 at a wavelength of 13.5 nm can be achieved in the image plane of the objective at a pulse duration of 8.8 ns. In this paper we present EUV photoetching rates measured for polymethyl methacrylate polycarbonate and polytetrafluoroethylene at various fluence levels. A linear dependence between etch depth and applied EUV pulse number could be observed without the necessity for any incubation pulses. By evaluating the slope of these data etch rates were determined revealing also a linear behavior for low fluences. A threshold energy density could not be observed. The slope of the linear etch regime as well as deviations from the linear trend at higher energy densities are discussed and compared to data known from deep UV laser ablation. Furthermore the surface roughness of the structuredpolymers was measured by atomic force microscopy and compared to the nonirradiated polymer surface indicating a rather smooth etch process (roughness increase of 20%–30%). The different shapes of the etch craters observed for the three polymers at high energy densities can be explained by the measured fluence dependence of the etch rates having consequences for the proper use of polymerablation for beam profiling of focused EUVradiation.

Frank Barkusky; Armin Bayer; Christian Peth; Klaus Mann

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

85

The Feasibility of Establishing a De Minimis Level of Radiation Dose and a Regulatory Cutoff Policy for Nuclear Regulation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This report discusses the feasibility of a de minimis policy for radiation exposure guidance and regulation. This policy would establish a threshold below which regulation of radiation sources, practices, or e...

Joyce P. Davis

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

86

Statistical correlation between hourly and daily values of solar radiation on horizontal surface at sea level in the Italian climate  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

219- Statistical correlation between hourly and daily values of solar radiation on horizontal- nalières du rayonnement solaire. Abstract. 2014 The knowledge of hourly data of solar radiation is required data measured in Italian stations and propose a method to estimate hourly solar radiation

Boyer, Edmond

87

Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen species to directly affect antioxidant concentrations in cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Radiolysis products and internal dose distribution - Calculation of...products and internal distribution of doses Low dose ionizing radiation produces too few reactive oxygen...stress is the mechanism for a wide range of negative impacts on biota living...

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

88

RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN: INFLUENCE OF DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND RISK PROJECTION MODELS IN THE ESTIMATION OF RISK COEFFICIENTS FOLLOWING EXPOSURE TO LOW-LEVEL RADIATION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN: INFLUENCE OF DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND RISK PROJECTION MODELS IN THE ESTIMATIONRADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN HAN: INFLUENCE OF DOSE-RESPONSE MODELS AND RISK PROJECTION MODELS IN THE ESTIMATION

Fabrikant, J.I.

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

89

Development of Simplified Calculations for a Multipyranometer Array for the Measurement of Direct and Diffuse Solar Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in Finland by M. HW1'aien et al. (1985). Further development on the MPA was performed in several countries ineluding the United States where Perez (1986) presented a method for deriving beam radiation from a series of vertically mounted pyranometers...

Munger, B. K.; Haberl, J. S.

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

90

Quantification of the Aerosol Direct Radiative Effect from Smoke over Clouds Using Passive Space-borne Spectrometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, Wilhelminalaan 30, 3732 GK, De Bilt, The Netherlands email: graafdem@knmi.nl Abstract. The solar radiative the South Atlantic Ocean west of Africa on 13 August 2006, when a huge plume of smoke was present over: 92.70.Cp, 92.60.Mt, 92.60.Nv INTRODUCTION Aerosols play an important role in the global energy

Tilstra, Gijsbert

91

Direct Radiative Effect of Mineral Dust on the Development of African Easterly Waves in Late Summer, 2003-07  

SciTech Connect

Episodic events of both Saharan dust outbreaks and African easterly waves (AEWs) are observed to move westward over the eastern tropical Atlantic Ocean. The relationship between the warm, dry, and dusty Saharan air layer on the nearby storms has been the subject of considerable debate. In this study, the Weather Research and Forecasting model is used to investigate the radiative effect of dust on the development of AEWs during August and September, the months of maximumtropical cyclone activity, in years 2003–07. The simulations show that dust radiative forcing enhances the convective instability of the environment. As a result, mostAEWsintensify in the presence of a dust layer. The Lorenz energy cycle analysis reveals that the dust radiative forcing enhances the condensational heating, which elevates the zonal and eddy available potential energy. In turn, available potential energy is effectively converted to eddy kinetic energy, in which local convective overturning plays the primary role. The magnitude of the intensification effect depends on the initial environmental conditions, including moisture, baroclinity, and the depth of the boundary layer. The authors conclude that dust radiative forcing, albeit small, serves as a catalyst to promote local convection that facilitates AEW development.

Ma, Po-Lun; Zhang, Kai; Shi, Jainn Jong; Matsui, Toshihisa; Arking, Albert

2012-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

92

Direct Determination of Trace-Level Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water by Two-1 Dimensional Ion Chromatography with Suppressed Conductivity2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Direct Determination of Trace-Level Haloacetic Acids in Drinking Water by Two-1 Dimensional Ion thetreatment process of drinking water, disinfectants (chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide)13 react on water of the nine existing Halo-Acetic Acids (HAA) are commonly found15 in drinking water(Monochloroacetic acid MCAA

Boyer, Edmond

93

New emission line at ~3.5 keV - observational status, connection with radiatively decaying dark matter and directions for future studies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Recent works of [1402.2301,1402.4119], claiming the detection of extra emission line with energy ~3.5 keV in X-ray spectra of certain clusters of galaxies and nearby Andromeda galaxy, have raised considerable interest in astrophysics and particle physics communities. A number of new observational studies claim detection or non-detection of the extra line in X-ray spectra of various cosmic objects. In this review I summarize existing results of these studies, overview possible interpretations of the extra line, including intriguing connection with radiatively decaying dark matter, and show future directions achievable with existing and planned X-ray cosmic missions.

Iakubovskyi, Dmytro

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

94

The direct and moderating influences of individual-level cultural values within web engagement: A multi-country analysis of a public information website  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Research to date has not systematically examined the role and relative impact of individual-level cultural orientations. The literature offers no dominant approach as to the nature (direct, moderating or both) of individual-level cultural orientations. Thus, examination and comparison of the nature of the effects of individual-level cultural orientations are both timely and warranted. To address this research gap, a conceptual model exploring the relationship of individualism and uncertainty avoidance manifested as individual-level cultural orientations is developed. Specifically, the direct and moderating effects of the individual-level cultural orientations are assessed within a web engagement model linking perceived value of a website to two antecedents (trust and attitude toward the website). A web-based survey capturing views from 1845 consumers across seven European Union countries tested the models. The results show that individualistic orientation affects trust, but no clear moderating relationships are evident, thus questioning the moderating role of individual-level cultural orientations.

Edward Shiu; Gianfranco Walsh; Louise M. Hassan; Sara Parry

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

95

Experimental analysis of a direct expansion solar assisted heat pump with integral storage tank for domestic water heating under zero solar radiation conditions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper deals with the experimental evaluation of the performance of a direct expansion solar assisted heat pump water heating (DX-SAHPWH) system working under zero solar radiation conditions at static heating operation mode of the storage tank. The DX-SAHPWH system includes two bare solar collectors as evaporator, a \\{R134a\\} rotary-type hermetic compressor, a thermostatic expansion valve and a helical coil condenser immersed in a 300 L water storage tank. The zero solar radiation and stable ambient air temperature working conditions were established by placing the solar collectors into a climate chamber. The analysis is based on experimental data taken from the DX-SAHPWH provided by the manufacturer and equipped with an appropriate data acquisition system. In the paper, the experimental facility, the data acquisition system and the experimental methodology are described. Performance parameters to evaluate the energy efficiency, such as COP and equivalent seasonal performance factors (SPFe) for the heating period, and the water thermal stratification in the storage tank are defined and obtained from the experimental data. Results from the experimental analysis under transient operating working conditions of the DX-SAHPWH system and its main components are shown and discussed. Lastly, the Huang and Lee DX-SAHPWH performance evaluation method was applied resulting in a characteristic COP of 3.23 for the DX-SAHPWH system evaluated under zero solar radiation condition.

José Fernández-Seara; Carolina Piñeiro; J. Alberto Dopazo; F. Fernandes; Paulo X.B. Sousa

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

96

Patient radiation doses in interventional cardiology in the U.S.: Advisory data sets and possible initial values for U.S. reference levels  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To determine patient radiation doses from interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S and to suggest possible initial values for U.S. benchmarks for patient radiation dose from selected interventional cardiology procedures [fluoroscopically guided diagnostic cardiac catheterization and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)]. Methods: Patient radiation dose metrics were derived from analysis of data from the 2008 to 2009 Nationwide Evaluation of X-ray Trends (NEXT) survey of cardiac catheterization. This analysis used deidentified data and did not require review by an IRB. Data from 171 facilities in 30 states were analyzed. The distributions (percentiles) of radiation dose metrics were determined for diagnostic cardiac catheterizations, PCI, and combined diagnostic and PCI procedures. Confidence intervals for these dose distributions were determined using bootstrap resampling. Results: Percentile distributions (advisory data sets) and possible preliminary U.S. reference levels (based on the 75th percentile of the dose distributions) are provided for cumulative air kerma at the reference point (K{sub a,r}), cumulative air kerma-area product (P{sub KA}), fluoroscopy time, and number of cine runs. Dose distributions are sufficiently detailed to permit dose audits as described in National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Report No. 168. Fluoroscopy times are consistent with those observed in European studies, but P{sub KA} is higher in the U.S. Conclusions: Sufficient data exist to suggest possible initial benchmarks for patient radiation dose for certain interventional cardiology procedures in the U.S. Our data suggest that patient radiation dose in these procedures is not optimized in U.S. practice.

Miller, Donald L.; Hilohi, C. Michael; Spelic, David C. [Center for Devices and Radiological Health, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Avenue, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993 (United States)

2012-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

97

Direct Optical Observation of the Subsidiary X1c Conduction Band and Its Donor Levels in InP  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Zero-phonon and phonon-assisted optical transitions from the ?1c conduction band to the subsidiary X1c conduction band and its donor levels have been observed in InP at 8°K. The X1c-?1c interband energy is measured at 960±5 meV, and the binding energies of donors associated with the subsidiary X1c band are found to be 106 and 175 meV (±5 meV) for Te and Si, respectively.

A. Onton; Y. Yacoby; R. J. Chicotka

1972-04-10T23:59:59.000Z

98

Direct conversion of surplus fissile materials, spent nuclear fuel, and other materials to high-level-waste glass  

SciTech Connect

With the end of the cold war the United States, Russia, and other countries have excess plutonium and other materials from the reductions in inventories of nuclear weapons. The United States Academy of Sciences (NAS) has recommended that these surplus fissile materials (SFMs) be processed so they are no more accessible than plutonium in spent nuclear fuel (SNF). This spent fuel standard, if adopted worldwide, would prevent rapid recovery of SFMs for the manufacture of nuclear weapons. The NAS recommended investigation of three sets of options for disposition of SFMs while meeting the spent fuel standard: (1) incorporate SFMs with highly radioactive materials and dispose of as waste, (2) partly burn the SFMs in reactors with conversion of the SFMs to SNF for disposal, and (3) dispose of the SFMs in deep boreholes. The US Government is investigating these options for SFM disposition. A new method for the disposition of SFMs is described herein: the simultaneous conversion of SFMs, SNF, and other highly radioactive materials into high-level-waste (HLW) glass. The SFMs include plutonium, neptinium, americium, and {sup 233}U. The primary SFM is plutonium. The preferred SNF is degraded SNF, which may require processing before it can be accepted by a geological repository for disposal.

Forsberg, C.W.; Elam, K.R.

1995-01-31T23:59:59.000Z

99

Disturbance of DKK1 level is partly involved in survival of lung cancer cells via regulation of ROMO1 and ?-radiation sensitivity  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •DKK1 was expressed differently among non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. •DKK1 negatively regulated ROMO1 gene expression. •Disturbance of DKK1 level induced the imbalance of cellular ROS. •DKK1/ROMO1-induced ROS imbalance is involved in cell survival in NSCLC. -- Abstract: Dickkopf1 (DKK1), a secreted protein involved in embryonic development, is a potent inhibitor of the Wnt signaling pathway and has been postulated to be a tumor suppressor or tumor promoter depending on the tumor type. In this study, we showed that DKK1 was expressed differently among non-small-cell lung cancer cell lines. The DKK1 expression level was much higher in A549 cells than in H460 cells. We revealed that blockage of DKK1 expression by silencing RNA in A549 cells caused up-regulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) modulator (ROMO1) protein, followed by partial cell death, cell growth inhibition, and loss of epithelial–mesenchymal transition property caused by ROS, and it also increased ?-radiation sensitivity. DKK1 overexpression in H460 significantly inhibited cell survival with the decrease of ROMO1 level, which induced the decrease of cellular ROS. Thereafter, exogenous N-acetylcysteine, an antioxidant, or hydrogen peroxide, a pro-oxidant, partially rescued cells from death and growth inhibition. In each cell line, both overexpression and blockage of DKK1 not only elevated p-RB activation, which led to cell growth arrest, but also inactivated AKT/NF-kB, which increased radiation sensitivity and inhibited cell growth. This study is the first to demonstrate that strict modulation of DKK1 expression in different cell types partially maintains cell survival via tight regulation of the ROS-producing ROMO1 and radiation resistance.

Kim, In Gyu, E-mail: igkim@kaeri.re.kr [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope, University of Science and Technology (UST), 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seo Yoen [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Biomedical Translational Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyun A; Kim, Jeong Yul [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Ha; Choi, Soo Im [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of) [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Biotechnology and Applied Radioisotope, University of Science and Technology (UST), 989-111 Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Jeong Ran; Kim, Kug Chan [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Radiation Biology, Environmental Radiation Research Group, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, P.O. Box 105, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Wie [Biomedical Translational Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)] [Biomedical Translational Research Center, Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology, 125 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of)

2014-01-03T23:59:59.000Z

100

Medical radiation protection in next decade  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......towards increasing radiation safety levels. Whether...users whenever the radiation dose to the patient...human errors and software-related problems...global view of radiation protection in medicine...increasing radiation safety levels. Whether......

Madan M. Rehani; Eliseo Vano

2011-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


101

DOE Radiation Records Contacts List  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

DOE radiation records contact list for individuals to obtain records of occupational exposure directly from a DOE site.

102

Colour and lipid oxidation changes in dry-cured loins from free-range reared and intensively reared pigs as affected by ionizing radiation dose level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The effect of irradiation (0, 5 and 10 kGy) of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured loin slices from pigs fed on concentrate (CON) or free-range reared (FRG) was studied in relation to colour changes, TBA-RS and hexanal content. Both, ionizing radiation and type of loin had a significant effect on the instrumental colour parameters of the samples. Irradiation resulted in significantly higher a*-values in both sets of loins, indicating a redder colour. Numerically calculated total colour difference (?E) changes were significantly less intense in CON vacuum-packaged dry-cured loin slices than in FRG samples and changed significantly at 10 kGy dose levels in both types of samples. TBA-RS numbers were significantly affected by irradiation dose and type of loin and increased linearly with dose in both types of slices. Increments in TBA-RS numbers in FRG loin slices was dose-dependent and was closely related to the type of dry-cured loin. Irradiation of dry-cured loin slices significantly increased hexanal contents in both groups of loins and the increases were dose-dependent and greater in FRG samples than in CON samples. Differences in the characteristics of the raw material and initial lipid oxidation level could play an important role in the irradiation-induced changes in vacuum-packaged dry-cured loin slices.

A. Carrasco; R. Tárrega; M.R. Ramírez; F.J. Mingoarranz; R. Cava

2005-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

103

Radioactivity level in soil of a palaeo beach in the south-eastern part of Bangladesh and evaluation of radiation hazard  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......outdoor and indoor radiation hazard indices...annual effective dose rates. MATERIALS...Denundation of the Bay of Bengal extending along...kg). Gamma radiation hazard indices...based on the estimation that 1 Bq kg...gamma radiation dose rates. The index......

Ashna Islam; Mahfuza Sharifa Sultana; Aleya Begum; Selina Yeasmin

2013-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

104

Directional gamma detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An improved directional gamma radiation detector has a collector sandwiched etween two layers of insulation of varying thicknesses. The collector and insulation layers are contained within an evacuated casing, or emitter, which releases electrons upon exposure to gamma radiation. Delayed electrons and electrons entering the collector at oblique angles are attenuated as they pass through the insulation layers on route to the collector.

LeVert, Francis E. (Downers Grove, Knoxville, TN); Cox, Samson A. (Downers Grove, IL)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

105

Lefvre M., Cros S., Albuisson M., Wald L., 2003. Developing a database using Meteosat data for the de-livery of solar radiation assessments at ground level. In Proceedings of the 23rd EARSeL Annual Symposium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, oceanogra- phy and limnology applications, urban air quality studies, sizing of space borne sensors, solar for the de- livery of solar radiation assessments at ground level. In Proceedings of the 23rd EARSeL Annual, Rotterdam, Netherlands, pp. 485-489. Developing a database using METEOSAT data for the delivery of solar

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

106

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Linking Molecular Events to Cellular  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Linking Molecular Events to Cellular Responses at Low Dose Exposures Linking Molecular Events to Cellular Responses at Low Dose Exposures Thomas Weber Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Why This Project It currently costs billions of dollars to protect workers and the public from exposure to man-made radiation, despite exposure levels lower than the natural background levels of radiation. If it could be demonstrated that there is no increased cancer risk associated with these low dose exposures, these resources could be directed toward more critical societal issues. Defining low dose radiation cancer risks is limited by our ability to measure and directly correlate relevant cellular and molecular responses occurring at the low radiation dose and dose rate with tumor formation. This deficiency has led to conservative risk assessments based on low dose

107

Order Module--RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS GUIDE | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS GUIDE RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS GUIDE Order Module--RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS GUIDE The familiar level of this module is designed to provide the basic information related to DOE G 441.1-1C, Radiation Protection Programs Guide, as required in DOE-STD-1174-2003, Radiation Protection Functional Area Qualification Standard, December 2003. Completion of this module also meets certain requirements associated with the DOE Facility Representative Program and the DOE Intern Program. The information contained in this module addresses specific requirements and as such does not include the entire text of the source document. Before continuing, you should obtain a copy of the Order. Copies of the DOE Directives are available at http://www.directives.doe.gov/ or through the course manager. In March

108

Atomic Radiation (Illinois)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This article states permissible levels of radiation in unrestricted areas, environmental standards for uranium fuel cycle and information about notification of incidents.

109

Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site?  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site? Direct Aerosol Forcing in the Infrared at the SGP Site? D. D. Turner and C. N. Long Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Richland, Washington Introduction Low level haze is often observed during the night and early morning hours in many locations. This haze is typically formed during quiescent conditions by radiative cooling of the surface, which lowers the ambient temperature and consequently increases the near-surface relative humidity (RH). Many aerosols start to deliquesce around 75% relative humidity (RH) (depending on their chemical composition), and thus if the near surface RH increases above this level, haze will form. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program's ultimate goal, stated simply, is to improve the treatment of radiative transfer in global climate models. Global climate models typically do not

110

Estimate of radiation damage to low-level electronics of the RF system in the LHC cavities arising from beam gas collisions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Report No. A 335 Nuclear Instruments and Methods...Annual Conference on Nuclear and Space Radiation...from various elements-vacuum chambers, cryogenic...European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN...Carlo Method Particle Accelerators instrumentation Protons......

A. Butterworth; A. Ferrari; E. Tsoulou; V. Vlachoudis; T. Wijnands

2005-12-20T23:59:59.000Z

111

Si(001) vicinal surface oxidation in O2: Angle-resolved Si 2p core-level study using synchroton radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The aim of this work is to determine if, after oxidation in pure O2, a vicinal surface Si(001) miscut 5° towards the [110] direction, exhibits a preferential SiO2 formation on the [110] ledges. In a first stage, combining XPS (X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy) and LEED (low-energy electron diffraction) available in an auxiliary chamber, we examine the cleaning conditions leading to a non-faceted stepped Si surface with dominant (2 × 1) single domains. This surface preparation is reproduced in the synchroton facility chamber where ARPR-single-resolved photoemission spectroscopy) is performed: after cleaning the Si surface and studying the starting situation (san- states, initial contamination), an ultra-thin oxide film (? 1.5 × 1015 oxidised Si atoms/cm2) is grown at 785–800°C, under Torr of oxygen. The absence of anisotropy in the ARPES emission of the Si 2p core levels taken at the minimum electron escape depth (hv=130eV), points to no extra-growth of the oxide on the ledges. The in-depth distribution of the oxide states seems to be homogeneous, within the sensitivity of the probe. On the other hand, after partial thermal desorption of the ultra-thin oxide film in vacuum, a strong anisotropy in the emission of electrons from SiO2 is seen in areas where oxide patches coexist with bare silicon. It is shown that this ensues from a significant step bunching and (111) faceting of the surface. A correlation is made with SEM (scanning electron microscopy) images of the surface. The problem of step bunching, inasmuch as it can alter the interpretation of shadowing effects, is emphasized.

F. Rochet; H. Roulet; G. Dufour; S. Carniato; C. Guillot; N. Barrett; M. Froment

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

112

Performance assessment of the direct disposal in unsaturated tuff or spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste owned by USDOE: Volume 2, Methodology and results  

SciTech Connect

This assessment studied the performance of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a hypothetical repository in unsaturated tuff. The results of this 10-month study are intended to help guide the Office of Environment Management of the US Department of Energy (DOE) on how to prepare its wastes for eventual permanent disposal. The waste forms comprised spent fuel and high-level waste currently stored at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) and the Hanford reservations. About 700 metric tons heavy metal (MTHM) of the waste under study is stored at INEL, including graphite spent nuclear fuel, highly enriched uranium spent fuel, low enriched uranium spent fuel, and calcined high-level waste. About 2100 MTHM of weapons production fuel, currently stored on the Hanford reservation, was also included. The behavior of the waste was analyzed by waste form and also as a group of waste forms in the hypothetical tuff repository. When the waste forms were studied together, the repository was assumed also to contain about 9200 MTHM high-level waste in borosilicate glass from three DOE sites. The addition of the borosilicate glass, which has already been proposed as a final waste form, brought the total to about 12,000 MTHM.

Rechard, R.P. [ed.

1995-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

113

Standards for Protection Against Radiation (Michigan)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This rule establishes standards for protection against radiation hazards. In addition to complying with requirements set forth, every reasonable effort should be made to maintain radiation levels...

114

Low Dose Radiation Program: Radiation Biology and the Radiation Research  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Biology and the Radiation Research Program Biology and the Radiation Research Program The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor organizations, Energy Research and Development Agency (ERDA) and Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), always have been concerned about the health effects of ionizing radiation. Extensive research has been conducted under their sponsorship at all levels of biological organization from molecules to man. Over the past 60 years, studies using every type of radiation source have included exposure to both external radiation sources and to internally deposited radioactive materials. These exposures used different dose patterns and distributions delivered over a wide range of experimental times. This extensive research provided the basis for the new Low Dose Radiation Research Program, linking

115

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Radiation-Induced Bystander Effects and Relevance to Human Radiation Exposures Review of phenomenon appears in Radiation Research Pamela Sykes and Benjamin Blyth One concern of radiobiologists is the effect radiation exposure might have on nearby unirradiated cells. For example, when only a small fraction of cells are directly hit by radiation energy, are the surrounding unirradiated cells also at an increased risk of cancer? The term "radiation-induced bystander effect" is used to describe radiation-induced biological changes that occur in unirradiated cells within an irradiated cell population. Radiation-induced bystander effects have become established in the vernacular and are considered as an authentic radiation response. However, there is still no consensus on a precise definition of the term, which

116

RHOBOT: Radiation hardened robotics  

SciTech Connect

A survey of robotic applications in radioactive environments has been conducted, and analysis of robotic system components and their response to the varying types and strengths of radiation has been completed. Two specific robotic systems for accident recovery and nuclear fuel movement have been analyzed in detail for radiation hardness. Finally, a general design approach for radiation-hardened robotics systems has been developed and is presented. This report completes this project which was funded under the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program.

Bennett, P.C.; Posey, L.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

1997-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

117

Radiated noise characteristics of M/V OVERSEAS HARRIETTE, a modern cargo ship  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Low?frequency ambient noise in the ocean is often influenced by radiated noise from merchant shipping. In an effort to quantify this noise a series of extensive and carefully planned measurements were made of the radiated noise of M/V OVERSEAS HARRIETTE a 25 525?deadweight ton 567?ft cargo ship powered by a direct?drive low?speed diesel engine. This ship and its power plant are typical of many modern merchant ships. The radiated noise data show high?level tonal frequencies from the ship's service diesel generator main engine firing rate and blade rate harmonics due to propeller cavitation. Directivity measurements taken at many angles under the ship indicate that the radiation is generally dipole in form at lower frequencies as expected. There are some departures from this pattern that may indicate hull interactions. Blade rate fundamental levels show good agreement with predicted levels. [Work supported by NRL.

Paul T. Arveson; David J. Vendittis

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

118

UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN ROBOTICS, TECHNOLOGIES FOR MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS IN DIRECTED STOCKPILE WORK RADIATION AND ENGINEERING CAMPAIGNS - 2005-06 FINAL ANNUAL REPORT  

SciTech Connect

The research performed by the University of Florida (UF) is directed to the development of technologies that can be utilized at a micro-scale in varied environments. Work is focused on micro-scale energy systems, visualization, and mechanical devices. This work will impact the NNSA need related to micro-assembly operations. The URPR activities are executed in a University environment, yet many applications of the resulting technologies may be classified or highly restrictive in nature. The NNSA robotics technologists apply an NNSA needs focus to the URPR research, and actively work to transition relevant research into the deployment projects in which they are involved. This provides a “Research to Development to Application” structure within which innovative research has maximum opportunity for impact without requiring URPR researchers to be involved in specific NNSA projects. URPR researchers need to be aware of the NNSA applications in order to ensure the research being conducted has relevance, the URPR shall rely upon the NNSA sites for direction.

James S. Tulenko; Dean Schoenfeld; David Hintenlang; Carl Crane; Shannon Ridgeway; Jose Santiago; Charles Scheer

2006-11-30T23:59:59.000Z

119

Update to Assessment of Direct Disposal in Unsaturated Tuff of Spent Nuclear Fuel and High-Level Waste Owned by U.S. Department of Energy  

SciTech Connect

The overall purpose of this study is to provide information and guidance to the Office of Environmental Management of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) about the level of characterization necessary to dispose of DOE-owned spent nuclear fuel (SNF). The disposal option modeled was codisposal of DOE SNF with defense high-level waste (DHLW). A specific goal was to demonstrate the influence of DOE SNF, expected to be minor, in a predominately commercial repository using modeling conditions similar to those currently assumed by the Yucca Mountain Project (YMP). A performance assessment (PA) was chosen as the method of analysis. The performance metric for this analysis (referred to as the 1997 PA) was dose to an individual; the time period of interest was 100,000 yr. Results indicated that cumulative releases of 99Tc and 237Np (primary contributors to human dose) from commercial SNF exceed those of DOE SNF both on a per MTHM and per package basis. Thus, if commercial SNF can meet regulatory performance criteria for dose to an individual, then the DOE SNF can also meet the criteria. This result is due in large part to lower burnup of the DOE SNF (less time for irradiation) and to the DOE SNF's small percentage of the total activity (1.5%) and mass (3.8%) of waste in the potential repository. Consistent with the analyses performed for the YMP, the 1997 PA assumed all cladding as failed, which also contributed to the relatively poor performance of commercial SNF compared to DOE SNF.

P. D. Wheatley (INEEL POC); R. P. Rechard (SNL)

1998-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

120

Research priorities for occupational radiation protection  

SciTech Connect

The Subpanel on Occupational Radiation Protection Research concludes that the most urgently needed research is that leading to the resolution of the potential effects of low-level ionizing radiation. This is the primary driving force in setting appropriate radiation protection standards and in directing the emphasis of radiation protection efforts. Much has already been done in collecting data that represents a compendium of knowledge that should be fully reviewed and understood. It is imperative that health physics researchers more effectively use that data and apply the findings to enhance understanding of the potential health effects of low-level ionizing radiation and improve the risk estimates upon which current occupational radiation protection procedures and requirements depend. Research must be focused to best serve needs in the immediate years ahead. Only then will we get the most out of what is accomplished. Beyond the above fundamental need, a number of applied research areas also have been identified as national priority issues. If effective governmental focus is achieved on several of the most important national priority issues, important occupational radiation protection research will be enhanced, more effectively coordinated, and more quickly applied to the work environment. Response in the near term will be enhanced and costs will be reduced by: developing microprocessor-aided {open_quotes}smart{close_quotes} instruments to simplify the use and processing of radiation data; developing more sensitive, energy-independent, and tissue-equivalent dosimeters to more accurately quantify personnel dose; and developing an improved risk assessment technology base. This can lead to savings of millions of dollars in current efforts needed to ensure personnel safety and to meet new, more stringent occupational guidelines.

Not Available

1994-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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121

Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

DOE Data Explorer (OSTI)

Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in individual aerosol or surface properties, are calculated at three locations representing distinct aerosol types and radiative environments. The uncertainty in DRF associated with a given property is computed as the product of the sensitivity and typical measurement uncertainty in the respective aerosol or surface property. Sensitivity and uncertainty values permit estimation of total uncertainty in calculated DRF and identification of properties that most limit accuracy in estimating forcing. Total uncertainties in modeled local diurnally averaged forcing range from 0.2 to 1.3 W m-2 (42 to 20%) depending on location (from tropical to polar sites), solar zenith angle, surface reflectance, aerosol type, and aerosol optical depth. The largest contributor to total uncertainty in DRF is usually single scattering albedo; however decreasing measurement uncertainties for any property would increase accuracy in DRF. Comparison of two radiative transfer models suggests the contribution of modeling error is small compared to the total uncertainty although comparable to uncertainty arising from some individual properties.

Mccomiskey, Allison

122

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Agencies with Radiation Regulatory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Agencies with Radiation Regulatory Concerns and Involvement Biological Effects of Low Level Exposures (BELLE) Canadian Nuclear Safety Commission Center for Risk Excellence Health Protection Agency The Health Risks of Extraterrestrial Environments International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements, Inc. International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) International Radiation Protection Association (IRPA) NASA Space Radiation Program National Academy of Sciences (NAS) Nuclear and Radiation Studies Board National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NASA OBRR Task Book Publication National Council on Radiation Protection (NCRP) National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) National Toxicology Program (NTP) Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA)

123

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, N. [Department of Physics, Hampton University, Hampton VA 23668 (United States); Collaboration: DarkLight Collaboration

2013-11-07T23:59:59.000Z

124

DarkLight radiation backgrounds  

SciTech Connect

We report measurements of photon and neutron radiation levels observed while transmitting a 0.43 MW electron beam through millimeter-sized apertures and during beam-on, but accelerating gradient RF-on, operation. These measurements were conducted at the Free-Electron Laser (FEL) facility of the Jefferson National Accelerator Laboratory (JLab) using a 100 MeV electron beam from an energy-recovery linear accelerator. The beam was directed successively through 6 mm, 4 mm, and 2 mm diameter apertures of length 127 mm in aluminum at a maximum current of 4.3 mA (430 kW beam power). This study was conducted to characterize radiation levels for experiments that need to operate in this environment, such as the proposed DarkLight Experiment. We find that sustained transmission of a 430 kW CW beam through a 2 mm aperture is feasible with manageable beam-related backgrounds. We also find that during beam-off, RF-on operation, field emission inside the niobium cavities of the accelerator cryomodules is the primary source of ambient radiation.

Kalantarians, Narbe [University of Texas

2013-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

125

Method for microbeam radiation therapy  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is disclosed of performing radiation therapy on a patient, involving exposing a target, usually a tumor, to a therapeutic dose of high energy electromagnetic radiation, preferably X-ray radiation. The dose is in the form of at least two non-overlapping microbeams of radiation, each microbeam having a width of less than about 1 millimeter. Target tissue exposed to the microbeams receives a radiation dose during the exposure that exceeds the maximum dose that such tissue can survive. Non-target tissue between the microbeams receives a dose of radiation below the threshold amount of radiation that can be survived by the tissue, and thereby permits the non-target tissue to regenerate. The microbeams may be directed at the target from one direction, or from more than one direction in which case the microbeams overlap within the target tissue enhancing the lethal effect of the irradiation while sparing the surrounding healthy tissue. No Drawings

Slatkin, D.N.; Dilmanian, F.A.; Spanne, P.O.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

126

direct normal | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal normal Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A map depicting model estimates of monthly average daily total radiation using inputs derived from satellite and surface observations of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, albedo, atmospheric pressure and ozone sampled at a 40km resolution. (Purpose): A visual depiction of solar energy resource for concentrating solar power systems. Source NREL Date Released December 11th, 2003 (10 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Central America direct normal DNI map NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Map (pdf, 67.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency Time Period License License Other or unspecified, see optional comment below

127

Radiation safety system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......occupational illness to personnel, major damage...acceptable levels. Selection of control measures...or equipment operating correctly in...99 103 to 104 Personnel life safety...and abnormal operating conditions under...radiation risk to personnel, public and...worker radiation training) reduces the......

Vaclav Vylet; James C. Liu; Lawrence S. Walker

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

128

Radiation safety system  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......disable this safety function and...circuits and software. Other required...source in case of radiation monitors. Feedback...from other non-safety systems to prevent...write and check software. The expected...logic systems for safety functions can...levels of prompt radiation hazard. ACS......

Vaclav Vylet; James C. Liu; Lawrence S. Walker

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

129

Alpha Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Basics of Radiation Basics of Radiation Gamma Radiation and X-Rays Beta Radiation Alpha Radiation Irradiation Radioactive Contamination Definitions Detection Measurement Safety Around Radiation Sources Types of Radiation Exposure Managing Radiation Emergencies Basics of Radiation Characteristics of Alpha Radiation 1. Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. 2. Alpha-emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed, or absorbed through open wounds. 3. A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Special training in use of these instruments is essential for making accurate measurements. 4. A civil defense instrument (CD V-700) cannot detect the presence of radioactive materials that produce alpha radiation unless the radioactive materials also produce beta and/or gamma radiation.

130

Radiation: Radiation Control (Indiana)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

It is the policy of the state to encourage the constructive uses of radiation and to control its harmful effects. This section contains regulations pertaining to the manufacture, use,...

131

Application of Improved Radiation Modeling to General Circulation Models  

SciTech Connect

This research has accomplished its primary objectives of developing accurate and efficient radiation codes, validating them with measurements and higher resolution models, and providing these advancements to the global modeling community to enhance the treatment of cloud and radiative processes in weather and climate prediction models. A critical component of this research has been the development of the longwave and shortwave broadband radiative transfer code for general circulation model (GCM) applications, RRTMG, which is based on the single-column reference code, RRTM, also developed at AER. RRTMG is a rigorously tested radiation model that retains a considerable level of accuracy relative to higher resolution models and measurements despite the performance enhancements that have made it possible to apply this radiation code successfully to global dynamical models. This model includes the radiative effects of all significant atmospheric gases, and it treats the absorption and scattering from liquid and ice clouds and aerosols. RRTMG also includes a statistical technique for representing small-scale cloud variability, such as cloud fraction and the vertical overlap of clouds, which has been shown to improve cloud radiative forcing in global models. This development approach has provided a direct link from observations to the enhanced radiative transfer provided by RRTMG for application to GCMs. Recent comparison of existing climate model radiation codes with high resolution models has documented the improved radiative forcing capability provided by RRTMG, especially at the surface, relative to other GCM radiation models. Due to its high accuracy, its connection to observations, and its computational efficiency, RRTMG has been implemented operationally in many national and international dynamical models to provide validated radiative transfer for improving weather forecasts and enhancing the prediction of global climate change.

Michael J Iacono

2011-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

132

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Organizations Conducting Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research Conducting Low Dose Radiation Research DOE Low Dose Radiation Research Program DoReMi Integrating Low Dose Research High Level Expert Group (HLEG) on European Low Dose Risk Research Multidisciplinary European Low Dose Initiative (MELODI) RISC-RAD Radiosensitivity of Individuals and Susceptibility to Cancer induced by Ionizing Radiation United States Transuranium & Uranium Registries Organizations Conducting other Radiation Research Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) Armed Forces Radiology Research Institute (AFRRI) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Center for Devices and Radiological Health (CDRH) Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) Colorado State University Columbia University

133

Coherence in Spontaneous Radiation Processes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

By considering a radiating gas as a single quantum-mechanical system, energy levels corresponding to certain correlations between individual molecules are described. Spontaneous emission of radiation in a transition between two such levels leads to the emission of coherent radiation. The discussion is limited first to a gas of dimension small compared with a wavelength. Spontaneous radiation rates and natural line breadths are calculated. For a gas of large extent the effect of photon recoil momentum on coherence is calculated. The effect of a radiation pulse in exciting "super-radiant" states is discussed. The angular correlation between successive photons spontaneously emitted by a gas initially in thermal equilibrium is calculated.

R. H. Dicke

1954-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

134

Radiative Muon Capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The theory of radiative muon capture is developed. The discussion includes both parity conserving and nonconserving effects. The Gell-Mann weak magnetic term and the induced pseudoscalar are included, along with comparable relativistic effects in the nucleons. The theory is applied to light nuclei and especially to the radiative Godfrey reaction ?-+C126??+?+B125. An experiment to detect the induced pseudoscalar directly is proposed.

Jeremy Bernstein

1959-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

135

Proposed Lymph Node Staging System Using the International Consensus Guidelines for Lymph Node Levels Is Predictive for Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Patients From Endemic Areas Treated With Intensity Modulated Radiation Therapy  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To propose a lymph node (N) staging system for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) based on the International Consensus Guidelines for lymph node (LN) levels and MRI-determined nodal variables. Methods and Materials: The MRI scans and medical records of 749 NPC patients receiving intensity modulated radiation therapy with or without chemotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The prognostic significance of nodal level, laterality, maximal axial diameter, extracapsular spread, necrosis, and Union for International Cancer Control/American Joint Committee on Cancer (UICC/AJCC) size criteria were analyzed. Results: Nodal level and laterality were the only independent prognostic factors for distant failure and disease failure in multivariate analysis. Compared with unilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement (hazard ratio [HR] 1), retropharyngeal lymph node involvement alone had a similar prognostic value (HR 0.71; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43-1.17; P=.17), whereas bilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement (HR 1.65; 95% CI 1.06-2.58; P=.03) and levels IV, Vb, and/or supraclavicular fossa involvement (HR 3.47; 95% CI 1.92-6.29; P<.01) both significantly increased the HR for distant failure. Thus we propose that the N category criteria could be revised as follows: N0, no regional LN metastasis; N1, retropharyngeal lymph node involvement, and/or unilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement; N2, bilateral levels Ib, II, III, and/or Va involvement; N3, levels IV, Vb, and/or supraclavicular fossa involvement. Compared with the 7th edition of the UICC/AJCC criteria, the proposed N staging system provides a more satisfactory distinction between the HRs for regional failure, distant failure, and disease failure in each N category. Conclusions: The proposed N staging system defined by the International Consensus Guidelines and laterality is predictive and practical. However, because of no measurements of the maximal nodal diameter on MRI slices, the prognostic significance of LN size needs further evaluation.

Li, Wen-Fei; Sun, Ying; Mao, Yan-Ping; Chen, Lei; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Chen, Mo [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Liu, Li-Zhi [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)] [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Lin, Ai-Hua [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China)] [Department of Medical Statistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou (China); Li, Li [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)] [Imaging Diagnosis and Interventional Center, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China); Ma, Jun, E-mail: majun2@mail.sysu.edu.cn [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)] [Department of Radiation Oncology, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-sen University Cancer Center, Guangzhou (China)

2013-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

136

A limited assessment and characterization of the solar radiation energy resources in the Caribbean region  

SciTech Connect

The objective of our work was to produce a preliminary assessment and characterization of the Caribbean region (Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, and Panama) solar radiation energy resources. Such information will be used to estimate the performance of, and identify the most promising applications of, solar heat technologies in the Caribbean region. We expect the solar radiation resources in the Caribbean region to be very location specific. Sunny areas will have an annual direct-beam resource of about 3,000 kWhm/sup /minus 2// and a global solar radiation resource of about 2,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2//. Cloud-covered areas will have annual solar radiation resources of about 1,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2/ for both the direct-beam and the global solar radiation. Monthly levels of solar radiaion will vary markedly, ranging from an average of 9 to 3 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the direct-beam and from an average of 7 to 4 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the global solar radiation. The Caribbean region is comparable to the Great Plains region of the US, in terms of annual solar radiation resources; however, thorough ''prospecting'' is required to avoid areas having very low amounts of solar radiation.

Hulstrom, R.L.

1988-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

137

A Multi-Level Grid Interactive Bi-directional AC/DC-DC/AC Converter and a Hybrid Battery/Ultra-capacitor Energy Storage System with Integrated Magnetics for Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles  

SciTech Connect

This study presents a bi-directional multi-level power electronic interface for the grid interactions of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) as well as a novel bi-directional power electronic converter for the combined operation of battery/ultracapacitor hybrid energy storage systems (ESS). The grid interface converter enables beneficial vehicle-to-grid (V2G) interactions in a high power quality and grid friendly manner; i.e, the grid interface converter ensures that all power delivered to/from grid has unity power factor and almost zero current harmonics. The power electronic converter that provides the combined operation of battery/ultra-capacitor system reduces the size and cost of the conventional ESS hybridization topologies while reducing the stress on the battery, prolonging the battery lifetime, and increasing the overall vehicle performance and efficiency. The combination of hybrid ESS is provided through an integrated magnetic structure that reduces the size and cost of the inductors of the ESS converters. Simulation and experimental results are included as prove of the concept presenting the different operation modes of the proposed converters.

Onar, Omer C [ORNL] [ORNL

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

138

Radiated noise characteristics of a modern cargo ship  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Extensive measurements were made of the radiated noise of M/V OVERSEAS HARRIETTE a bulk cargo ship (length 173 m displacement 25?515 tons) powered by a direct-drive low-speed diesel engine—a design representative of many modern merchant ships. The radiated noise data show high-level tonal frequencies from the ship’s service diesel generator main engine firing rate and blade rate harmonics due to propeller cavitation. Radiated noise directionality measurements indicate that the radiation is generally dipole in form at lower frequencies as expected. There are some departures from this pattern that may indicate hull interactions. Blade rate source level (174 dB re 1 ?Pa/m at 9 Hz 16 knots) agrees reasonably well with a model of fundamental blade rate radiation previously reported by Gray and Greeley but agreement for blade rate harmonics is not as good. Noise from merchant ships elevates the natural ambient by 20–30 dB in many areas; the effects of this noise on the biological environment have not been widely investigated.

Paul T. Arveson; David J. Vendittis

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

139

Species richness and abundance of forest birds in relation to radiation at Chernobyl  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...estimated to the nearest 10% of ground coverage within a distance...sand. The presence of open water within a distance of 50 m was...beta and gamma radiation at ground level directly at each point...Chernobyl accident and their remediation: twenty years of experienceNew...

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

140

About Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Radiation What is radiation? Radiation is a form of energy that is a part of our everyday lives. All of us receive a "dose" of radiation each day. Most of the dose comes from naturally occurring radioactive materials such as uranium, thorium, radon, and certain forms of potassium and carbon. The air we breathe contains radon, the food we eat contains uranium and thorium from the soil, and our bodies contain radioactive forms of potassium and carbon. Cosmic radiation from the sun also contributes to our natural radiation dose. We also receive radiation doses from man-made sources such as X-rays, nuclear medical procedures, power plants, smoke detectors and older television sets. Some people, such as nuclear plant operators, flight crews, and nuclear medicine staff may also receive an occupational radiation dose.

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


141

Radiation prevents much cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Evidence reviewed here supports the concept that chronic exposure to ionising radiation can dramatically decrease cancer incidence and mortality. This evidence includes an inverse relationship between radiation levels and cancer induction and/or mortality in: over 200 million people in the USA; 200 million people in India; 10,000 residents of Taipei who live in cobalt-60 contaminated homes; high radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran; 12 million person-years of exposed and carefully selected control nuclear workers; almost 300,000 homes with radon in the USA; non-smokers in high radon areas of Saxony, Germany.

T.D. Luckey

2007-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

142

Miniaturized radiation chirper  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure relates to a miniaturized radiation chirper for use with a small battery supplying on the order of 5 volts. A poor quality CdTe crystal which is not necessarily suitable for high resolution gamma ray spectroscopy is incorporated with appropriate electronics so that the chirper emits an audible noise at a rate that is proportional to radiation exposure level. The chirper is intended to serve as a personnel radiation warning device that utilizes new and novel electronics with a novel detector, a CdTe crystal. The resultant device is much smaller and has much longer battery life than existing chirpers.

Umbarger, C. John (Los Alamos, NM); Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM)

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

143

JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States JOINT EPA/DOE STATEMENT: Radiation Monitors Confirm That No Radiation Levels of Concern Have Reached the United States March 18, 2011 - 12:00am Addthis WASHINGTON - The United States Government has an extensive network of radiation monitors around the country and no radiation levels of concern have been detected. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency RadNet system is designed to protect the public by notifying scientists, in near real time, of elevated levels of radiation so they can determine whether protective action is required. The EPA's system has not detected any radiation levels of concern. In addition to EPA's RadNet system, the U.S. Department of Energy has

144

Effects of Mn and Fe Levels on Bacillus subtilis Spore Resistance and Effects of Mn2+, Other Divalent Cations, Orthophosphate, and Dipicolinic Acid on Protein Resistance to Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposed to ionizing radiation in vitro display...response to dose, with increasing...doses of gamma radiation increase...within a narrow range of Mn concentrations...from gamma ray doses (15 kGy...resistance to ionizing radiation, desiccation...

Amanda C. Granger; Elena K. Gaidamakova; Vera Y. Matrosova; Michael J. Daly; Peter Setlow

2010-11-05T23:59:59.000Z

145

Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste Collection and Transfer System upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements. Portions of the LLW system are several decades old, or older, and do not comply with current environmental protection regulations. Several subsystems of the LLW system have been designated to receive a state-of-the-art replacement and refurbishment. One such subsystem serves Building 2026, the High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory. This assessment focuses on the scope of work for the Building 2026 replacement LLW Collection and Transfer System, including the provision of a new Monitoring and Control Station (Building 2099) to receive, store, and treat (adjust pH) low level radioactive waste.

Not Available

1994-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

146

ARM - Measurement - Backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation govMeasurementsBackscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols, Cloud Properties Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System IAP : In-situ Aerosol Profiles (Cessna Aerosol Flights)

147

Danger radiations  

ScienceCinema (OSTI)

Le conférencier Mons.Hofert parle des dangers et risques des radiations, le contrôle des zones et les précautions à prendre ( p.ex. film badge), comment mesurer les radiations etc.

None

2011-04-25T23:59:59.000Z

148

GROUND LEVEL INVESTIGATION OF ANOMALOUS RADIATION LEVELS IN NIAGARA...  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37630 O&J. 2,7 +, 7&y' March 1979 operated by UNION CARBIDE CORPORATIOII for the DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites-...

149

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from Low-Dose Radiation and Folate Comparison of DNA Damage Risk from Low-Dose Radiation and Folate Deficiency. Authors: Chantal Courtemanche, Arnold C. Huang, Nicole Kerry, Bernice Ng, and Bruce N. Ames. Institutions: Children’s Hospital Oakland Research Institute, Oakland, California. Our overall goal is to understand and quantify the real effects of low-dose radiation by measuring direct and specific cellular changes. However, since the background dose of radiation to which most individuals are exposed is well below the levels where significant biological effects, such as mutation or tumor induction, are observed, our novel approach is to compare the consequences of radiation to those of specific nutritional deficiencies. By determining which of these two common stresses at physiologically relevant doses leads to a greater amount of DNA damage, we

150

ARM - PI Product - Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty ProductsDirect Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send PI Product : Direct Aerosol Forcing Uncertainty Site(s) NSA SGP TWP General Description Understanding sources of uncertainty in aerosol direct radiative forcing (DRF), the difference in a given radiative flux component with and without aerosol, is essential to quantifying changes in Earth's radiation budget. We examine the uncertainty in DRF due to measurement uncertainty in the quantities on which it depends: aerosol optical depth, single scattering albedo, asymmetry parameter, solar geometry, and surface albedo. Direct radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and at the surface as well as sensitivities, the changes in DRF in response to unit changes in

151

Order Module--RADIATION PROTECTION PROGRAMS GUIDE  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The familiar level of this module is designed to provide the basic information related to DOEG 441.1-1C, Radiation Protection Programs Guide, as required in DOE-STD-1174-2003, Radiation Protection...

152

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect

Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood biological fingerprint'' of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

153

Occupational radiation monitoring at a large medical center in Japan  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Occupational radiation dose monitoring is a method of ensuring that radiation levels are within the regulatory limits. Our objective in this study was to evaluate the radiation doses experienced by personnel ...

Hussein Y. ALMasri; Yasumasa Kakinohana…

2014-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

154

Efficient 1.3-µm Laser Oscillation and Heat Generation Characteristics in Nd:GdVO4 Laser under Direct Pumping into 4F3/2 Emitting Level  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We demonstrated a near quantum-limited slope efficiency in 1.3-µm cw Nd:GdVO4 laser under a 879-nm (Ti:Sapphire laser) pumping. Large heat generation due to non-radiative decay in...

Saikawa, Jiro; Sato, Yoichi; Taira, Takunori; Nakamura, Osamu; Furukawa, Yasunori

155

Directives Help  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

All DOE directives are available through this site. While it may seem overwhelming, given the number of documents, we have provided a number of ways in which you may get to the information you need.

156

Directionally Sensitive Neutron Detector For Homeland Security Applications  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation Portal Monitor SNM Special Nuclear Material US United States vii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................. iii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS... of Existing Radiation Portal Monitors............................ 7 II.B. Previous Work in the Field of Directionally Sensitive Detectors ...... 11 III THEORY...

Spence, Grant

2012-02-14T23:59:59.000Z

157

Radiation effects on humans  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation effects on humans Radiation effects on humans Name: Joe Kemna Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: I am trying to find information on radiation. I need the effects on humans, the damage it causes to the environment, and any extra information you might have on the subject. Thank you for your time. Replies: Your library should be a good place to start, but first you need to narrow your question a bit. "Radiation" means radio waves, heat, light (including the ultraviolet light that causes suntan and sunburn), and what's called "ionizing radiation." By far the major source of the first three is the Sun, while the last I believe comes principally from cosmic rays and various naturally radioactive elements like uranium and radon. The most significant manmade sources of exposure would --- I think --- be household wiring and appliances (radio), engines and heating devices (heat), lamps (light), and X-ray machines, flying at high altitude in airplanes, and living in well-insulated homes built over radon sources (ionizing radiation). Heat, light and ionizing radiation play vital roles in the ecology of the Earth. Radio, light (in particular "tanning" ultraviolet), and ionizing radiation have all been widely assumed at different times to be particularly good or particularly bad for human health. Some recent issues of public concern have been the effect of radio waves from electric transmission lines, the effect on skin cancer incidence from tanning and sunburns, the depletion of the ultraviolet-light-produced ozone in the upper atmosphere by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), "global warming" from the increased absorption of heat radiation from the surface by atmospheric carbon dioxide and methane, and the effect of a long exposure to low levels of ionizing radiation as for example the people of Eastern Europe are experiencing from the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident.

158

Radiator debris removing apparatus and work machine using same  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiator assembly includes a finned radiator core and a debris removing apparatus having a compressed air inlet and at least one compressed air outlet configured to direct compressed air through the radiator core. A work machine such as a wheel loader includes a radiator and a debris removing apparatus coupled with on-board compressed air and having at least one pressurized gas outlet configured to direct a gas toward the face of the radiator.

Martin, Kevin L. (Washburn, IL); Elliott, Dwight E. (Chillicothe, IL)

2008-09-02T23:59:59.000Z

159

Ionizing radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An ionizing radiation detector is provided which is based on the principle of analog electronic integration of radiation sensor currents in the sub-pico to nano ampere range between fixed voltage switching thresholds with automatic voltage reversal each time the appropriate threshold is reached. The thresholds are provided by a first NAND gate Schmitt trigger which is coupled with a second NAND gate Schmitt trigger operating in an alternate switching state from the first gate to turn either a visible or audible indicating device on and off in response to the gate switching rate which is indicative of the level of radiation being sensed. The detector can be configured as a small, personal radiation dosimeter which is simple to operate and responsive over a dynamic range of at least 0.01 to 1000 R/hr.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

160

A National Radiation Oncology Medical Student Clerkship Survey: Didactic Curricular Components Increase Confidence in Clinical Competency  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: Students applying to radiation oncology residency programs complete 1 or more radiation oncology clerkships. This study assesses student experiences and perspectives during radiation oncology clerkships. The impact of didactic components and number of clerkship experiences in relation to confidence in clinical competency and preparation to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident are evaluated. Methods and Materials: An anonymous, Internet-based survey was sent via direct e-mail to all applicants to a single radiation oncology residency program during the 2012-2013 academic year. The survey was composed of 3 main sections including questions regarding baseline demographic information and prior radiation oncology experience, rotation experiences, and ideal clerkship curriculum content. Results: The survey response rate was 37% (70 of 188). Respondents reported 191 unique clerkship experiences. Of the respondents, 27% (19 of 70) completed at least 1 clerkship with a didactic component geared towards their level of training. Completing a clerkship with a didactic component was significantly associated with a respondent's confidence to function as a first-year radiation oncology resident (Wilcoxon rank–sum P=.03). However, the total number of clerkships completed did not correlate with confidence to pursue radiation oncology as a specialty (Spearman ? P=.48) or confidence to function as a first year resident (Spearman ? P=.43). Conclusions: Based on responses to this survey, rotating students perceive that the majority of radiation oncology clerkships do not have formal didactic curricula. Survey respondents who completed a clerkship with a didactic curriculum reported feeling more prepared to function as a radiation oncology resident. However, completing an increasing number of clerkships does not appear to improve confidence in the decision to pursue radiation oncology as a career or to function as a radiation oncology resident. These results support further development of structured didactic curricula for the radiation oncology clerkship.

Jagadeesan, Vikrant S. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Raleigh, David R. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, University of California–San Francisco, San Francisco, California (United States); Koshy, Matthew; Howard, Andrew R.; Chmura, Steven J. [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States); Golden, Daniel W., E-mail: dgolden@radonc.uchicago.edu [Department of Radiation and Cellular Oncology, Pritzker School of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois (United States)

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


161

Audible radiation monitor  

SciTech Connect

This invention consists of a method and apparatus for monitoring ionizing radiation comprising radiation detectors in electrical connection with an isotopic analyzer and a device for producing chords to which each isotope is mapped so that the device produces a unique chord for each isotope. Preferably the chords are pleasing to the ear, except for chords representing unexpected isotopes, and are louder or softer depending on the level of radioactivity produced by each isotope, and musical instrument voices may be simulated in producing the chords as an aid to distinguishing similar-sounding chords. Because of the representation by chords, information regarding the level and composition of the radiation in an area can be conveyed to workers in that area more effectively and yet without distracting them.

Odell, D.M.C.

1992-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

162

Hydrodynamic analysis of direct steam generation solar collectors  

SciTech Connect

Direct steam generation collectors are considered with the aim to improve the performance of a parabolic trough collector leading to a reduction of operating costs of solar electric generation systems. In this study a hydrodynamic steady state model is developed and linked with a thermal model to optimize the performance of once-through direct steam generation solar collectors. The hydrodynamic model includes flow pattern classification and a pressure drop model. Flow pattern maps for typical DSG collectors with horizontal and inclined absorber tubes are generated to investigate the variation of flow conditions with radiation level, tube diameter, tube length and flow rate. Two-phase flow frictional pressure drop correlations for the range of operating conditions in a DSG collector are selected from the wide range of published correlations by comparison with experimental data for typical steam-water flow conditions in a DSG collector. Pressure drop is calculated for different operating conditions for both horizontal and inclined solar absorber tubes. Alternative operational strategies are evaluated to achieve optimum performance of a direct steam generation collector at different radiation levels.

Odeh, S.D.; Behnia, M.; Morrison, G.L.

2000-02-01T23:59:59.000Z

163

Precision liquid level sensor  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A precision liquid level sensor utilizes a balanced R. F. bridge, each arm including an air dielectric line. Changes in liquid level along one air dielectric line imbalance the bridge and create a voltage which is directly measurable across the bridge.

Field, Michael E. (Albuquerque, NM); Sullivan, William H. (Albuquerque, NM)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

164

Plasma Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... JUST over ten years ago the first book on plasma physics as a subject in its own right appeared; in a gradually swelling stream ... been surprisingly few monographs. One topic which has had scant coverage in any form is plasma radiation (except for spectral-line radiation which has been dealt with very fully in ...

T. J. M. BOYD

1967-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

165

7 - Estimation of Radiation Doses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Radiation doses to the Japanese population from inhalation of contaminated air, external irradiation, terrestrial and marine food contamination are estimated and compared with other sources of anthropogenic (global fallout, Chernobyl accident), natural (radionuclides in food, cosmic radiation) and medical applications (X-ray tests, CT-tests, etc.) of ionizing radiation. The estimated doses from inhalation, ingestion of terrestrial and marine food, and radiation exposure from radioactive clouds and deposited radionuclides were generally below the levels which could cause health damage of the Japanese population, as well as of the world population. The estimated total radiation doses to fish and shellfish in coastal waters during the largest radionuclide releases were by a factor of 10 lower than the baseline safe level postulated for the marine organisms, therefore no harmful effects are expected for the marine ecosystem as well.

Pavel P. Povinec; Katsumi Hirose; Michio Aoyama

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

166

Direct costing  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

oau 5e reduced. Under the same oonOitions, even ~Me on a bread scale entails not mere1y the conduct of the direct oyeraticns cf yrccessing the materials into finished products, but also the performance of auxiliary functions. these may 'ba power y... purposes have been advanced as folkway le Most of a o03RyaxO' 8 products Grc usual13r sold at prices which oovex' full product costs y plus 861ling a%el administrative expenses, plus normal profit. The inventoi~ valuate. on should be consistent...

Browning, Donald Bullock

2012-06-07T23:59:59.000Z

167

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, Richard J. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

168

Radiation dosimeter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

Fox, R.J.

1981-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

169

Acoustic radiation due to surface wave breaking.  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

While wave breaking is continually occurring at the sea surface its transient and sporadic nature makes it difficult to measure. Experimental results are presented that show how acoustic methods can be used as a remote sensor of this fundamental process. Sea surface?generated acoustic radiation (40 to 4000 Hz) is directly related to a quantitative measure of the boundary dynamics; i.e. the Toba variable. The frequency spectrum of the radiation remains remarkably unchanged over a wide range of environmental conditions but the correlation between the sound pressure level and the Toba variable undergoes an abrupt change when spilling breakers start to occur. Results support the use of acoustics to remotely measure the rate of energy being dissipated by wave breaking and the wavelength of the dominant gravity wave component. Theoretical studies have related the field measurements to analytical and laboratory results cited in the literature indicating that remote monitoring of the rate of occurrence and size distribution of ‘‘infant’’ (freshly entrained) bubbles may be possible if splashes on the surface do not radiate significant sound. Signal processing algorithms for the remote measurements discussed above are enhanced by eigenstructure analysis of the measured cross?spectral density matrix. [Work sponsored by ONR and NUSC.

Robert M. Kennedy; Stewart A. L. Glegg

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

170

SOLAR ORIGIN OF CHANGES IN THE PRIMARY COSMIC RADIATION  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

SOLAR ORIGIN OF CHANGES IN THE PRIMARY COSMIC RADIATION...DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS, UNIVERSITY OF CHICAGO SOLAR ORIGIN OF CHANGES IN THE PRIMARY COSMIC RADIATION...that any relationship of these variations to solar phenomena arose through in- direct processes...

J. A. Simpson

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

171

August 2004 Radiation Safety Manual Section 5 -Training  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

August 2004 Radiation Safety Manual Section 5 - Training UW Environmental Health and Safety Page 5-1 Section 5 Radiation Safety Training Contents A. Individuals Directly Using Radioactive Materials..........................................5-1 1. Regulations for Training.................................................................. 5

Wilcock, William

172

Radiation Minimum Temperatures  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Frost resulting from cooling of vegetation by nocturnal radiation is a serious agricultural problem. Because of the number of variables involved attacks on this problem from a purely theoretical point of view have met with only moderate success. It seems logical to suppose that an instrument might be devised which would speed up the natural radiation processes and enable an observer to obtain in a few hours a measure of the cooling which occurs naturally over a period of 12 to 14 hr. Such an instrument could serve as a frost warning device. This paper describes the construction of a radiation device and presents experimental evidence to show that it can be used as a predictor of freezing temperatures at vegetation level.

Francis K. Davis Jr.

1957-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

173

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation of radiation and its effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and humanAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about

Pennycook, Steve

174

Assessing exposure to radiation  

SciTech Connect

Since the founding of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, we have been world leaders in evaluating the risks associated with radiation. Ultrasensitive tools allow us not only to measure radionuclides present in the body but also to reconstruct the radiation dose from past nuclear events and to project the levels of radiation that will still be present in the body for 50 years after the initial intake. A variety of laboratory procedures, including some developed here, give us detailed information on the effects of radiation at the cellular level. Even today, we are re-evaluating the neutron dose resulting from the bombing at Hiroshima. Our dose reconstruction and projection capabilities have also been applied to studies of Nagasaki, Chernobyl, the Mayak industrial complex in the former Soviet Union, the Nevada Test Site, Bikini Atoll, and other sites. We are evaluating the information being collected on individuals currently working with radioactive material at Livermore and elsewhere as well as previously collected data on workers that extends back to the Manhattan Project.

Walter, K.

1997-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

175

Cellular telephone-based radiation detection instrument  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2011-06-14T23:59:59.000Z

176

SATURATION OF THE MAGNETO-ROTATIONAL INSTABILITY IN STRONGLY RADIATION-DOMINATED ACCRETION DISKS  

SciTech Connect

The saturation level of the magneto-rotational instability (MRI) in a strongly radiation-dominated accretion disk is studied using a new Godunov radiation MHD code in the unstratified shearing box approximation. Since vertical gravity is neglected in this work, our focus is on how the MRI saturates in the optically thick mid-plane of the disk. We confirm that turbulence generated by the MRI is very compressible in the radiation-dominated regime, as found by previous calculations using the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We also find little difference in the saturation properties in calculations that use a larger horizontal domain (up to four times the vertical scale height in the radial direction). However, in strongly radiation pressure dominated disks (one in which the radiation energy density reaches {approx}1% of the rest mass energy density of the gas), we find that Maxwell stress from the MRI turbulence is larger than the value produced when radiation pressure is replaced with the same amount of gas pressure. At the same time, the ratio between Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress is increased by almost a factor of eight compared with the gas pressure dominated case. We suggest that this effect is caused by radiation drag, which acts like bulk viscosity and changes the effective magnetic Prandtl number of the fluid. Radiation viscosity significantly exceeds both the microscopic plasma viscosity and resistivity, ensuring that radiation-dominated systems occupy the high magnetic Prandtl number regime. Nevertheless, we find that radiative shear viscosity is negligible compared to the Maxwell stress and Reynolds stress in the flow. This may have important implications for the structure of radiation-dominated accretion disks.

Jiang Yanfei; Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Davis, Shane W. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, Toronto, ON M5S3H4 (Canada)

2013-04-20T23:59:59.000Z

177

Direct search for dark matter  

SciTech Connect

Dark matter is hypothetical matter which does not interact with electromagnetic radiation. The existence of dark matter is only inferred from gravitational effects of astrophysical observations to explain the missing mass component of the Universe. Weakly Interacting Massive Particles are currently the most popular candidate to explain the missing mass component. I review the current status of experimental searches of dark matter through direct detection using terrestrial detectors.

Yoo, Jonghee; /Fermilab

2009-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

178

Radiation receiver  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

Hunt, A.J.

1983-09-13T23:59:59.000Z

179

Time encoded radiation imaging  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The various technologies presented herein relate to detecting nuclear material at a large stand-off distance. An imaging system is presented which can detect nuclear material by utilizing time encoded imaging relating to maximum and minimum radiation particle counts rates. The imaging system is integrated with a data acquisition system that can utilize variations in photon pulse shape to discriminate between neutron and gamma-ray interactions. Modulation in the detected neutron count rates as a function of the angular orientation of the detector due to attenuation of neighboring detectors is utilized to reconstruct the neutron source distribution over 360 degrees around the imaging system. Neutrons (e.g., fast neutrons) and/or gamma-rays are incident upon scintillation material in the imager, the photons generated by the scintillation material are converted to electrical energy from which the respective neutrons/gamma rays can be determined and, accordingly, a direction to, and the location of, a radiation source identified.

Marleau, Peter; Brubaker, Erik; Kiff, Scott

2014-10-21T23:59:59.000Z

180

Solar and Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) Handbook  

SciTech Connect

The Solar Infrared Radiation Station (SIRS) provides continuous measurements of broadband shortwave (solar) and longwave (atmospheric or infrared) irradiances for downwelling and upwelling components. The following six irradiance measurements are collected from a network of stations to help determine the total radiative flux exchange within the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Climate Research Facility: • Direct normal shortwave (solar beam) • Diffuse horizontal shortwave (sky) • Global horizontal shortwave (total hemispheric) • Upwelling shortwave (reflected) • Downwelling longwave (atmospheric infrared) • Upwelling longwave (surface infrared)

Stoffel, T

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


181

74Exploring Nuclear Decay and Radiation Dose The devastating earthquake  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

74Exploring Nuclear Decay and Radiation Dose The devastating earthquake that struck northern Japan vent radioactive gas and dust clouds into the environment. Although the initial radiation levels were extremely high, the natural decay of the radioactive compounds will cause the radiation levels at any given

182

Systematics of S- and P-wave radiation widths  

SciTech Connect

The question of calculating differences in s- and p-wave radiation widths as a valid evaluation tool is explored. A purely statistical approach such as that provided by the Brink-Axel formula depends upon two factors: 1) an adequate description of the giant dipole resonance shape at energies well below the resonance, and 2) an adequate description of the level densities between the ground state and the excitation of the compound nucleus near the neutron separation energy. Some success has been obtained in certain regions of the periodic table with this simple approach, e.g., in the actinides where all nuclei exhibit similar rigid permanent deformations. However, if the method is to be used as a general evaluation procedure throughout the periodic table and particularly in regions where the radiative transition probabilities are enhanced by direct processes, it appears that much more nuclear structure information needs to be incorporated into the calculations.

Moore, M.S.

1980-09-22T23:59:59.000Z

183

Radiation Management Act (Oklahoma) | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiation Management Act (Oklahoma) Radiation Management Act (Oklahoma) Radiation Management Act (Oklahoma) < Back Eligibility Utility Investor-Owned Utility Program Info State Oklahoma Program Type Environmental Regulations Provider Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality This Act establishes The Department of Environmental Quality as the designated official agency of the State of Oklahoma for all regulatory activities for the use of atomic energy and sources of radiation, except for the use of sources of radiation by diagnostic x-ray facilities. It also states rules for permits and fees related to the establishment of standards for safe levels of protection against radiation; the maintenance and submission of records; the determination, prevention and control of radiation hazards; the reporting of radiation accidents; the handling,

184

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of Southern African biomass burning aerosol  

SciTech Connect

The direct and semi-direct radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires during July-October are investigated using 20 year runs of the Community Atmospheric Model (CAM) coupled to a slab ocean model. The aerosol optical depth is constrained using observations in clear skies from MODIS and for aerosol layers above clouds from CALIPSO. Over the ocean, where the absorbing biomass burning aerosol layers are primarily located above cloud, negative top of atmosphere (TOA) semi-direct radiative effects associated with increased low cloud cover dominate over a weaker positive all-sky direct radiative effect (DRE). In contrast, over the land where the aerosols are often below or within cloud layers, reductions in cloud liquid water path (LWP) lead to a positive semi-direct radiative effect that dominates over a near-zero DRE. Over the ocean, the cloud response can be understood as a response to increased lower tropospheric stability (LTS) which is caused both by aerosol absorptive warming in overlying layers and surface cooling in response to direct aerosol forcing. The ocean cloud changes are robust to changes in the cloud parameterization (removal of the hard-wired dependence of clouds on LTS), suggesting that they are physically realistic. Over land where cloud cover changes are minimal, decreased LWP is consistent with weaker convection driven by increased static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due to opposing effects over the land and ocean. However, the surface forcing is strongly negative requiring a reduction in precipitation. This is primarily realized through reductions in convective precipitation on both the southern and northern flanks of the convective precipitation region spanning the equatorial rainforest and the ITCZ in the southern Sahel. The changes are consistent with the low-level aerosol forced cooling pattern. The results highlight the importance of semi-direct radiative effects and precipitation responses for determining the climatic effects of aerosols in the African region.

Sakaeda, Naoko; Wood, Robert; Rasch, Philip J.

2011-06-21T23:59:59.000Z

185

Radiation Protection Act (Pennsylvania)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This Act combines the radiation safety provisions of The Atomic Energy Development and Radiation Control Act and the Environmental Radiation Protection Act, and empowers the Department of...

186

ARM - Measurement - Aerosol backscattered radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

backscattered radiation backscattered radiation ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Aerosol backscattered radiation The scattering of radiant energy into the hemisphere of space bounded by a plane normal to the direction of the incident radiation and lying on the same side as the incident ray. Categories Aerosols Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. ARM Instruments AOS : Aerosol Observing System MPL : Micropulse Lidar NEPHELOMETER : Nephelometer

187

Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

1 Direct and semi-direct aerosol effects of Southern African1 biomass burning aerosol2 Naoko effects of biomass burning aerosols from Southern African fires9 during July-October are investigated region the overall TOA radiative effect from the23 biomass burning aerosols is almost zero due

Wood, Robert

188

Estimation of low-level neutron dose-equivalent rate by using extrapolation method for a curie level Am–Be neutron source  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract Neutron radiation protection is an important research area because of the strong radiation biological effect of neutron field. The radiation dose of neutron is closely related to the neutron energy, and the connected relationship is a complex function of energy. For the low-level neutron radiation field (e.g. the Am–Be source), the commonly used commercial neutron dosimeter cannot always reflect the low-level dose rate, which is restricted by its own sensitivity limit and measuring range. In this paper, the intensity distribution of neutron field caused by a curie level Am–Be neutron source was investigated by measuring the count rates obtained through a 3He proportional counter at different locations around the source. The results indicate that the count rates outside of the source room are negligible compared with the count rates measured in the source room. In the source room, 3He proportional counter and neutron dosimeter were used to measure the count rates and dose rates respectively at different distances to the source. The results indicate that both the count rates and dose rates decrease exponentially with the increasing distance, and the dose rates measured by a commercial dosimeter are in good agreement with the results calculated by the Geant4 simulation within the inherent errors recommended by ICRP and IEC. Further studies presented in this paper indicate that the low-level neutron dose equivalent rates in the source room increase exponentially with the increasing low-energy neutron count rates when the source is lifted from the shield with different radiation intensities. Based on this relationship as well as the count rates measured at larger distance to the source, the dose rates can be calculated approximately by the extrapolation method. This principle can be used to estimate the low level neutron dose values in the source room which cannot be measured directly by a commercial dosimeter.

Gang Li; Jiayun Xu; Jie Zhang

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

189

Radiation protection: Natural radiation risks  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... radiation to which humans are exposed consists of four components - cosmic, gamma, internal, radon. The relative contribution that each makes to the sum is shown in the chart. ... but exposure of the whole body to terrestrial gamma rays and of the lungs to radon daughters are influenced by the nature and location of housing. Gamma rays are emitted ...

M. C. O'Riordan

1983-11-17T23:59:59.000Z

190

Atomistic simulations of radiation damage in amorphous metal alloys  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

While numerous fundamental studies have characterized the atomic-level radiation response mechanisms in irradiated crystalline alloys, comparatively little is known regarding the mechanisms of radiation damage in amorphous ...

Baumer, Richard E. (Richard Edward)

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

191

Study of runaway electrons using dosimetry of hard x-ray radiations in Damavand tokamak  

SciTech Connect

In this work several studies have been conducted on hard x-ray emissions of Damavand tokamak based on radiation dosimetry using the Thermoluminescence method. The goal was to understand interactions of runaway electrons with plasma particles, vessel wall, and plasma facing components. Total of 354 GR-200 (LiF:Mg,Cu,P) thermoluminescence dosimeter (TLD) crystals have been placed on 118 points – three TLDs per point – to map hard x-ray radiation doses on the exterior of the vacuum vessel. Results show two distinctive levels of x-ray radiations doses on the exterior of the vessel. The low-dose area on which measured dose is about 0.5 mSv/shot. In the low-dose area there is no particular component inside the vessel. On the contrary, on high-dose area of the vessel, x-ray radiations dose exceeds 30 mSv/shot. The high-dose area coincides with the position of limiters, magnetic probe ducts, and vacuum vessel intersections. Among the high-dose areas, the highest level of dose is measured in the position of the limiter, which could be due to its direct contact with the plasma column and with runaway electrons. Direct collisions of runaway electrons with the vessel wall and plasma facing components make a major contribution for production of hard x-ray photons in Damavand tokamak.

Rasouli, C.; Pourshahab, B.; Rasouli, H. [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Plasma Physics and Nuclear Fusion Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hosseini Pooya, S. M.; Orouji, T. [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)] [Radiation Application Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, AEOI, PO Box 14155-1339, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

2014-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

192

Radiation damage in biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A significant obstacle to organic photovoltaics is radiation damage either directly by photochemical reactions or indirectly via hot electrons. Such effects are investigated for biomimetic dye molecules for solar cells (phthalocyanines) and for a biological analog (the charge transfer protein cytochrome c). Both feature a central transition metal atom (or H 2 ) surrounded by nitrogen atoms. Soft x-ray absorption spectroscopy and photoelectron spectroscopy are used to identify three types of radiation-induced changes in the electronic structure of these molecules. (1) The peptidebonds along the backbone of the protein are readily broken while the nitrogen cage remains rather stable in phthalocyanines. This finding suggests minimizing peptide attachments to biologically inspired molecules for photovoltaic applications. (2) The metal atom in the protein changes its 3d electron configuration under irradiation. (3) The Fermi level E F shifts relative to the band gap in phthalocyanine films due to radiation-induced gap states. This effect has little influence on the optical absorption but it changes the lineup between the energy levels of the absorbing dye and the acceptor/donor electrodes that collect the charge carriers in a solar cell.

Peter L. Cook; Phillip S. Johnson; Xiaosong Liu; An-Li Chin; F. J. Himpsel

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

193

Research Directed at Developing a Classical Theory to Describe Isotope Separation of Polyatomic Molecules Illuminated by Intense Infrared Radiation. Final Report for period May 7, 1979 to September 30, 1979; Extension December 31, 1997  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

This final report describes research on the theory of isotope separation produced by the illumination of polyatomic molecules by intense infrared laser radiation. This process is investigated by treating the molecule, sulfur hexafluoride, as a system of seven classical particles that obey the Newtonian equations of motion. A minicomputer is used to integrate these differential equations. The particles are acted on by interatomic forces, and by the time-dependent electric field of the laser. We have a very satisfactory expression for the interaction of the laser and the molecule which is compatible with infrared absorption and spectroscopic data. The interatomic potential is capable of improvement, and progress on this problem is still being made. We have made several computer runs of the dynamical behavior of the molecule using a reasonably good model for the interatomic force law. For the laser parameters chosen, we find that typically the molecule passes quickly through the resonance region into the quasi-continuum and even well into the real continuum before dissociation actually occurs. When viewed on a display terminal, the motions are exceedingly complex. As an aid to the visualization of the process, we have made a number of 16 mm movies depicting a three-dimensional representation of the motion of the seven particles. These show even more clearly the enormous complexity of the motions, and make clear the desirability of finding ways of characterizing the motion in simple ways without giving all of the numerical detail. One of the ways to do this is to introduce statistical parameters such as a temperature associated with the distribution of kinetic energies of the single particle. We have made such an analysis of our data runs, and have found favorable indications that such methods will prove useful in keeping track of the dynamical histories.

Lamb, W. E. Jr.

1981-12-00T23:59:59.000Z

194

BWR radiation control: plant demonstration  

SciTech Connect

The first year's progress is presented for a four-year program intended to implement and evaluate BRAC radiation reduction operational guidelines at the Vermont Yankee BWR and to document the results in sufficient detail to provide guidance to other BWR owners. Past operational, chemistry and radiation level data have been reviewed to provide a historical base of reference. Extensive sampling and chemistry monitoring systems have been installed to evaluate plant chemistry status and the effects of program implemented changes. Radiation surveys and piping gamma scans are being performed at targeted locations to quantify radiation level trends and to identify and quantify piping isotopics. Contact radiation levels on the recirculation line at Vermont Yankee have been increasing at a rate of 175 mR/h-EFPY since 1978. A materials survey of feedwater and reactor components in contact with the process liquid has been performed to identify sources of corrosion product release, particularly cobalt and nickel. A feedwater oxygen injection system has been installed to evaluate the effects of oxygen control on feedwater materials corrosion product releases. A baseline performance evaluation of the condensate treatment and reactor water cleanup systems has been completed. Data on organics and ionics at Vermont Yankee have been obtained. A methodology of BWR feedwater system layup during extended outages was developed, and an evaluation performed of layup and startup practices utilized at Vermont Yankee during the fall 1980 and 1981 refueling outages.

Palino, G.F.; Hobart, R.L.; Wall, P.S.; Sawochka, S.G.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

195

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Radiator Labs Radiator Labs National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Radiator Labs Columbia University More than 14 million housing units, or 10 percent of the national housing stock, is heated by steam and hot water. Steam heating, which represents the majority of this market, is particularly inefficient, and is characterized by a central source of steam generation with a convective distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer through this network, so building managers configure boiler systems to treat a building as a single zone keeping the coldest apartment above a minimum statutory temperature. This results in overheating of the other spaces in the building due to differences in exposure, level of insulation, distribution system heating,

196

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Competition » Radiator Labs Competition » Radiator Labs National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Radiator Labs Columbia University More than 14 million housing units, or 10 percent of the national housing stock, is heated by steam and hot water. Steam heating, which represents the majority of this market, is particularly inefficient, and is characterized by a central source of steam generation with a convective distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer through this network, so building managers configure boiler systems to treat a building as a single zone keeping the coldest apartment above a minimum statutory temperature. This results in overheating of the other spaces in the building due to differences in exposure, level of insulation, distribution system heating,

197

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Competition » Radiator Labs Competition » Radiator Labs National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition Radiator Labs Columbia University More than 14 million housing units, or 10 percent of the national housing stock, is heated by steam and hot water. Steam heating, which represents the majority of this market, is particularly inefficient, and is characterized by a central source of steam generation with a convective distribution system via a network of pipes and radiators. There is no way to control heat transfer through this network, so building managers configure boiler systems to treat a building as a single zone keeping the coldest apartment above a minimum statutory temperature. This results in overheating of the other spaces in the building due to differences in exposure, level of insulation, distribution system heating,

198

Low Dose Radiation Program: Links - Online Literature  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Online Literature Online Literature Journals, Books and other Publications Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute Chornobyl Center for Nuclear Safety Radioactive Waste and Radioecology "Insight" Magazine Central Research Institute of the Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI) News: Aiming at an information center on low dose radiation research Health Physics International Journal of Radiation Biology Iranian Journal of Radiation Research Journal of Radiological Protection National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements Radiation Research U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Information Bridge Reports Animal Cancer Tests and Human Cancer Risk Assessment: A Broad Perspective Effects of Ionizing Radiation: Atomic Bomb Survivors and Their Children (1945-1995) Health Effects of Exposure to Low Levels of Ionizing Radiation: BEIR

199

Radiating gravastars  

SciTech Connect

Considering a Vaidya exterior spacetime, we study dynamical models of prototype gravastars, made of an infinitely thin spherical shell of a perfect fluid with the equation of state p = ?, enclosing an interior de Sitter spacetime. We show explicitly that the final output can be a black hole, an unstable gravastar, a stable gravastar or a 'bounded excursion' gravastar, depending on how the mass of the shell evolves in time, the cosmological constant and the initial position of the dynamical shell. This work presents, for the first time in the literature, a gravastar that emits radiation.

Chan, R. [Coordenação de Astronomia e Astrofísica, Observatório Nacional, Rua General José Cristino, 77, São Cristóvão 20921-400, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, M.F.A. da [Departamento de Física Teórica, Instituto de Física, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rua São Francisco Xavier 524, Maracanã 20550-900, Rio de Janeiro - RJ (Brazil); Rocha, Jaime F. Villas da [Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Av. Pasteur 458, Urca, CEP 22290-240, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Wang, Anzhong, E-mail: chan@on.br, E-mail: mfasnic@gmail.com, E-mail: jfvroch@pq.cnpq.br, E-mail: anzhong_wang@baylor.edu [GCAP-CASPER, Department of Physics, Baylor University, Waco, TX 76798 (United States)

2011-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

200

Galaxies that Shine: radiation-hydrodynamical simulations of disk galaxies  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation feedback is typically implemented using subgrid recipes in hydrodynamical simulations of galaxies. Very little work has so far been performed using radiation-hydrodynamics (RHD), and there is no consensus on the importance of radiation feedback in galaxy evolution. We present RHD simulations of isolated galaxy disks of different masses with a resolution of 18 pc. Besides accounting for supernova feedback, our simulations are the first galaxy-scale simulations to include RHD treatments of photo-ionisation heating and radiation pressure, from both direct optical/UV radiation and multi-scattered, re-processed infrared (IR) radiation. Photo-heating smooths and thickens the disks and suppresses star formation about as much as the inclusion of ("thermal dump") supernova feedback does. These effects decrease with galaxy mass and are mainly due to the prevention of the formation of dense clouds, as opposed to their destruction. Radiation pressure, whether from direct or IR radiation, has little effect, but ...

Rosdahl, Joakim; Teyssier, Romain; Agertz, Oscar

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


201

Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The familiar level of this module is designed to provide the basic information to meet the requirements that are related to 10 CFR 835, “Occupational Radiation Protection,” in the following DOE...

202

Natural and Radiation Carcinogenesis in Man. III. Radiation Carcinogenesis  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...mice. NATURAL AND RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS IN MAN. 3. RADIATION CARCINOGENESIS. | Journal Article | Japan Neoplasms etiology Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced Radiation Genetics | JAPAN NEOPLASM ETIOLOGY NEOPLASMS, RADIATION-INDUCED RADIATION...

1965-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

203

NNSA to Conduct Aerial Radiation Assessment Survey over Joint...  

National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA)

of naturally occurring radiation to establish baseline levels is a normal part of security and emergency preparedness. This assessment is not in response to an incident or...

204

Franck-Condon factors, transition probabilities, and radiative lifetimes for hydrogen molecules and their isotopomeres  

SciTech Connect

stematic fundamental molecular database for all isotopomeres of the hydrogen molecule (H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, T{sub 2}, HD, HT, DT) is calculated on the basis of the latest Born-Oppenheimer potential curves and the latest electronic dipole transition moments of hydrogen molecules. Vibrational eigenvalues, Franck-Condon factors, and vibrationally resolved transition probabilities are presented for electronic transitions in each multiplet system up to principal quantum number n = 4. Radiative lifetimes of the vibrational levels in the electronically excited states are obtained from the summation over the optically allowed transitions. In a similar manner, effective transition probabilities and effective radiative lifetimes of electronically excited states are determined assuming that only the lowest vibrational level in the ground state is populated, i.e. the data are directly applicable to molecular gases. Differences between the isotopomeres are discussed briefly.

Fantz, U. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)]. E-mail: fantz@ipp.mpg.de; Wuenderlich, D. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

2006-11-15T23:59:59.000Z

205

Radiation damage considerations in a high luminosity collider: The interaction region  

SciTech Connect

The interaction region in a high luminosity collider will be a source of radiation for all components in the vicinity and will place stringent requirements on their design. The major components in the vicinity and will place stingent requirements on their design. The major components in the vicinity of the interaction region are the physics detectors that surround the beam pipe and the focusing quadrupole magnets nearby. We will present the radiation levels in such a physics detector and the power in the forward direction that will be deposited in the forward calorimeters and quad magnets. The implications of the levels on a variety of detector components and electronics will be presented. The calculational techniques and limitation will be reviewed.

Lee, D.M.

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

206

Radiation damage considerations in a high luminosity collider: The interaction region  

SciTech Connect

The interaction region in a high luminosity collider will be a source of radiation for all components in the vicinity and will place stringent requirements on their design. The major components in the vicinity and will place stingent requirements on their design. The major components in the vicinity of the interaction region are the physics detectors that surround the beam pipe and the focusing quadrupole magnets nearby. We will present the radiation levels in such a physics detector and the power in the forward direction that will be deposited in the forward calorimeters and quad magnets. The implications of the levels on a variety of detector components and electronics will be presented. The calculational techniques and limitation will be reviewed.

Lee, D.M.

1992-10-01T23:59:59.000Z

207

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Control of Repair and Adaptive  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Repair and Adaptive Responses to Low-level DNA Damage Repair and Adaptive Responses to Low-level DNA Damage James E. Haber Brandeis University Why This Project In order to fully understand mechanisms resulting in effects of low dose, whole system rather than cells must be examined. Although not identical to mammalian systems, simple systems usually have many similarities and give direction for further study of more complex systems. We use the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, as a model system because it is easy to manipulate and its genome is simple and well characterized. Project Goals Examine mechanisms and effects of low dose radiation response for: Genetic recombination mechanisms that lead to genomic instability Genetic factors that affect individual susceptibility to low-dose radiation The adaptive response

208

A=4-20 Level Diagrams (EPS)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

EPS format The Image Map below will direct you to the most recent, updated Energy Level Diagram for that particular nuclide. To view previous Energy Level Diagrams from past...

209

Adaptors for radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

Described herein are adaptors and other devices for radiation detectors that can be used to make accurate spectral measurements of both small and large bulk sources of radioactivity, such as building structures, soils, vessels, large equipment, and liquid bodies. Some exemplary devices comprise an adaptor for a radiation detector, wherein the adaptor can be configured to collimate radiation passing through the adapter from an external radiation source to the radiation detector and the adaptor can be configured to enclose a radiation source within the adapter to allow the radiation detector to measure radiation emitted from the enclosed radiation source.

Livesay, Ronald Jason

2014-04-22T23:59:59.000Z

210

Radiation Safety  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Brotherhood of Locomotive Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers & Trainmen Scott Palmer BLET Radiation Safety Officer New Hire Training New Hire study topics * GCOR * ABTH * SSI * Employee Safety * HazMat * Railroad terminology * OJT * 15-week class * Final test Hazardous Materials * Initial new-hire training * Required by OSHA * No specified class length * Open book test * Triennial module Locomotive Engineer Training A little bit older...a little bit wiser... * Typically 2-4 years' seniority * Pass-or-get-fired promotion * Intensive program * Perpetually tested to a higher standard * 20 Weeks of training * 15 of that is OJT * General Code of Operating Rules * Air Brake & Train Handling * System Special Instructions * Safety Instructions * Federal Regulations * Locomotive Simulators * Test Ride * Pass test with 90% Engineer Recertification

211

On the Classical Radiation of Accelerated Electrons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

This paper is concerned with the properties of the radiation from a high energy accelerated electron, as recently observed in the General Electric synchrotron. An elementary derivation of the total rate of radiation is first presented, based on Larmor's formula for a slowly moving electron, and arguments of relativistic invariance. We then construct an expression for the instantaneous power radiated by an electron moving along an arbitrary, prescribed path. By casting this result into various forms, one obtains the angular distribution, the spectral distribution, or the combined angular and spectral distributions of the radiation. The method is based on an examination of the rate at which the electron irreversibly transfers energy to the electromagnetic field, as determined by half the difference of retarded and advanced electric field intensities. Formulas are obtained for an arbitrary charge-current distribution and then specialized to a point charge. The total radiated power and its angular distribution are obtained for an arbitrary trajectory. It is found that the direction of motion is a strongly preferred direction of emission at high energies. The spectral distribution of the radiation depends upon the detailed motion over a time interval large compared to the period of the radiation. However, the narrow cone of radiation generated by an energetic electron indicates that only a small part of the trajectory is effective in producing radiation observed in a given direction, which also implies that very high frequencies are emitted. Accordingly, we evaluate the spectral and angular distributions of the high frequency radiation by an energetic electron, in their dependence upon the parameters characterizing the instantaneous orbit. The average spectral distribution, as observed in the synchrotron measurements, is obtained by averaging the electron energy over an acceleration cycle. The entire spectrum emitted by an electron moving with constant speed in a circular path is also discussed. Finally, it is observed that quantum effects will modify the classical results here obtained only at extraordinarily large energies.

Julian Schwinger

1949-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

212

E-Print Network 3.0 - airworthiness directives fokker Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

scattering media Summary: direction and it becomes difficult to solve the radiative transport equation, we replace it with either... the Fokker-Planck or the Leakeas-Larsen...

213

Parallelization of Radiation Therapy Treatment Planning(RTTP) : A Case Study  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation therapy uses ionizing radiation to treat cancer- ous tumors. This paper reports our experiences with the parallelization of a real-world 3-D radiation therapy treat- ment planning (RTTP) system on a wide range of plat at the tumor in a patient from different directions, thereby concentrating radiation dose in the tumor

Chaudhary, Vipin

214

Radiation of a neutral polarizable particle moving uniformly through a thermal radiation field  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We discuss the properties of thermal electromagnetic radiation produced by a neutral polarizable nanoparticle moving with an arbitrary relativistic velocity in a heated vacuum background with a fixed temperature. We show that the particle in its own rest frame acquires the radiation temperature of vacuum, multiplied by a velocity-dependent factor, and then emits thermal photons predominantly in the forward direction. The intensity of radiation proves to be much higher than for the particle at rest. For metal particles with high energy, the ratio of emitted and absorbed radiation power is proportional to the Lorentz-factor squared.

G. V. Dedkov; A. A. Kyasov

2014-06-25T23:59:59.000Z

215

Definition: Direct normal irradiance | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

normal irradiance normal irradiance (Redirected from Definition:DNI) Jump to: navigation, search Dictionary.png Direct normal irradiance the amount of solar radiation received per unit area by a surface perpendicular (normal) to the rays that come in a straight line from the direction of the sun at its current position in the sky.[1] Also Known As DNI Related Terms Solar radiation, Irradiance, Concentrating solar power, Global horizontal irradiance References ↑ http://www.3tier.com/en/support/glossary/#dni Retrie LikeLike UnlikeLike You like this.Sign Up to see what your friends like. ved from "http://en.openei.org/w/index.php?title=Definition:Direct_normal_irradiance&oldid=423379" Category: Definitions What links here Related changes Special pages Printable version Permanent link

216

Chemistry related to isolation of high-level nuclear waste  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Chemistry related to isolation of high-level nuclear waste ... This article discusses the isolation of high-level nuclear waste. ... Radioactivity, Radiation, and the Chemistry of Nuclear Waste ...

Darleane C. Hoffman; Gregory R. Choppin

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

217

Directives Quarterly Updates  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

Listings of new Justification Memoranda and new or revised Directives that have been posted to the DOE Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Portal. Updated quarterly.

218

Another face of DIRECT  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

authors, see for example, tree-Direct [5]. This paper ..... [4] J.M. Gablonsky, Modifications of the DIRECT Algorithm, Ph.D. Thesis, North Carolina State. University ...

chiter

2007-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

219

Radiation in molecular dynamic simulations  

SciTech Connect

Hot dense radiative (HDR) plasmas common to Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and stellar interiors have high temperature (a few hundred eV to tens of keV), high density (tens to hundreds of g/cc) and high pressure (hundreds of Megabars to thousands of Gigabars). Typically, such plasmas undergo collisional, radiative, atomic and possibly thermonuclear processes. In order to describe HDR plasmas, computational physicists in ICF and astrophysics use atomic-scale microphysical models implemented in various simulation codes. Experimental validation of the models used to describe HDR plasmas are difficult to perform. Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) of the many-body interactions of plasmas is a promising approach to model validation but, previous work either relies on the collisionless approximation or ignores radiation. We present a new numerical simulation technique to address a currently unsolved problem: the extension of molecular dynamics to collisional plasmas including emission and absorption of radiation. The new technique passes a key test: it relaxes to a blackbody spectrum for a plasma in local thermodynamic equilibrium. This new tool also provides a method for assessing the accuracy of energy and momentum exchange models in hot dense plasmas. As an example, we simulate the evolution of non-equilibrium electron, ion, and radiation temperatures for a hydrogen plasma using the new molecular dynamics simulation capability.

Glosli, J; Graziani, F; More, R; Murillo, M; Streitz, F; Surh, M

2008-10-13T23:59:59.000Z

220

Nuclear radiation electronic gear  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear radiation electronic gear ... Examines the line of nuclear radiation instrumentation offered by Nuclear-Chicago Corporation and Victoreen Instrument Company. ... Nuclear / Radiochemistry ...

S. Z. Lewin

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


221

Radiation Control (Virginia)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Health is responsible for regulating radiation and radioactive materials in the Commonwealth of Virginia. Although the Department's Radiation Control Program primarily focuses on...

222

The AISI direct steelmaking program  

SciTech Connect

After six months of operation of the pilot plant, the viability of in-bath smelting combined with a high level of post combustion has been demonstrated, and the opportunity exists for an early commercialization of the direct ironmaking part of the process while we continue to research direct steelmaking. The program should be of equal interest to integrated and electric furnace producers. Smelting of ore provides virgin iron units. Additionally, the process has the flexibility of melting scrap and varying the ore-to-scrap ratio over wide ranges. This process does not require coke, thus eliminating the cokemaking operation, a major source of environmental concern.

Aukrust, E. (LTV Steel Co., Inc., Cleveland, OH (United States)); Downing, K.B. (Inland Steel Flat Products Co. (United States))

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

223

THE USE OF THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GRAPHITE AS A RADIATION...  

Office of Scientific and Technical Information (OSTI)

THE USE OF THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY OF GRAPHITE AS A RADIATION DAMAGE AND FLUX MONITOR. IMPLICATIONS OF THE RESULTS TO THE GENERAL THEORY OF RADIATION DAMAGE Re-direct...

224

National Solar Radiation Database | Open Energy Information  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

National Solar Radiation Database National Solar Radiation Database Jump to: navigation, search The National Solar Radiation Database, or NSRDB, describes the amount of solar energy which is available at any location in the United States. It is generated by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, with the assistance of many collaborators.[1] Technical Overview Per its user's manual, "The NSRDB is a serially complete collection of hourly values of the three most common measurements of solar radiation (global horizontal, direct normal, and diffuse horizontal) over a period of time adequate to establish means and extremes, and at a sufficient number of locations to represent regional solar radiation climates."[2] There have been two releases of the NSRDB, each covering different time

225

Microsoft Word - wind direction vane1.doc  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Understanding Wind Direction And Making A Wind Vane Grade Levels: Kindergarten, 1, 2, and 3 Objectives: The students will learn how to construct a wind vane and understand the...

226

Planck's Radiation Law in the Quantized Universe  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Physical research looks for clues to quantum properties of the gravitational field. On the basis of the common Schr\\"odinger theory, a simple model of the quantization of a Friedmann universe comprising dust and radiation is investigated. With regard to energy quantization, the result suggests a universal limitation of the energy spacing between neighbouring quantum states by the Planck energy. Applied to black-body radiation, a modified Planck radiation law follows. If this could be verified in the laboratory, it would provide a direct hint at quantum properties of the space-time manifold.

Rainer Collier

2014-09-15T23:59:59.000Z

227

Foreign Direct Investment  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Investment Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in 1999 in 1999 in 1999 in 1999 June 2001 ii iii Contents Foreign Affiliates' Role in U.S. Energy Industry Operations ..............................................................................1 Foreign Direct Investment: The International Transactions Accounts ..............................................................8 U.S. Companies' Direct Investment Abroad in Energy ......................................................................................14 Conclusion...............................................................................................................................................................19

228

Phase-change radiative thermal diode  

SciTech Connect

A thermal diode transports heat mainly in one preferential direction rather than in the opposite direction. This behavior is generally due to the non-linear dependence of certain physical properties with respect to the temperature. Here we introduce a radiative thermal diode which rectifies heat transport thanks to the phase transitions of materials. Rectification coefficients greater than 70% and up to 90% are shown, even for small temperature differences. This result could have important applications in the development of future contactless thermal circuits or in the conception of radiative coatings for thermal management.

Ben-Abdallah, Philippe, E-mail: pba@institutoptique.fr [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France)] [Laboratoire Charles Fabry, UMR 8501, Institut d'Optique, CNRS, Université Paris-Sud 11, 2, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91127 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Biehs, Svend-Age, E-mail: s.age.biehs@uni-oldenburg.de [Institut für Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universität, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)] [Institut für Physik, Carl von Ossietzky Universität, D-26111 Oldenburg (Germany)

2013-11-04T23:59:59.000Z

229

Asymptotic normalization coefficients, spectroscopic factors, and direct radiative capture rates  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. The summation over lB and jB is carried out over the values allowed by angular momentum and parity conser- vation in the virtual process B?A1p . The overlap function is the projection of the state wB onto the two-body channel wAwp . This projection..., the spectroscopic factor. The asymptotic behavior of the radial overlap function is given by IAplB jB B ~r ! ? r.RN CAplB jB B W 2hB ,lB11/2~2kBr ! r . ~3! Asymptotic normalization coefficients, spectroscopi A. M. Mukhamedzhanov, C. Cyclotron Institute...

Mukhamedzhanov, AM; Gagliardi, Carl A.; Tribble, Robert E.

2001-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

230

Direct detection of black holes via electromagnetic radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......operating in orbit is the X-ray Multi-mirror Mission (XMM-Newton). It has...emitted by a BH as a function of the Schwarzschild radius (r s) for the wavelengths...emitted by a BH as a function of the Schwarzschild radius (r s) for the wavelengths......

J. L. G. Sobrinho; P. Augusto

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

231

Cellular telephone-based wide-area radiation detection network  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2009-06-09T23:59:59.000Z

232

Radiation source  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A device and method for relativistic electron beam heating of a high-density plasma in a small localized region. A relativistic electron beam generator or accelerator produces a high-voltage electron beam which propagates along a vacuum drift tube and is modulated to initiate electron bunching within the beam. The beam is then directed through a low-density gas chamber which provides isolation between the vacuum modulator and the relativistic electron beam target. The relativistic beam is then applied to a high-density target plasma which typically comprises DT, DD, or similar thermonuclear gas at a density of 10.sup.17 to 10.sup.20 electrons per cubic centimeter. The target gas is ionized prior to application of the relativistic electron beam by means of a laser or other preionization source to form a plasma. Utilizing a relativistic electron beam with an individual particle energy exceeding 3 MeV, classical scattering by relativistic electrons passing through isolation foils is negligible. As a result, relativistic streaming instabilities are initiated within the high-density target plasma causing the relativistic electron beam to efficiently deposit its energy into a small localized region of the high-density plasma target.

Thode, Lester E. (Los Alamos, NM)

1981-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

233

radiation.p65  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

5 5 United States Department of Energy This fact sheet explains the potential health hazards associated with the radioactive decay of uranium and other radioactive elements found in ore and mill tailings. Potential Health Hazards of Radiation Man-made sources of radiation, most notably from medical uses and consumer products, contribute to the remaining radiation dose that individuals receive. A few household products, including smoke detectors, micro- wave ovens, and color televisions, emit small amounts of radiation. For most people, the benefits from using such products far outweigh the radiation risks. Radiation Dose Radiation is measured in various units. Individuals who have been exposed to radiation have received a radiation dose. Radiation dose to people is expressed in

234

Modeling of offshore wind turbine noise radiation and propagation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Noisegenerated by offshore wind turbine and support structure can radiate and propagate through the air water and sediment. Predicting noise levels around wind turbinestructures at sea is required for the estimation of effects of the noise on marine life. To predict radiated noise we used a finite element analysis(FEA) of a cylindrical shell model of a monopile structure. In the finite element modeling transient modal dynamic analysis and steady state dynamic analysis (direct and modal) were implemented to simulate both construction and operational noise. The effect of various sediment types and foundation designs are investigated. The FEA package used was ABAQUS version 6.10. The output of the FEAanalysis is used as starting field for acoustic propagation models such as PE to produce long range predictions. We present predictions of particle velocity at the structure-acoustic medium interface and sound pressure level as function of frequency at various distances from the structure. Laboratory experiments using scale models of the cylindrical shell have been carried out to verify the noise predictions. Comparison of the FEAmodel results and experimental data will be presented.

Huikwan Kim; Gopu R. Potty; James H. Miller; Christopher Baxter

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

235

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Direct and semidirect aerosol effects of southern African biomass burning aerosol Naoko Sakaeda,1 2011; published 21 June 2011. [1] Direct and semidirect radiative effects of biomass burning aerosols static stability. Over the entire region the overall TOA radiative effect from the biomass burning

Wood, Robert

236

WHAT DO THREAT LEVELS AND RESPONSE LEVELS MEAN? THREAT LEVELS  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

WHAT DO THREAT LEVELS AND RESPONSE LEVELS MEAN? THREAT LEVELS: The UK Threat Level is decided by the Government's Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre (JTAC). It is the system to assess the threat to the UK from Threat Levels: Low - an attack is unlikely Moderate - an attack is possible, but not likely Substantial

Edinburgh, University of

237

Contemporary X-ray electron-density studies using synchrotron radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of synchrotron radiation for experimental electron-density determination during the last decade is reviewed. Possible future directions of this field are examined.

J?rgensen, M.R.V.

2014-08-29T23:59:59.000Z

238

Radiation Protection and Safety Training | Environmental Radiation...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

The objective of this course is to provide students with an introduction to the fundamentals of ionizing radiation protection and safety. The course curriculum combines...

239

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Radiative Atmospheric Divergence...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

radiation emitted by the earth. This instrument is onboard a European Union geostationary weather satellite launched in December 2005; it is collecting data over Niamey and the...

240

Direct/Indirect Costs  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This chapter provides recommended categories for direct and indirect elements developed by the Committee for Cost Methods Development (CCMD) and describes various estimating techniques for direct and indirect costs.

1997-03-28T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


241

Approach of gas and radiation to equilibrium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Einstein described equilibrium between two?level gas molecules and radiation in terms of a Brownian motion model involving frictional and agitational effects arising from photon absorptions and emissions. This paper extends his treatment to the case of disequilibrium when molecules and radiation are in cavities with either black or perfectly reflecting walls. The precise role of the black walls in promoting equilibrium is explicated in terms of Einstein’s formula for the frictional effect and the nature of changes in radiation patterns caused by Doppler shifts of photon frequencies. It is then shown that equilibrium between the two?level gas molecules and radiation cannot be achieved for a container with perfectly reflecting walls. The blockage of equilibrium occurs because a change in the slope of the Planck spectrum at the resonant frequency causes a change in the frictional force.

Frank Munley

1990-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

242

Directives System Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1A, Directives System, dated 1-30-98.

1998-01-30T23:59:59.000Z

243

radiation.cdr  

Office of Legacy Management (LM)

Radiation-It's a Fact of Life Radiation-It's a Fact of Life It has been with us since the beginning of time. Everyone who has ever walked on this planet has been exposed to radiation. For the most part, nature is the largest source of exposure. It's in the air we breathe, the ground we walk on, and even the food we eat. The radiation we receive from all natural and some man-made sources is called "background radiation." The millirem (mrem) is a unit used for measuring radiation received by a person. The total average background for radiation received by people living in the United States is 360 millirem per year (mrem/yr), of which 300 mrem/yr is from natural sources, and 60 mrem/yr is man-made. Cosmic Radiation from the sun and stars Internal Radiation from naturally radioactive

244

Smith-Purcell radiation on a surface wave  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the radiation from an electron in flight over a surface wave of an arbitrary profile excited in a plane interface. For an electron bunch the conditions are specified under which the overall radiation essentially exceeds the incoherent part. It is shown that the radiation from the bunch with asymmetric density distribution of electrons in the longitudinal direction is partially coherent for waves with wavelengths much shorter than the characteristic longitudinal size of the bunch.

A. A. Saharian

2010-10-11T23:59:59.000Z

245

Smith-Purcell radiation on a surface wave  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We consider the radiation from an electron in flight over a surface wave of an arbitrary profile excited in a plane interface. For an electron bunch the conditions are specified under which the overall radiation essentially exceeds the incoherent part. It is shown that the radiation from the bunch with asymmetric density distribution of electrons in the longitudinal direction is partially coherent for waves with wavelengths much shorter than the characteristic longitudinal size of the bunch.

Saharian, A A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

246

Tunable and collimated terahertz radiation generation by femtosecond laser pulses  

SciTech Connect

A mechanism is proposed for the generation of tunable terahertz (THz) radiation under the application of two femtosecond laser pulses and an external magnetic field, where quick tunnel ionization is achieved that leads to higher plasma density evolution and large residual current for the efficient THz radiation generation. With the optimization of magnetic field, phase difference, and amplitudes of lasers' fields, a THz source can be obtained with tunable frequency and power along with a control on the direction of radiation emission.

Malik, Hitendra K.; Malik, Anil K.

2011-12-19T23:59:59.000Z

247

Plutonium radiation surrogate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A self-contained source of gamma-ray and neutron radiation suitable for use as a radiation surrogate for weapons-grade plutonium is described. The source generates a radiation spectrum similar to that of weapons-grade plutonium at 5% energy resolution between 59 and 2614 keV, but contains no special nuclear material and emits little .alpha.-particle radiation. The weapons-grade plutonium radiation surrogate also emits neutrons having fluxes commensurate with the gamma-radiation intensities employed.

Frank, Michael I. (Dublin, CA)

2010-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

248

Di usion Approximation of Radiative Transfer Equations in a Channel  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

direction. 1 #12; 1 Introduction Radiative transport equations were #12;rst used to describe the propagationDi#11;usion Approximation of Radiative Transfer Equations in a Channel Guillaume Bal Department by a di#11;usion equation. However, the thickness of the crust is of the order of the transport mean free

Bal, Guillaume

249

Radiation Safety Program Annual Review  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

........................................................................10 AREA RADIATION SURVEYS AND CONTAMINATION CONTROL...........................................11.....................................................................................................13 RADIOACTIVE WASTE MANAGEMENT meetings of the Radiation Safety Committee where new users and uses of radioactive materials, radiation

Lyubomirsky, Ilya

250

Radiator Labs | Department of Energy  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

of steam buildings. Radiator Labs developed a mechanism that allows heating systems to control heat transfer at each radiator. The Radiator Labs design utilizes an...

251

The universal radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

THE UNIVERSAL RADIATIVE TRANSPORT EQUATION Rudolph W.The Universal Radiative Transport Equation Rudolph W.The various radiative transport equations used in general

Preisendorfer, Rudolph W

1959-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

252

Radiation Dose Estimates from  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Summary: Radiation Dose Estimates from Hanford Radioactive Material Releases to the Air- tantly, what radiation dose people may have received. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP, additionalProjectworkcouldresultin revisions of these dose estimates. April 21, 1994 Companion

253

Maryland Radiation Act (Maryland)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The policy of the state is to provide for the constructive use of radiation and control radiation emissions. This legislation authorizes the Department of the Environment to develop comprehensive...

254

WI Radiation Protection  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

This statute seeks to regulate radioactive materials, to encourage the constructive uses of radiation, and to prohibit and prevent exposure to radiation in amounts which are or may be detrimental...

255

Design/installation and structural integrity assessment under the Federal Facility Agreement for Bethel Valley low-level waste collection and transfer system upgrade for Building 2026 (High Radiation Level Analytical Laboratory) and Building 2099 (Monitoring and Control Station) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory  

SciTech Connect

This document presents a Design/Installation and Structural Integrity Assessment for a replacement tank system for portions of the Bethel Valley Low-Level Waste (LLW) System, located at the Oak Ridge Reservation, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This issue of the assessment covers the design aspects of the replacement tank system, and certifies that the design has sufficient structural integrity and is acceptable for the storing or treating of hazardous and/or radioactive substances. This document will be reissued at a future date and will then include the assessment of the installation of the replacement tank system. The present issue identifies specific activities that must be completed during the fabrication, installation, and testing of the replacement tank system in order to provide assurance that the final installation complies with governing requirements.

Not Available

1994-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

256

Radiative Muon Capture in Calcium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The branching ratio relative to ordinary muon capture and the photon asymmetry relative to the muon-spin direction were measured for radiative muon capture in Ca40. For ~ 1200 photon events, the partial branching ratio is Rk>57 MeV=(21.1±1.4)×10-6, and the asymmetry for k>63.5 MeV is +0.90±0.50. A fit of the photon spectrum to the theory of Rood, Yano, and Yano gives the value gP?=(6.5±1.6)gA for the pseudoscalar-coupling constant. These results are in disagreement with earlier experiments.

R. D. Hart; C. R. Cox; G. W. Dodson; M. Eckhause; J. R. Kane; M. S. Pandey; A. M. Rushton; R. T. Siegel; R. E. Welsh

1977-08-15T23:59:59.000Z

257

RADIATION EFFECTS IN MATERIAL MICROSTRUCTURE.  

SciTech Connect

Next generation nuclear power systems, high-power particle accelerators and space technology will inevitably rely on higher performance materials that will be able to function in the extreme environments of high irradiation, high temperatures, corrosion and stress. The ability of any material to maintain its functionality under exposure to harsh conditions is directly linked to the material structure at the nano- and micro-scales. Understanding of the underlying processes is key to the success of such undertakings. This paper presents experimental results of the effects of radiation exposure on several unique alloys, composites and crystals through induced changes in the physio-mechanical macroscopic properties.

SIMOS,N.

2007-05-30T23:59:59.000Z

258

RADIONUCLIDE RADIATION PROTECTION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

COPYRIGHT 2002 Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;3 #12;4 #12;5 Radiation Protection Dosimetry Vol. 98, No'Energie Atomique, CEA/Saclay, France ISBN 1 870965 87 6 RADIATION PROTECTION DOSIMETRY Vol. 98 No 1, 2002 Published by Nuclear Technology Publishing #12;RADIONUCLIDE AND RADIATION PROTECTION DATA HANDBOOK 2nd Edition (2002

Healy, Kevin Edward

259

Radiation regime in a tropical dry deciduous forest in western Mexico  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Solar radiation (Qc), sunshine hours (n) and reflectance coefficients or albedo (A...) were measured above, and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) was measured above and within three levels in a tropical d...

V. L. Barradas

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

260

Radiation stress due to ocean waves and the resulting currents and set-up/set-down  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The authors have developed a model to predict the radiation stresses in the coastal zone and to estimate currents and set-up/set-down of mean sea level. The values of radiation stress are calculated from veloc...

Carl Newell; Thomas Mullarkey; Mark Clyne

2005-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


261

E-Print Network 3.0 - astrophysical ionizing radiation Sample...  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Perturbations and level splittings 8-3 Ionization and the Saha equation 2. Textbook Radiative processes... the following chapters: Chapter 1 Basic concepts 1-1 Radiative flux and...

262

carbon sequestration via direct injection  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION SEQUESTRATION VIA DIRECT INJECTION Howard J. Herzog, Ken Caldeira, and Eric Adams INTRODUCTION The build-up of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and other greenhouse gases in the Earth's atmosphere has caused concern about possible global climate change. As a result, international negotiations have produced the Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), completed during the 1992 Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro. The treaty, which the United States has ratified, calls for the "stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system." The primary greenhouse gas is CO 2 , which is estimated to contribute to over two-thirds of any climate change. The primary source of CO

263

Departmental Directives Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To define requirements and responsibilities for implementing the Department of Energy (DOE) Directives Program in support of the Secretary's memorandum of September 10, 2007, Principles Governing Departmental Directives. See also the current list of Directives Requiring Further Documentation, as required by Appendix D of this Order. Cancels DOE P 251.1A, DOE O 251.1B, DOE M 251.1-1B.

2007-09-10T23:59:59.000Z

264

Magnetically focused liquid drop radiator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A magnetically focused liquid drop radiator for application in rejecting energy from a spacecraft, characterized by a magnetizable liquid or slurry disposed in operative relationship within the liquid droplet generator and its fluid delivery system, in combination with magnetic means disposed in operative relationship around a liquid droplet collector of the LDR. The magnetic means are effective to focus streams of droplets directed from the generator toward the collector, thereby to assure that essentially all of the droplets are directed into the collector, even though some of the streams may be misdirected as they leave the generator. The magnetic focusing means is also effective to suppress splashing of liquid when the droplets impinge on the collector.

Botts, T.E.; Powell, J.R.; Lenard, R.

1984-12-10T23:59:59.000Z

265

Directives System Manual  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Manual provides detailed requirements to supplement DOE O 251.1, which establishes requirements for the development, coordination, and sunset review of DOE directives.

1995-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

266

Departmental Directives Program  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

To establish directives as the primary means to set, communicate, and institutionalize policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors.

2014-10-16T23:59:59.000Z

267

Gravitational Radiation and Very Long Baseline Interferometry  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Gravitational waves affect the observed direction of light from distant sources. At telescopes, this change in direction appears as periodic variations in the apparent positions of these sources on the sky; that is, as proper motion. A wave of a given phase, traveling in a given direction, produces a characteristic pattern of proper motions over the sky. Comparison of observed proper motions with this pattern serves to test for the presence of gravitational waves. A stochastic background of waves induces apparent proper motions with specific statistical properties, and so, may also be sought. In this paper we consider the effects of a cosmological background of gravitational radiation on astrometric observations. We derive an equation for the time delay measured by two antennae observing the same source in an Einstein-de Sitter spacetime containing gravitational radiation. We also show how to obtain similar expressions for curved Friedmann-Robertson-Walker spacetimes.

Ted Pyne; Carl R. Gwinn; Mark Birkinshaw; T. Marshall Eubanks; Demetrios N. Matsakis

1995-07-10T23:59:59.000Z

268

The effects of atomic oxygen on the thermal emittance of high temperature radiator surfaces  

SciTech Connect

Radiator surfaces on high temperature space power systems such as the SP-100 space nuclear power system must maintain a high emittance level in order to reject waste heat effectively. one of the primary materials under consideration for the radiators is carbon-carbon composite. Since carbon is susceptible to attack by atomic oxygen in the low Earth orbital environment, it is important to determine the durability of carbon composites in this environment as well as the effect atomic oxygen has on the thermal emittance of the surface if it is to be considered for use as a radiator. Results indicate that the thermal emittance of carbon-carbon composite (as low as 0.42) can be enhanced by exposure to a directed beam of atomic oxygen to levels above 0.85 at 800 K. This emittance enhancement is due to a change in the surface morphology as a result of oxidation. High aspect ratio cones are formed on the surface which allow more efficient trapping of incident radiation. Erosion of the surface due to oxidation is similar to that for carbon; so that at altitudes less than {approximately}600 km, thickness loss of the radiator could be significant (as much as 0.1 cm/year). A protective coating or oxidation barrier forming additive may be needed to prevent atomic oxygen attack after the initial high emittance surface is formed. Textured surfaces can be formed in ground based facilities or possibly in space if emittance is not sensitive to the orientation of the atomic oxygen arrival that forms the texture.

Rutledge, S.K. [Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH (United States); Hotes, D.L.; Paulsen, P.E. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

1994-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

269

LOW-LEVEL RADIATION HEALTH EFFECTS: PROGRAMS AND PANEL DISCUSSION  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

accident. The report of the Soviet Union to the International Atomic Energy Agency experts' meeting plutonium had been produced in reactors and separated for bomb production for -40 yr (Ref. 1. The reduction was presumably due to the reduced effects at low dose rate. THE DATA SETS In the former USSR

Shlyakhter, Ilya

270

Very high radiation levels found in Swedish houses  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... FOLLOWING the discovery of extremely high concentrations of radioactive radon daughter elements in Swedish houses, a government committee has proposed measures to allow maximum ... measures to allow maximum concen trations far higher than would be inter nationally acceptable. The radon producing the daughters derives not only from radium in the soil and rock on which ...

Wendy Barnaby

1979-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

271

Radioactivity and Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radioactivity and Radiation Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium and Its Compounds line line What is Uranium? Chemical Forms of Uranium Properties of Uranium Compounds Radioactivity and Radiation Uranium Health Effects Radioactivity and Radiation Discussion of radioactivity and radiation, uranium and radioactivity, radiological health risks of uranium isotopes and decay products. Radioactivity Radioactivity is the term used to describe the natural process by which some atoms spontaneously disintegrate, emitting both particles and energy as they transform into different, more stable atoms. This process, also called radioactive decay, occurs because unstable isotopes tend to transform into a more stable state. Radioactivity is measured in terms of disintegrations, or decays, per unit time. Common units of radioactivity

272

Energy-level calculation through perturbation theory  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A method for analytical calculation of energy levels using perturbation theory is developed. Convergence of the perturbation theory directly follows from the method itself. An example of this method is given for the anharmonic oscillator.

Biswanath Rath

1990-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

273

TERSat: Trapped Energetic Radiation Satellite  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation damage caused by interactions with high-energy particles in the Van Allen Radiation Belts is a leading

Clements, Emily B.

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

274

Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case–control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case–control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors.

Jolyon H Hendry; Steven L Simon; Andrzej Wojcik; Mehdi Sohrabi; Werner Burkart; Elisabeth Cardis; Dominique Laurier; Margot Tirmarche; Isamu Hayata

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

275

Americans' Average Radiation Exposure  

SciTech Connect

We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.

NA

2000-08-11T23:59:59.000Z

276

Measurement of the radiation field surrounding the Collider Detector at Fermilab  

SciTech Connect

We present here the first direct and detailed measurements of the spatial distribution of the ionizing radiation surrounding a hadron collider experiment. Using data from two different exposures we measure the effect of additional shielding on the radiation field around the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). Employing a simple model we parameterize the ionizing radiation field surrounding the detector.

K. Kordas et al.

2004-01-28T23:59:59.000Z

277

ARM - Measurement - Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

downwelling irradiance downwelling irradiance ARM Data Discovery Browse Data Comments? We would love to hear from you! Send us a note below or call us at 1-888-ARM-DATA. Send Measurement : Shortwave narrowband direct downwelling irradiance The direct unscattered radiant energy from the Sun, in a narrow band of wavelengths shorter than approximately 4 {mu}m, passing through a horizontal unit area in a downward direction. Categories Radiometric Instruments The above measurement is considered scientifically relevant for the following instruments. Refer to the datastream (netcdf) file headers of each instrument for a list of all available measurements, including those recorded for diagnostic or quality assurance purposes. Field Campaign Instruments SOAR : Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric Radiation

278

Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print Direct Imaging of Asymmetric Magnetization Reversal Print The phenomenon of exchange bias has transformed how data is read on magnetic hard disks and created an explosion in their information storage density. However, it remains poorly understood, and even the fundamental mechanism of magnetic reversal for exchange-biased systems in changing magnetic fields is unclear. By using x-ray photoemission electron microscopy at the ALS to directly image the magnetic structure of an exchange-biased film, a team from the University of Washington and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory has identified separate magnetic-reversal mechanisms in the two branches of a hysteresis loop. This advance in fundamental understanding will provide new insights for developing the next generation of information storage and sensing devices where exchange bias is expected to play a critical role.

279

Radiation Detection Computational Benchmark Scenarios  

SciTech Connect

Modeling forms an important component of radiation detection development, allowing for testing of new detector designs, evaluation of existing equipment against a wide variety of potential threat sources, and assessing operation performance of radiation detection systems. This can, however, result in large and complex scenarios which are time consuming to model. A variety of approaches to radiation transport modeling exist with complementary strengths and weaknesses for different problems. This variety of approaches, and the development of promising new tools (such as ORNL’s ADVANTG) which combine benefits of multiple approaches, illustrates the need for a means of evaluating or comparing different techniques for radiation detection problems. This report presents a set of 9 benchmark problems for comparing different types of radiation transport calculations, identifying appropriate tools for classes of problems, and testing and guiding the development of new methods. The benchmarks were drawn primarily from existing or previous calculations with a preference for scenarios which include experimental data, or otherwise have results with a high level of confidence, are non-sensitive, and represent problem sets of interest to NA-22. From a technical perspective, the benchmarks were chosen to span a range of difficulty and to include gamma transport, neutron transport, or both and represent different important physical processes and a range of sensitivity to angular or energy fidelity. Following benchmark identification, existing information about geometry, measurements, and previous calculations were assembled. Monte Carlo results (MCNP decks) were reviewed or created and re-run in order to attain accurate computational times and to verify agreement with experimental data, when present. Benchmark information was then conveyed to ORNL in order to guide testing and development of hybrid calculations. The results of those ADVANTG calculations were then sent to PNNL for compilation. This is a report describing the details of the selected Benchmarks and results from various transport codes.

Shaver, Mark W.; Casella, Andrew M.; Wittman, Richard S.; McDonald, Ben S.

2013-09-24T23:59:59.000Z

280

Ripping Graphene: Preferred Directions  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Ripping Graphene: Preferred Directions ... Here we present experimental and theoretical studies on cracks or tears in suspended monolayer graphene membranes. ... Edges from mechanically induced ripping exhibit straight lines and are predominantly aligned in the armchair or zigzag directions of the graphene lattice. ...

Kwanpyo Kim; Vasilii I. Artyukhov; William Regan; Yuanyue Liu; M. F. Crommie; Boris I. Yakobson; A. Zettl

2011-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


281

Departmental Directives System  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

The order establishes the directives system to be used for publishing permanent and temporary directives issued by DOE Headquarters and addressed to Headquarters and/or field elements. Chg 1 dated 3-14-85. Cancels DOE 1321.1A.

1983-04-07T23:59:59.000Z

282

Radiation: Facts, Risks and Realities  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of Radiation 3 Understanding Radiation Risks 6 Naturally Occurring (Background) Radiation 7 Man-Made Radiation, beta particles and gamma rays. Other types, such as x-rays, can occur naturally or be machine-produced. Scientists have also learned that radiation sources are naturally all around us. Radiation can come from

283

direct_deposit_111609  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: PROTECT YOUR BANKING INFORMATION: DO NOT complete this form until you are ready to submit it to the Payroll Department. DIRECT DEPOSIT REQUEST Directions: 1. Provide required information neatly, legibly; 2. If Checking Account Direct Deposit, include a voided check. a. DO NOT submit a deposit slip! 3. If Savings Account Direct Deposit, include a copy of savings card. 4. Sign this form; 5. Inter-office mail it to Craft Payroll at "P238." DIRECT DEPOSITION AUTHORIZATION I hereby authorize Los Alamos National Laboratory, hereinafter called The Laboratory, to initiate credit entries and, if necessary, debit entries and adjustments for any credit entries in error to my account listed on this form. If deposit is for:

284

Directions and Maps  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Directions & Maps Directions & Maps Plan Your Visit Visit About the Museum Museum Hours Directions & Maps When to Visit Arrange for a Visit Around Los Alamos Contact Us invisible utility element Directions and Maps Aerial View of Los Alamos Aerial approach to the Los Alamos airport Where we're located Los Alamos (elevation 7,355 feet) is perched high atop the Pajarito Plateau in the Jemez Mountains, 35 miles northwest of Santa Fe. The Bradbury Science Museum is located in downtown Los Alamos at the corner of Central Avenue and 15th Street. If you're driving here and using GPS navigation, our address is 1350 Central Avenue, Los Alamos, NM 87544. How to get here From Albuquerque take I-25 north to Santa Fe (take NM 599 for most direct route), then US 84/285 north to Pojoaque. At Pojoaque take the NM 502 exit

285

Solar Radiation Resources Applications in Agriculture Based on GIS in Ningxia YanChi  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to exploit solar energy resources, and improve agricultural production and, this paper make a analyses and calculation about the distribution of direct solar radiation in in Yanchi country of Ningxia by using the geographic information system(ViewGIS3.0). ... Keywords: direct solar radiation, agricultural meteorological, GIS, distribution pattern, YanChi

Wang ZhenHua; Yang JianYing

2011-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

286

RADIATIVE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CORONA  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effect of solar visible and infrared radiation on electrons in the Sun's atmosphere using a Monte Carlo simulation of the wave-particle interaction and conclude that sunlight provides at least 40% and possibly all of the power required to heat the corona, with the exception of dense magnetic flux loops. The simulation uses a radiation waveform comprising 100 frequency components spanning the solar blackbody spectrum. Coronal electrons are heated in a stochastic manner by low coherence solar electromagnetic radiation. The wave 'coherence time' and 'coherence volume' for each component is determined from optical theory. The low coherence of solar radiation allows moving electrons to gain energy from the chaotic wave field which imparts multiple random velocity 'kicks' to these particles causing their velocity distribution to broaden or heat. Monte Carlo simulations of broadband solar radiative heating on ensembles of 1000 electrons show heating at per particle levels of 4.0 x 10{sup -21} to 4.0 x 10{sup -20} W, as compared with non-loop radiative loss rates of {approx}1 x 10{sup -20} W per electron. Since radiative losses comprise nearly all of the power losses in the corona, sunlight alone can explain the elevated temperatures in this region. The volume electron heating rate is proportional to density, and protons are assumed to be heated either by plasma waves or through collisions with electrons.

Moran, Thomas G., E-mail: moran@grace.nascom.nasa.gov [Physics Department, Catholic University of America, 200 Hannan Hall, Washington, DC 20064 (United States) and NASA/GSFC, Code 671, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

2011-10-20T23:59:59.000Z

287

Development of Radiation Hard Sensors  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The trackers of the present LHC experiments mainly use silicon pixel detectors in the innermost regions close to the interaction point, while silicon micro-strip detectors are used at larger radii. The next phases of the LHC will present new challenges for the operation of the tracking detectors in terms of radiation levels and data rates. For ATLAS, CMS and LHCb radiation levels will amount to levels of the order of hundreds of Mrad and 10^16 NIEL (1 MeV neutron equivalent per cm^2) in the innermost layers. Higher granularity and a reduction in material budget especially for the layers close to the IP are under development to further improve the impact parameter resolution. The choice of sensors for the trackers will be driven by the need to meet these requirements. A short overview on the status of the R&D on silicon sensors suitable for this challenging environment will be given, covering the presently used but also newly emerging technologies such as CMOS based silicon sensors. The capabilities of tec...

Riedler, P; The ATLAS collaboration

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

288

Characterization of decommissioned reactor internals: Direct-assay method assessment  

SciTech Connect

This study describes the direct-assay technique for measuring activation levels of irradiated reactor component hardware. It also compares the direct-assay technique with calculational analysis methods that predict activation levels. Direct assay is performed in four steps: (a) planning and component selection, (b) onsite measurements, (c) radiochemical analysis, and (d) data analysis and classification. Uncertainties are estimated for each step of this process, and an overall uncertainty in the classification accuracy is calculated as about {plus_minus}35%. Numerous research ideas are identified to help reduce the uncertainty level; many of these ideas would improve activation determinations performed by either direct assay or by calculational analysis methods.

Cline, J.E.

1993-03-01T23:59:59.000Z

289

A modified Phase I trial of radiation dose escalation in 3D conformal radiation therapy with concurrent vinorelbine and carboplatin chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......system (VENUS 5014 software, Shanghai Tuoneng Co.) used to design the radiation plan. The convolution...stopped. Grade III radiation pneumonia was defined...DLT. To examine the safety of the 70 Gy dose level...Case Case Case (%) Radiation pneumonia 11 (61......

Qiang Lin; Yue'e Liu; Na Wang; Yuehua Huang; Xiaohui Ge; Xiaocang Ren; Xueji Chen; Jing Hu; Zhijun Guo; Yannan Zhao; Junichi Asaumi

2013-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

290

An electronic radiation of blackbody: Cosmic electron background  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Universe owns the electronic radiation of blackbody at temperature 2.725 K, which we call the cosmic electron background. We calculate its radiation spectrum. The energy distribution of number density of electrons in the cosmic electron background becomes zero as energy goes to both zero and infinity. It has one maximum peak near the energy level of 10**(-23) J.

Jian-Miin Liu

2008-02-23T23:59:59.000Z

291

Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

3 3 ARM 2003 Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement WARNING! WARNING! Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message Today is April 1 But that has NO bearing on this message ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Two Topics Two Topics * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years * Status of ARM (quick overview) * Science plan - ARM in the next 5 years ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement ARM Status - Science ARM Status - Science * Steadily increasing productivity - Poster session - over 220 posters (may need to do something about submissions next year) - Peer-reviewed articles: 2.5 to 3 per year per

292

The flying radiation case  

SciTech Connect

The Los Alamos foil implosion program has the goal of producing an intense, high-energy density x-ray source by converting the energy of a magnetically imploded plasma into radiation and material energy. One of the methods for converting the plasma energy into thermal energy and radiation and utilizing it for experiments is called the flying radiation case (FRC). In this paper the authors shall model the FRC and provide a physical description of the processes involved. An analytic model of a planar FRC in the hydrodynamic approximation is used to describe the assembly and shock heating of a central cushion by a conducting liner driver. The results are also used to benchmark a hydrodynamics code for modeling an FRC. They then use a radiation-hydrodynamics computational model to explore the effects of radiation production and transport when a gold plasma assembles on a CH cushion. Results are presented for the structure and evolution of the radiation hohlraum.

Brownell, J.H.; Bowers, R.L. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Applied Theoretical and Computational Physics Div.

1997-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

293

Environment/Health/Safety (EHS): Radiation Protection Group  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Protection Group Radiation Protection Group Under the direction of Radiological Control Manager (RCM) David Kestell, the Radiation Protection Group (RPG) provides radiation safety-related technical assistance to the lab community to ensure that all work is performed safely, efficiently and in compliance with applicable regulations and guidelines. BELLA facility BELLA facility BELLA facility BELLA facility BELLA NDCX NDCX Gretina Gamma particle device PET Scanner APEX APEX APEX LASER LASER Rifle, CO Rifle, CO The group: Authorizes work with radioactive material and radiation-producing machines Manages the site inventory of radioactive and nuclear material Provides coverage for: Radiological operations Radiological engineering and shielding design Internal / external dosimetry services Radiation Safety and Transportation training

294

Single electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges must emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spec- trometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual magnetically-trapped electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta elec- tron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work demonstrates a fundamentally new approach to precision beta spectroscopy for future neutrino mass experiments.

D. M. Asner; R. F. Bradley; L. de Viveiros; P. J. Doe; J. L. Fernandes; M. Fertl; E. C. Finn; J. A. Formaggio; D. Furse; A. M. Jones; J. N. Kofron; B. H. LaRoque; M. Leber; E. L. McBride; M. L. Miller; P. Mohanmurthy; B. Monreal; N. S. Oblath; R. G. H. Robertson; L. J Rosenberg; G. Rybka; D. Rysewyk; M. G. Sternberg; J. R. Tedeschi; T. Thummler; B. A. VanDevender; N. L. Woods

2014-08-22T23:59:59.000Z

295

Single electron detection and spectroscopy via relativistic cyclotron radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

It has been understood since 1897 that accelerating charges must emit electromagnetic radiation. Cyclotron radiation, the particular form of radiation emitted by an electron orbiting in a magnetic field, was first derived in 1904. Despite the simplicity of this concept, and the enormous utility of electron spectroscopy in nuclear and particle physics, single-electron cyclotron radiation has never been observed directly. Here we demonstrate single-electron detection in a novel radiofrequency spec- trometer. We observe the cyclotron radiation emitted by individual magnetically-trapped electrons that are produced with mildly-relativistic energies by a gaseous radioactive source. The relativistic shift in the cyclotron frequency permits a precise electron energy measurement. Precise beta elec- tron spectroscopy from gaseous radiation sources is a key technique in modern efforts to measure the neutrino mass via the tritium decay endpoint, and this work demonstrates a fundamentally new approach to precision beta sp...

Asner, D M; de Viveiros, L; Doe, P J; Fernandes, J L; Fertl, M; Finn, E C; Formaggio, J A; Furse, D; Jones, A M; Kofron, J N; LaRoque, B H; Leber, M; McBride, E L; Miller, M L; Mohanmurthy, P; Monreal, B; Oblath, N S; Robertson, R G H; Rosenberg, L J; Rybka, G; Rysewyk, D; Sternberg, M G; Tedeschi, J R; Thummler, T; VanDevender, B A; Woods, N L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

296

Impact of Radiation Biology on Fundamental Insights in Biology  

DOE R&D Accomplishments (OSTI)

Research supported by OHER [Office of Health and Environmental Research] and its predecessors has as one of its major goals an understanding of the effects of radiation at low doses and dose rates on biological systems, so as to predict their effects on humans. It is not possible to measure such effects directly. They must be predicted from basic knowledge on how radiation affects cellular components such as DNA and membranes and how cells react to such changes. What is the probability of radiation producing human mutations and what are the probabilities of radiation producing cancer? The end results of such studies are radiation exposure standards for workers and for the general population. An extension of these goals is setting standards for exposure to chemicals involved in various energy technologies. This latter problem is much more difficult because chemical dosimetry is a primitive state compared to radiation dosimetry.

Setlow, Richard B.

1982-07-27T23:59:59.000Z

297

Classical Radiative Cascade in Antiproton Atoms  

SciTech Connect

An interrelation between radiative cascade transitions and annihilation rates in antiproton atoms is considered. The population of antiproton atom energy levels is described by a classical distribution function f(n,l), determining intensities of spectral lines in antiproton atoms. A strong dependence of spectral line intensities on the nuclear size is shown which could be used for the determination of effective nuclear radius.

Bureyeva, L. [Institute of Spectroscopy of the RAS, Troitsk, Moscow Reg., 142190 (Russian Federation); Lisitsa, V. [Nuclear Fusion Institute, Russian Research Center 'Kurchatov Institute' Moscow (Russian Federation); Putlitz, G. zu [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 12, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

2005-10-26T23:59:59.000Z

298

Cyclotron radiation and emission in graphene  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Peculiarity in the cyclotron radiation and emission in graphene is theoretically examined in terms of the optical conductivity and relaxation rates to propose that graphene in magnetic fields can be a candidate for realizing the Landau-level laser, proposed decades ago [H. Aoki, Appl. Phys. Lett. 48, 559 (1986)].

Takahiro Morimoto; Yasuhiro Hatsugai; Hideo Aoki

2008-08-27T23:59:59.000Z

299

Direct Discharge Permit (Vermont)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A direct discharge permit is required if a project involves the discharge of pollutants to state waters. For generation purposes, this involves the withdrawal of surface water for cooling purposes...

300

Directed transport in equilibrium  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We investigate how a microscopic system, which can move only in one direction, comes to equilibrium with a heat-bath. To understand this problem, we investigate a symmetry broken dimer constrained to move in a particular direction when in contact with a uniform heat-bath at a constant temperature. The dimer is not driven by any external force. The system gains kinetic energy from the heat-bath and that the system can only use in directed transport. At the hard core collision limit between the particles of the dimer, we show by exact analytic calculations and complementary numerical results that the dimer undergoes steady directed transport by attaining a stationary distribution for a relevant degree of freedom. Our observation, being perfectly consistent with the {\\it second law of thermodynamics}, leads to a generalization of the existing {\\it Brownian ratchet} paradigm and points out some important limitations of {\\it Fokker-Planck} dynamics.

Bhattacharyay, A

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


301

Surface Wind Direction Variability  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Common large shifts of wind direction in the weak-wind nocturnal boundary layer are poorly understood and are not adequately captured by numerical models and statistical parameterizations. The current study examines 15 datasets representing a ...

Larry Mahrt

2011-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

302

Art Directable Tornadoes  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

......................................................................... 25 2. Directional Force ........................................................... 26 3. Vortex Force .................................................................. 26 4. Lattice... ................................................................... 7 7 Tornado in its rope stage before disappearing ........................................... 9 8 Fire vortex and Waterspout ........................................................................ 10 9 Landspout and Gustnado...

Dwivedi, Ravindra

2011-08-08T23:59:59.000Z

303

Low-Dose/Dose-Rate Low-LET Radiation Protects Us from Cancer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Dose/Dose-Rate Low-LET Radiation Protects Us from Cancer Dose/Dose-Rate Low-LET Radiation Protects Us from Cancer Bobby R. Scott, Ph.D. and Jennifer D. Di Palma Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, 2425 Ridgecrest Drive SE Albuquerque, NM 87108 USA Life on earth evolved in a low-level ionizing radiation environment comprised of terrestrial radiation and cosmic rays. Today we all reside in an ionizing radiation environment comprised of both natural background radiation and radiation from human activities (e.g., Chernobyl accident). An evolutionary benefit of the interaction of low-level, low linear-energy-transfer (LET) ionizing radiation with mammalian life forms on earth is adapted protection. Adapted protection involves low-dose/dose-rate, low-LET radiation induced high-fidelity DNA repair in cooperation with normal apoptosis (presumed p53

304

Refrigerant directly cooled capacitors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The invention is a direct contact refrigerant cooling system using a refrigerant floating loop having a refrigerant and refrigeration devices. The cooling system has at least one hermetic container disposed in the refrigerant floating loop. The hermetic container has at least one electronic component selected from the group consisting of capacitors, power electronic switches and gating signal module. The refrigerant is in direct contact with the electronic component.

Hsu, John S. (Oak Ridge, TN); Seiber, Larry E. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlino, Laura D. (Oak Ridge, TN); Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN)

2007-09-11T23:59:59.000Z

305

New Directions in Direct Dark Matter Searches  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

I present the status of direct dark matter detection with specific attention to the experimental results and their phenomenological interpretation in terms of dark matter interactions. In particular I review a new and more general approach to study signals in this field based on non-relativistic operators which parametrize more efficiently the dark matter-nucleus interactions in terms of a very limited number of relevant degrees of freedom. Then I list the major experimental results, pointing out the main uncertainties that affect the theoretical interpretation of the data. Finally, since the underlying theory that describes both the dark matter and the standard model fields is unknown, I address the uncertainties coming from the nature of the interaction. In particular, the phenomenology of a class of models in which the interaction between dark matter particles and target nuclei is of a long-range type is discussed.

Paolo Panci

2014-02-06T23:59:59.000Z

306

Advances and new directions in direct liquefaction  

SciTech Connect

With advance in single stage processes such as H-Coal, EDS and SRC, and refining and upgrading of coal liquids by Chevron and UOP, the direct liquefaction process has continuously evolved to the present two-stage catalytic configuration, which produces the highest liquid yield and product quality of any process worldwide. The Two Stage Liquefaction (TSL) process has been successfully applied to bituminous and subbituminous coals, overcoming problems associated with earlier processes. But, potential for additional improvement is recognized in several areas: cleaning coal prior to liquefaction; low temperature and pressure preconditioning of feed coal; novel catalysts development to arrest regressive reactions and improve hydrotreatment and cracking reactions; improvement in hydrocarbon value recovery and reduced energy rejection by alternate bottoms processing techniques. In this paper, after discussing briefly the history of liquefaction and development of the TSL process, present potential areas for research and development are presented.

Rao, S.N.; Schindler, H.D.; McGurl, G.V.

1988-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

307

Radiation.cdr  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An average American's exposure is about 620 millirems per year from naturally occurring and other sources. Other Factors Background radiation varies with location....

308

Radiation Hazards Program (Minnesota)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

These regulations, promulgated by the Department of Health, set allowable radiation standards and mitigation practices, as well as procedures for the transportation of hazardous material.

309

Radiation Safety September 2013  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

...................................................................................... 8 2.6 RUA Holder........................................................................................................ 11 3.3 Radiation Use Authorization (RUA).......................................................................................... 11 3.4 Review of RUA Applications

California at Irvine, University of

310

Radiative polarization of electrons  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

We present a new method of calculating the radiative polarization of electrons in homogeneous magnetic fields, using the modified electron propagation function.

Julian Schwinger and Wu-yang Tsai

1974-03-15T23:59:59.000Z

311

Operational radiation protection in high-energy physics accelerators  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......transportation, movement, storage, handling, processing...radioactive materials and wastes are properly controlled...measurements for radioactive waste characterisation, on-site storage of radioactive materials...short-term active or long-term passive, high-radiation-level......

S. H. Rokni; A. Fassò; J. C. Liu

2009-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

312

RADIATIVE COOLING TEST FACILITY AND PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF 4 MIL ALUMINIZED POLYVINYL FLUORIDE AND WHITE PAINT SURFACES  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as temperature, heater power, wind direction, etc. , thatcondensation) RCA 1026 (wind) c:: "7 = (power to heater) w (wind and windscreen condensation (white paint radiator). VARIOUS TEMPERATURES VS POWER

Kruskopf, Mark S.

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

313

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for understanding

Pennycook, Steve

314

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM

Pennycook, Steve

315

Appendix F: Radiation Appendix F: Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon in air; potassium in food on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sources. People are exposedAppendix F: Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F: Radiation F-3 Fig. F.1. The hydrogen atom and its

Pennycook, Steve

316

Appendix G. Radiation Appendix G. Radiation G-3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix G. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix G. Radiation G-3 Appendix G. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

317

Appendix F. Radiation Appendix F. Radiation F-3  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

from natural and human-made sources. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantlyAppendix F. Radiation #12;#12;Appendix F. Radiation F-3 Appendix F. Radiation This appendix presents basic facts about radiation. The information is intended to be a basis for un- derstanding

Pennycook, Steve

318

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology  

SciTech Connect

The following research programs from the Center for Radiological Research of Columbia University are described: Design and development of a new wall-less ultra miniature proportional counter for nanodosimetry; some recent measurements of ionization distributions for heavy ions at nanometer site sizes with a wall-less proportional counter; a calculation of exciton energies in periodic systems with helical symmetry: application to a hydrogen fluoride chain; electron energy-loss function in polynucleotide and the question of plasmon excitation; a non-parametric, microdosimetric-based approach to the evaluation of the biological effects of low doses of ionizing radiation; high-LET radiation risk assessment at medium doses; high-LET radiobiological effects: increased lesion severity or increased lesion proximity; photoneutrons generated by high energy medical linacs; the biological effectiveness of neutrons; implications for radiation protection; molecular characterization of oncogenes induced by neutrons; and the inverse dose-rate effect for oncogenic transformation by charged particles is LET dependent.

Hall, E.J.

1992-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

319

E-Print Network 3.0 - ambient uv-b radiation Sample Search Results  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

typically been conducted under low levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation, a naturally occurring mutagen... . We conducted experi- ments to test whether the inclusion of...

320

Opportunities in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation in Catalysis Research Using Synchrotron Radiation Tuesday 10/8/02 Chair: Lars Pettersson 1:30-1:40 Anders Nilsson Welcome 1:40-2:30 Gabor Somorjai University of California, Berkeley and LBLN Need for New Directions of Research at the Frontiers of Catalysis Science 2:30-3:00 Geoff Thornton University of Manchester Influence of defects on the reactivity of ZnO 3:00-3:30 Anders Nilsson Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory Soft X-ray Spectroscopy of Surfaces and Reactions 3:30-3:45 Break Chair: Anders Nilsson 3:45-4:15 Lars Pettersson Stockholm University Adsorbate-Substrate Bonding: An Experimental and Theoretical MO Picture 4:15-4:45 Miquel Salmeron Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Photoelectron Spectroscopy studies of surfaces in high pressure gas

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


321

Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 476 (2002) 758764 Observation of radiation induced latchup in the readout  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

to high levels of radiation resulting in an ionizing radiation dose of more than 200 krad and displacement with a radia- tion hard technology that can resist up to radiation dose levels greater than 1 Mrad. Both chips were fabricated according to almost identical designs. 2. Estimation of dose and fluence NA50

Ramello, Luciano

322

Stuttering: high-level mistranslation in animal and bacterial cells  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Stuttering: high-level mistranslation in animal...focusing dimension, a phenomenon we call "stuttering." The direction of charge shift depended...machinery from cell type to cell type. Stuttering: high-level mistranslation in animal...

J Parker; J W Pollard; J D Friesen; C P Stanners

1978-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

323

COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY Radiation Safety Program  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

DDE ESTIMATED DOSE FROM CONCEPTION TO DECLARATION: DDE Radiation Safety Officer Signature for increased protection from ionizing radiation for declared pregnant radiation workers. The radiation dose of the occupational dose limit of 50 mSv (5.0 rem). The CPMC Radiation Safety Office will provide education

Jia, Songtao

324

RADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. · Radiation therapist - a health professional who designs, calculates (plans) and provides the radiation dose and monitors the delivery of radiation therapy, taking into account the protection and safety of patientsRADIATION ONCOLOGY TARGET YOUR FUTURE #12;A Career in Radiation Oncology YOUR CHOICE SAVE LIVES

Tobar, Michael

325

Risks from ionizing radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... RADON indoors now accounts for nearly half of the average UK population exposure to ionizing radiation ... exposure to ionizing radiation. We believe that the extent of the variation in exposure to radon in the United Kingdom and else-where and its magnitude in relation to exposures from ...

R. H. Clarke; T. R. E. Southwood

1989-03-16T23:59:59.000Z

326

Nuclear radiation actuated valve  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A nuclear radiation actuated valve for a nuclear reactor. The valve has a valve first part (such as a valve rod with piston) and a valve second part (such as a valve tube surrounding the valve rod, with the valve tube having side slots surrounding the piston). Both valve parts have known nuclear radiation swelling characteristics. The valve's first part is positioned to receive nuclear radiation from the nuclear reactor's fuel region. The valve's second part is positioned so that its nuclear radiation induced swelling is different from that of the valve's first part. The valve's second part also is positioned so that the valve's first and second parts create a valve orifice which changes in size due to the different nuclear radiation caused swelling of the valve's first part compared to the valve's second part. The valve may be used in a nuclear reactor's core coolant system.

Christiansen, David W. (Kennewick, WA); Schively, Dixon P. (Richland, WA)

1985-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

327

Response comparison of an optically stimulated luminescent dosimeter, a direct-ion storage dosimeter, and a thermoluminescence dosimeter  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

as reasonably achievable (ALARA) levels, personal radiation monitoring devices are carried by everyone onsite and they are placed throughout the plant and in surrounding areas. The Health Physics/Radiation Protection (HP/RP) office is in charge... been used for decades and are the industry standard (Frame 2005); so in order to supplant them at Comanche Peak, the new badges must pass all the same tests routinely performed on the TLDs and preferably perform better where the TLDs are lacking...

Hernandez, Pete Jevon

2009-05-15T23:59:59.000Z

328

Radiation Weighting Factors and High Energy Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......generally inadequate for high energy radiation. In order to determine...appropriate wR values in the high energy region, several criteria are...are proposed for neutrons of energy above 100 MeV and for protons above 10 MeV. The wR value for muons is confirmed to be practically......

M. Pelliccioni

1998-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

329

Interspecific Variability in Sensitivity to UV Radiation and Subsequent Recovery in Selected Isolates of Marine Bacteria  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...exposure period to different radiation regimens was chosen since preliminary...plus photosynthetic active radiation (PAR; 400 to 700 nm; this...foil CI Kasei Co., Tokyo, Japan; 50 transmittance at 405 nm...meant to simulate the lower radiation levels in deeper layers of...

Jesús María Arrieta; Markus G. Weinbauer; Gerhard J. Herndl

2000-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

330

Interferometric direction finding with a metamaterial detector  

SciTech Connect

We present measurements and analysis demonstrating useful direction finding of sources in the S band (2–4?GHz) using a metamaterial detector. An augmented metamaterial absorber that supports magnitude and phase measurement of the incident electric field, within each unit cell, is described. The metamaterial is implemented in a commercial printed circuit board process with off-board back-end electronics. We also discuss on-board back-end implementation strategies. Direction finding performance is analyzed for the fabricated metamaterial detector using simulated data and the standard algorithm, MUtiple SIgnal Classification. The performance of this complete system is characterized by its angular resolution as a function of radiation density at the detector. Sources with power outputs typical of mobile communication devices can be resolved at kilometer distances with sub-degree resolution and high frame rates.

Venkatesh, Suresh; Schurig, David, E-mail: david.schurig@utah.edu [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 (United States); Shrekenhamer, David; Padilla, Willie [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States)] [Department of Physics, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts 02467 (United States); Xu, Wangren; Sonkusale, Sameer [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)] [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts 02155 (United States)

2013-12-16T23:59:59.000Z

331

Solar: annual average direct normal (DNI) map at 40km resolution for  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

map at 40km resolution for map at 40km resolution for Central America from NREL Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): A map depicting model estimates of monthly average daily total radiation using inputs derived from satellite and surface observations of cloud cover, aerosol optical depth, precipitable water vapor, albedo, atmospheric pressure and ozone sampled at a 40km resolution. (Purpose): A visual depiction of solar energy resource for concentrating solar power systems. Source NREL Date Released December 11th, 2003 (11 years ago) Date Updated October 30th, 2007 (7 years ago) Keywords Central America direct normal DNI map NREL solar SWERA UNEP Data application/pdf icon Download Map (pdf, 67.1 KiB) Quality Metrics Level of Review Some Review Comment Temporal and Spatial Coverage Frequency

332

Candidate Radiation Drugs Inch Forward  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Candidate Radiation Drugs Inch Forward 10.1126/science.331.6024...radiation, workers at the damaged Fukushima nuclear plant wear protective gear...Candidate radiation drugs inch forward. | News | 0 (E)-4-carboxystyryl-4-chlorobenzylsulfone...

Yudhijit Bhattacharjee

2011-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

333

Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION Order Module--NNSA OCCUPATIONAL RADIATION PROTECTION The familiar level of this module is designed to provide the basic information to meet the requirements that are related to 10 CFR 835, "Occupational Radiation Protection," in the following DOE Functional Area Qualification Standards: DOE-STD-1177-2004, Emergency Management DOE-STD-1151-2002, Facility Representative DOE-STD-1146-2007, General Technical Base DOE-STD-1138-2007, Industrial Hygiene DOE-STD-1183-2007, Nuclear Safety Specialist DOE-STD-1174-2003, Radiation Protection DOE-STD-1175-2006, Senior Technical Safety Manager DOE-STD-1178-2004, Technical Program Manager DOE-STD-1155-2002, Transportation and Traffic Management DOE Order Self Study Modules - 10 CFR 835 Occupational Radiation Protection

334

Nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

This invention is a nuclear radiation-warning detector that measures impedance of silver-silver halide on an interdigitated electrode to detect light or radiation comprised of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, X rays, and/or neutrons. The detector is comprised of an interdigitated electrode covered by a layer of silver halide. After exposure to alpha particles, beta particles, X rays, gamma rays, neutron radiation, or light, the silver halide is reduced to silver in the presence of a reducing solution. The change from the high electrical resistance (impedance) of silver halide to the low resistance of silver provides the radiation warning that detected radiation levels exceed a predetermined radiation dose threshold.

Savignac, Noel Felix; Gomez, Leo S; Yelton, William Graham; Robinson, Alex; Limmer, Steven

2013-06-04T23:59:59.000Z

335

Statistical aspects of determining compliance with radiation standards  

SciTech Connect

Radiation surveys are an important tool used to monitor the safety of operations at nuclear fuel cycle facilities, as well as determining if contaminated sites require remedial action before license termination or unrestricted release. It is important that radiation surveys are carefully designed to provide the right quantity and quality of useful information for making valid decisions concerning public safety. The validity of survey information is especially important when low-level radiation detection techniques are required such as for environmental radiation monitoring. Thus, statistical aspects of radiation surveys are important in demonstrating compliance with radiation guidelines and for deciding when remedial action or cleanup is required. In this paper, we discuss the statistical aspects of evaluating whether guidelines are, in fact, being exceeded.

Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Kinnison, R.R.; Gilbert, R.O.; Watson, E.C.

1980-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

336

DOE occupational radiation exposure. Report 1992--1994  

SciTech Connect

The DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report, 1992-1994 reports occupational radiation exposures incurred by individuals at US Department of Energy (DOE) facilities from 1992 through 1994. This report includes occupational radiation exposure information for all DOE employees, contractors, subcontractors, and visitors. This information is analyzed and trended over time to provide a measure of the DOE`s performance in protecting its workers from radiation. Occupational radiation exposure at DOE has been decreasing over the past 5 years. In particular, doses in the higher dose ranges are decreasing, including the number of doses in excess of the DOE limits and doses in excess of the 2 rem Administrative Control Level (ACL). This is an indication of greater attention being given to protecting these individuals from radiation in the workplace.

NONE

1997-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

337

Extension of DOE Directives  

Directives, Delegations, and Requirements

This Notice extends the following directives until 2/16/04: DOE N 205.2, Foreign National Access to DOE Cyber Systems, and DOE N 205.3, Password Generation, Protection, and Use, dated 11/23/99-7/1/00.

2003-02-24T23:59:59.000Z

338

On Nuclear Energy Levels  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...research-article On Nuclear Energy Levels K. M. Guggenheimer The formula for the energy levels of the rigid rotator...nuclei. Two kinds of nuclear rotation are discussed...an A relation for the energy levels of different nuclei...

1942-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

339

High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n type, intrinsic, p type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography.

Street, Robert A. (Palo Alto, CA); Kaplan, Selig N. (El Cerrito, CA); Perez-Mendez, Victor (Berkeley, CA)

1992-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

340

High resolution amorphous silicon radiation detectors  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation detector employing amorphous Si:H cells in an array with each detector cell having at least three contiguous layers (n-type, intrinsic, p-type), positioned between two electrodes to which a bias voltage is applied. An energy conversion layer atop the silicon cells intercepts incident radiation and converts radiation energy to light energy of a wavelength to which the silicon cells are responsive. A read-out device, positioned proximate to each detector element in an array allows each such element to be interrogated independently to determine whether radiation has been detected in that cell. The energy conversion material may be a layer of luminescent material having a columnar structure. In one embodiment a column of luminescent material detects the passage therethrough of radiation to be detected and directs a light beam signal to an adjacent a-Si:H film so that detection may be confined to one or more such cells in the array. One or both electrodes may have a comb structure, and the teeth of each electrode comb may be interdigitated for capacitance reduction. The amorphous Si:H film may be replaced by an amorphous Si:Ge:H film in which up to 40 percent of the amorphous material is Ge. Two dimensional arrays may be used in X-ray imaging, CT scanning, crystallography, high energy physics beam tracking, nuclear medicine cameras and autoradiography. 18 figs.

Street, R.A.; Kaplan, S.N.; Perez-Mendez, V.

1992-05-26T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


341

Cloudy Sky RRTM Shortwave Radiative Transfer and Comparison to the Revised ECMWF Shortwave Model  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Cloudy Sky RRTM Shortwave Radiative Transfer and Cloudy Sky RRTM Shortwave Radiative Transfer and Comparison to the Revised ECMWF Shortwave Model M. J. Iacono, J. S. Delamere, E. J. Mlawer, and S. A. Clough Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. Lexington, Massachusetts J.-J. Morcrette European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Reading, United Kingdom Introduction An important step toward improving radiative transfer codes in general circulation models (GCMs) is their thorough evaluation by comparison to measurements directly, or to other data-validated radiation models. This work extends the clear-sky shortwave (SW) GCM evaluation presented by Iacono et al. (2001) to computations including clouds. The rapid radiative transfer model (RRTM) SW radiation model accurately reproduces clear-sky direct beam fluxes from the Line-By-Line Radiative Transfer

342

Estimation of background radiation doses for the Peninsular Malaysia’s population by ESR dosimetry of tooth enamel  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is worth mentioning that the background dose is required in evaluating a tooth’s excess dose of radiation workers or individuals accidentally exposed to radiation, by subtracting the background level of a give...

Mohd Rodzi; Kassym Zhumadilov; Megu Ohtaki…

2011-08-01T23:59:59.000Z

343

RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN ULTRARELATIVISTIC OUTFLOWS  

SciTech Connect

Analytical and numerical solutions are obtained for the equation of radiative transfer in ultrarelativistic opaque jets. The solution describes the initial trapping of radiation, its adiabatic cooling, and the transition to transparency. Two opposite regimes are examined. (1) Matter-dominated outflow. Surprisingly, radiation develops enormous anisotropy in the fluid frame before decoupling from the fluid. The radiation is strongly polarized. (2) Radiation-dominated outflow. The transfer occurs as if radiation propagated in vacuum, preserving the angular distribution and the blackbody shape of the spectrum. The escaping radiation has a blackbody spectrum if (and only if) the outflow energy is dominated by radiation up to the photospheric radius.

Beloborodov, Andrei M., E-mail: amb@phys.columbia.edu [Physics Department and Columbia Astrophysics Laboratory, Columbia University, 538 West 120th Street New York, NY 10027 (United States)

2011-08-20T23:59:59.000Z

344

Florida Radiation Protection Act (Florida)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

The Department of Public Health is responsible for administering a statewide radiation protection program. The program is designed to permit development and utilization of sources of radiation for...

345

Biophysics and synchrotron radiation  

SciTech Connect

This book, contains contributions to the conference on Biophysics and Synchrotron Radiation held in July 1986 at Frascati. It is devoted to advances in the resolution of biological molecule structure obtainable through synchroton radiation studies. The use of synchroton radiation has firmly established x-ray spectroscopy of biological molecules. More detailed knowledge on the local structure of active sites of metalloproteins, as well as a number of studies on the interaction of metal ions with other important biological macromolecular systems are presented. This new method for protein structure analysis is a major improvement for the rapidly expanding field of protein engineering.

Bianconi, A.; Castellano, C.C.

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

346

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for use as a radiation shield. The shield has a depleted urum core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container.

Kronberg, James W. (Aiken, SC)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

347

The Intense Radiation Gas  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We present a new dispersion relation for photons that are nonlinearly interacting with a radiation gas of arbitrary intensity due to photon-photon scattering. It is found that the photon phase velocity decreases with increasing radiation intensity, it and attains a minimum value in the limit of super-intense fields. By using Hamilton's ray equations, a self-consistent kinetic theory for interacting photons is formulated. The interaction between an electromagnetic pulse and the radiation gas is shown to produce pulse self-compression and nonlinear saturation. Implications of our new results are discussed.

M. Marklund; P. K. Shukla; B. Eliasson

2005-03-08T23:59:59.000Z

348

Theoretical study of radiative electron attachment to CN, C2H, and C4H radicals  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A first-principle theoretical approach to study the process of radiative electron attachment is developed and applied to the negative molecular ions CN$^-$, C$_4$H$^-$, and C$_2$H$^-$. Among these anions, the first two have already been observed in the interstellar space. Cross sections and rate coefficients for formation of these ions by radiative electron attachment to the corresponding neutral radicals are calculated. For completeness of the theoretical approach, two pathways for the process have been considered: (i) A direct pathway, in which the electron in collision with the molecule spontaneously emits a photon and forms a negative ion in one of the lowest vibrational levels, and (ii) an indirect, or two-step pathway, in which the electron is initially captured through non-Born-Oppenheimer coupling into a vibrationally resonant excited state of the anion, which then stabilizes by radiative decay. We develop a general model to describe the second pathway and show that its contribution to the formation o...

Douguet, Nicolas; Raoult, Maurice; Dulieu, Olivier; Orel, Ann E; Kokoouline, Viatcheslav

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

349

Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship &  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for EMSSABs Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for EMSSABs From: Assistant Secretary, Jessie Hill Roberson (EM-11) To: Mr. Monte Wilson, Chair, INEEL Citizens Advisory Board This letter is in response to a November 21, 2003 letter regarding direction and guidance for implementing direct DOE relationship and funding for Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Boards. Roberson Letter - December 12, 2003 More Documents & Publications Letter: Progress in Implementing a Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSABs Letter: Mission, Objectives & Scope of the Site Specific Advisory Board Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship

350

Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship &  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for EMSSABs Letter: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for EMSSABs From: Assistant Secretary, Jessie Hill Roberson (EM-11) To: Mr. Monte Wilson, Chair, INEEL Citizens Advisory Board This letter is in response to a November 21, 2003 letter regarding direction and guidance for implementing direct DOE relationship and funding for Environmental Management Site Specific Advisory Boards. Roberson Letter - December 12, 2003 More Documents & Publications Letter: Progress in Implementing a Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSABs Letter: Mission, Objectives & Scope of the Site Specific Advisory Board Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship

351

9.01 - Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Abstract The aim of this chapter is to give an overview and try to show how the different interaction probabilities will influence the transport of ionizing radiation through matter. This knowledge is important in different aspects of medical applications of radiation. It has an impact in designing an optimal treatment gantry, in the choice of radiation quality, and of course when determining the absorbed dose distribution in the body. It is also important in diagnostic radiology when optimizing the image quality. Knowledge of the interaction of radiation with matter is also fundamental for understanding the biological effect of radiation and its variation with ionization density. The focus will not be on the basic physics and deriving the different cross sections but on the impact of these cross sections on imaging and therapy in medical physics applications. Ionizing radiation is normally divided into charged particles (previously called directly ionizing radiation) such as leptons, ?-particles, protons and other light ions, and uncharged particles (previously called indirectly ionizing radiation) such as photons (x-rays or ?-rays) and neutrons. This chapter will concentrate on radiation qualities used in radiotherapy, and the main part will be dedicated to electrons and photons with energies up to around 50 MeV and light ions with energies up to 900 MeV per nucleon. The presentation is divided into two main sections, charged particles and photons.

B. Nilsson; A. Brahme

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

352

Ionizing Radiation Damage to the Folded Chromosome of Escherichia coli K-12: Repair of Double-Strand Breaks in Deoxyribonucleic Acid  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...cell survival Dose (krad) % Recovery...it is in the range of sedimentation...that direct, radiation-induced cross-linking...during repair of ionizing radiation damage (3...is within the range ofsedimentation...biologically significant dose range. Unfortu...

Kevin M. Ulmer; Reinaldo F. Gomez; Anthony J. Sinskey

1979-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

353

Continuous Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC)  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Intercomparison of Intercomparison of Radiation Codes (CIRC) * Sponsored by ARM and endorsed by GEWEX Radiation Panel * Aims to become the standard for documenting the performance of SW and LW RT codes in Large-Scale Models * Goal is to have RT codes of IPCC models report performance against the CIRC cases * Phase I to be launched in the following weeks: http://www.circ-project.org Differences from previous intercomparisons: * Observation-tested LBL calculations to used as radiative benchmarks * Benchmark results are publicly available * ARM observations provide input (largely select BBHRP cases) * Flexible structure and longer lifespan than previous intercomparisons Core team: Oreopoulos, Mlawer, Delamere, Shippert CIRC Practical Challenges * For input and reference calculations to be credible, a reasonable level of

354

An Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Instrumentation Complex for Atmospheric Radiation Measurements in Siberia S. M. Sakerin, F. V. Dorofeev, D. M. Kabanov, V. S. Kozlov, M. V. Panchenko, Yu. A. Pkhalagov, V. V. Polkin, V. P. Shmargunov, S. A. Terpugova, S. A. Turchinovich, and V. N. Uzhegov Institute of Atmospheric Optics Tomsk, Russia Introduction The instrumentation complex is described, which has been prepared for radiative experiments in the region of Tomsk (West Siberia). The complex consists of three groups of devices to measure (a) the characteristics of the total downward radiation; (b) the most variable components of the atmospheric transparency directly affecting the income of radiation (aerosol optical depth [AOD], total content of water vapor, ozone, etc.); and (c) aerosol and meteorological parameters of the near-ground layer of the

355

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Genetic Factors Affecting  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Doses of Ionizing Genetic Factors Affecting Susceptibility to Low-Doses of Ionizing Radiation. Authors: William F. Morgan, Pat Concannon & John H.J. Petrini The goal of this program is to test the hypothesis that mice heterozygous for the NBS1 gene are genetically susceptible to low doses of ionizing radiation. Patients with Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome (NBS) are radiation sensitive, because of defects in cellular responses to radiation induced genetic damage. It is unclear whether humans heterozygous for the mutations associated with NBS are radiation sensitive and results from cell culture experiments give conflicting results. In collaboration with John Petrini at the Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center in New York City we developed a mouse model of this disorder and are directly testing the hypothesis

356

National Solar Radiation Data Base | OpenEI  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

Solar Radiation Data Base Solar Radiation Data Base Dataset Summary Description The National Solar Radiation Data Base (NSRDB) is the most comprehensive collection of solar data freely available. The 1991 - 2005 NSRDB contains hourly solar radiation (including global, direct, and diffuse) and meteorological data for 1,454 stations. NCDC's Integrated Surface Data (ISD) were the key data source for this effort, with much of the solar data modeled/estimated based on the surface observations. This dataset builds on the 1961-1990 NSRDB, which contains data for 239 stations. These data are extremely useful in estimating solar energy potential across the U.S., and in estimating heating/cooling requirements for buildings based on heat-gain from solar radiation. More information available at http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/reds/

357

Low Dose Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Ancient Salt Beds Ancient Salt Beds Repository Science Renewable Energy The WIPP Underground may be ideal to study effects of Very Low Dose Rates on Biological Systems Low Background Radiation Experiment We're all bathing in it. It's in the food we eat, the water we drink, the soil we tread and even the air we breathe. It's background radiation, it's everywhere and we can't get away from it. But what would happen if you somehow "pulled the plug" on natural background radiation? Would organisms suffer or thrive if they grew up without their constant exposure to background radiation? That's what a consortium of scientists conducting an experiment at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant aim to find out. Despite being an underground repository for transuranic radioactive waste,

358

Radiation from accelerated branes  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The radiation emitted by accelerated fundamental strings and D-branes is studied within the linear approximation to the supergravity limit of string theory. We show that scalar, gauge field and gravitational radiation is generically emitted by such branes. In the case where an external scalar field accelerates the branes, we derive a Larmor-type formula for the emitted scalar radiation and study the angular distribution of the outgoing energy flux. The classical radii of the branes are calculated by means of the corresponding Thompson scattering cross sections. Within the linear approximation, the interaction of the external scalar field with the velocity fields of the branes gives a contribution to the observed gauge field and gravitational radiation.

Mohab Abou-Zeid and Miguel S. Costa

2000-04-26T23:59:59.000Z

359

Radiation Induced Mammary Cancer  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

......Induced Mammary Cancer R.L. Ullrich * R.J. Preston # * Department of Radiation Therapy, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX 77550 # Biology Division Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, TN 37831, U.S.A Over the last......

R.L. Ullrich; R.J. Preston

1991-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

360

Flexible Composite Radiation Detector  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Flexible Composite Radiation Detector Flexible Composite Radiation Detector Flexible Composite Radiation Detector A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. Available for thumbnail of Feynman Center (505) 665-9090 Email Flexible Composite Radiation Detector A flexible composite scintillator was prepared by mixing fast, bright, dense rare-earth doped powdered oxyorthosilicate (such as LSO:Ce, LSO:Sm, and GSO:Ce) scintillator with a polymer binder. The binder is transparent to the scintillator emission. The composite is seamless and can be made large and in a wide variety of shapes. Importantly, the composite can be tailored to emit light in a spectral region that matches the optimum

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While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


361

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for Sealed Source Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Purpose: To provide basic radiation safety training to the users of sealed sources located

Dai, Pengcheng

362

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation Safety Training Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users for Physics 461 & 462 Modern Physics Laboratory Spring 2007 #12;#12;Radiation Safety Department, University of Tennessee Protocol Title: Basic Radiation Safety Training for X-ray Users Drafted By: Chris Millsaps, RSS Reviewers

Dai, Pengcheng

363

Human In vivo Dose-Response to Controlled, Low-Dose Low Linear Energy Transfer Ionizing Radiation Exposure  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...effects of low-dose low-linear energy transfer ionizing radiation (LDIR) in humans...direct evidence that doses in the range of 1 to 10 cGy...the intentional radiation of healthy tissue...the response to ionizing radiation. Attempts...

Zelanna Goldberg; David M. Rocke; Chad Schwietert; Susanne R. Berglund; Alison Santana; Angela Jones; Jörg Lehmann; Robin Stern; Ruixiao Lu; and Christine Hartmann Siantar

2006-06-15T23:59:59.000Z

364

RADIATION SAFETY OFFICE Campus Radiation Safety Manual UNIVERSITY OF NEW ORLEANS Previous Revision: May 1999  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

measures: a. Personnel will be made aware of management's commitment to maintain low exposure levels. b. Management will periodically review operating procedures with the Radiation Safety Officer to determine steps taken to reduce exposures. c. Management will ensure that the person, or persons, selected

Li, X. Rong

365

Radiation and viral DNA  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation and viral DNA Radiation and viral DNA Name: Loretta L Lamb Age: N/A Location: N/A Country: N/A Date: N/A Question: Can viral DNA be changed through exposure to radiation? If so, what type of radiation will do this? Can these irradiated viruses cause changes in the genome of any human cells they may infect? Can these (or any) viruses actually cause cancer, or do they merely act as triggering devices for cancer? Replies: In theory, any nucleic acid (viral or otherwise) can be changed by exposure to many kinds of radiation. Depending on the type of virus, these may then change the human cells that they infect. Although there are many different things that are being implicated in causing cancers, it looks like a fairly common model involves the sequential "knockout" of several human genes. Viruses may be one cause of such gene changes, radiation and other environmental causes may also contribute. Some of these changes may be inherited through families, so it becomes more likely that the environmental factors may happen to "hit" the right places in cells to cause cancers in these families. If you ask something more specific, perhaps I can focus my response a bit more

366

Radiative muon capture  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

It is shown by relating the transition amplitude of radiative muon capture to that of radiative pion capture, that the transition amplitude of radiative muon capture proposed recently by Hwang and Primakoff differs from the others mainly by Low's counter terms. Despite the fact that the "original" transition amplitude does not violate seriously the conservation of the hadronic electromagnetic current, Low's counter terms, as introduced via Low's prescription to secure the presence of small conservation-of-hadronic-electromagnetic-current-breaking terms, are confirmed to be of numerical importance. Further, it is found in the "elementary-particle" treatment of radiative muon capture that the uncertainty arising from the nuclear structure can be reduced to become negligible. Therefore, an exclusive radiative muon capture experiment can in principle differentiate the Hwang-Primakoff theory from the others and yet provide a comprehensive test of partial conservation of axial-vector current.RADIOACTIVITY Theories of radiative muon capture, linearity hypothesis versus Low's prescription; nuclear structure and PCAC.

W -Y. P. Hwang

1980-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

367

Modeling radiation in particle clouds: On the importance of inter-particle radiation for pulverized solid fuel combustion  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The importance of inter-particle radiation for clusters of gray and diffuse particles is investigated. The radiative cooling of each individual particle is found to vary strongly with its position in the cluster, and a mean radiative particle cooling term is proposed for single particle simulations of particle clusters or for high detail simulation, like Direct Numerical Simulations of small sub-volumes of large clusters of particles. Radiative cooling is shown to be important both for furnaces for coal gasification and coal combustion. Broadening the particle size distribution is found to have just a minor effect on the radiative particle cooling. This is particularly the case for large and dense particle clusters where there is essentially no effect of size distribution broadening at all. For smaller and more dilute particle clusters, the effect of distribution broadening is clear but still not dominant.

Haugen, Nils Erland L

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

368

Motion-Induced Radiation from a Dynamically Deforming Mirror  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

A path integral formulation is developed to study the spectrum of radiation from a perfectly reflecting (conducting) surface. It allows us to study arbitrary deformations in space and time. The spectrum is calculated to second order in the height function. For a harmonic traveling wave on the surface, we find many different regimes in which the radiation is restricted to certain directions. It is shown that high frequency photons are emitted in a beam with relatively low angular dispersion whose direction can be controlled by the mechanical deformations of the plate.

Faez Miri; Ramin Golestanian

1998-03-25T23:59:59.000Z

369

REPORT NO. 8 radiation hazards  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

REPORT NO. 8 REVISED guidance for the control of radiation hazards in uranium mining SEPTEMBER 1967 OF RADIATION HAZARDS IN URANIUM MINING SEPTEMBER 1967 Staff Report of the FEDERAL RADIATION COUNCIL #12;FEDERAL...... .... .._ _.... Section I. Introduction. . . Section II. The Radiation Environment AssociatedWith Uranium Mining. Section

370

Appendix G: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix G: Radiation #12;#12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

371

Appendix A: Radiation HYDROGEN ATOM  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

. People are exposed to naturally occurring radiation constantly. For example, cosmic radiation; radon effects on the environment and biological systems. Radiation comes from natural and human-made sourcesAppendix A: Radiation #12;P P P E E E N NN HYDROGEN ATOM DEUTERIUM ATOM TRITIUM ATOM HYDROGEN

Pennycook, Steve

372

A Radiation Hardened Reconfigurable FPGA Shankarnarayanan Ramaswamy1  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Size Isolation Device Options S/D Engineering Supply Voltages Gate Electrodes Metal Levels Poly & Diffusion Silicide 150nm Shallow Trench Isolation 26 Ã? / 70 Ã? Halo with S/D Extensions 1.5V / 3.3V N+ Poly and manufactured utilizing this 150 nm radiation hardened CMOS process employing seven levels of metal. The chip

Manohar, Rajit

373

Cellular telephone-based radiation sensor and wide-area detection network  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A network of radiation detection instruments, each having a small solid state radiation sensor module integrated into a cellular phone for providing radiation detection data and analysis directly to a user. The sensor module includes a solid-state crystal bonded to an ASIC readout providing a low cost, low power, light weight compact instrument to detect and measure radiation energies in the local ambient radiation field. In particular, the photon energy, time of event, and location of the detection instrument at the time of detection is recorded for real time transmission to a central data collection/analysis system. The collected data from the entire network of radiation detection instruments are combined by intelligent correlation/analysis algorithms which map the background radiation and detect, identify and track radiation anomalies in the region.

Craig, William W. (Pittsburg, CA); Labov, Simon E. (Berkeley, CA)

2006-12-12T23:59:59.000Z

374

Proteasome Structures Affected by Ionizing Radiation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

...Effect of ionizing radiation on 26S but...radiation doses, and immediately...the dose range 1 to 20 Gy...ionizing radiation induced a...38), ionizing radiation (39...over a wide range of radiation doses and further...

Milena Pervan; Keisuke S. Iwamoto; and William H. McBride

2005-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

375

Breakout Session -- TEC Direction  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

III: TEC III: TEC Direction and Priorities Presented to: Transportation External Coordination Working Group Presented by: Alex Thrower Office of Logistics Management February 7, 2008 San Antonio, Texas 2 Topics of Discussion * Transportation External Coordination Working Group (TEC) charter and membership * Topic group functions * Meeting format 3 TEC Charter and Membership * Mission - TEC was formed in 1992 to improve coordination among the Department of Energy (DOE) and external groups interested in the Department's transportation activities The Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) co-chairs TEC with DOE's Environmental Management Program Provides an opportunity for broad based input and information exchange from varied organizations - Members meet semi-annually to participate in

376

Posters The Effects of Radiative Transfer  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Posters The Effects of Radiative Transfer on Low-Level Cyclogenesis M. J. Leach and S. Raman Department of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences North Carolina State University Raleigh, North Carolina Introduction Many investigators have documented the role that thermodynamic forcing due to radiative flux divergence plays in the enhancement or generation of circulation. Most of these studies involve large-scale systems (e.g., Slingo et al. 1988), small-scale systems such as thunderstorms (Chen and Cotton 1988), and squall lines (Chin, submitted). The generation of circulation on large scales results from the creation of divergence in the upper troposphere and the maintenance of low-level potentially unstable air, and the maintenance of baroclinicity throughout

377

Home: Directives, Delegations, and Requirements  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites

content. | Skip to navigation content. | Skip to navigation Site Map Contact Us Current Documents Archived Documents Entire Site only in current section Advanced Search... U.S. Department of Energy Office of Management Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Sections Home Directives Current Directives Draft Directives Archives Delegations Current Delegations Current Designations Rescinded Organizations' Assignment of Responsibility Development & Review RevCom Writers' Tools DPC Corner References News and Updates Help Personal tools You are here: Office of Management » Directives, Delegations, and Requirements Info Home Directives are the Department of Energy's primary means of establishing policies, requirements, responsibilities, and procedures for Departmental elements and contractors. Directive

378

Study of Sc41 Levels by the Ca40(p,?)Sc41 Reaction  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The level structure of Sc41 produced in the Ca40(p,?)Sc41 reaction has been studied by measuring the positron activity [Emax(?+)=5.5 MeV, ?12=0.6 sec] of the product nucleus. The measurements covered the range 0.6?Ep?5.2 MeV with a resolution width of about 5 keV. Forty-six resonances in the yield function were identified with states of Sc41. Absolute yields were also measured for each resonance with a ? detector of calibrated efficiency. Since all excited states of Sc41 are proton-unstable, these yields were attributed to transitions from the capture levels directly to the ground state. On this basis, and by assuming ??level. By evaluating the statistical factor g for various assumed values of the spin J, the radiative widths ?? were obtained. When expressed in Weisskopf single-particle units, these values fell within the ranges expected for E1, M1+E2, and E2 transitions. Since the ground-state spin of Sc41 is 72-, these results eliminated from consideration assignments of J?=12+,12-, and 32+ for the radiating states. For 16 of the most strongly excited levels, specific evidence with respect to possible values of J? was obtained by measuring the angular distribution of the ? radiation emitted in transitions to the ground state. For ten additional states, earlier studies of proton elastic scattering furnished values of the orbital angular momentum lp of the captured protons. These data permitted specific J? assignments in 14 favorable cases, and restricted assignments to two values of J and either parity in ten cases. Eleven transitions are found to occur by means of either pure E2 or mixed M1 and E2 radiation. The combined strength of these transitions exhausts 6-8% of the E2 sum-rule limit. The present status of information on energies and values of J? of the states of Sc41 occurring at excitation energies up to 6.2 MeV is summarized.

D. H. Youngblood; B. H. Wildenthal; C. M. Class

1968-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

379

Radiation delivery system and method  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation delivery system and method are described. The system includes a treatment configuration such as a stent, balloon catheter, wire, ribbon, or the like, a portion of which is covered with a gold layer. Chemisorbed to the gold layer is a radiation-emitting self-assembled monolayer or a radiation-emitting polymer. The radiation delivery system is compatible with medical catheter-based technologies to provide a therapeutic dose of radiation to a lesion following an angioplasty procedure.

Sorensen, Scott A. (Overland Park, KS); Robison, Thomas W. (Los Alamos, NM); Taylor, Craig M. V. (Jemez Springs, NM)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

380

Remote direct memory access over datagrams  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A communication stack for providing remote direct memory access (RDMA) over a datagram network is disclosed. The communication stack has a user level interface configured to accept datagram related input and communicate with an RDMA enabled network interface card (NIC) via an NIC driver. The communication stack also has an RDMA protocol layer configured to supply one or more data transfer primitives for the datagram related input of the user level. The communication stack further has a direct data placement (DDP) layer configured to transfer the datagram related input from a user storage to a transport layer based on the one or more data transfer primitives by way of a lower layer protocol (LLP) over the datagram network.

Grant, Ryan Eric; Rashti, Mohammad Javad; Balaji, Pavan; Afsahi, Ahmad

2014-12-02T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
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381

Reducing Radiation Damage  

SciTech Connect

This talk describes the use of a modified treatment sequence, i.e., radiation dose, geometry, dwell time, etc., to mitigate some of the deleterious effects of cancer radiotherapy by utilizing natural cell repair processes. If bad side effects can be reduced, a more aggressive therapy can be put into place. Cells contain many mechanisms that repair damage of various types. If the damage can not be repaired, cells will undergo apoptosis (cell death). Data will be reviewed that support the fact that a small dose of radiation will activate damage repair genes within a cell. Once the mechanisms are fully active, they will efficiently repair the severe damage from a much larger radiation dose. The data ranges from experiments on specific cell cultures using microarray (gene chip) techniques to experiments on complete organisms. The suggested effect and treatment is consistent with the assumption that all radiation is harmful, no matter how small the dose. Nevertheless, the harm can be reduced. These mechanisms need to be further studied and characterized. In particular, their time dependence needs to be understood before the proposed treatment can be optimized. Under certain situations it is also possible that the deleterious effects of chemotherapy can be mitigated and the damage to radiation workers can be reduced.

Blankenbecler, Richard

2006-06-05T23:59:59.000Z

382

DIRECTIONAL DETECTION OF A NEUTRON SOURCE.  

SciTech Connect

Advantages afforded by the development of new directional neutron detectors and imagers are discussed. Thermal neutrons have mean free paths in air of about 20 meters, and can be effectively imaged using coded apertures. Fission spectrum neutrons have ranges greater than 100 meters, and carry enough energy to scatter at least twice in multilayer detectors which can yield both directional and spectral information. Such strategies allow better discrimination between a localized spontaneous fission source and the low, but fluctuating, level of background neutrons generated by cosmic rays. A coded aperture thermal neutron imager will be discussed as well as a proton-recoil double-scatter fast-neutron directional detector with time-of-flight energy discrimination.

VANIER, P.E.; FORMAN, L.

2006-10-23T23:59:59.000Z

383

Surface Radiation from GOES: A Physical Approach; Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Models to compute Global Horizontal Irradiance (GHI) and Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI) have been in development over the last 3 decades. These models can be classified as empirical or physical, based on the approach. Empirical models relate ground based observations with satellite measurements and use these relations to compute surface radiation. Physical models consider the radiation received from the earth at the satellite and create retrievals to estimate surface radiation. While empirical methods have been traditionally used for computing surface radiation for the solar energy industry the advent of faster computing has made operational physical models viable. The Global Solar Insolation Project (GSIP) is an operational physical model from NOAA that computes GHI using the visible and infrared channel measurements from the GOES satellites. GSIP uses a two-stage scheme that first retrieves cloud properties and uses those properties in a radiative transfer model to calculate surface radiation. NREL, University of Wisconsin and NOAA have recently collaborated to adapt GSIP to create a 4 km GHI and DNI product every 30 minutes. This paper presents an outline of the methodology and a comprehensive validation using high quality ground based solar data from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Surface Radiation (SURFRAD) (http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/surfrad/sitepage.html) and Integrated Surface Insolation Study (ISIS) http://www.srrb.noaa.gov/isis/isissites.html), the Solar Radiation Research Laboratory (SRRL) at National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), and Sun Spot One (SS1) stations.

Habte, A.; Sengupta, M.; Wilcox, S.

2012-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

384

Levelized Electricity Costs  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of levelized energy costs responds to the necessity of disclosing the ... in order to recover the total life cycle cost of energy production. This chapter charts the effectiveness of levelized cost fo...

Nuno Luis Madureira

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

385

The Enterprise Level Roadmap  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

The Enterprise Level Roadmap is part of a Transition-To-Lean Guide, a three volume set of materials designed to help a user navigate through the Roadmap at increasingly deeper levels of detail.

Lean Advancement Initiative

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

386

PALeo-constraints on SEA-level rise (PALSEA) -a PAGES/IMAGES working group  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

PALeo-constraints on SEA-level rise (PALSEA) - a PAGES/IMAGES working group Coordinators: Mark for the reduction in ice sheets and subsequent rise in sea level over the next century are highly uncertain rise. Interglacial sea levels constrain the global sensitivity of sea-level to radiative forcing. Well

Siddall, Mark

387

Modelling the reorientation of sea-ice faults as the wind changes direction  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

in the Ant- arctic. As sea ice reflects up to 80% of incident solar radiation, insulates the ocean fromModelling the reorientation of sea-ice faults as the wind changes direction Alexander V. WILCHINSKY-1290, USA ABSTRACT. A discrete-element model of sea ice is used to study how a 908 change in wind direction

Feltham, Daniel

388

Adsorption-induced surface core-level shifts of Pt(110)  

SciTech Connect

A detailed investigation of surface- and adsorbate-induced binding-energy shifts of the Pt 4f core level has been carried out using photoemission with synchrotron radiation. Spectra recorded from the clean Pt(110)-(1 x 2) surface show a single surface peak shifted by -0.46 eV relative to the bulk peak. This result is discussed in light of recent structural studies of the reconstructed Pt(110) surface. Adsorption of H, atomic and molecular oxygen, and CO reveal two surface-atom contributions, whose origins are discussed. In some cases the second peak is believed to arise from former bulk atoms that are influenced by the adsorbate. The main adsorption-induced shifts correlate with thermodynamic data in the framework of a Born-Haber cycle. The shifts cannot be directly rationalized in terms of a charge transfer between the adsorbate and the Pt surface atoms.

Dueckers, K.; Prince, K.C.; Bonzel, H.P.; Chab, V.; Horn, K.

1987-10-15T23:59:59.000Z

389

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor detector for ionizing electromagnetic radiation, neutrons, and energetic charged particles. The detecting element is comprised of a compound having the composition I-III-VI.sub.2 or II-IV-V.sub.2 where the "I" component is from column 1A or 1B of the periodic table, the "II" component is from column 2B, the "III" component is from column 3A, the "IV" component is from column 4A, the "V" component is from column 5A, and the "VI" component is from column 6A. The detecting element detects ionizing radiation by generating a signal proportional to the energy deposited in the element, and detects neutrons by virtue of the ionizing radiation emitted by one or more of the constituent materials subsequent to capture. The detector may contain more than one neutron-sensitive component.

Bell, Zane W. (Oak Ridge, TN); Burger, Arnold (Knoxville, TN)

2010-03-30T23:59:59.000Z

390

Composition for radiation shielding  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A composition for use as a radiation shield is disclosed. The shield has a depleted uranium core for absorbing gamma rays and a bismuth coating for preventing chemical corrosion and absorbing gamma rays. Alternatively, a sheet of gadolinium may be positioned between the uranium core and the bismuth coating for absorbing neutrons. The composition is preferably in the form of a container for storing materials that emit radiation such as gamma rays and neutrons. The container is preferably formed by casting bismuth around a pre-formed uranium container having a gadolinium sheeting, and allowing the bismuth to cool. The resulting container is a structurally sound, corrosion-resistant, radiation-absorbing container. 2 figs.

Kronberg, J.W.

1994-08-02T23:59:59.000Z

391

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Induction of Genomic Instability in  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Induction of Genomic Instability in vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs y Induction of Genomic Instability in vivo by Low Doses of 137Cs y rays, Authors: K. Rithidech1, E.B. Whorton2, M. Tungjai1, E. Ar-Bab1, S.R. Simon1, M. Tawde3 and C.W. Anderson3. Institutions: 1Pathology Department, Stony Brook University, NY 11794-8691, USA, 2University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston, TX 77550-1047,3Biology Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973-5000. Information on potential health hazards of radiation at doses below or equal to the level traditionally requiring human radiation protection (less than or equal to 10 cGy) is currently lacking. It is therefore important to characterize early and subsequent in vivo biological response induced by low doses of ionizing radiation because such data should provide information that can help determine whether radiation at this dose level

392

Environmental Radiation Effects: A Need to Question Old Paradigms  

SciTech Connect

A historical perspective is given of the current paradigm that does not explicitly protect the environment from radiation, but instead, relies on the concept that if dose limits are set to protect humans then the environment is automatically protected as well. We summarize recent international questioning of this paradigm and briefly present three different frameworks for protecting biota that are being considered by the U.S. DOE, the Canadian government and the International Commission on Radiological Protection. We emphasize that an enhanced collaboration is required between what has traditionally been separated disciplines of radiation biology and radiation ecology if we are going to properly address the current environmental radiation problems. We then summarize results generated from an EMSP grant that allowed us to develop a Low Dose Irradiation Facility that specifically addresses effects of low-level, chronic irradiation on multiple levels of biological organization.

Hinton, T.G.; Bedford, J.; Ulsh, B.; Whicker, F. Ward

2003-03-27T23:59:59.000Z

393

Foreign Direct Investment in U  

Gasoline and Diesel Fuel Update (EIA)

Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in 1998 Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in 1998 Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in U.S. Energy in 1998 in 1998 in 1998 in 1998 November 2000 Energy Information Administration/Foreign Direct Investment in U.S. Energy in 1998 Contacts This report was prepared in the Office of Energy Markets and End Use of the Energy Information Administration, U.S. Department of Energy, under the general direction of W. Calvin Kilgore. The project was directed by Mark E. Rodekohr, Director of the Energy Markets and Contingency Information Division (202) 586-1441, and Mary E. Northup, the Team Leader for Financial Analysis (202) 586-1383. Specific technical information concerning this

394

ORISE: Advanced Radiation Medicine | REAC/TS Continuing Medical Education  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Advanced Radiation Medicine Advanced Radiation Medicine Dates Scheduled Register Online March 24-28, 2014 August 18-22, 2014 Fee: $250 Maximum enrollment: 28 30 hours AMA PRA Category 1 Credits(tm) This 4½-day course includes more advanced information for medical practitioners. This program is academically more rigorous than the Radiation Emergency Medicine course and is primarily for Physicians, Clinical Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants desiring an advanced level of information on the diagnosis and management of ionizing radiation injuries and illnesses. Advanced topics in the diagnosis and management of radiation-induced injuries and illnesses includes the use of cytokines, stem cell transplants, antimicrobials, wound care and other advanced techniques. Group problem-solving is used to thoroughly orient attendees to the

395

Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results Low Background Radiation Experiment Yields Interesting Preliminary Results May 18, 2011 - 12:00pm Addthis Media Contact Deb Gill U.S. DOE Carlsbad Field Office (575) 234-7270 CARLSBAD, N.M. - New Mexico State University"s Low Background Radiation Experiment (LBRE), which takes place 2,150 feet below the earth"s surface at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, recently released some results about the project"s first two years of experimentation. The March 2011 edition of Health Physics printed an article titled "Exploring Biological Effects of Low Level Radiation from the Other Side of Background," summarizing some initial data taken from LBRE and from a sister experiment conducted at the Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute

396

Robot Reworked to Analyze Radiation in Japan | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Robot Reworked to Analyze Radiation in Japan Robot Reworked to Analyze Radiation in Japan Robot Reworked to Analyze Radiation in Japan April 14, 2011 - 2:30pm Addthis A technician at Idaho National Laboratory demonstrates the modified TALON robot. A technician at Idaho National Laboratory demonstrates the modified TALON robot. John Schueler John Schueler Former New Media Specialist, Office of Public Affairs How does it work? Sensors on the TALON robots provide visual, radiological survey, and/or mapping data about areas that are not accessible to people because of too-high levels of radiation. Radiation-sensing packages have been sent for robots already in Japan. The Department of Energy has been working around the clock to provide whatever assistance we can to the Government of Japan as they work to bring

397

DNA damage: risk comparisons of low radiation vis-a-vis dietary micronutrient deficiencies  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Micronutrients are the substances in minute amounts that are essential for human life. This study discusses laboratory and epidemiological evidence that dietary micronutrient deficiencies cause DNA damage. DNA damage comparisons are made between dietary micronutrient deficiencies and low dose radiation. Laboratory studies show that micronutrient deficiencies can cause greater DNA damage than radiation doses significantly above background environmental levels. Previous concerns that have been expressed about comparing endogenous DNA damages to radiation-induced DNA damages are discussed, in particular, the role of radiation clusters. It is shown that cluster damage does not preclude making comparisons of dietary micronutrient deficiencies vis-a-vis radiation, especially at background environmental levels. Such damage comparisons provide the public with a means of placing radiation risk in perspective by comparing a readily appreciated, everyday concept (dietary deficiencies) with that of radiation.

Daniel P. Hayes

2006-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

398

SRNL - Directions and Maps  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Map of SRS, with Georgia and South Carolina Map of SRS, with Georgia and South Carolina Directions and Maps The Savannah River National Laboratory is located at the Savannah River Site , a 310 square mile site located in the southeastern coastal area of the United States in the state of South Carolina. It is bordered to the west by the Savannah River and Georgia, and is close to several major cities, including Augusta and Savannah (Ga.), Columbia, Greenville, and Charleston (S.C.). It is in an area residents refer to as the Central Savannah River Area, or CSRA. The Aiken County Technology Laboratory (which houses SRNL's biotechnology laboratories and certain waste treatment technology laboratories) and the Center for Hydrogen Research are located at Aiken County's Savannah River Research Campus, located adjacent to SRS.

399

Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSAB Memorandum: Direction and Guidance for Implementing Direct DOE Relationship & Funding for the EMSSAB From: Designated Federal Officer, Sandra L. Waisley (EM-11) To: SSAB Members (G. Stegner, J. Reising, G. Bowman, T. Taylor, C. Gertz, B. Murphie, S. McCracken, M. Marvin, J. Rampe, A. Doswell, C. Anderson, B. Wethington, S. Brennan, K. Kozeliski, D. Dollins, P. Halsey, Y. Sherman, L. Bratcher, R. Warther, K. Klein, R. Schepens, F. Lockhart, J. Allison, R. Erickson, E. Sellers, K. Carlson, G. Boyd, R. Butler) The memorandum informs of Assistant Secrectary Roberson's direction and guidance for implementing a DOE direct relationship and funding approach for EM's Site-Specific Advisory Board (EMSSAB).

400

Tunable terahertz radiation source  

SciTech Connect

Terahertz radiation source and method of producing terahertz radiation, said source comprising a junction stack, said junction stack comprising a crystalline material comprising a plurality of self-synchronized intrinsic Josephson junctions; an electrically conductive material in contact with two opposing sides of said crystalline material; and a substrate layer disposed upon at least a portion of both the crystalline material and the electrically-conductive material, wherein the crystalline material has a c-axis which is parallel to the substrate layer, and wherein the source emits at least 1 mW of power.

Boulaevskii, Lev; Feldmann, David M; Jia, Quanxi; Koshelev, Alexei; Moody, Nathan A

2014-01-21T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


401

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which apor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, Albert P. (Vernon, CT)

1986-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

402

Liquid level detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A liquid level detector for low pressure boilers. A boiler tank, from which vapor, such as steam, normally exits via a main vent, is provided with a vertical side tube connected to the tank at the desired low liquid level. When the liquid level falls to the level of the side tube vapor escapes therethrough causing heating of a temperature sensitive device located in the side tube, which, for example, may activate a liquid supply means for adding liquid to the boiler tank. High liquid level in the boiler tank blocks entry of vapor into the side tube, allowing the temperature sensitive device to cool, for example, to ambient temperature.

Grasso, A.P.

1984-02-21T23:59:59.000Z

403

DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure October 2013  

SciTech Connect

The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Analysis within the Office of Health, Safety and Security (HSS) publishes the annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Report to provide an overview of the status of radiation protection practices at DOE (including the National Nuclear Security Administration [NNSA]). The DOE 2012 Occupational Radiation Exposure Report provides an evaluation of DOE-wide performance regarding compliance with Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (C.F.R.), Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection dose limits and as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) process requirements. In addition, the report provides data to DOE organizations responsible for developing policies for protection of individuals from the adverse health effects of radiation. The report provides a summary and an analysis of occupational radiation exposure information from the monitoring of individuals involved in DOE activities. Over the past 5-year period, the occupational radiation exposure information is analyzed in terms of aggregate data, dose to individuals, and dose by site. As an indicator of the overall amount of radiation dose received during the conduct of operations at DOE, the report includes information on collective total effective dose (TED). The TED is comprised of the effective dose (ED) from external sources, which includes neutron and photon radiation, and the internal committed effective dose (CED), which results from the intake of radioactive material into the body. The collective ED from photon exposure decreased by 23% between 2011 and 2012, while the neutron dose increased by 5%. The internal dose components of the collective TED decreased by 7%. Over the past 5-year period, 99.99% of the individuals receiving measurable TED have received doses below the 2 roentgen equivalent in man (rems) (20 millisievert [mSv]) TED administrative control level (ACL), which is well below the DOE regulatory limit of 5 rems (50 mSv) TED annually. The occupational radiation exposure records show that in 2012, DOE facilities continued to comply with DOE dose limits and ACLs and worked to minimize exposure to individuals. The DOE collective TED decreased 17.1% from 2011 to 2012. The collective TED decreased at three of the five sites with the largest collective TED. u Idaho Site – Collective dose reductions were achieved as a result of continuing improvements at the Advanced Mixed Waste Treatment Project (AMWTP) through the planning of drum movements that reduced the number of times a container is handled; placement of waste containers that created highradiation areas in a centralized location; and increased worker awareness of high-dose rate areas. In addition, Idaho had the largest decrease in the total number of workers with measurable TED (1,143 fewer workers). u Hanford Site (Hanford) – An overall reduction of decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) activities at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) and Transuranic (TRU) retrieval activities resulted in collective dose reductions. u Savannah River Site (SRS) – Reductions were achieved through ALARA initiatives employed site wide. The Solid Waste Management Facility used extended specialty tools, cameras and lead shield walls to facilitate removal of drums. These tools and techniques reduce exposure time through improved efficiency, increase distance from the source of radiation by remote monitoring, shield the workers to lower the dose rate, and reduce the potential for contamination and release of material through repacking of waste. Overall, from 2011 to 2012, there was a 19% decrease in the number of workers with measurable dose. Furthermore, due to a slight decrease in both the DOE workforce (7%) and monitored workers (10%), the ratio of workers with measurable doses to monitored workers decreased to 13%. Another primary indicator of the level of radiation exposure covered in this report is the average measurable dose, which normalizes the collective dose over the population of workers who actually received a measurable dose. The average measurable TED in

none,

2012-02-02T23:59:59.000Z

404

New beam-charge interlock system for radiation safety at the KEKB injector linac  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

A new beam-charge interlock system is under development for radiation safety and machine protection at the KEKB injector linac. A hardware-based interlock system is required instead of the present software-based interlock system in order to boost its reliability. This system restricts the integrated amount of beamcharges delivered to four different storage rings. The beamcharges are measured using wall-current monitors and detection electronics at six locations along the linac. The detection electronics independently transmits a beam-abort request through a twisted hardwire cable directly to the safetycontrol system of the linac when the integrated amount of beamcharges exceeds a certain threshold level prescribed for each location. We describe the characteristics and performance of the new beam-charge interlock system along with the details of the experimental tests.

T. Suwada; E. Kadokura; M. Satoh; K. Furukawa

2008-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

405

Radiation dose rates from UF{sub 6} cylinders  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the results of many studies, both theoretical and experimental, which have been carried out by Urenco over the last 15 years into radiation dose rates from uranium hexafluoride (UF{sub 6}) cylinders. The contents of the cylinder, its history, and the geometry all affect the radiation dose rate. These factors are all examined in detail. Actual and predicted dose rates are compared with levels permitted by IAEA transport regulations.

Friend, P.J. [Urenco, Capenhurst (United Kingdom)

1991-12-31T23:59:59.000Z

406

Converting solar energy into laser radiation using a fullerene-oxygen-iodine laser with solar pumping  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The concept of a system for directly converting solar energy into laser radiation on the basis of a fullerene-oxygen-iodine laser has been developed. It is shown that this system has...

Mak, A A; Belousova, I M; Kiselev, V M; Grenishin, A S; Danilov, O B; Sosnov, E N

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

407

Radiation Exposure to Patient and Staff in Hepatic Chemoembolization: Risk Estimation of Cancer and Deterministic Effects  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

In order to calculate the organ doses, we used only the dosemeter values measured ... negligible compared to the direct and significantly longer radiation exposure to the liver region. When one wishes to keep the...

Nico Hidajat; Peter Wust; Roland Felix…

408

Radiation physics, biophysics, and radiation biology. Progress report, December 1, 1992--November 30, 1993  

SciTech Connect

Research at the Center for Radiological Research is a multidisciplenary blend of physics, chemistry and biology aimed at understanding the mechanisms involved in the health problems resulting from human exposure to ionizing radiations. The focus is increased on biochemistry and the application of the techniques of molecular biology to the problems of radiation biology. Research highlights of the program from the past year are described. A mathematical model describing the production of single-strand and double-strand breaks in DNA as a function radiation quality has been completed. For the first time Monte Carlo techniques have been used to obtain directly the spatial distribution of DNA moieties altered by radiation. This information was obtained by including the transport codes a realistic description of the electronic structure of DNA. We have investigated structure activity relationships for the potential oncogenicity of a new generation of bioreductive drugs that function as hypoxic cytotoxins. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the inverse dose rate effect, whereby medium LET radiations actually produce an c effect when the dose is protracted, is now at a point where the basic mechanisms are reasonably understood and the complex interplay between dose, dose rate and radiation quality which is necessary for the effect to be present can now be predicted at least in vitro. In terms of early radiobiological damage, a quantitative link has been established between basic energy deposition and locally multiply damaged sites, the radiochemical precursor of DNA double strand breaks; specifically, the spatial and energy deposition requirements necessary to form LMDs have been evaluated. For the first time, a mechanically understood ``biological fingerprint`` of high-LET radiation has been established. Specifically measurement of the ratio of inter-to intra-chromosomal aberrations produces a unique signature from alpha-particles or neutrons.

Hall, E.J.; Zaider, M.

1993-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

409

Rank and directional entropy Rank and directional entropy  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Rank and directional entropy Rank and directional entropy E. Arthur (Robbie) Robinson (Joint work with Ayse Sahin) The George Washington University Talk at KIAS, Seoul, Korea. September 27, 2010 #12;Rank and directional entropy Outline 1 Introduction 2 Finite rank, Z case 3 The formal definition 4 The Z2 case 5

Robinson Jr., E. Arthur (Robbie)

410

Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA  

SciTech Connect

Radiation-induced electron migration along DNA is a mechanism by which randomly produced stochastic energy deposition events can lead to nonrandom types of damage along DNA manifested distal to the sites of the initial energy deposition. Electron migration along DNA is significantly influenced by the DNA base sequence and DNA conformation. Migration along 7 base pairs in oligonucleotides containing guanine bases was observed for oligonucleotides irradiated in solution which compares to average migration distances of 6 to 10 bases for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in solution and 5.5 base pairs for Escherichia coli DNA irradiated in cells. Evidence also suggests that electron migration can occur preferentially in the 5{prime} to 3{prime} direction along DNA. Our continued efforts will provide information regarding the contribution of electron transfer along DNA to formation of locally multiply damaged sites created in DNA by exposure to ionizing radiation.

Fuciarelli, A.F.; Sisk, E.C.; Miller, J.H. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Zimbrick, J.D. [National Research Council, Washington, DC (United States)

1994-04-01T23:59:59.000Z

411

Smith-Purcell Radiation from Rough Surfaces  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Radiation of a charged particle moving parallel to a inhomogeneous surface is considered. Within a single formalism periodic and random gratings are examined. For the periodically inhomogeneous surface we derive new expressions for the dispersion relation and the spectral-angular intensity. In particular, for a given observation direction two wavelengths are emitted instead of one wavelength of the standard Smith-Purcell effect. For a rough surface we show that the main contribution to the radiation intensity is given by surface polaritons induced on the interface between two media. These polaritons are multiply scattered on the roughness of surface and convert into real photons. The spectral-angular intensity is calculated and its dependence on different parameters is revealed.

Gevorkian, Zh S

2010-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

412

Direct Insertion of MODIS Radiances in a Global Aerosol Transport Model CLARK WEAVER,* ARLINDO DA SILVA, MIAN CHIN,# PAUL GINOUX,@ OLEG DUBOVIK,&,@@  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

is directly inserted into the Goddard Chemistry and Aerosol Radiation Transport model (GOCART), which aerosol radiative forcing in the thermody- namic equation of GCMs, 3) to account for the reduc- tionDirect Insertion of MODIS Radiances in a Global Aerosol Transport Model CLARK WEAVER,* ARLINDO DA

Chin, Mian

413

Assessing protection against radiation exposure after prostate 125I brachytherapy  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

AbstractPurpose To expand the radiation dose rate measurement data set by measuring radiation under various prostate 125I brachytherapy situations. Methods and Materials Measurements were obtained from 63 consecutive unselected patients at Tokyo Medical Center, Japan. Differences in factors during measurements, such as body postures, distances from the skin surface, and measurement directions were considered. Furthermore, shielding effects of lead-lined underwear, consisting mainly of 0.1-mm thickness of lead, were also assessed. Results Radiation exposure varies according to the patient's body posture, with results differing as much as approximately 40.0% in measured radiation dose rates at 30 cm from the anterior skin surface. Weight, body mass index, and tissue thickness showed good correlations with measured radiation dose rates. The magnitude of radiation exposure attenuation by shielding was approximately 95.8%, similar to the attenuation ratio based on tissue measurements made in the lateral direction. The respective mean times required to reach 1 mSv were 1.2, 7.6, and 65.4 days in the standing position and 0.6, 4.6, and 40.4 days in the supine position at the site of contact, and at 30 and 100 cm from the anterior skin surface. Conclusions This study obtained supplemental information pertaining to radiological protection and confirmed that shielding can be an effective tool for reducing exposures.

Takashi Hanada; Atsunori Yorozu; Riki Kikumura; Toshio Ohashi; Naoyuki Shigematsu

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

414

Solar Radiation Estimated Through Mesoscale Atmospheric Modeling over Northeast Brazil  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The use of renewable energy sources like solar wind and biomass is rapidly increasing in recent years with solar radiation as a particularly abundant energy source over Northeast Brazil. A proper quantitative knowledge of the incoming solar radiation is of great importance for energy planning in Brazil serving as basis for developing future projects of photovoltaic power plants and solar energy exploitation. This work presents a methodology for mapping the incoming solar radiation at ground level for Northeast Brazil using a mesoscale atmospheric model (Regional Atmospheric Modeling System—RAMS) calibrated and validated using data from the network of automatic surface stations from the State Foundation for Meteorology and Water Resources from Ceará (Fundação Cearense de Meteorologia e Recursos Hídricos? FUNCEME). The results showed that the model exhibits systematic errors overestimating surface radiation but that after the proper statistical corrections using a relationship between the model?predicted cloud fraction the ground?level observed solar radiation and the incoming solar radiation estimated at the top of the atmosphere a correlation of 0.92 with a confidence interval of 13.5? W / m 2 is found for monthly data. Using this methodology we found an estimate for annual average incoming solar radiation over Ceará of 215? W / m 2 (maximum in October: 260? W / m 2 ).

Otacilio Leandro de Menezes Neto; Alexandre Araújo Costa; Fernando Pinto Ramalho; Paulo Henrique Santiago de Maria

2009-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

415

Recommendations to the Technical Steering Panel regarding approach for estimating individual radiation doses resulting from releases of radionuclides to the Columbia River  

SciTech Connect

At the direction of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle staff have reviewed and analyzed available data regarding possible historical radiation doses to individuals resulting from radionuclide releases to the Columbia River. The objective of this review was to recommend to the TSP the spatial and temporal scope and level of effort on Columbia River work to most effectively extend work performed in Phase I of the project (PNL 1991a, PNL 1991b) to meet the project objectives. A number of options were analyzed. Four stretches of the Columbia River and adjacent Pacific coastal waters were defined and investigated for four time periods. Radiation doses arising from ten potentially major exposure pathways were evaluated for each of the time/location combinations, and several alternative methods were defined for estimating the doses from each pathway. Preliminary cost estimates were also developed for implementing dose estimation activities for each of the possible combinations.

Napier, B.A.; Brothers, A.J.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

416

Recommendations to the Technical Steering Panel regarding approach for estimating individual radiation doses resulting from releases of radionuclides to the Columbia River. Volume 1, Recommendations  

SciTech Connect

At the direction of the Technical Steering Panel (TSP) of the Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project, Battelle staff have reviewed and analyzed available data regarding possible historical radiation doses to individuals resulting from radionuclide releases to the Columbia River. The objective of this review was to recommend to the TSP the spatial and temporal scope and level of effort on Columbia River work to most effectively extend work performed in Phase I of the project (PNL 1991a, PNL 1991b) to meet the project objectives. A number of options were analyzed. Four stretches of the Columbia River and adjacent Pacific coastal waters were defined and investigated for four time periods. Radiation doses arising from ten potentially major exposure pathways were evaluated for each of the time/location combinations, and several alternative methods were defined for estimating the doses from each pathway. Preliminary cost estimates were also developed for implementing dose estimation activities for each of the possible combinations.

Napier, B.A.; Brothers, A.J.

1992-07-01T23:59:59.000Z

417

Measuring short electron bunch lengths using coherent smith-purcell radiation  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A method is provided for directly determining the length of sub-picosecond electron bunches. A metallic grating is formed with a groove spacing greater than a length expected for the electron bunches. The electron bunches are passed over the metallic grating to generate coherent and incoherent Smith-Purcell radiation. The angular distribution of the coherent Smith-Purcell radiation is then mapped to directly deduce the length of the electron bunches.

Nguyen, Dinh C. (Los Alamos, NM)

1999-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

418

RADIATION ALERT User Manual  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

not contaminate the Inspector by touching it to radioactive surfaces or materials. If contamination is suspected Environmental Area Monitoring 16 Checking for Surface Contamination 16 5 Maintenance 17 Calibration 17, and x-ray radiation. Its applications include: · Detecting and measuring surface contamination

Haller, Gary L.

419

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop  

SciTech Connect

This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.

Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L.; Bond, Leonard J.

2010-12-01T23:59:59.000Z

420

Solar energy: Radiation nation  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... Australia receives more solar radiation per square metre, on average, than any other continent. Although turning this ... to make use of its heat. We spoke to Australian proponents of two very different solar-thermal systems, both rather confusingly known as ...

Carina Dennis

2006-09-06T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


421

Psoriasis and ultraviolet radiation  

SciTech Connect

Prevention and detection screening programs as a public health service in curtailing the ever-increasing incidence of all forms of skin cancer are reviewed. The effect of solar and artificial ultraviolet radiation on the general population and persons with psoriasis is examined. 54 refs.

Farber, E.M.; Nall, L. (Psoriasis Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States))

1993-09-01T23:59:59.000Z

422

Local microwave background radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

An inquiry on a possible local origin for the Microwave Background Radiation is made. Thermal MBR photons are contained in a system called {\\it magnetic bottle} which is due to Earth magnetic field and solar wind particles, mostly electrons. Observational tests are anticipated.

Domingos Soares

2014-11-13T23:59:59.000Z

423

Infrared radiation: Herschel revisited  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

The year 2000 marks the 200th anniversary of Herschel’s discovery of infrared radiation. Using a car light in place of the Sun and a liquid crystal sheet instead of thermometers the experiment is an effective classroom demonstration of invisible light.

Erin E. Pursell; Richard Kozlowski

2000-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

424

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source nerates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith generates several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, Michael A. (Los Alamos, NM); Crowell, John M. (Los Alamos, NM)

1987-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

425

Radiation detector spectrum simulator  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A small battery operated nuclear spectrum simulator having a noise source generates pulses with a Gaussian distribution of amplitudes. A switched dc bias circuit cooperating therewith to generate several nominal amplitudes of such pulses and a spectral distribution of pulses that closely simulates the spectrum produced by a radiation source such as Americium 241.

Wolf, M.A.; Crowell, J.M.

1985-04-09T23:59:59.000Z

426

Synchrotron radiation studies of the  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Two questions thought to have a significant effect on SiC-MOS device characteristics are treated. The existence of carbon clusters or carbon containing by-products and the existence of sub-oxides at the SiO2/SiC interface. Results of photoemission studies using synchrotron radiation of the interface of the Si-terminated surface of n-type SiC(0001) crystals are presented. The results show that no carbon clusters or carbon containing by-product can be detected at the interface of in situ or ex situ grown samples with an oxide layer thickness larger than  Å. The presence of sub-oxides at the SiO2/SiC interface was predicted in a theoretical calculation and has been revealed in Si 2p core level data by several groups. These results were not unanimous; significant differences in the number of sub-oxide and shifts were reported. A study also including the Si 1s core level and Si KLL Auger transitions was therefore made. These data show the presence of only one sub-oxide at the interface, assigned to Si1+ oxidation states. The SiO2 chemical shift is shown to exhibit a dependence on oxide thickness, similar to but smaller in magnitude than the thickness dependence earlier revealed for SiO2/Si.

L I Johansson; C Virojanadara

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

427

A better presentation of Planck’s radiation law  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Introductory physics and astronomy courses commonly use Wien’s displacement law to explain the colors of blackbodies including the Sun and other stars in terms of their temperatures. We argue here that focusing on the peak of the blackbody spectrum is misleading for three reasons. First the Planck curve is too broad for an individual spectral color to stand out. Second the location of the peak of the Planck curve depends on the choice of the independent variable in the plot. And third Wien’s displacement law is seldom used in actual practice to find a temperature and direct fitting to the Planck function is preferable. We discuss these flaws and argue that at the introductory level presentation of blackbody radiation in terms of photon statistics would be more effective pedagogically. The average energy of the emitted photons would then be presented in place of Wien’s displacement law and discussion of the Stefan-Boltzmann law would include the total number of photons emitted per second. Finally we suggest that the Planck spectrum is most appropriately plotted as a “spectral energy density per fractional bandwidth distribution ” using a logarithmic scale for the wavelength or frequency.

Jonathan M. Marr; Francis P. Wilkin

2012-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

428

Radiation worker health study: Scoping phase: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this project was to develop a scope of work for an epidemiologic study of the health of workers at nuclear utilities. We propose a study of cancer mortality among electric utility personnel assigned to nuclear generating stations. The primary goal of the study is to provide information to assist in maintaining a healthy work environment in electric utilities; such information would also help to resolve some uncertainties about the effects of low-level ionizing radiation by providing direct observation of human beings exposed at low doses and dose rates. Workers at each nuclear generating station would be identified from company records, their dose histories would be collected, and their vital status would be ascertained as well as cause of death, if deceased. This study would be historical in that past records would be used and prospective in that employees would continue to be followed in future years. Our estimates indicate that a study population composed of employees and contractors at all commercial nuclear generating stations would total approximately 2,000,000 person-years of observation and would be adequate to detect (or exclude) a 50 percent increase in leukemia with reasonable statistical power. 44 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

Dreyer, N.A.; Wilkinson, G.S.; Loughlin, J.E.

1988-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

429

Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Campaign Campaign For the month of April, researchers are descending on and above Barrow, Alaska, to obtain data from the atmosphere that will help them understand the impacts that aerosols have on Arctic clouds and climate. Scientists sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Climate Research Facility are using a heavily instrumented aircraft to collect data from the sky, while instruments based at surface sites in Barrow and Atqasuk, Alaska, are obtaining measurements from the ground. Information obtained during the Indirect and Semi-Direct Aerosol Campaign, or ISDAC, will help scientists analyze the role of aerosols in climate, and represents a key contribution to Arctic climate research during International Polar Year.

430

Bioenergy Technologies Office New Directions  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

New Directions and New Business Opportunities for BETO Valerie Reed, Acting Director, BETO, U.S. Department of Energy

431

Multiple direction vibration fixture  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

An apparatus for simulating a rocket launch environment on a test item undergoing centrifuge testing by subjecting the item simultaneously or separately to vibration along an axis of centripetal force and along an axis perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The apparatus includes a shaker motor supported by centrifuge arms and a right angle fixture pivotally connected to one of the shaker motor mounts. When the shaker motor vibrates along the centripetal force axis, the vibrations are imparted to a first side of the right angle fixture. The vibrations are transmitted 90 degrees around the pivot and are directed to a second side of the right angle fixture which imparts vibrations perpendicular to the centripetal force axis. The test item is in contact with a third side of the right angle fixture and receives both centripetal-force-axis vibrations and perpendicular axis vibrations simultaneously. A test item can be attached to the third side near the flexible coupling or near the air bag to obtain vibrations along the centripetal force axis or transverse to the centripetal force axis.

Cericola, Fred (Albuquerque, NM); Doggett, James W. (Albuquerque, NM); Ernest, Terry L. (Albuquerque, NM); Priddy, Tommy G. (Rockville, MD)

1991-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

432

ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

of external surfaces by naturally occurring atomic oxygen. CCD detectors are particularly vulnerable to damage damage. A comprehensive discussion of the types of radiation damage known to occur in CCDs is beyond1 ACS WFC CCD Radiation Test: The Radiation Environment Michael R. Jones Space Telescope Science

Sirianni, Marco

433

Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide....  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Nanoscale Engineering Of Radiation Tolerant Silicon Carbide. Abstract: Radiation tolerance is determined by how effectively the...

434

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports | Department...  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure Reports September 24, 2013 Annual DOE Occupational Radiation Exposure | 2012 Report...

435

Occupational Radiation Exposure | Department of Energy  

Energy Savers (EERE)

Radiation Exposure Welcome The Occupational Radiation Exposure Information page on this web page is intended to provide the latest available information on radiation exposure to...

436

Cofinal types of directed orders  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

, ) directed partial orders #12;Cofinal types (P, ), (Q, ) directed partial orders Tukey reducibility: (P orders Tukey reducibility: (P, ) T (Q, ) if f : P Q X P unbounded = f [X] Q unbounded g : Q P Y Q cofinal = g[Y ] P cofinal #12;Cofinal types (P, ), (Q, ) directed partial orders Tukey reducibility: (P

Mátrai, Tamás

437

MHK Technologies/Oregon State University Columbia Power Technologies Direct  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

State University Columbia Power Technologies Direct State University Columbia Power Technologies Direct Drive Point Absorber < MHK Technologies Jump to: navigation, search << Return to the MHK database homepage Oregon State University Columbia Power Technologies Direct Drive Point Absorber.jpg Technology Profile Primary Organization Oregon State University OSU Project(s) where this technology is utilized *MHK Projects/OSU Direct Drive Power Generation Buoys Technology Resource Click here Wave Technology Type Click here Point Absorber Technology Readiness Level Click here TRL 1-3: Discovery / Concept Definition / Early Stage Development & Design & Engineering Technology Description When the coil experiences a changing magnetic field created by the heaving magnets voltage is generated Technology Dimensions

438

Electrically controlling the polarizing direction of a graphene polarizer  

SciTech Connect

We theoretically demonstrate a polarizer with an electrically controllable polarizing direction in the far infrared range using two orthogonal periodic arrays of graphene ribbons, which have different widths and are supported on a dielectric film placed on a thick piece of metal. The operation mechanism originates from the polarization-dependent resonant absorption of the two orthogonal graphene ribbons, which can be respectively controlled with different external bias voltages. The operation wavelength can be expanded to terahertz (THz) radiation.

Zhu, Z. H., E-mail: zzhwcx@163.com; Qin, S. Q. [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); State Key Laboratory of High Performance Computing, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China); Guo, C. C.; Liu, K.; Zhang, J. F.; Ye, W. M.; Yuan, X. D. [College of Optoelectronic Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073 (China)

2014-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

439

Radiation Safety Analysis for FELL Addition E. C. Schreiber, R. S. Canon, P. G. O'Shea, H. R. Weller  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

systems. We also present our estimations for the types and amounts of shielding re­ quired to bring dose of the North Carolina Regulations for Protection Against Radiation defines the maximum dose rate in public outside the building will not experience significant radiation levels. Radiation dose distributions

Saskatchewan, University of

440

Radiation Detector R&D | Global and Regional Solutions  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Radiation Detector and Nonproliferation R&D Group Radiation Detector and Nonproliferation R&D Group A major element in nonproliferation, arms control verification, nuclear materials safeguards and homeland security is the ability to detect, identify and measure nuclear, radioactive and chemical materials. BNL has a significant and world-class capability in radiation detection including the design and fabrication of advanced detector systems for scientific R&D and nonproliferation applications that has evolved over more than six decades. To support nonproliferation, arms control, safeguards and homeland security, BNL has focused on advanced radiation detector systems that offer room temperature operation with high energy resolution for gamma-ray detectors, imaging and direction indicating capabilities for both gamma-ray

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


441

Low Dose Radiation Research Program: Howard L. Liber  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Howard L. Liber Howard L. Liber Department of Environmental and Radiological Health Sciences Colorado State University Currently Funded Projects Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells Technical Abstracts 2003 Workshop: Delayed genomic instability in human lymphoblasts exposed to 137Cs y-rays radiation Schwartz, J.L., Jordan, R., Lenarczyk, M. and Liber, H.L. 2002 Workshop: Molecular Mechanisms of Radiation-Induced Genomic Instability in Human Cells. Liber, H.L. and Schwartz, J.L. Publications Zhang, Y., Zhou, J., Held, K.D., Redmond, R.W., Prise, K.M., and Liber, H.L. (2008). Deficiencies of double-strand break repair factors and effects on mutagenesis in directly [gamma]-irradiated and medium-mediated bystander human lymphoblastoid cells. Radiation Research 169(2):197-206.

442

Acceleration and Classical Electromagnetic Radiation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Classical radiation from an accelerated charge is reviewed along with the reciprocal topic of accelerated observers detecting radiation from a static charge. This review commemerates Bahram Mashhoon's 60th birthday.

E. N. Glass

2008-01-09T23:59:59.000Z

443

Mathematical Problems of Radiative Equilibrium  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

... in turn with the cases of purely absorbing and grey material in local radiative equilibrium (Schwarzschild-Milne model) and that of monochromatic radiative equilibrium with scattering but zero emissivity (Schuster ...

1935-01-12T23:59:59.000Z

444

Health Physicist (Radiation Protection Specialist)  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE))

A successful candidate in this position will serve as the Health Physicist (Radiation Protection Specialist) senior subject matter expert for health physics/radiation safety at the sites. You will...

445

Tiltmeter leveling mechanism  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A tiltmeter device having a pair of orthogonally disposed tilt sensors that are levelable within an inner housing containing the sensors. An outer housing can be rotated to level at least one of the sensor pair while the inner housing can be rotated to level the other sensor of the pair. The sensors are typically rotated up to about plus or minus 100 degrees. The device is effective for measuring tilts in a wide range of angles of inclination of wells and can be employed to level a platform containing a third sensor.

Hunter, Steven L. (Livermore, CA); Boro, Carl O. (Milpitas, CA); Farris, Alvis (late of Byron, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

446

" Level: National Data;" " ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010; " " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" "...

447

" Level: National Data;" " ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" "...

448

" Level: National Data;" " ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Natural Gas to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" "...

449

" Level: National Data;" " ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

7 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Electricity to Alternative Energy Sources, 2002; " " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" "...

450

" Level: National Data;" " ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

3 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch LPG to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit:...

451

" Level: National Data;" " ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

0.5 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Residual Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy...

452

" Level: National Data;" " ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

1 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Coal to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy Sources;" " Unit:...

453

" Level: National Data;" " ...  

U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) Indexed Site

9 Number of Establishments with Capability to Switch Distillate Fuel Oil to Alternative Energy Sources, 2010;" " Level: National Data;" " Row: NAICS Codes;" " Column: Energy...

454

Nuclear radiation electronic gear (continued)  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Nuclear radiation electronic gear (continued) ... Examines nuclear instrumentation available from several major U.S. manufacturers. ... Nuclear / Radiochemistry ...

S. Z. Lewin

1961-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

455

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1995-10-17T23:59:59.000Z

456

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode. 4 figs.

Thacker, L.H.

1994-08-16T23:59:59.000Z

457

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1995-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

458

Gamma radiation field intensity meter  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A gamma radiation intensity meter measures dose rate of a radiation field. The gamma radiation intensity meter includes a tritium battery emitting beta rays generating a current which is essentially constant. Dose rate is correlated to an amount of movement of an electroscope element charged by the tritium battery. Ionizing radiation decreases the voltage at the element and causes movement. A bleed resistor is coupled between the electroscope support element or electrode and the ionization chamber wall electrode.

Thacker, Louis H. (Knoxville, TN)

1994-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

459

Managed DirectX First Steps: Direct3D Basics and DirectX vs. GDI+  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

DirectX refers to a collection of Microsoft-created APIs and technologies that help developers more directly access the hardware features of a computer. It was originally released in 1996 as a way fo...

David Weller; Alexandre Santos Lobão…

2004-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

460

Factorized soft graviton theorems at loop level  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

We analyze the low-energy behavior of scattering amplitudes involving gravitons at loop level in four dimensions. The single-graviton soft limit is controlled by soft operators which have been argued to separate into a factorized piece and a non-factorizing infrared divergent contribution. In this note we show that the soft operators responsible for the factorized contributions are strongly constrained by gauge and Poincare invariance under the assumption of a local structure. We show that the leading and subleading orders in the soft-momentum expansion can not receive radiative corrections. The first radiative correction occurs for the sub-subleading soft graviton operator and is one-loop exact. It depends on only two undetermined coefficients which should reflect the field content of the theory under consideration.

Broedel, Johannes; Plefka, Jan; Rosso, Matteo

2014-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

Note: This page contains sample records for the topic "direct radiation levels" from the National Library of EnergyBeta (NLEBeta).
While these samples are representative of the content of NLEBeta,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of NLEBeta
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.


461

Radiation Preservation of Food, Commercialization Technology and Economics in Radiation Processing  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

Radiation Preservation of Food, Commercialization Technology and Economics in Radiation Processing ...

H. F. Kraybill; D. C. Brunton

1960-05-01T23:59:59.000Z

462

Environment/Health/Safety (EHS): Radiation Protection Group: Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Who To Call Who To Call Rad Training Dosimetry Telemetry Laser Safety Radiation Safety Committee Pub-3000 Ch. 21 Forms RPG Procedures RPG Internal Radiation Safety Committee Charter Purpose The Berkeley Lab Radiation Safety Committee (RSC) is appointed by, and reports to, the Laboratory Director and is responsible for advising LBNL Management on all matters related to occupational and environmental radiation safety. The Radiation Safety Committee reviews and recommends approval of radiation safety policies and guides the Environment, Health and Safety Division and radiation user divisions in carrying out these programs. The scope of its actions will generally be in issues of broad institutional concern and impact, or areas of potential high consequence either in terms of safety or institutional needs.

463

Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

the replication process of Lassa virus as compared to other negative-strand viruses as Ebola and measles, which also encode some or all of their genes in the negative direction....

464

Terahertz radiation mixer  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A terahertz radiation mixer comprises a heterodyned field-effect transistor (FET) having a high electron mobility heterostructure that provides a gatable two-dimensional electron gas in the channel region of the FET. The mixer can operate in either a broadband pinch-off mode or a narrowband resonant plasmon mode by changing a grating gate bias of the FET. The mixer can beat an RF signal frequency against a local oscillator frequency to generate an intermediate frequency difference signal in the microwave region. The mixer can have a low local oscillator power requirement and a large intermediate frequency bandwidth. The terahertz radiation mixer is particularly useful for terahertz applications requiring high resolution.

Wanke, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Allen, S. James (Santa Barbara, CA); Lee, Mark (Albuquerque, NM)

2008-05-20T23:59:59.000Z

465

Radiation Emergency Procedure Demonstrations  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Managing Radiation Emergencies Managing Radiation Emergencies Procedure Demonstrations Procedure Demonstrations Note: RealPlayer is needed for listening to the narration that accompany these demonstrations. Real Player Dressing To Prevent the Spread of Radioactive Contamination This demonstration shows how your team can dress to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination. Click to begin presentation on dressing to prevent the spread of radioactive contamination. Preparing The Area This demonstration shows basic steps you can take to gather equipment and prepare a room to receive a patient who may be contaminated with radioactive material. Click to begin presentation on preparing a room to receive a radioactive contaminated patient. Removing Contaminated Clothing This demonstration shows the procedure for removing clothing from a patient who may be contaminated with radioactive material.

466

Semiconductor radiation detector  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A semiconductor radiation detector is provided to detect x-ray and light photons. The entrance electrode is segmented by using variable doping concentrations. Further, the entrance electrode is physically segmented by inserting n+ regions between p+ regions. The p+ regions and the n+ regions are individually biased. The detector elements can be used in an array, and the p+ regions and the n+ regions can be biased by applying potential at a single point. The back side of the semiconductor radiation detector has an n+ anode for collecting created charges and a number of p+ cathodes. Biased n+ inserts can be placed between the p+ cathodes, and an internal resistor divider can be used to bias the n+ inserts as well as the p+ cathodes. A polysilicon spiral guard can be implemented surrounding the active area of the entrance electrode or surrounding an array of entrance electrodes.

Patt, Bradley E. (Sherman Oaks, CA); Iwanczyk, Jan S. (Los Angeles, CA); Tull, Carolyn R. (Orinda, CA); Vilkelis, Gintas (Westlake Village, CA)

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

467

Aharonov-Bohm radiation  

SciTech Connect

A solenoid oscillating in vacuum will pair produce charged particles due to the Aharonov-Bohm (AB) interaction. We calculate the radiation pattern and power emitted for charged scalar particles. We extend the solenoid analysis to cosmic strings and find enhanced radiation from cusps and kinks on loops. We argue by analogy with the electromagnetic AB interaction that cosmic strings should emit photons due to the gravitational AB interaction of fields in the conical spacetime of a cosmic string. We calculate the emission from a kink and find that it is of similar order as emission from a cusp, but kinks are vastly more numerous than cusps and may provide a more interesting observational signature.

Jones-Smith, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Vachaspati, Tanmay [CERCA, Department of Physics, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106-7079 (United States); Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

2010-02-15T23:59:59.000Z

468

NREL: Learning - Student Resources on Geothermal Direct Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Use Direct Use Photo of flowers in a greenhouse. Johnson County High School in Tennessee features a geothermally heated greenhouse, where students can learn about agriculture. The following resources will help you learn more about the direct use of geothermal energy. If you are unfamiliar with this technology, see the introduction to geothermal direct use. High School and College Level U.S. Department of Energy Geothermal Technologies Program: Direct Use Has more basic information Oregon Institute of Technology Geo-Heat Center Features information on research in direct use technologies, including resource maps. Geothermal Resources Council Provides information about and for the geothermal industry. Renewable Energy Policy Project Provides in-depth coverage on geothermal resources, technologies and

469

Scaling 2XIIB impurity radiation to BPNS  

SciTech Connect

In this paper the author computes the radiative power losses which would be expected from the beam-plasma neutron source, which is proposed as a neutron source for doing accelerated end-of-life testing of fusion reactor materials. The source is based on a high density tritium target, bombarded with a deuterium beam of energy 120 to 150 keV. Oxygen was observed to be a major source of power loss for beam injection into the 2XIIB device, and the author considers that problem here. Oxygen impurities are a small component of the beam. The analysis indicates that higher charge states are reached in this device, resulting in less power radiation from oxygen impurities, and the beam is expected to attain higher purity levels at pulse lengths in the seconds range, than was observed in the past for millisecond pulse lengths.

Molvik, A.W.

1993-12-03T23:59:59.000Z

470

How to Detect Radiation  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

from storage; prepare the instrument and determine background level. Preparing the Meter: Position the Geiger counter with the meter away from you. Locate and open the battery...

471

ht. 1. Han Mass 7h&r. Vol. 13, pp. 13494357. Pergamon Pra 1970. PhIed in Great Britain RADIATIVE TRANSFER IN A CONSERVATIVE  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

involving radiative transport and wall temperature slip in a finite, absorbing, emitting gray medium, equation of transfer then equation (4) reduces to the simpler form where Z(z,Zl)is the radiation intensity, Zlis the In their work on radiative transport and wall direction cosine (as measured from the positive

Siewert, Charles E.

472

NREL: Learning - Geothermal Direct Use  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Direct Use Direct Use Photo of alligators on a farm. Geothermally heated waters allow alligators to thrive on a farm in Colorado, where temperatures can drop below freezing. Geothermal reservoirs of hot water, which are found a few miles or more beneath the Earth's surface, can be used to provide heat directly. This is called the direct use of geothermal energy. Geothermal direct use has a long history, going back to when people began using hot springs for bathing, cooking food, and loosening feathers and skin from game. Today, hot springs are still used as spas. But there are now more sophisticated ways of using this geothermal resource. In modern direct-use systems, a well is drilled into a geothermal reservoir to provide a steady stream of hot water. The water is brought up through

473

Anisotropic radiation elds: causality and quantum statistics  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

radiation transport 5 2.1 Radiation transport equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 2.2 Closures The transport of radiation through a medium is described by the radiation transport equation for the radiative is used to describe anisotropic radiation. Because the two moment equations do not form a closed set

Honingh, Aline

474

Influence of Extraterrestrial Radiation on Radiation Portal Monitors  

SciTech Connect

Cosmic radiation and solar flares can be a major source of background radiation at the Earth’s surface. This paper examines the relationship between extraterrestrial radiation and the detectable background in radiation portal monitors used for homeland security applications. Background radiation data from 13 radiation portal monitor facilities are examined and compared against external sources of data related to extraterrestrial radiation, including measurements at neutron monitors located at 53 cosmic-ray observatories around the Earth, four polar orbiting satellites, three geostationary satellites, ground-based geomagnetic field data from observatories around the Earth, a solar magnetic index, solar radio flux data, and sunspot activity data. Four-years (January 2003 through December 2006) of data are used in this study, which include the latter part of Solar Cycle 23 as solar activity was on the decline. The analysis shows a significant relationship between some extraterrestrial radiation and the background detected in the radiation portal monitors. A demonstrable decline is shown in the average gamma ray and neutron background at the radiation portal monitors as solar activity declined over the period of the study.

Keller, Paul E.; Kouzes, Richard T.

2009-06-01T23:59:59.000Z

475

Sound radiation measurement with nearfield holography  

Science Journals Connector (OSTI)

With holography an entire 3D wave field can be reconstructed from data obtained on a single 2D surface. Such high information content has made holography a powerful research tool and useful extensions from its original optical domain to other wave fields such as sound have naturally been pursued. However it has usually been assumed that the resolution of a holographicreconstruction is limited by the wavelength of the radiation; this limitation severely diminishes the usefulness of holography for sound fields when the wavelengths are many times larger than the objects to be imaged. We have developed a new technique called nearfield holography which eliminates the wavelength resolution limit and in addition permits a determination of: (1) the complete sound pressure and particle velocity fields produced by the source; (2) the mode of vibration of the surfaces of the source; (3) the vector intensity field (showing flow of acoustic energy) around the source; (4) the farfield directivity pattern; (5) the total power radiated into a half?space. A particularly interesting application of nearfield holography occurs in the study of sound radiation from musical instruments. [Work supported by ONR.

J. D. Maynard; E. G. Williams

1982-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

476

Policy Procedure Administrative Directive Title: _____________________________________  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Policy ­ Procedure ­ Administrative Directive Title: _____________________________________ Policy-President _____________ See also: Related Policies, Procedures and Agreements: Relevant Legislation and Regulations: ____________________________________________________________________________ Background and Purpose: ____________________________________________________________________________ Policy

Northern British Columbia, University of

477

Direct cooled power electronics substrate  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

The disclosure describes directly cooling a three-dimensional, direct metallization (DM) layer in a power electronics device. To enable sufficient cooling, coolant flow channels are formed within the ceramic substrate. The direct metallization layer (typically copper) may be bonded to the ceramic substrate, and semiconductor chips (such as IGBT and diodes) may be soldered or sintered onto the direct metallization layer to form a power electronics module. Multiple modules may be attached to cooling headers that provide in-flow and out-flow of coolant through the channels in the ceramic substrate. The modules and cooling header assembly are preferably sized to fit inside the core of a toroidal shaped capacitor.

Wiles, Randy H [Powell, TN; Wereszczak, Andrew A [Oak Ridge, TN; Ayers, Curtis W. (Kingston, TN) [Kingston, TN; Lowe, Kirk T. (Knoxville, TN) [Knoxville, TN

2010-09-14T23:59:59.000Z

478

Improved freezing level retrieval  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

TRMM Microwave Imager(TMI)-based passive microwave retrieval techniques result in biased estimates of the freezing level and rainfall over the east Pacific in the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Passive microwave rainfall estimates...

Hong, Sungwook

2002-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

479

Posters Parameterization of Thin Mid-Level Stratiform Clouds  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

1 1 Posters Parameterization of Thin Mid-Level Stratiform Clouds S. K. Krueger Department of Meteorology University of Utah Salt Lake City, Utah Thin mid-level stratiform ("altocumulus") clouds have received little attention from either modelers or observational programs, yet these clouds cover large portions of the earth and significantly affect the radiation fields. Since altocumulus are vertically sub-grid scale in general circulation models (GCMs), they have either been neglected or represented implicitly through a "fractional cloudiness" scheme. Such schemes are not suitable for climate modeling because they lack theoretical foundations that indicate their limits of applicability. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) program offers an

480

Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation | Department of Energy  

Energy.gov (U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)) Indexed Site

4 - Ionizing Radiation 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation Lesson Three showed that unstable isotopes emit energy as they become more stable. This energy is known as radiation. This lesson explores forms of radiation, where radiation is found, how we detect and measure radiation, what sources of radiation people are exposed to, whether radiation is harmful, and how we can limit our exposure. Specific topics covered in this lesson include: Types of radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Forms of ionizing radiation Alpha particles Beta particles Gamma rays Radiation Decay chain Half-life Dose Radiation measurements Sources of radiation Average annual exposure Lesson 4 - Ionizing Radiation.pptx More Documents & Publications DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2008 DOE-HDBK-1130-2007

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481

BWR radiation control: plant demonstration. Volume 2. Appendixes  

SciTech Connect

The first year's progress is presented for a four-year program intended to implement and evaluate BRAC radiation reduction operational guidelines at the Vermont Yankee BWR and to document the results in sufficient detail to provide guidance to other BWR owners. Past operational, chemistry and radiation level data have been reviewed to provide a historical base of reference. Extensive sampling and chemistry monitoring systems have been installed to evaluate plant chemistry status and the effects of program implemented changes. Radiation surveys and piping gamma scans are being performed at targeted locations to quantify radiation level trends and to identify and quantify piping isotopics. Contact radiation levels on the recirculation line at Vermont Yankee have been increasing at a rate of 175 mR/h-EFPY since 1978. A materials survey of feedwater and reactor components in contact with the process liquid has been performed to identify sources of corrosion product release, particularly cobalt and nickel. A feedwater oxygen injection system has been installed to evaluate the effects of oxygen control on feedwater materials corrosion product releases. A baseline performance evaluation of the condensate treatment and reactor water cleanup systems has been completed. Data on organics and ionics at Vermont Yankee have been obtained. A methodology of BWR feedwater system layup during extended outages was developed, and an evaluation performed of layup and startup practices utilized at Vermont Yankee during the fall 1980 and 1981 refueling outages.

Palino, G.F.; Hobart, R.L.; Wall, P.S.; Sawochka, S.G.

1982-11-01T23:59:59.000Z

482

Solar irradiance changes and photobiological effects at Earth's surface following astrophysical ionizing radiation events  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Astrophysical ionizing radiation events have been recognized as a potential threat to life on Earth, primarily through depletion of stratospheric ozone and subsequent increase in surface-level solar ultraviolet radiation. Simulations of the atmospheric effects of a variety of events (such as supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, and solar proton events) have been previously published, along with estimates of biological damage at Earth's surface. In this work, we employed the TUV radiative transfer model to expand and improve calculations of surface-level irradiance and biological impacts following an ionizing radiation event. We considered changes in surface-level UVB, UVA, and photosynthetically active radiation (visible light) for clear-sky conditions and fixed aerosol parameter values. We also considered a wide range of biological effects on organisms ranging from humans to phytoplankton. We found that past work overestimated UVB irradiance, but that relative estimates for increase in exposure to DNA damaging radi...

Thomas, Brian C; Snyder, Brock R

2015-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

483

Solar: annual and seasonal average direct normal (DNI) GIS data (contours)  

Open Energy Info (EERE)

direct normal (DNI) GIS data (contours) direct normal (DNI) GIS data (contours) for Brazil from INPE and LABSOLAR Dataset Summary Description (Abstract): Annual and seasonal mean of Direct Normal Solar Radiation in kWh/m2/day based on data from 1995 to 2002 (Purpose): To provide a set of consistent, reliable, verifiable, and accessible global data sets for international and in-country investors and other stakeholders (Supplemental Information): The cross-calibration process worked with data from 3 ground stations: Caicó (located in the Northeast of Brazil), Florianópolis (located in the South) and Balbina (located in Amazonia). These data have been used for validation and comparison of radiation transfer models operated in SWERA to estimate the incidence of solar radiation on the surface of the country from satellite images obtained from 1995 to 2002

484

ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

An Integrated Column Description An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere An Integrated Column Description of the Atmosphere Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist Tom Ackerman Chief Scientist ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Pacific Northwest National Laboratory The "other" Washington ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Credits to Credits to * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team * Ric Cederwall * Xiquan Dong * Chuck Long * Jay Mace * Mark Miller * Robin Perez * Dave Turner and the rest of the ARM science team ARM ARM Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Outline Outline * A little philosophy

485

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity Chronic Low Dose Radiation Effects on Radiation Sensitivity and Chromosome Instability Induction in TK6 Cells Schwartz J.L. 1 , Jordan R. 1 , Slovic J. 1 , Moruzzi A. 1 , Kimmel R. 2 , and Liber, H.L. 3 1 University of Washington, Seattle, WA; 2 Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA; 3 Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado There are a number of cell responses that can be detected after low dose radiation exposures including the adaptive response, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability. The relationship between these different phenomena is unknown. In this study, we measured adaptive responses, low dose hypersensitivity, and induced genomic instability in a human B-lymphoblastoid cell model, TK6, where we could genetically modify radiation responses by either over-expression of BCL-2 or deletion of TP53. TK6

486

BNL NASA Space Radiation Laboratory  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

Tech Notes Tech Notes Item Number Title Author(s) Date NSRL-TN-05-001 NSRL Beam Characterization Study I-Hung Chiang, Adam Rusek, Michael Sivertz 10 December 2005 NSRL-TN-05-002 Time of Flight of NSRL Beams I-Hung Chiang, Adam Rusek, Michael Sivertz 18 October 2005 NSRL-TN-06-001 ToF Results From Run 06C I-Hung Chiang, Adam Rusek, Michael Sivertz 15 September 2006 NSRL-TN-07-001 Radiation Levels in the NSRL Target Room Michael Sivertz 27 November 2007 NSRL-TN-09-001 Development of the Pixel Chamber I-Hung Chiang, Adam Rusek, Daniel Ottavio, Dysart Ravenhall and Steve Bellavia 14 July 2009 NSRL-TN-10-001 Iron Beam Characterization Studies at NSRL Michael Sivertz, I-Hung Chiang, Adam Rusek 22 February 2010 NSRL-TN-10-002 Gold Beams at NSRL Michael Sivertz, I-Hung Chiang, Adam Rusek 10 March 2010

487

Singular eigenfunctions for the three-dimensional radiative transport equation  

E-Print Network (OSTI)

Case's method obtains solutions to the radiative transport equation as superpositions of elementary solutions when the specific intensity depends on one spatial variable. In this paper, we find elementary solutions when the specific intensity depends on three spatial variables in three-dimensional space. By using the reference frame whose z-axis lies in the direction of the wave vector, the angular part of each elementary solution becomes the singular eigenfunction for the one-dimensional radiative transport equation. Thus Case's method is generalized.

Manabu Machida

2013-09-07T23:59:59.000Z

488

RADIATION LABORATO DISCLAIMER  

NLE Websites -- All DOE Office Websites (Extended Search)

R : R : . . . RADIATION LABORATO DISCLAIMER This report was prepared as an account of work sponsored by an agency of the United States Government. Neither the United States Government nor any agency Thereof, nor any of their employees, makes any warranty, express or implied, or assumes any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, or usefulness of any information, apparatus, product, or process disclosed, or represents that its use would not infringe privately owned rights. Reference herein to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government or any

489

Radiation imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally. 15 figs.

Anger, H.O.; Martin, D.C.; Lampton, M.L.

1983-07-26T23:59:59.000Z

490

Radiation imaging apparatus  

DOE Patents (OSTI)

A radiation imaging system using a charge multiplier and a position sensitive anode in the form of periodically arranged sets of interconnected anode regions for detecting the position of the centroid of a charge cloud arriving thereat from the charge multiplier. Various forms of improved position sensitive anodes having single plane electrode connections are disclosed. Various analog and digital signal processing systems are disclosed, including systems which use the fast response of microchannel plates, anodes and preamps to perform scintillation pulse height analysis digitally.

Anger, Hal O. (Berkeley, CA); Martin, Donn C. (Berkeley, CA); Lampton, Michael L. (Berkeley, CA)

1983-01-01T23:59:59.000Z

491

Los Alamos Lab: Radiation Protection: Annual Occupational Radiation  

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Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report Print information on Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report (pdf). This webpage provides information to help you understand the dose quantities being reported to you on your Annual Occupational Radiation Dosimetry Report. If you would like general information about radiation exposure, please refer to www.radiationanswers.org. Title 10 Code of Federal Regulation Part 835, Occupational Radiation Protection (10 CFR 835), requires assessment, recording and reporting of radiation doses to individuals who are exposed to sources of radiation or radioactive contamination. This includes assessing external exposure from a variety of radiation types, such as, beta, photon, and neutron radiation. External exposures may be uniform over the whole body or occur in a non-uniform (i.e., limited body location) fashion. Internal doses occur when radioactive material is taken into the body through ingestion, inhalation, absorption or wounds. The requirements include assessing doses to the whole body, skin, lens of the eyes, extremities and various organs and tissues.